WorldWideScience

Sample records for model literature overview

  1. Making American Literatures: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gere, Anne Ruggles

    1999-01-01

    Discusses a summer institute that examined the shifting shape of American Literature, and teaching American Literature. Includes ways in which students help "make" literature with their own writing. Discusses the contributions of new technologies, pairing unlikely combinations of texts, and including middle school teachers who teach individual…

  2. Key factors in paediatric organ and tissue donation : an overview of literature in a chronological working model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebelink, Marion J.; Albers, Marcel J. I. J.; Roodbol, Petrie F.; van de Wiel, Harry B. M.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing shortage of size-matched organs and tissues for children. Although examples of substandard care are reported in the literature, there is no overview of the paediatric donation process. The aim of the study is to gain insight into the chain of events, practices and procedures in pa

  3. LSST telescope modeling overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebag, J.; Andrew, J.; Angeli, G.; Araujo, C.; Barr, J.; Callahan, S.; Cho, M.; Claver, C.; Daruich, F.; Gressler, W.; Hileman, E.; Liang, M.; Muller, G.; Neill, D.; Schoening, W.; Warner, M.; Wiecha, O.; Xin, B.; Orden Martinez, Alfredo; Perezagua Aguado, Manuel; García Marchena, Luis; Ruiz de Argandoña, Ismael

    2016-08-01

    During this early stage of construction of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), modeling has become a crucial system engineering process to ensure that the final detailed design of all the sub-systems that compose the telescope meet requirements and interfaces. Modeling includes multiple tools and types of analyses that are performed to address specific technical issues. Three-dimensional (3D) Computeraided Design (CAD) modeling has become central for controlling interfaces between subsystems and identifying potential interferences. The LSST Telescope dynamic requirements are challenging because of the nature of the LSST survey which requires a high cadence of rapid slews and short settling times. The combination of finite element methods (FEM), coupled with control system dynamic analysis, provides a method to validate these specifications. An overview of these modeling activities is reported in this paper including specific cases that illustrate its impact.

  4. Cracked tooth syndrome: Overview of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Shamimul; Singh, Kuldeep; Salati, Naseer

    2015-01-01

    Pain is defined as an "unpleasant sensory and emotional feeling which is associated with actual or potential injury of tissue or expressed in terms of such injury." Tooth pain usually refers to pain around the teeth or jaws mainly as a result of a dental condition. Mostly, toothaches are caused by a carious cavity, a broken tooth, an exposed tooth root or gum disease. The toothache may sometimes be the result of radiating pain from structures in the vicinity of tooth and jaws (cardiac pain, ear, nose, throat pain, and sinusitis). Therefore, evaluation by both dentists and physicians are sometimes necessary to diagnose medical illnesses causing "toothache." Cracked tooth syndrome is a major diagnostic challenge in clinical practice. Accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment are complicated due to lack of awareness of this condition and its bizarre clinical features. Early diagnosis has been linked with successful restorative management and good prognosis. This article provides a detailed literature on the causes, classification, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment planning of cracked tooth syndrome.

  5. MATERIAL ACCOUNTING HARMONIZATION: AN OVERVIEW OF TRADE LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos Dana Simona

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Our paper develops an overview of trade literature within the particular area of material accounting harmonization. The usefulness of this paper consists in offering an up to date image on what was written on this particular topic with significant practical implications. We first divide existent studies on stages that we consider can be grounded based on trade literature’s evolution. Furthermore, a qualitative analysis is done for studies belonging to each period. Limitations of previous studies are also synthesized. The final point of our analysis gives shape to research perspectives that further needs to be exploited.

  6. ASSET ALLOCATION AND ASSET PRICING IN THE FACE OF SYSTEMIC RISK: A LITERATURE OVERVIEW AND ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    CHRISTOPH MEINERDING

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed overview of the current research linking systemic risk, financial crises and contagion effects among assets on the one hand with asset allocation and asset pricing theory on the other hand. Based on the ample literature about definitions, measurement and properties of systemic risk, we derive some elementary ingredients for models of financial contagion and assess the current state of knowledge about asset allocation and asset pricing with explicit focus on syst...

  7. Nursing practice models for acute and critical care: overview of care delivery models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirey, Maria R

    2008-12-01

    This article provides a historical overview of nursing models of care for acute and critical care based on currently available literature. Models of care are defined and their advantages and disadvantages presented. The distinctive differences between care delivery models and professional practice models are explained. The historical overview of care delivery models provides a foundation for the introduction of best practice models that will shape the environment for acute and critical care in the future.

  8. The biomechanics of race walking: literature overview and new insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavei, Gaspare; Cazzola, Dario; La Torre, Antonio; Minetti, Alberto E

    2014-01-01

    This review aims to provide both researchers and coaches with a comprehensive overview of race walking biomechanics and to point out new viable route for future analyses. The examined literature has been divided into three categories according to the method of analysis: kinematics, ground reaction forces and joint power/efficiency. From an overall view, race walking athletes seem to adhere to the 'straightened knee' rule, but at race speed they do not observe the 'no-flight time' rule. The coach-oriented analysis highlights that stride length (SL) is more important than stride frequency (SF) for increasing speed and it is mainly obtained by ankle and hip joint power. Moreover, kinematic differences (SF, SL and flight time) between male and female athletes were shown. Also, we found that the maximal speed prediction according to dynamic similarity theory with walking (Froude number) is not applicable as the 3D trajectory of the body centre of mass does not follow an arc of circumference as in walking. The analysed literature shows some shortcomings: (1) the data collection is often unreliable because of the mixture of gender and performance level and (2) the analysis has sometimes been performed on a limited number of strides and speeds. These limitations lead to a scattered and incomplete gait description and a biased application of the results. The research strategy adopted so far is promising but further rigorous analyses need to be approached to obtain a fully comprehensive picture of race walking and to provide coaches with consistent results and reference values.

  9. Gender and creativity: an overview of psychological and neuroscientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Anna

    2016-06-01

    The topic of gender differences in creativity is one that generates substantial scientific and public interest, but also courts considerable controversy. Owing to the heterogeneous nature of the findings associated with this line of research, the general picture often appears puzzling or obscure. This article presents a selective overview of psychological and neuroscientific literature that has a relevant bearing on the theme of gender and creativity. Topics that are explored include the definition and methods of assessing creativity, a summary of behavioral investigations on gender in relation to creativity, postulations that have been put forward to understand gender differences in creative achievement, gender-based differences in the structure and function of the brain, gender-related differences in behavioral performance on tasks of normative cognition, and neuroscientific studies of gender and creativity. The article ends with a detailed discussion of the idea that differences between men and women in creative cognition are best explained with reference to the gender-dependent adopted strategies or cognitive style when faced with generative tasks.

  10. Adrenocortical cancer (ACC) - literature overview and own experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworakowska, Dorota; Drabarek, Agata; Wenzel, Ingrid; Babińska, Anna; Świątkowska-Stodulska, Renata; Sworczak, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a malignant endocrine tumour. The rarity of the disease has stymied therapeutic development. Age distribution shows two peaks: the first and fifth decades of life, with children and women more frequently affected. Although 60-70% of ACCs are biochemically found to overproduce hormones, it is not clinically apparent in many cases. If present, endocrine symptoms include signs of hypercortisolaemia, virilisation or gynaecomastia. ACC carries a poor prognosis, and a cure can be achieved only by complete surgical resection. Mitotane is used both as an adjuvant treatment and also in non-operative patients. The role of radio- and chemotherapy is still controversial. The post-operative disease free survival is low and oscillates around 30% due to high tumour recurrence rate. The diagnosis is based on tumour histological assessment with the use of the Weiss score, however urinary steroid profiling (if available) can serve to differentiate between ACC and other adrenal tumours. Conventional prognostic markers in ACC include stage and grade of disease, and, as currently reported, the presence of hypercortisolaemia. Molecular analysis has had a significant impact on the understanding of the pathogenetic mechanism of ACC development and the evaluation of prognostic and predictive markers, among which alterations of the IGF system, the Wnt pathway, p53 and molecules involved in cancer cell invasion properties and angiogenesis seem to be very promising. We here summarise our own experience related to the management of ACC and present a literature overview. We have not aimed to include a detailed summary of the molecular alterations biology described in ACC, as this has already been addressed in other papers.

  11. Linking Innovation and Entrepreneurship – Literature Overview and the Introduction of a process-oriented Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The terms innovation and entrepreneurship are commonly used – but not always with the same understanding. There is an obvious strong relationship of both areas, however, barely articulated. Moreover, so far there is few consensus among researchers regarding innovative and entrepreneurial activities...... in general, especially when it comes to precise definitions. Hence, this paper gives an overview of relevant literature in both areas. In this context, relevant terms and definitions and recent models linking innovation and entrepreneurship are discussed and presented. Finally, a comprehensive framework...

  12. Linking Innovation and Entrepreneurship – Literature Overview and the Introduction of a process-oriented Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The terms innovation and entrepreneurship are commonly used – but not always with the same understanding. There is an obvious strong relationship of both areas, however, barely articulated. Moreover, so far there is few consensus among researchers regarding innovative and entrepreneurial activities...... in general, especially when it comes to precise definitions. Hence, this paper gives an overview of relevant literature in both areas. In this context, relevant terms and definitions and recent models linking innovation and entrepreneurship are discussed and presented. Finally, a comprehensive framework...

  13. A critical overview of the current myofascial pain literature - July 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan; Grieve, Rob; Finnegan, Michelle; Hooks, Todd

    2016-07-01

    The overview of the myofascial pain literature includes a wide variety of basic and clinical studies, ranging from assessing muscle activation patterns to the impact of platelet-rich plasma injections. Contributions to the literature once again came from all corners of the world, such as Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Germany, Greece, Iran, Italy, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain, Taiwan, Turkey, and the USA. A total of 30 papers are included in this overview.

  14. Overview of literature on nuclear energy; Literaturuebersicht Kernenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, P.; Schmid, M. [B.S.S. Volkswirtschaftliche Beratung AG, Basel (Switzerland); Marti, M. [Risicare GmbH, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-07-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) attempts to deliver an objective review of various topics connected with nuclear energy. These include the risks posed by the use of nuclear energy, its relevance to the environment, social acceptance, ethical aspects and effects on health. Ten controversial topics are discussed concerning the use of nuclear energy and its acceptance or non-acceptance. The study concentrates on safety, accident and risk analysis, environmental relevance with respect to climate protection and nuclear wastes. Comparisons are made with other forms of energy generation. The methods used to compile the overview are discussed

  15. LSD Flashbacks: An Overview of the Literature for Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silling, S. Marc

    1980-01-01

    Surveyed the literature to delineate the etiology of LSD flashbacks. Concluded that adverse experiences while using LSD are predictive of flashbacks; physiological effects of LSD use may linger after the drug has been metabolized; and individuals who have flashbacks are highly suggestive and play a flashback "role."

  16. Phase 1a: Literature overview of health in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Adele

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This chapter provides a detailed explanation of each of the phases that were applied during the development of the DHIE. To conceptualise the DHIE for South Africa, it was important to understand the literature on the existing local health situation...

  17. LSD Flashbacks: An Overview of the Literature for Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silling, S. Marc

    1980-01-01

    Surveyed the literature to delineate the etiology of LSD flashbacks. Concluded that adverse experiences while using LSD are predictive of flashbacks; physiological effects of LSD use may linger after the drug has been metabolized; and individuals who have flashbacks are highly suggestive and play a flashback "role."

  18. Modelling and Simulation: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. McAleer (Michael); F. Chan (Felix); L. Oxley (Les)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe papers in this special issue of Mathematics and Computers in Simulation cover the following topics: improving judgmental adjustment of model-based forecasts, whether forecast updates are progressive, on a constrained mixture vector autoregressive model, whether all estimators are bor

  19. FORENSIC COMPUTING MODELS: TECHNICAL OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshan Shrivastava

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we deal with introducing a technique of digital forensics for reconstruction of events or evidences after the commitment of a crime through any of the digital devices. It shows a clear transparency between Computer Forensics and Digital Forensics and gives a brief description about the classification of Digital Forensics. It has also been described that how the emergences of various digital forensic models help digital forensic practitioners and examiners in doing digital forensics. Further, discussed Merits and Demerits of the required models and review of every major model.

  20. Building Information Modeling Comprehensive Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Kalinichuk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is addressed to provide a comprehensive review on recently accelerated development of the Information Technology within project market such as industrial, engineering, procurement and construction. Author’s aim is to cover the last decades of the growth of the Information and Communication Technology in construction industry in particular Building Information Modeling and testifies that the problem of a choice of the effective project realization method not only has not lost its urgency, but has also transformed into one of the major condition of the intensive technology development. All of it has created a great impulse on shortening the project duration and has led to the development of various schedule compression techniques what becomes a focus of modern construction.

  1. Solar models: An historical overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahcall, John N. E-mail: jnb@ias.edu

    2003-04-01

    I will summarize in four slides the 40 years of development of the standard solar model that is used to predict solar neutrino fluxes and then describe the current uncertainties in the predictions. I will dispel the misconception that the p-p neutrino flux is determined by the solar luminosity and present a related formula that gives, in terms of the p-p and {sup 7}Be neutrino fluxes, the ratio of the rates of the two primary ways of terminating the p-p fusion chain. I will also attempt to explain why it took so long, about three and a half decades, to reach a consensus view that new physics is being learned from solar neutrino experiments. Finally, I close with a personal confession.

  2. Solar Models An Historical Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Bahcall, J N

    2002-01-01

    I summarize in four slides the 40 years of development of the standard solar model that is used to predict solar neutrino fluxes and then describe the current uncertainties in the predictions. I next dispel the misconception that the p-p neutrino flux is determined by the solar luminosity and present a related formula that gives, in terms of the p-p and 7Be neutrino fluxes, the ratio of the rates of the two primary ways of terminating the p-p fusion chain. I will also attempt to explain why it took so long, about three and a half decades, to reach a consensus view that new physics is being learned from solar neutrino experiments. Finally, I close with a personal confession.

  3. The Economic Impact of Medical Migration: An Overview of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the evidence and applied literature on medical migration. The economic impacts of medical migration have been little researched, causing a polarisation in the debate between its critics and its proponents. The paucity of quantitative studies may be explained by the

  4. The Economic Impact of Medical Migration: An Overview of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the evidence and applied literature on medical migration. The economic impacts of medical migration have been little researched, causing a polarisation in the debate between its critics and its proponents. The paucity of quantitative studies may be explained by the

  5. An Overview on Subjects and Reference Literature for Two Algorithm Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONZAGA DE OLIVEIRA, S. L.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an overview on subjects and its matching reference books for the teaching of two algorithm classes in undergraduate courses on Computer Science, Computer Engineering, Information Systems, Computer Science Teaching, Software Engineering and other similar ones is given. Complementary literature for these subjects are also recommended.

  6. Detection of soy proteins in processed foods: Literature overview and new experimental work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, S.J.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Vlooswijk, R.; Hefle, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Several tests for the detection of soy proteins in foods have been described in the literature, and some are commercially available. This article gives an overview of these methods and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each individual method. Based on the conclusions of this inventory,

  7. Detection of soy proteins in processed foods: Literature overview and new experimental work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppelman, S.J.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Vlooswijk, R.A.A.; Hefle, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Several tests for the detection of soy proteins in foods have been described in the literature, and some are commercially available. This article gives an overview of these methods and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each individual method. Based on the conclusions of this inventory, a

  8. The Ethic of Care in Teaching: An Overview of Supportive Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Lynn M.; Ennis, Catherine D.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of three theoretical frameworks that appear related to teachers who manifest an ethic of care. An in-depth review of related literature develops Noddings' theory of the ethic of care, focusing on defining care in teaching. It is further supported with theories of moral development, the theory…

  9. An Overview of the Literature: Research in P-12 Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza Díaz, Noemi V.; Cox, Monica F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an extensive overview of preschool to 12th grade (P-12) engineering education literature published between 2001 and 2011. Searches were conducted through education and engineering library engines and databases as well as queries in established publications in engineering education. More than 50 publications were found,…

  10. Orthodontic literature: an overview of the last 2 decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavropoulos, Anestis; Kiliaridis, Stavros

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the orthodontic literature in the most important orthodontic and other dental and medical journals from 1981 to 2000. The most commonly used medical bibliographic database, MEDLINE, was used. In addition, some journals were hand searched to estimate the error of the method. Despite some indexing inconsistencies, MEDLINE was found to be a powerful and relatively accurate tool for use in bibliometric studies. About 16,000 articles with orthodontic interest were published during this period. The number of orthodontic articles written in English rose during this period, but almost half of them (45%) were published in nonorthodontic journals. Articles in the orthodontic journals are focusing more and more on diagnosis and treatment evaluation as the need for high-quality evidence becomes obvious, while other topics, such as new techniques and new materials, are losing ground. Many high-quality studies with orthodontic interest are published in nonorthodontic journals with a high Impact Factor, remaining more or less out of reach for most orthodontists.

  11. National grey literature cooperation model

    OpenAIRE

    Pejšová, Petra; Vyčítalová, Hana

    2015-01-01

    The National Library of Technology (NTK) has a long tradition of collecting grey literature on the national level. NTK became SIGLE system partner in the 1980s and from 2008 it has been the coordinator of the National Repository of Grey Literature (NRGL). NTK has created a grey literature partnership network in the Czech Republic. Over 130 institutions dedicated to research, science, education, culture etc. participate in this network and provide grey literature to the NRGL. NTK manages coope...

  12. Network models in epidemiology: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Alun L.; Valeika, Steve

    In this chapter we shall discuss the development and use of network models in epidemiology. While network models have long been discussed in the theoretical epidemiology literature, they have recently received a large amount of attention amongst the statistical physics community. This has been fueled by the desire to better understand the structure of social and large-scale technological networks, and the increases in computational power that have made the simulation of reasonably-sized network models a feasible proposition. A main aim of this review is to bridge the epidemiologic and statistical physics approaches to network models for infectious diseases, highlighting the important contributions made by both research communities.

  13. ACE-Asia Chemical Transport Modeling Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    UNO, I.; Chin, M.; Collins, W.; Ginoux, P.; Rasch, P.; Carmichael, G. R.; Yienger, J. J.

    2001-12-01

    mission planning meetings held daily at the flight operations center at Iwakuni, Japan. These model products were presented along with meteorological forecasts and satellite products, and used to help determine the flight plans, the positioning of the ship, and to alert surface stations of upcoming events (such as dust storms). These models were shown to provide another level of detail in mission planning. For example many of the mission objectives required designing flight paths that sampled across gradients of optical depth or flew above, below and through vertical layers of aerosol. Another key objective was related to sampling dust storms, and forecasts of dust outbreaks and plume locations proved to be very useful in meeting this objective. In this paper we will present an overview of the models and how they were used in the field. We will summarize the general overview and model general performance. We will present a few case studies from the experiment including some interesting events that the models predicted as well as some that the models missed.

  14. Teaching for diversity: a literature overview and an analysis of the curriculum of a teacher training college

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Severiens; R. Wolff; S. van Herpen

    2014-01-01

    This article starts with an overview of the literature aiming to answer the question of what the knowledge aspect of teacher competence entails in urban schools. The conclusion of the overview identifies five areas of expertise as the most significant: (1) language development; (2) pedagogy; (3) soc

  15. Literature review on financial translation: A first overview of the research landscape in this area of specialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Alcalde Peñalver

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to look at the main studies published on financial translation to show the research landscape in this area of specialization. For the literature review, a classification model will be applied depending on the research objectives of the publications. First of all, this classification will be explained and then different publications will be analyzed in accordance with each category of the classification. The aim of this article is, as Fink (2005: 3 stated, to identify, evaluate, and synthesize existing literature on the topic and provide a first overview of what has been published to date in financial translation, which is considered an under-researched area compared to other specializations in the field of translation.

  16. Use of Essential Oils to Inhibit Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris: a short overview of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio eBevilacqua

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils (EOs are promising and friendly antimicrobials for the prolongation of the shelf life of many foods. They have been extensively used to inhibit spoiling and pathogenic microorganisms of many kinds of productslike fruit juices and acidic drinks. Therefore, they could be used successfully to control the germination of spores of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, that finds in these products an optimal environment for growth.This paper reports a brief overview of the literature available, focusing on the effects of EOs towards alicyclobacilli.

  17. The Relevance of Patent Foramen Ovale to Type II DCS: An Overview of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO 11062 TITLE: The Relevance of Patent Foramen Ovale to Type 11 DCS: An...Relevance of Patent Foramen Ovale to Type II DCS: An Overview of the Literature Joan Saary, MD, MSc and Gary Gray, MD, PhD Division of Occupational...ON Toronto, ON Canada, M5B 1W8 Canada M3M 3B9 joan.saary(autoronto.ca 2ary.2ray(aidciem.dnd.ca The significance of patent foramen ovale (PFO) in the

  18. Alternative Dark Energy Models: An Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, J A S

    2004-01-01

    A large number of recent observational data strongly suggest that we live in a flat, accelerating Universe composed of $\\sim$ 1/3 of matter (baryonic + dark) and $\\sim$ 2/3 of an exotic component with large negative pressure, usually named {\\bf Dark Energy} or {\\bf Quintessence}. The basic set of experiments includes: observations from SNe Ia, CMB anisotropies, large scale structure, X-ray data from galaxy clusters, age estimates of globular clusters and old high redshift galaxies (OHRG's). Such results seem to provide the remaining piece of information connecting the inflationary flatness prediction ($\\Omega_{\\rm{T}} = 1$) with astronomical observations. Theoretically, they have also stimulated the current interest for more general models containing an extra component describing this unknown dark energy, and simultaneously accounting for the present accelerating stage of the Universe. An overlook in the literature shows that at least five dark energy candidates have been proposed in the context of general re...

  19. An overview of biomedical literature search on the World Wide Web in the third millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prince; Goel, Roshni; Jain, Chandni; Kumar, Ashish; Parashar, Abhishek; Gond, Ajay Ratan

    2012-06-01

    Complete access to the existing pool of biomedical literature and the ability to "hit" upon the exact information of the relevant specialty are becoming essential elements of academic and clinical expertise. With the rapid expansion of the literature database, it is almost impossible to keep up to date with every innovation. Using the Internet, however, most people can freely access this literature at any time, from almost anywhere. This paper highlights the use of the Internet in obtaining valuable biomedical research information, which is mostly available from journals, databases, textbooks and e-journals in the form of web pages, text materials, images, and so on. The authors present an overview of web-based resources for biomedical researchers, providing information about Internet search engines (e.g., Google), web-based bibliographic databases (e.g., PubMed, IndMed) and how to use them, and other online biomedical resources that can assist clinicians in reaching well-informed clinical decisions.

  20. Omalizumab for Chronic Urticaria: A Case Series and Overview of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Ivyanskiy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that blocks the high-affinity Fc receptor of IgE. Omalizumab has been approved for the treatment of moderate to severe asthma; however, there is currently more and more data showing promising results in the management also of chronic urticaria. We present a case series of 19 patients with chronic urticaria treated in a university department with omalizumab and give an overview of the existing literature comprising an additional 59 cases as well as a total of 139 patients enrolled in two randomized controlled trials comparing omalizumab with placebo. The collective evidence points to omalizumab as a safe and effective treatment option for patients with chronic urticaria who do not sufficiently respond to standard therapy as recommended by existing guidelines.

  1. A critical overview of the current myofascial pain literature - October 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan; Grieve, Rob; Hooks, Todd; Layton, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    The number of publications about myofascial pain and trigger points (TrP) seems to increase every year. In the current overview we include 27 articles published in past months. The Basic Review section includes articles about the presence and characteristics of TrPs in various neck and shoulder muscles, the correlation between referred pain from active TrPs and knee osteoarthritis, and an anatomical study exploring whether the location of TrPs may be related to the nerve innervation of muscles. Zuil-Escobar and colleagues from Spain considered the intra-rater reliability of the identification of latent TrPs in several leg muscles and the possible correlation of TrP and the presence of a lower medial longitudinal arch. In the section on manual approaches, contributing author Rob Grieve and colleagues continue their studies of TrPs in the lower extremity muscles, while Méndez-Rebolledo and colleagues studied the impact of cross taping and compression. Dry needling (DN) continues to be a topic of interest. We included twelve papers addressing a wide range of topics, such as the effectiveness and safety of DN, and the impact of DN on proprioception, spasticity, and fibromyalgia. Two papers investigated the utilization of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and laser on TrPs, The final section on other clinical studies and reviews includes 8 papers. The studies originated in thirteen different countries with Spain leading the charts with 7 contributions to the literature, followed by Brazil with four. As we have mentioned in previous editions of this literature overview, many studies suffer from very small sample sizes, which makes it difficult to reach definitive conclusions. Nevertheless, myofascial pain continues to be a topic of interest to researchers and clinicians around the globe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Amino acid analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography after derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chloride Literature overview and further study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jámbor, A; Molnár-Perl, I

    2009-04-10

    A literature overview is given of HPLC methods currently in use to determine amino acids as their 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (FMOC) derivatives. On the basis of the detailed literature overview an exhaustive derivatization study was performed with 22 amino acids, applying photodiode array (DAD) and fluorescence (FL) detection simultaneously, in order to clear up the controversial points of FMOC derivatization. Model investigations have been carried out as a function of the reaction time and reaction conditions, such as the molar concentration of the reagent, the molar ratios of the reactants, the pH and the solvent composition of the reaction medium. Special emphasis was put (i) on the evaluation of the blank values of the reagents, as a function of the composition and that of the pH of the reaction medium, (ii) on the unambiguous quantitation of all amino acids, including the less reactive aspartic and glutamic acids, as well as on the formation and transformation of histidine and tyrosine, existing partly, as single (N-FMOC-histidine, N-FMOC-tyrosine), partly as double labeled species (N,NH-FMOC-histidine, N,O-FMOC-tyrosine). Reproducibilities of 22 amino acids, including both histidine and tyrosine derivatives, obtained under optimum derivatization conditions are presented (at 0.5mM FMOC concentration corresponding to the molar ratios of [FMOC]/[amino acids](T)=5.5/1 (note: the superscript 'T' means the total of amino acids), with acetonitrile containing reagents, at pH 9, derivatization time=20 min), and characterized with the relative standard deviation percentages of their responses (acid FMOC derivatives proved to be 1 pmol, except for serine, glycine, valine (2.5 pmol), for cystine, N,NH-FMOC-histidine and for the total of N-FMOC-tyrosine and N,O-FMOC-tyrosine (5 pmol) and for tryptophan (10 pmol).

  3. Sport prostheses and prosthetic adaptations for the upper and lower limb amputees : an overview of peer reviewed literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bragaru, Mihai; Dekker, Rienk; Geertzen, Jan H. B.

    Background: Sport prostheses are used by both upper- and lower-limb amputees while participating in sports and other physical activities. Although the number of these devices has increased over the past decade, no overview of the peer reviewed literature describing them has been published

  4. Sport prostheses and prosthetic adaptations for the upper and lower limb amputees : an overview of peer reviewed literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bragaru, Mihai; Dekker, Rienk; Geertzen, Jan H. B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sport prostheses are used by both upper- and lower-limb amputees while participating in sports and other physical activities. Although the number of these devices has increased over the past decade, no overview of the peer reviewed literature describing them has been published previously

  5. An introduction to spiritual psychology: overview of the literature, east and west.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miovic, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article outlines the philosophical background to spiritual psychology and selectively reviews Western and Eastern literature on the subject. The world views of theism, atheism, and agnosticism are defined and critiqued, and the boundaries of scientific knowledge discussed. The views of James, Jung, and Freud are reviewed, and the contributions of humanistic psychology noted. Contemporary spiritual psychology is then summarized with reference to recent literature on theistic psychotherapy, Buddhist psychology, mind-body medicine, and transpersonal psychology. Sri Aurobindo's work is introduced as a modern Asian perspective on theistic psychology, and his model of the relationship between the "soul" and the unconscious described. Finally, a brief clinical vignette is given.

  6. Catatonia in disulfiram intoxication - a case report and a brief overview of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takacs, Rozalia; Milan, Flora; Ungvari, Gabor S; Faludi, Gabor; Gazdag, Gabor

    2016-06-01

    Catatonic syndromes could accompany a variety of psychiatric and medical conditions. The most common conditions underlying catatonia are affective disorders followed by schizophrenia, but several medical conditions including intoxications affecting the central nervous system can also present with catatonic signs and symptoms. Therapeutic doses of disulfiram could induce catatonia with or without accompanying psychosis or mood disorder. A case of disulfiram intoxication manifesting with catatonia is reported here together with a brief overview of the literature. A patient was admitted to the toxicology ward after a suicide attempt with approximately 20 g of disulfiram. On transfer to the psychiatric ward, she was sitting still, in a semi-stuporous state and displayed motiveless resistance to instructions or attempts to move (active negativism). She was unresponsive to most of the questions (mutism), occasionally verbigerated 1-2 words and stared for more than 20 seconds between shifting attention. After developing a comatosus state her treatment continued at the toxicology ward, where a contrast-enhanced computer tomography scan revealed bilateral emollition of 1.5 cm diameter in both nucleus lentiformis at the level of the third ventricle. Following treatment her condition improved and she benefited of rehabilitation facility and a second psychiatric treatment. She was discharged free of neurological and psychiatric symptoms. In conclusion, we underscore the importance of accurate diagnosis of the underlying psychiatric or medical condition when encountering a fast emerging catatonic syndrome and focus first on treating the causative condition while simultaneously attempting symptomatic treatment of catatonia.

  7. Adolescent Cellphone Use While Driving: An Overview of the Literature and Promising Future Directions for Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, M Kit; Wanner, Kathryn J; McDonald, Catherine

    2016-06-16

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death in adolescents, and drivers aged 16-19 are the most likely to die in distracted driving crashes. This paper provides an overview of the literature on adolescent cellphone use while driving, focusing on the crash risk, incidence, risk factors for engagement, and the effectiveness of current mitigation strategies. We conclude by discussing promising future approaches to prevent crashes related to cellphone use in adolescents. Handheld manipulation of the phone while driving has been shown to have a 3 to 4-fold increased risk of a near crash or crash, and eye glance duration greater than 2 seconds increases crash risk exponentially. Nearly half of U.S. high school students admit to texting while driving in the last month, but the frequency of use according to vehicle speed and high-risk situations remains unknown. Several risk factors are associated with cell phone use while driving including: parental cellphone use while driving, social norms for quick responses to text messages, and higher levels of temporal discounting. Given the limited effectiveness of current mitigation strategies such as educational campaigns and legal bans, a multi-pronged behavioral and technological approach addressing the above risk factors will be necessary to reduce this dangerous behavior in adolescents.

  8. Adolescent Cellphone Use While Driving: An Overview of the Literature and Promising Future Directions for Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kit Delgado

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death in adolescents, and drivers aged 16–19 are the most likely to die in distracted driving crashes. This paper provides an overview of the literature on adolescent cellphone use while driving, focusing on the crash risk, incidence, risk factors for engagement, and the effectiveness of current mitigation strategies. We conclude by discussing promising future approaches to prevent crashes related to cellphone use in adolescents. Handheld manipulation of the phone while driving has been shown to have a 3 to 4-fold increased risk of a near crash or crash, and eye glance duration greater than 2 seconds increases crash risk exponentially. Nearly half of U.S. high school students admit to texting while driving in the last month, but the frequency of use according to vehicle speed and high-risk situations remains unknown. Several risk factors are associated with cell phone use while driving including: parental cellphone use while driving, social norms for quick responses to text messages, and higher levels of temporal discounting. Given the limited effectiveness of current mitigation strategies such as educational campaigns and legal bans, a multi-pronged behavioral and technological approach addressing the above risk factors will be necessary to reduce this dangerous behavior in adolescents.

  9. A critical overview of the current myofascial pain literature - March 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan; Hooks, Todd; Finnegan, Michelle; Grieve, Rob

    2016-04-01

    The worldwide interest in myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) and trigger points (TrPs) is reflected in the increasing number of publications. In this overview of the literature, we included 26 studies, case reports and review articles by authors from 18 different countries. Several research groups are exploring the characteristic of TrPs such as Chen and colleagues, who continued their work on the quantification of the taut bands. Meng and colleagues studied the relationships between TrPs and central sensitization, while Yu and colleagues examined the electrophysiological characteristics that occur as a result of active TrPs. Several researchers used objective measurements to determine clinical outcomes, such as Koppenhaver and colleagues who measured objective changes in the function and nociceptive sensitivity of lumbar multifidus muscle subjects with low back pain. Turo and colleagues quantified muscle tissue changes after dry needling in chronic myofascial pain using elastography. Multiple studies explored various treatment options for TrPs, such as dry needling, injections with lidocaine or granisetron, traditional Thai massage, self-myofascial release, kinesiotaping, and monochromatic infrared photo energy, among others.

  10. Exploring the care needs of patients with advanced COPD: an overview of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Clare; Gott, Merryn; Payne, Sheila; Small, Neil; Barnes, Sarah; Halpin, David; Ruse, Charlotte; Seamark, David

    2010-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a highly prevalent condition worldwide and is associated with significant mortality. This paper gives an overview of the relevant literature regarding care needs in advanced COPD from the perspective of the patient or carer, and aims to explore the appropriateness of a palliative care approach in this group. Publications revealed that patients with COPD have a high symptom burden that impacts on quality of life and social functioning. Information provision in COPD is often lacking and the implications of diagnosis and prognosis are not routinely discussed. The impact on families and carers is considerable, many patients have significant care requirements which can affect family relationships. Although patients with COPD have regular contact with health services, access to specialist services and palliative care is poor. This paper highlights the need for increased provision for palliative care in COPD, alongside dedicated education and training for health professionals, and continued research to identify the most appropriate ways of delivering this care.

  11. Model-based Tomographic Reconstruction Literature Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, D H; Lehman, S K

    2005-11-30

    In the process of preparing a proposal for internal research funding, a literature search was conducted on the subject of model-based tomographic reconstruction (MBTR). The purpose of the search was to ensure that the proposed research would not replicate any previous work. We found that the overwhelming majority of work on MBTR which used parameterized models of the object was theoretical in nature. Only three researchers had applied the technique to actual data. In this note, we summarize the findings of the literature search.

  12. AIDS policy modeling for the 21st century: an overview of key issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauner, M S; Brandeau, M L

    2001-09-01

    Decisions about HIV prevention and treatment programs are based on factors such as program costs and health benefits, social and ethical issues, and political considerations. AIDS policy models--that is, models that evaluate the monetary and non-monetary consequences of decisions about HIV/AIDS interventions--can play a role in helping policy makers make better decisions. This paper provides an overview of the key issues related to developing useful AIDS policy models. We highlight issues of importance for researchers in the field of AIDS policy modeling as well as for policy makers. These include geographic area, setting, target groups, interventions, affordability and effectiveness of interventions, type and time horizon of policy model, and type of economic analysis. This paper is not intended to be an exhaustive review of the AIDS policy modeling literature, although many papers from the literature are discussed as examples; rather, we aim to convey the composition, achievements, and challenges of AIDS policy modeling.

  13. An Overview of Customer Satisfaction Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Willard

    This document is a report on how California community colleges can incorporate customer satisfaction models and theories from business to better serve students. Emphasis is given to two levels of customer satisfaction: macro- and micro-models. Macro-models look at how customer satisfaction relates to other elements or priorities of community…

  14. Freight modelling: an overview of international experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.A.

    2008-01-01

    Compared to passenger transportation modelling, the field of freight modelling is relatively young and developing quickly into different directions all over the world. The objective of this paper is to summarize the international state of the art in freight modelling, with a focus on developments in

  15. Overview of the model component in ECOCLIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geels, Camilla; Boegh, Eva; Bendtsen, J

    As part of the Danish strategic research project ECOCLIM: Ecosystems Surface Exchange of Greenhouse Gases in an Environment of Changing Anthropogenic and Climate forcing a model system will be developed. This model system will be based on both terrestrial and marine ecosystems in order to be able...... and atmospheric models. We will use the model system to 1) quantify the potential effects of climate change on ecosystem exchange of GHG and 2) estimate the impacts of changes in management practices including land use change and nitrogen (N) loads. Here the various model components will be introduced...

  16. Hallucinations in Healthy Older Adults: An Overview of the Literature and Perspectives for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna C. Badcock

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available KEY POINTS➢ Studies suggest a substantial minority of healthy older adults have hallucinatory experiences, in line with existing evidence on hallucinations in other age groups, though it is still unclear if hallucination prevalence increases or declines with age in older cohorts.➢ Stigma attached to both hallucinations and ageing leads to considerable under-reporting of these experiences in healthy older adults and may negatively bias how professionals, family members, and the public respond.➢ Why and when hallucinations in healthy older adults remit, persist, or progress to other clinical disorders remains poorly understood.➢ Current evidence points to a range of factors associated with hallucinations in older adults including decline in sensory or cognitive functioning, poor sleep, and psychosocial stressors (e.g., social isolation, loneliness, and bereavement, highlighting the need for accurate assessment and tailored interventions.Hallucinations, though common in youth and younger adults, are not the preserve of these age groups. Accumulating evidence shows that hallucinatory experiences are also present at surprisingly high rates in healthy older adults in the general community. Furthermore, stigma and misunderstanding of hallucinations, together with ageism, may lead to under-reporting of these experiences by older adults, and misdiagnosis or mismanagement by health and mental health practitioners. Consequently, improved public and professional knowledge is needed about the nature and significance of hallucinations with advancing age. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview, and critical analysis, of research on the prevalence, psychosocial, and neurobiological factors associated with hallucinations in people aged 60 years and over. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review of its kind in the literature. The evidence supports a dynamic conceptualization of hallucinations, in which the

  17. Mobile health use in low- and high-income countries: an overview of the peer-reviewed literature

    OpenAIRE

    Bastawrous, Andrew; Armstrong, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of mobile phone technology has introduced new possibilities to the field of medicine. Combining technological advances with medical expertise has led to the use of mobile phones in all healthcare areas including diagnostics, telemedicine, research, reference libraries and interventions. This article provides an overview of the peer-reviewed literature, published between 1 August 2006 and 1 August 2011, for the application of mobile/cell phones (from basic text-messaging systems ...

  18. The Sherrington-Kirkpatrick Model: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchenko, Dmitry

    2012-10-01

    The goal of this paper is to review some of the main ideas that emerged from the attempts to confirm mathematically the predictions of the celebrated Parisi ansatz in the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model. We try to focus on the big picture while sketching the proofs of only a few selected results, but an interested reader can find most of the missing details in Panchenko (The Sherrington-Kirkpatrick Model, Manuscript, 2012) and Talagrand (Mean-Field Models for Spin Glasses, Springer, Berlin, 2011).

  19. Overview of Animal Models of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Thomas A.; Woods, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    This is a review of animal models of obesity currently used in research. We have focused upon more commonly utilized models since there are far too many newly created models to consider, especially those caused by selective molecular genetic approaches modifying one or more genes in specific populations of cells. Further, we will not discuss the generation and use of inducible transgenic animals (induced knock-out or knock-in) even though they often bear significant advantages compared to traditional transgenic animals; influences of the genetic modification during the development of the animals can be minimized. The number of these animal models is simply too large to be covered in this chapter. PMID:22948848

  20. Sport prostheses and prosthetic adaptations for the upper and lower limb amputees: an overview of peer reviewed literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragaru, Mihai; Dekker, Rienk; Geertzen, Jan H B

    2012-09-01

    Sport prostheses are used by both upper- and lower-limb amputees while participating in sports and other physical activities. Although the number of these devices has increased over the past decade, no overview of the peer reviewed literature describing them has been published previously. Such an overview will allow specialists to choose appropriate prostheses based on available scientific evidence rather than on personal experience or preference. To provide an overview of the sport prostheses as they are described by the papers published in peer reviewed literature. Literature review. Four electronic databases were searched using free text and Medical Subject Headings (MESH) terms. Papers were included if they concerned a prosthesis or a prosthetic adaptation used in sports. Papers were excluded if they did not originate from peer reviewed sources, if they concerned prostheses for body parts other than the upper or lower limbs, if they concerned amputations distal to the wrist or ankle, or if they were written in a language other than English. Twenty-four papers were included in this study. The vast majority contained descriptive data and consisted of expert opinions and technical notes. Data concerning the energy efficiency, technical characteristics and special mechanical properties of prostheses or prosthetic adaptations for sports, other than running, are scarce.

  1. Overview of the Biomass Scenario Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Steve [Lexidyne, LLC, Colorado Springs, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the structure of the October 2012 version of the Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) in considerable detail, oriented towards readers with a background or interest in the underlying modeling structures. Readers seeking a less-detailed summary of the BSM may refer to Peterson (2013). BSM aims to provide a framework for exploring the potential contribution of biofuel technologies to the transportation energy supply for the United States over the next several decades. The model has evolved significantly from the prototype developed as part of the Role of Biomass in America" tm s Energy Future (RBAEF) project. BSM represents the supply chain surrounding conversion pathways for multiple fuel products, including ethanol, butanol, and infrastructure-compatible biofuels such as diesel, jet fuel, and gasoline.

  2. The cannonball model of long GRBs - overview

    CERN Document Server

    Dado, Shlomo

    2009-01-01

    During the past ten years, the predictions of the cannonball (CB) model of gamma ray bursts (GRBs) were repeatedly confronted with the mounting data from space- and ground-based observations of GRBs and their afterglows (AGs). The two underlying radiation mechanisms of the model, inverse Compton scattering (ICS) and synchrotron radiation (SR), provided an accurate description of the prompt and afterglow emission in all of the many well-sampled GRBs that were studied. Simple as they are, these two mechanisms and the burst environment were shown to generate the observed rich structure of the GRB light-curves at all observed frequencies and times.

  3. Risk Modelling and Management: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); T. Pérez-Amaral (Teodosio)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe papers in this special issue of Mathematics and Computers in Simulation are substantially revised versions of the papers that were presented at the 2011 Madrid International Conference on “Risk Modelling and Management” (RMM2011). The papers cover the following topics: currency

  4. Business Process Modeling Notation - An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Fortiş

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BPMN represents an industrial standard created to offer a common and user friendly notation to all the participants to a business process. The present paper aims to briefly present the main features of this notation as well as an interpretation of some of the main patterns characterizing a business process modeled by the working fluxes.

  5. Overview of Wave to Wire Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim; Kramer, Morten Mejlhede; Ferri, Francesco

    A “Wave to Wire” (W2W) model is a numerical tool that can calculate the power output from a specified Wave Energy Converter (WEC), under specified ocean wave conditions. The tool can be used to assess and optimize the performance of a Wave Energy Converter (WEC) design and provide knowledge of th...

  6. Risk modelling and management: An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); T. Pérez-Amaral (Teodosio)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe papers in this special issue of Mathematics and Computers in Simulation are substantially revised versions of the papers that were presented at the 2011 Madrid International Conference on "Risk Modelling and Management" (RMM2011). The papers cover the following topics: currency hedgi

  7. Risk Modelling and Management: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael); T. Pérez-Amaral (Teodosio)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe papers in this special issue of Mathematics and Computers in Simulation are substantially revised versions of the papers that were presented at the 2011 Madrid International Conference on “Risk Modelling and Management” (RMM2011). The papers cover the following topics: currency hedgi

  8. NASA Standard for Models and Simulations: Philosophy and Requirements Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattnig, Steve R.; Luckring, James M.; Morrison, Joseph H.; Sylvester, Andre J.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Zang, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Following the Columbia Accident Investigation Board report, the NASA Administrator chartered an executive team (known as the Diaz Team) to identify those CAIB report elements with NASA-wide applicability and to develop corrective measures to address each element. One such measure was the development of a standard for the development, documentation, and operation of models and simulations. This report describes the philosophy and requirements overview of the resulting NASA Standard for Models and Simulations.

  9. An overview of the optimization modelling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay

    2012-10-01

    SummaryThe optimal use of available resources is of paramount importance in the backdrop of the increasing food, fiber, and other demands of the burgeoning global population and the shrinking resources. The optimal use of these resources can be determined by employing an optimization technique. The comprehensive reviews on the use of various programming techniques for the solution of different optimization problems have been provided in this paper. The past reviews are grouped into nine sections based on the solutions of the theme-based real world problems. The sections include: use of optimization modelling for conjunctive use planning, groundwater management, seawater intrusion management, irrigation management, achieving optimal cropping pattern, management of reservoir systems operation, management of resources in arid and semi-arid regions, solid waste management, and miscellaneous uses which comprise, managing problems of hydropower generation and sugar industry. Conclusions are drawn where gaps exist and more research needs to be focused.

  10. Reviewing the research methods literature: principles and strategies illustrated by a systematic overview of sampling in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentles, Stephen J; Charles, Cathy; Nicholas, David B; Ploeg, Jenny; McKibbon, K Ann

    2016-10-11

    Overviews of methods are potentially useful means to increase clarity and enhance collective understanding of specific methods topics that may be characterized by ambiguity, inconsistency, or a lack of comprehensiveness. This type of review represents a distinct literature synthesis method, although to date, its methodology remains relatively undeveloped despite several aspects that demand unique review procedures. The purpose of this paper is to initiate discussion about what a rigorous systematic approach to reviews of methods, referred to here as systematic methods overviews, might look like by providing tentative suggestions for approaching specific challenges likely to be encountered. The guidance offered here was derived from experience conducting a systematic methods overview on the topic of sampling in qualitative research. The guidance is organized into several principles that highlight specific objectives for this type of review given the common challenges that must be overcome to achieve them. Optional strategies for achieving each principle are also proposed, along with discussion of how they were successfully implemented in the overview on sampling. We describe seven paired principles and strategies that address the following aspects: delimiting the initial set of publications to consider, searching beyond standard bibliographic databases, searching without the availability of relevant metadata, selecting publications on purposeful conceptual grounds, defining concepts and other information to abstract iteratively, accounting for inconsistent terminology used to describe specific methods topics, and generating rigorous verifiable analytic interpretations. Since a broad aim in systematic methods overviews is to describe and interpret the relevant literature in qualitative terms, we suggest that iterative decision making at various stages of the review process, and a rigorous qualitative approach to analysis are necessary features of this review type

  11. Overview of Standard Model physics at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Laporte, Jean-Francois; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has carried out a large set of measurements of Standard Model processes at 7 and 8 TeV centre of mass energies of p-p collisions, covering soft QCD and hard jet and photon production processes together with W, Z and multi-boson processes. ATLAS has measured the total p-p cross section at the LHC at 7 TeV in a special LHC run with high beta* beam optics. The elastic scattering process is measured as a function of the momentum transfer t, which when extrapolated to t=0 gives the total cross section from the optical theorem. Differential measurements of inclusive, di- and tri-jet production provide stringent tests of high-order QCD predictions and provide input for determination of parton density functions. Measurements of isolated inclusive and di-photons cross sections for energetic photons test various theoretical predictions and constrain parton density functions. The nucleon strange density plays an important role for a number of physics processes, including the formation of strange ...

  12. Airship dynamics modeling: A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuwen; Nahon, Meyer; Sharf, Inna

    2011-04-01

    The resurgence of airships has created a need for dynamics models and simulation capabilities adapted to these lighter-than-air vehicles. However, the modeling techniques for airship dynamics have lagged behind and are less systematic than those for fixed-wing aircraft. A state-of-the-art literature review is presented on airship dynamics modeling, aiming to provide a comprehensive description of the main problems in this area and a useful source of references for researchers and engineers interested in modern airship applications. The references are categorized according to the major topics in this area: aerodynamics, flight dynamics, incorporation of structural flexibility, incorporation of atmospheric turbulence, and effects of ballonets. Relevant analytical, numerical, and semi-empirical techniques are discussed, with a particular focus on how the main differences between lighter-than-air and heavier-than-air aircraft have been addressed in the modeling. Directions are suggested for future research on each of these topics.

  13. Evidence-based practice models for organizational change: overview and practical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Marjorie A; Sandau, Kristin E; Diedrick, Lee

    2013-05-01

    To provide an overview, summary of key features and evaluation of usefulness of six evidence-based practice models frequently discussed in the literature. The variety of evidence-based practice models and frameworks, complex terminology and organizational culture challenges nurses in selecting the model that best fits their practice setting. The authors: (1) initially identified models described in a predominant nursing text; (2) searched the literature through CINAHL from 1998 to current year, using combinations of 'evidence', 'evidence-based practice', 'models', 'nursing' and 'research'; (3) refined the list of selected models based on the initial literature review; and (4) conducted a second search of the literature on the selected models for all available years to locate both historical and recent articles on their use in nursing practice. Authors described model key features and provided an evaluation of model usefulness based on specific criteria, which focused on facilitating the evidence-based practice process and guiding practice change. The evaluation of model usefulness can be used to determine the best fit of the models to the practice setting. The Johns Hopkins Model and the Academic Center for Evidence-Based Practice Star Model emphasize the processes of finding and evaluating evidence that is likely to appeal to nursing educators. Organizations may prefer the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services Framework, Advancing Research and Clinical Practice Through Close Collaboration, or Iowa models for their emphasis on team decision-making. An evidence-based practice model that is clear to the clinician and fits the organization will guide a systematic approach to evidence review and practice change. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Three Models of International Entrepreneurship – An Eclectic Meta-Theoretical Overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Servais, Per

    . The purpose with this article was to give a comprehensive overview of models used to describe and explain the establishment and development of international new ventures. Based upon a diverse platform of types of research and types of models we have developed three eclectic meta-models of international...... entrepreneurship. The eclectic matrix meta-model defines types of international entrepreneurial firms. The eclectic multi-stimuli meta-model explains how the external environment factors and the internal organizational and managerial factors influence the international entrepreneurship strategies. The eclectic......The aim of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of models used to depict infant firms that operate internationally right from or close to inception, so-called international new ventures (INVs) or born global firms that emerged in the literature in the early 1990s up until today...

  15. Transport operations in container terminals : Literature overview, trends, research directions and classification scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlo, Hector J.; Vis, Iris F. A.; Roodbergen, Kees Jan

    2014-01-01

    Internal transport operations connect the seaside, yard side, and landside processes at container terminals. This paper presents an in-depth overview of transport operations and the material handling equipment used, highlights current industry trends and developments, and proposes a new classificati

  16. Seaside operations in container terminals : literature overview, trends, and research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlo, Hector J.; Vis, Iris F. A.; Roodbergen, Kees Jan

    2015-01-01

    Seaside operations are considered the bottleneck operation in most container terminals around the world. This paper presents an in-depth updated overview of the seaside operations at container terminals and highlights current trends and developments. We review and classify scientific journal papers

  17. Storage yard operations in container terminals : Literature overview, trends, and research directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlo, Hector J.; Vis, Iris F. A.; Roodbergen, Kees Jan

    2014-01-01

    Inbound and outbound containers are temporarily stored in the storage yard at container terminals. A combination of container demand increase and storage yard capacity scarcity create complex operational challenges for storage yard managers. This paper presents an in-depth overview of storage yard o

  18. The Investigation into Motivations, Success Factors and Barriers Among Women Small Business Owners: An Overview of Extant Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszczyński Dariusz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Women entrepreneurship, as an object of scientific inquiries, has elicited suitable recognition among researchers during the early 1980s. However, female business owners have attracted far less attention from the academic community than their male counterparts despite their reported increasing contribution towards the economic growth of both developed and emerging nations. This article attempts to bridge this gap in knowledge by providing readers with an overview of influential international research papers that investigate some of the key issues presented in the literature about women small business management and entrepreneurship.

