WorldWideScience

Sample records for model learner outcomes

  1. Autonomous Learner Model Resource Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, George T.; Carey, Robin J.; Kapushion, Blanche M.

    2016-01-01

    "Autonomous Learner Model Resource Book" includes activities and strategies to support the development of autonomous learners. More than 40 activities are included, all geared to the emotional, social, cognitive, and physical development of students. Teachers may use these activities and strategies with the entire class, small groups, or…

  2. On the relationship between justice judgments, outcomes and identity orientations among Iranian EFL learners: A structural equation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ayatollah Razmjoo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One problem which can be observed in the field of EFL/ESL learning is that a number of English major BA and MA students are not highly committed to their major and decide not to continue their graduate studies. Sometimes even graduate students from English majors prefer to extend their education or work in an unrelated field. This might be attributed to the extent to which they perceive evaluation procedures and outcomes as fair. Considering this, the present study investigates first the relationships between justice judgments, outcomes and identity orientations. The study, then, uses structural equation modeling in order to examine whether identity orientation has any mediating effect on the relationship between justice judgment and outcomes. Participants were74 students in Department of Foreign Languages and Linguistics, Shiraz University selected based on convenience sampling. They filled out three questionnaires on distributive and procedural justice judgments, rule compliance and outcome satisfaction, and personal and social identity orientations. The collected data was then analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation, and structural equation modeling. Based on the obtained findings, procedural justice had significant positive correlation with rule compliance and distributive justice was significantly correlated with outcome satisfaction. The generated structural equation model also indicated that justice judgments only directly affected outcomes and identity had no mediating effect on the causal relationship between the two.

  3. Multidimensional Learner Model In Intelligent Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliyska, B.; Rozeva, A.

    2009-11-01

    The learner model in an intelligent learning system (ILS) has to ensure the personalization (individualization) and the adaptability of e-learning in an online learner-centered environment. ILS is a distributed e-learning system whose modules can be independent and located in different nodes (servers) on the Web. This kind of e-learning is achieved through the resources of the Semantic Web and is designed and developed around a course, group of courses or specialty. An essential part of ILS is learner model database which contains structured data about learner profile and temporal status in the learning process of one or more courses. In the paper a learner model position in ILS is considered and a relational database is designed from learner's domain ontology. Multidimensional modeling agent for the source database is designed and resultant learner data cube is presented. Agent's modules are proposed with corresponding algorithms and procedures. Multidimensional (OLAP) analysis guidelines on the resultant learner module for designing dynamic learning strategy have been highlighted.

  4. Higher order thinking skills competencies required by outcomes-based education from learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabeli, M M

    2006-08-01

    Outcomes-Based Education (OBE) brought about a significant paradigm shift in the education and training of learners in South Africa. OBE requires a shift from focusing on the teacher input (instruction offerings or syllabuses expressed in terms of content), to focusing on learner outcomes. OBE is moving away from 'transmission' models to constructivistic, learner-centered models that put emphasis on learning as an active process (Nieburh, 1996:30). Teachers act as facilitators and mediators of learning (Norms and Standards, Government Gazette vol 415, no 20844 of 2000). Facilitators are responsible to create the environment that is conducive for learners to construct their own knowledge, skills and values through interaction (Peters, 2000). The first critical cross-field outcome accepted by the South African Qualification Framework (SAQA) is that learners should be able to identify and solve problems by using critical and creative thinking skills. This paper seeks to explore some higher order thinking skills competencies required by OBE from learners such as critical thinking, reflective thinking, creative thinking, dialogic / dialectic thinking, decision making, problem solving and emotional intelligence and their implications in facilitating teaching and learning from the theoretical perspective. The philosophical underpinning of these higher order thinking skills is described to give direction to the study. It is recommended that a study focusing on the assessment of these intellectual concepts be made. The study may be qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods in nature (Creswell 2005).

  5. Higher order thinking skills competencies required by outcomes-based education from learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Chabeli

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Outcomes-Based Education (OBE brought about a significant paradigm shift in the education and training of learners in South Africa. OBE requires a shift from focusing on the teacher input (instruction offerings or syllabuses expressed in terms of content, to focusing on learner outcomes. OBE is moving away from ‘transmission’ models to constructivistic, learner-centered models that put emphasis on learning as an active process (Nieburh, 1996:30. Teachers act as facilitators and mediators of learning (Norms and Standards, Government Gazette vol 415, no 20844 of 2000. Facilitators are responsible to create the environment that is conducive for learners to construct their own knowledge, skills and values through interaction (Peters, 2000. The first critical cross-field outcome accepted by the South African Qualification Framework (SAQA is that learners should be able to identify and solve problems by using critical and creative thinking skills. This paper seeks to explore some higher order thinking skills competencies required by OBE from learners such as critical thinking, reflective thinking, creative thinking, dialogic / dialectic thinking, decision making, problem solving and emotional intelligence and their implications in facilitating teaching and learning from the theoretical perspective. The philosophical underpinning of these higher order thinking skills is described to give direction to the study. It is recommended that a study focusing on the assessment of these intellectual concepts be made. The study may be qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods in nature (Creswell 2005.

  6. Integrating Culture into Language Teaching and Learning: Learner Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trang Thi Thuy

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the issue of learner outcomes in learning culture as part of their language learning. First, some brief discussion on the role of culture in language teaching and learning, as well as on culture contents in language lessons is presented. Based on a detailed review of previous literature related to culture in language teaching…

  7. Measuring Learning Outcomes. A Learner Perspective in Auditing Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Steenholdt, Niels

    2000-01-01

    a useful way of organizing "data in memory" for accounting contexts. I.e., when faced with the knowledge provided in a graduate course the student learns from his prior experiences and stores the important aspects of each experience in memory in accordance with such schemas. The schemas available......The ability to provide sensible measures for learning outcomes in accounting education is under increased scrutiny. In this paper we use a learner perspective in auditing education which reflects that some students taking accounting classes also are provided with on-the-job training in accounting...... firms. Hence knowledge about learning outcomes for different groups of students is essential information for educators as well as the accounting profession. Sensible measures are needed by educators in order to (1) chose teaching methods matching prerequisite skills among a heterogenous student body, (2...

  8. Measuring Learning Outcomes. A Learner Perspective in Auditing Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Steenholdt, Niels

    a useful way of organizing "data in memory" for accounting contexts. I.e., when faced with the knowledge provided in a graduate course the student learns from his prior experiences and stores the important aspects of each experience in memory in accordance with such schemas. The schemas available......The ability to provide sensible measures for learning outcomes in accounting education is under increased scrutiny. In this paper we use a learner perspective in auditing education which reflects that some students taking accounting classes also are provided with on-the-job training in accounting...... firms. Hence knowledge about learning outcomes for different groups of students is essential information for educators as well as the accounting profession. Sensible measures are needed by educators in order to (1) chose teaching methods matching prerequisite skills among a heterogenous student body, (2...

  9. Development of affective modelling competencies in primary school learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piera Biccard

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Learner affect and beliefs about mathematics are complex and multifaceted aspects of mathematical learning. Traditional teaching and learning approaches in mathematics education often result in problematic beliefs about mathematics. Since beliefs influence what learners learn and how they deal with learning mathematics, it is essential that the roles of beliefs and affect in mathematics classrooms are carefully examined. In solving modelling problems, learners and teachers take on new roles in the classroom: learners are placed in an active, self-directing situation in which they solve real-world problems. When learners engage in modelling tasks, they display and integrate cognitive, meta-cognitive and affective competencies. A modelling approach therefore allows one to detect learner beliefs in an authentic learning environment. Will this environment lead to students having more positive and productive dispositions towards mathematics? This article presents partial results of a study documenting the development of modelling competencies in learners working in groups over a period of 12 weeks. Through a design research approach, 12 learners working in groups solved three modelling problems, and transcriptions of learner interactions, questionnaires and informal interviews revealed that learner beliefs improved over this short period when exposed to modelling tasks. The results are encouraging, and may provide mathematics education with an avenue to develop more positive learner beliefs in mathematics.

  10. Development of affective modelling competencies in primary school learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piera Biccard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Learner affect and beliefs about mathematics are complex and multifaceted aspects of mathematical learning. Traditional teaching and learning approaches in mathematics education often result in problematic beliefs about mathematics. Since beliefs influence what learners learn and how they deal with learning mathematics, it is essential that the roles of beliefs and affect in mathematics classrooms are carefully examined. In solving modelling problems, learners and teachers take on new roles in the classroom: learners are placed in an active, self-directing situation in which they solve real-world problems. When learners engage in modelling tasks, they display and integrate cognitive, meta-cognitive and affective competencies. A modelling approach therefore allows one to detect learner beliefs in an authentic learning environment. Will this environment lead to students having more positive and productive dispositions towards mathematics? This article presents partial results of a study documenting the development of modelling competencies in learners working in groups over a period of 12 weeks. Through a design research approach, 12 learners working in groups solved three modelling problems, and transcriptions of learner interactions, questionnaires and informal interviews revealed that learner beliefs improved over this short period when exposed to modelling tasks. The results are encouraging, and may provide mathematics education with an avenue to develop more positive learner beliefs in mathematics.

  11. Activity-based learner-models for Learner Monitoring and Recommendations in Moodle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florian, Beatriz; Glahn, Christian; Drachsler, Hendrik; Specht, Marcus; Fabregat, Ramón

    2011-01-01

    Florian, B., Glahn, C., Drachsler, H., Specht, M., & Fabregat, R. (2011). Activity-based learner-models for Learner Monitoring and Recommendations in Moodle. In C. D. Kloos, D. Gillet, R. M. Crespo Carcía, F. Wild, & M. Wolpers (Eds.), Towards Ubiquitous Learning: 6th European Conference on

  12. Homeschooling Associated with Beneficial Learner and Societal Outcomes but Educators Do Not Promote It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews research on homeschool learner outcomes and evaluates opposition to homeschooling. It synthesizes research on learner outcomes related to homeschooling in areas of students' academic achievement and children's social, emotional, and psychological development and the success of adults who were home educated and finds generally…

  13. Progressive outcomes of collaborative strategic reading to EFL learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyan A. Gani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to discover the effects of using Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR in teaching reading to EFL learners. The method used in this study was experimental research which referred to the true experimental design through tests and a questionnaire as data collection instruments. The questionnaire consisted of items to gain the students' responses toward 3 categories of Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR implementation on their reading ability, namely: instruction, procedure, and impact. In total, 67 students in a senior high school in Banda Aceh were involved as participants (32 students in the experimental group and 35 students in the control group. The data were analyzed using the mean, standard deviation, and Z-test percentage. The Z-score between the experimental group and control group was 2.37. The critical value of the Z-score for 68 degrees of freedom was 2.01 at the .05 significance level. Therefore, the critical value of the students' Z-score (2.37 was significant at the .05 level. This indicated that the students who were taught reading using CSR achieved better scores than those who were taught using the non-CSR approach. The results of the questionnaire further showed that more than 80 percent of the students gave vastly positive responses in relation to CSR classroom implementation. This approach not only helped them to develop their reading skills, but also produced positive outcomes in their social relationships and interactions in the classroom.

  14. Annotation-Based Learner's Personality Modeling in Distance Learning Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omheni, Nizar; Kalboussi, Anis; Mazhoud, Omar; Kacem, Ahmed Hadj

    2016-01-01

    Researchers in distance education are interested in observing and modeling learners' personality profiles, and adapting their learning experiences accordingly. When learners read and interact with their reading materials, they do unselfconscious activities like annotation which may be key feature of their personalities. Annotation activity…

  15. Self Adaptive Hypermedia Navigation Based On Learner Model Characters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassileva, Dessislava; Bontchev, Boyan

    2006-01-01

    Dessislava Vassileva, Boyan Bontchev "Self Adaptive Hypermedia Navigation Based On Learner Model Characters", IADAT-e2006, 3rd International Conference on Education, Barcelona (Spain), July 12-14, 2006, ISBN: 84-933971-9-9

  16. Modeling the effects of multicontextual physics instruction on learner expectations and understanding of force and motion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deese Becht, Sara-Maria Francis

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold involving both practical and theoretical modeling components. The practical component, an experiential-learning phase, investigated a study population for effects that increasing levels of multicontextual physics activities have on student understanding of Newtonian systems of motion. This contextual-learning model measured learner convictions and non-response gaps and analyzed learner response trends on context, technology, challenge, growth, and success. The theoretical component, a model-building phase, designed a dynamic-knowing model for learning along a range of experiential tasks, from low to high context, monitored for indicators of learning in science and mathematics: learner academic performance and ability, learner control and academic attitude, and a learner non- response gap. This knowing model characterized a learner's process-of-knowing on a less to more expert- like learner-response continuum using performance and perspective indices associated with level of contextual- imagery referent system. Data for the contextual-learning model were collected on 180 secondary subjects: 72 middle and 108 high, with 36 physics subjects as local experts. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups differing only on context level of force and motion activities. Three levels of information were presented through context-based tasks: momentum constancy as inertia, momentum change as impulse, and momentum rate of change as force. The statistical analysis used a multi-level factorial design with repeated measures and discriminate analysis of response-conviction items. Subject grouping criteria included school level, ability level in science and mathematics, gender and race. Assessment criteria used pre/post performance scores, confidence level in physics concepts held, and attitude towards science, mathematics, and technology. Learner indices were computed from logit- transforms applied to learner outcomes

  17. Knowledge Acquisition for Learner Modelling in Second Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Chanier, Thierry; Pengelly, Michael

    1992-01-01

    The results of past studies in Error Analysis in applied linguistics and the experiences of developers of intelligent tutoring systems in learner modelling have influenced our definition of a new structure, called an "applicable rule", that can be used to help diagnose and to represent a learner's performance in second language learning systems. Based on this structure a prototype interface has been designed to acquire the knowledge that it must contain. The results of experiments with this i...