  19. A Literature Review on Mathematical Models of Drilling Process Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Guskov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of literature describing simulation of drilling process. It considers both the negative impact of vibrations, arising when cutting, on the given technological process (emerging so-called chatter and the positive effects (chip breakage. The paper also examines different models used in modern works and presents basic equations of dynamics, taking into account the regenerative effect, including transverse, axial and torsional degree of freedom. Besides, it describes methods to calculate the chip thickness desirable in cutting force model. Two existing approaches to study dynamics of drilling process are discussed in detail: analytical stability analysis and time domain investigation. The first method is based on eigenvalue problem solution of delayed differential motion equation discretized in the time domain. As to the second approach, full time domain numerical modeling of drilling process using geometry algorithms is conducted. This work emphasizes the analysis of forces acting on the tool during machining. General cutting force models used in modern works are considered. The paper describes main approaches to process damping phenomenon (interaction between cutting tool flank face and work-piece modelling. It notes the feature specific only to the drilling – near the tip of the tool the chisel edge occurs to indent to the material instead of cutting. From the authors’ point of view the most complete is the model, where a cutting edge is divided into three zones (indentation zone, secondary cutting edge, and primary cutting edge, each of which uses different equations in the model of forces. Additional advantage of this model is that there is an experimental technique to determine cutting coefficients. The paper ends with a detailed classification of existing models of drilling dynamics.The paper was financially supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation within the framework of

  20. An overview of constitutive models for shape memory alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable properties of shape memory alloys have facilitated their applications in many areas of technology. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of thermomechanical behavior of these alloys, discussing the main constitutive models for their mathematical description. Metallurgical features and engineering applications are addressed as an introduction. Afterwards, five phenomenological theories are presented. In general, these models capture the general thermomechanical behavior of shape memory alloys, characterized by pseudoelasticity, shape memory effect, phase transformation phenomenon due to temperature variation, and internal subloops due to incomplete phase transformations.

  1. Sampling in Qualitative Research: Insights from an Overview of the Methods Literature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephen J Gentles; Cathy Charles; Jenny Ploeg; K Ann McKibbon

    2015-01-01

      The methods literature regarding sampling in qualitative research is characterized by important inconsistencies and ambiguities, which can be problematic for students and researchers seeking a clear...

  2. Personnel Management in Access Services: A General Overview of the Literature, 1990-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Leslie A.; Wu, Michelle M.

    2003-01-01

    Access services is not unique in its need for effective personnel management. A review of the literature indicates that there are many publications on or relating to library personnel administration; however, relatively few of them are dedicated to the narrow topic of access services. As such, this review encompasses literature that is general to…

  3. An Overview of Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Quality Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew S.

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will include my personal research experience and an overview of atmospheric chemistry and air quality modeling to the participants of the NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP 2017). The presentation will also provide examples on ways to apply airborne observations for chemical transport (CTM) and air quality (AQ) model evaluation. CTM and AQ models are important tools in understanding tropospheric-stratospheric composition, atmospheric chemistry processes, meteorology, and air quality. This presentation will focus on how NASA scientist currently apply CTM and AQ models to better understand these topics. Finally, the importance of airborne observation in evaluating these topics and how in situ and remote sensing observations can be used to evaluate and improve CTM and AQ model predictions will be highlighted.

  4. The National Energy Modeling System: An overview 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer-based, energy-economy modeling system of US energy markets for the midterm period through 2020. NEMS projects the production, imports, conversion, consumption, and prices of energy, subject to assumptions on macroeconomic and financial factors world energy markets, resource availability and costs, behavior and technological choice criteria, cost and performance characteristics of energy technologies, and demographics. This report presents an overview of the structure and methodology of NEMS and each of its components. The first chapter provides a description of the design and objectives of the system, followed by a chapter on the overall modeling structure and solution algorithm. The remainder of the report summarizes the methodology and scope of the component modules of NEMS. The model descriptions are intended for readers familiar with terminology from economics, operations research, and energy modeling. 21 figs.

  5. An Overview on R Packages for Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Qiu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present overview on R packages for structural equation modeling. Structural equation modeling, a statistical technique for testing and estimating causal relations using an amalgamation of statistical data and qualitative causal hypotheses, allow both confirmatory and exploratory modeling, meaning they are matched to both hypothesis testing and theory development. R project or R language, a free and popular programming language and computer software surroundings for statistical computing and graphics, is popularly used among statisticians for developing statistical computer software and data analysis. The major finding is that it is necessary to build excellent and enough structural equation modeling packages for R users to do research. Numerous packages for structural equation modeling of R project are introduced in this study and most of them are enclosed in the Comprehensive R Archive Network task view Psychometrics.

  6. Laboratory experiments in innovation research: a methodological overview and a review of the current literature

    OpenAIRE

    Brüggemann, Julia; Bizer, Kilian

    2016-01-01

    Innovation research has developed a broad set of methodological approaches in recent decades. In this paper, we propose laboratory experiments as a fruitful methodological addition to the existing methods in innovation research. Therefore, we provide an overview of the existing methods, discuss the advantages and limitations of laboratory experiments, and review experimental studies dealing with different fields of innovation policy, namely intellectual property rights, financial instruments,...

  7. Overview of the Standard Model Measurements with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yanwen; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS Collaboration is engaged in precision measurement of fundamental Standard Model parameters, such as the W boson mass, the weak-mixing angle or the strong coupling constant. In addition, the production cross-sections of a large variety of final states involving high energetic jets, photons as well as single and multi vector bosons are measured multi differentially at several center of mass energies. This allows to test perturbative QCD calculations to highest precision. In addition, these measurements allow also to test models beyond the SM, e.g. those leading to anomalous gauge couplings. In this talk, we give a broad overview of the Standard Model measurement campaign of the ATLAS collaboration, where selected topics will be discussed in more detail.

  8. An Overview of Westinghouse Realistic Large Break LOCA Evaluation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Frepoli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1988 amendment of the 10 CFR 50.46 rule in 1988, Westinghouse has been developing and applying realistic or best-estimate methods to perform LOCA safety analyses. A realistic analysis requires the execution of various realistic LOCA transient simulations where the effect of both model and input uncertainties are ranged and propagated throughout the transients. The outcome is typically a range of results with associated probabilities. The thermal/hydraulic code is the engine of the methodology but a procedure is developed to assess the code and determine its biases and uncertainties. In addition, inputs to the simulation are also affected by uncertainty and these uncertainties are incorporated into the process. Several approaches have been proposed and applied in the industry in the framework of best-estimate methods. Most of the implementations, including Westinghouse, follow the Code Scaling, Applicability and Uncertainty (CSAU methodology. Westinghouse methodology is based on the use of the WCOBRA/TRAC thermal-hydraulic code. The paper starts with an overview of the regulations and its interpretation in the context of realistic analysis. The CSAU roadmap is reviewed in the context of its implementation in the Westinghouse evaluation model. An overview of the code (WCOBRA/TRAC and methodology is provided. Finally, the recent evolution to nonparametric statistics in the current edition of the W methodology is discussed. Sample results of a typical large break LOCA analysis for a PWR are provided.

  9. Overview of the Results of the IEA Studies in Reading and Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    A summary of the reading and literature studies undertaken by an international voluntary association of educational researchers from various countries is in this paper. The studies' major findings are listed, and certain student attributes--such as sex, socioeconomic status, reading and viewing habits, and parental involvement--are discussed as…

  10. Overview of the Results of the IEA Studies in Reading and Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    A summary of the reading and literature studies undertaken by an international voluntary association of educational researchers from various countries is in this paper. The studies' major findings are listed, and certain student attributes--such as sex, socioeconomic status, reading and viewing habits, and parental involvement--are discussed as…

  11. Dermatomyositis as the first manifestation of gallbladder adenocarcinoma: case report and literature overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcic, Petra

    2015-03-27

    Dermatomyositis (DM) is characterized by pathognomic cutaneous manifestations (heliotrope rash, periorbital edema, Gottron's papules) and proximal muscle weakness. In this paper, I will present the case of a 48-year-old female patient whose dermatomyositis was initially diagnosed as vasculitis. Following the patient's inadequate response to corticosteroid treatment, clinical and radiologic examinations were performed, showing inoperable gallbladder adenocarcinoma. Although initial chemotherapy led to regression, the dermatomyositis developed an independent course with new pathological changes leading to the progression of the disease. I will also present an overview of case reports in English published so far. Gallbladder carcinoma should be added to the list of malignancies with dermatomyositis and has to be excluded by relevant investigation in women.

  12. Measuring and Managing Value Co-Creation Process: Overview of Existing Theoretical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Skaržauskaitė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose — the article is to provide a holistic view on concept of value co-creation and existing models for measuring and managing it by conducting theoretical analysis of scientific literature sources targeting the integration of various approaches. Most important and relevant results of the literature study are presented with a focus on changed roles of organizations and consumers. This article aims at contributing theoretically to the research stream of measuring co-creation of value in order to gain knowledge for improvement of organizational performance and enabling new and innovative means of value creation. Design/methodology/approach. The nature of this research is exploratory – theoretical analysis and synthesis of scientific literature sources targeting the integration of various approaches was performed. This approach was chosen due to the absence of established theory on models of co-creation, possible uses in organizations and systematic overview of tools measuring/suggesting how to measure co-creation. Findings. While the principles of managing and measuring co-creation in regards of consumer motivation and involvement are widely researched, little attempt has been made to identify critical factors and create models dealing with organizational capabilities and managerial implications of value co-creation. Systematic analysis of literature revealed a gap not only in empirical research concerning organization’s role in co-creation process, but in theoretical and conceptual levels, too. Research limitations/implications. The limitations of this work as a literature review lies in its nature – the complete reliance on previously published research papers and the availability of these studies. For a deeper understanding of co-creation management and for developing models that can be used in real-life organizations, a broader theoretical, as well as empirical, research is necessary. Practical implications. Analysis of the

  13. Interactive Water Resources Modeling and Model Use: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Daniel P.; Kindler, Janusz; Fedra, Kurt

    1985-02-01

    This serves as an introduction for the following sequence of five papers on interactive water resources and environmental management, policy modeling, and model use. We review some important shortcomings of many management and policy models and argue for improved human-computer-model interaction and communication. This interaction can lead to more effective model use which in turn should facilitate the exploration, analysis, and synthesis of alternative designs, plans, and policies by those directly involved in the planning, management, or policy making process. Potential advantages of interactive modeling and model use, as well as some problems and research needs, are discussed.

  14. A literature overview of primary cervical malignant melanoma: an exceedingly rare cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusceddu, Sara; Bajetta, Emilio; Carcangiu, Maria Luisa; Formisano, Barbara; Ducceschi, Monika; Buzzoni, Roberto

    2012-02-01

    Primary malignant melanoma (MM) of the uterine cervix is an extremely rare neoplasm, with about 78 cases described in the literature. Since traces of melanocytes in normal cervical epithelium were found in 3.5% of cases primary origin of melanoma at this site cannot be ruled out. It occurs mainly in the sixth decade of life, and it is five time less common than primary vaginal or vulvar MM. Clinical history usually includes abnormal genital bleeding; and physical examination frequently reveals a pigmented, exophytic cervical mass. Diagnosis is confirmed by immuno-histochemical methods and by exclusion of any other primary site of melanoma. Treatment of this condition is not yet standardized, and the overall prognosis is very poor. Diagnostic approaches and therapeutic procedures on primary MM of the uterine cervix are discussed following a review of the literature encompassing more than one century.

  15. A Model of the Perception of Facial Expressions of Emotion by Humans: Research Overview and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Aleix; Du, Shichuan

    2012-05-01

    In cognitive science and neuroscience, there have been two leading models describing how humans perceive and classify facial expressions of emotion-the continuous and the categorical model. The continuous model defines each facial expression of emotion as a feature vector in a face space. This model explains, for example, how expressions of emotion can be seen at different intensities. In contrast, the categorical model consists of C classifiers, each tuned to a specific emotion category. This model explains, among other findings, why the images in a morphing sequence between a happy and a surprise face are perceived as either happy or surprise but not something in between. While the continuous model has a more difficult time justifying this latter finding, the categorical model is not as good when it comes to explaining how expressions are recognized at different intensities or modes. Most importantly, both models have problems explaining how one can recognize combinations of emotion categories such as happily surprised versus angrily surprised versus surprise. To resolve these issues, in the past several years, we have worked on a revised model that justifies the results reported in the cognitive science and neuroscience literature. This model consists of C distinct continuous spaces. Multiple (compound) emotion categories can be recognized by linearly combining these C face spaces. The dimensions of these spaces are shown to be mostly configural. According to this model, the major task for the classification of facial expressions of emotion is precise, detailed detection of facial landmarks rather than recognition. We provide an overview of the literature justifying the model, show how the resulting model can be employed to build algorithms for the recognition of facial expression of emotion, and propose research directions in machine learning and computer vision researchers to keep pushing the state of the art in these areas. We also discuss how the model can

  16. Overview of the health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption for the dietetics professional: selected literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duyn, M A; Pivonka, E

    2000-12-01

    Epidemiologic evidence of a protective role for fruits and vegetables in cancer prevention is substantial. The strength of this scientific base guides US national policymaking in diet and health issues and facilitates community and local programs that address national dietary goals to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. Current scientific evidence also suggests a protective role for fruits and vegetables in prevention of coronary heart disease, and evidence is accumulating for a protective role in stroke. In addition, a new scientific base is emerging to support a protective role for fruits and vegetables in prevention of cataract formation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diverticulosis, and possibly, hypertension. This article provides an overview of the health benefits associated with fruit and vegetable consumption for each of these conditions, including brief discussions of underlying protective mechanisms, identifies key scientific findings regarding the health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, and outlines applications of these findings for dietetics professionals. The evidence reviewed provides additional support for increased consumption of a wide variety of vegetables, in particular, dark-green leafy, cruciferous, and deep-yellow-orange ones, and a wide variety of fruits, in particular, citrus and deep-yellow-orange ones. Continued attention to increasing fruit and vegetable consumption is a practical and important way to optimize nutrition to reduce disease risk and maximize good health.

  17. A critical overview of the current myofascial pain literature - January 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan; Finnegan, Michelle; Grieve, Rob; Hooks, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Reflecting on the past year, the number of publications on myofascial pain continues to increase in a steady rate. The current review includes 30 basic and clinical studies, case reports, reviews, and reports from fifteen different countries about trigger points (TrP), myofascial pain (MP), dry needling (DN) and other related interventions. We are pleased that during 2015 this article made the top 15 of most downloaded articles as many as three times! In general, the quality of published papers is improving as well. Nevertheless, several papers included in this overview, mention the application of "ischemic compression", which is a questionable concept in the context of TrP inactivation. As we have outlined previously, in the current thinking about myofascial pain, TrPs feature significant hypoxia and a lowered pH (Ballyns et al., 2011; Shah and Gilliams, 2008), and attempts to induce more ischemia would be counterproductive. Already in 1999, Simons, Travell and Simons changed the terminology from ischemic compression to TrP compression (Simons et al., 1999) and we recommend that contemporary researchers and clinicians adopt the new terminology and stop using the term "ischemic compression."

  18. Multilevel modeling: overview and applications to research in counseling psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Jeffrey H

    2011-04-01

    Multilevel modeling (MLM) is rapidly becoming the standard method of analyzing nested data, for example, data from students within multiple schools, data on multiple clients seen by a smaller number of therapists, and even longitudinal data. Although MLM analyses are likely to increase in frequency in counseling psychology research, many readers of counseling psychology journals have had only limited exposure to MLM concepts. This paper provides an overview of MLM that blends mathematical concepts with examples drawn from counseling psychology. This tutorial is intended to be a first step in learning about MLM; readers are referred to other sources for more advanced explorations of MLM. In addition to being a tutorial for understanding and perhaps even conducting MLM analyses, this paper reviews recent research in counseling psychology that has adopted a multilevel framework, and it provides ideas for MLM approaches to future research in counseling psychology.

  19. LAGRANGIAN MICROMIXING MODELS FOR CONCENTRATION FLUCTUATIONS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Amicarelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a brief overview of the main features, theoretical formulations and validation tests of some Lagrangian micromixing models, currently used for estimations of the ensemble mean and the turbulent fluctuations of concentration. Their application fields regards several pollutant dispersion phenomena such as: accidents (power or production plants, terroristic attacks, hydrocarbons storage and transport, extraordinary emissions, odours (power plants and energy production from waste resources-compost, dumps, incinerators, biogas storage and smokes-, high enthalpy geothermic plants-sulfide hydrogen-, animal farms, micro-scale dispersion from continuous or spot emissions (traffic pollutants, power and production plants, dispersion in aquatic environments…, industrial processes (combustion, pollutant treatment,…, strong non-linear relationship between concentration and damage (inflammable substances, explosions,.., reactions depending on instantaneous concentrations.

  20. Overview of the NRL DPF program: Experiment and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, A. S.; Jackson, S. L.; Angus, J. R.; Giuliani, J. L.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Schumer, J. W.; Mosher, D.

    2016-10-01

    Charged particle acceleration in imploding plasmas is an important phenomenon which occurs in various natural and laboratory plasmas. A new research project at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has been started to investigate this phenomenon both experimentally-in a dense plasma focus (DPF) device-and theoretically using analytical and computational modeling. The DPF will be driven by the high-inductance (607 nH) Hawk pulsed-power generator, with a rise time of 1.2 μs and a peak current of 665 kA. In this poster we present an overview of the research project, and some preliminary results from fluid simulations of the m = 0 instability in an idealized DPF pinch. This work was supported by the Naval Research Laboratory Base Program.

  1. PERIAPICAL RESORPTIVE PROCESSES IN CHRONIC APICAL PERIODONTITIS: AN OVERVIEW AND DISCUSSION OF THE LITERATURE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Gusiyska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Root resorption is a biological phenomenon, characterized by processes of cement and/or dentine depletion, resulting from the physiological or pathological activity of resorptive cells. Purpose: The aim of this article is to review of the literature on the peculiarities of the periapical resorptive processes. Conclusion: The absence of a physiological narrowing is challenging to the achievement of satisfactory early and late therapeutic results. It makes probable either the overpressing of necrotic, infected material when preparing the endodontic space or the overpressing of the sealer when sealing the root canal.

  2. Reducing waste in the NHS: an overview of the literature and challenges for the nursing profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minogue, Virginia; Wells, Bill

    2016-07-01

    Waste in the NHS is estimated to account for 20% of health expenditure. This article examines the literature on reducing waste, analyses some approaches to waste reduction, and identifies the role that nurses and other health professionals can play in developing a sustainable NHS. For the purposes of the article, and to inform nursing practice, the definition of, and discussion about, waste is broader than that outlined by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) controlled waste regulations, and the Royal College of Nursing classification. It includes clinical waste, waste arising out of clinical practice, service delivery and care, infrastructure, and carbon emissions.

  3. The Sardinian Literary Spring: An Overview. A New Perspective on Italian Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Broccia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at presenting today’s Sardinian literary scene and how some novelists (Sergio Atzeni, Giulio Angioni, Salvatore Mannuzzu, Salvatore Niffoi, Marcello Fois, Giorgio Todde, Milena Agus, Francesco Abate, Flavio Soriga and Michela Murgia, during the last few decades, drawing their narrative subjects directly from the regional and local culture, are contributing to a new development in Italian literature. These authors’ novels often contain references to Sardinian linguistic, social, anthropological and historical facts. Their success has led literary critics to talk about a Sardinian Literary Spring or Sardinian Nouvelle Vague, i.e. a literary phenomenon, which is the expression of a deep-rooted Sardinian identity.

  4. Commentary: The Hmong and their Perceptions about Physical Disabilities: An Overview and Review of Selected Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie Cha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hmong are one of the fastest growing populations in Central California. Hmong refugee families arrived in Fresno in the late 1970s facing a variety of challenges regarding their traditional health beliefs and the customs of mainstream Western biomedicine. Differing and sometimes conflicting perceptions about physical disabilities have resulted in painful misunderstandings between Hmong families and Western health care providers. The aim of this paper is to present a review of some of the Hmong health belief literature concerning physical disabilities in children. It also includes commentaries from those who work with the Hmong families of physically disabled children.

  5. The TNBS-induced colitis animal model: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Efstathios Antoniou; Georgios Antonios Margonis; Anastasios Angelou; Anastasia Pikouli; Paraskevi Argiri; Ioannis Karavokyros; Apostolos Papalois; Emmanouil Pikoulis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite recent advances the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease remains incompletely understood. A variety of animal models have been utilized in an effort to provide further insights and develop more therapeutic options. In order to simulate, to an extent, the pathogenesis and the clinical course of the disease, TNBS induced colitis is often used. Various approaches for inducing TNBS -colitis have been described in the literature. Methods/results: In this review, we sought to pres...

  6. Modeling Radiotherapy Induced Normal Tissue Complications: An Overview beyond Phenomenological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, Marcello; Strigari, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    An overview of radiotherapy (RT) induced normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models is presented. NTCP models based on empirical and mechanistic approaches that describe a specific radiation induced late effect proposed over time for conventional RT are reviewed with particular emphasis on their basic assumptions and related mathematical translation and their weak and strong points. PMID:28044088

  7. ["Skin rejuvenation" by non-ablative laser and light systems. Literature research and overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grema, H; Raulin, C; Greve, B

    2002-06-01

    Currently, ablative laser therapy (with CO2/Er:YAG lasers) and deep chemical peeling are effective and promising methods of skin rejuvenation. The induction of collagen synthesis was observed after peelings with trichloroacetic acid or phenol as well as after treatments with the CO2 laser. In past years, the undesirable side effects and risks of these methods have led to intensified research in the fields of non-ablative facial rejuvenation and subsurfacing by means of ablative laser systems and intense pulsed light systems. The objective is to achieve selective, heat-induced denaturalisation of dermal collagen that leads to subsequent reactive synthesis but does not damage the epidermis. Recently, the results of numerous clinical and histological studies have indicated that these new technologies are successful. After critical review and assessment of current literature, we can say that in terms of their efficacy, non-ablative methods are not a comparable alternative to ablative skin resurfacing.

  8. Overview: early history of crop growth and photosynthesis modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Mabrouk A

    2011-02-01

    As in industrial and engineering systems, there is a need to quantitatively study and analyze the many constituents of complex natural biological systems as well as agro-ecosystems via research-based mechanistic modeling. This objective is normally addressed by developing mathematically built descriptions of multilevel biological processes to provide biologists a means to integrate quantitatively experimental research findings that might lead to a better understanding of the whole systems and their interactions with surrounding environments. Aided with the power of computational capacities associated with computer technology then available, pioneering cropping systems simulations took place in the second half of the 20th century by several research groups across continents. This overview summarizes that initial pioneering effort made to simulate plant growth and photosynthesis of crop canopies, focusing on the discovery of gaps that exist in the current scientific knowledge. Examples are given for those gaps where experimental research was needed to improve the validity and application of the constructed models, so that their benefit to mankind was enhanced. Such research necessitates close collaboration among experimentalists and model builders while adopting a multidisciplinary/inter-institutional approach.

  9. Bladder Exstrophy : An Epidemiologic Study From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and an Overview of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siffel, Csaba; Correa, Adolfo; Amar, Emmanuelle; Bakker, Marian K.; Bermejo-Sanchez, Eva; Bianca, Sebastiano; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Clementi, Maurizio; Cocchi, Guido; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Landau, Danielle; Leoncini, Emanuele; Li, Zhu; Lowry, R. Brian; Marengo, Lisa K.; Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo; Morgan, Margery; Mutchinick, Osvaldo M.; Pierini, Anna; Rissmann, Anke; Ritvanen, Annukka; Scarano, Gioacchino; Szabova, Elena; Olney, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Bladder exstrophy (BE) is a complex congenital anomaly characterized by a defect in the closure of the lower abdominal wall and bladder. We aimed to provide an overview of the literature and conduct an epidemiologic study to describe the prevalence, and maternal and case characteristics of BE. We us

  10. Socio-demographic factors and the prevalence of burns in children: an overview of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnababtah, Khalid; Khan, Salim; Ashford, Robert

    2016-02-01

    In most countries, socio-demographic factors influence the incidence of burns in children. The aims of this literature review were therefore to identify which of those factors are linked to an increase in the prevalence and identify ways of enhancing burn prevention programmes and preventing practices which play a role in the occurrence of burns in children. A comprehensive search (no time limit) of primary studies, titles and abstracts was undertaken in the following electronic databases; MEDLINE, CINAHL, ERIC, Cochrane Library, PsychInfo and Google Scholar. Socio-demographic factors which were linked to an increased incidence of burns include low household income, living in deprived areas, living in rented accommodation, young mothers, single-parent families and children from ethnic minorities. The level of parental education, parental occupation, and the type and size of accommodation were also cited. A range of socio-demographic factors result in an increase in the prevalence of burns, and the risk is even greater in children who are exposed to a number of these factors. Such information will be useful for planning prevention strategies and identifying further research questions that need to be answered.

  11. Cone beam computed tomography in paediatric dentistry: overview of recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aps, J K M

    2013-06-01

    The use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in paediatric dentistry has been mentioned in numerous publications and case reports. The indications for the use of CBCT in paediatric dentistry, however, have not yet been properly addressed. On the other hand, the three basic principles of radiation protection (justification, limitation and optimisation) should suffice. A review of the current literature was used to assess the indications and contra-indications for the use of CBCT in paediatric dentistry. Paramount is the fact that CBCT generates a higher effective dose to the tissues than traditional dental radiographic exposures do. The effective radiation dose should not be underestimated, especially not in children, who are much more susceptible to stochastic biological effects. The thyroid gland in particular should be kept out of the primary beam as much as possible. As with any other radiographical technique, routine use of CBCT is not acceptable clinical practice. CBCT certainly has a place in paediatric dentistry, but its use must be justified on a patient case individual basis.

  12. An Overview of Modeling Middle Atmospheric Odd Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Odd nitrogen (N, NO, NO2, NO3, N2O5, HNO3, HO2NO2, ClONO2, and BrONO2) constituents are important components in the control of middle atmospheric ozone. Several processes lead to the production of odd nitrogen (NO(sub y)) in the middle atmosphere (stratosphere and mesosphere) including the oxidation of nitrous oxide (N2O), lightning, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles (e.g., galactic cosmic rays, solar proton events, and energetic electron precipitation). The dominant production mechanism of NO(sub y) in the stratosphere is N2O oxidation, although other processes contribute. Mesospheric NO(sub y) is influenced by N2O oxidation, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles. NO(sub y) is destroyed in the middle atmosphere primarily via two processes: 1) dissociation of NO to form N and O followed by N + NO yielding N2 + O to reform even nitrogen; and 2) transport to the troposphere where HNO3 can be rapidly scavenged in water droplets and rained out of the atmosphere. There are fairly significant differences among global models that predict NO(sub y). NO(sub y) has a fairly long lifetime in the stratosphere (months to years), thus disparate transport in the models probably contributes to many of these differences. Satellite and aircraft measurement provide modeling tests of the various components of NO(sub y). Although some recent reaction rate measurements have led to improvements in model/measurement agreement, significant differences do remain. This presentation will provide an overview of several proposed sources and sinks of NO(sub y) and their regions of importance. Multi-dimensional modeling results for NO(sub y) and its components with comparisons to observations will also be presented.

  13. An overview of quantum computation models: quantum automata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Quantum automata,as theoretical models of quantum computers,include quantum finite automata (QFA),quantum sequential machines (QSM),quantum pushdown automata (QPDA),quantum Turing machines (QTM),quantum cellular automata (QCA),and the others,for example,automata theory based on quantum logic (orthomodular lattice-valued automata).In this paper,we try to outline a basic progress in the research on these models,focusing on QFA,QSM,QPDA,QTM,and orthomodular lattice-valued automata.Also,other models closely relative to them are mentioned.In particular,based on the existing results in the literature,we finally address a number of problems to be studied in future.

  14. Smart health monitoring systems: an overview of design and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mirza Mansoor; Gholamhosseini, Hamid

    2013-04-01

    Health monitoring systems have rapidly evolved during the past two decades and have the potential to change the way health care is currently delivered. Although smart health monitoring systems automate patient monitoring tasks and, thereby improve the patient workflow management, their efficiency in clinical settings is still debatable. This paper presents a review of smart health monitoring systems and an overview of their design and modeling. Furthermore, a critical analysis of the efficiency, clinical acceptability, strategies and recommendations on improving current health monitoring systems will be presented. The main aim is to review current state of the art monitoring systems and to perform extensive and an in-depth analysis of the findings in the area of smart health monitoring systems. In order to achieve this, over fifty different monitoring systems have been selected, categorized, classified and compared. Finally, major advances in the system design level have been discussed, current issues facing health care providers, as well as the potential challenges to health monitoring field will be identified and compared to other similar systems.

  15. Overview of the Southern San Andreas Fault Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, Ray J.; Biasi, Glenn P.; Wills, Chris J.; Dawson, Timothy E.

    2008-01-01

    This appendix summarizes the data and methodology used to generate the source model for the southern San Andreas fault. It is organized into three sections, 1) a section by section review of the geological data in the format of past Working Groups, 2) an overview of the rupture model, and 3) a manuscript by Biasi and Weldon (in review Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America) that describes the correlation methodology that was used to help develop the ?geologic insight? model. The goal of the Biasi and Weldon methodology is to quantify the insight that went into developing all A faults; as such it is in concept consistent with all other A faults but applied in a more quantitative way. The most rapidly slipping fault and the only known source of M~8 earthquakes in southern California is the San Andreas fault. As such it plays a special role in the seismic hazard of California, and has received special attention in the current Working Group. The underlying philosophy of the current Working Group is to model the recurrence behavior of large, rapidly slipping faults like the San Andreas from observed data on the size, distribution and timing of past earthquakes with as few assumptions about underlying recurrence behavior as possible. In addition, we wish to carry the uncertainties in the data and the range of reasonable extrapolations from the data to the final model. To accomplish this for the Southern San Andreas fault we have developed an objective method to combine all of the observations of size, timing, and distribution of past earthquakes into a comprehensive set of earthquake scenarios that each represent a possible history of earthquakes for the past ~1400 years. The scenarios are then ranked according to their overall consistency with the data and then the frequencies of all of the ruptures permitted by the current Working Group?s segmentation model are calculated. We also present 30-yr conditional probabilities by segment and compare to previous

  16. Mobile health use in low- and high-income countries: an overview of the peer-reviewed literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastawrous, Andrew; Armstrong, Matthew J

    2013-04-01

    The evolution of mobile phone technology has introduced new possibilities to the field of medicine. Combining technological advances with medical expertise has led to the use of mobile phones in all healthcare areas including diagnostics, telemedicine, research, reference libraries and interventions. This article provides an overview of the peer-reviewed literature, published between 1 August 2006 and 1 August 2011, for the application of mobile/cell phones (from basic text-messaging systems to smartphones) in healthcare in both resource-poor and high-income countries. Smartphone use is paving the way in high-income countries, while basic text-messaging systems of standard mobile phones are proving to be of value in low- and middle-income countries. Ranging from infection outbreak reporting, anti-HIV therapy adherence to gait analysis, resuscitation training and radiological imaging, the current uses and future possibilities of mobile phone technology in healthcare are endless. Multiple mobile phone based applications are available for healthcare workers and healthcare consumers; however, the absolute majority lack an evidence base. Therefore, more rigorous research is required to ensure that healthcare is not flooded with non-evidence based applications and is maximized for patient benefit.

  17. An overview of comparative modelling and resources dedicated to large-scale modelling of genome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Su Datt; Das, Sayoni; Sillitoe, Ian; Orengo, Christine

    2017-08-01

    Computational modelling of proteins has been a major catalyst in structural biology. Bioinformatics groups have exploited the repositories of known structures to predict high-quality structural models with high efficiency at low cost. This article provides an overview of comparative modelling, reviews recent developments and describes resources dedicated to large-scale comparative modelling of genome sequences. The value of subclustering protein domain superfamilies to guide the template-selection process is investigated. Some recent cases in which structural modelling has aided experimental work to determine very large macromolecular complexes are also cited.

  18. Positive Mathematical Programming Approaches – Recent Developments in Literature and Applied Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Heckelei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews and discusses the more recent literature and application of Positive Mathematical Programming in the context of agricultural supply models. Specifically, advances in the empirical foundation of parameter specifications as well as the economic rationalisation of PMP models – both criticized in earlier reviews – are investigated. Moreover, the paper provides an overview on a larger set of models with regular/repeated policy application that apply variants of PMP. Results show that most applications today avoid arbitrary parameter specifications and rely on exogenous information on supply responses to calibrate model parameters. However, only few approaches use multiple observations to estimate parameters, which is likely due to the still considerable technical challenges associated with it. Equally, we found only limited reflection on the behavioral or technological assumptions that could rationalise the PMP model structure while still keeping the model’s advantages.

  19. Review of Literature for Model Assisted Probability of Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Ryan M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crawford, Susan L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lareau, John P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Michael T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    This is a draft technical letter report for NRC client documenting a literature review of model assisted probability of detection (MAPOD) for potential application to nuclear power plant components for improvement of field NDE performance estimations.

  20. Modes of Modelling Assessment--A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frejd, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a critical review of literature investigating assessment of mathematical modelling. Written tests, projects, hands-on tests, portfolio and contests are modes of modelling assessment identified in this study. The written tests found in the reviewed papers draw on an atomistic view on modelling competencies, whereas projects are…

  1. Modes of Modelling Assessment--A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frejd, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a critical review of literature investigating assessment of mathematical modelling. Written tests, projects, hands-on tests, portfolio and contests are modes of modelling assessment identified in this study. The written tests found in the reviewed papers draw on an atomistic view on modelling competencies, whereas projects are…

  2. Integrated Medical Model Project - Overview and Summary of Historical Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J.; Boley, L.; Butler, D.; Foy, M.; Goodenow, D.; Griffin, D.; Keenan, A.; Kerstman, E.; Melton, S.; McGuire, K.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) Project represents one aspect of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) to quantitatively assess medical risks to astronauts for existing operational missions as well as missions associated with future exploration and commercial space flight ventures. The IMM takes a probabilistic approach to assessing the likelihood and specific outcomes of one hundred medical conditions within the envelope of accepted space flight standards of care over a selectable range of mission capabilities. A specially developed Integrated Medical Evidence Database (iMED) maintains evidence-based, organizational knowledge across a variety of data sources. Since becoming operational in 2011, version 3.0 of the IMM, the supporting iMED, and the expertise of the IMM project team have contributed to a wide range of decision and informational processes for the space medical and human research community. This presentation provides an overview of the IMM conceptual architecture and range of application through examples of actual space flight community questions posed to the IMM project. Methods: Figure 1 [see document] illustrates the IMM modeling system and scenario process. As illustrated, the IMM computational architecture is based on Probabilistic Risk Assessment techniques. Nineteen assumptions and limitations define the IMM application domain. Scenario definitions include crew medical attributes and mission specific details. The IMM forecasts probabilities of loss of crew life (LOCL), evacuation (EVAC), quality time lost during the mission, number of medical resources utilized and the number and type of medical events by combining scenario information with in-flight, analog, and terrestrial medical information stored in the iMED. In addition, the metrics provide the integrated information necessary to estimate optimized in-flight medical kit contents under constraints of mass and volume or acceptable level of mission risk. Results and Conclusions

  3. Simulation Modelling in Healthcare: An Umbrella Review of Systematic Literature Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Syed; Thokala, Praveen; Brennan, Alan; Hughes, Ruby; Booth, Andrew

    2017-05-30

    Numerous studies examine simulation modelling in healthcare. These studies present a bewildering array of simulation techniques and applications, making it challenging to characterise the literature. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the level of activity of simulation modelling in healthcare and the key themes. We performed an umbrella review of systematic literature reviews of simulation modelling in healthcare. Searches were conducted of academic databases (JSTOR, Scopus, PubMed, IEEE, SAGE, ACM, Wiley Online Library, ScienceDirect) and grey literature sources, enhanced by citation searches. The articles were included if they performed a systematic review of simulation modelling techniques in healthcare. After quality assessment of all included articles, data were extracted on numbers of studies included in each review, types of applications, techniques used for simulation modelling, data sources and simulation software. The search strategy yielded a total of 117 potential articles. Following sifting, 37 heterogeneous reviews were included. Most reviews achieved moderate quality rating on a modified AMSTAR (A Measurement Tool used to Assess systematic Reviews) checklist. All the review articles described the types of applications used for simulation modelling; 15 reviews described techniques used for simulation modelling; three reviews described data sources used for simulation modelling; and six reviews described software used for simulation modelling. The remaining reviews either did not report or did not provide enough detail for the data to be extracted. Simulation modelling techniques have been used for a wide range of applications in healthcare, with a variety of software tools and data sources. The number of reviews published in recent years suggest an increased interest in simulation modelling in healthcare.

  4. [Improvement of genetics teaching using literature-based learning model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang; Shiqian, Liang; Hongyan, Qin; Yong, Ji; Hua, Han

    2015-06-01

    Genetics is one of the most important courses for undergraduate students majoring in life science. In recent years, new knowledge and technologies are continually updated with deeper understanding of life science. However, the teaching model of genetics is still based on theoretical instruction, which makes the abstract principles hard to understand by students and directly affects the teaching effect. Thus, exploring a new teaching model is necessary. We have carried out a new teaching model, literature-based learning, in the course on Microbial Genetics for undergraduate students majoring in biotechnology since 2010. Here we comprehensively analyzed the implementation and application value of this model including pre-course knowledge, how to choose professional literature, how to organize teaching process and the significance of developing this new teaching model for students and teachers. Our literature-based learning model reflects the combination of "cutting-edge" and "classic" and makes book knowledge easy to understand, which improves students' learning effect, stimulates their interests, expands their perspectives and develops their ability. This practice provides novel insight into exploring new teaching model of genetics and cultivating medical talents capable of doing both basic and clinical research in the "precision medicine" era.

  5. Partners in Parenting: An Overview of the Literature on Parents’ and Nonparental Adults’ Perspectives on Shared Responsibilities in Childrearing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kesselring, Marije; De Winter, Micha; Van Yperen, Tom; Lecluijze, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of nonparental adults (NPAs) in the upbringing of children is widely considered to be important for the well-being of both children and parents. However, there has been no systematic overview of parental and nonparental perspectives toward this involvement. This study presents an

  6. Partners in Parenting: An Overview of the Literature on Parents' and Nonparental Adults' Perspectives on Shared Responsibilities in Childrearing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kesselring, M.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328192864; de Winter, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072153849; van Yperen, Tom; Lecluijze, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of nonparental adults (NPAs) in the upbringing of children is widely considered to be important for the well-being of both children and parents. However, there has been no systematic overview of parental and nonparental perspectives toward this involvement. This study presents an

  7. A Chinese literature overview on ultra-weak photon emission as promising technology for studying system-based diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Min; Sun, Mengmeng; van Wijk, Eduard; van Wietmarschen, Herman; van Wijk, Roeland; Wang, Zhihong; Wang, Mei; Hankemeier, Thomas; van der Greef, Jan

    2016-04-01

    To present the possibilities pertaining to linking ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) with Chinese medicine-based diagnostics principles, we conducted a review of Chinese literature regarding UPE with respect to a systems view of diagnostics. Data were summarized from human clinical studies and animal models published from 1979 through 1998. The research fields can be categorized as follows: (1) human physiological states measured using UPE; (2) characteristics of human UPE in relation to various pathological states; and (3) the relationship between diagnosis (e.g., Chinese syndromes) and the dynamics of UPE in animal models. We conclude that UPE has clear potential in terms of understanding the systems view on health and disease as described using Chinese medicine-based diagnostics, particularly from a biochemistry-based regulatory perspective. Linking UPE with metabolomics can further bridge biochemistry-based Western diagnostics with the phenomenology-based Chinese diagnostics, thus opening new avenues for studying systems diagnostics in the early stage of disease, for prevention-based strategies, as well as for systems-based intervention in chronic disease.

  8. First-order fire effects models for land Management: Overview and issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth D. Reinhardt; Matthew B. Dickinson

    2010-01-01

    We give an overview of the science application process at work in supporting fire management. First-order fire effects models, such as those discussed in accompanying papers, are the building blocks of software systems designed for application to landscapes over time scales from days to centuries. Fire effects may be modeled using empirical, rule based, or process...

  9. Maturity Models in Supply Chain Sustainability: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Correia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic literature review of supply chain maturity models with sustainability concerns is presented. The objective is to give insights into methodological issues related to maturity models, namely the research objectives; the research methods used to develop, validate and test them; the scope; and the main characteristics associated with their design. The literature review was performed based on journal articles and conference papers from 2000 to 2015 using the SCOPUS, Emerald Insight, EBSCO and Web of Science databases. Most of the analysed papers have as main objective the development of maturity models and their validation. The case study is the methodology that is most widely used by researchers to develop and validate maturity models. From the sustainability perspective, the scope of the analysed maturity models is the Triple Bottom Line (TBL and environmental dimension, focusing on a specific process (eco-design and new product development and without a broad SC perspective. The dominant characteristics associated with the design of the maturity models are the maturity grids and a continuous representation. In addition, results do not allow identifying a trend for a specific number of maturity levels. The comprehensive review, analysis, and synthesis of the maturity model literature represent an important contribution to the organization of this research area, making possible to clarify some confusion that exists about concepts, approaches and components of maturity models in sustainability. Various aspects associated with the maturity models (i.e., research objectives, research methods, scope and characteristics of the design of models are explored to contribute to the evolution and significance of this multidimensional area.

  10. Reactivity and recovery from different types of work measured by catecholamines and cortisol : a systematic literature overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluiter, JK; Frings-Dresen, MHW; Meijman, TF; van der Beek, AJ

    2000-01-01

    Objectives-To review occupational health, laboratory, and sports Literature on neuroendocrine reactivity and recovery from mental, combined mental and physical, or physical tasks. Methods-A systematic literature search was performed in eight databases. Studies with catecholamines or cortisol as effe

  11. Outplacement and Re-Employment Measures during Organizational Restructuring in Belgium: Overview of the Literature and Results of Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witte, Hans; Vandoorne, Jan; Verlinden, Roel; De Cuyper, Nele

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to review the research literature and legislation on outplacement and re-employment interventions in Belgium and present results of qualitative research and case studies of companies, regarding interventions during organizational restructuring. Design/methodology/approach: Comprises a literature review, qualitative (semi-structured…

  12. Outplacement and Re-Employment Measures during Organizational Restructuring in Belgium: Overview of the Literature and Results of Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witte, Hans; Vandoorne, Jan; Verlinden, Roel; De Cuyper, Nele

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to review the research literature and legislation on outplacement and re-employment interventions in Belgium and present results of qualitative research and case studies of companies, regarding interventions during organizational restructuring. Design/methodology/approach: Comprises a literature review, qualitative (semi-structured…

  13. An Overview of Intellectual Property and Intangible Asset Valuation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Jeffrey H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the economic models most commonly applied to estimate the value of intellectual property and other forms of intangible assets. It highlights the key strengths and weaknesses of these models. One of the apparent weaknesses of the most commonly used valuation models is the failure to incorporate legal rights into their…

  14. 中国灵长类文献纵览%An Overview of Literature on Primates in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健立

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with an overview of primatological literature in China. The total number of publications was 2 052 from 1870-2001. Two peaks in the number of publications occurred during 1950-1965 and 1978-2001, respectively. In 2 052 publications, most of them were published by the science-research sector, accounting for 54.2% of total publications. The percentage of publications from the science-research sector has been increasing over time, however, the contribution from the foreign sector has produced a contrary trend. Over 9% of total publications were indexed by SCI. The highest percentage of publications indexed by SCI took place during 1966-1977. In all publications indexed by SCI, those from the science-research sector dominated other sectors (59.1% of total publications). However, the foreign sector led with 30.1% of its own publications being in SCI. Studies of primatology were divided into nine areas. The percentage and change in percentage of publications in areas of primatology were counted. During 1978-2001 ecology and behaviour, neurobiology, reproduction and captive feeding were rapidly developing;fossil primates, morphology and anatomy decreasing;and taxonomy and distribution, cellular and molecular evolution became relatively poor. Increasing attention was paid to conservation biology. Prevention and control of diseases was fairly well studied in periods Ⅱ (1950-1965) and Ⅳ (1978-2001). The number of authors was highest during period Ⅳ, however, the mean number of publications per author in period Ⅳ was not as high as in period Ⅰ (1870-1949). Generally speaking, Chinese authors dominated the authors included in SCI. However in period Ⅰ, the sole author indexed by SCI was a foreign scholar, and foreign scholars comprised 60% of indexed authors in period Ⅲ (1966-1977).%把1870-2001年来自美国"现代灵长类文献题录数据库"、"维普中文数据库"及"中国灵长类研究文献题录"的资料按4个时期(I:1870-1949;

  15. Balance of payments constrained growth models: history and overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony P. Thirlwall

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirlwall’s 1979 balance of payments constrained growth model predicts that a country’s long run growth of GDP can be approximated by the ratio of the growth of real exports to the income elasticity of demand for imports assuming negligible effects from real exchange rate movements. The paper surveys developments of the model since then, allowing for capital flows, interest payments on debt, terms of trade movements, and disaggregation of the model by commodities and trading partners. Various tests of the model are discussed, and an extensive list of papers that have examined the model is presented.

  16. Very Short Literature Survey From Supervised Learning To Surrogate Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Brusan, Altay

    2012-01-01

    The past century was era of linear systems. Either systems (especially industrial ones) were simple (quasi)linear or linear approximations were accurate enough. In addition, just at the ending decades of the century profusion of computing devices were available, before then due to lack of computational resources it was not easy to evaluate available nonlinear system studies. At the moment both these two conditions changed, systems are highly complex and also pervasive amount of computation strength is cheap and easy to achieve. For recent era, a new branch of supervised learning well known as surrogate modeling (meta-modeling, surface modeling) has been devised which aimed at answering new needs of modeling realm. This short literature survey is on to introduce surrogate modeling to whom is familiar with the concepts of supervised learning. Necessity, challenges and visions of the topic are considered.

  17. Overview of KRAS-Driven Genetically Engineered Mouse Models of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Clare; Downward, Julian

    2015-01-01

    KRAS, the most frequently mutated oncogene in non-small cell lung cancer, has been utilized extensively to model human lung adenocarcinomas. The results from such studies have enhanced considerably an understanding of the relationship between KRAS and the development of lung cancer. Detailed in this overview are the features of various KRAS-driven genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of non-small cell lung cancer, their utilization, and the potential of these models for the study of lung cancer biology.

  18. Micromechanical modelling of nanocrystalline and ultrafine grained metals: A short overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Levashov, Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    An overview of micromechanical models of strength and deformation behaviour of nanostructured and ultrafine grained metallic materials is presented. Composite models of nanomaterials, polycrystal plasticity based models, grain boundary sliding, the effect of non-equilibrium grain boundaries...... and nanoscale properties are discussed and compared. The examples of incorporation of peculiar nanocrystalline effects (like large content of amorphous or semi-amorphous grain boundary phase, partial dislocation GB emission/glide/GB absorption based deformation mechanism, diffusion deformation, etc...

  19. Metropolitan and state economic regions (MASTER) model - overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.C.; Moe, R.J.; Scott, M.J.

    1983-05-01

    The Metropolitan and State Economic Regions (MASTER) model is a unique multi-regional economic model designed to forecast regional economic activity and assess the regional economic impacts caused by national and regional economic changes (e.g., interest rate fluctuations, energy price changes, construction and operation of a nuclear waste storage facility, shutdown of major industrial operations). MASTER can be applied to any or all of the 268 Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSAs) and 48 non-SMSA rest-of-state-areas (ROSAs) in the continental US. The model can also be applied to any or all of the continental US counties and states. This report is divided into four sections: capabilities and applications of the MASTER model, development of the model, model simulation, and validation testing.

  20. Occupancy Chargeback: An Overview of Different Models and a Glimpse of 'One' Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Garry; Mozjerin, Con

    2001-01-01

    Presents an overview of factors motivating the occupancy chargeback movement on today's campuses. Examines the two basic models with particular reference to RMIT University (Australia), and discusses what associated support mechanisms may be required. Concluding comments address activity-based costing. (GR)

  1. Overview of literature and information on "khat-related" mortality: a call for recognition of the issue and further research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Corkery

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past 20 years or so, more has become known about the properties of khat, its pharmacology, physiological and psychological effects on humans. However, at the same time its reputation of social and recreational use in traditional contexts has hindered the dissemination of knowledge about its detrimental effects in terms of mortality. This paper focuses on this particular deficit and adds to the knowledge-base by reviewing the scant literature that does exist on mortality associated with the trade and use of khat. We sought all peer-reviewed papers relating to deaths associated with khat. From an initial list of 111, we identified 15 items meeting our selection criteria. Examination of these revealed 61 further relevant items. These were supplemented with published reports, newspaper and other media reports. A conceptual framework was then developed for classifying mortality associated with each stage of the plant's journey from its cultivation, transportation, consumption, to its effects on the human body. The model is demonstrated with concrete examples drawn from the above sources. These highlight a number of issues for which more substantive statistical data are needed, including population-based studies of the physiological and psychological determinants of khat-related fatalities. Khat-consuming communities, and health professionals charged with their care should be more aware of the physiological and psychological effects of khat, together with the risks for morbidity and mortality associated with its use. There is also a need for information to be collected at international and national levels on other causes of death associated with khat cultivation, transportation, and trade. Both these dimensions need to be understood.

  2. Overview of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehl, G A; Covey, C; McAvaney, B; Latif, M; Stouffer, R J

    2004-08-05

    The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) is designed to allow study and intercomparison of multi-model simulations of present-day and future climate. The latter are represented by idealized forcing of compounded 1% per year CO2 increase to the time of CO2 doubling near year 70 in simulations with global coupled models that contain, typically, components representing atmosphere, ocean, sea ice and land surface. Results from CMIP diagnostic subprojects were presented at the Second CMIP Workshop held at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany, in September, 2003. Significant progress in diagnosing and understanding results from global coupled models has been made since the First CMIP Workshop in Melbourne, Australia in 1998. For example, the issue of flux adjustment is slowly fading as more and more models obtain stable multi-century surface climates without them. El Nino variability, usually about half the observed amplitude in the previous generation of coupled models, is now more accurately simulated in the present generation of global coupled models, though there are still biases in simulating the patterns of maximum variability. Typical resolutions of atmospheric component models contained in coupled models is now usually around 2.5 degrees latitude-longitude, with the ocean components often having about twice the atmospheric model resolution, with even higher resolution in the equatorial tropics. Some new-generation coupled models have atmospheric model resolutions of around 1.5 degrees latitude-longitude. Modeling groups now routinely run the CMIP control and 1% CO2 simulations in addition to 20th and 21st century climate simulations with a variety of forcings (e.g. volcanoes, solar variability, anthropogenic sulfate aerosols, ozone, and greenhouse gases (GHGs), with the anthropogenic forcings for future climate as well). However, persistent systematic errors noted in previous generations of global coupled models still are present

  3. Overview of ASC Capability Computing System Governance Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebling, Scott W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-11

    This document contains a description of the Advanced Simulation and Computing Program's Capability Computing System Governance Model. Objectives of the Governance Model are to ensure that the capability system resources are allocated on a priority-driven basis according to the Program requirements; and to utilize ASC Capability Systems for the large capability jobs for which they were designed and procured.