  18. Evaluating Learner Autonomy: A Dynamic Model with Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giovanna Tassinari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Every autonomous learning process should entail an evaluation of the learner’s competencies for autonomy. The dynamic model of learner autonomy described in this paper is a tool designed in order to support the self-assessment and evaluation of learning competencies and to help both learners and advisors to focus on relevant aspects of the learning process. The dynamic model accounts for cognitive, metacognitive, action-oriented and affective components of learner autonomy and provides descriptors of learners’ attitudes, competencies and behaviors. It is dynamic in order to allow learners to focus on their own needs and goals.The model (http://www.sprachenzentrum.fuberlin.de/v/autonomiemodell/index.html has been validated in several workshops with experts at the Université Nancy 2, France and at the Freie Universität Berlin, Germany and tested by students, advisors and teachers. It is currently used at the Centre for Independent Language Learning at the Freie Universität Berlin for language advising. Learners can freely choose the components they would like to assess themselves in. Their assessment is then discussed in an advising session, where the learner and the advisor can compare their perspectives, focus on single aspects of the leaning process and set goals for further learning. The students’ feedback gathered in my PhD investigation shows that they are able to benefit from this evaluation; their awareness, self-reflection and decision-making in the autonomous learning process improved.

  19. Exceptional Outcomes in L2 Phonology: The Critical Factors of Learner Engagement and Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Alene

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies attest to the late language learner's ability to attain native-like outcomes in morphology and syntax, with accent often the only linguistic hint of their non-native status. Nevertheless, some do end up sounding native-like despite a late start. This article explores possible explanations for "exceptional"…

  20. Physical activity and sedentary behavior associated with learning outcomes and cognition in adult distance learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijselaers, Jérôme; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Gijselaers, H. J. M., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2013, 7 November). Physical activity and sedentary behavior associated with learning outcomes and cognition in adult distance learners. Paper presentation at the ICO [Interuniversity Center for Educational Research] National Fall School,

  1. Improving skills development in residency using a deliberate-practice and learner-centered model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Nasir I; Ahmed, Aadil

    2015-10-01

    Work-hour restrictions, increased workload, and subjective assessment of competency are major threats to the efficacy of the traditional apprenticeship model of surgical training in modern surgical practice. In response, medical educators are developing time- and resource-efficient competency-based models of surgical training. The purpose of our project was to develop, implement, and measure the outcomes of such objective and structured programs in otolaryngology. We also investigated factors affecting the learning curve, especially deliberate practice, formative feedback, and learners' autonomy. Prospective, longitudinal study. To measure the surgical skills of residents, we first developed and tested objective tools for otolaryngology procedures. Based on these instruments, we identified milestones of the procedures. Training on a virtual-reality simulator was validated to shorten the learning curve. We also studied a learner-centered approach of training, factors affecting the learning curve, and barriers to a competency-based model. The objective tools were found to be a feasible, reliable, and valid opportunity for measuring competency in both the laboratory and operating room. With the formative assessment from these tools, residents had a remediation target to be achieved by deliberate practice. The milestones helped identify the threshold of competency, and deliberate practice on the simulator gave an opportunity for improving skills. The learner-centered approach allowed flexibility and personalized learning by shifting the responsibility of the learning process to the learners. The competency-based model of residency, based on the principles of deliberate practice and a learner-centered approach, is a feasible model of residency training that allows development of competent surgeons and hence improves patient outcomes. Despite these advantages, challenges to this model require a concerted effort to overcome and fully implement these principles of training

  2. Learner Open Modeling in Adaptive Mobile Learning System for Supporting Student to Learn English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Cong Pham

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a personalized context-aware mobile learning architecture for supporting student to learn English as foreign language in order to prepare for TOEFL test. We consider how to apply open learner modeling techniques to adapt contents for different learners based on context, which includes location, amount of time to learn, the manner as well as learner's knowledge in learning progress. Through negotiation with system, the editable learner model will be updated to support adaptive engine to select adaptive contents meeting learner's demands. Empirical testing results for students who used application prototype indicate that interaction user modeling is helpful in supporting learner to learn adaptive materials.

  3. 3-Ls: A Model for Teaching Young Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Chuzaimah Dahlan

    2011-01-01

    The fact that EFL literacy in Indonesia is still low led me to conduct this study to cultivate reading habits and increase literacy skills of young learners. Using the 3-Ls--libraries, literature, and literacy--as an instructional model, the study involved five methods: Informational Text Structures; Online Resources; Partnership with Librarians;…

  4. Diabetes Management at School: Application of the Healthy Learner Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, Nichole; Kaup, Tara; McCarty, Patricia; Carlson, Jessie Parker

    2011-01-01

    Every child with diabetes deserves a school nurse with the capacity to effectively manage the disease at school. The school nurse needs knowledge and skills to confidently provide care and communicate with health care providers and families. The Healthy Learner Model for Chronic Condition Management provided a framework to eliminate the disjointed…

  5. Shifting Constructions of Role Models for English Learners in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuesong

    2014-01-01

    This essay draws attention to the shifting constructions of nationally famous role models for English learners. It examines how three individuals rose to national prominence because of their association with the craze for learning English in China in the last three decades. This essay compares the constructed images of these individuals and…

  6. Learning, Learning Analytics, Activity Visualisation and Open learner Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Susan; Kickmeier-Rust, Michael; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws on visualisation approaches in learning analytics, considering how classroom visualisations can come together in practice. We suggest an open learner model in situations where many tools and activity visualisations produce more visual information than can be readily interpreted....

  7. Literacy development of English language learners: the outcomes of an intervention programme in grade R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Anna-Mari; Anthonissen, Christine; Southwood, Frenette

    2010-12-01

    This study aims to contribute to the knowledge base on the status and development of emergent literacy skills of learners receiving formal education in their second or additional language. The focus is on young English language learners (ELLs), i.e. learners whose home language is not English but who have English as their language of teaching and learning. This article reports on a study that investigated ELLs' emergent literacy skills prior to entering grade 1 and then evaluated the effectiveness of an evidence-based stimulation programme on early literacy skills in the South African context. Using a quasi-experimental design, ELLs' emergent literacy skills were assessed with an adapted version of 8 of the subtests of the Emergent Literacy Assessment battery (Willenberg, 2004) and were compared to those of English first language (L1) and of ELL control groups, both before and after the 8-week purpose-designed programme. While learners showed significant improvement on 6 of the 8 subtests, the programme did not significantly improve ELLs' skills in comparison to those of the control groups. Possible independent variables contributing to the dearth of intervention effect include socio-economic status, learners' L1, and teacher- and classroom-specific characteristics, all of which were considered in this study. Clinical implications for speech-language therapists with regard to assessment, intervention, service delivery and outcome measures are highlighted.

  8. Autonomy, Affiliation, and Ability: Relative Salience of Factors that Influence Online Learner Motivation and Learning Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Chung Chen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Autonomy, affiliation, and ability appear as main factors that influence online learners‟ motivation and learning outcomes, however, the relative salience of these three factors remains unclear in the online learning literature. Drawing on Deci and Ryan‟s self-determination theory, this study sought to bridge this gap by investigating the relative salience of perceived autonomy, affiliation, and ability on learner motivation and learning outcomes in two special education online programs (N = 262. This study found that the most salient predictor varied from categories of motivation and learning outcomes, and the number of significant predictors increased by participants‟ level of motivation/self-determination. Results of this study provide implications for online learner support.

  9. A Conceptual Model for Engagement of the Online Learner

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    Lorraine M. Angelino

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Engagement of the online learner is one approach to reduce attrition rates. Attrition rates for classes taught through distance education are 10 – 20% higher than classes taught in a face-to-face setting. This paper introduces a Model for Engagement and provides strategies to engage the online learner. The Model depicts various opportunities where student-instructor, student-student, student-content, and student-community engagement can occur. The Model is divided into four strategic areas: (a recruitment, (b coursework, (c post coursework, and (d alumni. The theoretical framework for the model is Tinto‟s student integration model. The conceptual design of the model is based on engagement practices from an online Health Care Management (HCMT certificate program at a university in South Carolina.

  10. From Interactive Open Learner Modelling to Intelligent Mentoring: STyLE-OLM and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Vania; Brna, Paul

    2016-01-01

    STyLE-OLM (Dimitrova 2003 "International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education," 13, 35-78) presented a framework for interactive open learner modelling which entails the development of the means by which learners can "inspect," "discuss" and "alter" the learner model that has been jointly…

  11. Learners' Epistemic Criteria for Good Scientific Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluta, William J.; Chinn, Clark A.; Duncan, Ravit Golan

    2011-01-01

    Epistemic criteria are the standards used to evaluate scientific products (e.g., models, evidence, arguments). In this study, we analyzed epistemic criteria for good models generated by 324 middle-school students. After evaluating a range of scientific models, but before extensive instruction or experience with model-based reasoning practices,…

  12. The Influence of Trainee Gaming Experience and Computer Self-Efficacy on Learner Outcomes of Videogame-Based Learning Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Orvis, Karin A; Orvis, Kara L; Belanich, James; Mullin, Laura N

    2005-01-01

    .... The purpose of the current research was to investigate the influence of two trainee characteristics, prior videogame experience and computer self-efficacy, on learner outcomes of a videogame-based training environment...

  13. Effects of Learners' Readiness on Their Perceived Learning Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Boeglin

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides some insight into students' performance and perceptions within the context of an introductory psychology course in which Web-based materials and activities were used to enhance teaching effectiveness and learning outcomes. The paper begins with an overview of the development and implementation of this French-language WebCT course. The rationale behind the adoption of WebCT and the use of a number of its tools are also discussed. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of this pedagogical approach, we collected quantitative and qualitative information on student performance and perceptions from a number of sources throughout the term. The data highlight some of the strengths and weaknesses of this particular use of online teaching and learning support.

  14. Literacy development of English language learners: The outcomes of an intervention programme in grade R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Mari Olivier

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to contribute to the knowledge base on the status and development of emergent literacy skills of learners receiving formal education in their second or additional language. The focus is on young English language learners (ELLs, i.e. learners whose home language is not English but who have English as their language of teaching and learning. This article reports on a study that investigated ELLs’ emergent literacy skills prior to entering grade 1 and then evaluated the effectiveness of an evidence-based stimulation programme on early literacy skills in the South African context. Using a quasi-experimental design, ELLs’ emergent literacy skills were assessed with an adapted version of 8 of the subtests of the Emergent Literacy Assessment battery (Willenberg, 2004 and were compared to those of English first language (L1 and of ELL control groups, both before and after the 8-week purpose-designed programme. While learners showed significant improvement on 6 of the 8 subtests, the programme did not significantly improve ELLs’ skills in comparison to those of the control groups. Possible independent variables contributing to the dearth of intervention effect include socio-economic status, learners’ L1, and teacher- and classroom-specific characteristics, all of which were considered in this study. Clinical implications for speech-language therapists with regard to assessment, intervention, service delivery and outcome measures are highlighted.

  15. Does the presence of learners affect family medicine obstetric outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Jo-Anne

    2015-11-01

    To compare patient outcomes and complications before and after involvement of family medicine residents in intrapartum care. Secondary data analysis. London, Ont. Obstetric patients of a family physician with a special interest in obstetrics. Total number of births attended and births missed, as well as rates of inductions, augmentations for dystocia, augmentations for prelabour ruptured membranes, types of births (ie, normal vaginal, vacuum-assisted, low and outlet forceps deliveries; cesarean sections; and obstetrician-assisted vaginal births), and perineal outcomes (ie, intact; first-, second-, third-, or fourth-degree tears; episiotomies; and episiotomies with third-or fourth-degree extensions). During the period of time when family medicine residents were involved in intrapartum care, women sustained slightly more second-degree tears, and more cesarean sections were performed. Fewer women had vacuum-assisted births or unmedicated births. There were no significant differences in rates of normal vaginal births, low and outlet forceps deliveries, and perineal trauma (other than second-degree tears) including episiotomies. Women experienced slightly more second-degree tears when residents were involved in their deliveries. The increased number of second-degree tears might be because of residents' limited experience in providing intrapartum care. More important, there was no increase in other serious perineal trauma or episiotomy when residents provided supervised intrapartum care. This should reassure women and family practice obstetricians who choose to receive and provide obstetric care in a family practice teaching unit. The increase in rates of epidural use and cesarean sections and the decrease in rates of vacuum-assisted births reflect obstetric trends in Canada over the past decade.

  16. A Revised Production Model of Learner-Generated Comic: Validation through Expert Review

    OpenAIRE

    Azman Farah Nadia; Zaibon Syamsul Bahrin; Shiratuddin Norshuhada

    2018-01-01

    Recent advancement of authoring tools has fostered a widespread interest towards using comics as a Digital Storytelling medium. This technology integrated learning approach is known as learner-generated comic production; where learners constructively produce digital stories in a form of educational comics. However, there were concerns towards the obstacles and challenges of producing learner-generated comics. Hence, a conceptual production model of learner-generated comic was proposed to guid...

  17. A New Perspective of Negotiation-Based Dialog to Enhance Metacognitive Skills in the Context of Open Learner Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleman, Raja M.; Mizoguchi, Riichiro; Ikeda, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Negotiation mechanism using conversational agents (chatbots) has been used in Open Learner Models (OLM) to enhance learner model accuracy and provide opportunities for learner reflection. Using chatbots that allow for natural language discussions has shown positive learning gains in students. Traditional OLMs assume a learner to be able to manage…

  18. Serving as a physician role model for a diverse population of medical learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Scott M; Carrese, Joseph A

    2003-06-01

    Medical learners look to role models to better understand the values, attitudes, behaviors, and ethics of the medical profession. This study examined issues related to physicians serving as role models for diverse medical learners. Between September and November 2000, in-depth semi-structured 30-minute interviews were conducted with 29 highly regarded role models, as judged by medical house officers at two large teaching hospitals in Baltimore, Maryland. Interview transcripts were independently coded and compared for agreement. Content analysis identified several major categories of themes that were examined and conceptually organized. The informants identified issues that relate to role modeling for diverse medical learners. Subcategories under the domain of similarity facilitates role modeling included learners prefer role models similar to them, role modeling is easier when the learner resembles the teacher, and minority physicians may be better role models for minority learners. Under the domain role modeling when physician-teachers and learners are different were the subcategories extra effort may be necessary, success promotes and inspires confidence, and role modeling across diversity is an achievable objective that should be pursued. The final domain, approaches to differences between physician-teachers and learners, encompassed embrace diversity, act as a consultant and refer when necessary, and minimize and disregard all differences. The results of this study should draw attention to these issues and may serve as a stimulus for teaching physicians to consider a broader range of options for successful interactions with medical learners who are different from them.