  4. ETP Modelling. Intuitive User interaction. Overview 2011-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Maanen, P.P. van; Venrooij, W.; Calvert, S.C.; Beurden, M.H.P.H. van

    2014-01-01

    Intuitive User Interaction aims to develop the next generation user interfaces required to grant experts and laymen access to complex models and large amount of data in design and decision processes and therewith to contribute to the ambition to broaden the applicability of models. Important topics

  5. An Overview of WFIRST-AFTA Coronagraph Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krist, John; Nemati, Bijan; Zhou, Hanying; Sidick, Erkin

    2015-01-01

    The WFIRST/AFTA 2.4 m space telescope currently under study includes a stellar coronagraph for the imaging and spectral characterization of extrasolar planets. Based largely on performance predictions from end-to-end optical propagation modeling, promising coronagraphic methods were selected in late 2013 for further consideration for use on AFTA. Since those downselect analyses further modeling work has been done on evaluating refined coronagraph designs, wavefront sensing and control, detector representation, and time-dependent effects. Thermal, structural, ray trace, and diffraction propagation models are used in these studies. Presented here is the progress to date and plans for future analyses.

  6. Sustainable innovation, business models and economic performance: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montalvo Corral, C.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable development requires radical and systemic innovations. Such innovations can be more effectively created and studied when building on the concept of business models. This concept provides firms with a holistic framework to envision and implement sustainable innovations. For researchers,

  7. Gene therapy: a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Guillén, Zinnia P; González-Aseguinolaza, Gloria; Berraondo, Pedro; Trocóniz, Iñaki F

    2010-08-01

    Since gene therapy started over 20 years ago, more than one-thousand clinical trials have been carried out. Nonviral vectors present interesting properties for their clinical application, but their efficiency in vivo is relatively low, and further improvements in these vectors are needed. Elucidating how nonviral vectors behave at the intracellular level is enlightening for vector improvement and optimization. Model-based approach is a powerful tool to understand and describe the different processes that gene transfer systems should overcome inside the body. Model-based approach allows for proposing and predicting the effect of parameter changes on the overall gene therapy response, as well as the known application of the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling in conventional therapies. The objective of this paper is to critically review the works in which the time-course of naked or formulated DNA have been quantitatively studied or modelled.

  8. Overview on high-resolution ocean modeling in JAMSTEC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michio Kawamiya

    2014-01-01

    In view of the importance of ocean component for representing climate change,efforts are underway to implement a high-resolution nesting model system in Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MI-ROC) for the North Pacific using the same ocean model as used in the coupled model MIROC5. By comparing double (10 km for the northwestern Pacific,50 km for the rest of the Pacific) and triple (double nesting plus 2 km resolution near Japan) nesting,it turns out that relative vorticity is drastically enhanced near Japan with 2 km resolution. It is hoped that such an elaborated nesting system will reveal detailed processes for the ocean heat uptake by,e.g.,intermediate water and mode water formation for which the“perturbed region”near Japan is the key region.

  9. AN OVERVIEW OF REDUCED ORDER MODELING TECHNIQUES FOR SAFETY APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandelli, D.; Alfonsi, A.; Talbot, P.; Wang, C.; Maljovec, D.; Smith, C.; Rabiti, C.; Cogliati, J.

    2016-10-01

    The RISMC project is developing new advanced simulation-based tools to perform Computational Risk Analysis (CRA) for the existing fleet of U.S. nuclear power plants (NPPs). These tools numerically model not only the thermal-hydraulic behavior of the reactors primary and secondary systems, but also external event temporal evolution and component/system ageing. Thus, this is not only a multi-physics problem being addressed, but also a multi-scale problem (both spatial, µm-mm-m, and temporal, seconds-hours-years). As part of the RISMC CRA approach, a large amount of computationally-expensive simulation runs may be required. An important aspect is that even though computational power is growing, the overall computational cost of a RISMC analysis using brute-force methods may be not viable for certain cases. A solution that is being evaluated to assist the computational issue is the use of reduced order modeling techniques. During the FY2015, we investigated and applied reduced order modeling techniques to decrease the RISMC analysis computational cost by decreasing the number of simulation runs; for this analysis improvement we used surrogate models instead of the actual simulation codes. This article focuses on the use of reduced order modeling techniques that can be applied to RISMC analyses in order to generate, analyze, and visualize data. In particular, we focus on surrogate models that approximate the simulation results but in a much faster time (microseconds instead of hours/days).

  10. Experimental models of sepsis and septic shock: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido Alejandra G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in surgical patients and trauma victims, mainly due to sepsis-induced multiple organ dysfunction. In contrast to preclinical studies, most clinical trials of promising new treatment strategies for sepsis have fails to demonstrate efficacy. Although many reasons could account for this discrepancy, the misinterpretation of preclinical data obtained from experimental studies, and especially the use of animal models that do not adequately mimic human sepsis may have been contributing factors. In this review, the benefits and limitations of various animal models of sepsis are discussed to clarify the extend to which findings are relevant to human sepsis, particularly with respect to the subsequent design and execution of clinical trials. Such models include intravascular infusion of endotoxin or live bacteria, bacterial peritonitis, cecal ligation and perforation, soft tissue infection, pneumonia or meningitis models, using different animal species including rats, mice, rabbits, dogs, pigs, sheep and nonhuman primates. Despite several limitations, animal models remain essential in the development of all new therapies for sepsis and septic shock, because they provide fundamental information about the pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and mechanism of drug action that cannot be duplicated by other methods. New therapeutic agents should be studies in infection models, even after the initiation of the septic process. Furthermore, debility conditions need to be reproduced to avoid the exclusive use of healthy animals, which often do not represent the human septic patient.

  11. Muscle-tendon unit scaling methods of Hill-type musculoskeletal models: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Frederik; Lund, Morten E; Rasmussen, John; de Zee, Mark

    2016-10-01

    This article gives an overview of the state of the art in scaling methods of generic Hill-type muscle model parameters in view of different applications and implementation of experimental data. This article establishes the requirements used to alter a generic model toward subject-specific musculoskeletal models. This article aims to improve model transparency by a structured description of scaling methods and the associated limitations in musculoskeletal models and highlight the importance of selecting a scaling method supporting the purpose of the model.

  12. A multidisciplinary systematic literature review on frailty: Overview of the methodology used by the Canadian Initiative on Frailty and Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergman Howard

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past two decades, there has been a substantial growth in the body of literature on frailty in older persons. However, there is no consensus on its definition or the criteria used to identify frailty. In response to this lack of consensus, the Canadian Initiative on Frailty and Aging carried out a set of systematic reviews of the literature in ten areas of frailty research: biological basis; social basis; prevalence; risk factors; impact; identification; prevention and management; environment and technology; health services; health and social policy. This paper describes the methodology that was developed for the systematic reviews. Methods A Central Coordination Group (CCG was responsible for developing the methodology. This involved the development of search strategies and keywords, article selection processes, quality assessment tools, and guidelines for the synthesis of results. Each review was conducted by two experts in the content area, with the assistance of methodologists and statisticians from the CCG. Results Conducting a series of systematic literature reviews involving a range of disciplines on a concept that does not have a universally accepted definition posed several conceptual and methodological challenges. The most important conceptual challenge was determining what would qualify as literature on frailty. The methodological challenges arose from our goal of structuring a consistent methodology for reviewing literature from diverse fields of research. At the outset, certain methodological guidelines were deemed essential to ensure the validity of all the reviews. Nevertheless, it was equally important to permit flexibility in the application of the proposed methodology to capture the essence of frailty research within the given fields. Conclusion The results of these reviews allowed us to establish the status of current knowledge on frailty and promote collaboration between disciplines. Conducting

  13. An Overview of Soil Models for Earthquake Response Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halida Yunita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes can damage thousands of buildings and infrastructure as well as cause the loss of thousands of lives. During an earthquake, the damage to buildings is mostly caused by the effect of local soil conditions. Depending on the soil type, the earthquake waves propagating from the epicenter to the ground surface will result in various behaviors of the soil. Several studies have been conducted to accurately obtain the soil response during an earthquake. The soil model used must be able to characterize the stress-strain behavior of the soil during the earthquake. This paper compares equivalent linear and nonlinear soil model responses. Analysis was performed on two soil types, Site Class D and Site Class E. An equivalent linear soil model leads to a constant value of shear modulus, while in a nonlinear soil model, the shear modulus changes constantly,depending on the stress level, and shows inelastic behavior. The results from a comparison of both soil models are displayed in the form of maximum acceleration profiles and stress-strain curves.

  14. Overview of chemical modeling of nuclear waste glass dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourcier, W.L.

    1991-02-01

    Glass dissolution takes place through metal leaching and hydration of the glass surface accompanied by development of alternation layers of varying crystallinity. The reaction which controls the long-term glass dissolution rate appears to be surface layer dissolution. This reaction is reversible because the buildup of dissolved species in solution slows the dissolution rate due to a decreased dissolution affinity. Glass dissolution rates are therefore highly dependent on silica concentrations in solution because silica is the major component of the alteration layer. Chemical modeling of glass dissolution using reaction path computer codes has successfully been applied to short term experimental tests and used to predict long-term repository performance. Current problems and limitations of the models include a poorly defined long-term glass dissolution mechanism, the use of model parameters determined from the same experiments that the model is used to predict, and the lack of sufficient validation of key assumptions in the modeling approach. Work is in progress that addresses these issues. 41 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. An overview of mineral dust modeling over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siyu; Huang, Jianping; Qian, Yun; Zhao, Chun; Kang, Litai; Yang, Ben; Wang, Yong; Liu, Yuzhi; Yuan, Tiangang; Wang, Tianhe; Ma, Xiaojun; Zhang, Guolong

    2017-08-01

    East Asian dust (EAD) exerts considerable impacts on the energy balance and climate/climate change of the earth system through its influence on solar and terrestrial radiation, cloud properties, and precipitation efficiency. Providing an accurate description of the life cycle and climate effects of EAD is therefore critical to better understanding of climate change and socioeconomic development in East Asia and even worldwide. Dust modeling has undergone substantial development since the late 1990s, associated with improved understanding of the role of EAD in the earth system. Here, we review the achievements and progress made in recent decades in terms of dust modeling research, including dust emissions, long-range transport, radiative forcing (RF), and climate effects of dust particles over East Asia. Numerous efforts in dust/EAD modeling have been directed towards furnishing more sophisticated physical and chemical processes into the models on higher spatial resolutions. Meanwhile, more systematic observations and more advanced retrieval methods for instruments that address EAD related science issues have made it possible to evaluate model results and quantify the role of EAD in the earth system, and to further reduce the uncertainties in EAD simulations. Though much progress has been made, large discrepancies and knowledge gaps still exist among EAD simulations. The deficiencies and limitations that pertain to the performance of the EAD simulations referred to in the present study are also discussed.

  16. Accessibility and ICT: A review of literature, a conceptual model and a research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wee, B.; Chorus, C.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past two decades many papers are published in the area of ICTs impact on travel behaviour. Literature focusing on the impacts of ICT on accessibility is relatively scarce. In this paper we give an overview of impacts of ICT on four components of accessibility as distinguished by Geurs and V

  17. Accessibility and ICT: A review of literature, a conceptual model and a research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wee, B.; Chorus, C.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past two decades many papers are published in the area of ICTs impact on travel behaviour. Literature focusing on the impacts of ICT on accessibility is relatively scarce. In this paper we give an overview of impacts of ICT on four components of accessibility as distinguished by Geurs and V

  18. Sustainable innovation, business models and economic performance: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montalvo Corral, C.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable development requires radical and systemic innovations. Such innovations can be more effectively created and studied when building on the concept of business models. This concept provides firms with a holistic framework to envision and implement sustainable innovations. For researchers, t

  19. An Overview of Mesoscale Modeling Software for Energetic Materials Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    RESearch on Soft Matter ....................11 2.6.1 Underlying Algorithms...Mesocale modeling software summary. Software Algorithms Applications/Properties MesoDyn Dynamic Density Field Soft matter , polymers, melts, blends...equations. Table 2. MesoDyn summary. Company/Institution Accelrys Applications 1. Soft matter , complex fluids, polymer melts and blends, surfactants

  20. Multilevel Modeling: Overview and Applications to Research in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Jeffrey H.

    2011-01-01

    Multilevel modeling (MLM) is rapidly becoming the standard method of analyzing nested data, for example, data from students within multiple schools, data on multiple clients seen by a smaller number of therapists, and even longitudinal data. Although MLM analyses are likely to increase in frequency in counseling psychology research, many readers…

  1. Multilevel Modeling: Overview and Applications to Research in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Jeffrey H.

    2011-01-01

    Multilevel modeling (MLM) is rapidly becoming the standard method of analyzing nested data, for example, data from students within multiple schools, data on multiple clients seen by a smaller number of therapists, and even longitudinal data. Although MLM analyses are likely to increase in frequency in counseling psychology research, many readers…

  2. Overview of Computer Simulation Modeling Approaches and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Manning; Robert M. Itami; David N. Cole; Randy Gimblett

    2005-01-01

    The field of simulation modeling has grown greatly with recent advances in computer hardware and software. Much of this work has involved large scientific and industrial applications for which substantial financial resources are available. However, advances in object-oriented programming and simulation methodology, concurrent with dramatic increases in computer...

  3. Extensions to the energy system GMM model: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S

    2006-09-15

    This report describes recent extensions to the energy-systems GMM (Global Multiregional MARKAL) model undertaken by the Energy Economics Group (EEG) of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland (hereon referred to as PSI-EEG) in the context of the SAPIENTIA project sponsored by the European Commission (DG Research) and the Swiss National Centre for Competence in Research on Climate (NCCR-Climate). GMM is a multi-regional 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that endogenizes technology learning. The model has been developed and is used at PSI-EEG. The main extensions undertaken here concern the incorporation of a clusters approach to technology learning, the introduction of an improved representation of the transportation sector with emphasis on the passenger sub-sector and the implementation of marginal abatement curves for CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, two main non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases. Also, a linear representation of the atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O has been included. Other changes are related to the inclusion of additional technologies for production of synthetic fuels (hydrogen and Fischer- Tropsch liquids) and the inclusion of CO{sub 2} capture in fossil-based and biomass-based hydrogen production. Several of the developments described here follow the work of Turton and Barreto (2004, 2006) for the ERIS model at the Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies (ECS) Program of IIASA. The remainder of this report is organized as follows. Section 2 describes the basic structure of the GMM model, the main assumptions for the scenario developed and the basic approach to endogenize technology learning in the model and examine the effects of R+D and D+D programs. Section 3 discusses the implementation of technology clusters and describes the key components chosen here. Section 4 presents the improvements to the transportation sector with emphasis on the passenger car subsector. Section 5 briefly

  4. Software tools overview : process integration, modelling and optimisation for energy saving and pollution reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Hon Loong; Klemeš, Jiri; Kravanja, Zdravko; Varbanov, Petar

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of software tools based on long experience andapplications in the area of process integration, modelling and optimisation. The first part reviews the current design practice and the development of supporting software tools. Those are categorised as: (1) process integration and retrofit analysis tools, (2) general mathematical modelling suites with optimisation libraries, (3) flowsheeting simulation and (4) graph-based process optimisation tools. The second part...

  5. Computational Modeling and Simulation of Attitude Change. Part 1, Connectionist Models and Simulations of Cognitive Dissonance: an Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Voinea, Camelia Florela

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive Dissonance Theory is considered part of the cognitive consistency theories in Social Psychology. They uncover a class of conceptual models which describe the attitude change as a cognitive consistency-seeking issue. As these conceptual models requested more complex operational expression, algebraic, mathematical and, lately, computational modeling approaches of cognitive consistency have been developed. Part 1 of this work provides an overview of the connectionist modeling of cognit...

  6. Computational Modeling and Simulation of Attitude Change. Part 1, Connectionist Models and Simulations of Cognitive Dissonance: an Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Voinea, Camelia Florela

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive Dissonance Theory is considered part of the cognitive consistency theories in Social Psychology. They uncover a class of conceptual models which describe the attitude change as a cognitive consistency-seeking issue. As these conceptual models requested more complex operational expression, algebraic, mathematical and, lately, computational modeling approaches of cognitive consistency have been developed. Part 1 of this work provides an overview of the connectionist modeling of cognit...

  7. A Chinese literature overview on ultra-weak photon emission as promising technology for studying system-based diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, M.; Sun, M.; Wijk, E. van; Wietmarschen, H. van; Wijk, R. van; Wang, Z.; Wang, M.; Hankemeier, T.; Greef, J. van der

    2016-01-01

    To present the possibilities pertaining to linking ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) with Chinese medicine-based diagnostics principles, we conducted a review of Chinese literature regarding UPE with respect to a systems view of diagnostics. Data were summarized from human clinical studies and animal

  8. The state-of-the-art in short-term prediction of wind power. A literature overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebel, G.; Brownsword, R.; Kariniotakis, G.

    2003-08-01

    Based on an appropriate questionnaire (WP1.1) and some other works already in progress, this report details the state-of-the-art in short term prediction of wind power, mostly summarising nearly all existing literature on the topic. (au)

  9. Workforce Skills and Innovation: An Overview of Major Themes in the Literature. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 55

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an account of the main approaches, debates and evidence in the literature on the role of workforce skills in the innovation process in developed economies. It draws on multiple sources including the innovation studies discipline, neoclassical Human Capital theory, institutionalist labour market studies and the work organisation…

  10. A Bibliometric Analysis and Review on Performance Modeling Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Livieri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In management practice, performance indicators are considered as a prerequisite to make informed decisions in line with the organization’s goals. On the other hand, indicators summarizes compound phenomena in a few digits, which can induce to inadequate decisions, biased by information loss and conflicting values. Model driven approaches in enterprise engineering can be very effective to avoid these pitfalls, or to take it under control. For that reason, “performance modeling” has the numbers to play a primary role in the “model driven enterprise” scenario, together with process, information and other enterprise-related aspects. In this perspective, we propose a systematic review of the literature on performance modeling in order to retrieve, classify, and summarize existing research, identify the core authors and define areas and opportunities for future research.

  11. An Overview of Mineral Dust Modeling over East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Siyu; Huang, Jianping; Qian, Yun; Zhao, Chun; Kang, Litai; Yang, Ben; Wang, Yong; Liu, Yuzhi; Yuan, Tiangang; Wang, Tianhe; Ma, Xiaojun; Zhang, Guolong

    2017-08-27

    Dust aerosol, one of the most abundant aerosol species in the atmosphere, has significant impacts on the energy balance and climatic feedback of the Earth system through its influence on solar and terrestrial radiation as well as clouds. East Asia is the one of prominent regions of dust generation. The East Asia dust life cycle and associated radiative and climatic effects are the outstanding science issues in understanding climate change at regional and even global scale. In the past decades, numerous dust models have been developed and applied to comprehend a series of dust-related processes studies, including emission, transport, and deposition, and to understand the effects of dust aerosol on the radiation and climate over East Asian. In this paper, we review the recent achievements and progresses in East Asian dust modeling research and discuss the potential challenges in future studies.

  12. Models for the propagation phase of reinforcement corrosion - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raupach, M. [Institute for Building Materials Research of Aachen University (ibac), Schinkelstr. 3, 52062 Aachen (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    The deterioration of a concrete structure by reinforcement corrosion proceeds in two phases: the initiation stage and the propagation stage. The first stage describes the time to onset of corrosion due to carbonation of the concrete or chloride ingress. The second stage is the actual deterioration stage. Most methods for life time assessments refer only to the first stage, what is on the safe side with respect to design of structures, but also a model for the second stage can be of interest, e.g. if the remaining life time of an existing structure has to be estimated. This paper presents and discusses the state-of-the-art of models for the propagation stage with regard to their different approaches. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Hierarchical Models for Batteries: Overview with Some Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannala, Sreekanth [ORNL; Mukherjee, Partha P [ORNL; Allu, Srikanth [ORNL; Nanda, Jagjit [ORNL; Martha, Surendra K [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Turner, John A [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Batteries are complex multiscale systems and a hierarchy of models has been employed to study different aspects of batteries at different resolutions. For the electrochemistry and charge transport, the models span from electric circuits, single-particle, pseudo 2D, detailed 3D, and microstructure resolved at the continuum scales and various techniques such as molecular dynamics and density functional theory to resolve the atomistic structure. Similar analogies exist for the thermal, mechanical, and electrical aspects of the batteries. We have been recently working on the development of a unified formulation for the continuum scales across the electrode-electrolyte-electrode system - using a rigorous volume averaging approach typical of multiphase formulation. This formulation accounts for any spatio-temporal variation of the different properties such as electrode/void volume fractions and anisotropic conductivities. In this talk the following will be presented: The background and the hierarchy of models that need to be integrated into a battery modeling framework to carry out predictive simulations, Our recent work on the unified 3D formulation addressing the missing links in the multiscale description of the batteries, Our work on microstructure resolved simulations for diffusion processes, Upscaling of quantities of interest to construct closures for the 3D continuum description, Sample results for a standard Carbon/Spinel cell will be presented and compared to experimental data, Finally, the infrastructure we are building to bring together components with different physics operating at different resolution will be presented. The presentation will also include details about how this generalized approach can be applied to other electrochemical storage systems such as supercapacitors, Li-Air batteries, and Lithium batteries with 3D architectures.

  14. An overview of recent applications of computational modelling in neonatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Luiz C; Ginalski, Maciej K; Nowak, Andrzej J; Ingham, Derek B; Fic, Anna M

    2010-06-13

    This paper reviews some of our recent applications of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to model heat and mass transfer problems in neonatology and investigates the major heat and mass-transfer mechanisms taking place in medical devices, such as incubators, radiant warmers and oxygen hoods. It is shown that CFD simulations are very flexible tools that can take into account all modes of heat transfer in assisting neonatal care and improving the design of medical devices.

  15. Contemporary model of language organization: an overview for neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Edward F; Raygor, Kunal P; Berger, Mitchel S

    2015-02-01

    Classic models of language organization posited that separate motor and sensory language foci existed in the inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area) and superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area), respectively, and that connections between these sites (arcuate fasciculus) allowed for auditory-motor interaction. These theories have predominated for more than a century, but advances in neuroimaging and stimulation mapping have provided a more detailed description of the functional neuroanatomy of language. New insights have shaped modern network-based models of speech processing composed of parallel and interconnected streams involving both cortical and subcortical areas. Recent models emphasize processing in "dorsal" and "ventral" pathways, mediating phonological and semantic processing, respectively. Phonological processing occurs along a dorsal pathway, from the posterosuperior temporal to the inferior frontal cortices. On the other hand, semantic information is carried in a ventral pathway that runs from the temporal pole to the basal occipitotemporal cortex, with anterior connections. Functional MRI has poor positive predictive value in determining critical language sites and should only be used as an adjunct for preoperative planning. Cortical and subcortical mapping should be used to define functional resection boundaries in eloquent areas and remains the clinical gold standard. In tracing the historical advancements in our understanding of speech processing, the authors hope to not only provide practicing neurosurgeons with additional information that will aid in surgical planning and prevent postoperative morbidity, but also underscore the fact that neurosurgeons are in a unique position to further advance our understanding of the anatomy and functional organization of language.

  16. Overview of cost-consequence modeling in outcomes research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergachis, A

    1995-01-01

    Outcomes research has developed in response to the need for information on costs, risks, and benefits of clinical treatments, including data regarding the effectiveness of prescription drugs. It attempts to consider more than the biologic effects of pharmaceuticals, that is, to encompass wider measures of the results of their use, issues that are not routinely addressed during clinical trials. Cost-effectiveness analysis compares the outcome of different treatment options in terms of monetary cost per unit of effectiveness. Examples of measures of effectiveness are years of life saved, number of days of hospitalization avoided, and number of treatment successes. Cost-consequence models, also referred to as cost-outcome models, deal with costs and a variety of outcomes ranging from clinical to humanistic. Direct medical costs are those for prevention, detection, treatment, and rehabilitation; they are amounts spent to treat an illness, including hospitalization, professional services, pharmaceuticals, and medical supplies. Indirect medical costs are associated with changes in productivity, such as earnings lost because of illness. Humanistic outcomes deal primarily with functional status, quality of life, and satisfaction, and may include pain, anxiety, self-esteem, ability to carry out normal activities, and overall impressions. Since it is not possible to study all effects of treatments with clinical trials, modeling techniques are useful in making therapeutic decisions.

  17. Overview of modelling activities for Plasma Control Upgrade in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albanese, R., E-mail: raffaele.albanese@unina.it [Consorzio CREATE, Euratom-ENEA Association, DIEL, Univ. Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Ambrosino, G.; Ariola, M.; Artaserse, G.; Bellizio, T. [Consorzio CREATE, Euratom-ENEA Association, DIEL, Univ. Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Coccorese, V. [Consorzio CREATE, Euratom-ENEA Association, DIEL, Univ. Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); EFDA Close Support Unit, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Crisanti, F. [ENEA Fus, EURATOM Assoc, 00040 Frascati (Italy); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); De Tommasi, G.; Fresa, R. [Consorzio CREATE, Euratom-ENEA Association, DIEL, Univ. Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Lomas, P.J. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Mattei, M.; Maviglia, F. [Consorzio CREATE, Euratom-ENEA Association, DIEL, Univ. Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Neto, A. [Associacao Euratom-IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Piccolo, F. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Pironti, A. [Consorzio CREATE, Euratom-ENEA Association, DIEL, Univ. Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    The JET enhancement project Plasma Control Upgrade (PCU) aimed at increasing the capabilities of the plasma vertical stabilization (VS) system. One of the activities of this project was devoted to the development of simple but sufficiently accurate models of the VS system so as to address the main design choices, use the simulation tools as reliable test-beds, and provide an adequate support to the engineering design and commissioning of the new Enhanced Radial Field Amplifier (ERFA). This paper illustrates some of the main achievements of the modelling activity, which gave rise to a closed loop model of the VS system, including plasma, PF coils and passive structures. In particular the paper deals with the selection of the set of turns to be used in the control coils and with the estimation of the eddy current effects on the VS system. The latter analysis addressed an upgrade of the converter units of ERFA, successfully implemented during its commissioning on plasma in August 2009.

  18. Care 3 model overview and user's guide, first revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavuso, S. J.; Petersen, P. L.

    1985-01-01

    A manual was written to introduce the CARE III (Computer-Aided Reliability Estimation) capability to reliability and design engineers who are interested in predicting the reliability of highly reliable fault-tolerant systems. It was also structured to serve as a quick-look reference manual for more experienced users. The guide covers CARE III modeling and reliability predictions for execution in the CDC CYber 170 series computers, DEC VAX-11/700 series computer, and most machines that compile ANSI Standard FORTRAN 77.

  19. Feature extraction and models for speech: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Manfred

    2002-11-01

    Modeling of speech has a long history, beginning with Count von Kempelens 1770 mechanical speaking machine. Even then human vowel production was seen as resulting from a source (the vocal chords) driving a physically separate resonator (the vocal tract). Homer Dudley's 1928 frequency-channel vocoder and many of its descendants are based on the same successful source-filter paradigm. For linguistic studies as well as practical applications in speech recognition, compression, and synthesis (see M. R. Schroeder, Computer Speech), the extant models require the (often difficult) extraction of numerous parameters such as the fundamental and formant frequencies and various linguistic distinctive features. Some of these difficulties were obviated by the introduction of linear predictive coding (LPC) in 1967 in which the filter part is an all-pole filter, reflecting the fact that for non-nasalized vowels the vocal tract is well approximated by an all-pole transfer function. In the now ubiquitous code-excited linear prediction (CELP), the source-part is replaced by a code book which (together with a perceptual error criterion) permits speech compression to very low bit rates at high speech quality for the Internet and cell phones.

  20. Overview: Understanding nucleation phenomena from simulations of lattice gas models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Kurt; Virnau, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation in Ising/lattice gas models are reviewed with an emphasis on the general insight gained on the mechanisms by which metastable states decay. Attention is paid to the proper distinction of particles that belong to a cluster (droplet), that may trigger a nucleation event, from particles in its environment, a problem crucial near the critical point. Well below the critical point, the lattice structure causes an anisotropy of the interface tension, and hence nonspherical droplet shapes result, making the treatment nontrivial even within the conventional classical theory of homogeneous nucleation. For temperatures below the roughening transition temperature facetted crystals rather than spherical droplets result. The possibility to find nucleation barriers from a thermodynamic analysis avoiding a cluster identification on the particle level is discussed, as well as the question of curvature corrections to the interfacial tension. For the interpretation of heterogeneous nucleation at planar walls, knowledge of contact angles and line tensions is desirable, and methods to extract these quantities from simulations will be mentioned. Finally, also the problem of nucleation near the stability limit of metastable states and the significance of the spinodal curve will be discussed, in the light of simulations of Ising models with medium range interactions.

  1. Contribution of Renewable Energy Sources to the Sustainable Development of Islands: An Overview of the Literature and a Research Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loraima Jaramillo-Nieves

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources (RES have significant potential to contribute to the economic, social and environmental energy sustainability of small islands. They improve access to energy for most of the population, they also reduce emissions of local and global pollutants and they may create local socioeconomic development opportunities. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the theoretical and empirical literature on the contribution of RES to the energy sustainability of islands, focusing on the main results and the methodologies used. Papers are classified according to their coverage of the three dimensions of the triangular approach to sustainability (economic, environmental and social. The review also takes into account whether and how the procedural sustainability has been tackled in those papers. It is acknowledged that although several topics have been covered by the existing literature, there are promising avenues for future research on several fronts, both thematic and methodological.

  2. Medical simulation: Overview, and application to wound modelling and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinker R Pai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation in medical education is progressing in leaps and bounds. The need for simulation in medical education and training is increasing because of a overall increase in the number of medical students vis-à-vis the availability of patients; b increasing awareness among patients of their rights and consequent increase in litigations and c tremendous improvement in simulation technology which makes simulation more and more realistic. Simulation in wound care can be divided into use of simulation in wound modelling (to test the effect of projectiles on the body and simulation for training in wound management. Though this science is still in its infancy, more and more researchers are now devising both low-technology and high-technology (virtual reality simulators in this field. It is believed that simulator training will eventually translate into better wound care in real patients, though this will be the subject of further research.

  3. Cost models of additive manufacturing: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Costabile

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available From the past decades, increasing attention has been paid to the quality level of technological and mechanical properties achieved by the Additive Manufacturing (AM; these two elements have achieved a good performance, and it is possible to compare this with the results achieved by traditional technology. Therefore, the AM maturity is high enough to let industries adopt this technology in a more general production framework as the mechanical manufacturing industrial one is. Since the technological and mechanical properties are also beneficial for the materials produced with AM, the primary objective of this paper is to focus more on managerial facets, such as the cost control of a production environment, where these new technologies are present. This paper aims to analyse the existing literature about the cost models developed specifically for AM from an operations management point of view and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of all models.

  4. Hydrodynamic modelling in the Polish Zone of the Baltic Sea - an overview of Polish achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jasińska

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a general overview of Polish experience and achievements with regard to hydrodynamic modelling in the Polish zone of the Baltic Sea. The first work started already at the end of the sixties when the first 1D and 2D hydrodynamic models were set up. With the development of numerical methods and increasing computational power a number of 1D, 2D and 3D models were set up and tested. Global, regional and local models cover the most important water bodies,i.e. the Pomeranian Bay - Szczecin Lagoon and Gulf of Gdansk - Vistula Lagoon systems.

  5. The 4th Release of GOCE Gravity Field Models - Overview and Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Thomas; Rummel, Reiner

    2013-04-01

    New GOCE gravity field models based on about 2 years of completely reprocessed gradiometer data have been recently released to the user community. They were obtained based on different processing strategies and reflect the state-of-the-art of GOCE gravity field models. With the improved gravity gradients resulting from a number of updates implemented in the level 1B processor and with the additional data set the performance of the resulting GOCE based models could be significantly improved as compared to the previous solutions. The paper provides an overview of the available GOCE models and presents the results of their validation by different means.

  6. Overview of in vitro models in developmental toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Craig

    2012-01-01

    In vitro methods used to study the modes of action of developmental toxicants range in biological complexity from cell monocultures to the culture of intact viable conceptuses. Primitive methods were static in nature and generally failed to provide for the adequate transfer of oxygen and nutrients to the cells and tissues being cultured. Modern methods have improved on these deficits to allow growth of cells, tissues, and whole conceptuses at rates that mirror those seen in vivo. The experimental challenges encountered with in vitro studies are also not unlike those seen in vivo where scale, accessibility, and developmental timing continue to persist as significant challenges. In vitro models have advantages in the ability to control environmental conditions and the direct exposure to toxicants so that specific effects on cell growth, differentiation, and morphology can be assessed directly in cells that have retained a sufficient degree of pluripotency. In vitro methods range in biological complexity from primary and immortalized cell cultures, organ and tissue cultures, and whole embryo cultures using intact, viable conceptuses explanted from a variety of species. Different experimental approaches are used for the various stages of development and cover the spectrum from preimplantation, periimplantation, and on to postimplantation periods of development.

  7. A Systematic Literature Review of Agile Maturity Model Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaughan Henriques

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim/Purpose: A commonly implemented software process improvement framework is the capability maturity model integrated (CMMI. Existing literature indicates higher levels of CMMI maturity could result in a loss of agility due to its organizational focus. To maintain agility, research has focussed attention on agile maturity models. The objective of this paper is to find the common research themes and conclusions in agile maturity model research. Methodology: This research adopts a systematic approach to agile maturity model research, using Google Scholar, Science Direct, and IEEE Xplore as sources. In total 531 articles were initially found matching the search criteria, which was filtered to 39 articles by applying specific exclusion criteria. Contribution:: The article highlights the trends in agile maturity model research, specifically bringing to light the lack of research providing validation of such models. Findings: Two major themes emerge, being the coexistence of agile and CMMI and the development of agile principle based maturity models. The research trend indicates an increase in agile maturity model articles, particularly in the latter half of the last decade, with concentrations of research coinciding with version updates of CMMI. While there is general consensus around higher CMMI maturity levels being incompatible with true agility, there is evidence of the two coexisting when agile is introduced into already highly matured environments. Future Research:\tFuture research direction for this topic should include how to attain higher levels of CMMI maturity using only agile methods, how governance is addressed in agile environments, and whether existing agile maturity models relate to improved project success.

  8. Re-examining the Evidence in Radiation Dermatitis Management Literature: An Overview and a Critical Appraisal of Systematic Reviews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Raymond Javan, E-mail: email.rchan@gmail.com [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital (Australia); School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Queensland, and Research Centre for Clinical and Community Practice Innovation, Griffith University (Australia); Larsen, Emily; Chan, Philip [Cancer Care Services, Royal Brisbane and Women' s Hospital (Australia)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To provide an overview and a critical appraisal of systematic reviews (SRs) of published interventions for the prevention/management of radiation dermatitis. Methods and Materials: We searched Medline, CINAHL, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. We also manually searched through individual reference lists of potentially eligible articles and a number of key journals in the topic area. Two authors screened all potential articles and included eligible SRs. Two authors critically appraised and extracted key findings from the included reviews using AMSTAR (the measurement tool for 'assessment of multiple systematic reviews'). Results: Of 1837 potential titles, 6 SRs were included. A number of interventions have been reported to be potentially beneficial for managing radiation dermatitis. Interventions evaluated in these reviews included skin care advice, steroidal/nonsteroidal topical agents, systemic therapies, modes of radiation delivery, and dressings. However, all the included SRs reported that there is insufficient evidence supporting any single effective intervention. The methodological quality of the included studies varied, and methodological shortfalls in these reviews might create biases to the overall results or recommendations for clinical practice. Conclusions: An up-to-date high-quality SR in the prevention/management of radiation dermatitis is needed to guide practice and direction for future research. We recommend that clinicians or guideline developers critically evaluate the information of SRs in their decision making.

  9. Modelling of radionuclide migration in forest ecosystems. A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, R.; Moberg, L.; Hubbard, L.

    1998-03-01

    The Chernobyl accident has clearly shown the long-term effects of a radioactive contamination of forest ecosystems. This report is based on a literature review of models which describe the migration of radionuclides, radioactive caesium in particular, in forest ecosystems. The report describes the particularities of the forest ecosystem, the time dynamics of the contamination, the transfer processes and factors influencing caesium migration. This provides a basis for a discussion of different approaches for modelling caesium migration in the forest. It is concluded that the studied dynamic models include the most relevant transfer processes both for the acute and the long-term phase after a radioactive deposition. However, most models are site specific and do not consider some of the factors responsible for the differences in radionuclide behaviour and distribution in different types of forests. Although model improvements are constrained by the availability of experimental data and by the lack of knowledge of the migration mechanisms some possible improvements are discussed. This report is part of the LANDSCAPE project. -An integrated approach to radionuclide flow in the semi-natural ecosystems underlying exposure pathways to man. 42 refs, 3 tabs, 9 figs.

  10. Cognitive dissonance. 1: An overview of the literature and its integration into theory and practice in clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draycott, S; Dabbs, A

    1998-09-01

    Clinical psychology may not be making full use of the experimental psychological research available to it. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on cognitive dissonance in order to assess its usefulness in developing and deconstructing clinical psychological therapies and practice. Experimental, theoretical and review articles were examined in relation to their possible clinical implications, and included in this review if they related to the arousal, maintenance and reduction of the state termed cognitive dissonance. Well replicated findings based on experimentally sound paradigms were integrated to produce an overall view of the evidence in favour of the existence of these processes, and of the principles behind them. It is concluded that there is an effect on attitudes and behaviour of creating inconsistency in individuals, and that this is not explained away by alternative theories, which in many cases refer to special conditions which maximally arouse dissonance. The dissonant state lasts for a few minutes, but its effects can last for up to two weeks, and might be reinstated by reintroducing the original inconsistency. Individuals can react to dissonance through a variety of cognitive alterations which reinstate consistency. The choice of response is a function of its salience and the difficulty in its execution. The literature supports the existence of the phenomenon termed cognitive dissonance, and one can distil the principles underlying its production, maintenance and reduction. This body of literature may provide insights into the conduct of therapy generally, as well as into the mechanisms of specific therapies which may guide modifications or development of alternative interventions.

  11. Existing air sparging model and literature review for the development of an air sparging optimization decision tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The objectives of this Report are two-fold: (1) to provide overviews of the state-of-the-art and state-of-the-practice with respect to air sparging technology, air sparging models and related or augmentation technologies (e.g., soil vapor extraction); and (2) to provide the basis for the development of the conceptual Decision Tool. The Project Team conducted an exhaustive review of available literature. The complete listing of the documents, numbering several hundred and reviewed as a part of this task, is included in Appendix A. Even with the large amount of material written regarding the development and application of air sparging, there still are significant gaps in the technical community`s understanding of the remediation technology. The results of the literature review are provided in Section 2. In Section 3, an overview of seventeen conceptual, theoretical, mathematical and empirical models is presented. Detailed descriptions of each of the models reviewed is provided in Appendix B. Included in Appendix D is a copy of the questionnaire used to compile information about the models. The remaining sections of the document reflect the analysis and synthesis of the information gleaned during the literature and model reviews. The results of these efforts provide the basis for development of the decision tree and conceptual decision tool for determining applicability and optimization of air sparging. The preliminary decision tree and accompanying information provided in Section 6 describe a three-tiered approach for determining air sparging applicability: comparison with established scenarios; calculation of conceptual design parameters; and the conducting of pilot-scale studies to confirm applicability. The final two sections of this document provide listings of the key success factors which will be used for evaluating the utility of the Decision Tool and descriptions of potential applications for Decision Tool use.

  12. Gender equity and sexual and reproductive health in Eastern and Southern Africa: a critical overview of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor E. MacPherson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gender inequalities are important social determinants of health. We set out to critically review the literature relating to gender equity and sexual and reproductive health (SRH in Eastern and Southern Africa with the aim of identifying priorities for action. Design: During November 2011, we identified studies relating to SRH and gender equity through a comprehensive literature search. Results: We found gender inequalities to be common across a range of health issues relating to SRH with women being particularly disadvantaged. Social and biological determinants combined to increase women's vulnerability to maternal mortality, HIV, and gender-based violence. Health systems significantly disadvantaged women in terms of access to care. Men fared worse in relation to HIV testing and care with social norms leading to men presenting later for treatment. Conclusions: Gender inequity in SRH requires multiple complementary approaches to address the structural drivers of unequal health outcomes. These could include interventions that alter the structural environment in which ill-health is created. Interventions are required both within and beyond the health system.

  13. Combining literature review, acoustic mapping and in situ observations: an overview of coralligenous assemblages in Liguria (NW Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Cánovas Molina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A review and update of the existing knowledge on the coralligenous assemblages of Liguria (NW Italy was conducted as an essential step towards management measures for their conservation according to the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive. By combining a literature review, acoustic mapping and in situ observations on a geographic information systems platform, we were able to assess the distribution and heterogeneity of coralligenous assemblages and the main pressures affecting them. The reliability of the literature was previously estimated using a dependability index. The coralligenous assemblages cover an area of 130.9 ha and range from 10 to 113 m depth. Twelve different biological facies (five of them not included in the EUNIS list were identified and four main geomorphotypes (plungingcliffs, paleocliffs, rockfalls and shoals were recognized. Incident light values influenced the distribution of four facies in Portofino promontory. Pressures were found on 33% of the coralligenous assemblages investigated, mainly due to fishing activities, mass mortality events, invasive species and occasional mucilaginous events. Our results showed a high spatial, geomorphological and biological heterogeneity of coralligenous assemblages in Liguria.

  14. Overview of Urban PM2. 5Numerical Forecast Models in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nianliang; CHENG; Hongxia; LI; Fan; MENG; Fahe; CHAI

    2015-01-01

    This paper made an overview and introduction of urban PM2. 5numerical forecast models in China,and mainly introduced air quality simulated forecast system of Beijing,Shanghai,and Nanjing. On this basis,it discussed development direction and existing problems of urban PM2. 5forecast models in China. Besides,it revealed significance of numerical models for air quality forecast. In a heavy air pollution of Beijing- Tianjin- Hebei in October 6- 12 th of 2014,the forecast results indicated that pollutants was transported from south to north,so the regional transport exerts great influence on concentration of PM2. 5.

  15. Wind Turbine Blockset in Saber. General Overview and Description of the Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Timbus, Adrian Vasile; Hansen, A. D.;

    This report presents a new developed Saber Toolbox for wind turbine applications. This toolbox has been developed during the research project ?Simulation Platform to model, optimize and design wind turbines?. The report provides a quick overview of the Saber and then explains the structure...... blocks. Since the developed models are based on Saber built-in blocks, a description of the libraries from Saber is given. Then some simulation results using the developed models are shown. Finally some general conclusions regarding this new developed Toolbox as well as some directions for future work...

  16. Deeply Rooted in Memories: Toward a Comprehensive Overview of 30 Years of Memorable Message Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke-Jackson, Angela; Rubinsky, Valerie

    2017-02-02

    Knapp, Stohl, and Reardon's (1981) seminal work reported that some messages may be "remembered for a long time and have a profound influence on a person's life" (p. 27). While the foundational concepts of this framework have offered a meaningful contribution to memorable messages research, this article seeks to unpack the past three decades of the literature specific to the field of communication. The authors will highlight the trajectory and changes while considering its present use, episodes, and situations that transpire in individual lived experiences. Like Braithwaite, Schrodt, and Carr (2015), we note that memorable messages, though widely utilized, are largely descriptive and atheoretical or "undertheorized" (p. 15). To that end, and given its decades of successful use in health communication, organizational socialization, and education, we consider the value of a Theory of Memorable Messages (ToMM) that can support new directions for communication scholarship and serve as a catalyst for understanding dynamic relational interactions and exchanges in human communication.

  17. Modelling Overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Vesterager, Johan

    sharing many of the characteristics of a virtual enterprise. This extended enterprise will have the following characteristics: The extended enterprise is focused on satisfying the current customer requirement so that it has a limited life expectancy, but should be capable of being recreated to deal...... with similar customer requirements. The activities of the extended enterprise may be geographically distributed Information technology is used as an enabling technology. The members of the extended enterprise are drawn in the main from a network of business units, each contributing one or more competencies...

  18. Modelling Overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Vesterager, Johan

    sharing many of the characteristics of a virtual enterprise. This extended enterprise will have the following characteristics: The extended enterprise is focused on satisfying the current customer requirement so that it has a limited life expectancy, but should be capable of being recreated to deal...... with similar customer requirements. The activities of the extended enterprise may be geographically distributed Information technology is used as an enabling technology. The members of the extended enterprise are drawn in the main from a network of business units, each contributing one or more competencies...

  19. Wind Turbine Blockset in Matlab/Simulink. General Overview and Description of the Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Hansen, A. D.; Soerensen, P.

    This report presents a new developed Matlab/Simulink Toolbox for wind turbine applications. This toolbox has been developed during the research project ?Simulation Platform to model, optimize and design wind turbines? and it has been used as a general developer tool for other three simulation tools......: Saber, DIgSILENT, HAWC. The report provides first a quick overview over Matlab issues and then explains the structure of the developed toolbox. The attention in the report is mainly drawn to the description of the most important mathematical models, which have been developed in the Toolbox. Then, some...

  20. Overview of Threats and Failure Models for Safety-Relevant Computer-Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2015-01-01

    This document presents a high-level overview of the threats to safety-relevant computer-based systems, including (1) a description of the introduction and activation of physical and logical faults; (2) the propagation of their effects; and (3) function-level and component-level error and failure mode models. These models can be used in the definition of fault hypotheses (i.e., assumptions) for threat-risk mitigation strategies. This document is a contribution to a guide currently under development that is intended to provide a general technical foundation for designers and evaluators of safety-relevant systems.

  1. Modelling of transport and biogeochemical processes in pollution plumes: Literature review of model development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brun, A.; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard

    2002-01-01

    A literature survey shows how biogeochemical (coupled organic and inorganic reaction processes) transport models are based on considering the complete biodegradation process as either a single- or as a two-step process. It is demonstrated that some two-step process models rely on the Partial Equi...

  2. Core principles and concepts in land-use modelling : a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrojenstein Lantman, J. van; Verburg, P.; Bregt, A.; Geertman, S.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Simulation models of land use predict or describe land-use change over space and time. Recent overviews of land-use simulation models show an overwhelming amount of different types of models and applications (Heistermann, Muller & Ronneberger, 2006; Koomen, Stillwell, Bakema & Scholten, 2007;

  3. Understanding Bilingual Education: An Overview of Key Notions in the Literature and the Implications for Chinese University EFL Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Wang

    2017-01-01

    This article starts with a review of definitions of bilingualism. It then discusses the definition of bilingual education with its focus on the analysis of bilingual competence. It is subsequently suggested that a theoretical hard nut to be cracked in today's bilingual research is to establish the scope of discussion of bilingualism models meeting…

  4. Leading the Student Experience: Academic and Professional Services in Partnership Literature Review and Overview of Results. Leading the Student Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Sarah; Young, Julie Blackwell; Cleaver, Elizabeth; Archibald, Kenny

    2014-01-01

    This research project explored how academic and professional personnel work together in new ways to deliver the best possible student experience. The project analysed why certain models of good working practice seemed to work well. The research investigated: how the change management process was perceived and managed by key stakeholders; the role…

  5. Lymphocyte-based model systems for allergy research: a historic overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neunkirchner, Alina; Schmetterer, Klaus G; Pickl, Winfried F

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, a multitude of studies applying distinct in vitro and in vivo model systems have contributed greatly to our better understanding of the initiation and regulation of inflammatory processes leading to allergic diseases. Over the years, it has become evident that among lymphocytes, not only IgE-producing B cells and allergy-orchestrating CD4(+) helper cells but also cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells, γδ-T cells and innate lymphoid cells, as well as regulatory lymphocytes, might critically shape the immune response towards usually innocuous allergens. In this review, we provide a historic overview of pioneering work leading to the establishment of important lymphocyte-based model systems for allergy research. Moreover, we contrast the original findings with our currently more refined knowledge to appreciate the actual validity of the respective models and to reassess the conclusions obtained from them. Conflicting studies and interpretations are identified and discussed. The tables are intended to provide an easy overview of the field not only for scientists newly entering the field but also for the broader readership interested in updating their knowledge. Along those lines, herein we discuss in vitro and in vivo approaches to the investigation of lymphocyte effector cell activation, polarization and regulation, and describe depletion and adoptive transfer models along with gene knockout and transgenic (tg) methodologies. In addition, novel attempts to establish humanized T cell antigen receptor tg mouse models for allergy research are described and discussed.

  6. Wind Turbine Blockset in Saber. General Overview and Description of the Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Timbus, Adrian Vasile; Hansen, A. D.

    This report presents a new developed Saber Toolbox for wind turbine applications. This toolbox has been developed during the research project ?Simulation Platform to model, optimize and design wind turbines?. The report provides a quick overview of the Saber and then explains the structure...... of this simulation package, which is different than other tools e.g. Matlab/Simulink. Then the structure of the toolbox is shown as well as the description of the developed models. The main focus here is to underline the special structure of the models, which are a mixture of Saber built-in blocks and new developed...... blocks. Since the developed models are based on Saber built-in blocks, a description of the libraries from Saber is given. Then some simulation results using the developed models are shown. Finally some general conclusions regarding this new developed Toolbox as well as some directions for future work...

  7. An overview of modelling approaches and potential solution towards an endgame of tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Tisya Farida Abdul; Sapiri, Hasimah; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal

    2015-12-01

    A high number of premature mortality due to tobacco use has increased worldwide. Despite control policies being implemented to reduce premature mortality, the rate of smoking prevalence is still high. Moreover, tobacco issues become increasingly difficult since many aspects need to be considered simultaneously. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to present an overview of existing modelling studies on tobacco control system. The background section describes the tobacco issues and its current trends. These models have been categorised according to their modelling approaches either individual or integrated approaches. Next, a framework of modelling approaches based on the integration of multi-criteria decision making, system dynamics and nonlinear programming is proposed, expected to reduce the smoking prevalence. This framework provides guideline for modelling the interaction between smoking behaviour and its impacts, tobacco control policies and the effectiveness of each strategy in healthcare.

  8. Wind turbine blockset in Saber. General overview and description of the models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Timbus, Adrian Vasile; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    This report presents a new developed Saber Toolbox for wind turbine applications. This toolbox has been developed during the research project “Simulation Platform to model, optimize and design wind turbines”. The report provides a quick overview of the Saber and then explains the structure...... of this simulation package, which is different than other tools e.g. Matlab/Simulink. Then the structure of the toolbox is shown as well as the description of the developed models. The main focus here is to underline the special structure of the models, which are a mixture of Saber built-in blocks and new developed...... blocks. Since the developed models are based on Saber built-in blocks, a description of the libraries from Saber is given. Then some simulation results using the developed models are shown. Finally some general conclusions regarding this new developed Toolbox as well as some directions for future work...

  9. Bladder Exstrophy: An Epidemiologic Study From the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research, and an Overview of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIFFEL, CSABA; CORREA, ADOLFO; AMAR, EMMANUELLE; BAKKER, MARIAN K.; BERMEJO-SÁNCHEZ, EVA; BIANCA, SEBASTIANO; CASTILLA, EDUARDO E.; CLEMENTI, MAURIZIO; COCCHI, GUIDO; CSÁKY-SZUNYOGH, MELINDA; FELDKAMP, MARCIA L.; LANDAU, DANIELLE; LEONCINI, EMANUELE; LI, ZHU; LOWRY, R. BRIAN; MARENGO, LISA K.; MASTROIACOVO, PIERPAOLO; MORGAN, MARGERY; MUTCHINICK, OSVALDO M.; PIERINI, ANNA; RISSMANN, ANKE; RITVANEN, ANNUKKA; SCARANO, GIOACCHINO; SZABOVA, ELENA; OLNEY, RICHARD S.

    2015-01-01

    Bladder exstrophy (BE) is a complex congenital anomaly characterized by a defect in the closure of the lower abdominal wall and bladder. We aimed to provide an overview of the literature and conduct an epidemiologic study to describe the prevalence, and maternal and case characteristics of BE. We used data from 22 participating member programs of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR). All cases were reviewed and classified as isolated, syndrome, and multiple congenital anomalies. We estimated the total prevalence of BE and calculated the frequency and odds ratios for various maternal and case characteristics. A total of 546 cases with BE were identified among 26,355,094 births. The total prevalence of BE was 2.07 per 100,000 births (95% CI: 1.90–2.25) and varied between 0.52 and 4.63 among surveillance programs participating in the study. BE was nearly twice as common among male as among female cases. The proportion of isolated cases was 71%. Prevalence appeared to increase with increasing categories of maternal age, particularly among isolated cases. The total prevalence of BE showed some variations by geographical region, which is most likely attributable to differences in registration of cases. The higher total prevalence among male cases and older mothers, especially among isolated cases, warrants further attention. PMID:22002949

  10. Micromechanical modelling of nanocrystalline and ultrafine grained metals: A short overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Levashov, Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    An overview of micromechanical models of strength and deformation behaviour of nanostructured and ultrafine grained metallic materials is presented. Composite models of nanomaterials, polycrystal plasticity based models, grain boundary sliding, the effect of non-equilibrium grain boundaries...... and nanoscale properties are discussed and compared. The examples of incorporation of peculiar nanocrystalline effects (like large content of amorphous or semi-amorphous grain boundary phase, partial dislocation GB emission/glide/GB absorption based deformation mechanism, diffusion deformation, etc.......) into the continuum mechanical approach are given. The possibilities of using micromechanical models to explore the ways of the improving the properties of nanocrystalline materials by modifying their structures (e.g., dispersion strengthening, creating non-equilibrium grain boundaries, varying the grain size...

  11. Overview of Genetically Engineered Mouse Models of Breast Cancer Used in Translational Biology and Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenow, Kirsty R; Smalley, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous condition with no single standard of treatment and no definitive method for determining whether a tumor will respond to therapy. The development of murine models that faithfully mimic specific human breast cancer subtypes is critical for the development of patient-specific treatments. While the artificial nature of traditional in vivo xenograft models used to characterize novel anticancer treatments has limited clinical predictive value, the development of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) makes it possible to study the therapeutic responses in an intact microenvironment. GEMMs have proven to be an experimentally tractable platform for evaluating the efficacy of novel therapeutic combinations and for defining the mechanisms of acquired resistance. Described in this overview are several of the more popular breast cancer GEMMs, including details on their value in elucidating the molecular mechanisms of this disorder.

  12. Wind Turbine Blockset in Matlab/Simulink - General overview and description of the models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iov, F.; Hansen, A.D.; Soerensen, P.; Blaabjerg, F.

    2004-03-01

    This report presents a new developed Matlab/Simulink Toolbox for wind turbine applications. This toolbox has been developed during the research project 'Simulation Platform to model, optimize and design wind turbines' and it has been used as a general developer tool for other three simulation tools: Saber, DIgSILENT, HAWC. The report provides first a quick overview over Matlab issues and then explains the structure of the developed toolbox. The attention in the report is mainly drawn to the description of the most important mathematical models, which have been developed in the Toolbox. Then, some simulation results using the developed models are shown. Finally, some general conclusions regarding this new developed Toolbox as well as some directions for future work are made. (au)

  13. A practitioner's guide to persuasion: an overview of 15 selected persuasion theories, models and frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kenzie A

    2009-03-01

    To provide a brief overview of 15 selected persuasion theories and models, and to present examples of their use in health communication research. The theories are categorized as message effects models, attitude-behavior approaches, cognitive processing theories and models, consistency theories, inoculation theory, and functional approaches. As it is often the intent of a practitioner to shape, reinforce, or change a patient's behavior, familiarity with theories of persuasion may lead to the development of novel communication approaches with existing patients. This article serves as an introductory primer to theories of persuasion with applications to health communication research. Understanding key constructs and general formulations of persuasive theories may allow practitioners to employ useful theoretical frameworks when interacting with patients.

  14. Spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) as an animal model for ADHD: a short overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Alfredo; Perez-Garcia, Georgina; Ponce-Lopez, Teresa; Tellez, Ruth; Gallegos-Cari, Andrea; Castillo, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Diverse studies indicate that attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with alterations in encoding processes, including working or short-term memory. Some ADHD dysfunctional domains are reflected in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Because ADHD, drugs and animal models are eliciting a growing interest, hence the aim of this work is to present a brief overview with a focus on the SHR as an animal model for ADHD and memory deficits. Thus, this paper reviews the concept of SHR as a model system for ADHD, comparing SHR, Wistar-Kyoto and Sprague-Dawley rats with a focus on the hypertension level and working, short-term memory and attention in different behavioral tasks, such as open field, five choice serial reaction time, water maze, passive avoidance, and autoshaping. In addition, drug treatments (d-amphetamine and methylphenidate) are evaluated.

  15. S/sup 3/ Financial Projection Model: preliminary user's manual and system overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masso, J. F.

    1976-11-30

    The S/sup 3/ Financial Projection Model is an effort undertaken to construct a pipeline economic model in order to satisfy the requirements of the US ERDA program: Energy Study of Pipeline Transportation System. A brief outline of this process is described in Appendix A, Background on the S/sup 3/ Development of a Pipeline Economic Model. A general overview of the model is presented first to indicate the rationale underlying the model and to show the linkages between the various submodels. An understanding of the basic accounting definitions and self-evident relationships between line items in the general financial accounting reports is a prerequisite for the effective application of the model. Particular attention has been paid in this system description to defining the methods of calculations utilized by the model and to describing the optional capital investment planning techniques that may be exercised with the model. The mathematical relationships underlying various planning techniques are defined and the methods for applying these techniques are discussed with illustrations and sample input data specifications. Decision tables are used to show complex decision rules applied within the model to determine the logical flow of a particular computational routine. The complete set of source data and model options are described along with the procedures for input data preparation and actual program operation.

  16. Modeling of plant in vitro cultures: overview and estimation of biotechnological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschke, Rüdiger W; Geipel, Katja; Bley, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Plant cell and tissue cultivations are of growing interest for the production of structurally complex and expensive plant-derived products, especially in pharmaceutical production. Problems with up-scaling, low yields, and high-priced process conditions result in an increased demand for models to provide comprehension, simulation, and optimization of production processes. In the last 25 years, many models have evolved in plant biotechnology; the majority of them are specialized models for a few selected products or nutritional conditions. In this article we review, delineate, and discuss the concepts and characteristics of the most commonly used models. Therefore, the authors focus on models for plant suspension and submerged hairy root cultures. The article includes a short overview of modeling and mathematics and integrated parameters, as well as the application scope for each model. The review is meant to help researchers better understand and utilize the numerous models published for plant cultures, and to select the most suitable model for their purposes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A modeling framework for the evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance: literature review and model categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicknall, Ian H; Foxman, Betsy; Marrs, Carl F; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2013-08-15

    Antibiotic-resistant infections complicate treatment and increase morbidity and mortality. Mathematical modeling has played an integral role in improving our understanding of antibiotic resistance. In these models, parameter sensitivity is often assessed, while model structure sensitivity is not. To examine the implications of this, we first reviewed the literature on antibiotic-resistance modeling published between 1993 and 2011. We then classified each article's model structure into one or more of 6 categories based on the assumptions made in those articles regarding within-host and population-level competition between antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant strains. Each model category has different dynamic implications with respect to how antibiotic use affects resistance prevalence, and therefore each may produce different conclusions about optimal treatment protocols that minimize resistance. Thus, even if all parameter values are correctly estimated, inferences may be incorrect because of the incorrect selection of model structure. Our framework provides insight into model selection.

  18. The GRENE-TEA Model Intercomparison Project (GTMIP: overview and experiment protocol for Stage 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Miyazaki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As part of the terrestrial branch of the Japan-funded Arctic Climate Change Research Project (GRENE-TEA, which aims to clarify the role and function of the Arctic terrestrial system in the climate system, and assess the influence of its changes on a global scale, this model intercomparison project (GTMIP is planned and being conducted to (1 enhance communication and understanding between the "minds and hands" (i.e., between the modelling and field scientists and (2 assess the uncertainty and variations stemming from variability in model implementation/design and in model outputs due to climatic and historical conditions in the Arctic terrestrial regions. This paper provides an overview and the experiment protocol of Stage 1 of the project, site simulations driven by statistically fitted data created using the GRENE-TEA site observations for the last three decades. The target metrics for the model evaluation cover key processes in both physics and biogeochemistry, including energy budgets, snow, permafrost, phenology, and carbon budgets. The preliminary results on four metrics (annual mean latent heat flux, annual maximum snow depth, gross primary production, and net ecosystem production already demonstrate the range of variations in reproducibility among existing models and sites. Full analysis on annual as well as seasonal time scales, to be conducted upon completion of model outputs submission, will delineate inter-dependence among the key processes, and provide the clue for improving the model performance.

  19. Unmet need for mental health care in schizophrenia: an overview of literature and new data from a first-admission study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojtabai, Ramin; Fochtmann, Laura; Chang, Su-Wei; Kotov, Roman; Craig, Thomas J; Bromet, Evelyn

    2009-07-01

    We present an overview of the literature on the patterns of mental health service use and the unmet need for care in individuals with schizophrenia with a focus on studies in the United States. We also present new data on the longitudinal course of treatments from a study of first-admission patients with schizophrenia. In epidemiological surveys, approximately 40% of the respondents with schizophrenia report that they have not received any mental health treatments in the preceding 6-12 months. Clinical epidemiological studies also find that many patients virtually drop out of treatment after their index contact with services and receive little mental health care in subsequent years. Clinical studies of patients in routine treatment settings indicate that the treatment patterns of these patients often fall short of the benchmarks set by evidence-based practice guidelines, while at least half of these patients continue to experience significant symptoms. The divergence from the guidelines is more pronounced with regard to psychosocial than medication treatments and in outpatient than in inpatient settings. The expansion of managed care has led to further reduction in the use of psychosocial treatments and, in some settings, continuity of care. In conclusion, we found a substantial level of unmet need for care among individuals with schizophrenia both at community level and in treatment settings. More than half of the individuals with this often chronic and disabling condition receive either no treatment or suboptimal treatment. Recovery in this patient population cannot be fully achieved without enhancing access to services and improving the quality of available services. The recent expansion of managed care has made this goal more difficult to achieve.

  20. MATHEMATICAL AND COMPUTATIONAL MODELLING OF RIBOSOMAL MOVEMENT AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias von der Haar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Translation or protein synthesis consists of a complex system of chemical reactions, which ultimately result in decoding of the mRNA and the production of a protein. The complexity of this reaction system makes it difficult to quantitatively connect its input parameters (such as translation factor or ribosome concentrations, codon composition of the mRNA, or energy availability to output parameters (such as protein synthesis rates or ribosome densities on mRNAs. Mathematical and computational models of translation have now been used for nearly five decades to investigate translation, and to shed light on the relationship between the different reactions in the system. This review gives an overview over the principal approaches used in the modelling efforts, and summarises some of the major findings that were made.

  1. Dynamic emulation modelling for the optimal operation of water systems: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelletti, A.; Galelli, S.; Giuliani, M.

    2014-12-01

    Despite sustained increase in computing power over recent decades, computational limitations remain a major barrier to the effective and systematic use of large-scale, process-based simulation models in rational environmental decision-making. Whereas complex models may provide clear advantages when the goal of the modelling exercise is to enhance our understanding of the natural processes, they introduce problems of model identifiability caused by over-parameterization and suffer from high computational burden when used in management and planning problems. As a result, increasing attention is now being devoted to emulation modelling (or model reduction) as a way of overcoming these limitations. An emulation model, or emulator, is a low-order approximation of the process-based model that can be substituted for it in order to solve high resource-demanding problems. In this talk, an overview of emulation modelling within the context of the optimal operation of water systems will be provided. Particular emphasis will be given to Dynamic Emulation Modelling (DEMo), a special type of model complexity reduction in which the dynamic nature of the original process-based model is preserved, with consequent advantages in a wide range of problems, particularly feedback control problems. This will be contrasted with traditional non-dynamic emulators (e.g. response surface and surrogate models) that have been studied extensively in recent years and are mainly used for planning purposes. A number of real world numerical experiences will be used to support the discussion ranging from multi-outlet water quality control in water reservoir through erosion/sedimentation rebalancing in the operation of run-off-river power plants to salinity control in lake and reservoirs.

  2. An overview of animal models for investigating the pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies in acute hepatic failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    María Jesús Tu(n)ón; Marcelino Alvarez; Jesús M Culebras; Javier González-Gallego

    2009-01-01

    Acute hepatic failure (AHF) is a severe liver injury accompanied by hepatic encephalopathy which causes multiorgan failure with an extremely high mortality rate, even if intensive care is provided. Management of severe AHF continues to be one of the most challenging problems in clinical medicine. Liver transplantation has been shown to be the most effective therapy, but the procedure is limited by shortage of donor organs. Although a number of clinical trials testing different liver assist devices are under way, these systems alone have no significant effect on patient survival and are only regarded as a useful approach to bridge patients with AHF to liver transplantation. As a result, reproducible experimental animal models resembling the clinical conditions are still needed. The three main approaches used to create an animal model for AHF are: surgical procedures, toxic liver injury and infective procedures. Most common models are based on surgical techniques (total/partial hepatectomy, complete/transient devascularization) or the use of hepatotoxic drugs (acetaminophen, galactosamine, thioacetamide, and others), and very few satisfactory viral models are available. We have recently developed a viral model of AHF by meansof the inoculation of rabbits with the virus of rabbit hemorrhagic disease. This model displays biochemical and histological characteristics, and clinical features that resemble those in human AHF. In the present article an overview is given of the most widely used animal models of AHF, and their main advantages and disadvantages are reviewed.

  3. Overview of Dust Model Inter-comparison (DMIP) in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, I.

    2004-12-01

    Dust transport modeling plays an important role in understanding the recent increase of Asian Dust episodes and its impact to the regional climate system. Several dust models have been developed in several research institutes and government agencies independently since 1990s. Their numerical results either look very similar or different. Those disagreements are caused by difference in dust modules (concepts and basic mechanisms) and atmospheric models (meteorological and transport models). Therefore common understanding of performance and uncertainty of dust erosion and transport models in the Asian region becomes very important. To have a better understanding of dust model application, we proposed the dust model intercomparison under the international cooperation networks as a part of activity of ADEC (Aeolian Dust Experiment on Climate Impact) project research. Current participants are Kyusyu Univ. (Japan), Meteorological Research Institute (Japan), Hong-Kong City Univ. (China), Korean Meteorological Agency METRI (Korea), US Naval Research Laboratory (USA), Chinese Meteorological Agency (China), Institute of Atmospheric Physics (China), Insular Coastal Dynamics (Malta) and Meteorological Service of Canada (Canada). As a case study episode, we set two huge dust storms occurred in March and April 2002. Results from the dust transport model from all the participants are compiled on the same methods and examined the model characteristics against the ground and airborne measurement data. We will also examine the dust model results from the horizontal distribution at specified levels, vertical profiles, concentration at special check point and emission flux at source region, and show the important parameters for dust modeling. In this paper, we will introduce the general overview of this DMIP activity and several important conclusions from this activity.

  4. Overview of Theory and Model of Tropical Agricultural Circular Economy in Hainan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a general overview of rationale of tropical agricultural circular economy.On the basis of ecological economic theory,circular economy is a new model of economic development which aims at realizing reducing of resources use,reuse of products and recycling of wastes,conforming to the principle of 4R.It is to make economic system melt into the process of cycle of material of natural ecological system harmoniously.This paper introduces the advantages of developing tropical agriculture in Hainan Province,the main problems existing in the development and two main models of sustainable tropical agricultural development in Hainan Province at present.9 typical models of tropical agricultural circular economy in Hainan Province are listed in particular,including compound ecological project of forestry and animal husbandry,three-dimensional planting model of plantation,multilayered structure of eucalyptuses,sustainable agricultural model of sightseeing,the model of using animal manure,precision tropical agricultural model,clean production model of tropical agriculture,deep processing model of tropical agricultural products,and the model of ecological agricultural industrialization.Corresponding countermeasures and suggestions are put forward to promote development of tropical agricultural circular economy in Hainan Province as follows:take actions that suit local circumstances,exert advantage and exploit potential;give full play to advantage of integration of production,teaching and research,and promote agriculture by applying scientific and technological advances;the whole staff participate and strengthen construction of soft environment and hard environment.

  5. Overview of the Diagnostic Cloud Forecast Model at the Air Force Weather Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, E. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) is responsible for running and maintaining the Diagnostic Cloud Forecast (DCF) model to support DoD missions and those of their external partners. The DCF model generates three-dimensional cloud forecasts for global and regional domains at various resolutions. Regional domains are chosen based on Air Force mission needs. DCF is purely a statistical model that can be appended to any numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. Operationally, AFWA runs the DCF model deterministically using GFS data from NCEP and WRF data that are created in-house. In addition, AFWA also runs an ensemble version of the DCF model using the Mesoscale Ensemble Prediction System (MEPS). The deterministic DCF uses predictor variables from the WRF or GFS models, depending on whether the domain is regional or global, and statistically relates them to observed cloud cover from the World-Wide Merged Cloud Analysis (WWMCA). The forecast process of the model uses an ordinal logistic regression to predict membership in one of 101 groups (every 1% from 0-100%). The predicted group membership then is translated into a cloud amount. This is performed on 21 pressure levels ranging from 1000 hPa to 100 hPa. Cloud amount forecasts on these 21 levels are used along with the NWP geopotential height forecasts to estimate the base and top heights of cloud layers in the vertical. DCF also includes routines to estimate the amount and type of cloud within each layer. Forecasts of total cloud amount are verified using the WWMCA, as well as independent sources of cloud data. This presentation will include an overview of the DCF model and its use at AFWA. Results will be presented to show that DCF adds value over the raw cloud forecasts from NWP models. Ideas for future work also will be addressed.

  6. An Overview of Recent Advances in the Iterative Analysis of Coupled Models for Wave Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Soares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wave propagation problems can be solved using a variety of methods. However, in many cases, the joint use of different numerical procedures to model different parts of the problem may be advisable and strategies to perform the coupling between them must be developed. Many works have been published on this subject, addressing the case of electromagnetic, acoustic, or elastic waves and making use of different strategies to perform this coupling. Both direct and iterative approaches can be used, and they may exhibit specific advantages and disadvantages. This work focuses on the use of iterative coupling schemes for the analysis of wave propagation problems, presenting an overview of the application of iterative procedures to perform the coupling between different methods. Both frequency- and time-domain analyses are addressed, and problems involving acoustic, mechanical, and electromagnetic wave propagation problems are illustrated.

  7. The astrometric core solution for the Gaia mission. Overview of models, algorithms and software implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Lindegren, Lennart; Hobbs, David; O'Mullane, William; Bastian, Ulrich; Hernández, José

    2011-01-01

    The Gaia satellite will observe about one billion stars and other point-like sources. The astrometric core solution will determine the astrometric parameters (position, parallax, and proper motion) for a subset of these sources, using a global solution approach which must also include a large number of parameters for the satellite attitude and optical instrument. The accurate and efficient implementation of this solution is an extremely demanding task, but crucial for the outcome of the mission. We provide a comprehensive overview of the mathematical and physical models applicable to this solution, as well as its numerical and algorithmic framework. The astrometric core solution is a simultaneous least-squares estimation of about half a billion parameters, including the astrometric parameters for some 100 million well-behaved so-called primary sources. The global nature of the solution requires an iterative approach, which can be broken down into a small number of distinct processing blocks (source, attitude,...

  8. Structural modeling of G-protein coupled receptors: An overview on automatic web-servers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busato, Mirko; Giorgetti, Alejandro

    2016-08-01

    Despite the significant efforts and discoveries during the last few years in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) expression and crystallization, the receptors with known structures to date are limited only to a small fraction of human GPCRs. The lack of experimental three-dimensional structures of the receptors represents a strong limitation that hampers a deep understanding of their function. Computational techniques are thus a valid alternative strategy to model three-dimensional structures. Indeed, recent advances in the field, together with extraordinary developments in crystallography, in particular due to its ability to capture GPCRs in different activation states, have led to encouraging results in the generation of accurate models. This, prompted the community of modelers to render their methods publicly available through dedicated databases and web-servers. Here, we present an extensive overview on these services, focusing on their advantages, drawbacks and their role in successful applications. Future challenges in the field of GPCR modeling, such as the predictions of long loop regions and the modeling of receptor activation states are presented as well.

  9. A reasoned overview on Boussinesq-type models: the interplay between physics, mathematics and numerics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocchini, Maurizio

    2013-12-08

    This paper, which is largely the fruit of an invited talk on the topic at the latest International Conference on Coastal Engineering, describes the state of the art of modelling by means of Boussinesq-type models (BTMs). Motivations for using BTMs as well as their fundamentals are illustrated, with special attention to the interplay between the physics to be described, the chosen model equations and the numerics in use. The perspective of the analysis is that of a physicist/engineer rather than of an applied mathematician. The chronological progress of the currently available BTMs from the pioneering models of the late 1960s is given. The main applications of BTMs are illustrated, with reference to specific models and methods. The evolution in time of the numerical methods used to solve BTMs (e.g. finite differences, finite elements, finite volumes) is described, with specific focus on finite volumes. Finally, an overview of the most important BTMs currently available is presented, as well as some indications on improvements required and fields of applications that call for attention.

  10. Progress in sensor performance testing, modeling and range prediction using the TOD method: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijl, Piet; Hogervorst, Maarten A.; Toet, Alexander

    2017-05-01

    The Triangle Orientation Discrimination (TOD) methodology includes i) a widely applicable, accurate end-to-end EO/IR sensor test, ii) an image-based sensor system model and iii) a Target Acquisition (TA) range model. The method has been extensively validated against TA field performance for a wide variety of well- and under-sampled imagers, systems with advanced image processing techniques such as dynamic super resolution and local adaptive contrast enhancement, and sensors showing smear or noise drift, for both static and dynamic test stimuli and as a function of target contrast. Recently, significant progress has been made in various directions. Dedicated visual and NIR test charts for lab and field testing are available and thermal test benches are on the market. Automated sensor testing using an objective synthetic human observer is within reach. Both an analytical and an image-based TOD model have recently been developed and are being implemented in the European Target Acquisition model ECOMOS and in the EOSTAR TDA. Further, the methodology is being applied for design optimization of high-end security camera systems. Finally, results from a recent perception study suggest that DRI ranges for real targets can be predicted by replacing the relevant distinctive target features by TOD test patterns of the same characteristic size and contrast, enabling a new TA modeling approach. This paper provides an overview.

  11. An Overview of Models of Distributed Innovation. Open Innovation, User Innovation, and Social Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    GABISON Garry; PESOLE ANNAROSA

    2014-01-01

    This report discusses models of distributed innovation and how they differ in their nature, effects, and origins. Starting from Open Innovation, the paper analyses its methodological evolution, some of its applications, and the opportunities to apply it in a social context. Open Innovation has gained traction in the last ten years and because of this popularity, Open Innovation has been endowed with numerous meanings. This paper dives into the large literature associated with Open Innovati...

  12. Optimal Geoid Modelling to determine the Mean Ocean Circulation - Project Overview and early Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecher, Thomas; Knudsen, Per; Bettadpur, Srinivas; Gruber, Thomas; Maximenko, Nikolai; Pie, Nadege; Siegismund, Frank; Stammer, Detlef

    2017-04-01

    The ESA project GOCE-OGMOC (Optimal Geoid Modelling based on GOCE and GRACE third-party mission data and merging with altimetric sea surface data to optimally determine Ocean Circulation) examines the influence of the satellite missions GRACE and in particular GOCE in ocean modelling applications. The project goal is an improved processing of satellite and ground data for the preparation and combination of gravity and altimetry data on the way to an optimal MDT solution. Explicitly, the two main objectives are (i) to enhance the GRACE error modelling and optimally combine GOCE and GRACE [and optionally terrestrial/altimetric data] and (ii) to integrate the optimal Earth gravity field model with MSS and drifter information to derive a state-of-the art MDT including an error assessment. The main work packages referring to (i) are the characterization of geoid model errors, the identification of GRACE error sources, the revision of GRACE error models, the optimization of weighting schemes for the participating data sets and finally the estimation of an optimally combined gravity field model. In this context, also the leakage of terrestrial data into coastal regions shall be investigated, as leakage is not only a problem for the gravity field model itself, but is also mirrored in a derived MDT solution. Related to (ii) the tasks are the revision of MSS error covariances, the assessment of the mean circulation using drifter data sets and the computation of an optimal geodetic MDT as well as a so called state-of-the-art MDT, which combines the geodetic MDT with drifter mean circulation data. This paper presents an overview over the project results with focus on the geodetic results part.

  13. The Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP): Overview and Description of Models, Simulations and Climate Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarque, J.-F.; Shindell, D. T.; Naik, V.; Plummer, D.; Josse, B.; Righi, M.; Rumbold, S. T.; Schulz, M.; Skeie, R. B.; Strode, S.; Young, P. J.; Cionni, I.; Dalsoren, S.; Eyring, V.; Bergmann, D.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Collins, W. J.; Doherty, R.; Faluvegi, G.; Folberth, G.; Ghan, S. J.; Horowitz, L. W.; Lee, Y. H.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Nagashima, T.

    2013-01-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP) consists of a series of time slice experiments targeting the long-term changes in atmospheric composition between 1850 and 2100, with the goal of documenting composition changes and the associated radiative forcing. In this overview paper, we introduce the ACCMIP activity, the various simulations performed (with a requested set of 14) and the associated model output. The 16 ACCMIP models have a wide range of horizontal and vertical resolutions, vertical extent, chemistry schemes and interaction with radiation and clouds. While anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions were specified for all time slices in the ACCMIP protocol, it is found that the natural emissions are responsible for a significant range across models, mostly in the case of ozone precursors. The analysis of selected present-day climate diagnostics (precipitation, temperature, specific humidity and zonal wind) reveals biases consistent with state-of-the-art climate models. The model-to- model comparison of changes in temperature, specific humidity and zonal wind between 1850 and 2000 and between 2000 and 2100 indicates mostly consistent results. However, models that are clear outliers are different enough from the other models to significantly affect their simulation of atmospheric chemistry.

  14. Comparison of global passenger transport models and available literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugem RMH; Vuuren DP van; Wee B van; MNV

    2002-01-01

    Over the last decade transport has been strongest growing sector in terms of worldwide energy demand. As a result, proper modelling of transport has become more important in models describing global climate change. RIVM has developed the energy model TIMER as part of the global integrated assessmen

  15. Comparison of global passenger transport models and available literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugem RMH; Vuuren DP van; Wee B van; MNV

    2002-01-01

    Over the last decade transport has been strongest growing sector in terms of worldwide energy demand. As a result, proper modelling of transport has become more important in models describing global climate change. RIVM has developed the energy model TIMER as part of the global integrated

  16. Model Parameter Estimation Experiment (MOPEX): Overview and Summary of the Second and Third Workshop Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Q; Schaake, J; Andreassian, V; Franks, S; Gupta, H V; Gusev, Y M; Habets, F; Hall, A; Hay, L; Hogue, T; Huang, M; Leavesley, G; Liang, X; Nasonova, O N; Noilhan, J; Oudin, L; Sorooshian, S; Wagener, T; Wood, E F

    2005-02-10

    Model Parameter Estimation Experiment (MOPEX) is an international project aimed to develop enhanced techniques for the a priori estimation of parameters in hydrologic models and in land surface parameterization schemes of atmospheric models. MOPEX science strategy involves three major steps: data preparation, a priori parameter estimation methodology development, and demonstration of parameter transferability. A comprehensive MOPEX database has been developed that contains historical hydrometeorological data and land surface characteristics data for many hydrologic basins in the United States and in other countries. This database is continuing to be expanded to include more basins in all parts of the world. A number of international MOPEX workshops have been convened to bring together interested hydrologists and land surface modelers from all over world to exchange knowledge and experience in developing a priori parameter estimation techniques. This paper describes the results from the second and third MOPEX workshops. The specific objective of those workshops is to examine the state of a priori parameter estimation techniques and how they can be potentially improved with observations from well-monitored hydrologic basins. Participants of these MOPEX workshops were given data for 12 basins in the Southeastern United States and were asked to carry out a series of numerical experiments using a priori parameters as well as calibrated parameters developed for their respective hydrologic models. Eight different models have carried all out the required numerical experiments and the results from those models have been assembled for analysis in this paper. This paper presents an overview of the MOPEX experiment design. The experimental results are analyzed and the important lessons from the two workshops are discussed. Finally, a discussion of further work and future strategy is given.

  17. From EMPD to CFD – overview of different approaches for Heat Air and Moisture modeling in IEA Annex 41

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssens, Arnold; Woloszyn, Monica; Rode, Carsten;

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the recent developments of Heat, Air and Moisture modeling of Whole Buildings, which were carried out within a collaborative project of the International Energy Agency. The project has strived to advance the possibilities to calculate the integrated phenomena of...

  18. From EMPD to CFD – overview of different approaches for Heat Air and Moisture modeling in IEA Annex 41

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woloszyn, Monika; Rode, Carsten; Kalagasidis, Angela S.;

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the recent developments of Heat, Air and Moisture modeling of Whole Buildings, which were carried out within a collaborative project of the International Energy Agency. The project has strived to advance the possibilities to calculate the integrated phenomena of...

  19. Digital Avionics Information System (DAIS): Life Cycle Cost Impact Modeling System (LCCIM)--A Managerial Overview. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goclowski, John C.; Baran, H. Anthony

    This report gives a managerial overview of the Life Cycle Cost Impact Modeling System (LCCIM), which was designed to provide the Air Force with an in-house capability of assessing the life cycle cost impact of weapon system design alternatives. LCCIM consists of computer programs and the analyses which the user must perform to generate input data.…

  20. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in nonlinear systems: An overview and a simple model

    CERN Document Server

    Malomed, Boris A

    2015-01-01

    The paper combines two topics belonging to the general theme of the spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) in systems including two basic competing ingredients: the self-focusing cubic nonlinearity and a double-well-potential (DWP) structure. Such systems find diverse physical realizations, chiefly in optical waveguides, made of a nonlinear material and featuring a transverse DWP structure, and in models of atomic BEC with attractive inter-atomic interactions, loaded into a pair of symmetric potential wells coupled by tunneling across the separating barrier. With the increase of the nonlinearity strength, the SSB occurs at a critical value of the strength. The first part of the paper offers a brief overview of the topic. The second part presents a model which is designed as the simplest one capable to produce the SSB phenomenology in the one-dimensional geometry. The model is based on the DWP built as an infinitely deep potential box, which is split into two wells by a delta-functional barrier at the central poi...

  1. In Vitro Blood-Brain Barrier Models-An Overview of Established Models and New Microfluidic Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, Anette; Antfolk, Maria; Brodin, Birger;

    2015-01-01

    The societal need for new central nervous system (CNS) medicines is substantial, because of the global increase in life expectancy and the accompanying increase in age-related CNS diseases. Low blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability has been one of the major causes of failure for new CNS drug...... candidates. There has therefore been a great interest in cell models, which mimic BBB permeation properties. In this review, we present an overview of the performance of monocultured, cocultured, and triple-cultured primary cells and immortalized cell lines, including key parameters such as transendothelial......-of-the-art models and it was noted that, although they show great promise, these systems have not yet reached beyond the proof-of-concept stage. In general, it was found that there were large variations in experimental protocols, BBB phenotype markers, and paracellular flux markers used. It is the author's opinion...

  2. RECENT RELATED RESEARCH IN TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE MODEL: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Shih-Chih Chen; Shing-Han Li; Chien-Yi Li

    2011-01-01

    Technology Acceptance Model is widely applied to access users’ usage in various information system/information technology areas. Learning the critical role of Technology Acceptance Model can guide researchers to design different users’ interface for different online customers, and consequently achieve high user usage in different application areas. This study reviewed 24 studies to understand the past, now and future of Technology Acceptance Model. We discussed the related studies to ...

  3. Rainfall variability over southern Africa: an overview of current research using satellite and climate model data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.; Kniveton, D.; Layberry, R.

    2009-04-01

    It is increasingly accepted that any possible climate change will not only have an influence on mean climate but may also significantly alter climatic variability. A change in the distribution and magnitude of extreme rainfall events (associated with changing variability), such as droughts or flooding, may have a far greater impact on human and natural systems than a changing mean. This issue is of particular importance for environmentally vulnerable regions such as southern Africa. The subcontinent is considered especially vulnerable to and ill-equipped (in terms of adaptation) for extreme events, due to a number of factors including extensive poverty, famine, disease and political instability. Rainfall variability is a function of scale, so high spatial and temporal resolution data are preferred to identify extreme events and accurately predict future variability. In this research, satellite-derived rainfall data are used as a basis for undertaking model experiments using a state-of-the-art climate model, run at both high and low spatial resolution. Once the model's ability to reproduce extremes has been assessed, idealised regions of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies are used to force the model, with the overall aim of investigating the ways in which SST anomalies influence rainfall extremes over southern Africa. In this paper, a brief overview is given of the authors' research to date, pertaining to southern African rainfall. This covers (i) a description of present-day rainfall variability over southern Africa; (ii) a comparison of model simulated daily rainfall with the satellite-derived dataset; (iii) results from sensitivity testing of the model's domain size; and (iv) results from the idealised SST experiments.

  4. RECENT RELATED RESEARCH IN TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE MODEL: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chih Chen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Technology Acceptance Model is widely applied to access users’ usage in various information system/information technology areas. Learning the critical role of Technology Acceptance Model can guide researchers to design different users’ interface for different online customers, and consequently achieve high user usage in different application areas. This study reviewed 24 studies to understand the past, now and future of Technology Acceptance Model. We discussed the related studies to clarify the extension of Technology Acceptance Model. Besides, the application areas are elaborated including electronic service, mobile data service, self-service technology, electronic learning and so on. Finally, the article concluded the conclusions and future research direction.

  5. Models for Planning. Analysis of Literature and Selected Bibliography. Analysis and Bibliography Series, No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    This review analyzes current research trends in the application of planning models to broad educational systems. Planning models reviewed include systems approach models, simulation models, operational gaming, linear programing, Markov chain analysis, dynamic programing, and queuing techniques. A 77-item bibliography of recent literature is…

  6. Functional evaluation of peripheral nerve regeneration and target reinnervation in animal models: a critical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Xavier

    2016-02-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries usually lead to severe loss of motor, sensory and autonomic functions in the patients. Due to the complex requirements for adequate axonal regeneration, functional recovery is often poorly achieved. Experimental models are useful to investigate the mechanisms related to axonal regeneration and tissue reinnervation, and to test new therapeutic strategies to improve functional recovery. Therefore, objective and reliable evaluation methods should be applied for the assessment of regeneration and function restitution after nerve injury in animal models. This review gives an overview of the most useful methods to assess nerve regeneration, target reinnervation and recovery of complex sensory and motor functions, their values and limitations. The selection of methods has to be adequate to the main objective of the research study, either enhancement of axonal regeneration, improving regeneration and reinnervation of target organs by different types of nerve fibres, or increasing recovery of complex sensory and motor functions. It is generally recommended to use more than one functional method for each purpose, and also to perform morphological studies of the injured nerve and the reinnervated targets. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. An Overview of Mechanical Properties and Material Modeling of Polylactide (PLA) for Medical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Jörgen S; Hayman, Danika

    2016-02-01

    This article provides an overview of the connection between the microstructural state and the mechanical response of various bioresorbable polylactide (PLA) devices for medical applications. PLLA is currently the most commonly used material for bioresorbable stents and sutures, and its use is increasing in many other medical applications. The non-linear mechanical response of PLLA, due in part to its low glass transition temperature (T g ≈ 60 °C), is highly sensitive to the molecular weight and molecular orientation field, the degree of crystallinity, and the physical aging time. These microstructural parameters can be tailored for specific applications using different resin formulations and processing conditions. The stress-strain, deformation, and degradation response of a bioresorbable medical device is also strongly dependent on the time history of applied loads and boundary conditions. All of these factors can be incorporated into a suitable constitutive model that captures the multiple physics that are involved in the device response. Currently developed constitutive models already provide powerful computations simulation tools, and more progress in this area is expected to occur in the coming years.

  8. Literature study report of plasticity induced anisotropic damage modeling for forming processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    A literature study report covering the topics; micromechanics of damage, continuum damage mechanics (gurson model and effective variable concept) and the dependence of damage on strain rate and temperature.

  9. Literature study report of plasticity induced anisotropic damage modeling for forming processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niazi, Muhammad Sohail

    2009-01-01

    A literature study report covering the topics; micromechanics of damage, continuum damage mechanics (gurson model and effective variable concept) and the dependence of damage on strain rate and temperature.

  10. Overview of Modelling and Advanced Control Strategies for Wind Turbine Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Simani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for this paper comes from a real need to have an overview of the challenges of modelling and control for very demanding systems, such as wind turbine systems, which require reliability, availability, maintainability, and safety over power conversion efficiency. These issues have begun to stimulate research and development in the wide control community particularly for these installations that need a high degree of “sustainability”. Note that this represents a key point for offshore wind turbines, since they are characterised by expensive and/or safety critical maintenance work. In this case, a clear conflict exists between ensuring a high degree of availability and reducing maintenance times, which affect the final energy cost. On the other hand, wind turbines have highly nonlinear dynamics, with a stochastic and uncontrollable driving force as input in the form of wind speed, thus representing an interesting challenge also from the modelling point of view. Suitable control methods can provide a sustainable optimisation of the energy conversion efficiency over wider than normally expected working conditions. Moreover, a proper mathematical description of the wind turbine system should be able to capture the complete behaviour of the process under monitoring, thus providing an important impact on the control design itself. In this way, the control scheme could guarantee prescribed performance, whilst also giving a degree of “tolerance” to possible deviation of characteristic properties or system parameters from standard conditions, if properly included in the wind turbine model itself. The most important developments in advanced controllers for wind turbines are also briefly referenced, and open problems in the areas of modelling of wind turbines are finally outlined.

  11. Overview of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6) experimental design and organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyring, Veronika; Bony, Sandrine; Meehl, Gerald A.; Senior, Catherine A.; Stevens, Bjorn; Stouffer, Ronald J.; Taylor, Karl E.

    2016-05-01

    By coordinating the design and distribution of global climate model simulations of the past, current, and future climate, the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) has become one of the foundational elements of climate science. However, the need to address an ever-expanding range of scientific questions arising from more and more research communities has made it necessary to revise the organization of CMIP. After a long and wide community consultation, a new and more federated structure has been put in place. It consists of three major elements: (1) a handful of common experiments, the DECK (Diagnostic, Evaluation and Characterization of Klima) and CMIP historical simulations (1850-near present) that will maintain continuity and help document basic characteristics of models across different phases of CMIP; (2) common standards, coordination, infrastructure, and documentation that will facilitate the distribution of model outputs and the characterization of the model ensemble; and (3) an ensemble of CMIP-Endorsed Model Intercomparison Projects (MIPs) that will be specific to a particular phase of CMIP (now CMIP6) and that will build on the DECK and CMIP historical simulations to address a large range of specific questions and fill the scientific gaps of the previous CMIP phases. The DECK and CMIP historical simulations, together with the use of CMIP data standards, will be the entry cards for models participating in CMIP. Participation in CMIP6-Endorsed MIPs by individual modelling groups will be at their own discretion and will depend on their scientific interests and priorities. With the Grand Science Challenges of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) as its scientific backdrop, CMIP6 will address three broad questions: - How does the Earth system respond to forcing? - What are the origins and consequences of systematic model biases? - How can we assess future climate changes given internal climate variability, predictability, and uncertainties in

  12. Porcine models for the metabolic syndrome, digestive and bone disorders: a general overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litten-Brown, J C; Corson, A M; Clarke, L

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this review article is to provide an overview of the role of pigs as a biomedical model for humans. The usefulness and limitations of porcine models have been discussed in terms of metabolic, cardiovascular, digestive and bone diseases in humans. Domestic pigs and minipigs are the main categories of pigs used as biomedical models. One drawback of minipigs is that they are in short supply and expensive compared with domestic pigs, which in contrast cost more to house, feed and medicate. Different porcine breeds show different responses to the induction of specific diseases. For example, ossabaw minipigs provide a better model than Yucatan for the metabolic syndrome as they exhibit obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension, all of which are absent in the Yucatan. Similar metabolic/physiological differences exist between domestic breeds (e.g. Meishan v. Pietrain). The modern commercial (e.g. Large White) domestic pig has been the preferred model for developmental programming due to the 2- to 3-fold variation in body weight among littermates providing a natural form of foetal growth retardation not observed in ancient (e.g. Meishan) domestic breeds. Pigs have been increasingly used to study chronic ischaemia, therapeutic angiogenesis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and abdominal aortic aneurysm as their coronary anatomy and physiology are similar to humans. Type 1 and II diabetes can be induced in swine using dietary regimes and/or administration of streptozotocin. Pigs are a good and extensively used model for specific nutritional studies as their protein and lipid metabolism is comparable with humans, although pigs are not as sensitive to protein restriction as rodents. Neonatal and weanling pigs have been used to examine the pathophysiology and prevention/treatment of microbial-associated diseases and immune system disorders. A porcine model mimicking various degrees of prematurity in infants receiving total parenteral nutrition has been established to

  13. Kaiser Permanente/Sandia National health care model. Phase I prototype final report. Part 1 - model overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, D.; Yoshimura, A.; Butler, D.; Judson, R. [and others

    1996-11-01

    This report describes the results of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between Sandia National Laboratories and Kaiser Permanente Southern California to develop a prototype computer model of Kaiser Permanente`s health care delivery system. As a discrete event simulation, SimHCO models for each of 100,000 patients the progression of disease, individual resource usage, and patient choices in a competitive environment. SimHCO is implemented in the object-oriented programming language C++, stressing reusable knowledge and reusable software components. The versioned implementation of SimHCO showed that the object-oriented framework allows the program to grow in complexity in an incremental way. Furthermore, timing calculations showed that SimHCO runs in a reasonable time on typical workstations, and that a second phase model will scale proportionally and run within the system constraints of contemporary computer technology. This report is published as two documents: Model Overview and Domain Analysis. A separate Kaiser-proprietary report contains the Disease and Health Care Organization Selection Models.

  14. Reviewing the Literature of Inventory Models under Trade Credit Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Molamohamadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the classical inventory models, it was assumed that the buyer pays for the purchased items as they are received from the seller. In practice, however, the seller allows the buyer to settle the account with a delay period. Such a contract has attracted the attention of many researchers and practitioners in recent years. Thus, this paper addresses the researches with delay in payment and presents pertinent information about developments and extensions of such models to provide an up-to-date review of the studies conducted since 1973 and assist in developing the future researches.

  15. Literature Review of (Q)SAR Modelling of Nanomaterial Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksel, Ceyda; Ma, Cai Y; Liu, Jing J; Wilkins, Terry; Wang, Xue Z

    2017-01-01

    Despite the clear benefits that nanotechnology can bring to various sectors of industry, there are serious concerns about the potential health risks associated with engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), intensified by the limited understanding of what makes ENMs toxic and how to make them safe. As the use of ENMs for commercial purposes and the number of workers/end-users being exposed to these materials on a daily basis increases, the need for assessing the potential adverse effects of multifarious ENMs in a time- and cost-effective manner becomes more apparent. One strategy to alleviate the problem of testing a large number and variety of ENMs in terms of their toxicological properties is through the development of computational models that decode the relationships between the physicochemical features of ENMs and their toxicity. Such data-driven models can be used for hazard screening, early identification of potentially harmful ENMs and the toxicity-governing physicochemical properties, and accelerating the decision-making process by maximising the use of existing data. Moreover, these models can also support industrial, regulatory and public needs for designing inherently safer ENMs. This chapter is mainly concerned with the investigation of the applicability of (quantitative) structure-activity relationship ((Q)SAR) methods to modelling of ENMs' toxicity. It summarizes the key components required for successful application of data-driven toxicity prediction techniques to ENMs, the published studies in this field and the current limitations of this approach.

  16. Taxonomic systems in the field of health care, family care, and child and youth care : A systematic overview of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evenboer, K. E.; Huyghen, A. M. N.; Tuinstra, J.; Reijneveld, S. A.; Knorth, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    Taxonomies of child, youth, and family care are needed for the adequate comparison of the effectiveness and usefulness of care and treatment programs. Until now, no systematic overview has been made of the taxonomies available and their outcomes. The aim of this paper is to systematically summarize

  17. Mental Models for Mechanical Comprehension. A Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    constructionists are concerned with how mental models are formed. Jean Piaget , the first constructionist (for a review, see Piaget , 1970), conceptualized mental...fact about the world without change in the structures, Piaget says the child had assimilated the information. If, on the other hand, a child’s structures...cannot assimilate the new fact in the present form, then the structures must change. Piaget calls this process accommodation. Taken together, these

  18. Numerical modeling of linear friction welding:a literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文亚; 郭嘉; 马铁军; A.Vairis

    2014-01-01

    Linear friction welding (LFW)is a solid state process for joining metals together.While this process was developed originally for titanium alloys (e.g.blisks),over the past decade a number ofmaterials were found to be weldable with LFW. In this review,the current status ofunderstanding and development ofLFW are presented.Particular emphasis has been given to the modeling ofthe LFW process.Finally,opportunities for further research and development ofLFW are identified.

  19. Critical Infrastructure Protection and Resilience Literature Survey: Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    produced the N- ABLE tool which is used to simulate critical infrastructure interdependencies of businesses in the U.S. economy . Idaho National Laboratory...International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management. 2006;6(4-6):423-439. 32. Zale JJ KB. A GIS-based football stadium evacuation model...of IT based disasters on the interdependent sectors of the US economy . In: proceedings from IEEE Systems and Information Engineering Design

  20. Eastern European Political Socialization Modeling Research: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Florela Voinea

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents empirical modeling research on political socialization of the citizens in the new Eastern European democracies. The political socialization issue offers a comparative perspective over the modeling methodologies in analytical paradigms. Eastern European political culture research has revealed features of the electoral behavior and political participation which can be identified in different degrees in all the new democracies in the area: passivity with respect to political activity of parties, elites and institutions, political apathy or lack of reaction to anti-democratic actions, skepticism or distrust in institutions, scarce participation to social movements. Several authors explain the actual political behavior of the Eastern European citizens’ and their low social and political involvement by the (political culture heritage of the communist regimes in which they lived for a long time, and which keeps shaping their political attitudes towards the state, civil society, government and institutions. Research issues in the analysis of political participation are traditionally based on statistics analyses of empirical evidence coming from public surveys. However, scarcity ofempirical data from the communist periode with regard to (political socialization, values and beliefs represent a major obstacle towards a better understanding of the historical roots of current behaviors and attitudes. Scarcity of observational data might be overcome by computational and simulation modeling.

  1. A literature review on inventory modeling with reliability consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inventories are the materials stored either waiting for processing or experiencing processing and in some cases for future delivery. Inventories are treated both as blessings and evil. As they are like money placed in a drawer, assets tied up in investments, incurring costs for the care of the stored material and also subject to spoilage and obsolescence there have been a spate of programs developed by industries, all aimed at reducing inventory levels and increasing efficiency on the shop floor. Nevertheless, they do have positive purposes such as stable source of input required for production, less replenishment and may reduce ordering costs because of economies of scale. Finished goods inventories provide for better customer service. So formulating a suitable inventory model is one of the major concerns for an industry. Again considering reliability of any process is an important trend in the current research activities. Inventory models could be both deterministic and probabilistic and both of which must account for the reliability of the associated production process. This paper discusses the major works in the field of inventory modeling driven by reliability considerations, which ranges from the very beginning to latest works just published.

  2. The Effects of Ghrelin on Energy Balance and Psychomotor Activity in a Goldfish Model: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Sung Kang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goldfish (Carassius auratus has a number of merits as a laboratory animal, and we have extensively identified the mechanisms by which ghrelin regulates food intake in this species. For the first time, we have purified and characterized 11 molecular variants of ghrelin that are present in goldfish intestine and shown that 17-residue ghrelin, the predominant form with n-octanoyl modification, is biologically active and implicated in the regulation of food intake as an endogenous orexigenic factor. Ghrelin and its receptor system are present not only in peripheral tissues such as stomach and intestine, but also in the central nervous system. Recent studies have also revealed that a number of neuropeptides are widely distributed in the brain in key areas of emotional regulation, and their role as modulators of behavioral states is being increasingly recognized. Interestingly, administration of ghrelin induces an orexigenic effect and also modifies locomotor activity, suggesting the involvement of ghrelin in feeding control and regulation of energy balance. Information derived from studies of ghrelin has been increasing, and important results have been obtained from both fish and mammals. Here, we present an overview of the effects of ghrelin on energy balance and psychomotor activity in the goldfish as an animal model. The available data provide an insight into evolutionary background of ghrelin's multiple actions on energy homeostasis in vertebrates.

  3. Principles and Overview of Sampling Methods for Modeling Macromolecular Structure and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt, Ryan; Ma, Buyong; Nussinov, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Investigation of macromolecular structure and dynamics is fundamental to understanding how macromolecules carry out their functions in the cell. Significant advances have been made toward this end in silico, with a growing number of computational methods proposed yearly to study and simulate various aspects of macromolecular structure and dynamics. This review aims to provide an overview of recent advances, focusing primarily on methods proposed for exploring the structure space of macromolecules in isolation and in assemblies for the purpose of characterizing equilibrium structure and dynamics. In addition to surveying recent applications that showcase current capabilities of computational methods, this review highlights state-of-the-art algorithmic techniques proposed to overcome challenges posed in silico by the disparate spatial and time scales accessed by dynamic macromolecules. This review is not meant to be exhaustive, as such an endeavor is impossible, but rather aims to balance breadth and depth of strategies for modeling macromolecular structure and dynamics for a broad audience of novices and experts. PMID:27124275

  4. Principles and Overview of Sampling Methods for Modeling Macromolecular Structure and Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Maximova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of macromolecular structure and dynamics is fundamental to understanding how macromolecules carry out their functions in the cell. Significant advances have been made toward this end in silico, with a growing number of computational methods proposed yearly to study and simulate various aspects of macromolecular structure and dynamics. This review aims to provide an overview of recent advances, focusing primarily on methods proposed for exploring the structure space of macromolecules in isolation and in assemblies for the purpose of characterizing equilibrium structure and dynamics. In addition to surveying recent applications that showcase current capabilities of computational methods, this review highlights state-of-the-art algorithmic techniques proposed to overcome challenges posed in silico by the disparate spatial and time scales accessed by dynamic macromolecules. This review is not meant to be exhaustive, as such an endeavor is impossible, but rather aims to balance breadth and depth of strategies for modeling macromolecular structure and dynamics for a broad audience of novices and experts.

  5. Software Defect Prediction Models for Quality Improvement: A Literature Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Singh Rawat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of meticulous planning, well documentation and proper process control during software development, occurrences of certain defects are inevitable. These software defects may lead to degradation of the quality which might be the underlying cause of failure. In todays cutting edge competition its necessary to make conscious efforts to control and minimize defects in software engineering. However, these efforts cost money, time and resources. This paper identifies causative factors which in turn suggest the remedies to improve software quality and productivity. The paper also showcases on how the various defect prediction models are implemented resulting in reduced magnitude of defects.