  19. A Program Evaluation Model: Using Bloom's Taxonomy to Identify Outcome Indicators in Outcomes-Based Program Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Rita C.

    2011-01-01

    Outcomes-based program evaluation is a systematic approach to identifying outcome indicators and measuring results against those indicators. One dimension of program evaluation is assessing the level of learner acquisition to determine if learning objectives were achieved as intended. The purpose of the proposed model is to use Bloom's Taxonomy to…

  20. The Learner-Centered Instructional Design Model: A Modified Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsom, Duane Allan

    2010-01-01

    The learner-centered instructional design model redefines the standard linear instructional design model to form a circular model where the learner's needs are the first item considered in the development of instruction. The purpose of this modified Delphi study was to have a panel of experts in the instructional design field review the…

  1. An Intelligent Tutoring System for Learning Chinese with a Cognitive Model of the Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosek, Michal; Lison, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    We present an intelligent tutoring system that lets students of Chinese learn words and grammatical constructions. It relies on a Bayesian, linguistically motivated cognitive model that represents the learner's knowledge. This model is dynamically updated given observations about the learner's behaviour in the exercises, and employed at runtime to…

  2. Diabetes management at school: application of the healthy learner model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, Nichole; Kaup, Tara; McCarty, Patricia; Carlson, Jessie Parker

    2011-06-01

    Every child with diabetes deserves a school nurse with the capacity to effectively manage the disease at school. The school nurse needs knowledge and skills to confidently provide care and communicate with health care providers and families. The Healthy Learner Model for Chronic Condition Management provided a framework to eliminate the disjointed approach to diabetes management at school, replacing it with a consistent, evidence-based approach. A diabetes resource nurse was a key component, providing support for the school nurse and collaboration between the school, community, family, and health care providers. Funded by a cooperative agreement from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) chose five sites from across the country to implement this program-a project titled Managing and Preventing Diabetes and Weight Gain (MAP). This article describes the experience of two sites.

  3. SMILI?: A Framework for Interfaces to Learning Data in Open Learner Models, Learning Analytics and Related Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Susan; Kay, Judy

    2016-01-01

    The SMILI? (Student Models that Invite the Learner In) Open Learner Model Framework was created to provide a coherent picture of the many and diverse forms of Open Learner Models (OLMs). The aim was for SMILI? to provide researchers with a systematic way to describe, compare and critique OLMs. We expected it to highlight those areas where there…

  4. The Effects of Image-Based Concept Mapping on the Learning Outcomes and Cognitive Processes of Mobile Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Jung-Chuan; Lee, Chun-Yi; Chen, I-Jung

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different teaching strategies (text-based concept mapping vs. image-based concept mapping) on the learning outcomes and cognitive processes of mobile learners. Eighty-six college freshmen enrolled in the "Local Area Network Planning and Implementation" course taught by the first author…

  5. Instructional Models and Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moughamian, Ani C.; Rivera, Mabel O.; Francis, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This publication seeks to offer educators and policy-makers guidance on strategies that have been effective in instructing English language learners (ELLs). The authors begin by outlining key contextual factors that decision-makers should take into account when making instructional choices for English language learners, then follow with a brief…

  6. Bringing Chatbots into education: Towards Natural Language Negotiation of Open Learner Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlyl, Alice; Hall, Phil; Bull, Susan

    There is an extensive body of work on Intelligent Tutoring Systems: computer environments for education, teaching and training that adapt to the needs of the individual learner. Work on personalisation and adaptivity has included research into allowing the student user to enhance the system's adaptivity by improving the accuracy of the underlying learner model. Open Learner Modelling, where the system's model of the user's knowledge is revealed to the user, has been proposed to support student reflection on their learning. Increased accuracy of the learner model can be obtained by the student and system jointly negotiating the learner model. We present the initial investigations into a system to allow people to negotiate the model of their understanding of a topic in natural language. This paper discusses the development and capabilities of both conversational agents (or chatbots) and Intelligent Tutoring Systems, in particular Open Learner Modelling. We describe a Wizard-of-Oz experiment to investigate the feasibility of using a chatbot to support negotiation, and conclude that a fusion of the two fields can lead to developing negotiation techniques for chatbots and the enhancement of the Open Learner Model. This technology, if successful, could have widespread application in schools, universities and other training scenarios.

  7. 3-Ls: A MODEL FOR TEACHING YOUNG LEARNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuzaimah Dahlan Diem

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The fact that EFL literacy in Indonesia is still low led me to conduct this study to cultivate reading habits and increase literacy skills of young learners. Using the 3-Ls—libraries, literature, and literacy—as an instructional model, the study involved five methods: Informational Text Structures; Online Resources; Partnership with Librarians; Big6; and Literature Circles. The sample consisted of 200 fifth graders divided equally into five groups, each of which was also divided into experimental and control groups. Each of tThe experimental groups was taught for three months using one method. All the students in both groups were given English tests and a questionnaire before and after the experiment. The results showed that the experimental groups outperformed the control groups with a significant mean difference of 21.73 on literacy skills and 10.15 on reading habits. Using regression analysis, it was also found that 3-Ls as a whole had given a significant contribution to both students’ reading habits (R2 0,793 and literacy skills (R 0,943 with the highest percentage contributed by every method was reading skill. However, in spite of demonstrating significant effects on students’ literacy, these methods still did not bring the students’ literacy to an acceptable level. A factor that might contribute to the low achievement of their English literacy was that the 3-Ls model requires optimal facilities.

  8. Personal recommender systems for learners in lifelong learning: requirements, techniques and model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Hummel, Hans; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Drachsler, H., Hummel, H. G. K., & Koper, R. (2008). Personal recommender systems for learners in lifelong learning: requirements, techniques and model. International Journal of Learning Technology, 3(4), 404-423.

  9. The Three Roots and Papa's Advice. A Puerto Rican Migration Story. A Learner-Centered Model Guide for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herendeen, Noemi Carrera; Mitchell, Alaire; Dinos, Carmen

    This document is part of a series of guides for teachers in which the Division of Bilingual Education of the New York City Board of Education presents a learner-centered model in which the learner sees himself or herself in the story. Learners are able to relive their own experiences or those of their parents or grandparents as they left their own…

  10. Learning Strategies of the Arab EFL Learners: Finding Correlation with Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahdal, Arif Ahmed Mohammed Hassan; Al-Ma'amari, Ahmed Ali Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Socio-psychological research and findings into learner differences led to the emergence of learner strategies research in the last century. With major contributions from the emerging field of Linguistics in the mid 1970s, language learning strategies began to receive considerable attention. It is worth noting that the primary concern of most of…

  11. Predictors and Outcomes of Early vs. Later English Language Proficiency Among English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halle, Tamara; Hair, Elizabeth; Wandner, Laura; McNamara, Michelle; Chien, Nina

    2011-01-01

    The development of English language learners (ELLs) was explored from kindergarten through eighth grade within a nationally representative sample of first-time kindergartners (N = 19,890). Growth curve analyses indicated that, compared to native English speakers, ELLs were rated by teachers more favorably on approaches to learning, self control, and externalizing behaviors in kindergarten and generally continued to grow in a positive direction on these social/behavioral outcomes at a steeper rate compared to their native English-speaking peers, holding other factors constant. Differences in reading and math achievement between ELLs and native English speakers varied based on the grade at which English proficiency is attained. Specifically, ELLs who were proficient in English by kindergarten entry kept pace with native English speakers in both reading and math initially and over time; ELLs who were proficient by first grade had modest gaps in reading and math achievement compared to native English speakers that closed narrowly or persisted over time; and ELLs who were not proficient by first grade had the largest initial gaps in reading and math achievement compared to native speakers but the gap narrowed over time in reading and grew over time in math. Among those whose home language is not English, acquiring English proficiency by kindergarten entry was associated with better cognitive and behavioral outcomes through eighth grade compared to taking longer to achieve proficiency. Multinomial regression analyses indicated that child, family, and school characteristics predict achieving English proficiency by kindergarten entry compared to achieving proficiency later. Results are discussed in terms of policies and practices that can support ELL children’s growth and development. PMID:22389551

  12. Testing a model of L2 communication among Iranian EFL learners: A Path Analysis Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Fallah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Using willingness to communicate (WTC and socio-educational models as a framework, the present study aimed at examining WTC in English and its underlying variables in a sample of 372 Iranian non-English major EFL learners. The data were collected through self-reported questionnaires. Path analysis framework using the Amos Program with maximum likelihood estimation was also utilized to examine the hypothesized model and the potential relationships between the variables. The final model showed a very good fit to the data. The results of structural equation modeling revealed that self-perceived communication competence (SPCC, international posture and motivation were significant predictors of L2WTC. The findings also showed that L2 communication anxiety (CA, motivation, personality trait of agreeableness and teacher immediacy could exert indirect effects on L2WTC. Furthermore, each of teacher immediacy and agreeableness variables predicted both international posture and CA among the EFL learners. Following these findings, potential factors affecting learners WTC should receive sufficient attention by teachers, administrators and learners alike. By adopting more immediacy behaviors, EFL teachers can also establish relaxing and supportive classroom climate and lower the learners’ affective filter. In such an atmosphere learners are more emotionally secured, suffer less communication apprehension, perceive themselves to be more proficient and motivated, obtain promoted international posture by forming realistic attitudes toward different cultures, and consequently become more willing to communicate in English.

  13. A Model for Scaffolding Traditional Distance Learners in Africa for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How can we solve the lull in uptake and usage of online learning amongst traditional distance learners in Africa? Several online learning initiatives are taking place in Africa, but a critical assessment of their impact in terms of increasing access to higher education through distance learning indicates, in most cases, lack of ...

  14. Using the SIOP Model for Effective Content Teaching with Second and Foreign Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareva, Veronika; Echevarria, Jana

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a comprehensive model of instruction for providing consistent, high quality teaching to L2 students. This model, the SIOP Model (Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol), provides an explicit framework for organizing instructional practices to optimize the effectiveness of teaching second and foreign language learners.…

  15. Teaching EFL Writing: An Approach Based on the Learner's Context Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine qualitatively a new approach to teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) writing based on the learner's context model. It investigates the context model-based approach in class and identifies key characteristics of the approach delivered through a four-phase teaching and learning cycle. The model collects research…

  16. A novel self-organizing E-Learner community model with award and exchange mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Shen, Rui-min; Han, Peng

    2004-11-01

    How to share experience and resources among learners is becoming one of the hottest topics in the field of E-Learning collaborative techniques. An intuitive way to achieve this objective is to group learners which can help each other into the same community and help them learn collaboratively. In this paper, we proposed a novel community self-organization model based on multi-agent mechanism, which can automatically group learners with similar preferences and capabilities. In particular, we proposed award and exchange schemas with evaluation and preference track records to raise the performance of this algorithm. The description of learner capability, the matchmaking process, the definition of evaluation and preference track records, the rules of award and exchange schemas and the self-organization algorithm are all discussed in this paper. Meanwhile, a prototype has been built to verify the validity and efficiency of the algorithm. Experiments based on real learner data showed that this mechanism can organize learner communities properly and efficiently; and that it has sustainable improved efficiency and scalability.

  17. Situating Power Potentials and Dynamics of Learners and Tutors within Self-Assessment Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taras, Maddalena

    2016-01-01

    Many twenty-first century educational discourses focus on including and empowering independent learners. Within the context of five self-assessment models, this article evaluates how these practices relate to the realities of student involvement, empowerment and voice. A proposed new classification of these self-assessment models is presented and…

  18. Evaluating the outcomes of a hearing screening service for grade one learners in urban areas at Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Govender

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Early intervention through hearing screening can reduce the negative impact of hearing loss for children. Optimal outcomes are achieved when an appropriate screening protocol is selected, a pathway for follow up care is established, and when a hearing conservation component is included. This study aimed to describe the outcomes of a hearing screening service provided to grade one learners in urban areas at Durban. A cross-sectional design was employed. Learners (n=241 were conveniently sampled from six randomly selected schools. They were screened using otoscopy, tympanometry and pure tone audiometry. Fifty eight participants (24% obtained a refer result, with 33% referred for diagnostic assessments, 29% for middle ear pathology and 38% for cerumen management. Findings further revealed that only 33% of referrals were followed up indicating poor compliance. Association between test results and income levels (P=0.38 as well as distance to the nearest health care facility (P=0.22 did not influence test outcomes. School aged children do present with common ear problems. Appropriate protocol selection, ensuring compliance to recommendations and education on hearing conservation are essential components of any health initiative.

  19. Examining the Effects of MOOCs Learners' Social Searching Results on Learning Behaviors and Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Sheng; Huang, Chester S. J.

    2016-01-01

    MOOCs social media has appealed to most instructors and learners like strong magnets by using ubiquitous handheld devices to share and discuss films, pictures, and messages. Through the social platform, users can share, track, and search for the information of their specific interests. Thus, they can make interactive discussions as well as social…

  20. Adult Learners and Spiritual Formation: Exploring Outcomes at Christ-Centered Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Heather R.