  6. UNDERSTANDING E-COMMERCE ADOPTION. LITERATURE REVIEW OF COMPETING MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin SASU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reviews the theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1991, the theory of reasoned action (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975; Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980 and the theory of technology acceptance model (Davis, 1989 in order to better perceive their possible future application in the marketing field, namely in the process of using electronic commerce at the organizational level. While previous empirical studies have focused primarily on one of the theories, in an attempt to rule the advantages and / or disadvantages which would support the findings and hypothesis presented, it is the authors’ belief that all three theories greatly contribute, each one in a unique way. However, several pitfalls in methodology may be encountered, therefore further empirical research is required.

  7. The Development of Appreciation Learning Model of Indonesia Literature Based Critical Discourse Analysis to Improve the Students' Critical Thinking Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustofa; Yuwana, H. Setya

    2016-01-01

    Learning literature should be taken to instill recognition, familiarity and enjoyment of literature as a vehicle for character education. Learning literature must be packaged properly so that students interested in compose competence by developing literature learning models. In an effort to assist students in understanding the success of…

  8. Cost management of IT beyond cost of ownership models : a state of the art overview of the Dutch financial services industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, E; van Maanen, H.

    2002-01-01

    Controlling costs is an essential part of a value driven information technology (IT) management. This paper gives a state of the art overview of IT cost management practice. Both theoretical and an empirical approach are taken. The theoretical approach is based on both general accounting literature

  9. Cost management of IT beyond cost of ownership models : a state of the art overview of the Dutch financial services industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, E; van Maanen, H.

    2002-01-01

    Controlling costs is an essential part of a value driven information technology (IT) management. This paper gives a state of the art overview of IT cost management practice. Both theoretical and an empirical approach are taken. The theoretical approach is based on both general accounting literature

  10. OVERVIEW OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND A THEORETICAL MODEL IN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT FOR LOCAL SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kherbach OUALID

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most literature on supply chain management (SCM focuses on large organizations with global operations employing high-level information technology. This creates a gap in the knowledge of how SMEs use and practice (SCM moreover (SCM is an area of increasing importance among enterprises and of growing academic interest. It is based on the concept of firms as part of multiple organizations oriented to the provision of goods and services for the final customer. the survival of Small to Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs will be determined by their ability to produce more, at a lower cost, in less time, and with few defects. The use of information technology (IT is considered a prerequisite for the effective control of today’s complex supply chains. In our research report we first provide a broad over of (SCM in general for SMEs. We further discuss the evolution of the information technology (IT in SCM and the performance parameters of the supply chain processes. In this research, the aim is to introduce a special (SCMtheoretical model in general SCM models which is appropriate for SMEs’ structure due to their operation capacity, numerical condition and other features. In accordance with this aim, taking the conditions of this sector into consideration, a two-stage model which is appropriate for structure of SMEs in Romania is proposed. The first stage of the model consists of “supply and production centers” and second stage consists of “product and customer center”

  11. OVERVIEW OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND A THEORETICAL MODEL IN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT FOR LOCAL SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kherbach OUALID

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most literature on supply chain management (SCM focuses on large organizations with global operations employing high-level information technology. This creates a gap in the knowledge of how SMEs use and practice (SCM moreover (SCM is an area of increasing importance among enterprises and of growing academic interest. It is based on the concept of firms as part of multiple organizations oriented to the provision of goods and services for the final customer. the survival of Small to Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs will be determined by their ability to produce more, at a lower cost, in less time, and with few defects. The use of information technology (IT is considered a prerequisite for the effective control of today’s complex supply chains. In our research report we first provide a broad over of (SCM in general for SMEs. We further discuss the evolution of the information technology (IT in SCM and the performance parameters of the supply chain processes. In this research, the aim is to introduce a special (SCMtheoretical model in general SCM models which is appropriate for SMEs’ structure due to their operation capacity, numerical condition and other features. In accordance with this aim, taking the conditions of this sector into consideration, a two-stage model which is appropriate for structure of SMEs in Romania is proposed. The first stage of the model consists of “supply and production centers” and second stage consists of “product and customer center”

  12. Literature Evidence on Live Animal Versus Synthetic Models for Training and Assessing Trauma Resuscitation Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Danielle; McNeil, Mary Ann; Hegarty, Cullen; Rush, Robert; Chipman, Jeffery; Clinton, Joseph; Reihsen, Troy; Sweet, Robert

    2016-01-01

    There are many models currently used for teaching and assessing performance of trauma-related airway, breathing, and hemorrhage procedures. Although many programs use live animal (live tissue [LT]) models, there is a congressional effort to transition to the use of nonanimal- based methods (i.e., simulators, cadavers) for military trainees. We examined the existing literature and compared the efficacy, acceptability, and validity of available models with a focus on comparing LT models with synthetic systems. Literature and Internet searches were conducted to examine current models for seven core trauma procedures. We identified 185 simulator systems. Evidence on acceptability and validity of models was sparse. We found only one underpowered study comparing the performance of learners after training on LT versus simulator models for tube thoracostomy and cricothyrotomy. There is insufficient data-driven evidence to distinguish superior validity of LT or any other model for training or assessment of critical trauma procedures.

  13. Clinical and genetic aspects of bicuspid aortic valve: a proposed model for family screening based on a review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Baars

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV is the most common congenital cardiac defect causing serious morbidity including valvular dysfunction and thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA in around 30% of BAV patients. Cardiological screening of first-degree relatives is advised in recent guidelines given the observed familial clustering of BAV. However, guidelines regarding screening of family members and DNA testing are not unequivocal. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the literature on echocardiographic screening in first-degree relatives of BAV patients and to propose a model for family screening. In addition, we provide a flowchart for DNA testing. We performed a PubMed search and included studies providing data on echocardiographic screening in asymptomatic relatives of BAV patients. Nine studies were included. In 5.8-47.4% of the families BAV was shown to be familial. Of the screened first-degree relatives 1.8-11% was found to be affected with BAV. Results regarding a potential risk of TAA in first-degree relatives with a tricuspid aortic valve (TAV were conflicting. The reported familial clustering of BAV underlines the importance of cardiological screening in relatives. After reviewing the available family history, patient characteristics and the results of cardiological screening in relatives, follow-up in relatives with a TAV and/or DNA testing may be advised in a subset of families. In this study we propose a model for the clinical and genetic work-up in BAV families, based on the most extensive literature review on family screening performed until now.

  14. Modeling Parkinson's disease in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus): overview of models, methods, and animal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jun-Won; Ahn, Jae-Bum; Kang, Byeong-Cheol

    2015-12-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small-bodied, popular New World monkey and is used widely in reproductive biology, neuroscience, and drug development, due to its comparative ease of handling, high reproductive efficiency, and its unique behavioral characters. In this review, we discuss the marmoset models in Parkinson's disease (PD), which is a neurological movement disorder primarily resulting from a degeneration of dopaminergic neurons with clinical features of tremor, rigidity, postural instability, and akinesia. The most common PD models involve the administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or 6-hydroxydopamine to study the pathogenesis and to evaluate novel therapies. Following the systemic or local administration of these neurotoxins, the marmosets with very severe Parkinson's symptoms are recommended to be placed in an intensive care unit with artificial feeding to increase survival rate. All procedures with MPTP should be conducted in a special room with enclosed cages under negative-pressure by trained researchers with personal protection. Behavioral tests are conducted to provide an external measure of the brain pathology. Along with several biomarkers, including α-synuclein and DJ-1, non-invasive neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are used to evaluate the functional changes associated with PD. With the recent growing interest in potential and novel therapies such as stem cell and gene therapy for PD in Korea, the marmoset can be considered as a suitable non-human primate model in PD research to bridge the gap between rodent studies and clinical applications.

  15. Literature search for offsite data to improve the DWPF melter off-gas model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, W.E.

    2000-05-04

    This report documents the literature search performed and any relevant data that may help relax some of the constraints on the DWPF melter off-gas model. The objective of this task was to look for outside sources of technical data to help reduce some of the conservatism built in the DWPF melter off-gas model.

  16. Experimental Characterization and Material-Model Development for Microphase-Segregated Polyurea: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujicic, M.; He, T.; Pandurangan, B.; Svingala, F. R.; Settles, G. S.; Hargather, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous experimental investigations reported in the open literature over the past decade have clearly demonstrated that the use of polyurea external coatings and/or inner layers can substantially enhance both the blast resistance (the ability to withstand shock loading) and the ballistic performance (the ability to defeat various high-velocity projectiles such as bullets, fragments, shrapnel, etc. without penetration, excessive deflection or spalling) of buildings, vehicles, combat-helmets, etc. It is also well established that the observed high-performance of polyurea is closely related to its highly complex submicron scale phase-segregated microstructure and the associated microscale phenomena and processes (e.g., viscous energy dissipation at the internal phase boundaries). As higher and higher demands are placed on blast/ballistic survivability of the foregoing structures, a need for the use of the appropriate transient nonlinear dynamics computational analyses and the corresponding design-optimization methods has become ever apparent. A critical aspect of the tools used in these analyses and methods is the availability of an appropriate physically based, high-fidelity material model for polyurea. There are presently several public domain and highly diverse material models for polyurea. In the present work, an attempt is made to critically assess these models as well as the experimental methods and results used in the process of their formulation. Since these models are developed for use in the high-rate loading regime, they are employed in the present work, to generate the appropriate shock-Hugoniot relations. These relations are subsequently compared with their experimental counterparts in order to assess the fidelity of these models.

  17. An overview of the recent approaches for terroir functional modelling, footprinting and zoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudour, E.; Costantini, E.; Jones, G. V.; Mocali, S.

    2014-11-01

    Notions of terroir and their conceptualization through agri-environmental sciences have become popular in many parts of world. Originally developed for wine, terroir now encompasses many other crops including fruits, vegetables, cheese, olive oil, coffee, cacao and other crops, linking the uniqueness and quality of both beverages and foods to the environment where they are produced, giving the consumer a sense of place. Climate, geology, geomorphology, and soil are the main environmental factors which compose the terroir effect at different scales. Often considered immutable at the cultural scale, the natural components of terroir are actually a set of processes, which together create a delicate equilibrium and regulation of its effect on products in both space and time. Due to both a greater need to better understand regional to site variations in crop production and the growth in spatial analytic technologies, the study of terroir has shifted from a largely descriptive regional science to a more applied, technical research field. Furthermore, the explosion of spatial data availability and sensing technologies has made the within-field scale of study more valuable to the individual grower. The result has been greater adoption but also issues associated with both the spatial and temporal scales required for practical applications, as well as the relevant approaches for data synthesis. Moreover, as soil microbial communities are known to be of vital importance for terrestrial processes by driving the major soil geochemical cycles and supporting healthy plant growth, an intensive investigation of the microbial organization and their function is also required. Our objective is to present an overview of existing data and modelling approaches for terroir functional modelling, footprinting and zoning at local and regional scales. This review will focus on three main areas of recent terroir research: (1) quantifying the influences of terroir components on plant growth

  18. An overview of the recent approaches to terroir functional modelling, footprinting and zoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudour, E.; Costantini, E.; Jones, G. V.; Mocali, S.

    2015-03-01

    Notions of terroir and their conceptualization through agro-environmental sciences have become popular in many parts of world. Originally developed for wine, terroir now encompasses many other crops including fruits, vegetables, cheese, olive oil, coffee, cacao and other crops, linking the uniqueness and quality of both beverages and foods to the environment where they are produced, giving the consumer a sense of place. Climate, geology, geomorphology and soil are the main environmental factors which make up the terroir effect on different scales. Often considered immutable culturally, the natural components of terroir are actually a set of processes, which together create a delicate equilibrium and regulation of its effect on products in both space and time. Due to both a greater need to better understand regional-to-site variations in crop production and the growth in spatial analytic technologies, the study of terroir has shifted from a largely descriptive regional science to a more applied, technical research field. Furthermore, the explosion of spatial data availability and sensing technologies has made the within-field scale of study more valuable to the individual grower. The result has been greater adoption of these technologies but also issues associated with both the spatial and temporal scales required for practical applications, as well as the relevant approaches for data synthesis. Moreover, as soil microbial communities are known to be of vital importance for terrestrial processes by driving the major soil geochemical cycles and supporting healthy plant growth, an intensive investigation of the microbial organization and their function is also required. Our objective is to present an overview of existing data and modelling approaches for terroir functional modelling, footprinting and zoning on local and regional scales. This review will focus on two main areas of recent terroir research: (1) using new tools to unravel the biogeochemical cycles of both

  19. Export Barriers for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises: A Literature Review based on Leonidou’s Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Narayanan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to understand the barriers faced by small and medium-sized enterprises in their path to internationalization. The intention of this paper is to provide an overview about the barriers faced by SMEs in their path to internationalization and discuss in detail different approaches taken by SMEs to overcome these barriers. This article is a literature review on the barriers faced by SMEs in internationalization and new approaches in this domain based on Leonidou’s (1995, 1998, 2004 model of export barrier classification. Modern approaches by SMEs are effective in handling most of the traditional challenges posed in internationalization. Firms have evolved in handling internal barriers by finding dynamic solutions from within. SMEs need support from governmental and policy makers to overcome external barriers. Indications on the work to be done in overcoming certain barriers which impede the internationalization of SMEs are more in the context of external barriers. The originality of this work is in creating a framework of barriers and finding solutions to some of the identified barriers.

  20. Additive Manufacturing Modeling and Simulation A Literature Review for Electron Beam Free Form Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seufzer, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is coming into industrial use and has several desirable attributes. Control of the deposition remains a complex challenge, and so this literature review was initiated to capture current modeling efforts in the field of additive manufacturing. This paper summarizes about 10 years of modeling and simulation related to both welding and additive manufacturing. The goals were to learn who is doing what in modeling and simulation, to summarize various approaches taken to create models, and to identify research gaps. Later sections in the report summarize implications for closed-loop-control of the process, implications for local research efforts, and implications for local modeling efforts.

  1. Social scientific environmental research in Finland. An overview on the research fields and literature; Yhteiskuntatieteellinen ympaeristoetutkimus Suomessa. Katsaus tutkimusaloihin ja kirjallisuuteen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viinikainen, T. [ed.

    1997-12-31

    This report presents an overview on Finnish social scientific research on the environment. This research field studies the interaction between man and nature, as well as the causes, solutions and effects of environmental problems, in their social context. Research activities in the field have increased in Finland in the 1990`s. In the resort the following research areas are shortly described: environmental history, environmental philosophy and theology, environmental sociology, environmental research in communication studies, research on environmental politics, economics, geography and urban planning, environmental education, environmental law, and forestry. In each research field the latest projects in different research institutions are also listed. In addition to this, the report contains a bibliography on Finnish social scientific research on the environment between the years 1990 and 1996. (orig.) 98 refs.

  2. Adapting a Multigenre-Response Model for College Readers of American Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jeng-yih Tim

    2006-01-01

    As an English teacher who has been teaching nearly 10 years in a college of southern Taiwan, the presenter reports his successful experience on a course, titled "Selected Readings from American Literature." In this try-out study, the presenter adapts a multigenre-response model via which he encourages Taiwan college students to bravely write down…

  3. Utilizing Natural Structure of the Research Literature in Psychology as a Model for Bibliographic Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivetti, L. James

    1979-01-01

    Offered as an alternative to the search strategy model for bibliographic instruction, the approach to library instruction in psychology which is described involves analysis of the natural structure of the research literature. An example using Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance is presented. Twelve references are cited. (EJS)

  4. Utilizing Natural Structure of the Research Literature in Psychology as a Model for Bibliographic Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivetti, L. James

    1979-01-01

    Offered as an alternative to the search strategy model for bibliographic instruction, the approach to library instruction in psychology which is described involves analysis of the natural structure of the research literature. An example using Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance is presented. Twelve references are cited. (EJS)

  5. Citations, References and the Growth of Scientific Literature: A Model of Dynamic Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauze, Tadeusz K.; Hillinger, Claude

    1971-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented which explains the observed exponential growth rates of citations and references in a scientific discipline. The independent variables are the growth rate of the number of articles published and the decay rate of citation of old literature. (13 references) (Author)

  6. Auditory verbal hallucinations and continuum models of psychosis: A systematic review of the healthy voice-hearer literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, David; Sedgwick, Ottilie; Howes, Oliver; Peters, Emmanuelle

    2017-02-01

    Recent decades have seen a surge of research interest in the phenomenon of healthy individuals who experience auditory verbal hallucinations, yet do not exhibit distress or need for care. The aims of the present systematic review are to provide a comprehensive overview of this research and examine how healthy voice-hearers may best be conceptualised in relation to the diagnostic versus 'quasi-' and 'fully-dimensional' continuum models of psychosis. A systematic literature search was conducted, resulting in a total of 398 article titles and abstracts that were scrutinised for appropriateness to the present objective. Seventy articles were identified for full-text analysis, of which 36 met criteria for inclusion. Subjective perceptual experience of voices, such as loudness or location (i.e., inside/outside head), is similar in clinical and non-clinical groups, although clinical voice-hearers have more frequent voices, more negative voice content, and an older age of onset. Groups differ significantly in beliefs about voices, control over voices, voice-related distress, and affective difficulties. Cognitive biases, reduced global functioning, and psychiatric symptoms such as delusions, appear more prevalent in healthy voice-hearers than in healthy controls, yet less than in clinical samples. Transition to mental health difficulties is increased in HVHs, yet only occurs in a minority and is predicted by previous mood problems and voice distress. Whilst healthy voice-hearers show similar brain activity during hallucinatory experiences to clinical voice-hearers, other neuroimaging measures, such as mismatch negativity, have been inconclusive. Risk factors such as familial and childhood trauma appear similar between clinical and non-clinical voice-hearers. Overall the results of the present systematic review support a continuum view rather than a diagnostic model, but cannot distinguish between 'quasi' and 'fully' dimensional models. Healthy voice-hearers may be a key

  7. A model for overview of student learning: a matrix of educational outcomes versus methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, David C; Marshall, Teresa A; Finkelstein, Michael W; Cunningham-Ford, Marsha A; Straub-Morarend, Cheryl L; Holmes, David C; Armstrong, Steven R; Aquilino, Steven A; Sharp, Helen M; Solow, Catherine M; McQuistan, Michelle R

    2011-02-01

    A concise overview of an institution's aspirations for its students becomes increasingly elusive because dental education has evolving emphases on priorities like critical thinking and adapting to new technology. The purpose of this article is to offer a learner-oriented matrix that gives a focus for discussion and an overview of an institution's educational outcomes. On one axis of the matrix, common educational outcomes are listed: knowledge, technical skills, critical thinking, ethical and professional values, patient and practice management, and social responsibility awareness. On the other axis, methodologies are listed: definition, cultivation strategies, measures (summative/formative, objective/subjective), institutional coordination, and competency determination. By completing the matrix, an overview of the process by which students reach these outcomes emerges. Each institution would likely complete the matrix differently and, ideally, with active discussion. While the matrix can first be used to establish "Where are we now?" for an institution, it can also be a starting point for more extensive matrices and further discussion. Vertical and horizontal analyses of the matrix provide a unique lens for viewing the institution's learning environment.

  8. Palm oil industry: A review of the literature on the modelling approaches and potential solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabid, M. Faeid M.; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal

    2015-12-01

    Palm oil industry plays an important role as a backbone to the economy of a country, especially in many developing countries. Various issues related to the palm oil context have been studied rigorously by previous researchers using appropriate modeling approaches. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to present an overview of existing modeling approaches used by researchers in studying several issues in the palm oil industry. However, there are still limited numbers of researches that focus to determine the impact of strategy policies on palm oil studies. Furthermore, this paper introduces an improved system dynamics and genetic algorithm technique to facilitate the policy design process in palm oil industry. The proposed method is expected to become a framework for structured policy design process to assist the policy maker in evaluating and designing appropriate policies.

  9. The diverse application of laser hair removal therapy: a tertiary laser unit's experience with less common indications and a literature overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, D; Pratsou, P; Szczecinska, W; Lanigan, S; Abdullah, A

    2015-01-01

    We describe the diversity of indications for laser hair removal (LHR) therapy and compare our experience with the literature. Patients' case notes referred to the Birmingham Regional Skin Laser Centre between 2003 and 2011 for laser hair removal, with indications other than hirsutism, were reviewed retrospectively. Thirty-one treated patients with the following indications were identified: hair-bearing skin grafts/flaps, intra-oral hair-bearing flap, Becker's naevus, localised nevoid hypertrichosis, peristomal hair-bearing skin, scrotal skin prior to vaginoplasty in male-to-female (MTF) gender reassignment, pilonidal sinus disease (PSD), pseudofolliculitis barbae (PFB) and hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). Seven patients with the following indications have been reported before: intra-oral hair-bearing graft, naevoid hypertrichosis and peristomal hair-bearing skin. A clinical review of the evidence available for each indication is provided. Our experience and that in the published literature suggest that LHR is a safe, well-tolerated and effective treatment modality for the indications we report, leading to significant symptom and functional improvement with high patient satisfaction. LHR appears effective in the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions such as PSD, PFB and HS, particularly at an early disease stage. We aim to increase awareness of the diversity of laser hair removal indications and add evidence to the medical literature of the wide range of indications for this useful treatment modality.

  10. Overview of resulting tools, guidelines, and instruments. IN-SAFETY Workpackage 3: New models, tools and guidelines for road safety assessment, Deliverable 3.4.

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, A. Bald, S. Benz, T. & Gaitanidou, E. (eds.)

    2009-01-01

    Road safety will most probably be influenced by introducing Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) or Intelligent Vehicle Safety Systems (IVSS). The effects of these systems on road safety can be assessed in different ways. This document gives a short overview of methodologies which allow for assessing road safety effects (Chapter 2), This Deliverable gives an overview of the outcome of work package 3 of IN-SAFETY. Two methodologies have basically been applied: • simulation model • risk an...

  11. Medication errors in the intensive care unit: literature review using the SEIPS model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Karen H

    2013-01-01

    Medication errors in intensive care units put patients at risk for injury or death every day. Safety requires an organized and systematic approach to improving the tasks, technology, environment, and organizational culture associated with medication systems. The Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety model can help leaders and health care providers understand the complicated and high-risk work associated with critical care. Using this model, the author combines a human factors approach with the well-known structure-process-outcome model of quality improvement to examine research literature. The literature review reveals that human factors, including stress, high workloads, knowledge deficits, and performance deficits, are associated with medication errors. Factors contributing to medication errors are frequent interruptions, communication problems, and poor fit of health information technology to the workflow of providers. Multifaceted medication safety interventions are needed so that human factors and system problems can be addressed simultaneously.

  12. The value of predicting restriction of fetal growth and compromise of its wellbeing: Systematic quantitative overviews (meta-analysis of test accuracy literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Stephen C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restriction of fetal growth and compromise of fetal wellbeing remain significant causes of perinatal death and childhood disability. At present, there is a lack of scientific consensus about the best strategies for predicting these conditions before birth. Therefore, there is uncertainty about the best management of pregnant women who might have a growth restricted baby. This is likely to be due to a dearth of clear collated information from individual research studies drawn from different sources on this subject. Methods/Design A series of systematic reviews and meta-analyses will be undertaken to determine, among pregnant women, the accuracy of various tests to predict and/or diagnose fetal growth restriction and compromise of fetal wellbeing. We will search Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, MEDION, citation lists of review articles and eligible primary articles and will contact experts in the field. Independent reviewers will select studies, extract data and assess study quality according to established criteria. Language restrictions will not be applied. Data synthesis will involve meta-analysis (where appropriate, exploration of heterogeneity and publication bias. Discussion The project will collate and synthesise the available evidence regarding the value of the tests for predicting restriction of fetal growth and compromise of fetal wellbeing. The systematic overviews will assess the quality of the available evidence, estimate the magnitude of potential benefits, identify those tests with good predictive value and help formulate practice recommendations.

  13. The state of the art and future opportunities for using longitudinal n-of-1 methods in health behaviour research: a systematic literature overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Suzanne; Quinn, Francis; Vieira, Rute; O'Brien, Nicola; White, Martin; Johnston, Derek W; Sniehotta, Falko F

    2017-12-01

    n-of-1 studies test hypotheses within individuals based on repeated measurement of variables within the individual over time. Intra-individual effects may differ from those found in between-participant studies. Using examples from a systematic review of n-of-1 studies in health behaviour research, this article provides a state of the art overview of the use of n-of-1 methods, organised according to key methodological considerations related to n-of-1 design and analysis, and describes future challenges and opportunities. A comprehensive search strategy (PROSPERO:CRD42014007258) was used to identify articles published between 2000 and 2016, reporting observational or interventional n-of-1 studies with health behaviour outcomes. Thirty-nine articles were identified which reported on n-of-1 observational designs and a range of n-of-1 interventional designs, including AB, ABA, ABABA, alternating treatments, n-of-1 randomised controlled trial, multiple baseline and changing criterion designs. Behaviours measured included treatment adherence, physical activity, drug/alcohol use, sleep, smoking and eating behaviour. Descriptive, visual or statistical analyses were used. We identify scope and opportunities for using n-of-1 methods to answer key questions in health behaviour research. n-of-1 methods provide the tools needed to help advance theoretical knowledge and personalise/tailor health behaviour interventions to individuals.

  14. A systematic literature review of open source software quality assessment models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewumi, Adewole; Misra, Sanjay; Omoregbe, Nicholas; Crawford, Broderick; Soto, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Many open source software (OSS) quality assessment models are proposed and available in the literature. However, there is little or no adoption of these models in practice. In order to guide the formulation of newer models so they can be acceptable by practitioners, there is need for clear discrimination of the existing models based on their specific properties. Based on this, the aim of this study is to perform a systematic literature review to investigate the properties of the existing OSS quality assessment models by classifying them with respect to their quality characteristics, the methodology they use for assessment, and their domain of application so as to guide the formulation and development of newer models. Searches in IEEE Xplore, ACM, Science Direct, Springer and Google Search is performed so as to retrieve all relevant primary studies in this regard. Journal and conference papers between the year 2003 and 2015 were considered since the first known OSS quality model emerged in 2003. A total of 19 OSS quality assessment model papers were selected. To select these models we have developed assessment criteria to evaluate the quality of the existing studies. Quality assessment models are classified into five categories based on the quality characteristics they possess namely: single-attribute, rounded category, community-only attribute, non-community attribute as well as the non-quality in use models. Our study reflects that software selection based on hierarchical structures is found to be the most popular selection method in the existing OSS quality assessment models. Furthermore, we found that majority (47%) of the existing models do not specify any domain of application. In conclusion, our study will be a valuable contribution to the community and helps the quality assessment model developers in formulating newer models and also to the practitioners (software evaluators) in selecting suitable OSS in the midst of alternatives.

  15. Overview of models, methods, and reagents developed for translational autoimmunity research in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagessar, S Anwar; Vierboom, Michel; Blezer, Erwin L A; Bauer, Jan; Hart, Bert A 't; Kap, Yolanda S

    2013-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small-bodied Neotropical primate and a useful preclinical animal model for translational research into autoimmune-mediated inflammatory diseases (AIMID), such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS). The animal model for MS established in marmosets has proven their value for exploratory research into (etio) pathogenic mechanisms and for the evaluation of new therapies that cannot be tested in lower species because of their specificity for humans. Effective usage of the marmoset in preclinical immunological research has been hampered by the limited availability of blood for immunological studies and of reagents for profiling of cellular and humoral immune reactions. In this paper, we give a concise overview of the procedures and reagents that were developed over the years in our laboratory in marmoset models of the above-mentioned diseases.

  16. Cultural competence: a literature review and conceptual model for mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Mario; Nesman, Teresa; Mowery, Debra; Acevedo-Polakovich, Ignacio D; Callejas, Linda M

    2009-08-01

    This article presents a conceptual model of organizational cultural competence for use in mental health services that resulted from a comprehensive review of the research literature. The model identifies four factors associated with cultural competence in mental health services (community context, cultural characteristics of local populations, organizational infrastructure, and direct service support) and redefines cultural competence as the degree of compatibility among these factors. A strength of this model of organizational cultural competence is that it facilitates future research and practice in psychiatric services settings and links culturally competent practices to service parity.

  17. An Overview of ICT Integration in Nigerian Colleges of Education and the Implications on Social Studies Pre-Service Teacher Training Programme: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sani Alhaji Garba

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of digital technology in society has made ICT literacy a basic requirement needed by all to survive the challenge of living in the 21st. The education industry is now faced with the challenge of helping learners to acquire this literacy. Coping with this challenge requires breeding teachers’ with high level of proficiency in ICT literacy and competence. This study investigates the readiness of Nigerian Colleges of Education toward breeding social studies teachers with ICT literacy and competence. It is an exploratory conceptual study that is literature-based (document-based qualitative study approach. The study therefore explore literature to find out the benefit of ICT integration in social studies teacher education; the preparedness of Nigerian Colleges of Education for ICT integration; and the implications of the current state of technology integration on social studies objectives. Findings from this study indicated that, Colleges of education in Nigeria are not readily prepared for effective technology integration; much is still needed in terms of infrastructure and manpower development.

  18. Change of perspective: bibliometrics from the point of view of cited references-a literature overview on approaches to the evaluation of cited references in bibliometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Werner; Bornmann, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Citation analyses normally investigate the number of citations of publications (e.g. by people, institutions or journals) where the information on times cited from the bibliographic databases (such as Scopus or Web of Science) is evaluated. But in recent years, a series of works have also been published which have undertaken a change of perspective and are based on the evaluation of the cited references. The cited references are the works cited in the publications which are used to calculate the times cited. Since these evaluations have led to important insights into science and into scientometric indicators, this paper presents an overview of methods based on cited references, and examples of some empirical results from studies are presented. Thus, the investigation of references allows general statements to be made on the precision of citation analyses, and offers alternatives for the normalization of citation numbers in the framework of research evaluation using citation impact. Via the analysis of references, the historical roots of research areas or the works of decisive importance in an area can be determined. References allow quantitative statements on the interdisciplinarity of research units and the overall growth of science. The use of a selection for the analysis of references from the publications of specific research areas enables the possibility of measuring citation impact target-oriented (i.e. limited to these areas). As some empirical studies have shown, the identification of publications with a high creative content seems possible via the analysis of the cited references. The possibilities presented here for cited reference analysis indicate the great potential of the data source. We assume that there are additional possibilities for its application in scientometrics.

  19. TFAWS: Ares Thermal Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, John R.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a Constellation session at the 2007 Thermal & Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS), an overview of the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and Lunar Lander systems will be given. This presentation provides a general description of the CLV (also known as Ares-I)and Ares-V vehicles portion of the session. The presentation will provide an overview of the thermal requirements, design environments, challenges and thermal modeling examples.

  20. A Brief Literature Overview of Various Routes to Biorenewable Fuels from Lipids for the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bio-products (NAABB) Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, Karl O.; Hallen, Richard T.

    2011-03-29

    Renewable methods of producing transportation fuels are currently the focus of numerous large research efforts across the globe. Renewable fuel produced from algal lipids is one aspect of this research that could have profound implications on future transportation fuel requirements. However, technical challenges remain in several areas of algal-lipid-based fuels. These challenges include the identification and development of robust and productive algal species as well as extraction methods to recover the produced lipids. Not the least of these technical challenges is the conversion of the algae lipids to fungible fuels. This brief literature review focuses primarily on state-of-the-art “downstream” applications of producing fuel from fats and lipids, which can be applied to ongoing research with algae-derived lipids.

  1. Literature Survey of previous research work in Models and Methodologies in Project Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ravinder Singh; Dr. Kevin Lano

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of the existing literature and research carried out in the area of project management using different models, methodologies, and frameworks. Project Management (PM) broadly means programme management, portfolio management, practice management, project management office, etc. A project management system has a set of processes, procedures, framework, methods, tools, methodologies, techniques, resources, etc. which are used to manage the full life cycle of projects. ...

  2. MELSAR: a mesoscale air quality model for complex terrain. Volume 1. Overview, technical description and user's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allwine, K.J.; Whiteman, C.D.

    1985-04-01

    This final report is submitted as part of the Green River Ambient Model Assessment (GRAMA) program conducted at the US Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Environmental Protection Agency. The GRAMA program has, as its ultimate goal, the development of validated air quality models that can be applied to the complex terrain of the Green River Formation of western Colorado, eastern Utah, and southern Wyoming. The Green River Formation is a geologic formation containing large reserves of oil shale, coal, and other natural resources. Development of these resources may lead to a degradation of the air quality of the region. Air quality models are needed immediately for planning and regulatory purposes to assess the magnitude of these regional impacts. This report documents one of the models being developed for this purpose within GRAMA - specifically a model to predict short averaging time (less than or equal to 24 h) pollutant concentrations resulting from the mesoscale transport of pollutant releases from multiple sources. MELSAR has not undergone any rigorous operational testing, sensitivity analyses, or validation studies. Testing and evaluation of the model are needed to gain a measure of confidence in the model's performance. This report consists of two volumes. Volume 1 contains the model overview, technical description, and user's guide, and Volume 2 contains the Appendices which include listings of the FORTRAN code. 51 refs., 31 figs., 35 tabs.

  3. Modeling the adaptation of infrastructures to prevent the effects of climate change: An overview of existing literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chappin, E.J.L.; Van der Lei, T.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is likely to affect our infrastructures and, consequently, the way society interacts with these infrastructures. For instance, higher average temperatures increase the need for electricity delivered through the grid in the summer due to augmented air-conditioning. As the scientific

  4. Modeling the adaptation of infrastructures to prevent the effects of climate change: An overview of existing literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chappin, E.J.L.; Van der Lei, T.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is likely to affect our infrastructures and, consequently, the way society interacts with these infrastructures. For instance, higher average temperatures increase the need for electricity delivered through the grid in the summer due to augmented air-conditioning. As the scientific co

  5. System Dynamics Modeling in Entrepreneurship Research: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Zali

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available System dynamics is a strategic approach for modeling complex systems and analyzing their behavior. Dynamic behavior in entrepreneurial system can be modeled using System Dynamics Approach and dynamic hypotheses about the system`s behavior can be proposed and tested using simulation and computer aided tools. However, as the review of literature shows, studies which link system dynamics modeling with entrepreneurship are rare and fragmented. This article presents a review of studies on the subject followed by integration and discussion on main research issues that have been the focus of previous studies. The main aim of this review is to categorize the available research related to the application of system dynamics modeling in entrepreneurship to integrate research and enable recommendations for future research. The Results reveal that the previous research could be categorized under a two dimensional taxonomy composed of level of analysis and level of modeling. The Level of analysis has three categories: micro level, meso level and macro level. The Level of modeling has six hierarchical levels. This study identifies several gaps in the literature and discusses the future directions in this field.

  6. Overview of Dioxin Kinetics and Application of Dioxin Physiologically Based Phannacokinetic (PBPK) Models to Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The available data on the pharmacokinetics of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in animals and humans have been thoroughly reviewed in literature. It is evident based on these reviews and other analyses that three distinctive features of TCDD play important roles in dete...

  7. Overview of Dioxin Kinetics and Application of Dioxin Physiologically Based Phannacokinetic (PBPK) Models to Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The available data on the pharmacokinetics of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in animals and humans have been thoroughly reviewed in literature. It is evident based on these reviews and other analyses that three distinctive features of TCDD play important roles in dete...

  8. Material models and properties in the finite element analysis of knee ligaments: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio eGalbusera

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Knee ligaments are elastic bands of soft tissue with a complex microstructure and biomechanics which are critical to determine the kinematics as well as the stress bearing behavior of the knee joint. Their correct implementation in terms of material models and properties is therefore necessary in the development of finite element models of the knee, which has been performed for decades for the investigation of both its basic biomechanics and the development of replacement implants and repair strategies for degenerative and traumatic pathologies. Indeed, a wide range of element types and material models has been used to represent knee ligaments, ranging from elastic unidimensional elements to complex hyperelastic three-dimensional structures with anatomically realistic shapes. This paper systematically reviews literature studies which described finite element models of the knee, and summarizes the approaches which have been used to model the ligaments highlighting their strengths and weaknesses.

  9. Software Quality Evaluation Models Applicable in Health Information and Communications Technologies. A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor Ordozgoiti, Alberto; Delgado Hito, Pilar; Guix Comellas, Eva María; Fernandez Sanchez, Carlos Manuel; Garcia Hernandez, Milagros; Lluch Canut, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Information and Communications Technologies in healthcare has increased the need to consider quality criteria through standardised processes. The aim of this study was to analyse the software quality evaluation models applicable to healthcare from the perspective of ICT-purchasers. Through a systematic literature review with the keywords software, product, quality, evaluation and health, we selected and analysed 20 original research papers published from 2005-2016 in health science and technology databases. The results showed four main topics: non-ISO models, software quality evaluation models based on ISO/IEC standards, studies analysing software quality evaluation models, and studies analysing ISO standards for software quality evaluation. The models provide cost-efficiency criteria for specific software, and improve use outcomes. The ISO/IEC25000 standard is shown as the most suitable for evaluating the quality of ICTs for healthcare use from the perspective of institutional acquisition.

  10. Material Models and Properties in the Finite Element Analysis of Knee Ligaments: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbusera, Fabio; Freutel, Maren; Dürselen, Lutz; D’Aiuto, Marta; Croce, Davide; Villa, Tomaso; Sansone, Valerio; Innocenti, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    Knee ligaments are elastic bands of soft tissue with a complex microstructure and biomechanics, which are critical to determine the kinematics as well as the stress bearing behavior of the knee joint. Their correct implementation in terms of material models and properties is therefore necessary in the development of finite element models of the knee, which has been performed for decades for the investigation of both its basic biomechanics and the development of replacement implants and repair strategies for degenerative and traumatic pathologies. Indeed, a wide range of element types and material models has been used to represent knee ligaments, ranging from elastic unidimensional elements to complex hyperelastic three-dimensional structures with anatomically realistic shapes. This paper systematically reviews literature studies, which described finite element models of the knee, and summarizes the approaches, which have been used to model the ligaments highlighting their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:25478560

  11. Stroke: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Stroke: Overview Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Stroke is a leading cause of disability and death ...

  12. Overview of coordination contracts within forward and reverse supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Popiuc, M.N.; Diabat, A.

    2013-01-01

    Contracts are comprehensive coordination mechanisms used in both theory and practice to coordinate various supply chain structures. By focusing on the coordination by contracts of the forward and reverse supply chains, the intention of this paper is to (1) present an overview of contracting...... literature and (2) suggest a classification of coordination contracts and contracting literature in the form of classification schemes. The criteria used for contract classification are transfer payment contractual incentives and inventory risk sharing. The classification schemes are based on the level...... of detail used in designing the coordination models. The paper gives a complete overview of the literature that addresses coordination by contracts, structures and classifies the existing work, and draws a parallel between the research conducted on the forward supply chain and the research on the reverse...

  13. An overview of the central nervous system of the elephant through a critical appraisal of the literature published in the XIX and XX centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, B; Spagnoli, S; Bruno, L

    2001-01-15

    The two species of elephants (Indian: Elephas maximus and African: Loxodonta africana) possess the largest brain among land mammals. Due to its size, the elephant brain is discussed in virtually every paper dealing with the evolution of the central nervous system of mammals and comparative brain size. Studies on the social habits of elephants also deal with the skills and the "intelligence" and brain size of these species. Yet most of the descriptions and conclusions reported in comparative studies rely on second-hand data derived from investigations performed several decades before, often dating as far back as the XIX century. Furthermore, many of the original papers actually describing gross and detailed features of the brain of elephants are either no longer available, are written in languages other than English, or are difficult to trace. The present study gives a short description of the anatomy of the central nervous system of elephants, with special attention to its distinctive features, reports all available literature on the subject, and briefly discusses its origins and rationale.

  14. Eating disorders among fashion models: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zancu, Simona Alexandra; Enea, Violeta

    2016-06-02

    In the light of recent concerns regarding the eating disorders among fashion models and professional regulations of fashion model occupation, an examination of the scientific evidence on this issue is necessary. The article reviews findings on the prevalence of eating disorders and body image concerns among professional fashion models. A systematic literature search was conducted using ProQUEST, EBSCO, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, and Gale Canage electronic databases. A very low number of studies conducted on fashion models and eating disorders resulted between 1980 and 2015, with seven articles included in this review. Overall, results of these studies do not indicate a higher prevalence of eating disorders among fashion models compared to non-models. Fashion models have a positive body image and generally do not report more dysfunctional eating behaviors than controls. However, fashion models are on average slightly underweight with significantly lower BMI than controls, and give higher importance to appearance and thin body shape, and thus have a higher prevalence of partial-syndrome eating disorders than controls. Despite public concerns, research on eating disorders among professional fashion models is extremely scarce and results cannot be generalized to all models. The existing research fails to clarify the matter of eating disorders among fashion models and given the small number of studies, further research is needed.

  15. Literature review report on atomistic modeling tools for FeCrAl alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongfeng Zhang; Daniel Schwen; Enrique Martinez

    2015-12-01

    This reports summarizes the literature review results on atomistic tools, particularly interatomic potentials used in molecular dynamics simulations, for FeCrAl ternary alloys. FeCrAl has recently been identified as a possible cladding concept for accident tolerant fuels for its superior corrosion resistance. Along with several other concepts, an initial evaluation and recommendation are desired for FeCrAl before it’s used in realistic fuels. For this purpose, sufficient understanding on the in-reactor behavior of FeCrAl needs to be grained in a relatively short timeframe, and multiscale modeling and simulations have been selected as an efficient measure to supplement experiments and in-reactor testing for better understanding on FeCrAl. For the limited knowledge on FeCrAl alloys, the multiscale modeling approach relies on atomistic simulations to obtain the missing material parameters and properties. As a first step, atomistic tools have to be identified and this is the purpose of the present report. It was noticed during the literature survey that no interatomic potentials currently available for FeCrAl. Here, we summarize the interatomic potentials available for FeCr alloys for possible molecular dynamics studies using FeCr as surrogate materials. Other atomistic methods such as lattice kinetic Monte Carlo are also included in this report. A couple of research topics at the atomic scale are suggested based on the literature survey.

  16. Neurocognitive Poetics: methods and models for investigating the neuronal and cognitive- affective bases of literature reception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M Jacobs

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A long tradition of research including classical rhetoric, aesthetics and poetics theory, formalism and structuralism, as well as current perspectives in (neurocognitive poetics has investigated structural and functional aspects of literature reception. Despite a wealth of literature published in specialised journals like Poetics, however, still little is known about how the brain processes and creates literary and poetic texts. Still, such stimulus material might be suited better than other genres for demonstrating the complexities with which our brain constructs the world in and around us, because it unifies thought and language, music and imagery in a clear, manageable way, most often with play, pleasure, and emotion (Schrott & Jacobs, 2011. In this paper, I discuss methods and models for investigating the neuronal and cognitive-affective bases of literary reading together with pertinent results from studies on poetics, text processing, emotion, or neuroaesthetics, and outline current challenges and future perspectives.

  17. OVERVIEW OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND A THEORETICAL MODEL IN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT FOR LOCAL SMES

    OpenAIRE

    Kherbach OUALID; Marian Liviu MOCAN; Dumitrache, Cristian; Ghoumrassi AMINE

    2016-01-01

    Most literature on supply chain management (SCM) focuses on large organizations with global operations employing high-level information technology. This creates a gap in the knowledge of how SMEs use and practice (SCM) moreover (SCM) is an area of increasing importance among enterprises and of growing academic interest. It is based on the concept of firms as part of multiple organizations oriented to the provision of goods and services for the final customer. the survival of Small to Medium ...

  18. OVERVIEW OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND A THEORETICAL MODEL IN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT FOR LOCAL SMES

    OpenAIRE

    Kherbach OUALID; Marian Liviu MOCAN; Cristian DUMITRACHE; Ghoumrassi AMINE

    2016-01-01

    Most literature on supply chain management (SCM) focuses on large organizations with global operations employing high-level information technology. This creates a gap in the knowledge of how SMEs use and practice (SCM) moreover (SCM) is an area of increasing importance among enterprises and of growing academic interest. It is based on the concept of firms as part of multiple organizations oriented to the provision of goods and services for the final customer. the survival of Small to Medium ...

  19. NEEDS ANALYSIS MODEL STUDENT LEARNING TO SPEAK FOR EDUCATION STUDY LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus DARMUKI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is the initial part of a doctoral dissertation research conducted with the aim at designing a learning model in teaching speaking according to the needs of faculty and students. The learning model is designed based on curriculum of Indonesian Language Education and Literature study program, IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro, UnirowTuban, and UnisdaLamongan, East Java, Indonesia. The development of this model is done to improve the students speaking skills. Research and development are the steps consist of a needs analysis, document analysis, design models, development models and experimental models. Needs analysis was conducted by researchers to the students of the first semester and three teachers’ and the head of study program of IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro, UnirowTuban and Unisdalamongan to get information related to the needs of students and faculty to model of learning speaking. Needs analysis and documents analysis were collected through questionnaires, interviews, and discussions with students and academics. Document and needs analysis in this study a syllabus, lesson plan (RPP and the model used for this study. This research was carried out by following the nature of the procedures of research and development covering the steps of (1 an exploratory study, (2 the stage of development, (3 the testing phase models, (4 dissemination (Borg and Gall (1983 and Sukmadinata (2008. The results of the analysis of questionnaires, and interviews revealed that lecturers need guidelines for the implementation of learning speaking. Learning model strategies wite that foster self-confidence in speaking is needed by students’.

  20. An overview of modeling methods for thermal mixing and stratification in large enclosures for reactor safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haihua Zhao; Per F. Peterson

    2010-10-01

    Thermal mixing and stratification phenomena play major roles in the safety of reactor systems with large enclosures, such as containment safety in current fleet of LWRs, long-term passive containment cooling in Gen III+ plants including AP-1000 and ESBWR, the cold and hot pool mixing in pool type sodium cooled fast reactor systems (SFR), and reactor cavity cooling system behavior in high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR), etc. Depending on the fidelity requirement and computational resources, 0-D steady state models (heat transfer correlations), 0-D lumped parameter based transient models, 1-D physical-based coarse grain models, and 3-D CFD models are available. Current major system analysis codes either have no models or only 0-D models for thermal stratification and mixing, which can only give highly approximate results for simple cases. While 3-D CFD methods can be used to analyze simple configurations, these methods require very fine grid resolution to resolve thin substructures such as jets and wall boundaries. Due to prohibitive computational expenses for long transients in very large volumes, 3-D CFD simulations remain impractical for system analyses. For mixing in stably stratified large enclosures, UC Berkeley developed 1-D models basing on Zuber’s hierarchical two-tiered scaling analysis (HTTSA) method where the ambient fluid volume is represented by 1-D transient partial differential equations and substructures such as free or wall jets are modeled with 1-D integral models. This allows very large reductions in computational effort compared to 3-D CFD modeling. This paper will present an overview on important thermal mixing and stratification phenomena in large enclosures for different reactors, major modeling methods and their advantages and limits, potential paths to improve simulation capability and reduce analysis uncertainty in this area for advanced reactor system analysis tools.

  1. An Overview of Modeling Approaches Applied to Aggregation-Based Fleet Management and Integration of Plug-in Electric Vehicles †

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Hu, Junjie; Ziras, Charalampos

    2016-01-01

    and systems are seen as useful tools to support the related studies for different stakeholders in a tangible way. This paper presents an overview of modeling approaches applied to support aggregation-based management and integration of PEVs from the perspective of fleet operators and grid operators......, respectively. We start by explaining a structured modeling approach, i.e., a flexible combination of process models and system models, applied to different management and integration studies. A state-of-the-art overview of modeling approaches applied to represent several key processes, such as charging...... management, and key systems, such as the PEV fleet, is then presented, along with a detailed description of different approaches. Finally, we discuss several considerations that need to be well understood during the modeling process in order to assist modelers and model users in the appropriate decisions...

  2. Quality of life data as prognostic indicators of survival in cancer patients: an overview of the literature from 1982 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montazeri Ali

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health-related quality of life and survival are two important outcome measures in cancer research and practice. The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between quality of life data and survival time in cancer patients. Methods A review was undertaken of all the full publications in the English language biomedical journals between 1982 and 2008. The search was limited to cancer, and included the combination of keywords 'quality of life', 'patient reported-outcomes' 'prognostic', 'predictor', 'predictive' and 'survival' that appeared in the titles of the publications. In addition, each study was examined to ensure that it used multivariate analysis. Purely psychological studies were excluded. A manual search was also performed to include additional papers of potential interest. Results A total of 451 citations were identified in this rapid and systematic review of the literature. Of these, 104 citations on the relationship between quality of life and survival were found to be relevant and were further examined. The findings are summarized under different headings: heterogeneous samples of cancer patients, lung cancer, breast cancer, gastro-oesophageal cancers, colorectal cancer, head and neck cancer, melanoma and other cancers. With few exceptions, the findings showed that quality of life data or some aspects of quality of life measures were significant independent predictors of survival duration. Global quality of life, functioning domains and symptom scores - such as appetite loss, fatigue and pain - were the most important indicators, individually or in combination, for predicting survival times in cancer patients after adjusting for one or more demographic and known clinical prognostic factors. Conclusion This review provides evidence for a positive relationship between quality of life data or some quality of life measures and the survival duration of cancer patients. Pre-treatment (baseline quality of life

  3. A Scoping Review on Models of Integrative Medicine: What Is Known from the Existing Literature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eun Jin; Vardy, Janette L; Oh, Byeong Sang; Dhillon, Haryana M

    2017-01-01

    Integrative medicine (IM) has been recognized and introduced into Western healthcare systems over the past two decades. Limited information on IM models is available to guide development of an optimal healthcare service. A scoping review was carried out to evaluate IM models in the extant literature, including the distinctive features of each model, to gain an understanding of the core requirements needed to develop models of IM that best meet the needs of patients. Directed content analysis was used to classify the IM models into systems based on coding schema developed from theoretical models and to identify the key concepts of each system. From 1374 articles identified, 45 studies were included. Models were categorized as theoretical and practical and were subdivided into five main models: coexistence, cooptative, cooperative, collaborative, and patient-centered care. They were then divided into three systems-independent, dependent, and integrative-on the basis of the level of involvement of general practitioners and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners. The theoretical coexistence and cooptative models have distinct roles for different health care professionals, whereas practical models tend to be ad hoc market-driven services, dependent on patient demand. The cooperative and collaborative models were team-based, with formalized interaction between the two medical paradigms of conventional medicine and CAM, with the practical models focusing on facilitating communication, behaviors, and relationships. The patient-centered care model recognized the philosophy of CAM and required collaboration between disciplines based around patient needs. The focus of IM models has transferred from providers to patients with the independent and integrative systems. This may require a philosophical shift for IM. Further research is required to best understand how to practice patient-centered care in IM services.