    2017-01-01

    The limited research on adult learners and spiritual formation has created a knowledge gap regarding whether bachelor's degree-completion students value the faith aspects of their education at Christian colleges. As this population grows, so does the need to better understand if the spiritual components of adult programs are having an impact and…

  1. Person-Oriented Approaches to Profiling Learners in Technology-Rich Learning Environments for Ecological Learner Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eunice Eunhee; Lajoie, Susanne P.; Wagner, Maryam; Xu, Zhenhua; Poitras, Eric; Naismith, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Technology-rich learning environments (TREs) provide opportunities for learners to engage in complex interactions involving a multitude of cognitive, metacognitive, and affective states. Understanding learners' distinct learning progressions in TREs demand inquiry approaches that employ well-conceived theoretical accounts of these multiple facets.…

  2. Informing the Long-Term Learner Model: Motivating the Adult Learner (Phase 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-28

    Educational Psychologist . 2005;40(4):199–209. Bandura A. Self-efficacy: toward a unifiying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review... Psychologist . 1989;277–306. McCrae R, John O. An introduction to the Five-Factor model and its’ application. J Personality. 1992;60(2):175–215. McCrae

  3. Toward an Adaptive Learning System Framework: Using Bayesian Network to Manage Learner Model

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    Viet Anh Nguyen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a new approach to manage learner modeling in an adaptive learning system framework. It considers developing the basic components of an adaptive learning system such as the learner model, the course content model and the adaptation engine. We use the overlay model and Bayesian network to evaluate learners’ knowledge. In addition, we also propose a new content modeling method as well as adaptation engine to generate adaptive course based on learner’s knowledge. Based on this approach, we developed an adaptive learning system named is ACGS-II, that teaches students how to design an Entity Relationship model in a database system course. Empirical testing results for students who used the application indicate that our proposed model is very helpful as guidelines to develop adaptive learning system to meet learners’ demands.

  4. Innovation in Doctoral Degrees Designed for Adult Learners: A Hybrid Model in Personal Financial Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grable, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Innovation in doctoral degree program development and delivery provides an effective counterpoint to the expert-apprentice model established in the Middle Ages. The author outlines the importance of innovation in reaching adult learners and describes an innovative hybrid PhD program designed to allow aspiring doctoral adult-age students to pursue…

  5. Toward a Tripartite Model of L2 Reading Strategy Use, Motivations, and Learner Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Hiromori, Tomohito; Nakayama, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The present study proposes a tripartite model of L2 reading strategy use, reading motivations, and general learner beliefs by examining the relationships among them in an L2 context. Reading strategy instruction was performed for 360 first-year university students enrolled in a reading-based course, in expectation of affecting their motivations…

  6. Learner Outcomes in Science in South Africa: Role of the Nature of Learner Difficulties with the Language for Learning and Teaching Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyoo, Samuel Ouma

    2017-08-01

    Paul Leslie Gardner pioneered the study of student difficulties with everyday words presented in the science context (Gardner 1971); several similarly designed studies (e.g. Cassels and Johnstone 1985; Tao in Research in Science Education, 24, 322-330, 1994; Farell and Ventura in Language and Education, 12(4), 243-254, 1998; Childs and O'Farell in Chemistry Education: Research and Practice, 4(3), 233-247, 2003) have since been reported in literature. This article draws from an exploratory study of the difficulties South African High School physical science learners encounter with everyday English words when presented in the science context. The participants (1107 learners and 35 respective physical science teachers) were drawn from 35 public secondary schools in Johannesburg area of South Africa. Data were obtained through a word test to participant learners followed by group interviews but face-to-face interviews with each physical science teacher. This study has revealed that in similar ways as have been reported in each of the studies so far, South African learners also face difficulties with meanings of everyday words presented in a science context. The main source of difficulties encountered was learner inability to distinguish between the meanings of familiar everyday words as used in everyday parlance from the `new' meanings of the same everyday words when used in the science context. Interpretations of learner interview responses revealed that fewer difficulties would have been experienced by learners if science teachers generally explained the context meanings of the words as used during science teaching. The findings suggest that focusing on contextual proficiency more than on general proficiency in the language of learning and teaching (LOLT) during teaching perhaps holds more promise for enhanced learning and achievement in science. Steps necessary to raise teacher awareness of the potential impact of context on meanings of everyday words of the LOLT

  7. The Effects of Applying Betts’ Autonomous Learner Model on Iranian Students

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    Nahid Yarahmadzehi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Classroom-based, teacher-directed language learning has been dominant in language teaching and learning for decades; however, the notion of autonomy is not novel to language teachers. Since the publication of Holec’s book, Autonomy and Foreign Language Learning (1981, autonomy in language learning has been a significant issue for discussion in relation to language learning practices and language teaching principles. Many ESL researchers have turned their attention to learner autonomy in classroom settings; however, learner autonomy in the Iranian context within self-access settings, classroom settings, and school curriculum has not been adequately addressed in the literature. To fill the research gap mentioned above, the present study aims to determine: 1. if Betts’s Autonomous Learner Model (Betts & Kercher, 1999 has any significant effect in terms of students’ self-directed learning readiness, and 2. if Betts’s Autonomous Learner Model has any significant effect on students’ English language proficiency. Adopting a quasi-experimental design, the study involved a comparison between the experimental and the control group. Two instruments were used: Gugliemino’s (1977 Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS; and standardized TOEFL test. 30 students (group A were taught English based on a pedagogical model, which blended Betts’s ALM with classroom instruction and 30 students (group B were taught through a traditional teacher-directed method. Finally, after six months of treatment, TOEFL test and SDLRS test were administered as the post-test and the results were analyzed by means of SPSS software. The results showed that ALM can work with Iranian students as evidenced by generally average performance on SDLRS and TOEFL post-tests.

  8. Webquest 2.0: An Instructional Model for Digital Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Diana F. Abernathy

    2012-01-01

    Teaching and learning tools such as Moodle and Web 2.0 tools are appearing in K-12 classrooms; however, there is a lack of scholarly research to guide the implementation of these tools. The WebQuest model, a widely adopted inquiry-based model for online instruction, has instructional inadequacies and does not make the most of emerging…

  9. A career exploration programme for learners with special educational needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Niekerk, Matty

    2007-01-01

    Learners with disabilities lag far behind their peers without disabilities in achievement, graduation rates, post-school education and employment outcomes [4]. Against the current state of education affairs in South Africa, where curriculum models for learners with special educational needs (LSEN) are still under revision, therapists and teachers are finding it difficult to prepare these learners for appropriate employment after school. Even where systems in education are established, persons with learning disabilities face more challenges to enter employment [5]. This article reports on a unique career exploration programme for grade 11 learners at a school for learners with special educational needs in Gauteng, South Africa. It is a collaborative strategy between the learners, their parents, a teacher and the occupational therapists at the school. Two case studies are described to indicate the success of the program.

  10. Learner differences and learning outcomes in an introductory biochemistry class: attitude toward images, visual cognitive skills, and learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Rachel E

    2014-01-01

    The practice of using images in teaching is widespread, and in science education images are used so extensively that some have argued they are now the "main vehicle of communication" (C. Ferreira, A. Arroio Problems Educ. 21st Century 2009, 16, 48-53). Although this phenomenon is especially notable in the field of biochemistry, we know little about the role and importance of images in communicating concepts to students in the classroom. This study reports the development of a scale to assess students' attitude toward biochemical images, particularly their willingness and ability to use the images to support their learning. In addition, because it is argued that images are central in the communication of biochemical concepts, we investigated three "learner differences" which might impact learning outcomes in this kind of classroom environment: attitude toward images, visual cognitive skills, and learning approach. Overall, the students reported a positive attitude toward the images, the majority agreeing that they liked images and considered them useful. However, the participants also reported that verbal explanations were more important than images in helping them to understand the concepts. In keeping with this we found that there was no relationship between learning outcomes and the students' self-reported attitude toward images or visual cognitive skills. In contrast, learning outcomes were significantly correlated with the students' self-reported approach to learning. These findings suggest that images are not necessarily the main vehicle of communication in a biochemistry classroom and that verbal explanations and encouragement of a deep learning approach are important considerations in improving our pedagogical approach. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. A Learning Methodology Using Matlab/Simulink for Undergraduate Electrical Engineering Courses Attending to Learner Satisfaction Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Mario J.; Gallardo, Sergio; Toral, Sergio L.; Martinez-Torres, Rocio; Barrero, Federico J.

    2007-01-01

    Learner-centred approaches follow the prevailing tendency in modern University reforms which are primarily concerned about "how people learn". The methodologies can be learner-centred in the sense of placing the student as the main actor of the teaching-learning process by increasing his interactivity and participation, but also…

  12. U.S. dental hygiene faculty perceptions of learner outcomes in distance education courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corum, Kathrine A; Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Johnson, Kerry; Strait, Tia M

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine perceptions of full-time, entry-level dental hygiene educators regarding the ability to achieve interaction in their distance education courses and the impact of interaction on learning outcomes. The specific interactions explored were student-instructor, student-content, and student-student. A survey was developed, pilot tested, revised, and mailed to 287 educators across the United States, generating an overall response rate of 22.3 percent. The majority of respondents perceived interaction to be achievable in their distance courses, to increase through technology, and to positively influence learning outcomes. Nearly 90 percent reported student-instructor interaction as achievable, 95.3 percent reported student-content interaction as achievable, and 79.7 percent reported student-student interaction as achievable. Learning outcomes were defined in this study as the student's achievement of course objectives and competencies at course completion. Approximately 81 percent of the respondents reported a positive influence from student-instructor interaction, 79.7 percent from student-content interaction, and 70.3 percent from student-student interaction. This study also examined which modalities were perceived as being most influential in achieving interaction. The results demonstrated a prevalence of discussion board posting in an environment in which numerous Web 2.0 tools are available and respondents were not as positive about their ability to achieve student-student interaction in the distance learning environment. The authors conclude that faculty development is critical in achieving quality outcomes in dental hygiene distance education courses.

  13. Effective instruction for English learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Margarita; Slavin, Robert; Sánchez, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The fastest-growing student population in U.S. schools today is children of immigrants, half of whom do not speak English fluently and are thus labeled English learners. Although the federal government requires school districts to provide services to English learners, it offers states no policies to follow in identifying, assessing, placing, or instructing them. Margarita Calderón, Robert Slavin, and Marta Sánchez identify the elements of effective instruction and review a variety of successful program models. During 2007-08, more than 5.3 million English learners made up 10.6 percent of the nation's K-12 public school enrollment. Wide and persistent achievement disparities between these English learners and English-proficient students show clearly, say the authors, that schools must address the language, literacy, and academic needs of English learners more effectively. Researchers have fiercely debated the merits of bilingual and English-only reading instruction. In elementary schools, English learners commonly receive thirty minutes of English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction but attend general education classes for the rest of the day, usually with teachers who are unprepared to teach them. Though English learners have strikingly diverse levels of skills, in high school they are typically lumped together, with one teacher to address their widely varying needs. These in-school factors contribute to the achievement disparities. Based on the studies presented here, Calderón, Slavin, and Sánchez assert that the quality of instruction is what matters most in educating English learners. They highlight comprehensive reform models, as well as individual components of these models: school structures and leadership; language and literacy instruction; integration of language, literacy, and content instruction in secondary schools; cooperative learning; professional development; parent and family support teams; tutoring; and monitoring implementation and outcomes

  14. A Longitudinal Examination of Middle School Science Learners' Use of Scaffolding In and Around a Dynamic Modeling Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretz, Eric Bruce

    Scaffolding is a term rooted in multiple research communities over decades of development. Customized, contingent support can be provided to learners to enable performances beyond what they can do alone. This dissertation seeks to examine how effectively scaffolds designed to promote articulation (written expressions of learner understanding) actually work, and if this effectiveness and/or the quality of the resulting models changes over time. It longitudinally examines the use of scaffolds designed into a dynamic modeling tool, as it is used by middle school science learners to create, test, and revise models of complex science phenomena like stream ecosystems. This dissertation also reviews the origins of the scaffolding construct, and summarizes conceptions of scaffolding from various lines of research. Scaffolding can be provided by both human and non-human agents, such as computers, which require specialized interface design to ensure maximum effectiveness. In the study, learners created models in four curriculum units over the seventh and eighth grade school years. Additionally, this dissertation examines the nature of the discussion learners have while using these scaffolds and the frequency and types of interpersonal scaffolds employed during the creation of models. Model quality is also examined using a rubric developed through review of prior research on assessing models and concept maps. Learner pairs' model creation sessions on a computer are captured with screen video and learner audio, and then distilled to transcripts for subsequent coding and analysis, supported by qualitative analysis software. Articulation scaffolds were found to succeed in promoting articulations and the quality of those articulations improved over time. Learner dialog associated with these written articulations is of reasonable quality but did not improve over time. Quality of model artifacts did improve over time. The overall use of scaffolding by each learner pair was

  15. The interrupted learner: How distractions during live and video lectures influence learning outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zureick, Andrew H; Burk-Rafel, Jesse; Purkiss, Joel A; Hortsch, Michael

    2017-11-27

    New instructional technologies have been increasingly incorporated into the medical school learning environment, including lecture video recordings as a substitute for live lecture attendance. The literature presents varying conclusions regarding how this alternative experience impacts students' academic success. Previously, a multi-year study of the first-year medical histology component at the University of Michigan found that live lecture attendance was positively correlated with learning success, while lecture video use was negatively correlated. Here, three cohorts of first-year medical students (N = 439 respondents, 86.6% response rate) were surveyed in greater detail regarding lecture attendance and video usage, focusing on study behaviors that may influence histology learning outcomes. Students who reported always attending lectures or viewing lecture videos had higher average histology scores than students who employed an inconsistent strategy (i.e., mixing live attendance and video lectures). Several behaviors were negatively associated with histology performance. Students who engaged in "non-lecture activities" (e.g., social media use), students who reported being interrupted while watching the lecture video, or feeling sleepy/losing focus had lower scores than their counterparts not engaging in these behaviors. This study suggests that interruptions and distractions during medical learning activities-whether live or recorded-can have an important impact on learning outcomes. Anat Sci Educ 00: 000-000. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  16. Learner deficits and academic outcomes of medical students, residents, fellows, and attending physicians referred to a remediation program, 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrasio, Jeannette; Garrity, Maureen J; Aagaard, Eva M

    2014-02-01

    To identify deficit types and predictors of poor academic outcomes among students, residents, fellows, and physicians referred to the University of Colorado School of Medicine's remediation program. During 2006-2012, 151 learners were referred. After a standardized assessment process, program faculty developed individualized learning plans that incorporated deliberate practice, feedback, and reflection, followed by independent reassessment. The authors collected data on training levels, identified deficits, remediation plan details, outcomes, and faculty time invested. They examined relationships between gender, training level, and specific deficits. They analyzed faculty time by deficit and explored predictors of negative outcomes. Most learners had more than one deficit; medical knowledge, clinical reasoning, and professionalism were most common. Medical students were more likely than others to have mental well-being issues (P = .03), whereas the prevalence of professionalism deficits increased steadily as training level increased. Men struggled more than women with communication (P = .01) and mental well-being. Poor professionalism was the only predictor of probationary status (P learners. Future studies should compare remediation strategies and assess how to optimize faculty time.

  17. Modeling Learner Situation Awareness in Collaborative Mobile Web 2.0 Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Helmi; Nordin, Norazah; Din, Rosseni; Ally, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The concept of situation awareness is essential in enhancing collaborative learning. Learners require information from different awareness aspects to deduce a learning situation for decision-making. Designing learning environments that assist learners to understand situation awareness via monitoring actions and reaction of other learners has been…

  18. Course-embedded student support for online English language learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Andrade

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an embedded approach to learner support in online English language courses. The support model is based on language acquisition, transactional distance, and self-regulated learning theories. Based on these theories, courses were designed to provide the interaction necessary for academic English language gains, decrease the transactional distance between the teacher and learner, and assist learners in developing the ability to control the factors that affect their learning; in other words, to be self-regulated learners. The latter is critical for those who lack the autonomy needed for successful distance learning. In this paper, three course activities are described and analyzed to demonstrate how the embedded support model responds to the needs of diverse learners and assists them in achieving identified outcomes. The courses were designed for off-site international students enrolled in traditional English-speaking higher education institutions.http://dx.doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.6.1.90

  19. Privileging Bilingualism: Using Biliterate Writing Outcomes to Understand Emerging Bilingual Learners' Literacy Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Susan; Butvilofsky, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Language planning and policy with regard to bilingual education are greatly influenced by the ideologies outlined by Richard Ruiz. In this article, we demonstrate that Ruiz's language-as-resource orientation requires that we use two-language assessments to study how program models are both developing and conserving the languages that students…

  20. Discounting Models for Outcomes over Continuous Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, Charles M.; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    Events that occur over a period of time can be described either as sequences of outcomes at discrete times or as functions of outcomes in an interval of time. This paper presents discounting models for events of the latter type. Conditions on preferences are shown to be satisfied if and only if t...... if the preferences are represented by a function that is an integral of a discounting function times a scale defined on outcomes at instants of time....

  1. Flexible provisioning for adult learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Henry; Janssen, José; Vogten, Hubert; Koper, Rob

    2014-01-01

    In adult education there is a continuous, growing demand for learning opportunities that fit the specific characteristics and preferences of particular learner groups or individual learners. This requires educational institutions to rethink their business and educational models, and develop more

  2. Collaborative Language Learning in Immersive Virtual Worlds: Competence-based Formative Feedback and Open Learner Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Kickmeier-Rust

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The uptake of information and communication technologies in the classrooms is a key trend over the past years and decades. Teachers are using Moodle courses, e-Portfolios, Google Docs, perhaps learning games or virtual worlds such as OpenSim for educational purposes. A second trend pushes towards a formatively inspired assessment and feedback, often combined with attempts of educational data mining and learning analytics. In this paper we present a role model for teaching English as a second language using OpenSim and a tool that enables teachers to perform real-time learning analytics and direct formative feedback and interventions in the virtual learning session. Also we present an approach to aggregate and store the learning information into open learner models.

  3. Didactic Model: Teaching the English Temporal System to Arabic Freshman Learners of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thana Hmidani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study took place at a medical college with 57 Arabic first-year students taking an intensive English course. The aim was to address the problems that learners experience when using the English tenses properly. The didactic model was developed and implemented in the study group only (27 students. Pre, mid-, and post-tests were administered to study and control groups at three points in time. The model is a selection of aspects from different methods combined aiming to lead participants to a higher level of linguistic competence in terms of language awareness, reading and writing skills, and vocubulary building. The results indicated statistically significant differences in the post-test between the two groups over time regarding the level of linguistic competence.

  4. Strategies for Improving Learner Metacognition in Health Professional Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Melissa S; Castleberry, Ashley N; Persky, Adam M

    2017-05-01

    Metacognition is an essential skill in critical thinking and self-regulated, lifelong learning. It is important for learners to have skills in metacognition because they are used to monitor and regulate reasoning, comprehension, and problem-solving, which are fundamental components/outcomes of pharmacy curricula. Instructors can help learners develop metacognitive skills within the classroom and experiential setting by carefully designing learning activities within courses and the curriculum. These skills are developed through intentional questioning, modeling techniques, and reflection. This article discusses key background literature on metacognition and identifies specific methods and strategies to develop learners' metacognitive skills in both the classroom and experiential settings.

  5. The Relationship between Learners' Distrust of Scientific Models, Their Spatial Ability, and the Vividness of Their Mental Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the nature of the relationship between learners' distrust of scientific models that represent unseen entities and phenomena, their spatial ability, and the vividness of their mental images. The sample consisted of 302 tenth grade students in the Sultanate of Oman. Three measures were used for this…

  6. Developing a Parenting Training Model of Character Education for Young Learners from Poor Families by Using Transformative Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasyad, Ach.

    2015-01-01

    This research is aiming at developing a parenting training model using a character education for young learners from the poor families. The data obtained were qualitative data drawn from open answers and Focus Group Discussion. The data were analyzed by using domain analysis and taxonomy. The research findings showed that there were some problems…

  7. The Learner Characteristics, Features of Desktop 3D Virtual Reality Environments, and College Chemistry Instruction: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Zahira; Goetz, Ernest T.; Keeney-Kennicutt, Wendy; Kwok, Oi-man; Cifuentes, Lauren; Davis, Trina J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined a model of the impact of a 3D desktop virtual reality environment on the learner characteristics (i.e. perceptual and psychological variables) that can enhance chemistry-related learning achievements in an introductory college chemistry class. The relationships between the 3D virtual reality features and the chemistry learning test as…

  8. The Alignment of Teaching Methodology and Learning Outcomes: The Effect of Students’ Presentations on the Development of English Language Proficiency of Adult Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venera Ulker

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of using students’ presentations on improving English language skills of adult learners and assess its potency to reach the expected learning outcomes. The research was conducted in the Continuing Education Center, Ishik University, Erbil, KRG, Iraq. The target population consisted of 23 English language learners (university graduates, and currently working in the sphere of Education. This study consisted of three major phases: first, explanation, preparation, presentation of the students’ works on the topic of interest and observation of students’ performance, second, teacher-student and student-student discussion of the video-recorded presentations. The last step was the application of the survey, which was designed to measure the participants’ attitude toward the mini-projects they presented in the class. The data were analyzed by means of frequency and percentage, as well as a summarization of the discussions. The main findings show that students’ attitude toward oral presentations, prepared on the topic of their own interest, have a positive attitude on students’ motivation toward learning English and help the adult learners to improve their language in general, and the productive skills in particular.

  9. A Structural Equation Modeling of EFL Learners' Goal Orientation, Metacognitive Awareness, and Self-efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Zafarmand

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to examine the relationship between EFL learners' goal orientation, metacognitive awareness and self-efficacy in a single framework. One hundred fifteen EFL students from two universities of Mashhad, a city in north-eastern Iran took part in this study. Structural equation modeling (SEM was utilized to examine the hypothesized relations. The results of SEM demonstrated that among goal orientations, mastery goal is a positive and significant predictor of metacognitive awareness. It also positively and significantly predicts self-efficacy. Furthermore, it was found that metacognitive awareness has a positive and significant role in self-efficacy. The results of correlation between subscales of metacognitive awareness and mastery goal indicated that the highest correlations were found between mastery goal, planning and monitoring. Identical analysis for performance goal revealed that there are significant but weak correlations between performance goal and declarative and procedural knowledge.

  10. The effect of nutrition training for health care staff on learner and patient outcomes in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marples, Owen; Baldwin, Christine; Weekes, C Elizabeth

    2017-07-01

    Background: Nutrition training for health care staff has been prioritized internationally as a key means of tackling malnutrition; however, there is a lack of clear evidence to support its implementation. Systematic reviews in other fields of training for health care staff indicate that training strategies may have a beneficial impact on learner and patient outcomes. Objectives: We assessed whether nutrition training for health care staff caring for nutritionally vulnerable adults resulted in improved learner and patient outcomes and evaluated the effectiveness of different training strategies. Design: A systematic review of trials of nutrition training for health care staff was conducted. Six databases were searched with key terms relating to malnutrition and nutrition training. Studies were categorized according to cognitive (didactic teaching), behavioral (practical implementation of skills), and psychological (individualized or group feedback and reflection) training strategies. Where sufficient data were available, meta-analysis was performed according to study design and training strategy. All study designs were eligible. The risk of bias was evaluated in accordance with Cochrane guidance. Results: Twenty-four studies met the eligibility criteria: 1 randomized controlled trial, 4 nonrandomized controlled trials, 3 quasi-experimental trials, 13 longitudinal pre-post trials, 2 qualitative studies, and 1 cross-sectional survey. Results from a number of low-quality studies suggest that nutrition training for health care staff may have a beneficial effect on staff nutrition knowledge, practice, and attitude as well as patient nutritional intake. There were insufficient data to determine whether any particular training strategy was more effective than the others. Conclusions: In the absence of high-quality evidence, low-quality studies suggest that nutrition training for health care staff has some positive effects. However, further randomized controlled trials are

  11. A Litigation Trend Analysis of Case Law Outcomes Pertaining to the Educational Rights of English Learners: A Civil Rights Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racines, Delia Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The landmark 2001 No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act has been a step forward in federal policy for the ever-increasing population of English Learners (ELs), fostering inclusion in standards-based assessments and college and/or career-readiness efforts, yet, ELs continue to struggle academically. The current 5.4 million ELs make up the lowest…

  12. Teaching "Cross-Cultural Communication" through Content Based Instruction: Curriculum Design and Learning Outcome from EFL Learners' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chia-Ti Heather

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate EFL learners' perspectives for the effectiveness of content-based instruction in a cross-cultural communication course. The main objectives of this study are three-folds: (1) to examine students' perspectives regarding the effectiveness of content learning; (2) to examine students' perspectives regarding the…

  13. Teaching Reading Comprehension to Learners with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Predictors of Teacher Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardo, Amy L.; Finnegan, Elizabeth G.; Gulkus, Steven P.; Papay, Clare K.

    2017-01-01

    Learners with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often exhibit difficulty in the area of reading comprehension. Research connecting the learning needs of individuals with ASD, existing effective practices, teacher training, and teacher perceptions of their own ability to teach reading comprehension is scarce. Quantitative survey methodology and…

  14. Improving Outcomes for English Language Learners by Integrating Social Studies and Literacy with OCDE Project GLAD Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Elementary teachers are challenged to maximize instructional time to cover standards in all content areas and to meet a wide variety of student needs including students who are not proficient in English. This action research looks at how one fourth-grade teacher improved achievement for English Language Learners by integrating social studies into…

  15. Toward a Unified Modeling of Learner's Growth Process and Flow Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challco, Geiser C.; Andrade, Fernando R. H.; Borges, Simone S.; Bittencourt, Ig I.; Isotani, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Flow is the affective state in which a learner is so engaged and involved in an activity that nothing else seems to matter. In this sense, to help students in the skill development and knowledge acquisition (referred to as learners' growth process) under optimal conditions, the instructional designers should create learning scenarios that favor…

  16. BROA: An agent-based model to recommend relevant Learning Objects from Repository Federations adapted to learner profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Rodríguez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Learning Objects (LOs are distinguished from traditional educational resources for their easy and quickly availability through Web-based repositories, from which they are accessed through their metadata. In addition, having a user profile allows an educational recommender system to help the learner to find the most relevant LOs based on their needs and preferences. The aim of this paper is to propose an agent-based model so-called BROA to recommend relevant LOs recovered from Repository Federations as well as LOs adapted to learner profile. The model proposed uses both role and service models of GAIA methodology, and the analysis models of the MAS-CommonKADS methodology. A prototype was built based on this model and validated to obtain some assessing results that are finally presented.

  17. Analysis of the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol Model on Academic Performance of English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Sandra W.

    This quantitative comparative descriptive study involved analyzing archival data from end-of-course (EOC) test scores in biology of English language learners (ELLs) taught or not taught using the sheltered instruction observation protocol (SIOP) model. The study includes descriptions and explanations of the benefits of the SIOP model to ELLs, especially in content area subjects such as biology. Researchers have shown that ELLs in high school lag behind their peers in academic achievement in content area subjects. Much of the research on the SIOP model took place in elementary and middle school, and more research was necessary at the high school level. This study involved analyzing student records from archival data to describe and explain if the SIOP model had an effect on the EOC test scores of ELLs taught or not taught using it. The sample consisted of 527 Hispanic students (283 females and 244 males) from Grades 9-12. An independent sample t-test determined if a significant difference existed in the mean EOC test scores of ELLs taught using the SIOP model as opposed to ELLs not taught using the SIOP model. The results indicated that a significant difference existed between EOC test scores of ELLs taught using the SIOP model and ELLs not taught using the SIOP model (p = .02). A regression analysis indicated a significant difference existed in the academic performance of ELLs taught using the SIOP model in high school science, controlling for free and reduced-price lunch (p = .001) in predicting passing scores on the EOC test in biology at the school level. The data analyzed for free and reduced-price lunch together with SIOP data indicated that both together were not significant (p = .175) for predicting passing scores on the EOC test in high school biology. Future researchers should repeat the study with student-level data as opposed to school-level data, and data should span at least three years.