  4. In vitro models of the blood-brain barrier: An overview of commonly used brain endothelial cell culture models and guidelines for their use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Hans C; Abbott, N Joan; Burek, Malgorzata; Cecchelli, Romeo; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Deli, Maria A; Förster, Carola; Galla, Hans J; Romero, Ignacio A; Shusta, Eric V; Stebbins, Matthew J; Vandenhaute, Elodie; Weksler, Babette; Brodin, Birger

    2016-05-01

    The endothelial cells lining the brain capillaries separate the blood from the brain parenchyma. The endothelial monolayer of the brain capillaries serves both as a crucial interface for exchange of nutrients, gases, and metabolites between blood and brain, and as a barrier for neurotoxic components of plasma and xenobiotics. This "blood-brain barrier" function is a major hindrance for drug uptake into the brain parenchyma. Cell culture models, based on either primary cells or immortalized brain endothelial cell lines, have been developed, in order to facilitate in vitro studies of drug transport to the brain and studies of endothelial cell biology and pathophysiology. In this review, we aim to give an overview of established in vitro blood-brain barrier models with a focus on their validation regarding a set of well-established blood-brain barrier characteristics. As an ideal cell culture model of the blood-brain barrier is yet to be developed, we also aim to give an overview of the advantages and drawbacks of the different models described. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. In vitro models of the blood–brain barrier: An overview of commonly used brain endothelial cell culture models and guidelines for their use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Hans C; Abbott, N Joan; Burek, Malgorzata; Cecchelli, Romeo; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Deli, Maria A; Förster, Carola; Galla, Hans J; Romero, Ignacio A; Shusta, Eric V; Stebbins, Matthew J; Vandenhaute, Elodie; Weksler, Babette

    2016-01-01

    The endothelial cells lining the brain capillaries separate the blood from the brain parenchyma. The endothelial monolayer of the brain capillaries serves both as a crucial interface for exchange of nutrients, gases, and metabolites between blood and brain, and as a barrier for neurotoxic components of plasma and xenobiotics. This “blood-brain barrier” function is a major hindrance for drug uptake into the brain parenchyma. Cell culture models, based on either primary cells or immortalized brain endothelial cell lines, have been developed, in order to facilitate in vitro studies of drug transport to the brain and studies of endothelial cell biology and pathophysiology. In this review, we aim to give an overview of established in vitro blood–brain barrier models with a focus on their validation regarding a set of well-established blood–brain barrier characteristics. As an ideal cell culture model of the blood–brain barrier is yet to be developed, we also aim to give an overview of the advantages and drawbacks of the different models described. PMID:26868179

  6. Trends and biases in global scientific literature about ecological niche models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, U L; Cunha, H F; Nabout, J C

    2015-11-01

    Recently, ecological niche models have been employed to investigate the potential geographical distribution of species. However, it is necessary to analyze the vast number of publications on this topic to understand the trends and biases of research using ecological niche models (ENMs). Therefore, this study aims to investigate trends in the scientific literature regarding studies on ENMs. For the quantitative analysis of the literature on ENMs, we performed a search in the Thomson ISI (Web of Science) database between 1991 and 2013. The search identified 3042 papers containing preselected keywords in either the title or abstract. The results showed that the number of papers has increased over the years (r=0.77, Pplants (402 papers, or 28.36% of the total). There was no relationship between the modeling method used and the taxonomic group studied (χ2=4.8, P=0.15). Finally, the wide availability of biological, environmental and computational resources has elicited the broad use of tools for ENMs. Despite the conceptual discussions of the ENMs, this method is currently the most effective way to evaluate the potential geographical distribution of species, and to predict the distribution under different environmental conditions (i.e., future or past scenarios).

  7. Literature Survey of previous research work in Models and Methodologies in Project Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Singh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a survey of the existing literature and research carried out in the area of project management using different models, methodologies, and frameworks. Project Management (PM broadly means programme management, portfolio management, practice management, project management office, etc. A project management system has a set of processes, procedures, framework, methods, tools, methodologies, techniques, resources, etc. which are used to manage the full life cycle of projects. This also means to create risk, quality, performance, and other management plans to monitor and manage the projects efficiently and effectively.

  8. Literature mining supports a next-generation modeling approach to predict cellular byproduct secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Zachary A.; O'Brien, Edward J.; Feist, Adam M.;

    2017-01-01

    The metabolic byproducts secreted by growing cells can be easily measured and provide a window into the state of a cell; they have been essential to the development of microbiology, cancer biology, and biotechnology. Progress in computational modeling of cells has made it possible to predict...... metabolic byproduct secretion with bottom-up reconstructions of metabolic networks. However, owing to a lack of data, it has not been possible to validate these predictions across a wide range of strains and conditions. Through literature mining, we were able to generate a database of Escherichia coli...

  9. The POLARCAT Model Intercomparison Project (POLMIP): overview and evaluation with observations

    OpenAIRE

    Emmons, L. K; S. R. Arnold; S. A. Monks; Huijnen, V; Tilmes, S.; Law, K.S.; Thomas, J. L.; Raut, J.-C.; Bouarar, I; Turquety, S.; Long, Y; Duncan, B; Steenrod, S.; S. Strode; Flemming, J.

    2015-01-01

    A model intercomparison activity was inspired by the large suite of observations of atmospheric composition made during the International Polar Year (2008) in the Arctic. Nine global and two regional chemical transport models participated in this intercomparison and performed simulations for 2008 using a common emissions inventory to assess the differences in model chemistry and transport schemes. This paper summarizes the models and compares their simulations of ozone and ...

  10. Quicklook overview of model changes in Melcor 2.2: Rev 6342 to Rev 9496

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphries, Larry L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    MELCOR 2.2 is a significant official release of the MELCOR code with many new models and model improvements. This report provides the code user with a quick review and characterization of new models added, changes to existing models, the effect of code changes during this code development cycle (rev 6342 to rev 9496), a preview of validation results with this code version. More detailed information is found in the code Subversion logs as well as the User Guide and Reference Manuals.

  11. Statistical description of tropospheric delay for InSAR : Overview and a new model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merryman Boncori, John Peter; Mohr, Johan Jacob

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on statistical modeling of water vapor fluctuations for InSAR. The structure function and power spectral density approaches are reviewed, summarizing their assumptions and results. The linking equations between these modeling techniques are reported. A structure function model...

  12. Creating historical range of variation (HRV) time series using landscape modeling: Overview and issues [Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane

    2012-01-01

    Simulation modeling can be a powerful tool for generating information about historical range of variation (HRV) in landscape conditions. In this chapter, I will discuss several aspects of the use of simulation modeling to generate landscape HRV data, including (1) the advantages and disadvantages of using simulation, (2) a brief review of possible landscape models. and...

  13. The Attuned Representation Model for the Primary Prevention of Eating Disorders: An Overview for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Cottone, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The Attuned Representation Model of eating-disorder etiology and symptom maintenance is a comprehensive model that can effectively guide prevention and treatment efforts by addressing individual, cultural, and interactive issues. The model integrates the risk factors related to the onset of eating-disordered behaviors (i.e., biological,…

  14. Growth and yield models in Spain: Historical overview, Contemporary Examples and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, F.; Alvarez-Gonzalez, J. G.; Rio, M. del; Barrio, M.; Bonet, J. a.; Bravo-Oviedo, A.; Calama, R.; Castedo-Dorado, F.; Crecente-Campo, F.; Condes, S.; Dieguez-Aranda, U.; Gonzalez-Martinez, S. C.; Lizarralde, I.; Nanos, N.; Madrigal, A.; Martinez-Millan, F. J.; Montero, G.; Ordonez, C.; Palahi, M.; Pique, M.; Rodriguez, F.; Rodriguez-Soalleiro, R.; Rojo, A.; Ruiz-Peinado, R.; Sanchez-Gonzalez, M.; Trasobares, A.; Vazquez-Pique, J.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we present a review of forest models developed in Spain in recent years for both timber and non timber production and forest dynamics (regeneration, mortality,..). Models developed are whole stand, size (diameter) class and individual-tree. The models developed to date have been developed using data from permanent plots, experimental sites and the National Forest Inventory. In this paper we show the different sub-models developed so far and the friendly use software. Main perspectives of forest modelling in Spain are presented. (Author) 107 refs.

  15. An overview of mice models: a key for understanding subtypes of mania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Mauricio Cuartas Arias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Animal models have been broadly used in the study of pathophysiology and molecular and neurochemical pathways in neuropsychiatric diseases. Different approaches have used both consanguineous and non-consanguineous mice models to model behavioral patterns associated with the maniac spectrum. However, the disadvantages of validating clinical and experimental protocols have hindered the replication of these studies. In this article, the advantages and disadvantages of using consanguineous lines and non-consanguineous stocks in mice animal models for the study of mania and its subtypes are discussed. Additionally, new experimental alternatives to advance the pathogenesis and pharmacogenetics of mania using animal models are proposed and analyzed.

  16. Overview of MELCOR 1.8.4: Modeling advances and assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauntt, R.O.; Cole, R.K.; Rodriguez, S.B.; Young, M.F.; Gasser, R.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Modeling and Analysis Dept.; Leonard, M.T.; Ashbaugh, S. [Innovative Technology Solutions, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The newly released MELCOR 1.8.4 reactor accident analysis code contains many new modeling features as well as improvements to existing models. New model additions to the MELCOR code include a model for predicting enhanced depletion rates for hygroscopic aerosols and a model for predicting the chemisorption of Cesium to the surfaces of piping. Improvements to existing models include: upgrading the core module (COR) to handle flow redistribution resulting from the formation of core blockages, improving the thermal hydraulics (CVH) coupling with COR to handle flow reversal situations, and upgrading the fission product scrubbing model to incorporate the SPARC90 code. Significant upgrading of the COR package core degradation modeling was also included in the new code release version. New and improved models are described in the following paper. In addition, a number of assessment analyses were recently performed, focusing on demonstrating the new and improved capabilities in the code. Results of assessment calculations demonstrating code performance for aerosol (pool) scrubbing, hygroscopic aerosol behavior, and core degradation and hydrogen production are presented. Finally, ongoing code developments activities beyond MELCOR 1.8.4 are described. These include models for treating iodine behavior in containment sumps, pools, and atmosphere, and plans for implementing reflood models and the attendant effects on accident progression. Further improvements and additions to the core degradation modeling in MELCOR are described, including the implementation of enhanced clad failure models to treat clad ballooning and eutectic interaction with grid spacers, and expansion of the COR package to allow for improved representation of UO{sub 2}-Zr eutectic behavior, improved melt relocation treatment, greater detail in describing aspects of BWR core degradation (fuel channel, bypass, and lower plenum), and more flexibility in modeling other structures in the core such as core plate

  17. Towards a Model of Teaching Disciplinary Boundaries--History with Literature and Literature with History: Theoretical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieler, Elias; Ekecrantz, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    In this article it is argued that students can gain a better understanding of both inter- and intra-disciplinary boundaries by inquiring into a single salient point where two disciplines may only partially intersect. Building on Marton's variation theory and Vygotsky's notion of articulation, a teaching model is presented and exemplified by…

  18. Modeling language and cognition with deep unsupervised learning: a tutorial overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Marco; Testolin, Alberto; Stoianov, Ivilin P.

    2013-01-01

    Deep unsupervised learning in stochastic recurrent neural networks with many layers of hidden units is a recent breakthrough in neural computation research. These networks build a hierarchy of progressively more complex distributed representations of the sensory data by fitting a hierarchical generative model. In this article we discuss the theoretical foundations of this approach and we review key issues related to training, testing and analysis of deep networks for modeling language and cognitive processing. The classic letter and word perception problem of McClelland and Rumelhart (1981) is used as a tutorial example to illustrate how structured and abstract representations may emerge from deep generative learning. We argue that the focus on deep architectures and generative (rather than discriminative) learning represents a crucial step forward for the connectionist modeling enterprise, because it offers a more plausible model of cortical learning as well as a way to bridge the gap between emergentist connectionist models and structured Bayesian models of cognition. PMID:23970869

  19. Modeling Language and Cognition with Deep Unsupervised Learning:A Tutorial Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eZorzi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Deep unsupervised learning in stochastic recurrent neural networks with many layers of hidden units is a recent breakthrough in neural computation research. These networks build a hierarchy of progressively more complex distributed representations of the sensory data by fitting a hierarchical generative model. In this article we discuss the theoretical foundations of this approach and we review key issues related to training, testing and analysis of deep networks for modeling language and cognitive processing. The classic letter and word perception problem of McClelland and Rumelhart (1981 is used as a tutorial example to illustrate how structured and abstract representations may emerge from deep generative learning. We argue that the focus on deep architectures and generative (rather than discriminative learning represents a crucial step forward for the connectionist modeling enterprise, because it offers a more plausible model of cortical learning as well as way to bridge the gap between emergentist connectionist models and structured Bayesian models of cognition.

  20. Modeling language and cognition with deep unsupervised learning: a tutorial overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Marco; Testolin, Alberto; Stoianov, Ivilin P

    2013-01-01

    Deep unsupervised learning in stochastic recurrent neural networks with many layers of hidden units is a recent breakthrough in neural computation research. These networks build a hierarchy of progressively more complex distributed representations of the sensory data by fitting a hierarchical generative model. In this article we discuss the theoretical foundations of this approach and we review key issues related to training, testing and analysis of deep networks for modeling language and cognitive processing. The classic letter and word perception problem of McClelland and Rumelhart (1981) is used as a tutorial example to illustrate how structured and abstract representations may emerge from deep generative learning. We argue that the focus on deep architectures and generative (rather than discriminative) learning represents a crucial step forward for the connectionist modeling enterprise, because it offers a more plausible model of cortical learning as well as a way to bridge the gap between emergentist connectionist models and structured Bayesian models of cognition.

  1. Sources and delivery of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus to the coastal zone: An overview of global Nutrient Export from Watersheds (NEWS) models and their application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seitzinger, S.P.; Harrison, J.A.; Dumont, E.L.; Beusen, A.H.W.; Bouwman, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the first spatially explicit, multielement (N, P, and C), multiform (dissolved inorganic: DIN, DIP; dissolved organic: DOC, DON, DOP; and particulate: POC, PN, PP) predictive model system of river nutrient export from watersheds (Global Nutrient Export from Watersheds (NEWS)) is prese

  2. Overview of the Cassini in-situ magnetosphere measurements and solar wind modelling during the 2013 Saturn Aurora Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, E. J.; Badman, S. V.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Jinks, S. L.; Provan, G.; Burton, M.; Crary, F. J.; Dougherty, M. K.; Kurth, W. S.; Luhmann, J.; Mitchell, D. G.; Zheng, Y.

    2013-09-01

    The Saturn Aurora Campaign 2013 is a coordinated effort to provide a clearer understanding of Saturn's auroral emissions at multiple wavelengths in the upper atmosphere, and their associated magnetospheric signatures and dynamics. In addition, modelling and Earth-based observations of the solar wind conditions throughout the campaign provide an important insight to the way in which Saturn's magnetosphere responds to the changing conditions in interplanetary space. Structures such as Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) are thought to play a significant role in the modulation of Saturn's auroral emissions via abrupt changes in the dynamic pressure associated with forward shocks at the start of the CIR compression regions. Recent observations from the Cassini spacecraft at Saturn have also taught us that the "magnetosphere oscillations" observed in magnetic field perturbations in the northern and southern hemispheres, which are associated with the SKR modulations in each hemisphere, significantly affect the magnetosphere and auroral emissions. During April and May 2013 a combination of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ultraviolet (UV) instrument the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS), and ground-based infrared (IR) telescopes observed the northern hemisphere auroras, whilst the Cassini spacecraft's remote sensing instruments (the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph-UVIS, the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer-VIMS, and the Imaging Science SubSystem-ISS) made simultaneous (or near-simultaneous) observations of the UV, IR and visible auroras respectively, in one or other hemisphere. At the same time, the "in situ" instruments on board Cassini measured the magnetic field, plasma populations, and radio plasma wave emissions in Saturn's magnetosphere. Here we present an overview of the in situ magnetosphere measurements during the campaign, along with an overview of the predicted solar wind conditions upstream of Saturn from modeling work. We will discuss the evidence

  3. Hanford Supplemental Treatment: Literature and Modeling Review of SRS HLW Salt Dissolution and Fractional Crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A. S.; Flach, G. P.; Martino, C. J.; Zamecnik, J. R.; Harris, M. K.; Wilmarth, W. R.; Calloway, T. B.

    2005-03-23

    In order to accelerate waste treatment and disposal of Hanford tank waste by 2028, the Department of Energy (DOE) and CH2M Hill Hanford Group (CHG), Inc. are evaluating alternative technologies which will be used in conjunction with the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) to safely pretreat and immobilize the tank waste. Several technologies (Bulk Vitrification and Steam Reforming) are currently being evaluated for immobilizing the pretreated waste. Since the WTP does not have sufficient capacity to pretreat all the waste going to supplemental treatment by the 2028 milestone, two technologies (Selective Dissolution and Fractional Crystallization) are being considered for pretreatment of salt waste. The scope of this task was to: (1) evaluate the recent Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 41 dissolution campaign and other literature to provide a more complete understanding of selective dissolution, (2) provide an update on the progress of salt dissolution and modeling activities at SRS, (3) investigate SRS experience and outside literature sources on industrial equipment and experimental results of previous fractional crystallization processes, and (4) evaluate recent Hanford AP104 boildown experiments and modeling results and recommend enhancements to the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP) to improve its predictive capabilities. This report provides a summary of this work and suggested recommendations.

  4. Overview of past, ongoing and future efforts of the integrated modeling of global change for Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, Erwan; Kicklighter, David; Sokolov, Andrei; Zhuang, Qianlai; Melillo, Jerry; Reilly, John

    2016-04-01

    Northern Eurasia is both a major player in the global carbon budget (it includes roughly 70% of the Earth's boreal forest and more than two-thirds of the Earth's permafrost) and a region that has experienced dramatic climate change (increase in temperature, growing season length, floods and droughts) over the past century. Northern Eurasia has also undergone significant land-use change, both driven by human activity (including deforestation, expansion of agricultural lands and urbanization) and natural disturbances (such as wildfires and insect outbreaks). These large environmental and socioeconomic impacts have major implications for the carbon cycle in the region. Northern Eurasia is made up of a diverse set of ecosystems that range from tundra to forests, with significant areas of croplands and pastures as well as deserts, with major urban areas. As such, it represents a complex system with substantial challenges for the modeling community. In this presentation, we provide an overview of past, ongoing and possible future efforts of the integrated modeling of global change for Northern Eurasia. We review the variety of existing modeling approaches to investigate specific components of Earth system dynamics in the region. While there are a limited number of studies that try to integrate various aspects of the Earth system (through scale, teleconnections or processes), we point out that there are few systematic analyses of the various feedbacks within the Earth system (between components, regions or scale). As a result, there is a lack of knowledge of the relative importance of such feedbacks, and it is unclear how policy relevant current studies are that fail to account for these feedbacks. We review the role of Earth system models, and their advantages/limitations compared to detailed single component models. We further introduce the human activity system (global trade, economic models, demographic model and so on), the need for coupled human/earth system models

  5. An overview of methods for developing bioenergetic and life history models for rare and endangered species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, J.H.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Paukert, C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Many fish species are at risk to some degree, and conservation efforts are planned or underway to preserve sensitive populations. For many imperiled species, models could serve as useful tools for researchers and managers as they seek to understand individual growth, quantify predator-prey dynamics, and identify critical sources of mortality. Development and application of models for rare species however, has been constrained by small population sizes, difficulty in obtaining sampling permits, limited opportunities for funding, and regulations on how endangered species can be used in laboratory studies. Bioenergetic and life history models should help with endangered species-recovery planning since these types of models have been used successfully in the last 25 years to address management problems for many commercially and recreationally important fish species. In this paper we discuss five approaches to developing models and parameters for rare species. Borrowing model functions and parameters from related species is simple, but uncorroborated results can be misleading. Directly estimating parameters with laboratory studies may be possible for rare species that have locally abundant populations. Monte Carlo filtering can be used to estimate several parameters by means of performing simple laboratory growth experiments to first determine test criteria. Pattern-oriented modeling (POM) is a new and developing field of research that uses field-observed patterns to build, test, and parameterize models. Models developed using the POM approach are closely linked to field data, produce testable hypotheses, and require a close working relationship between modelers and empiricists. Artificial evolution in individual-based models can be used to gain insight into adaptive behaviors for poorly understood species and thus can fill in knowledge gaps. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  6. Introductory Overviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakeman, A.J.; Hamilton, S.H.; Athanasiadis, I.N.; Pierce, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Introductory Overview articles are designed to provide introductory level background to key themes and topics that caters to the eclectic readership of EMS. It is envisaged that these articles will help to break down barriers to shared understanding and dialogue within multidisciplinary teams, and m

  7. Literature Review of Enterprise Systems Research Using Institutional Theory: Towards a Conceptual Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per

    This paper sets out to examine the use of institutional theory as a conceptually rich lens to study social issues of enterprise systems (ES) research. More precisely, the purpose is to categorize current ES research using institutional theory to develop a conceptual model that advances ES research....... Key institutional features are presented such as isomorphism, rationalized myths, bridging macro and micro structures, and institutional logics and their implications for ES research are discussed. Through a literature review of 180 articles, of which 18 papers are selected, we build a conceptual...... model which advocates for multi-level and multi-theory approaches, and applies newer institutional aspects such as institutional logics. The findings show that institutional theory in ES research is in its infancy and adopts mainly traditional institutional aspects like isomorphism...

  8. Overview of data-synthesis in systematic reviews of studies on outcome prediction models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van den Berg (Tobias); M.W. Heymans (Martijn); O. Leone; D. Vergouw (David); J. Hayden (Jill); A.P. Verhagen (Arianne); H.C. de Vet (Henrica C)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Many prognostic models have been developed. Different types of models, i.e. prognostic factor and outcome prediction studies, serve different purposes, which should be reflected in how the results are summarized in reviews. Therefore we set out to investigate how authors of

  9. Overview of data-synthesis in systematic reviews of studies on outcome prediction models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, T. van den; Heymans, M.W.; Leone, S.S.; Vergouw, D.; Hayden, J.A.; Verhagen, A.P.; Vet, H.C.W. de

    2013-01-01

    Background: Many prognostic models have been developed. Different types of models, i.e. prognostic factor and outcome prediction studies, serve different purposes, which should be reflected in how the results are summarized in reviews. Therefore we set out to investigate how authors of reviews

  10. An Overview of Data Models and Query Languages for Content-based Video Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkovic, M.; Jonker, W.

    2000-01-01

    As a large amount of video data becomes publicly available, the need to model and query this data efficiently becomes significant. Consequently, content-based retrieval of video data turns out to be a challenging and important problem addressing areas such as video modelling, indexing, querying, etc

  11. THE DIVERSITY OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE MODELS. OVERVIEW AT THE COUNTRY LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMED SUBHI AL ESSAWI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on the key features of corporate governance models; first, it highlights the correlation between corporate governance and the economic welfare; secondly it sets forth the characteristics of the models at the country level. The focus is placed on the correlations between the key elements that are intrinsic to the governance evolution in time.

  12. A first overview of an ensemble of regional climate models over South America forced with 1989-2008 ERAinterim reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Enrique; Berbery, Hugo; Samuelsson, Manuel De Castro (1), Roberto García.-Ochoa (1), Patrick; Jacob, Armelle Reca C.-Remedio (4), Daniela; Rojas, Maisa; Menéndez, Anna Sorensson (6, 1), Claudio; Porfirio Rocha, Rosmeri; Solman, Silvina; Chou, Jose Marengo (8), Sin Chan; (9), Hervé Le Treut, Laurent Li

    2010-05-01

    The EU FP7 CLARIS LPB project (A Europe-South America Network for Climate Change Assessment and Impact Studies in La Plata Basin, 2008-2012) aims at predicting the climate change impact on hydroclimate and extreme events over La Plata Basin. As the first step to reach this goal, a group of regional climate models (RCMs) forced by 1989-2008 ERAinterim reanalysis have simulated the South American continent with 50km of horizontal resolution. The domains of the models are large enough to include the one proposed by CORDEX (A COordinated Regional climate Downscaling EXperiment). One of the most challenging climatic features of the South American continent is the large uncertainties shown by the global climate model simulations included in the last IPCC (2007). Within this regional climate model intercomparison exercise, the analysis of the spread in their results, related to their physical parameterizations, could be a key aspect that may help to understand the global models'shortcomings. In a first overview, seasonal mean temperature and precipitation are compared for each RCM available against CRU observations to evaluate their capability to describe the main climatic features of the continent. Some metrics were developed for a more specific analysis of the main atmospheric processes involved in the region, with special attention to the hydrological cycle and extreme events. This validation analysis of present climate period is also an essential first step issue needed for the following modelling studies of future climatic conditions that are going to be performed as a second step inside the CLARIS-LPB project.

  13. Overview of the Mathematical and Empirical Receptor Models Workshop (Quail Roost II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert K.; Pace, Thompson G.

    On 14-17 March 1982, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sponsored the Mathematical and Empirical Receptor Models Workshop (Quail Roost II) at the Quail Roost Conference Center, Rougemont, NC. Thirty-five scientists were invited to participate. The objective of the workshop was to document and compare results of source apportionment analyses of simulated and real aerosol data sets. The simulated data set was developed by scientists from the National Bureau of Standards. It consisted of elemental mass data generated using a dispersion model that simulated transport of aerosols from a variety of sources to a receptor site. The real data set contained the mass, elemental, and ionic species concentrations of samples obtained in 18 consecutive 12-h sampling periods in Houston, TX. Some participants performed additional analyses of the Houston filters by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, or light microscopy. Ten groups analyzed these data sets using a variety of modeling procedures. The results of the modeling exercises were evaluated and structured in a manner that permitted model intercomparisons. The major conclusions and recommendations derived from the intercomparisons were: (1) using aerosol elemental composition data, receptor models can resolve major emission sources, but additional analyses (including light microscopy and X-ray diffraction) significantly increase the number of sources that can be resolved; (2) simulated data sets that contain up to 6 dissimilar emission sources need to be generated, so that different receptor models can be adequately compared; (3) source apportionment methods need to be modified to incorporate a means of apportioning such aerosol species as sulfate and nitrate formed from SO 2 and NO, respectively, because current models tend to resolve particles into chemical species rather than to deduce their sources and (4) a source signature library may be required to be compiled for each airshed in order to

  14. Research in corporate communication: An overview of an emerging field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B.M. van Riel (Cees)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractVan Riel provides an overview of research in corporate communication, focusing on achievements found in the international academic literature in both communication and business school disciplines.

  15. Research in corporate communication: An overview of an emerging field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B.M. van Riel (Cees)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractVan Riel provides an overview of research in corporate communication, focusing on achievements found in the international academic literature in both communication and business school disciplines.

  16. RETRACTED: An overview of mathematical modeling of electrochemical supercapacitors/ultracapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ike, Innocent S.; Sigalas, Iakovos; Iyuke, Sunny; Ozoemena, Kenneth I.

    2015-01-01

    This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief, with agreement of the authors: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal. Substantial parts of this review paper are similar to the texts of existing papers in the literature. The co-authors state that the corresponding author submitted the manuscript without their approval. The following works are affected: IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 26 (2011) 3472-3480, http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2011.2161096 The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 4 (2013) 1260-1267, http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jz4002967 The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 4 (2013), 3367-3376, http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jz4014163 Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 16 (2014), 6519-6538, http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c3cp55186e The Authors unreservedly apologise for this violation of the publishing policies, and offer sincere apologies to the parties affected. The journal apologises to its readers and the authors that the overlap was not detected during the submission and review process.

  17. Standard model extensions for PV electron scattering, g-2, EDM: Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Jens

    2011-01-01

    I review how various extensions of the Standard Model, in particular supersymmetry and extra neutral gauge bosons, may affect low energy observables, including parity-violating electron scattering and related observables, as well as electric and magnetic dipole moments.

  18. An Overview of Generalized Gamma Mittag–Leffler Model and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema S. Nair

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, probability models with thicker or thinner tails have gained more importance among statisticians and physicists because of their vast applications in random walks, Lévi flights, financial modeling, etc. In this connection, we introduce here a new family of generalized probability distributions associated with the Mittag–Leffler function. This family gives an extension to the generalized gamma family, opens up a vast area of potential applications and establishes connections to the topics of fractional calculus, nonextensive statistical mechanics, Tsallis statistics, superstatistics, the Mittag–Leffler stochastic process, the Lévi process and time series. Apart from examining the properties, the matrix-variate analogue and the connection to fractional calculus are also explained. By using the pathway model of Mathai, the model is further generalized. Connections to Mittag–Leffler distributions and corresponding autoregressive processes are also discussed.

  19. Pathway models for analysing and managing the introduction of alien plant pests - an overview and categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, J.C.; Pautasso, M.; Venette, R.C.; Robinet, C.; Hemerik, L.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Schans, J.; Werf, van der W.

    2016-01-01

    Alien plant pests are introduced into new areas at unprecedented rates through global trade, transport, tourism and travel, threatening biodiversity and agriculture. Increasingly, the movement and introduction of pests is analysed with pathway models to provide risk managers with quantitative

  20. An Overview of Path Analysis: Mediation Analysis Concept in Structural Equation Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Jenatabadi, Hashem Salarzadeh

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a tutorial discussion on path analysis structure with concept of structural equation modelling (SEM). The paper delivers an introduction to path analysis technique and explain to how to deal with analyzing the data with this kind of statistical methodology especially with a mediator in the research model. The intended audience is statisticians, mathematicians, or methodologists who either know about SEM or simple basic statistics especially in regression and linear/nonline...

  1. Environmental Barrier Coating (EBC) Durability Modeling; An Overview and Preliminary Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Aziz, A.; Bhatt, R. T.; Grady, J. E.; Zhu, D.

    2012-01-01

    A study outlining a fracture mechanics based model that is being developed to investigate crack growth and spallation of environmental barrier coating (EBC) under thermal cycling conditions is presented. A description of the current plan and a model to estimate thermal residual stresses in the coating and preliminary fracture mechanics concepts for studying crack growth in the coating are also discussed. A road map for modeling life and durability of the EBC and the results of FEA model(s) developed for predicting thermal residual stresses and the cracking behavior of the coating are generated and described. Further initial assessment and preliminary results showed that developing a comprehensive EBC life prediction model incorporating EBC cracking, degradation and spalling mechanism under stress and temperature gradients typically seen in turbine components is difficult. This is basically due to mismatch in thermal expansion difference between sub-layers of EBC as well as between EBC and substrate, diffusion of moisture and oxygen though the coating, and densification of the coating during operating conditions as well as due to foreign object damage, the EBC can also crack and spall from the substrate causing oxidation and recession and reducing the design life of the EBC coated substrate.

  2. The Oriented Difference of Gaussians (ODOG) model of brightness perception: Overview and executable Mathematica notebooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, Barbara; Cope, Davis; McCourt, Mark E

    2016-03-01

    The Oriented Difference of Gaussians (ODOG) model of brightness (perceived intensity) by Blakeslee and McCourt (Vision Research 39:4361-4377, 1999), which is based on linear spatial filtering by oriented receptive fields followed by contrast normalization, has proven highly successful in parsimoniously predicting the perceived intensity (brightness) of regions in complex visual stimuli such as White's effect, which had been believed to defy filter-based explanations. Unlike competing explanations such as anchoring theory, filling-in, edge-integration, or layer decomposition, the spatial filtering approach embodied by the ODOG model readily accounts for the often overlooked but ubiquitous gradient structure of induction which, while most striking in grating induction, also occurs within the test fields of classical simultaneous brightness contrast and the White stimulus. Also, because the ODOG model does not require defined regions of interest, it is generalizable to any stimulus, including natural images. The ODOG model has motivated other researchers to develop modified versions (LODOG and FLODOG), and has served as an important counterweight and proof of concept to constrain high-level theories which rely on less well understood or justified mechanisms such as unconscious inference, transparency, perceptual grouping, and layer decomposition. Here we provide a brief but comprehensive description of the ODOG model as it has been implemented since 1999, as well as working Mathematica (Wolfram, Inc.) notebooks which users can employ to generate ODOG model predictions for their own stimuli.

  3. Overview of the first HyMeX Special Observation Period over Italy: observations and model results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ferretti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the first Hymex campaign (5 September–6 November 2012 referred to as Special Observation Period (SOP-1, dedicated to heavy precipitation events and flash floods in Western Mediterranean, three Italian hydro-meteorological monitoring sites were activated: Liguria-Tuscany, North-Eastern Italy and Central Italy. The extraordinary deployment of advanced instrumentation, including instrumented aircrafts, and the use of several different operational weather forecast models has allowed an unprecedented monitoring and analysis of high impact weather events around the Italian hydro-meteorological sites. This activity has seen the strict collaboration between the Italian scientific and operational communities. In this paper, an overview of the Italian organization during the SOP-1 is provided, and selected Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs are described. A significant event for each Italian target area is chosen for this analysis: IOP2 (12–13 September 2012 in North-Eastern Italy, IOP13 (15–16 October 2012 in Central Italy and IOP19 (3–5 November 2012 in Liguria and Tuscany. For each IOP the meteorological characteristics, together with special observations and weather forecasts, are analyzed with the aim of highlighting strengths and weaknesses of the forecast modeling systems. Moreover, using one of the three events, the usefulness of different operational chains is highlighted.

  4. An Overview of BCC Climate System Model Development and Application for Climate Change Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Tongwen; WU Fanghua; LIU Yiming; ZHANG Fang; SHI Xueli; CHU Min; ZHANG Jie; FANG Yongjie; WANG Fang; LU Yixiong; LIU Xiangwen; SONG Lianchun; WEI Min; LIU Qianxia; ZHOU Wenyan; DONG Min; ZHAO Qigeng; JI Jinjun; Laurent LI; ZHOU Mingyu; LI Weiping; WANG Zaizhi; ZHANG Hua; XIN Xiaoge; ZHANG Yanwu; ZHANG Li; LI Jianglong

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews recent progress in the development of the Beijing Climate Center Climate System Model (BCC-CSM) and its four component models (atmosphere, land surface, ocean, and sea ice). Two recent versions are described: BCC-CSM1.1 with coarse resolution (approximately 2.8125◦×2.8125◦) and BCC-CSM1.1(m) with moderate resolution (approximately 1.125◦×1.125◦). Both versions are fully cou-pled climate-carbon cycle models that simulate the global terrestrial and oceanic carbon cycles and include dynamic vegetation. Both models well simulate the concentration and temporal evolution of atmospheric CO2 during the 20th century with anthropogenic CO2 emissions prescribed. Simulations using these two versions of the BCC-CSM model have been contributed to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase fi ve (CMIP5) in support of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). These simulations are available for use by both national and international communities for investigating global climate change and for future climate pro jections. Simulations of the 20th century climate using BCC-CSM1.1 and BCC-CSM1.1(m) are presented and validated, with particular focus on the spatial pattern and seasonal evolution of precipitation and surface air temperature on global and continental scales. Simulations of climate during the last millennium and pro jections of climate change during the next century are also presented and discussed. Both BCC-CSM1.1 and BCC-CSM1.1(m) perform well when compared with other CMIP5 models. Preliminary analyses in-dicate that the higher resolution in BCC-CSM1.1(m) improves the simulation of mean climate relative to BCC-CSM1.1, particularly on regional scales.

  5. Change management - an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * The need for systematic and comprehensive change management in health that involves everybody * Various change management types, models, best practices, and techniques, and how to plan and execute change management * Some of the common mistakes with change management in healthcare.

  6. The SCEC Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME) - An Overview of its Architecture and Current Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Minster, B.; Moore, R.; Kesselman, C.; SCEC ITR Collaboration

    2004-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC), in collaboration with the San Diego Supercomputer Center, the USC Information Sciences Institute, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology, and the U.S. Geological Survey, is developing the Southern California Earthquake Center Community Modeling Environment (CME) under a five-year grant from the National Science Foundation's Information Technology Research (ITR) Program jointly funded by the Geosciences and Computer and Information Science & Engineering Directorates. The CME system is an integrated geophysical simulation modeling framework that automates the process of selecting, configuring, and executing models of earthquake systems. During the Project's first three years, we have performed fundamental geophysical and information technology research and have also developed substantial system capabilities, software tools, and data collections that can help scientist perform systems-level earthquake science. The CME system provides collaborative tools to facilitate distributed research and development. These collaborative tools are primarily communication tools, providing researchers with access to information in ways that are convenient and useful. The CME system provides collaborators with access to significant computing and storage resources. The computing resources of the Project include in-house servers, Project allocations on USC High Performance Computing Linux Cluster, as well as allocations on NPACI Supercomputers and the TeraGrid. The CME system provides access to SCEC community geophysical models such as the Community Velocity Model, Community Fault Model, Community Crustal Motion Model, and the Community Block Model. The organizations that develop these models often provide access to them so it is not necessary to use the CME system to access these models. However, in some cases, the CME system supplements the SCEC community models with utility codes that make it easier to use or access

  7. Cracked tooth syndrome: Overview of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Shamimul; Singh, Kuldeep; Salati, Naseer

    2015-01-01

    Pain is defined as an “unpleasant sensory and emotional feeling which is associated with actual or potential injury of tissue or expressed in terms of such injury.” Tooth pain usually refers to pain around the teeth or jaws mainly as a result of a dental condition. Mostly, toothaches are caused by a carious cavity, a broken tooth, an exposed tooth root or gum disease. The toothache may sometimes be the result of radiating pain from structures in the vicinity of tooth and jaws (cardiac pain, e...

  8. A prospective overview of the essential requirements in molecular modeling for nanomedicine design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Khan, Riaz A; Choonara, Yahya E; Pillay, Viness

    2013-05-01

    Nanotechnology has presented many new challenges and opportunities in the area of nanomedicine design. The issues related to nanoconjugation, nanosystem-mediated targeted drug delivery, transitional stability of nanovehicles, the integrity of drug transport, drug-delivery mechanisms and chemical structural design require a pre-estimated and determined course of assumptive actions with property and characteristic estimations for optimal nanomedicine design. Molecular modeling in nanomedicine encompasses these pre-estimations and predictions of pertinent design data via interactive computographic software. Recently, an increasing amount of research has been reported where specialized software is being developed and employed in an attempt to bridge the gap between drug discovery, materials science and biology. This review provides an assimilative and concise incursion into the current and future strategies of molecular-modeling applications in nanomedicine design and aims to describe the utilization of molecular models and theoretical-chemistry computographic techniques for expansive nanomedicine design and development.

  9. A Complex Overview of Modeling and Control of the Rotary Single Inverted Pendulum System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavka Jadlovska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present an in-depth survey of the rotary single inverted pendulum system from a control engineer's point of view. The scope of the survey includes modeling and open-loop analysis of the system as well as design and verification of balancing and swing up controllers which ensure successful stabilization of the pendulum in the unstable upright equilibrium. All relevant tasks and simulation experiments are conducted using the appropriate function blocks, GUI applications and demonstration schemes from a Simulink block library developed by the authors of the paper. The library is called Inverted Pendula Modeling and Control (IPMaC and offers comprehensive program support for modeling, simulation and control of classical (linear and rotary inverted pendulum systems.

  10. Identifying overrepresented concepts in gene lists from literature: a statistical approach based on Poisson mixture model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhai Chengxiang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale genomic studies often identify large gene lists, for example, the genes sharing the same expression patterns. The interpretation of these gene lists is generally achieved by extracting concepts overrepresented in the gene lists. This analysis often depends on manual annotation of genes based on controlled vocabularies, in particular, Gene Ontology (GO. However, the annotation of genes is a labor-intensive process; and the vocabularies are generally incomplete, leaving some important biological domains inadequately covered. Results We propose a statistical method that uses the primary literature, i.e. free-text, as the source to perform overrepresentation analysis. The method is based on a statistical framework of mixture model and addresses the methodological flaws in several existing programs. We implemented this method within a literature mining system, BeeSpace, taking advantage of its analysis environment and added features that facilitate the interactive analysis of gene sets. Through experimentation with several datasets, we showed that our program can effectively summarize the important conceptual themes of large gene sets, even when traditional GO-based analysis does not yield informative results. Conclusions We conclude that the current work will provide biologists with a tool that effectively complements the existing ones for overrepresentation analysis from genomic experiments. Our program, Genelist Analyzer, is freely available at: http://workerbee.igb.uiuc.edu:8080/BeeSpace/Search.jsp

  11. Commitment to Sport and Exercise: Re-examining the Literature for a Practical and Parsimonious Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A commitment to physical activity is necessary for personal health, and is a primary goal of physical activity practitioners. Effective practitioners rely on theory and research as a guide to best practices. Thus, sound theory, which is both practical and parsimonious, is a key to effective practice. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature in search of such a theory - one that applies to and explains commitment to physical activity in the form of sport and exercise for youths and adults. The Sport Commitment Model has been commonly used to study commitment to sport and has more recently been applied to the exercise context. In this paper, research using the Sport Commitment Model is reviewed relative to its utility in both the sport and exercise contexts. Through this process, the relevance of the Investment Model for study of physical activity commitment emerged, and a more parsimonious framework for studying of commitment to physical activity is suggested. Lastly, links between the models of commitment and individuals' participation motives in physical activity are suggested and practical implications forwarded. PMID:23412904

  12. Commitment to sport and exercise: re-examining the literature for a practical and parsimonious model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lavon

    2013-01-01

    A commitment to physical activity is necessary for personal health, and is a primary goal of physical activity practitioners. Effective practitioners rely on theory and research as a guide to best practices. Thus, sound theory, which is both practical and parsimonious, is a key to effective practice. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature in search of such a theory - one that applies to and explains commitment to physical activity in the form of sport and exercise for youths and adults. The Sport Commitment Model has been commonly used to study commitment to sport and has more recently been applied to the exercise context. In this paper, research using the Sport Commitment Model is reviewed relative to its utility in both the sport and exercise contexts. Through this process, the relevance of the Investment Model for study of physical activity commitment emerged, and a more parsimonious framework for studying of commitment to physical activity is suggested. Lastly, links between the models of commitment and individuals' participation motives in physical activity are suggested and practical implications forwarded.

  13. Metabolically Coupled Replicator Systems: Overview of an RNA-world model concept of prebiotic evolution on mineral surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czárán, Tamás; Könnyű, Balázs; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2015-09-21

    Metabolically Coupled Replicator Systems (MCRS) are a family of models implementing a simple, physico-chemically and ecologically feasible scenario for the first steps of chemical evolution towards life. Evolution in an abiotically produced RNA-population sets in as soon as any one of the RNA molecules become autocatalytic by engaging in template directed self-replication from activated monomers, and starts increasing exponentially. Competition for the finite external supply of monomers ignites selection favouring RNA molecules with catalytic activity helping self-replication by any possible means. One way of providing such autocatalytic help is to become a replicase ribozyme. An additional way is through increasing monomer supply by contributing to monomer synthesis from external resources, i.e., by evolving metabolic enzyme activity. Retroevolution may build up an increasingly autotrophic, cooperating community of metabolic ribozymes running an increasingly complicated and ever more efficient metabolism. Maintaining such a cooperating community of metabolic replicators raises two serious ecological problems: one is keeping the system coexistent in spite of the different replicabilities of the cooperating replicators; the other is constraining parasitism, i.e., keeping "cheaters" in check. Surface-bound MCRS provide an automatic solution to both problems: coexistence and parasite resistance are the consequences of assuming the local nature of metabolic interactions. In this review we present an overview of results published in previous articles, showing that these effects are, indeed, robust in different MCRS implementations, by considering different environmental setups and realistic chemical details in a few different models. We argue that the MCRS model framework naturally offers a suitable starting point for the future modelling of membrane evolution and extending the theory to cover the emergence of the first protocell in a self-consistent manner. The

  14. Global Overview of the Models of Physiotherapy Practice: A need for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bello

    Department of Physiotherapy, School of Allied Health Sciences, College of ... biopsychosocial models are the main treatment approaches in medical ... other hand, explains the persistence of pain caused by the .... beyond physical or functional restoration of persons with ... For instance, during weight-bearing exercises,.

  15. Robustness studies in covariance structure modeling - An overview and a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, A

    1998-01-01

    In covariance structure modeling, several estimation methods are available. The robustness of an estimator against specific violations of assumptions can be determined empirically by means of a Monte Carlo study. Many such studies in covariance structure analysis have been published, but the conclus

  16. Robustness studies in covariance structure modeling - An overview and a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, A

    1998-01-01

    In covariance structure modeling, several estimation methods are available. The robustness of an estimator against specific violations of assumptions can be determined empirically by means of a Monte Carlo study. Many such studies in covariance structure analysis have been published, but the conclus

  17. Robustness studies in covariance structure modeling - An overview and a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, A

    In covariance structure modeling, several estimation methods are available. The robustness of an estimator against specific violations of assumptions can be determined empirically by means of a Monte Carlo study. Many such studies in covariance structure analysis have been published, but the

  18. Overview of the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast Version 3 (UCERF3) Time-Independent Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, E. H.; Arrowsmith, R.; Biasi, G. P.; Bird, P.; Dawson, T. E.; Felzer, K. R.; Jackson, D. D.; Johnson, K. M.; Jordan, T. H.; Madugo, C. M.; Michael, A. J.; Milner, K. R.; Page, M. T.; Parsons, T.; Powers, P.; Shaw, B. E.; Thatcher, W. R.; Weldon, R. J.; Zeng, Y.

    2013-12-01

    We present the time-independent component of the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast, Version 3 (UCERF3), where the primary achievements have been to relax fault segmentation and include multi-fault ruptures, both limitations of UCERF2. The rates of all earthquakes are solved for simultaneously, and from a broader range of data, using a system-level 'grand inversion' that is both conceptually simple and extensible. The inverse problem is large and underdetermined, so a range of models is sampled using an efficient simulated annealing algorithm. The approach is more derivative than prescriptive (e.g., magnitude-frequency distributions are no longer assumed), so new analysis tools were developed for exploring solutions. Epistemic uncertainties were also accounted for using 1440 alternative logic tree branches, necessitating access to supercomputers. The most influential uncertainties include alternative deformation models (fault slip rates), a new smoothed seismicity algorithm, alternative values for the total rate of M≥5 events, and different scaling relationships, virtually all of which are new. As a notable first, three deformation models are based on kinematically consistent inversions of geodetic and geologic data, also providing slip-rate constraints on faults previously excluded due to lack of geologic data. The grand inversion constitutes a system-level framework for testing hypotheses and balancing the influence of different experts. For example, we demonstrate serious challenges with the Gutenberg-Richter hypothesis for individual faults. UCERF3 is still an approximation of the system, however, and the range of models is limited (e.g., constrained to stay close to UCERF2). Nevertheless, UCERF3 removes the apparent UCERF2 over-prediction of M6.5-7 earthquake rates, and also includes types of multi-fault ruptures seen in nature. While UCERF3 fits the data better than UCERF2 overall, there may be areas that warrant further site

  19. Overview Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytle, John

    2001-01-01

    This report provides an overview presentation of the 2000 NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) Review and Planning Meeting. Topics include: 1) a background of the program; 2) 1999 Industry Feedback; 3) FY00 Status, including resource distribution and major accomplishments; 4) FY01 Major Milestones; and 5) Future direction for the program. Specifically, simulation environment/production software and NPSS CORBA Security Development are discussed.

  20. Overview on Seamus Heaney

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李巧霞

    2013-01-01

      Seamus Heaney is an Irish poet, playwright, translator, lecturer and recipient of the 1995 Nobel Prize in Literature. Rob⁃ert Lowell called him"the most important Irish poet since Yeats". This paper gives an overview on Seamus Heaney from four parts:first part gives a brief introduction of Seamus Heaney, the second part introduces Seamus Heaney’s characters and contributions on poetry, the third part briefly states Heaney’s postcolonial consciousness. The forth part introduces Seamus Heaney’s first book The Death of Naturalist and gives a detailed analysis of Blackberry Picking.

  1. Literature Survey of Copper Corrosion Modelling under Deep Geological Disposal Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui-Joo; Kook, Dong-Hak; Lee, Min-Soo; Choi, Heui-Joo

    2008-03-15

    As a one of the solution for the spent nuclear fuel problem, deep repository research have been under way in KAERI. To raise the resistance against repository cask corrosion, copper canister was adopted for the outer material of the cask. Duration of the repository with million year order makes the copper corrosion research under the repository environment very important and the corrosion modelling which could trace the real world precisely and predict the corrosion behavior very well is subsequently necessary. With in progress of plan to manufacture unique copper cask corresponding to our country repository system, survey for the preceding research papers in recent research direction and kernel points is expected to significant. This paper arranged the representative literatures for the important corrosion mechanism which are recently published.

  2. An Overview of Storm Water Management Model (SWMM)%SWMM模型综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许迪

    2014-01-01

    The structures of some non-point source models were reviewed.The theories of Storm Water Manage-ment Model (SWMM)were presented covering the simulation process of runoff in water collecting unit,the princi-ples of accumulation and washout of pollutants,the simulation module of scour and transport and so on.The ad-vances and practices of SWMM at home and broad were summarized.%综述了非点源污染模型的体系,对SWMM模型的原理进行了阐述,如汇水单元产生径流的模拟过程及其原理、污染物累积及冲刷过程的原理、输移模块的模拟原理等。概括了SWMM模型在国内外的研究进展和应用。

  3. An overview of loco-regional treatments in patients and mouse models for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimonte, Sabrina; Barbieri, Antonio; Palaia, Raffaele; Leongito, Maddalena; Albino, Vittorio; Piccirillo, Mauro; Arra, Claudio; Izzo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is a highly aggressive malignancy and is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although surgery is currently considered the most effective curative treatment for this type of cancer, it is note that most of patients have a poor prognosis due to chemioresistence and tumor recurrence. Loco-regional therapies, including radiofrequency ablation, surgical resection and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization play a major role in the clinical management of hepatocellular carcinoma. In order to improve the treatment outcome of patients diagnosed with this disease, several in vivo studies by using different techniques on cancer mouse models have been performed. This review will focus on the latest papers on the efficacy of loco-regional therapy and combined treatments in patients and mouse models of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  4. Primary Retinal Cultures as a Tool for Modeling Diabetic Retinopathy: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varano, Monica; Mallozzi, Cinzia; Gaddini, Lucia; Formisano, Giuseppe; Pricci, Flavia

    2015-01-01

    Experimental models of diabetic retinopathy (DR) have had a crucial role in the comprehension of the pathophysiology of the disease and the identification of new therapeutic strategies. Most of these studies have been conducted in vivo, in animal models. However, a significant contribution has also been provided by studies on retinal cultures, especially regarding the effects of the potentially toxic components of the diabetic milieu on retinal cell homeostasis, the characterization of the mechanisms on the basis of retinal damage, and the identification of potentially protective molecules. In this review, we highlight the contribution given by primary retinal cultures to the study of DR, focusing on early neuroglial impairment. We also speculate on possible themes into which studies based on retinal cell cultures could provide deeper insight. PMID:25688355

  5. Primary Retinal Cultures as a Tool for Modeling Diabetic Retinopathy: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Matteucci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental models of diabetic retinopathy (DR have had a crucial role in the comprehension of the pathophysiology of the disease and the identification of new therapeutic strategies. Most of these studies have been conducted in vivo, in animal models. However, a significant contribution has also been provided by studies on retinal cultures, especially regarding the effects of the potentially toxic components of the diabetic milieu on retinal cell homeostasis, the characterization of the mechanisms on the basis of retinal damage, and the identification of potentially protective molecules. In this review, we highlight the contribution given by primary retinal cultures to the study of DR, focusing on early neuroglial impairment. We also speculate on possible themes into which studies based on retinal cell cultures could provide deeper insight.

  6. Development of a high resolution interstellar dust engineering model - overview of the project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterken, V. J.; Strub, P.; Soja, R. H.; Srama, R.; Krüger, H.; Grün, E.

    2013-09-01

    Beyond 3 AU heliocentric distance, the flow of interstellar dust through the solar system is a dominant component of the total dust population. The modulation of this flux with the solar cycle and the position in the solar system has been predicted by theoretical studies since the seventies. The modulation was proven to exist by matching dust trajectory simulations with real spacecraft data from Ulysses in 1998. The modulations were further analyzed and studies in detail in 2012. The current ESA interplanetary meteoroid model IMEM includes an interstellar dust component, but this component was modelled only with straight line trajectories through the solar system. For the new ESA IMEX model, a high-resolution interstellar dust component is implemented separately from a dust streams module. The dust streams module focuses on dust in streams that was released from comets (cf. Abstract R. Soja). Parallel processing techniques are used to improve computation time (cf. Abstract P. Strub). The goal is to make predictions for the interstellar dust flux as close to the Sun as 1 AU or closer, for future space mission design.