  18. A Comparative Study of the Effects of the Neurocognitive-Based Model and the Conventional Model on Learner Attention, Working Memory and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikoon, Sanit; Bunterm, Tassanee; Nethanomsak, Teerachai; Ngang, Tang Keow

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The attention, working memory, and mood of learners are the most important abilities in the learning process. This study was concerned with the comparison of contextualized attention, working memory, and mood through a neurocognitive-based model (5P) and a conventional model (5E). It sought to examine the significant change in attention,…

  19. Systems-Oriented Workplace Learning Experiences for Early Learners: Three Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Bridget C; Bachhuber, Melissa R; Teherani, Arianne; Iker, Theresa M; Batt, Joanne; O'Sullivan, Patricia S

    2017-05-01

    Early workplace learning experiences may be effective for learning systems-based practice. This study explores systems-oriented workplace learning experiences (SOWLEs) for early learners to suggest a framework for their development. The authors used a two-phase qualitative case study design. In Phase 1 (spring 2014), they prepared case write-ups based on transcribed interviews from 10 SOWLE leaders at the authors' institution and, through comparative analysis of cases, identified three SOWLE models. In Phase 2 (summer 2014), studying seven 8-week SOWLE pilots, the authors used interview and observational data collected from the seven participating medical students, two pharmacy students, and site leaders to construct case write-ups of each pilot and to verify and elaborate the models. In Model 1, students performed specific patient care activities that addressed a system gap. Some site leaders helped students connect the activities to larger systems problems and potential improvements. In Model 2, students participated in predetermined systems improvement (SI) projects, gaining experience in the improvement process. Site leaders had experience in SI and often had significant roles in the projects. In Model 3, students worked with key stakeholders to develop a project and conduct a small test of change. They experienced most elements of an improvement cycle. Site leaders often had experience with SI and knew how to guide and support students' learning. Each model could offer systems-oriented learning opportunities provided that key elements are in place including site leaders facile in SI concepts and able to guide students in SOWLE activities.

  20. Exploring the creation of learner-centered e-training environments among retail workers: a model development perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Sookeun; Mills, Juline E

    2011-01-01

    Current business leaders continue to adopt e-learning technology despite concerns regarding its value. Positing that the effectiveness of e-training depends on how its environment is managed, we argue that a learner-centric approach is necessary in order to achieve workplace training goals. We subsequently develop a theoretical model that is aimed at identifying the key components of learner-centered e-training environments, which serve the function of providing a benchmarked approach for evaluating e-training success. The model was empirically tested using data from an Internet survey of retail industry employees and partial least squares techniques were used for analysis. Based on the findings, this study clarifies what is needed for successful e-training in terms of instructional design, system design, and organizational support.

  1. Multilevel moderated mediation model with ordinal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusá, Šárka; Komárek, Arnošt; Lesaffre, Emmanuel; Bruyneel, Luk

    2018-05-10

    Although increasingly complex models have been proposed in mediation literature, there is no model nor software that incorporates the multiple possible generalizations of the simple mediation model jointly. We propose a flexible moderated mediation model allowing for (1) a hierarchical structure of clustered data, (2) more and possibly correlated mediators, and (3) an ordinal outcome. The motivating data set is obtained from a European study in nursing research. Patients' willingness to recommend their treating hospital was recorded in an ordinal way. The research question is whether such recommendation directly depends on system-level features in the organization of nursing care, or whether these associations are mediated by 2 measurements of nursing care left undone and possibly moderated by nurse education. We have developed a Bayesian approach and accompanying program that takes all the above generalizations into account. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Addressing diverse learner preferences and intelligences with emerging technologies: Matching models to online opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhang

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically reviews various learning preferences and human intelligence theories and models with a particular focus on the implications for online learning. It highlights a few key models, Gardner’s multiple intelligences, Fleming and Mills’ VARK model, Honey and Mumford’s Learning Styles, and Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model, and attempts to link them to trends and opportunities in online learning with emerging technologies. By intersecting such models with online technologies, it offers instructors and instructional designers across educational sectors and situations new ways to think about addressing diverse learner needs, backgrounds, and expectations. Learning technologies are important for effective teaching, as are theories and models and theories of learning. We argue that more immense power can be derived from connections between the theories, models and learning technologies. Résumé : Cet article passe en revue de manière critique les divers modèles et théories sur les préférences d’apprentissage et l’intelligence humaine, avec un accent particulier sur les implications qui en découlent pour l’apprentissage en ligne. L’article présente quelques-uns des principaux modèles (les intelligences multiples de Gardner, le modèle VAK de Fleming et Mills, les styles d’apprentissage de Honey et Mumford et le modèle d’apprentissage expérientiel de Kolb et tente de les relier à des tendances et occasions d’apprentissage en ligne qui utilisent les nouvelles technologies. En croisant ces modèles avec les technologies Web, les instructeurs et concepteurs pédagogiques dans les secteurs de l’éducation ou en situation éducationnelle se voient offrir de nouvelles façons de tenir compte des divers besoins, horizons et attentes des apprenants. Les technologies d’apprentissage sont importantes pour un enseignement efficace, tout comme les théories et les modèles d’apprentissage. Nous sommes d

  3. Geodiversity, Geoheritage and Geomatics: interactions for a new learner-based geoeducational model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magagna, Alessandra; Giardino, Marco; Perotti, Luigi; Ferrero, Elena

    2016-04-01

    The increasing sensitivity among the academics towards a holistic approach to Geoheritage and Geodiversity implies the involvement of society in geoscience topics. The mixture of social values and features related to Geodiversity predisposes for the design of educational projects based on experimental and cooperative activities with local communities. Moreover, the first step towards an effective geoconservation action plan is by raising public awareness of the value of Geodiversity (Carrada 2006; Gray 2011, 2013; Henriques et al. 2011). By taking awareness of the spatial and temporal scales related to landforms and geomorphical processes, as well as to Man-Nature interactions, we want help people to realize the "dynamic dimension" of Geodiversity and its role as archive of the memory of the Earth. As a consequence, people will be enabled to perceive the geomorphological environment as a system changing over time and as fragile Geoheritage, therefore worthy of protection. In this context, during four years of a PhD research, a series of actions have been designed and tested to implement innovative educational practices for spreading Geodiversity and Geoheritage awareness, by integrating geoscience knowledge, geoconservation principles, learner-based educational approaches, geomatics tools, ICTs, and geoethics. More than 300 secondary school students and their teachers have been therefore involved in monitored educational activities developed in a variety of areas in the Piemonte Region (NW Italy): the Susa and the Sangone Valleys, the Morainic Amphiteatre of Ivrea, and the Sesia Val Grande Geopark. Results based on data form analysis confirmed the use of familiar, informal, and friendly ICTs devices (smartphones, tablets and PCs) being effective in encouraging students to approach Geodiversity. For achieving successful results the use of ICTs has to be: 1. learner centered (Mayer 2009). It is fundamental to propose them within a well-designed educational project

  4. Integrating Scaffolding Strategies into Technology-Enhanced Assessments of English Learners: Task Types and Measurement Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Lopez, Alexis; Castellano, Katherine; Himelfarb, Igor; Tsutagawa, Fred S.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates ways to improve the assessment of English learner students' English language proficiency given the current movement of creating next-generation English language proficiency assessments in the Common Core era. In particular, this article discusses the integration of scaffolding strategies, which are prevalently utilized as…

  5. Learners' Ensemble Based Security Conceptual Model for M-Learning System in Malaysian Higher Learning Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingam, Sheila; Abdollah, Faizal Mohd; Sahib, Shahrin

    2014-01-01

    M-Learning has a potential to improve efficiency in the education sector and has a tendency to grow advance and transform the learning environment in the future. Yet there are challenges in many areas faced when introducing and implementing m-learning. The learner centered attribute in mobile learning implies deployment in untrustworthy learning…

  6. Modelling Learners' Cognitive, Affective, and Social Processes through Language and Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Nia M. M.; Graesser, Arthur C.

    2014-01-01

    An emerging trend toward computer-mediated collaborative learning environments promotes lively exchanges between learners in order to facilitate learning. Discourse can play an important role in enhancing epistemology, pedagogy, and assessments in these environments. In this paper, we highlight some of our recent work showing the advantages using…

  7. The Effect of Google Earth and Wiki Models on Oral Presentation Skills of University EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awada, Ghada; Diab, Hassan B.

    2018-01-01

    This article reports the results of an experimental study that investigated the effectiveness of Google Earth and Wiki tools in improving the oral presentation skills of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners and boosting their motivation for learning. The participants (n =81) are enrolled in writing classes at two English-medium…

  8. A Basic Hybrid Library Support Model to Distance Learners in Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Omer Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Distance learning has flourished in Sudan during the last two decades; more and more higher education institutions offer distance learning programmes to off-campus students. Like on-campus students, distance learners should have access to appropriate library and information support services. They also have specific needs for library and…

  9. Modeling the economic outcomes of immuno-oncology drugs: alternative model frameworks to capture clinical outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson EJ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available EJ Gibson,1 N Begum,1 I Koblbauer,1 G Dranitsaris,2 D Liew,3 P McEwan,4 AA Tahami Monfared,5,6 Y Yuan,7 A Juarez-Garcia,7 D Tyas,8 M Lees9 1Wickenstones Ltd, Didcot, UK; 2Augmentium Pharma Consulting Inc, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Alfred Hospital, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 4Health Economics and Outcomes Research Ltd, Cardiff, UK; 5Bristol-Myers Squibb Canada, Saint-Laurent, QC Canada; 6Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; 7Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ, USA; 8Bristol-Myers Squibb, Uxbridge, UK; 9Bristol-Myers Squibb, Rueil-Malmaison, France Background: Economic models in oncology are commonly based on the three-state partitioned survival model (PSM distinguishing between progression-free and progressive states. However, the heterogeneity of responses observed in immuno-oncology (I-O suggests that new approaches may be appropriate to reflect disease dynamics meaningfully. Materials and methods: This study explored the impact of incorporating immune-specific health states into economic models of I-O therapy. Two variants of the PSM and a Markov model were populated with data from one clinical trial in metastatic melanoma patients. Short-term modeled outcomes were benchmarked to the clinical trial data and a lifetime model horizon provided estimates of life years and quality adjusted life years (QALYs. Results: The PSM-based models produced short-term outcomes closely matching the trial outcomes. Adding health states generated increased QALYs while providing a more granular representation of outcomes for decision making. The Markov model gave the greatest level of detail on outcomes but gave short-term results which diverged from those of the trial (overstating year 1 progression-free survival by around 60%. Conclusion: Increased sophistication in the representation of disease dynamics in economic models

  10. PHONOLOGICAL FOSSILIZATION OF THE JAVANESE ADULT LEARNERS OF ENGLISH: R&D OF A MODEL OF TEACHING MATERIALS OF ENGLISH PHONOLOGY FOR EFL LEARNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senowarsito Senowarsito

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary study of R&D on Teaching Materials Model of English Phonology for EF2L. The preliminary study aims at finding out the phonological fossilization of adult learners of English in Javanese context and figuring out the factors influencing them. 25 fourth-semester Javanese students of English Departement from 5 universities in Semarang municipality were selected as respondents. The data were collected from observation, interview and documentation. The results show that phonological fossilizations occur on vowel (/e/ instead of /i/ in ‗english‘ /ˈɪŋ.glɪʃ/, /a/ instead of /æ/ in ‗aspect‘ /ˈæs.pekt/, it also occurs in /Ʌ,e, ǝ/ mostly in initial sound , consonant (/nð/ instead of /ð/ in ‗the‘ /ðǝ/, /ŋ/ instead of /ʤ/ in ‗change‘ /tʃeɪndʒ/, also in /tʃ, ϴ,ð,ʃ,v,Ʒ,z,j,k,g, suffix –ed and –es, and silent letter, and diphthong (/o/ instead of /ǝu/ in ‗over‘ /ǝuvǝr/ and in ‗power‘ /paʊər /, also in/ei,au/ . Factors affecting the occurrence of phonological fossilization are 1 the interference of respondents‘ mother tongue, such as Javanese tends to add sound /n/ in /nðǝlɔk/ ‗ndelok‘ and it interferes in pronouncing ‗the‘ to /nðǝ/ instead of /ðǝ/; 2 the learning materials of English Phonology course does not yet accommodate the learner‘s errors and or learner‘s fossilizations. These findings can be used as recommendation to develop teaching materials of English Phonology for EF2L.

  11. Selection of magister learners in nursing science at the Rand Afrikaans University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Botes

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Selection of learners implies that candidates are assessed according to criteria with the purpose of selecting the most suitable learners for the course. A magister qualification is on level 8A of the National Qualifications Framework (NQF. The purpose of a magister qualification in Nursing is the development of advanced research, clinical, professional, managerial, educational, leadership and consultative abilities (knowledge, skills, values and attitudes for the promotion of individual, family, group and community health. From the above introduction it becomes clear that there is a high expectations of a person with a magister qualification. Such a person should be a specialist, scientist, leader and role model in the profession. A magister programme is human-power intensive as well as capital intensive for both the learner and higher education institutions. It is therefore important to select learners with the ability to achieve the outcomes of the programme. Limited research has been conducted on the selection of post graduate learners.

  12. Using the instructional congruence model to change a science teacher's practices and English language learners' attitudes and achievement in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salame, Hania Moussa

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of adapting the instructional congruence model on the English Language Learners' (ELL) attitudes and achievement in science. Changes in teacher's views and practices were documented. The mixed-method approach was adapted. Data sources were the "Attitude Towards Science" survey, VNOS-C questionnaire, Luykx and Lee (2007) observational instrument, Gee (1997) discussion categories, video recordings, and pre- and post-tests. A science teacher and a class of 24 ELL female students in a charter school participated in this research. The results of this study indicated that student achievement increased significantly and students' attitudes improved in all contexts. At the conclusion of the study, all teacher's views on NOS were reported to be informed, teacher's practices were rated higher, and different classroom interactions increased significantly. The instructional congruence model in science education has been successful in reaching different learners, improving students' attitudes and achievement in science and enhancing teacher's views and practices. This model has significant potential for meeting the challenging goals of reformed science education.

  13. Opportunities and Outcomes: The Role of Peers in Developing the Oral Academic English Proficiency of Adolescent English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhill-Poza, Avary

    2015-01-01

    Although researchers often acknowledge the importance of linguistically rich interactions in the academic language development of emergent bilingual students, few studies have explicitly examined the role of linguistic peer support and the underlying structure of social relationships in the second language learning experiences and outcomes of…

  14. Returnees, Student-Migrants and Second Chance Learners: Case Studies of Positional and Transformative Outcomes of Australian International Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Shanthi; Hoare, Lynnel; Harwood, Aramiha

    2011-01-01

    There is a clear need for new research into the work and life outcomes for graduates of Australian international education. Drawing upon divergent post-study transitions, this article aims to present a multi-faceted, qualitative foundation for the consideration of both positional and transformative impacts of international education on graduates'…

  15. Learner-oriented distance education supporting service system model and applied research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Liyong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Distance education is a product of social progress and an emerging way of life-long learning as well. This paper describes the construction of the distance education supporting service system and establishes the distance education supporting service system from the perspective of distance education learners. Under the premise of considering to provide six influencing factors--learning facilities, learning coaching and counseling, learning resources, education and teaching information, assessment of student learning situation and organization of practical teaching activities, this paper assesses the distance education supporting service system of Beijing, Shanghai and Shenzhen by using AHP.

  16. Secondary school teachers' experiences of teaching pregnant learners in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sogo F Matlala

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a study on the experiences of secondary school teachers on teaching pregnant learners in Limpopo Province. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten purposively selected secondary school teachers. Data analysis yielded six themes, which are: (1 identification of pregnant learners; (2 continuation of pregnant learners' school career; (3 dilemmas related to school-attending pregnant learners; (4 support of school-attending pregnant learners; (5 gender in pregnancy caretaking; and (6 communication and cooperation between teachers and parents. Teachers experienced challenges in identifying pregnant learners, and to meet their health needs as they lacked health related skills. Parents were not always cooperative towards teachers. It can be concluded that teachers face many dilemmas related to pregnant learners, and this requires a health facilitation model to enable teachers to assist pregnant learners such that they might better benefit from their schooling, and experience a positive health outcome.

  17. Rasch modeling to assess Albanian and South African learners' preferences for real-life situations to be used in mathematics: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacerja, Suela; Julie, Cyril; Hadjerrouit, Said

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation on the real-life situations students in grades 8 and 9 in South Africa and Albania prefer to use in Mathematics. The functioning of the instrument used to assess the order of preference learners from both countries have for contextual situations is assessed using Rasch modeling techniques. For both the cohorts, the data fit the Rasch model. The differential item functioning (DIF) analysis rendered 3 items operating differentially for the two cohorts. Explanations for these differences are provided in terms of differences in experiences learners in the two countries have related to some of the contextual situations. Implications for interpretation of international comparative tests are offered, as are the possibilities for the cross-country development of curriculum materials related to contexts that learners prefer to use in Mathematics.

  18. Leading by Example: Role Modeling Resilience Helps Our Learners and Ourselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaza, Mona M; Nelson, Kathleen G

    2018-02-01

    The issues of burnout and its consequences are some of the most prevalent topics in conversations about the practice of medicine today. Many reports have focused on the contributors that fuel this epidemic, but the time has come to begin to focus on solutions. Prominent national efforts, including a National Academy of Medicine collaborative task force and the 2017 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education common program requirements' focus on wellness, are presenting opportunities for academic medicine faculty to take the lead in turning this tide. While solutions to the burnout crisis are complex, the foundations of improving this epidemic lie in restoring a sense of purpose and balance in the lives of those who work in academic medicine. The inherent value of academic medicine to improve others' lives through patient care, the advancement of knowledge, and the education of the next generation is a unique opportunity that many other professions do not share. On the best days, academic medicine faculty must remember to look for that joy and to express it to learners, and, on the worst, they must demonstrate to learners how to practice self-care and how to create personal resilience. By taking on the role of becoming resilient, faculty start to foster a culture of well-being rather than burnout and can begin to find solutions instead of continuing to describe the problem.

  19. Exploring Shifts in Middle School Learners' Modeling Activity While Generating Drawings, Animations, and Computational Simulations of Molecular Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson-Jerde, Michelle H.; Gravel, Brian E.; Macrander, Christopher A.

    2015-04-01

    Modeling and using technology are two practices of particular interest to K-12 science educators. These practices are inextricably linked among professionals, who engage in modeling activity with and across a variety of representational technologies. In this paper, we explore the practices of five sixth-grade girls as they generated models of smell diffusion using drawing, stop-motion animation, and computational simulation during a multi-day workshop. We analyze video, student discourse, and artifacts to address the questions: In what ways did learners' modeling practices, reasoning about mechanism, and ideas about smell shift as they worked across this variety of representational technologies? And, what supports enabled them to persist and progress in the modeling activity? We found that the girls engaged in two distinct modeling cycles that reflected persistence and deepening engagement in the task. In the first, messing about, they focused on describing and representing many ideas related to the spread of smell at once. In the second, digging in, they focused on testing and revising specific mechanisms that underlie smell diffusion. Upon deeper analysis, we found these cycles were linked to the girls' invention of "oogtom," a representational object that encapsulated many ideas from the first cycle and allowed the girls to restart modeling with the mechanistic focus required to construct simulations. We analyze the role of activity design, facilitation, and technological infrastructure in this pattern of engagement over the course of the workshop and discuss implications for future research, curriculum design, and classroom practice.

  20. Evaluation of Learning Performance of E-Learning in China: A Methodology Based on Change of Internal Mental Model of Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingxian; Zhang, Xiaoshuan; Duan, Yanqing; Fu, Zetian; Wang, Yanwei

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method of assessment on how Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and animation influence the psychological process of learning by comparing a traditional web design course and an e-learning web design course, based on the Change of Internal Mental Model of Learners. We constructed the e-learning course based on Gagne's learning…

  1. Towards a Framework for Teaching Adult Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duzer, Carol

    1997-01-01

    A brief review of what is known about teaching English as a Second Language (ESL) to adults focuses on four areas: characteristics and needs of adult English language learners; program design and instructional practices; ESL teacher preparation and staff development; and learner assessment and outcomes. Teachers are urged to let colleagues,…

  2. The Social Responsibility Performance Outcomes Model: Building Socially Responsible Companies through Performance Improvement Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Tim

    2000-01-01

    Considers the role of performance improvement professionals and human resources development professionals in helping organizations realize the ethical and financial power of corporate social responsibility. Explains the social responsibility performance outcomes model, which incorporates the concepts of societal needs and outcomes. (LRW)

  3. Integral-Value Models for Outcomes over Continuous Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, Charles M.; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    Models of preferences between outcomes over continuous time are important for individual, corporate, and social decision making, e.g., medical treatment, infrastructure development, and environmental regulation. This paper presents a foundation for such models. It shows that conditions on prefere...... on preferences between real- or vector-valued outcomes over continuous time are satisfied if and only if the preferences are represented by a value function having an integral form......Models of preferences between outcomes over continuous time are important for individual, corporate, and social decision making, e.g., medical treatment, infrastructure development, and environmental regulation. This paper presents a foundation for such models. It shows that conditions...

  4. The Evolving Military Learner Population: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kate; Vignare, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This literature review examines the evolving online military learner population with emphasis on current generation military learners, who are most frequently Post-9/11 veterans. The review synthesizes recent scholarly and grey literature on military learner demographics and attributes, college experiences, and academic outcomes against a backdrop…

  5. Are We on the Same Page? Shared Mental Models to Support Clinical Teamwork Among Health Professions Learners: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floren, Leslie Carstensen; Donesky, DorAnne; Whitaker, Evans; Irby, David M; Ten Cate, Olle; O'Brien, Bridget C

    2018-03-01

    To conduct a scoping review to explore the construct of shared mental models (SMMs) in the context of clinical teamwork among health professions learners. The authors searched the PubMed, ERIC, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science, PsychINFO, and EMBASE databases for English-language articles published between 2000 and 2016. Eligible articles mentioned SMMs in relation to clinical teamwork and included health professions learners. Two reviewers screened studies for eligibility and extracted data to determine the depth and breadth of the literature on SMMs. The authors examined definitions of the SMM construct in the context of clinical teams, educational interventions using SMMs, and the measurement of SMMs. Of the 1,273 articles retrieved, 23 met the inclusion criteria. SMMs were defined in less than two-fifths of the articles (9/23). All articles applied the construct to improvements in hospital-based patient safety, often in high-intensity settings (14/23). Most articles included graduate-level physicians (21/23) within clinical teams (18/23). Interventions designed to foster SMMs (6/23) included teamwork curricula/training and teamwork supportive tools. Measurements of SMMs (7/23) included a qualitative task analysis, quantitative analyses of speech, a concept mapping, and Likert-type surveys. In health professions education, the SMM construct lacks clear definition. Few studies described educational interventions aimed at SMM development, and few attempted to measure the construct. The authors propose an operational definition of SMMs in health care and illustrate how interventions intended to foster SMMs, such as team trainings or planning exercises and communication tools, could be developed, implemented, and assessed.

  6. Is different better? Models of teaching and their influence on the net financial outcome for general practice teaching posts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In Australia, training for general practice (GP) occurs within private practices and their involvement in teaching can have significant financial costs. At the same time there are growing demands for clinical places for all disciplines and for GP there is concern that there are insufficient teaching practices to meet the demand at the medical student, prevocational and vocational training levels. One option to address this may be to change how teaching occurs in the practice. A question that arises in posing such an option is whether different models of teaching change the costs for a teaching practice. The aim of this study is to determine the net financial outcome of teaching models in private GP. Methods Modelling the financial implications for a range of teaching options using a costing framework developed from a survey of teaching practices in South Australia. Each option was compared with the traditional model of teaching where one GP supervisor is singularly responsible for one learner. The main outcome measure was net financial outcome per week. Decisions on the model cost parameters were made by the study's Steering Group which comprised of experienced GP supervisors. Four teaching models are presented. Model 1 investigates the gains from teaching multiple same level learners, Models 2 and 3, the benefits of vertically integrated teaching using different permutations, and Model 4 the concept of a GP teacher who undertakes all the teaching. Results There was a significant increase in net benefits of Aus$547 per week (95% confidence intervals $459, $668) to the practice when a GP taught two same level learners (Model 1) and when a senior registrar participated in teaching a prevocational doctor (Model 3, Aus$263, 95% confidence intervals $80, $570). For Model 2, a practice could significantly reduce the loss if a registrar was involved in vertically integrated teaching which included the training of a medical student (Aus$551, 95% confidence

  7. Decision modeling for analyzing fire action outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald MacGregor; Armando Gonzalez-Caban

    2008-01-01

    A methodology for incident decomposition and reconstruction is developed based on the concept of an "event-frame model." The event-frame model characterizes a fire incident in terms of (a) environmental events that pertain to the fire and the fire context (e.g., fire behavior, weather, fuels) and (b) management events that represent responses to the fire...

  8. EFL Learners' Home Culture Attachment and their Attitudes towards English Language Learning: A structural equation modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sharifi Feriz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to examine home culture attachment construct and its underlying variables among Iranian English as Foreign Language learners as well as their attitudes towards English language learning. Pearson correlation is used with a sample of 411 English major university students from different provinces in Iran, mainly Khorasan Razavi, Khoran Jonoubi and Sistan Baluchestan participated in this study. As for the quantitative phase of data collection, the study employed home culture attachment and attitude towards English language learning questionnaires. The reliability and validity of these questionnaires are reported. A home culture attachment model and an attitude model are also developed and tested using structural equation modeling. The results suggest that all three subscales of attitudes (emotional, behavioral, and cognitive are positive and significant predictors of students' western attachment. From three subscales of attitude, only behavioral attitude is negative and significant predictors of students' religious attachment. In addition, Iranian attachment is influenced by cognitive attitudes and emotional attitudes. Besides, cognitive attitude is a positive and significant predictor of students' cultural attachment. It is also found that, artistic attachment is influenced by behavioral attitudes and emotional attitudes. Finally, the pedagogical implications are discussed in light of foreign language achievement.

  9. Stochastic models for some meteorological outcomes in Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, stochastic models based on autoregressive integrated moving average models of various orders and its seasonalized versions are presented, with a view to identifying the optimal model for some meteorological outcomes in some cities in Niger Delta region of Nigeria, using Normalized Bayesian Information ...

  10. Teaching Sociology Students to Become Qualitative-Researchers Using an Internship Model of Learner-Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolich, Martin; Scarth, Bonnie; Shephard, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the experiences of final year undergraduate sociology students enrolled in an internship course where they researched a local community project, mostly in small groups, for a client. A sociology lecturer supervised their projects. Course-related outcomes were assessed using conventional university procedures but a research…

  11. Student Perceptions of Learner-Centered Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeDe Wohlfarth

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The learner-centered paradigm departs from traditional teaching models by focusing on students more than teachers and learning more than teaching. Thus, classes are more egalitarian; they emphasize critical thinking, active learning, and real-world assignments. Graduate students in learner-centered classrooms were surveyed about perceptions of their experiences in relation to the key dimensions of the learner-centered paradigm and noted that the approach contributed to their feeling respected as learners, developed their critical thinking skills, and encouraged their self-directedness. Based on these findings, post-secondary instructors are encouraged to experiment with learning-centered approaches to further explore this promising model.