  7. Overview of research and development in subsurface fate and transport modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Chehata, M. [Science Applications Internationa Corp. (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for the remediation of over 450 different subsurface-contaminated sites. Contaminant plumes at these sites range in volume from several to millions of cubic yards. The concentration of contaminants also ranges over several orders of magnitude. Contaminants include hazardous wastes such as heavy metals and organic chemicals, radioactive waste including tritium, uranium, and thorium, and mixed waste, which is a combination of hazardous and radioactive wastes. The physical form of the contaminants includes solutes, nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs), and vapor phase contaminants such as volatilized organic chemicals and radon. The subject of contaminant fate and transport modeling is multi-disciplinary, involving hydrology, geology, microbiology, chemistry, applied mathematics, computer science, and other areas of expertise. It is an issue of great significance in the United States and around the world. As such, many organizations have substantial programs in this area. In gathering data to prepare this report, a survey was performed of research and development work that is funded by US government agencies to improve the understanding and mechanistic modeling of processes that control contaminant movement through subsurface systems. Government agencies which fund programs that contain fate and transport modeling components include the Environmental Protection Agency, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Department of Agriculture, Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, Department of Defense, United States Geological Survey, and National Institutes of Health.

  8. Overview of research and development in subsurface fate and transport modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Chehata, M. [Science Applications Internationa Corp. (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for the remediation of over 450 different subsurface-contaminated sites. Contaminant plumes at these sites range in volume from several to millions of cubic yards. The concentration of contaminants also ranges over several orders of magnitude. Contaminants include hazardous wastes such as heavy metals and organic chemicals, radioactive waste including tritium, uranium, and thorium, and mixed waste, which is a combination of hazardous and radioactive wastes. The physical form of the contaminants includes solutes, nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs), and vapor phase contaminants such as volatilized organic chemicals and radon. The subject of contaminant fate and transport modeling is multi-disciplinary, involving hydrology, geology, microbiology, chemistry, applied mathematics, computer science, and other areas of expertise. It is an issue of great significance in the United States and around the world. As such, many organizations have substantial programs in this area. In gathering data to prepare this report, a survey was performed of research and development work that is funded by US government agencies to improve the understanding and mechanistic modeling of processes that control contaminant movement through subsurface systems. Government agencies which fund programs that contain fate and transport modeling components include the Environmental Protection Agency, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Department of Agriculture, Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, Department of Defense, United States Geological Survey, and National Institutes of Health.

  9. Measurements and modelling of atmospheric pollution over the Paris area: an overview of the ESQUIF project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menut, L.; Vautard, R.; Flamant, P.H. [Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique; Flamant, C.; Beekmann, M.; Megie, G.; Sicard, M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Verrieres-le-Buisson (France). Service d' Aeronomie; Abonnel, C.; Lefebvre, M.P.; Lossec, B. [Meteo-France, 75 - Paris (France); Chazette, P.; Martin, D. [CNRS (France). Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement; Gombert, D. [AIRPARIF, Paris (France); Guedalia, D. [CNRS-Universite Paul Sabatier (France). Lab. d' Aerologie; Kley, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Perros, P.; Toupance, G. [CNRS (France). Lab. Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques

    2000-11-01

    The ''etude et simulation de la qualite de l'air en ile de France'' (ESQUIF) project is the first integrated project dedicated to the study of the processes leading to air pollution events over the Paris area. The project was carried out over two years (summer 1998 to winter 2000) to document all types of meteorological conditions favourable to air quality degradation, and in particular to photo oxydant formation. The goals of ESQUIF are (1) to improve our understanding of the relevant chemical and dynamical processes and, in turn, improve their parametrizations in numerical models, and (2) to improve and validate existing models dedicated to pollution analysis, scenarios and/or forecasting, by establishing a comprehensive and thorough database. We present the rationale of the ESQUIF project and we describe the experimental set-up. We also report on the first experiments which took place during the summer of 1998 involving surface networks, and remote sensing instruments as well as several aircraft. Focusing on three days of August 1998, the relative contributions of long-range transported and locally-produced ozone to the elevated ozone concentrations observed during this period are discussed and chemistry-transport model preliminary results on this period are compared to measurements. (orig.)

  10. Model Planning of Literature Lessons in the Tenth Grade for the 1973/74 School Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromtseva, S. N.

    1976-01-01

    Topics, materials, and assignments are provided for 49 literature lessons for tenth grade, plus review notes. Subject matter includes Gorky, Mayakovsky, Soviet literature in the 1920s, the 1930s, Tolstoi, the Great Patriotic War, Sholokhov, and modern foreign literature. (ND)

  11. Source modelling of train noise - Literature review and some initial measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xuetao; Jonasson, Hans; Holmberg, Kjell

    2000-07-01

    A literature review of source modelling of railway noise is reported. Measurements on a special test rig at Surahammar and on the new railway line between Arlanda and Stockholm City are reported and analyzed. In the analysis the train is modelled as a number of point sources with or without directivity and each source is combined with analytical sound propagation theory to predict the sound propagation pattern best fitting the measured data. Wheel/rail rolling noise is considered to be the most important noise source. The rolling noise can be modelled as an array of moving point sources, which have a dipole-like horizontal directivity and some kind of vertical directivity. In general it is necessary to distribute the point sources on several heights. Based on our model analysis the source heights for the rolling noise should be below the wheel axles and the most important height is about a quarter of wheel diameter above the railheads. When train speeds are greater than 250 km/h aerodynamic noise will become important and even dominant. It may be important for low frequency components only if the train speed is less than 220 km/h. Little data are available for these cases. It is believed that aerodynamic noise has dipole-like directivity. Its spectrum depends on many factors: speed, railway system, type of train, bogies, wheels, pantograph, presence of barriers and even weather conditions. Other sources such as fans, engine, transmission and carriage bodies are at most second order noise sources, but for trains with a diesel locomotive engine the engine noise will be dominant if train speeds are less than about 100 km/h. The Nord 2000 comprehensive model for sound propagation outdoors, together with the source model that is based on the understandings above, can suitably handle the problems of railway noise propagation in one-third octave bands although there are still problems left to be solved.

  12. Modeling Flood Insurance Penetration in the European Non-Life Market: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, P.; Thomson, M.-K.; Das, A.

    2012-04-01

    Non-life property insurance plays a significant role in assessing and managing economic risk. Understanding the exposure, or property at risk, helps insurers and reinsurers to better categorize and manage their portfolios. However, the nature of the flood peril, in particular adverse selection, has led to a complex system of different insurance covers and policies across Europe owing to its public and private distinctions based on premiums provided as ex ante or ex post, socio-economic characterization and various compensation schemes. To model this significant level of complexity within the European flood insurance market requires not only extensive data research, close understanding of insurance companies and associations as well as historic flood events, but also careful evaluation of the flood hazard in terms of return periods and flood extents, and the economic/ financial background of the geographies involved. This abstract explores different approaches for modeling the flood insurance penetration rates in Europe depending on the information available and complexity involved. For countries which have either a regulated market with mandatory or high penetration rate, as for example found in the UK, France and Switzerland, or indeed countries with negligible insurance cover such as Luxembourg, assumptions about the penetration rates can be made at country level. However, in countries with a private insurance market, the picture becomes inherently more complex. For example in both Austria and Germany, flood insurance is generally restricted, associated with high costs to the insured or not available at all in high risk areas. In order to better manage flood risk, the Austria and German government agencies produced the risk classification systems HORA and ZÜRS, respectively, which categorize risk into four risk zones based on the exceedance probability of a flood occurrence. Except for regions that have preserved mandatory flood inclusion from past policies

  13. Electron tomography: a short overview with an emphasis on the absorption potential model for the forward problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, D.; Öktem, O.

    2008-02-01

    This review of the development and current status of electron tomography deals mainly with the mathematical and algorithmic aspects. After a very brief description of the role of electron tomography in structural biology, we turn our attention to the derivation of the forward operator. Starting from the Schrödinger equation, the electron-specimen interaction is modelled as a diffraction tomography problem and the picture is completed by adding a description of the optical system of the transmission electron microscope. The first-order Born approximation enables one to explicitly express the intensity for any finite wavenumber in terms of the propagation operator acting on the specimen convolved with a point spread function, derived from the optics in the transmission electron microscope. Next, we focus on the difficulties that cause the reconstruction problem to be quite challenging. Special emphasis is put on explaining the extremely low signal-to-noise ratio in the data combined with the incomplete data problems, which lead to severe ill-posedness. The next step is to derive the standard phase contrast model used in the electron tomography community. The above-mentioned expression for the intensity generalizes the standard phase contrast model which can be obtained by replacing the propagation operator by its high-energy limit, the x-ray transform, as the wavenumber tends to infinity. The importance of more carefully including the wave nature of the electron-specimen interaction is supported by performing an asymptotic analysis of the intensity as the wavenumber tends to infinity. Next we provide an overview of the various reconstruction methods that have been employed in electron tomography and we conclude by mentioning a number of open problems. Besides providing an introduction to electron tomography written in the 'language of inverse problems', the authors hope to raise interest among experts in integral geometry and regularization theory for the

  14. An evolutionary cascade model for sauropod dinosaur gigantism--overview, update and tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, P Martin

    2013-01-01

    Sauropod dinosaurs are a group of herbivorous dinosaurs which exceeded all other terrestrial vertebrates in mean and maximal body size. Sauropod dinosaurs were also the most successful and long-lived herbivorous tetrapod clade, but no abiological factors such as global environmental parameters conducive to their gigantism can be identified. These facts justify major efforts by evolutionary biologists and paleontologists to understand sauropods as living animals and to explain their evolutionary success and uniquely gigantic body size. Contributions to this research program have come from many fields and can be synthesized into a biological evolutionary cascade model of sauropod dinosaur gigantism (sauropod gigantism ECM). This review focuses on the sauropod gigantism ECM, providing an updated version based on the contributions to the PLoS ONE sauropod gigantism collection and on other very recent published evidence. The model consist of five separate evolutionary cascades ("Reproduction", "Feeding", "Head and neck", "Avian-style lung", and "Metabolism"). Each cascade starts with observed or inferred basal traits that either may be plesiomorphic or derived at the level of Sauropoda. Each trait confers hypothetical selective advantages which permit the evolution of the next trait. Feedback loops in the ECM consist of selective advantages originating from traits higher in the cascades but affecting lower traits. All cascades end in the trait "Very high body mass". Each cascade is linked to at least one other cascade. Important plesiomorphic traits of sauropod dinosaurs that entered the model were ovipary as well as no mastication of food. Important evolutionary innovations (derived traits) were an avian-style respiratory system and an elevated basal metabolic rate. Comparison with other tetrapod lineages identifies factors limiting body size.

  15. An evolutionary cascade model for sauropod dinosaur gigantism--overview, update and tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Martin Sander

    Full Text Available Sauropod dinosaurs are a group of herbivorous dinosaurs which exceeded all other terrestrial vertebrates in mean and maximal body size. Sauropod dinosaurs were also the most successful and long-lived herbivorous tetrapod clade, but no abiological factors such as global environmental parameters conducive to their gigantism can be identified. These facts justify major efforts by evolutionary biologists and paleontologists to understand sauropods as living animals and to explain their evolutionary success and uniquely gigantic body size. Contributions to this research program have come from many fields and can be synthesized into a biological evolutionary cascade model of sauropod dinosaur gigantism (sauropod gigantism ECM. This review focuses on the sauropod gigantism ECM, providing an updated version based on the contributions to the PLoS ONE sauropod gigantism collection and on other very recent published evidence. The model consist of five separate evolutionary cascades ("Reproduction", "Feeding", "Head and neck", "Avian-style lung", and "Metabolism". Each cascade starts with observed or inferred basal traits that either may be plesiomorphic or derived at the level of Sauropoda. Each trait confers hypothetical selective advantages which permit the evolution of the next trait. Feedback loops in the ECM consist of selective advantages originating from traits higher in the cascades but affecting lower traits. All cascades end in the trait "Very high body mass". Each cascade is linked to at least one other cascade. Important plesiomorphic traits of sauropod dinosaurs that entered the model were ovipary as well as no mastication of food. Important evolutionary innovations (derived traits were an avian-style respiratory system and an elevated basal metabolic rate. Comparison with other tetrapod lineages identifies factors limiting body size.

  16. A literature review on business process modelling: new frontiers of reusability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldin, Laden; de Cesare, Sergio

    2011-08-01

    Business process modelling (BPM) has become fundamental for modern enterprises due to the increasing rate of organisational change. As a consequence, business processes need to be continuously (re-)designed as well as subsequently aligned with the corresponding enterprise information systems. One major problem associated with the design of business processes is reusability. Reuse of business process models has the potential of increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of BPM. This article critically surveys the existing literature on the problem of BPM reusability and more specifically on that State-of-the-Art research that can provide or suggest the 'elements' required for the development of a methodology aimed at discovering reusable conceptual artefacts in the form of patterns. The article initially clarifies the definitions of business process and business process model; then, it sets out to explore the previous research conducted in areas that have an impact on reusability in BPM. The article concludes by distilling directions for future research towards the development of apatterns-based approach to BPM; an approach that brings together the contributions made by the research community in the areas of process mining and discovery, declarative approaches and ontologies.

  17. Literature Review and Assessment of Plant and Animal Transfer Factors Used in Performance Assessment Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, David E.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Sasser, Lyle B.

    2003-07-20

    A literature review and assessment was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to update information on plant and animal radionuclide transfer factors used in performance-assessment modeling. A group of 15 radionuclides was included in this review and assessment. The review is composed of four main sections, not including the Introduction. Section 2.0 provides a review of the critically important issue of physicochemical speciation and geochemistry of the radionuclides in natural soil-water systems as it relates to the bioavailability of the radionuclides. Section 3.0 provides an updated review of the parameters of importance in the uptake of radionuclides by plants, including root uptake via the soil-groundwater system and foliar uptake due to overhead irrigation. Section 3.0 also provides a compilation of concentration ratios (CRs) for soil-to-plant uptake for the 15 selected radionuclides. Section 4.0 provides an updated review on radionuclide uptake data for animal products related to absorption, homeostatic control, approach to equilibration, chemical and physical form, diet, and age. Compiled transfer coefficients are provided for cow’s milk, sheep’s milk, goat’s milk, beef, goat meat, pork, poultry, and eggs. Section 5.0 discusses the use of transfer coefficients in soil, plant, and animal modeling using regulatory models for evaluating radioactive waste disposal or decommissioned sites. Each section makes specific suggestions for future research in its area.

  18. DOE/ORNL heat pump design model, overview and application to R-22 alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, C.K.

    1997-12-01

    This computer program is a public-domain system design tool for application to air-to-air heat pumps. The main aspects of the program are reviewed with emphasis on the newest features of the current fifth-generation version (Mark V) and an upcoming more fully HFC-capable release (Mark VI). Current model predictions are compared to test data for a leading HFC alternative to HCFC-22 in heat pumps. Examples are shown of some user interfaces that have been recently developed for the program. To demonstrate the design capabilities of the model for R-22 alternatives, a refrigerant-side optimization was conducted to find the best balance of heat transfer versus pressure drop for HCFC R-22, HFCs R-134a and R-410A, and the natural refrigerant propane. COP was maximized while refrigerant charge and tube size were minimized. Independent design parameters were fraction of total area in the outdoor coil, tube diameter and number of circuits for each heat exchanger, and condenser subcooling. Heat exchanger design tradeoffs are discussed for a heat pump relative to air conditioners and heating-only units. A design optimized for heating-only operation is presented.

  19. Breast sarcomas. Literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Ryabchikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of the literature about breast sarcomas (nonepithelial malignances. Primary sarcomas are extremely rare, with less than 1 % of all malignant tumors of the breast. Breast carcinomas cause an increased interest of the scientists due to their unique clinical and pathological features and unpredictable prognosis.

  20. An overview of the binding models of FGFR tyrosine kinases in complex with small molecule inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weiyan; Wang, Mixiang; Tian, Xin; Zhang, Xiaojian

    2017-01-27

    The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) includes four structurally related members, termed as FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, and FGFR4. Given its intimate role in the progression of several solid tumors, excessive FGFR signaling provides an opportunity for anticancer therapy. Along with extensive pharmacological studies validating the therapeutic potential of targeting the FGFRs for cancer treatment, co-crystal structures of FGFRs/inhibitors are continuously coming up to study the mechanism of actions and explore new inhibitors. Herein, we review the reported co-crystals of FGFRs in complex with the corresponding inhibitors, main focusing our attention on the binding models and the pharmacological activities of the inhibitors.

  1. A conceptual overview of a proactive health psychology service: the Tripler Health Psychology Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, L C; Folen, R A; Porter, R I; Kellar, M A

    1999-06-01

    The military patient population, the demanding environment in which medical services are provided, and the rigors of the operational environment create a unique challenge for service members as well as military health care providers. Within the military medical system, the subspecialty of clinical health psychology may provide patient care and consultation interventions necessary to meet the demands of the unique Army medical and military communities. As funding and other resources decrease, military health psychologists can provide high-quality care to difficult-to-manage patients while increasing outcome efficacy and decreasing costs to the hospital. This paper provides a definition of clinical health psychology and a description of its unique interventions and applications and how these unique skills augment medical services. Moreover, we offer a conceptual model for an innovative health psychology program that will assist other military treatment facilities in designing programs to increase outcome efficacy and concurrently reduce costs and utilization of services.

  2. Computational Approaches to Modeling Artificial Emotion -– An overview of the Proposed Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzislaw eKOWALCZUK

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cybernetic approach to modeling artificial emotion through the use of different theories of psychology is considered in this paper, presenting a review of twelve proposed solutions: ActAffAct, FLAME, EMA, ParleE, FearNot!, FAtiMA, WASABI, Cathexis, KARO, MAMID, FCM, and xEmotion. The main motivation for this study is founded on the hypothesis that emotions can play a definite utility role of scheduling variables in the construction of intelligent autonomous systems, agents and mobile robots. In this review we also include an innovative and panoptical, comprehensive system, referred to as the Intelligent System of Decision-making (ISD, which has been employed in practical applications of various autonomous units, and which applies as its part the xEmotion, taking into consideration the personal aspects of emotions, affects (short term emotions and mood (principally, long term emotions.

  3. Overview 2004 of NASA-Stirling Convertor CFD Model Development and Regenerator R and D Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tew, Roy C.; Dyson, Rodger W.; Wilson, Scott D.; Demko, Rikako

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on accomplishments in 2004 in (1) development of Stirling-convertor CFD models at NASA Glenn and via a NASA grant, (2) a Stirling regenerator-research effort being conducted via a NASA grant (a follow-on effort to an earlier DOE contract), and (3) a regenerator-microfabrication contract for development of a "next-generation Stirling regenerator." Cleveland State University is the lead organization for all three grant/contractual efforts, with the University of Minnesota and Gedeon Associates as subcontractors. Also, the Stirling Technology Company and Sunpower, Inc. are both involved in all three efforts, either as funded or unfunded participants. International Mezzo Technologies of Baton Rouge, Louisiana is the regenerator fabricator for the regenerator-microfabrication contract. Results of the efforts in these three areas are summarized.

  4. Mechanical Relaxation of Metallic Glasses: An Overview of Experimental Data and Theoretical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoren Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Relaxation phenomena in glasses are a subject of utmost interest, as they are deeply connected with their structure and dynamics. From a theoretical point of view, mechanical relaxation allows one to get insight into the different atomic-scale processes taking place in the glassy state. Focusing on their possible applications, relaxation behavior influences the mechanical properties of metallic glasses. This paper reviews the present knowledge on mechanical relaxation of metallic glasses. The features of primary and secondary relaxations are reviewed. Experimental data in the time and frequency domain is presented, as well as the different models used to describe the measured relaxation spectra. Extended attention is paid to dynamic mechanical analysis, as it is the most important technique allowing one to access the mechanical relaxation behavior. Finally, the relevance of the relaxation behavior in the mechanical properties of metallic glasses is discussed.

  5. Prediction models for risk of developing type 2 diabetes : systematic literature search and independent external validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, Ali; Peelen, Linda M.; Corpeleijn, Eva; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; van der A, Daphne L.; Moons, Karel G. M.; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Beulens, Joline W. J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify existing prediction models for the risk of development of type 2 diabetes and to externally validate them in a large independent cohort. Data sources Systematic search of English, German, and Dutch literature in PubMed until February 2011 to identify prediction models for diabe

  6. Transferring Knowledge from Observations and Models to Decision Makers: An Overview and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Nokra, Nada Abu

    2003-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, a tremendous progress has been made in the Earth science space-based remote sensing observations, technologies and algorithms. Such advancements have improved the predictability by providing lead-time and accuracy of forecast in weather, climate, natural hazards, and natural resources. It has further reduced or bounded the overall uncertainties by partially improving our understanding of planet Earth as an integrated system that is governed by non-linear and chaotic behavior. Many countries such US, European Community, Japan, China and others have invested billions of dollars in developing and launching space-based assets in the low earth (LEO) and geostationary (GEO) orbits. However, the wealth of this scientific knowledge that has potential of extracting monumental socio-economic benefits from such large investments have been slow in reaching to public and decision makers. For instance, there are a number of areas such as energy forecasting, aviation safety, agricultural competitiveness, disaster management, security, air quality and public health can directly take advantage. Nevertheless, we all live in a global economy that depends on access to the best available Earth Science information for all inhabitants of this planet. This paper surveys and examines a number such applications in terms of their architecture, maturity and economic applicability as they apply to the societal needs. A detailed analysis is also presented of various challenges and issues that pertain to a number of areas such as: (1) difficulties in making a speedy transition of data and information from observations and models to relevant Decision Support Systems (DSS) or tools, (2) data and models inter-operability issues, (3) limitations of spatial, spectral and temporal resolution, (4) communication limitations as dictated by the availability of image processing and data compression techniques. Additionally, the most critical element amongst all is the organizational

  7. Gamma ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Balloon Flight Engineering Model Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, D J; Williams, S; Grove, J E; Mizuno, T; Sadrozinski, H F W

    2002-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) is a pair-production high-energy (>20 MeV) gamma-ray telescope being built by an international partnership of astrophysicists and particle physicists for a satellite launch in 2006, designed to study a wide variety of high-energy astrophysical phenomena. As part of the development effort, the collaboration has built a Balloon Flight Engineering Model (BFEM) for flight on a high-altitude scientific balloon. The BFEM is approximately the size of one of the 16 GLAST-LAT towers and contains all the components of the full instrument: plastic scintillator anticoincidence system (ACD), high-Z foil/Si strip pair-conversion tracker (TKR), CsI hodoscopic calorimeter (CAL), triggering and data acquisition electronics (DAQ), commanding system, power distribution, telemetry, real-time data display, and ground data processing system. The principal goal of the balloon flight was to demonstrate the performance of this instrument configuration under c...

  8. Metabolism of modified mycotoxins studied through in vitro and in vivo models: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boevre, Marthe De; Graniczkowska, Kinga; Saeger, Sarah De

    2015-02-17

    Mycotoxins are toxic, secondary metabolites produced by fungi. They occur in a wide variety of food and feed commodities, and are of major public health concern because they are the most hazardous of all food and feed contaminants in terms of chronic toxicity. In the past decades, it has become clear that in mycotoxin-contaminated commodities, many structurally related compounds generated by plant metabolism, fungi or food processing coexist with their free mycotoxins, defined as modified mycotoxins. These modified xenobiotics might endanger animal and human health as they are possibly hydrolysed into their free toxins in the digestive tract of mammals, and may consequently contribute to an unexpected high toxicity. As modified toxins represent an emerging issue, it is not a surprise that for most toxicological tests data are scarce to non-existent. Therefore, there is a need to elucidate the disposition and kinetics of both free and modified mycotoxins in mammals to correctly interpret occurrence data and biomonitoring results. This review emphasizes the current knowledge on the metabolism of modified mycotoxins using in vitro and in vivo models.

  9. Visualisation as a Model. Overview on Communication Techniques in Transport and Urban Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Rabino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICT changed the way planners present and operate with their projects. New visualisation tools have changed the ways projects and plans are presented and disseminated. However, the opportunities given by visualisation are not completely exploited in the professional practice. This is due to several bottlenecks which occur in the daily carrying out of activities. The paper is organised in three sections. The first one explains how visualisation can be an added value to the planning practice if it is organised and designed as a framework of information; conceiving the visualisation as a model, data can be managed and represented in order to provide information at different levels of expertise, allowing city plans to be analysed and understood before their realisation. The second section resumes the changes caused by the introduction of ICT within the daily practice; a comparison between pre-digital and digital approaches highlights current opportunities for implementing the communication values of plans and projects. The third part illustrates some examples of innovative visualisations in the urban and transport planning practice, showing a number of uses of visualisation to fit different purposes. The paper concludes this insight formulating the necessity for integrating the studies on visualisation coming from different disciplines into a scientific method that can be proposed as a guideline in building the images of urban and transport plans. This would be particularly useful for obtaining a more scientific approach in the choices of representation and visualisation of urban aspects.

  10. Overview of RELCOMP, the reliability and cost model for electrical generation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehring, W.A.; Hub, K.A.; VanKuiken, J.C.

    1979-11-01

    RELCOMP is a system-planning tool that can be used to assess the reliability and economic performance of alternative expansion patterns of electric-utility-generating systems. Given input information such as capacity, forced outage rate, number of weeks of annual scheduled maintenance, and economic data for individual units along with the expected utility load characteristics, the nonoptimizing model calculates a system maintenance schedule, the loss-of-load probability, unserved demand for energy, mean time between system failures to meet the load, required reserve to meet a specified system-failure rate, expected energy generation from each unit, and system energy cost. Emergency interties and firm purchases can be included in the analysis. The calculation can be broken down into five distinct categories: maintenance scheduling, system reliability, capacity requirement, energy allocation, and energy cost. This brief description of the program is intended to serve as preliminary documentation for RELCOMP until a more-complete documentation is prepared. In addition to this documentation, a sample problem and a detailed input description are available from the authors.

  11. Statistical methods applied to the study of opinion formation models: a brief overview and results of a numerical study of a model based on the social impact theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordogna, Clelia Maria [Instituto de Investigaciones FisicoquImicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), UNLP, CONICET Casilla de Correo 16, Sucursal 4 (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Albano, Ezequiel V [Instituto de Investigaciones FisicoquImicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), UNLP, CONICET Casilla de Correo 16, Sucursal 4 (1900) La Plata (Argentina)

    2007-02-14

    The aim of this paper is twofold. On the one hand we present a brief overview on the application of statistical physics methods to the modelling of social phenomena focusing our attention on models for opinion formation. On the other hand, we discuss and present original results of a model for opinion formation based on the social impact theory developed by Latane. The presented model accounts for the interaction among the members of a social group under the competitive influence of a strong leader and the mass media, both supporting two different states of opinion. Extensive simulations of the model are presented, showing that they led to the observation of a rich scenery of complex behaviour including, among others, critical behaviour and phase transitions between a state of opinion dominated by the leader and another dominated by the mass media. The occurrence of interesting finite-size effects reveals that, in small communities, the opinion of the leader may prevail over that of the mass media. This observation is relevant for the understanding of social phenomena involving a finite number of individuals, in contrast to actual physical phase transitions that take place in the thermodynamic limit. Finally, we give a brief outlook of open questions and lines for future work.

  12. A Systematic Review of Perennial Staple Crops Literature Using Topic Modeling and Bibliometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Daniel A; Rogé, Paul; Snapp, Sieglinde S

    2016-01-01

    Research on perennial staple crops has increased in the past ten years due to their potential to improve ecosystem services in agricultural systems. However, multiple past breeding efforts as well as research on traditional ratoon systems mean there is already a broad body of literature on perennial crops. In this review, we compare the development of research on perennial staple crops, including wheat, rice, rye, sorghum, and pigeon pea. We utilized the advanced search capabilities of Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Agricola to gather a library of 914 articles published from 1930 to the present. We analyzed the metadata in the entire library and in collections of literature on each crop to understand trends in research and publishing. In addition, we applied topic modeling to the article abstracts, a type of text analysis that identifies frequently co-occurring terms and latent topics. We found: 1.) Research on perennials is increasing overall, but individual crops have each seen periods of heightened interest and research activity; 2.) Specialist journals play an important role in supporting early research efforts. Research often begins within communities of specialists or breeders for the individual crop before transitioning to a more general scientific audience; 3.) Existing perennial agricultural systems and their domesticated crop material, such as ratoon rice systems, can provide a useful foundation for breeding efforts, accelerating the development of truly perennial crops and farming systems; 4.) Primary research is lacking for crops that are produced on a smaller scale globally, such as pigeon pea and sorghum, and on the ecosystem service benefits of perennial agricultural systems.

  13. A Systematic Review of Perennial Staple Crops Literature Using Topic Modeling and Bibliometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Research on perennial staple crops has increased in the past ten years due to their potential to improve ecosystem services in agricultural systems. However, multiple past breeding efforts as well as research on traditional ratoon systems mean there is already a broad body of literature on perennial crops. In this review, we compare the development of research on perennial staple crops, including wheat, rice, rye, sorghum, and pigeon pea. We utilized the advanced search capabilities of Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Agricola to gather a library of 914 articles published from 1930 to the present. We analyzed the metadata in the entire library and in collections of literature on each crop to understand trends in research and publishing. In addition, we applied topic modeling to the article abstracts, a type of text analysis that identifies frequently co-occurring terms and latent topics. We found: 1.) Research on perennials is increasing overall, but individual crops have each seen periods of heightened interest and research activity; 2.) Specialist journals play an important role in supporting early research efforts. Research often begins within communities of specialists or breeders for the individual crop before transitioning to a more general scientific audience; 3.) Existing perennial agricultural systems and their domesticated crop material, such as ratoon rice systems, can provide a useful foundation for breeding efforts, accelerating the development of truly perennial crops and farming systems; 4.) Primary research is lacking for crops that are produced on a smaller scale globally, such as pigeon pea and sorghum, and on the ecosystem service benefits of perennial agricultural systems. PMID:27213283

  14. An overview of current applications, challenges, and future trends in distributed process-based models in hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatichi, Simone; Vivoni, Enrique R.; Ogden, Fred L.; Ivanov, Valeriy Y.; Mirus, Benjamin; Gochis, David; Downer, Charles W.; Camporese, Matteo; Davison, Jason H.; Ebel, Brian; Jones, Norm; Kim, Jongho; Mascaro, Giuseppe; Niswonger, Richard; Restrepo, Pedro; Rigon, Riccardo; Shen, Chaopeng; Sulis, Mauro; Tarboton, David

    2016-06-01

    Process-based hydrological models have a long history dating back to the 1960s. Criticized by some as over-parameterized, overly complex, and difficult to use, a more nuanced view is that these tools are necessary in many situations and, in a certain class of problems, they are the most appropriate type of hydrological model. This is especially the case in situations where knowledge of flow paths or distributed state variables and/or preservation of physical constraints is important. Examples of this include: spatiotemporal variability of soil moisture, groundwater flow and runoff generation, sediment and contaminant transport, or when feedbacks among various Earth's system processes or understanding the impacts of climate non-stationarity are of primary concern. These are situations where process-based models excel and other models are unverifiable. This article presents this pragmatic view in the context of existing literature to justify the approach where applicable and necessary. We review how improvements in data availability, computational resources and algorithms have made detailed hydrological simulations a reality. Avenues for the future of process-based hydrological models are presented suggesting their use as virtual laboratories, for design purposes, and with a powerful treatment of uncertainty.

  15. An overview of current applications, challenges, and future trends in distributed process-based models in hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatichi, Simone; Vivoni, Enrique R.; Odgen, Fred L; Ivanov, Valeriy Y; Mirus, Benjamin B.; Gochis, David; Downer, Charles W; Camporese, Matteo; Davison, Jason H; Ebel, Brian A.; Jones, Norm; Kim, Jongho; Mascaro, Giuseppe; Niswonger, Richard; Restrepo, Pedro; Rigon, Riccardo; Shen, Chaopeng; Sulis, Mauro; Tarboton, David

    2016-01-01

    Process-based hydrological models have a long history dating back to the 1960s. Criticized by some as over-parameterized, overly complex, and difficult to use, a more nuanced view is that these tools are necessary in many situations and, in a certain class of problems, they are the most appropriate type of hydrological model. This is especially the case in situations where knowledge of flow paths or distributed state variables and/or preservation of physical constraints is important. Examples of this include: spatiotemporal variability of soil moisture, groundwater flow and runoff generation, sediment and contaminant transport, or when feedbacks among various Earth’s system processes or understanding the impacts of climate non-stationarity are of primary concern. These are situations where process-based models excel and other models are unverifiable. This article presents this pragmatic view in the context of existing literature to justify the approach where applicable and necessary. We review how improvements in data availability, computational resources and algorithms have made detailed hydrological simulations a reality. Avenues for the future of process-based hydrological models are presented suggesting their use as virtual laboratories, for design purposes, and with a powerful treatment of uncertainty.

  16. Disassembly for remanufacturing: A systematic literature review, new model development and future research needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjar Priyono

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Disassembly is an important process that distinguishes remanufacturing from conventional manufacturing. It is a unique process that becomes focus of investigation from many scholars. Yet, most scholars investigate disassembly from technical and operational standpoint that lack of strategic perspective. This paper attempts to fill this gap by looking at disassembly from a strategic perspective by considering organisational characteristics, process choices and product attributes. To be more specific, this paper has three objectives. First, to gain understanding what has been done, and what need to be done in the field of disassembly in remanufacturing. Second, to conduct a systematic literature review for identifying the factors affecting disassembly for remanufacturing. Third, to propose a new model of disassembly for remanufacturing and also to provide avenues for future research. Design/methodology/approach: This study used a systematic literature review method. A series of steps were undertaken during the review. The study was started with determining the purpose of the study, selecting appropriate keywords, and reducing the selected papers using a number of criteria. A deeper analysis was carried out on the final paper that meets the criteria for this review. Findings: There are two main findings of this study. First, a list of factors affecting disassembly in remanufacturing is identified. The factors can be categorised into three groups: organisational factors, process choices and product attributes. Second, using factors that have been identified, a new model of disassembly process for remanufacturing is developed. Current studies only consider disassembly as a physical activity to break down products into components. In the new model, disassembly is viewed as a process that converts into into output, which consist of a series of steps. Research limitations/implications: The opportunities for future research include: the need to

  17. ScaleNet: a literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Morales, Mayrolin; Denno, Barbara D; Miller, Douglass R; Miller, Gary L; Ben-Dov, Yair; Hardy, Nate B

    2016-01-01

    Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) are small herbivorous insects found on all continents except Antarctica. They are extremely invasive, and many species are serious agricultural pests. They are also emerging models for studies of the evolution of genetic systems, endosymbiosis and plant-insect interactions. ScaleNet was launched in 1995 to provide insect identifiers, pest managers, insect systematists, evolutionary biologists and ecologists efficient access to information about scale insect biological diversity. It provides comprehensive information on scale insects taken directly from the primary literature. Currently, it draws from 23,477 articles and describes the systematics and biology of 8194 valid species. For 20 years, ScaleNet ran on the same software platform. That platform is no longer viable. Here, we present a new, open-source implementation of ScaleNet. We have normalized the data model, begun the process of correcting invalid data, upgraded the user interface, and added online administrative tools. These improvements make ScaleNet easier to use and maintain and make the ScaleNet data more accurate and extendable. Database URL: http://scalenet.info.

  18. An overview of the gene regulatory network controlling trichome development in the model plant, Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitakanta ePattanaik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichomes are specialized epidermal cells located on aerial parts of plants and are associated with a wide array of biological processes. Trichomes protect plants from adverse conditions including UV light and herbivore attack and are also an important source of a number of phytochemicals. The simple unicellular trichomes of Arabidopsis serve as an excellent model to study molecular mechanism of cell differentiation and pattern formation in plants. The emerging picture suggests that the developmental process is controlled by a transcriptional network involving three major groups of transcription factors: the R2R3 MYB, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH and WD40 repeat (WDR protein. These regulatory proteins form a trimeric activator complex that positively regulates trichome development. The single repeat R3 MYBs act as negative regulators of trichome development. They compete with the R2R3 MYBs to bind the bHLH factor and form a repressor complex. In addition to activator-repressor mechanism, a depletion mechanism may operate in parallel during trichome development. In this mechanism, the bHLH factor traps the WDR protein which results in depletion of WDR protein in neighboring cells. Consequently, the cells with high levels of bHLH and WDR proteins are developed into trichomes. A group of C2H2 zinc finger TFs has also been implicated in trichome development. Phytohormones, including gibberellins and jasmonic acid, play significant roles in this developmental process. Recently, microRNAs have been shown to be involved in trichome development. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the activities of the key regulatory proteins involved in trichome development are controlled by the 26S/ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS, highlighting the complexity of the regulatory network controlling this developmental process. To complement several excellent recent relevant reviews, this review focuses on the transcriptional network and hormonal interplay

  19. Overview of an interlaboratory collaboration on evaluating the effects of model hepatotoxicants on hepatic gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Roger G; Rockett, John C; Gibson, G Gordon; Pettit, Syril D

    2004-03-01

    DNA microarrays and related tools offer promise for identification of pathways involved in toxic responses to xenobiotics. To be useful for risk assessment, experimental data must be challenged for reliability and interlaboratory reproducibility. Toward this goal, the Hepatotoxicity Working Group of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) Technical Committee on Application of Genomics to Mechanism-Based Risk Assessment evaluated and compared biological and gene expression responses in rats exposed to two model hepatotoxins--clofibrate and methapyrilene. This collaborative effort provided an unprecedented opportunity for the working group to evaluate and compare multiple biological, genomic, and toxicological parameters across different laboratories and microarray platforms. Many of the results from this collaboration are presented in accompanying articles in this mini-monograph, whereas others have been published previously. (Italic)In vivo(/Italic) studies for both compounds were conducted in two laboratories using a standard experimental protocol, and RNA samples were distributed to 16 laboratories for analysis on six microarray platforms. Histopathology, clinical chemistry, and organ weight changes were consistent with reported effects. Gene expression results demonstrated reasonable agreement between laboratories and across platforms. Discrepancies in expression profiles of some individual genes were largely due to platform differences and approaches to data analysis rather than to biological or interlaboratory variability. Despite these discrepancies there was overall agreement in the biological pathways affected by these compounds, demonstrating that transcriptional profiling is reproducible between laboratories and can reliably identify affected pathways necessary to provide mechanistic insight. This effort represents an important first step toward the use of transcriptional profiling in risk

  20. Plant development models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuine, I.; Garcia de Cortazar-Atauri, I.; Kramer, K.; Hänninen, H.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter we provide a brief overview of plant phenology modeling, focusing on mechanistic phenological models. After a brief history of plant phenology modeling, we present the different models which have been described in the literature so far and highlight the main differences between them,

  1. Modelling global freshwater resources using WaterGAP 2.2 - model overview, selected results and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller Schmied, Hannes; Adam, Linda; Döll, Petra; Eisner, Stephanie; Flörke, Martina; Güntner, Andreas; Kynast, Ellen; Portmann, Felix T.; Riedel, Claudia; Schneider, Christoph; Song, Qi; Wattenbach, Martin; Zhang, Jing

    2014-05-01

    The estimation of global freshwater flows and storages and their dynamics is essential for the assessment of historical and future water availability both for mankind and ecosystems. WaterGAP 2 is a state-of-the-art water model covering the entire global land area (except Antarctica) on a 0.5° by 0.5° grid. WaterGAP consists of a set of water use models and a hydrological model. Five global water use models representing the sectors irrigation, domestic water demand, manufacturing industries, livestock farming and cooling of thermal power plants inform the sub-model GWSWUSE which calculates net water abstractions distinguishing surface water and groundwater sources. Water flows and storages are simulated by the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM). WGHM is calibrated against measured discharge for basins covering around 50 % of global land area. Since the original development of WaterGAP in the late 1990s, new input data and refined process algorithms have led to a significant improvement of the results. We present the current version WaterGAP 2.2 including selected results (e.g. discharge seasonality, water storage) and the global water balance for the time period 1971-2000. In addition, some examples of the application of WaterGAP output, e.g. within the GRACE community and for global environmental assessments are shown, reflecting the importance of global hydrology modeling in our globalized world.

  2. Measurement of thermal conductivity and diffusivity in situ: Literature survey and theoretical modelling of measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukkonen, I.; Suppala, I. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-01-01

    In situ measurements of thermal conductivity and diffusivity of bedrock were investigated with the aid of a literature survey and theoretical simulations of a measurement system. According to the surveyed literature, in situ methods can be divided into `active` drill hole methods, and `passive` indirect methods utilizing other drill hole measurements together with cutting samples and petrophysical relationships. The most common active drill hole method is a cylindrical heat producing probe whose temperature is registered as a function of time. The temperature response can be calculated and interpreted with the aid of analytical solutions of the cylindrical heat conduction equation, particularly the solution for an infinite perfectly conducting cylindrical probe in a homogeneous medium, and the solution for a line source of heat in a medium. Using both forward and inverse modellings, a theoretical measurement system was analysed with an aim at finding the basic parameters for construction of a practical measurement system. The results indicate that thermal conductivity can be relatively well estimated with borehole measurements, whereas thermal diffusivity is much more sensitive to various disturbing factors, such as thermal contact resistance and variations in probe parameters. In addition, the three-dimensional conduction effects were investigated to find out the magnitude of axial `leak` of heat in long-duration experiments. The radius of influence of a drill hole measurement is mainly dependent on the duration of the experiment. Assuming typical conductivity and diffusivity values of crystalline rocks, the measurement yields information within less than a metre from the drill hole, when the experiment lasts about 24 hours. We propose the following factors to be taken as basic parameters in the construction of a practical measurement system: the probe length 1.5-2 m, heating power 5-20 Wm{sup -1}, temperature recording with 5-7 sensors placed along the probe, and

  3. Thermodynamic Data for Geochemical Modeling of Carbonate Reactions Associated with CO2 Sequestration – Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, Kenneth M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cantrell, Kirk J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGrail, B. Peter [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Permanent storage of anthropogenic CO2 in deep geologic formations is being considered as a means to reduce the concentration of atmospheric CO2 and thus its contribution to global climate change. To ensure safe and effective geologic sequestration, numerous studies have been completed of the extent to which the CO2 migrates within geologic formations and what physical and geochemical changes occur in these formations when CO2 is injected. Sophisticated, computerized reservoir simulations are used as part of field site and laboratory CO2 sequestration studies. These simulations use coupled multiphase flow-reactive chemical transport models and/or standalone (i.e., no coupled fluid transport) geochemical models to calculate gas solubility, aqueous complexation, reduction/oxidation (redox), and/or mineral solubility reactions related to CO2 injection and sequestration. Thermodynamic data are critical inputs to modeling geochemical processes. The adequacy of thermodynamic data for carbonate compounds has been identified as an important data requirement for the successful application of these geochemical reaction models to CO2 sequestration. A review of thermodynamic data for CO2 gas and carbonate aqueous species and minerals present in published data compilations and databases used in geochemical reaction models was therefore completed. Published studies that describe mineralogical analyses from CO2 sequestration field and natural analogue sites and laboratory studies were also reviewed to identify specific carbonate minerals that are important to CO2 sequestration reactions and therefore require thermodynamic data. The results of the literature review indicated that an extensive thermodynamic database exists for CO2 and CH4 gases, carbonate aqueous species, and carbonate minerals. Values of ΔfG298° and/or log Kr,298° are available for essentially all of these compounds. However, log Kr,T° or heat capacity values at temperatures above 298 K exist for less than

  4. Teens, dating violence, and media use: a review of the literature and conceptual model for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganello, Jennifer A

    2008-01-01

    Dating violence is highly prevalent among adolescents. Of importance, dating violence has been associated with negative physical and mental health outcomes for teens and high-risk behaviors such as unsafe sex practices. Although a growing body of research has examined the extent and nature of this problem, little research has considered aspects of the media that might be associated with risk for teen dating violence, such as time spent using media and effects of media content. This article provides an overview of the prevalence of teen dating violence, describes the potential for assessing media use as a risk factor, offers a conceptual model, and suggests ideas for future research.

  5. Measuring and modelling the airborne particulate matter mass concentration field in the street environment: model overview and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, A; Colls, J J

    1999-09-01

    This paper discusses the outline structure and preliminary evaluation of an emission-dispersion model for predicting the temporal and spatial distribution of vehicle-derived airborne particulate matter mass concentration in street canyons. The model is called Street Level Air Quality (SLAQ). SLAQ is semi-empirical, in that it uses not only results from field and wind tunnel experiments but also theory and models derived from multiple runs of numerical routines in order to simulate the basic physical processes within the street canyon. A combination of a plume model, for the direct contribution of vehicle exhaust, and a box model for the recirculating part of the pollutants in the street, is used to predict concentration for receptors within the canyon. Emission rates of vehicle-derived particulate matter are calculated within SLAQ, which serve as input to the dispersion module. Exhaust emission rates are scaled element by element along the street for each of the lanes according to the direction of traffic flow to account for modal operation of vehicles near signalised intersections. This refinement allows SLAQ to account for non-uniformity in along-canyon emission rates and to model a street that has several intersections along its length. Thermal turbulence due to environmental surface sensible heat and vehicle-generated heat is accounted for in the model. Other features of SLAQ include correction for the urban heat island effect, dry deposition, wet deposition, particle settling and estimation of wind direction standard deviation, when this latter data is not available. SLAQ has been evaluated in a street in Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom and correlation coefficient of 0.8 between the modelled and measured concentrations has been obtained.

  6. Measuring and modelling the airborne particulate matter mass concentration field in the street environment. Model overview and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micallef, A.; Colls, J.J. [Division of Environmental Science, School of Biological Sciences, Sutton Bonington Campus, University of Nottingham, Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    1999-09-01

    This paper discusses the outline structure and preliminary evaluation of an emission-dispersion model for predicting the temporal and spatial distribution of vehicle-derived airborne particulate matter mass concentration in street canyons. The model is called Street Level Air Quality (SLAQ). SLAQ is semi-empirical, in that it uses not only results from field and wind tunnel experiments but also theory and models derived from multiple runs of numerical routines in order to simulate the basic physical processes within the street canyon. A combination of a plume model, for the direct contribution of vehicle exhaust, and a box model for the recirculating part of the pollutants in the street, is used to predict concentration for receptors within the canyon. Emission rates of vehicle-derived particulate matter are calculated within SLAQ, which serve as input to the dispersion module. Exhaust emission rates are scaled element by element along the street for each of the lanes according to the direction of traffic flow to account for modal operation of vehicles near signalised intersections. This refinement allows SLAQ to account for non-uniformity in along-canyon emission rates and to model a street that has several intersections along its length. Thermal turbulence due to environmental surface sensible heat and vehicle-generated heat is accounted for in the model. Other features of SLAQ include correction for the urban heat island effect, dry deposition, wet deposition, particle settling and estimation of wind direction standard deviation, when this latter data is not available. SLAQ has been evaluated in a street in Loughborough, Leicestershire, United Kingdom and a correlation coefficient of 0.8 between the modelled and measured concentrations has been obtained.

  7. The Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP: overview and description of models, simulations and climate diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Lamarque

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP consists of a series of timeslice experiments targeting the long-term changes in atmospheric composition between 1850 and 2100, with the goal of documenting radiative forcing and the associated composition changes. Here we introduce the various simulations performed under ACCMIP and the associated model output. The ACCMIP models have a wide range of horizontal and vertical resolutions, vertical extent, chemistry schemes and interaction with radiation and clouds. While anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions were specified for all time slices in the ACCMIP protocol, it is found that the natural emissions lead to a significant range in emissions, mostly for ozone precursors. The analysis of selected present-day climate diagnostics (precipitation, temperature, specific humidity and zonal wind reveals biases consistent with state-of-the-art climate models. The model-to-model comparison of changes in temperature, specific humidity and zonal wind between 1850 and 2000 and between 2000 and 2100 indicates mostly consistent results, but with outliers different enough to possibly affect their representation of climate impact on chemistry.

  8. An Overview of Modeling Approaches Applied to Aggregation-Based Fleet Management and Integration of Plug-in Electric Vehicles †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi You

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The design and implementation of management policies for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs need to be supported by a holistic understanding of the functional processes, their complex interactions, and their response to various changes. Models developed to represent different functional processes and systems are seen as useful tools to support the related studies for different stakeholders in a tangible way. This paper presents an overview of modeling approaches applied to support aggregation-based management and integration of PEVs from the perspective of fleet operators and grid operators, respectively. We start by explaining a structured modeling approach, i.e., a flexible combination of process models and system models, applied to different management and integration studies. A state-of-the-art overview of modeling approaches applied to represent several key processes, such as charging management, and key systems, such as the PEV fleet, is then presented, along with a detailed description of different approaches. Finally, we discuss several considerations that need to be well understood during the modeling process in order to assist modelers and model users in the appropriate decisions of using existing, or developing their own, solutions for further applications.

  9. IBL Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrere, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS IBL project is reaching a completion phase with the integration of the staves around the IPT and beam pipe structure. The installation and insertion into the Pixel will be done in May with a tight schedule constraint. This talk will give an overview of the project including the production status and the recent issues met like the corrosion problem. The tremendous effort made to recover the production and optimize the time and the available components to test the full on-detector and off-detector chain highlighted very efficient and excellent results. The integration tools and all the engineering efforts are also made to ensure the success of the last operations on the surface and in the cavern.

  10. Applying the transtheoretical model to tobacco cessation and prevention: a review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Leslie; Pagell, Francie; Hallion, Maria Elena; Adams, Troy B

    2002-01-01

    To comprehensively review all published, peer-reviewed research on the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) and tobacco cessation and prevention by exploring the validity of its constructs, the evidence for use of interventions based on the TTM, the description of populations using TTM constructs, and the identification of areas for further research. The three research questions answered were: "How is the validity of the TTM as applied to tobacco supported by research?" "How does the TTM describe special populations regarding tobacco use?" "What is the nature of evidence supporting the use of stage-matched tobacco interventions?" Computer Database search (PsychInfo, Medline, Current Contents, ERIC, CINAHL-Allied Health, and Pro-Quest Nursing) and manual journal search. INCLUSION/EXCLUSION CRITERIA: All English, original, research articles on the TTM as it relates to tobacco use published in peer-reviewed journals prior to March 1, 2001, were included. Commentaries, editorials, and books were not included. Articles were categorized as TTM construct validation, population descriptions using TTM constructs, or intervention evaluation using TTM constructs. Summary tables including study design, research rating, purpose, methods, findings, and implications were created. Articles were further divided into groups according to their purpose. Considering both the findings and research quality of each, the three research questions were addressed. The 148 articles reviewed included 54 validation studies, 73 population studies, and 37 interventions (some articles fit two categories). Overall, the evidence in support of the TTM as applied to tobacco use was strong, with supportive studies being more numerous and of a better design than nonsupportive studies. Using established criteria, we rated the construct validity of the entire body of literature as good; however, notable concerns exist about the staging construct. A majority of stage-matched intervention studies provided positive

  11. Performance improvement based on integrated quality management models: What evidence do we have? A systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.N. Minkman (Mirella); C.T.B. Ahaus (Kees); R. Huijsman (Robbert)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractPurpose. Health care organizations have to improve their performance for multiple stakeholders and organize integrated care. To facilitate this, various integrated quality management models can be used. This article reviews the literature on the Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award (MBQA) crit

  12. Performance improvement based on integrated quality management models : What evidence do we have? A systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minkman, Mirella; Ahaus, Kees; Huijsman, Robbert

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. Health care organizations have to improve their performance for multiple stakeholders and organize integrated care. To facilitate this, various integrated quality management models can be used. This article reviews the literature on the Malcolm Baldrige Quality Award (MBQA) criteria, the Eu

  13. Faculty Perceptions about Teaching Online: Exploring the Literature Using the Technology Acceptance Model as an Organizing Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Nancy Pope; Ivankova, Nataliya V.; Moss, Jacqueline A.

    2017-01-01

    Academic leaders can better implement institutional strategic plans to promote online programs if they understand faculty perceptions about teaching online. An extended version of a model for technology acceptance, or TAM2 (Venkatesh & Davis, 2000), provided a framework for surveying and organizing the research literature about factors that…

  14. The Use of the "Teaching as Inquiry Model" to Develop Students' Self-Efficacy in Literature Response Essay Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featonby, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a project conducted with Year 12 English students. It was based on the model of "Teaching as Inquiry" (Ministry of Education, 2007) and aimed to develop students' self-efficacy in relation to their literature-response essay writing. Self-efficacy was measured using Bandura's (2006) self-efficacy scale and an…

  15. On internal erosion in embankment dams:a literature survey of the phenomenon and the prospect to model it numerically

    OpenAIRE

    Mattsson, Hans; Hellström, J. Gunnar I.; Lundström, Staffan

    2008-01-01

    The main objective with this literature survey is to elucidate the state of the art of internal erosion in embankment dams in order to be able to formulate a research program for numerical modelling of internal erosion in a physically sound manner. Since these processes normally are localised to specific zones in a dam, the ordinary continuum approach frequently utilised in soil modelling will not, by itself, be successful. The plan of the research group is therefore to treat internal erosion...

  16. Medium of Instruction Policies in Ghanaian and Indian Primary Schools: An Overview of Key Issues and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erling, Elizabeth J.; Adinolfi, Lina; Hultgren, Anna Kristina; Buckler, Alison; Mukorera, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a rigorous literature review of research into medium of instruction in Ghana and India, whose language-in-education policies represent two contrasting models of use of local languages and the development of competence in English. The paper begins by briefly overviewing the language-in-education policy in these two countries…

  17. Social Economic System Model and Modeling Methods Overview%社会经济系统模型及建模方法述评(上)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马飞虹

    2012-01-01

    为了系统的介绍社会经济系统建模与仿真方法,计划从“社会经济系统模型及建模方法述评”、“宫产学合作创新系统建模及仿真方法研究”和“基于SWARM平台的社会经济系统仿真实证研究”等三个方面来进行阐述,本篇是该系列文章的首篇.在本篇中,作者依据系统理论与系统科学方法,采用“系统是社会存在的基本方式”和“系统模型将真实和深刻地反映复杂的社会经济系统实际状态”的观点,对作用于社会经济系统中的“双螺旋与三螺旋模型”、“复杂适应系统模型”和“系统动力学模型”等三类典型社会经济模型,进行了深入的解析和述评.%For introducing the social economic system modeling and simulation method, the author planed to elaborate it from three aspects, " Social economic system model and the modeling methods overview" , " An university-industry-government cooperative innovation system modeling and simulation method research" and" SWARM platform based on social economic system simulation empirical research ". This article is the first one of the series articles. In this paper, based on the system theory and the method of system science, and using the viewpoints of " system is the basic mode of social existence" and " system model can truly and deeply reflect the complex social and economic state of the real system", the author analyzed deeply and viewed comprehensive three kinds of typical social economic models: "the double helix and the triple helix model" , "the complex adaptive system model" and "the system dynamics model".

  18. Social Economic System Model And Modeling Methods Overview%社会经济系统模型及建模方法述评(下)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马飞虹

    2012-01-01

    为了系统的介绍社会经济系统建模与仿真方法,计划从“社会经济系统模型及建模方法述评”、“官产学合作创新系统建模及仿真方法研究”和“基于SWARM平台的社会经济系统仿真实证研究”等三个方面来进行阐述,本篇是该系列文章的首篇.在本篇中,作者依据系统理论与系统科学方法,采用“系统是社会存在的基本方式”和“系统模型将真实和深刻地反映复杂的社会经济系统实际状态”的观点,对作用于社会经济系统中的“双螺旋与三螺旋模型”、“复杂适应系统模型”和“系统动力学模型”等三类典型社会经济模型,进行了深入的解析和述评.%For introducing the social economic system modeling and simulation method, the author plans to elaborate it from three aspects, Social economic system model and the modeling methods overview, an university - industry - government cooperative innovation system modeling and simulation method research and SWARM platform based on social economic system simulation empirical research. This article was the first one of the series articles. In this paper, based on the system theory and the method of system science, and using the viewpoints of " system is the basic mode of social existence" and "system model will truly and deeply reflect the complex social and economic state of the real system" , the author analysze deeply and reviewed comprehensively three kinds of typical social economic models: "the double helix and the triple helix model" , "the complex adaptive system model" and "the system dynamics model".

  19. Thermodynamic modeling of ionic liquid systems: development and detailed overview of novel methodology based on the PC-SAFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduszyński, Kamil; Domańska, Urszula

    2012-04-26

    We present the results of an extensive study on a novel approach of modeling ionic liquids (ILs) and their mixtures with molecular compounds, incorporating perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT). PC-SAFT was used to calculate the thermodynamic properties of different homologous series of ILs based on the bis(trifluormethylsulfonyl)imide anion ([NTf2]). First, pure fluid parameters were obtained for each IL by means of fitting the model predictions to experimental liquid densities over a broad range of temperature and pressure. The reliability and physical significance of the parameters as well as the employed molecular scheme were tested by calculation of density, vapor pressure, and other properties of pure ILs (e.g., critical properties, normal boiling point). Additionally, the surface tension of pure ILs was calculated by coupling the PC-SAFT equation of state with density gradient theory (DGT). All correlated/predicted results were compared with literature experimental or simulation data. Afterward, we attempted to model various thermodynamic properties of some binary systems composed of IL and organic solvent or water. The properties under study were the binary vapor-liquid, liquid-liquid, and solid-liquid equilibria and the excess enthalpies of mixing. To calculate cross-interaction energies we used the standard combining rules of Lorentz-Berthelot, Kleiner-Sadowski, and Wolbach-Sandler. It was shown that incorporation of temperature-dependent binary corrections was required to obtain much more accurate results than in the case of conventional predictions. Binary corrections were adjusted to infinite dilution activity coefficients of a particular solute in a given IL determined experimentally or predicted by means of the modified UNIFAC (Dortmund) group contribution method. We concluded that the latter method allows accurate and reliable calculations of bulk-phase properties in a totally predictive manner.

  20. Incremental costs associated with myocardial infarction and stroke in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: an overview for economic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Victoria K; Colosia, Ann D; Copley-Merriman, Catherine; Mauskopf, Josephine; Hass, Bastian; Palencia, Roberto

    2014-07-01

    To identify cost estimates related to myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for use in economic models. A systematic literature review was conducted. Electronic databases and conference abstracts were screened against inclusion criteria, which included studies performed in patients who had T2DM before experiencing an MI or stroke. Primary cost studies and economic models were included. Costs were converted to 2012 pounds sterling. Fifty-four studies were identified: 13 primary cost studies and 41 economic evaluations using secondary sources for complication costs. Primary studies provided costs from 10 countries. Estimates for a fatal event ranged from £2482-£5222 for MI and from £4900-£6694 for stroke. Costs for the year a non-fatal event occurred ranged from £5071-£29,249 for MI and from £5171-£38,732 for stroke. Annual follow-up costs ranged from £945-£1616 for an MI and from £4704-£12,926 for a stroke. Economic evaluations from 12 countries were identified, and costs of complications showed similar variability to the primary studies. The costs identified within primary studies varied between and within countries. Many studies used costs estimated in studies not specific to patients with T2DM. Data gaps included a detailed breakdown of resource use, which affected the ability to compare data across countries. In the development of economic models for patients with T2DM, the use of accurate estimates of costs associated with MI and stroke is important. When country-specific costs are not available, clear justification for the choice of estimates should be provided.

  1. A comprehensive literature review of the pelvis and the lower extremity FE human models under quasi-static conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dirini, R M A; Thewlis, D; Paul, G

    2012-01-01

    Finite Element Modeling (FEM) has become a vital tool in the automotive design and development processes. FEM of the human body is a technique capable of estimating parameters that are difficult to measure in experimental studies with the human body segments being modeled as complex and dynamic entities. Several studies have been dedicated to attain close-to-real FEMs of the human body (Pankoke and Siefert 2007; Amann, Huschenbeth et al. 2009; ESI 2010). The aim of this paper is to identify and appraise the state-of-the art models of the human body which incorporate detailed pelvis and/or lower extremity models. Six databases and search engines were used to obtain literature, and the search was limited to studies published in English since 2000. The initial search results identified 636 pelvis-related papers, 834 buttocks-related papers, 505 thigh-related papers, 927 femur-related papers, 2039 knee-related papers, 655 shank-related papers, 292 tibia-related papers, 110 fibula-related papers, 644 ankle-related papers, and 5660 foot-related papers. A refined search returned 100 pelvis-related papers, 45 buttocks-related papers, 65 thigh-related papers, 162 femur-related papers, 195 knee-related papers, 37 shank-related papers, 80 tibia-related papers, 30 fibula-related papers and 102 ankle-related papers and 246 foot-related papers. The refined literature list was further restricted by appraisal against a modified LOW appraisal criteria. Studies with unclear methodologies, with a focus on populations with pathology or with sport related dynamic motion modeling were excluded. The final literature list included fifteen models and each was assessed against the percentile the model represents, the gender the model was based on, the human body segment/segments included in the model, the sample size used to develop the model, the source of geometric/anthropometric values used to develop the model, the posture the model represents and the finite element solver used for the

  2. Overview on the European green crab Carcinus spp. (Portunidae, Decapoda), one of the most famous marine invaders and ecotoxicological models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leignel, V; Stillman, J H; Baringou, S; Thabet, R; Metais, I

    2014-01-01

    Green crabs (Carcinus, Portunidae) include two species native to Europe--Carcinus aestuarii (Mediterranean species) and Carcinus maenas (Atlantic species). These small shore crabs (maximal length carapace, approximately 10 cm) show rapid growth, high fecundity, and long planktonic larval stages that facilitate broad dispersion. Carcinus spp. have a high tolerance to fluctuations of environmental factors including oxygen, salinity, temperature, xenobiotic compounds, and others. Shipping of Carcinus spp. over the past centuries has resulted in its invasions of America, Asia, and Australia. Classified as one of the world's 100 worst invaders by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, Carcinus spp. are the most widely distributed intertidal crabs in the world. Their voracious predatory activity makes them strong interactors in local communities, and they are recognized as a model for invasiveness in marine systems as well as a sentinel species in ecotoxicology. This review shows an exhaustive analysis of the literature on the life cycle, diversity, physiological tolerance, genomic investigations, ecotoxicological use, historical invasion, control programs, and putative economical valorization of shore crabs.

  3. Building Spiritual Care in Nursing: An Overview of Ku's Spiritual Studies in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Ya-Lie

    This paper describes the overview of Ku's spiritual literature on nursing through five stages in Taiwan: the development of a spiritual framework, a scale of spiritual distress, a spiritual care model, a spiritual nursing course, and a spiritual care book in nursing. The article demonstrates the process of building spiritual care in nursing from constructing theoretical frameworks, measurements, and applying to education. The integrative overview of Ku's spiritual studies developed in this article could be an example in clinical and education fields for nurse administrators to develop spiritual capabilities.

  4. Instance Based Methods --- A Brief Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Baumgartner, Peter; 10.1007/s13218-010-0002-x

    2012-01-01

    Instance-based methods are a specific class of methods for automated proof search in first-order logic. This article provides an overview of the major methods in the area and discusses their properties and relations to the more established resolution methods. It also discusses some recent trends on refinements and applications. This overview is rather brief and informal, but we provide a comprehensive literature list to follow-up on the details.

  5. Reading and Analyzing Ethnographies through Literature Circles: A Praxis Model for Encouraging Multicultural Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles-Ritchie, Marilee

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the process of implementing literature circles using ethnographies as the texts to better prepare teachers for multicultural/ multilingual teaching contexts. Data collected by the course instructor and two of the participants, using a Critical Teacher Action Research (CTAR) methodology, indicate that participants think…

  6. Rethinking the New Literatures of Childhood: Cultural Models of Gender in Popular Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jennifer C.; Veth, Erika S.

    2008-01-01

    Online texts rapidly are becoming central to children's out-of-school literate lives. However, children's engagement with such unofficial texts rarely is addressed in schools, or is addressed in limited ways. To address this gap, we argue for conceptualizing popular media, including websites, as the new literatures of childhood, tracking how…

  7. Cluster-Based Query Expansion Using Language Modeling for Biomedical Literature Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuheng

    2011-01-01

    The tremendously huge volume of biomedical literature, scientists' specific information needs, long terms of multiples words, and fundamental problems of synonym and polysemy have been challenging issues facing the biomedical information retrieval community researchers. Search engines have significantly improved the efficiency and effectiveness of…

  8. Towards a Transnational Model of Critical Values Education: The Case for Literature Education in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Suzanne S.

    2015-01-01

    Once regarded as the most essential subject in the national curriculum vital for civilizing the public, English Literature has now lost its place of prominence. In this paper, I focus on Singapore where the subject was a core aspect of the colonial curriculum and where it is currently facing declining enrolment at the national examinations. In the…

  9. Quantification of health effects of breastfeeding - Review of the literature and model simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum CTM van; Buchner FL; Hoekstra J; CVG

    2006-01-01

    Breastfeeding has positive health effects, with the largest health gain realized through policy that focuses on encouraging all mothers to start breastfeeding. A literature review shows that breastfeeding has beneficial health effects in both the short and the longer term. There is convincing

  10. Using literature and data to learn Bayesian networks as clinical models of ovarian tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antal, P.; Fannes, G.; Timmerman, D.

    2004-01-01

    Thanks to its increasing availability, electronic literature has become a potential source of information for the development of complex Bayesian networks (BN), when human expertise is missing or data is scarce or contains much noise. This opportunity raises the question of how to integrate...

  11. Towards a Research Model for Distance Education-Contributions from the Telecommuting Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Geoffrey N.

    This paper draws on an extensive review of literature associated with telecommuting and looks at features that might affect the offering and take-up of distance education, particularly distance education involving computer applications, telecommunications and web-based, off-campus delivery of courses or components of courses. The issue is…

  12. Quantification of health effects of breastfeeding - Review of the literature and model simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum CTM van; Buchner FL; Hoekstra J; CVG

    2006-01-01

    Breastfeeding has positive health effects, with the largest health gain realized through policy that focuses on encouraging all mothers to start breastfeeding. A literature review shows that breastfeeding has beneficial health effects in both the short and the longer term. There is convincing eviden

  13. The necessities for building a model to evaluate Business Intelligence projects- Literature Review

    CERN Document Server

    Farrokhi, Vahid

    2012-01-01

    In recent years Business Intelligence (BI) systems have consistently been rated as one of the highest priorities of Information Systems (IS) and business leaders. BI allows firms to apply information for supporting their processes and decisions by combining its capabilities in both of organizational and technical issues. Many of companies are being spent a significant portion of its IT budgets on business intelligence and related technology. Evaluation of BI readiness is vital because it serves two important goals. First, it shows gaps areas where company is not ready to proceed with its BI efforts. By identifying BI readiness gaps, we can avoid wasting time and resources. Second, the evaluation guides us what we need to close the gaps and implement BI with a high probability of success. This paper proposes to present an overview of BI and necessities for evaluation of readiness. Key words: Business intelligence, Evaluation, Success, Readiness

  14. African Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Recek, Denis

    2011-01-01

    The topic of this diploma is the formation and shaping of African literature. The first chapter is about the beginning of African literature. It describes oral literature and its transmission into written literature. Written African literature had great problems in becoming a part of world literature because of its diversity of languages and dialects. Christianity and Islam are mentioned as two religions which had a great impact on African literature. Colonialism is broadly described as an es...

  15. Using literature and data to learn Bayesian networks as clinical models of ovarian tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antal, P.; Fannes, G.; Timmerman, D.

    2004-01-01

    Thanks to its increasing availability, electronic literature has become a potential source of information for the development of complex Bayesian networks (BN), when human expertise is missing or data is scarce or contains much noise. This opportunity raises the question of how to integrate...... information from free-text resources with statistical data in learning Bayesian networks. Firstly, we report on the collection of prior information resources in the ovarian cancer domain, which includes "kernel" annotations of the domain variables. We introduce methods based on the annotations and literature...... an expert reference and against data scores (the mutual information (MI) and a Bayesian score). Next, we transform the text-based dependency measures into informative text-based priors for Bayesian network structures. Finally, we report the benefit of such informative text-based priors on the performance...

  16. Overview of the Russian and Foreign Experience of Agent-Based Modeling of Complex Socio-Economic Systems of the Meso-Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Andreevna Chekmareva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of the agent-oriented models of complex socio-economic systems of the meso-level developed by Russian and fo reign scientists. It considers agent-oriented models of municipalities: cities, urban agglomerations, suburban areas, etc. When choosing models for the review, preference was given to municipal level models that have a detailed description of agents, their behavior and rules of interaction accompanied by a visual diagram of the conceptual model. However, the important criterion was the availability of information about the testing of the constructed model on the actual data for a specific municipality. Foreign experience of application of the agent-oriented approach to the study of socio-economic systems of the meso-level is disclosed on the example of the models of municipalities that are the most interesting and promising from our point of view: these models are models of the virtual economy of the city, the model of interrelated markets for housing and land, the models of expansion of the city area, the models of reducing the city, the model of intra-city migration, the models of interconnected development of creative industries and spatial structure of the city. The author also considers the experience of Russian scientists in this field presented in scientific publications on the current models of socio-economic development of cities and municipal areas. The main agents acting within each model, the environment of their functioning, and the rules of interaction between themselves and with the external environment are described. The author presents conceptual models of interaction between the agents. The paper shows possibilities and examples of practical application of the described agent-based models

  17. Reading Logs and Literature Teaching Models in English Language Teacher Education

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Reading logs are regularly used in foreign language education since they are not only critical in the development of reading comprehension but may also be instrumental in taking readers beyond the referential into the representational realms of language. In this paper we offer the results of a qualitative analysis of a series of reading logs written by advanced students for a literature course in an English language teacher education program in Argentina. The logs were coded according to the ...

  18. Towards a Conceptual Framework of Sustainable Business Model Innovation in the Agri-Food Sector: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Barth

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to increase our understanding of sustainable business model innovation in the agri-food sector in terms of its theoretical and practical approaches for sustainability and their degree of complexity and maturity. The paper is based on a systematic literature review of 570 journal articles on business models and business model innovation published between 1990 and 2014. Of these articles, only 21 have business model innovation as their main focus. The review shows that research interest in the agri-food sector has increased in these years. The paper proposes a conceptual framework for sustainable business model innovation in the agri-food sector that can be used to meet the challenges encountered in taking a sustainability perspective.

  19. Computational modeling of concrete flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roussel, Nicolas; Geiker, Mette Rica; Dufour, Frederic

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a general overview of the present status regarding computational modeling of the flow of fresh concrete. The computational modeling techniques that can be found in the literature may be divided into three main families: single fluid simulations, numerical modeling of discrete...

  20. Cultural competence models and cultural competence assessment instruments in nursing: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zuwang

    2015-05-01

    The author reviewed cultural competence models and cultural competence assessment instruments developed and published by nurse researchers since 1982. Both models and instruments were examined in terms of their components, theoretical backgrounds, empirical validation, and psychometric evaluation. Most models were not empirically tested; only a few models developed model-based instruments. About half of the instruments were tested with varying levels of psychometric properties. Other related issues were discussed, including the definition of cultural competence and its significance in model and instrument development, limitations of existing models and instruments, impact of cultural competence on health disparities, and further work in cultural competence research and practice. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. An overview of regional and local characteristics of aerosols in South Africa using satellite, ground, and modeling data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Hersey

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive overview of particulate air quality across the five major metropolitan areas of South Africa (Cape Town, Bloemfontein, Johannesburg and Tshwane (Gauteng Province, the Industrial Highveld Air Quality Priority Area (HVAPA, and Durban, based on a decadal (1 January 2000 to 31 December 2009 aerosol climatology from multiple satellite platforms and a detailed analysis of ground-based data from 19 sites throughout Gauteng. Data include Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD550, 555 from Aqua (550 nm, Terra (550 nm, and MISR (555 nm platforms, Ängström Exponent (α550/865, 470/660 from Aqua (550/865 nm and Terra (470/660 nm, Ultraviolet Aerosol Index (UVAI from TOMS, and model results from the Goddard Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART model. Results in Cape Town are distinct, owing to a typically clean, marine airmass origin and infrequent continental influence. At continentally-influenced sites, AOD550, AOD555, α550/865, α470/660 and UVAI reach maxima (0.12–0.20, 1.0–1.8, and 1.0–1.2, respectively during late winter and early spring (August–October, coinciding with a period of enhanced dust generation and the maximum frequency of close-proximity and subtropical fires identified by MODIS Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS. The adjacent metropolitan and industrial Gauteng and HVAPA areas have been identified as a megacity based on NO2 concentrations, but AOD is a factor of 3–6 lower than other megacities worldwide. GOCART results suggest that the contributions of organics and black carbon to AOD are significantly enhanced during biomass burning season (ASO, but that sulfate is the most significant contributor to AOD (~70–80% through the rest of the year. Dust appears to be underestimated by GOCART emissions inventories at continentally-influenced metropolitan areas of South Africa. Ground monitoring sites were classified according to site type: (1 township and informal settlement

  2. Inflammatory breast cancer: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uden, D J P; van Laarhoven, H W M; Westenberg, A H; de Wilt, J H W; Blanken-Peeters, C F J M

    2015-02-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive entity of breast cancer. Management involves coordination of multidisciplinary management and usually includes neoadjuvant chemotherapy, ablative surgery if a tumor-free resection margin is expected and locoregional radiotherapy. This multimodal therapeutic approach has significantly improved patient survival. However, the median overall survival among women with IBC is still poor. By elucidating the biologic characteristics of IBC, new treatment options may become available. We performed a comprehensive review of the English-language literature on IBC through computerized literature searches. The objective of the current review is to present an overview of the literature related to the biology, imaging and multidisciplinary treatment of inflammatory breast cancer.

  3. Theory Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We set the scene for theoretical issues in charm physics that were discussed at CHARM 2016 in Bologna. In particular we emphasize the importance of improving our understanding of standard model contributions to numerous charm observables and we discuss also possible tests of our theory tools, like the Heavy Quark Expansion via the lifetime ratios of $D$-mesons

  4. Attaining Performance with Building Information Modelling: A systematic literature review of product and process modelling in AEC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadonikolaki, E.; Koutamanis, A.; Wamelink, J.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the findings of a systematic literature review of approximately 200 scientific sources. It is designed with the aim to identify the current benefits and factors of high performance in Architecture, Engineering, Construction (AEC) since the introduction of Building Information

  5. Developing and Improving Student Non-Technical Skills in IT Education: A Literature Review and Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Hagen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify portions of the literature in the areas of Information Technology (IT management, skills development, and curriculum development that support the design of a holistic conceptual framework for instruction in non-technical skills within the IT higher education context. This article review provides a framework for understanding how the critical success factors related to IT and Information Systems (IS professional success is impacted by developing students’ non-technical skills. The article culminates in a holistic conceptual framework for developing non-technical skills within the IT higher education context. Implications for theory and research are provided.

  6. Neurocognitive poetics: methods and models for investigating the neuronal and cognitive-affective bases of literature reception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2015-01-01

    A long tradition of research including classical rhetoric, esthetics and poetics theory, formalism and structuralism, as well as current perspectives in (neuro)cognitive poetics has investigated structural and functional aspects of literature reception. Despite a wealth of literature published in specialized journals like Poetics, however, still little is known about how the brain processes and creates literary and poetic texts. Still, such stimulus material might be suited better than other genres for demonstrating the complexities with which our brain constructs the world in and around us, because it unifies thought and language, music and imagery in a clear, manageable way, most often with play, pleasure, and emotion (Schrott and Jacobs, 2011). In this paper, I discuss methods and models for investigating the neuronal and cognitive-affective bases of literary reading together with pertinent results from studies on poetics, text processing, emotion, or neuroaesthetics, and outline current challenges and future perspectives. PMID:25932010

  7. Neurocognitive poetics: methods and models for investigating the neuronal and cognitive-affective bases of literature reception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Arthur M

    2015-01-01

    A long tradition of research including classical rhetoric, esthetics and poetics theory, formalism and structuralism, as well as current perspectives in (neuro)cognitive poetics has investigated structural and functional aspects of literature reception. Despite a wealth of literature published in specialized journals like Poetics, however, still little is known about how the brain processes and creates literary and poetic texts. Still, such stimulus material might be suited better than other genres for demonstrating the complexities with which our brain constructs the world in and around us, because it unifies thought and language, music and imagery in a clear, manageable way, most often with play, pleasure, and emotion (Schrott and Jacobs, 2011). In this paper, I discuss methods and models for investigating the neuronal and cognitive-affective bases of literary reading together with pertinent results from studies on poetics, text processing, emotion, or neuroaesthetics, and outline current challenges and future perspectives.

  8. Best practice governance principles in the sports industry: an overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Best practice governance principles in the sports industry: an overview. ... The paradigm of sport participation as well as sport management has shifted globally from ... This overview examines the British and Australian models and codes of ...

  9. Integrated methodological frameworks for modelling agent-based advanced supply chain planning systems: A systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Antonio Santa-Eulalia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this paper is to provide a systematic literature review of recent developments in methodological frameworks for the modelling and simulation of agent-based advanced supply chain planning systems.Design/methodology/approach: A systematic literature review is provided to identify, select and make an analysis and a critical summary of all suitable studies in the area. It is organized into two blocks: the first one covers agent-based supply chain planning systems in general terms, while the second one specializes the previous search to identify those works explicitly containing methodological aspects.Findings: Among sixty suitable manuscripts identified in the primary literature search, only seven explicitly considered the methodological aspects. In addition, we noted that, in general, the notion of advanced supply chain planning is not considered unambiguously, that the social and individual aspects of the agent society are not taken into account in a clear manner in several studies and that a significant part of the works are of a theoretical nature, with few real-scale industrial applications. An integrated framework covering all phases of the modelling and simulation process is still lacking in the literature visited.Research limitations/implications: The main research limitations are related to the period covered (last four years, the selected scientific databases, the selected language (i.e. English and the use of only one assessment framework for the descriptive evaluation part.Practical implications: The identification of recent works in the domain and discussion concerning their limitations can help pave the way for new and innovative researches towards a complete methodological framework for agent-based advanced supply chain planning systems.Originality/value: As there are no recent state-of-the-art reviews in the domain of methodological frameworks for agent-based supply chain planning, this paper contributes to

  10. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer > Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Overview Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... bean-shaped organs that help fight infection. About breast cancer Cancer begins when healthy cells in the breast ...

  11. Identifying cardiac syncope based on clinical history: a literature-based model tested in four independent datasets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janneke Berecki-Gisolf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to develop and test a literature-based model for symptoms that associate with cardiac causes of syncope. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seven studies (the derivation sample reporting ≥2 predictors of cardiac syncope were identified (4 Italian, 1 Swiss, 1 Canadian, and 1 from the United States. From these, 10 criteria were identified as diagnostic predictors. The conditional probability of each predictor was calculated by summation of the reported frequencies. A model of conditional probabilities and a priori probabilities of cardiac syncope was constructed. The model was tested in four datasets of patients with syncope (the test sample from Calgary (n=670; 21% had cardiac syncope, Amsterdam (n=503; 9%, Milan (n=689; 5% and Rochester (3877; 11%. In the derivation sample ten variables were significantly associated with cardiac syncope: age, gender, structural heart disease, low number of spells, brief or absent prodrome, supine syncope, effort syncope, and absence of nausea, diaphoresis and blurred vision. Fitting the test datasets to the full model gave C-statistics of 0.87 (Calgary, 0.84 (Amsterdam, 0.72 (Milan and 0.71 (Rochester. Model sensitivity and specificity were 92% and 68% for Calgary, 86% and 67% for Amsterdam, 76% and 59% for Milan, and 73% and 52% for Rochester. A model with 5 variables (age, gender, structural heart disease, low number of spells, and lack of prodromal symptoms was as accurate as the total set. CONCLUSION: A simple literature-based Bayesian model of historical criteria can distinguish patients with cardiac syncope from other patients with syncope with moderate accuracy.

  12. Inverse modeling methods for indoor airborne pollutant tracking: literature review and fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Zhai, Z

    2007-12-01

    Reduction in indoor environment quality calls for effective control and improvement measures. Accurate and prompt identification of contaminant sources ensures that they can be quickly removed and contaminated spaces isolated and cleaned. This paper discusses the use of inverse modeling to identify potential indoor pollutant sources with limited pollutant sensor data. The study reviews various inverse modeling methods for advection-dispersion problems and summarizes the methods into three major categories: forward, backward, and probability inverse modeling methods. The adjoint probability inverse modeling method is indicated as an appropriate model for indoor air pollutant tracking because it can quickly find source location, strength and release time without prior information. The paper introduces the principles of the adjoint probability method and establishes the corresponding adjoint equations for both multi-zone airflow models and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. The study proposes a two-stage inverse modeling approach integrating both multi-zone and CFD models, which can provide a rapid estimate of indoor pollution status and history for a whole building. Preliminary case study results indicate that the adjoint probability method is feasible for indoor pollutant inverse modeling. The proposed method can help identify contaminant source characteristics (location and release time) with limited sensor outputs. This will ensure an effective and prompt execution of building management strategies and thus achieve a healthy and safe indoor environment. The method can also help design optimal sensor networks.

  13. Experimentally determined mechanical properties of, and models for, the periodontal ligament: critical review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fill, Ted S; Carey, Jason P; Toogood, Roger W; Major, Paul W

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. This review is intended to highlight and discuss discrepancies in the literature of the periodontal ligament's (PDL) mechanical properties and the various experimental approaches used to measure them. Methods. Searches were performed on biomechanical and orthodontic publications (in databases: Compendex, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus). Results. The review revealed that significant variations exist, some on the order of six orders of magnitude, in the PDL's elastic constants and mechanical properties. Possible explanations may be attributable to different experimental approaches and assumptions. Conclusions. The discrepancies highlight the need for further research into PDL properties under various clinical and experimental loading conditions. Better understanding of the PDL's biomechanical behavior under physiologic and traumatic loading conditions might enhance the understanding of the PDL's biologic reaction in health and disease. Providing a greater insight into the response of the PDL would be instrumental to orthodontists and engineers for designing more predictable, and therefore more efficacious, orthodontic appliances.

  14. Equation of State Project Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockett, Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-11

    A general overview of the Equation of State (EOS) Project will be presented. The goal is to provide the audience with an introduction of what our more advanced methods entail (DFT, QMD, etc.. ) and how these models are being utilized to better constrain the thermodynamic models. These models substantially reduce our regions of interpolation between the various thermodynamic limits. I will also present a variety example of recent EOS work.

  15. Conceptual Models in Health Informatics Research: A Literature Review and Suggestions for Development

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Kathleen; Sockolow, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    Background Contributing to health informatics research means using conceptual models that are integrative and explain the research in terms of the two broad domains of health science and information science. However, it can be hard for novice health informatics researchers to find exemplars and guidelines in working with integrative conceptual models. Objectives The aim of this paper is to support the use of integrative conceptual models in research on information and communication technologi...

  16. Learning through Literature: Geography, Intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Mary Ellen

    This resource book provides specific strategies and activities for integrating the intermediate geography curriculum with related children's literature selections. The book includes the following sections: (1) "World Geography Overview"; (2) "Oceans"; (3) "Polar Regions"; (4) "Islands"; (5) "Rain Forests"; (6) "Mountains"; (7) "Forests"; (8)…

  17. Experimental animal model of gastric cancer: an overview of current research%胃癌实验动物模型的研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继燃

    2013-01-01

    Stomach cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors,so the establishment of a reliable animal model of this disease has important significance in elucidating its causes and pathogenesis as well as screening the prevention and treatment drugs.At present,the animal models of gastric cancer,according to the level and purpose of study,are classified into long-term induction model,rapid xenograft tumor formation model and other specific models.This paper overviews the current status of the available animal models with regard to the animal selection,creation methods,and scope of application,etc.%胃癌是最常见的恶性肿瘤之一,故建立可靠的胃癌动物模型对于探明胃癌的病因、发病机制及防治药物的研究均具有重要意义.目前,根据不同的研究水平及研究目的,胃癌动物模型可分为长期诱导型、快速移植型及其他特殊模型等,本文就胃癌动物模型的动物选择、造模方法、适用范围等的研究现状进行综述.

  18. Sensing Story Elements and Structure in Good Literature, the Models for Children's Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilscek, Elaine

    1990-01-01

    Discusses how teachers can build upon childrens' natural sense of story, identify good books to serve as models of story elements and structure, and highlight the worth of an author's or illustrator's techniques of story craft as models for improved student writing. (SR)

  19. A Literature Review of Empowerment With a Suggested Empowerment Model for the BDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    21 A. THE CONGER AND KANUNGO MODEL ......................................... 21 B. THE THOMAS AND VELTHHOUSE MODEL...that people already have in their wealth and useful knowledge and internal motivation.” Similarly, Conger and Kanungo (1988, p...empowerment as sharing power and authority (a relational perspective), while definitions by Randolph and Conger and Kanungo view empowerment as a

  20. 3D Anatomy Models and Impact on Learning: A Review of the Quality of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy A. Azer

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: There was no solid evidence that the use of 3D models is superior to traditional teaching. However, the studies varied in research quality. More studies are needed to examine the short- and long-term impacts of 3D models on learning using valid and appropriate tools.

  1. Information Resources Management: An Overview for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Evelyn H.

    This paper presents an overview of the emerging information resources management (IRM) concept and suggests reasons why IRM would be a useful framework for educational institutions. An introductory look at current information problems precedes a review of definitions of information and IRM in the literature, and a definition of IRM as used in this…

  2. Total Productive Maintenance And Role Of Interpretive Structural Modeling And Structural Equation Modeling In Analyzing Barriers In Its Implementation A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanth S. Poduval

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - The aim of the authors is to present a review of literature of Total Productive Maintenance and the barriers in implementation of Total Productive Maintenance TPM. The paper begins with a brief description of TPM and the barriers in implementation of TPM. Interpretive Structural Modeling ISM and its role in analyzing the barriers in TPM implementation is explained in brief. Applications of ISM in analyzing issues in various fields are highlighted with special emphasis on TPM. The paper moves on to introduction to Structural Equation Modeling SEM and its role in validating ISM in analyzing barriers in implementation of TPM. The paper concludes with a gap analysis from the current literature research that can be carried out and expected outcomes from the proposed research.

  3. Models: an analysis of meanings in the literature on research in science education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Krapas

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of mental models is being used in several areas of knowledge in order to study the representations users have about physical systems and events, as well as the content of such representations. However, it cannot be considered a unitary concept. This paper discusses the assumptions envolved in different areas of knowledge and describes a study of the mental model of magnetism held by students and professionals such as electricians physics teachers, and engineers. The identified model stress two aspects: what is the origin of permanent magnets and what is the mechanism of the magnetic interaction.

  4. Mouse Models for Efficacy Testing of Agents against Radiation Carcinogenesis — A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Rivina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As the number of cancer survivors treated with radiation as a part of their therapy regimen is constantly increasing, so is concern about radiation-induced cancers. This increases the need for therapeutic and mitigating agents against secondary neoplasias. Development and efficacy testing of these agents requires not only extensive in vitro assessment, but also a set of reliable animal models of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. The laboratory mouse (Mus musculus remains one of the best animal model systems for cancer research due to its molecular and physiological similarities to man, small size, ease of breeding in captivity and a fully sequenced genome. This work reviews relevant M. musculus inbred and F1 hybrid animal models and methodologies of induction of radiation-induced leukemia, thymic lymphoma, breast, and lung cancer in these models. Where available, the associated molecular pathologies are also included.

  5. Static and Dynamic Human Shape Modeling - A Review of the Literature and State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    female subjects, in walking and ballet poses, wearing tight fitting as well as baggy clothes. Top: input images overlaid with estimated body model...15 Figure 15. PCA-based fitting ...20 Figure 23. Some phases of the hierarchical fitting

  6. Modelling the economics of type 2 diabetes mellitus prevention: a literature review of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, P; Preston, L; Squires, H; Chilcott, J; Brennan, A

    2014-06-01

    Our objective was to review modelling methods for type 2 diabetes mellitus prevention cost-effectiveness studies. The review was conducted to inform the design of a policy analysis model capable of assisting resource allocation decisions across a spectrum of prevention strategies. We identified recent systematic reviews of economic evaluations in diabetes prevention and management of obesity. We extracted studies from two existing systematic reviews of economic evaluations for the prevention of diabetes. We extracted studies evaluating interventions in a non-diabetic population with type 2 diabetes as a modelled outcome, from two systematic reviews of obesity intervention economic evaluations. Databases were searched for studies published between 2008 and 2013. For each study, we reviewed details of the model type, structure, and methods for predicting diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our review identified 46 articles and found variation in modelling approaches for cost-effectiveness evaluations for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Investigation of the variables used to estimate the risk of type 2 diabetes suggested that impaired glucose regulation, and body mass index were used as the primary risk factors for type 2 diabetes. A minority of cost-effectiveness models for diabetes prevention accounted for the multivariate impacts of interventions on risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Twenty-eight cost-effectiveness models included cardiovascular events in addition to type 2 diabetes. Few cost-effectiveness models have flexibility to evaluate different intervention types. We conclude that to compare a range of prevention interventions it is necessary to incorporate multiple risk factors for diabetes, diabetes-related complications and obesity-related co-morbidity outcomes.

  7. TransCom model simulations of hourly atmospheric CO2: Experimental overview and diurnal cycle results for 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, R. M.; Peters, W.; RöDenbeck, C.; Aulagnier, C.; Baker, I.; Bergmann, D. J.; Bousquet, P.; Brandt, J.; Bruhwiler, L.; Cameron-Smith, P. J.; Christensen, J. H.; Delage, F.; Denning, A. S.; Fan, S.; Geels, C.; Houweling, S.; Imasu, R.; Karstens, U.; Kawa, S. R.; Kleist, J.; Krol, M. C.; Lin, S.-J.; Lokupitiya, R.; Maki, T.; Maksyutov, S.; Niwa, Y.; Onishi, R.; Parazoo, N.; Patra, P. K.; Pieterse, G.; Rivier, L.; Satoh, M.; Serrar, S.; Taguchi, S.; Takigawa, M.; Vautard, R.; Vermeulen, A. T.; Zhu, Z.

    2008-01-01

    A forward atmospheric transport modeling experiment has been coordinated by the TransCom group to investigate synoptic and diurnal variations in CO2. Model simulations were run for biospheric, fossil, and air-sea exchange of CO2 and for SF6 and radon for 2000-2003. Twenty-five models or model varian

  8. Detection, emission estimation and risk prediction of forest fires in China using satellite sensors and simulation models in the past three decades--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-Hua; Yao, Feng-Mei; Liu, Cheng; Yang, Li-Min; Boken, Vijendra K

    2011-08-01

    Forest fires have major impact on ecosystems and greatly impact the amount of greenhouse gases and aerosols in the atmosphere. This paper presents an overview in the forest fire detection, emission estimation, and fire risk prediction in China using satellite imagery, climate data, and various simulation models over the past three decades. Since the 1980s, remotely-sensed data acquired by many satellites, such as NOAA/AVHRR, FY-series, MODIS, CBERS, and ENVISAT, have been widely utilized for detecting forest fire hot spots and burned areas in China. Some developed algorithms have been utilized for detecting the forest fire hot spots at a sub-pixel level. With respect to modeling the forest burning emission, a remote sensing data-driven Net Primary productivity (NPP) estimation model was developed for estimating forest biomass and fuel. In order to improve the forest fire risk modeling in China, real-time meteorological data, such as surface temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, have been used as the model input for improving prediction of forest fire occurrence and its behavior. Shortwave infrared (SWIR) and near infrared (NIR) channels of satellite sensors have been employed for detecting live fuel moisture content (FMC), and the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) was used for evaluating the forest vegetation condition and its moisture status.

  9. Models accounting for intention-behavior discordance in the physical activity domain: a user's guide, content overview, and review of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Yao, Christopher A

    2015-02-07

    There is a growing concern among researchers with the limited effectiveness and yet subsequent stagnation of theories applied to physical activity (PA). One of the most highlighted areas of concern is the established gap between intention and PA, yet the considerable use of models that assume intention is the proximal antecedent of PA. The objective of this review was to: 1) provide a guide and thematic analysis of the available models that include constructs that address intention-behavior discordance and 2) highlight the evidence for these structures in the PA domain. A literature search was conducted among 13 major databases to locate relevant models and PA studies published before August 2014. Sixteen models were identified and nine overall themes for post-intentional constructs were created. Of the 16 models, eight were applied to 36 PA studies. Early evidence supported maintenance self-efficacy, behavioral regulation strategies, affective judgments, perceived control/opportunity, habit, and extraversion as reliable predictors of post-intention PA. Several intention-behavior discordance models exist within the literature, but are not used frequently. Further efforts are needed to test these models, preferably with experimental designs.

  10. Strengthening Industrial Ecology’s Links with Business Studies: Insights and Potential Contributions from the Innovation and Business Models Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Sharpe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The declining availability of natural resources and the environmental impacts of continued extraction of primary resources for production activities have forced greater focus on waste streams and recycling activities. Industrial ecology as a field of practice and theory has been closely related to sustainability issues, yet despite the development of much theory and specific tools and methodologies, the link between natural, industrial and economic systems is not convincing. Not only that, the need for delivering sustainable production and consumption practices is increasing, which is demanding new solutions to existing problems, particularly around the degree of novelty. The interaction of industrial ecology with business studies and industrial investment decision-making remains under-developed, and this is likely impacting on the adoption of more sustainable and resource-efficient practices. As such, this paper uses a constructive approach and explores how two areas of the literature can support the development of the industrial ecology field into strategic business practice: firstly, the innovation literature, particularly the emerging work on open innovation and sustainable innovation as a model to understand radical innovation processes and the creation and maintenance of networked systems of firms; secondly, the closely related area of business model (BM innovation, specifically the emerging typologies of sustainable BMs and how these typologies can be developed and used as a route to positioning recycling activities at the strategic management level of the firm.

  11. Finite Element Method Modeling of Sensible Heat Thermal Energy Storage with Innovative Concretes and Comparative Analysis with Literature Benchmarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Ferone

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Efficient systems for high performance buildings are required to improve the integration of renewable energy sources and to reduce primary energy consumption from fossil fuels. This paper is focused on sensible heat thermal energy storage (SHTES systems using solid media and numerical simulation of their transient behavior using the finite element method (FEM. Unlike other papers in the literature, the numerical model and simulation approach has simultaneously taken into consideration various aspects: thermal properties at high temperature, the actual geometry of the repeated storage element and the actual storage cycle adopted. High-performance thermal storage materials from the literatures have been tested and used here as reference benchmarks. Other materials tested are lightweight concretes with recycled aggregates and a geopolymer concrete. Their thermal properties have been measured and used as inputs in the numerical model to preliminarily evaluate their application in thermal storage. The analysis carried out can also be used to optimize the storage system, in terms of thermal properties required to the storage material. The results showed a significant influence of the thermal properties on the performances of the storage elements. Simulation results have provided information for further scale-up from a single differential storage element to the entire module as a function of material thermal properties.

  12. The Interaction Network Ontology-supported modeling and mining of complex interactions represented with multiple keywords in biomedical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgür, Arzucan; Hur, Junguk; He, Yongqun

    2016-01-01

    The Interaction Network Ontology (INO) logically represents biological interactions, pathways, and networks. INO has been demonstrated to be valuable in providing a set of structured ontological terms and associated keywords to support literature mining of gene-gene interactions from biomedical literature. However, previous work using INO focused on single keyword matching, while many interactions are represented with two or more interaction keywords used in combination. This paper reports our extension of INO to include combinatory patterns of two or more literature mining keywords co-existing in one sentence to represent specific INO interaction classes. Such keyword combinations and related INO interaction type information could be automatically obtained via SPARQL queries, formatted in Excel format, and used in an INO-supported SciMiner, an in-house literature mining program. We studied the gene interaction sentences from the commonly used benchmark Learning Logic in Language (LLL) dataset and one internally generated vaccine-related dataset to identify and analyze interaction types containing multiple keywords. Patterns obtained from the dependency parse trees of the sentences were used to identify the interaction keywords that are related to each other and collectively represent an interaction type. The INO ontology currently has 575 terms including 202 terms under the interaction branch. The relations between the INO interaction types and associated keywords are represented using the INO annotation relations: 'has literature mining keywords' and 'has keyword dependency pattern'. The keyword dependency patterns were generated via running the Stanford Parser to obtain dependency relation types. Out of the 107 interactions in the LLL dataset represented with two-keyword interaction types, 86 were identified by using the direct dependency relations. The LLL dataset contained 34 gene regulation interaction types, each of which associated with multiple keywords. A

  13. New developments in modeling network constraints in techno-economic energy system expansion planning models. An overview of existing models and prospects for future approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfelder, Martin; Esser-Frey, Anke; Fichtner, Wolf [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Chair of Energy Economics; Schick, Michael; Heuveline, Vincent [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Engineering Mathematics and Computing Lab.; Leibfried, Thomas [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. of Electric Energy Systems and High-Voltage Technology

    2012-03-15

    This paper is based on Groschke et al. (Z. Energiewirtsch. 33(1):14-22 2009) and continues the description of new developments in modeling network constraints in techno-economic energy system models with a focus on capacity expansion planning and a long-term time horizon. Based on the presentation of recent and future developments in the German energy system, current challenges in energy system modeling are derived. The following analysis of the state of research reveals a lack of high-precision load flow calculation in current energy system models with a long-term time horizon. Hence, this paper presents an outlook on a new mathematical approach, which already proved as a promising method to meet the challenges identified. (orig.)

  14. Estimated Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Jamaica by Literature Review and Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugnani, HC; Denning, DW

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Jamaica is one of the largest countries in the Caribbean with a population of 2 706 500. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Jamaica is high, while that of tuberculosis (TB) is recorded to be low. In this study, we have estimated the burden of serious fungal infections and some other mycoses in Jamaica. Methods: All published papers reporting on rates of fungal infections in Jamaica and the Caribbean were identified through extensive search of the literature. We also extracted data from published papers on epidemiology and from the World Health Organization (WHO) TB Programme and UNAIDS. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS) rates were derived from asthma and TB rates. Where there were no available data on some mycoses, we used specific populations at risk and frequencies of fungal infection of each to estimate national prevalence. Results: Over 57 600 people in Jamaica probably suffer from serious fungal infections each year, most related to ‘fungal asthma’ (ABPA and SAFS), recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and AIDS-related opportunistic infections. Histoplasmosis is endemic in Jamaica, though only a few clinical cases are known. Pneumocystis pneumonia is frequent while cryptococcosis and aspergillosis are rarely recorded. Tinea capitis was common in children. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis is very common (3154/100 000) and candidaemia occurs. Subcutaneous mycoses such as chromoblastomycosis and mycetoma also seem to be relatively common. Conclusion: Local epidemiological studies are urgently required to validate or modify these estimates of serious fungal infections in Jamaica. PMID:26426178

  15. Mouse models in liver cancer research: A review of current literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martijn WH Leenders; Maarten W Nijkamp; Inne HM Borel Rinkes

    2008-01-01

    Primary liver cancer remains one of the most lethal malignancies worldwide. Due to differences in prevalence of etiological factors the incidence of primary liver cancer varies among the world, with a peak in EasL-Asia. As this disease is still lethal in most of the cases, research has to be done to improve our understanding of the disease, offering insights for possible treatment options. For this purpose, animal models are widely used,especially mouse models. In this review, we describe the different types of mouse models used in liver cancer research, with emphasis on genetically engineered mice used in this field. We focus on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as this is by far the most common Lype of primary liver cancer, accounting for 70%-85% of cases.

  16. Models for Measuring E-Learning Success in Universities: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana DOROBAT (SCORTA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is obvious that in the Internet era the higher education institutions (HEIs must innovate the services they offer by integrating ICT (Information and Communication Technology in the learning process. According to the theoreticians and practitioners insights in the matter, the e-learning systems offer many advantages and compensate the weaknesses of the traditional learning methods. In consequence, it emerged the need for developing a model that measures the success of the e-learning systems. This paper presents results of the research conducted in order to develop a comprehensive model for measuring e-learning system success in universi-ties.

  17. A Literature Survey of Reverberation Modeling: With Emphasis on Bellhop Compatibility for Operational Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    necessarily have the approval or endorsement of Defence R&D Canada. Contract Project Manager: Diana McCammon, 902-538-3003 Contract number: W7707...McCammon Acoustical Consulting 475 Baseline Road Waterville, NS B0P 1V0 Contract Project Manager: Diana McCammon, 902-538-3003 Contract Number...in some cases, the scattering area. Some of the older models of reverberation are the Generic Sonar Model (GSM), Cass/Grab, BiRasp, and ASTRAL . A

  18. Current methods of the modeling of experimental diabetes mellitus type 2: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. M. Kolesnyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diabetes mellitus (DM became a major problem of the healthcare in Ukraine. The rapid increase in the incidence was noticed especially in recent decade. The treatment of diabetes and its complications become a difficult task. From this standpoint the experimental modeling of diabetes is rather essential. Using the experimental models gives the possibility to assess the significance of the activity of pharmacological substances or to find out new mechanism in the action of medicaments. The aim of this review is to light up the most studied and common experimental models of diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM in small rodents and find out their drawbacks. It is known the background of T2DM is the violation of the insulin homeostasis such as the resistance of peripheral tissues to insulin as well as the dysfunction of the pancreatic beta-cells, which both lead to appearance of such phenomena as the glucosetoxicity and the lipotoxicity. In the end they both could result in life threatening vascular complications. Considering the steady growth of T2DM patients, the development both of the drug and non-drug methods of its treatment with the high therapeutically efficiency and the perfect safety profile becomes essential. The most important stage of the search of new ways of influence on pathogenetic links of T2DM is the preclinical stage. From this standpoint the usage of experimental models of T2DM has a huge importance. There are a lot of models of T2DM developed by different scientists. These models could be spontaneous or be induced by different chemical diabetogenic substances, diet or surgical interventions or be a combination of methods listed above. Conclusions. We should underline the adequate modeling of DM2T is the necessary basis for the pre-clinical study of drug-based and not-drug methods of correction of the hyperglycemic states. Using different models makes it possible for infer the obtained experimental results to the society

  19. ScaleNet: A literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) are small herbivorous insects found in all continents except Antarctica. They are extremely invasive, and many species are serious agricultural pests. They are also emerging models for studies of the evolution of genetic systems, endosymbiosis, and plant-insect i...

  20. A Computer-Assisted Pedagogical Model for Transacting with Literature. NCTE Concept Paper No. 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John Frank; Pritchard, Ruie Jane

    The study reported in this paper argues for a process model of postsecondary instruction where reader-response literary theory in general, and L. Rosenblatt's transactional theory specifically, provides a theoretical framework for strategies which use computers to teach postsecondary English. The paper begins with an examination of the historical…