  12. Addressing Diverse Learner Preferences and Intelligences with Emerging Technologies: Matching Models to Online Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Bonk, Curtis J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper critically reviews various learning preferences and human intelligence theories and models with a particular focus on the implications for online learning. It highlights a few key models, Gardner's multiple intelligences, Fleming and Mills' VARK model, Honey and Mumford's Learning Styles, and Kolb's Experiential Learning Model, and…

  13. Andragogical Modeling and the Success of the "EMPACTS" project-based learning model in the STEM disciplines: A decade of growth and learner success in the 2Y College Learning Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C. D.; Thomason, R.; Galloway, M.; Sorey, N.; Stidham, L.; Torgerson, M.

    2014-12-01

    EMPACTS (Educationally Managed Projects Advancing Curriculum, Technology/Teamwork and Service) is a project-based, adult learning modelthat is designed to enhance learning of course content through real-world application and problem solving self directed and collaborative learning use of technology service to the community EMPACTS students are self-directed in their learning, often working in teams to develop, implement, report and present final project results. EMPACTS faculty use community based projects to increase deeper learning of course content through "real-world" service experiences. Learners develop personal and interpersonal work and communication skills as they plan, execute and complete project goals together. Technology is used as a tool to solve problems and to publish the products of their learning experiences. Courses across a broad STEM curriculum integrate the EMPACTS project experience into the overall learning outcomes as part of the learning college mission of preparing 2Y graduates for future academic and/or workforce success. Since the program began in 2005, there have been over 200 completed projects/year. Student driven successes have led to the establishment of an EMPACTS Technology Corp, which is funded through scholarship and allows EMPACTS learners the opportunity to serve and learn from one another as "peer instructors." Engineering and 3D graphic design teams have written technology proposals and received funding for 3D printing replication projects, which have benefited the college as a whole through grant opportunities tied to these small scale successes. EMPACTS students engage in a variety of outreachprojects with area schools as they share the successes and joys of self directed, inquiry, project based learning. The EMPACTS Program has successfully trained faculty and students in the implementation of the model and conduct semester to semester and once a year workshops for college and K-12 faculty, who are interested in

  14. Beating the Drums for Attention: Proceedings and Outcomes of the Socrates/Grundtvig Network "International Adult Learners Week in Europe" (IntALWinE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochynek, Bettina, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Beating the Drums for Attention" is the metaphorical title chosen to reflect the continuous effort carried out by adult educators to promote learning, to encourage a joyful approach to it and to motivate learners to be part of and actively influence the overall reflexive process they are involved in. What carries the whole movement is…

  15. The Effects of Content-Enriched Shared Book Reading versus Vocabulary-Only Discussions on the Vocabulary Outcomes of Preschool Dual Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Saenz, Laura; Resendez, Nora; Kwok, Oiman; Zhu, Leina; Davis, Heather

    2018-01-01

    Research Findings: This study compared the effects of content-based shared book-reading instruction versus an explicit vocabulary-only condition on the vocabulary development of preschool dual language learners (DLLs). Using shared book reading as the mode of instruction, we randomly assigned 48 bilingual preschool teachers and 281…

  16. Is it adequate to model the socio-cultural dimension of e-learners by informing a fixed set of personal criteria?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanchard, Emmanuel G.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, interest has increased in proposing efficient techniques to capture and model cognitive and affective characteristics of e-learners. More recently,research has started investigating the development of culturally-aware educational technology. Indeed, cultures are known...... to strongly impact how people interpret their surrounding environment, hence generating cognitive and affective biases that could impact computer-supported educational activities. Consequently, educational technologies trying to become culturally-aware need to develop a sociocultural model of their learner....... In this regard, many previous projects have used a fixed set of socio-cultural criteria. It is the purpose of this paper to show that this approach is not necessarily good since the acceptability and relevance of many criteria may vary from one cultural context to another...

  17. Modeling Achievement in Mathematics: The Role of Learner and Learning Environment Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser-Abu Alhija, Fadia; Amasha, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a structural model of mathematics achievement among Druze 8th graders in Israel. The model integrates 2 psychosocial theories: goal theory and social learning theory. Variables in the model included gender, father's and mother's education, classroom mastery and performance goal orientation, mathematics self-efficacy and…

  18. Population health outcome models in suicide prevention policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Frances L

    2014-09-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death in the U.S. and results in immense suffering and significant cost. Effective suicide prevention interventions could reduce this burden, but policy makers need estimates of health outcomes achieved by alternative interventions to focus implementation efforts. To illustrate the utility of health outcome models to help in achieving goals defined by the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention's Research Prioritization Task Force. The approach is illustrated specifically with psychotherapeutic interventions to prevent suicide reattempt in emergency department settings. A health outcome model using decision analysis with secondary data was applied to estimate suicide attempts and deaths averted from evidence-based interventions. Under optimal conditions, the model estimated that over 1 year, implementing evidence-based psychotherapeutic interventions in emergency departments could decrease the number of suicide attempts by 18,737, and if offered over 5 years, it could avert 109,306 attempts. Over 1 year, the model estimated 2,498 fewer deaths from suicide, and over 5 years, about 13,928 fewer suicide deaths. Health outcome models could aid in suicide prevention policy by helping focus implementation efforts. Further research developing more sophisticated models of the impact of suicide prevention interventions that include a more complex understanding of suicidal behavior, longer time frames, and inclusion of additional outcomes that capture the full benefits and costs of interventions would be helpful next steps. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. A SELF-ASSESSMENT MODEL IN TEACHING ACADEMIC WRITING FOR INDONESIAN EFL LEARNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiqulloh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This self-assessment model is developed to help EFL students improve their achievement in academic writing, more particularly essay writing. In English department of Pancasakti University Tegal, academic writing is the course subject which develops models and practices of essay writing in order that students are actively engaged in rhetorical problem-solving. The development of this self-assessment model was derived from the analysis of both theoretical and empirical studies of self-assessment in EFL writing. The self-assessment model developed in this study consists of four kinds of self-assessment instruments: self-edit checklist of writing dimensions (CWD, checklist of writing strategies (CWS, survey questionnaire of writing interest and awareness (SWIA, and questionnaire of learning monitoring strategies (QLMS. This self-assessment model can be an alternative model in teaching academic writing to EFL students at university level, more particularly the students of English Department, Pancasakti University Tegal.

  20. Development of an Instructional Model for Online Task-Based Interactive Listening for EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xingbin; Suppasetseree, Suksan

    2013-01-01

    College English in China has shifted from cultivating reading ability to comprehensive communicative abilities with an emphasis on listening and speaking. For this reason, new teaching models should be built on modern information technology. However, little research on developing models for the online teaching of listening skills has been…

  1. Pedagogical Model for Explicit Teaching of Reading Comprehension to English Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Tiyb Al Khaiyali

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Reading comprehension instruction is considered one of the major challenges that most English language teachers and students encounter. Therefore, providing a systematic, explicit, and flexible model to teaching reading comprehension strategies could help resolve some of these challenges and increase the possibility of teaching reading comprehension, particularly in language learners’ classrooms. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to provide a model to teach reading comprehension strategies in language learning classrooms. The proposed instructional model is divided into three systematic phases through which strategies are taught before reading, during reading, and after reading. Each phase is explained and elaborated using recommended models for teachers. Finally, suggested considerations to consolidate this model are provided.

  2. Physiotherapy and low back pain - part iii: outcomes research utilising the biosychosocial model: psychosocial outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Bardin

    2003-02-01

    has evolved that necessitates the use of a biopsychosocial model, focusing on illness rather than disease and incorporating the biological, psychological and social aspects that are important to understand and to study LBP in its chronic form. Traditional outcome measures that measure elements within the biological component are limited to assess the spectrum of impacts caused by chronic low back pain (CLBP and the validity, reliability and sensitivity of some of these measures has been questioned.Few physiologic tests of spine function are clinically meaningful to patients, objective physical findings can be absent, and in CLBP disability and activity intolerance are often disproportional to the original injury. Biological outcomes should be complemented by outcomes of the psychosocial aspects of back pain that measure the considerable functional and emotional impact on the quality of life of patients experiencing low back dysfunction. Outcomes research is an analysis of clinical practice as it actually occurs and can  make a valuable contribution to understanding the multidimensional impact of LBP. Psychosocial aspects of the biopsychosocial model for outcomes research are discussed in part III: functional status/disability, psychological impairment, patient satisfaction, health related quality of life

  3. Physiotherapy and low back pain - part iii: outcomes research utilising the biosychosocial model: psychosocial outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Bardin

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive understanding of low back pain (LBPhas evolved that necessitates the use of a biopsychosocial model, focusing on illness rather than disease and incorporating the biological, psychological and social aspects that are important to understand and to study LBP in its chronic form. Traditional outcome measures that measure elements within the biological component are limited to assess the spectrum of impacts caused by chronic low back pain (CLBP and the validity, reliability and sensitivity of some of these measures has been questioned.Few physiologic tests of spine function are clinically meaningful to patients, objective physical findings can be absent, and in CLBP disability and activity intolerance are often disproportional to the original injury. Biological outcomes should be complemented by outcomes of the psychosocial aspects of back pain that measure the considerable functional and emotional impact on the quality of life of patients experiencing low back dysfunction. Outcomes research is an analysis of clinical practice as it actually occurs and can  make a valuable contribution to understanding the multidimensional impact of LBP. Psychosocial aspects of the biopsychosocial model for outcomes research are discussed in part III: functional status/disability, psychological impairment, patient satisfaction, health related quality of life

  4. Applicability of the Compensatory Encoding Model in Foreign Language Reading: An Investigation with Chinese College English Language Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Feifei

    2017-01-01

    While some first language (L1) reading models suggest that inefficient word recognition and small working memory tend to inhibit higher-level comprehension processes; the Compensatory Encoding Model maintains that slow word recognition and small working memory do not normally hinder reading comprehension, as readers are able to operate metacognitive strategies to compensate for inefficient word recognition and working memory limitation as long as readers process a reading task without time constraint. Although empirical evidence is accumulated for support of the Compensatory Encoding Model in L1 reading, there is lack of research for testing of the Compensatory Encoding Model in foreign language (FL) reading. This research empirically tested the Compensatory Encoding Model in English reading among Chinese college English language learners (ELLs). Two studies were conducted. Study one focused on testing whether reading condition varying time affects the relationship between word recognition, working memory, and reading comprehension. Students were tested on a computerized English word recognition test, a computerized Operation Span task, and reading comprehension in time constraint and non-time constraint reading. The correlation and regression analyses showed that the strength of association was much stronger between word recognition, working memory, and reading comprehension in time constraint than that in non-time constraint reading condition. Study two examined whether FL readers were able to operate metacognitive reading strategies as a compensatory way of reading comprehension for inefficient word recognition and working memory limitation in non-time constraint reading. The participants were tested on the same computerized English word recognition test and Operation Span test. They were required to think aloud while reading and to complete the comprehension questions. The think-aloud protocols were coded for concurrent use of reading strategies, classified

  5. The expected-outcome model of two-player games

    CERN Document Server

    Abramson, Bruce

    1990-01-01

    The Expected-Outcome Model of Two-Player Games deals with the expected-outcome model of two-player games, in which the relative merit of game-tree nodes, rather than board positions, is considered. The ambiguity of static evaluation and the problems it generates in the search system are examined and the development of a domain-independent static evaluator is described. Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the rationale for the mathematical study of games, followed by a discussion on some previous artificial intelligence (AI) research efforts on game-trees. The nex

  6. Modeling Humans as Reinforcement Learners: How to Predict Human Behavior in Multi-Stage Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ritchie; Wolpert, David H.; Backhaus, Scott; Bent, Russell; Bono, James; Tracey, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel framework for modeling interacting humans in a multi-stage game environment by combining concepts from game theory and reinforcement learning. The proposed model has the following desirable characteristics: (1) Bounded rational players, (2) strategic (i.e., players account for one anothers reward functions), and (3) is computationally feasible even on moderately large real-world systems. To do this we extend level-K reasoning to policy space to, for the first time, be able to handle multiple time steps. This allows us to decompose the problem into a series of smaller ones where we can apply standard reinforcement learning algorithms. We investigate these ideas in a cyber-battle scenario over a smart power grid and discuss the relationship between the behavior predicted by our model and what one might expect of real human defenders and attackers.

  7. Social presence – connecting pre-service teachers as learners using a blended learning model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie Garner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The national reform agenda for early childhood education and care across Australia has led to an increased demand for qualified early childhood teachers. In response, universities have developed innovative approaches in delivering early childhood teacher education courses designed to support existing diploma qualified educators to gain their teaching qualifications. One such course at a major Australian University incorporated a flexible multi-modal option of study which included community-based, on line e-learning and face-to-face intensive tutorials. This paper reports on a study examining the outcomes for students undertaking their studies using this course delivery mode. The study sought to examine the students’ perceptions of the efficacy of the teaching and learning approach in meeting their learning needs, and the factors that were most influential in informing these perceptions. The findings indicated that it was the inclusion of contact and a social presence in the online learning environment which was most influential. Normal 0 false false false EN-AU ZH-CN AR-SA You Just Want to Be Like that Teacher: Modelling and Intercultural Competence in Young Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Robyn

    2008-01-01

    Language teachers are called upon to understand both the nature of students' intercultural competence and their own role in its development. Limited research attention has been paid to the relationship between the types of behaviour that language teachers model and the intercultural competence their students acquire. This article reports on a case…

  8. An Investigation into the Community of Inquiry Model in the Malaysian ESL Learners' Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalai, Nagaletchimee

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore how the Community of Inquiry (CoI) model (2000) is used to categorize students' and teachers' interactions in an asynchronous discussion and how these interactions are able to help students add quality to their narrative writing. Design/methodology/approach: The interactions were categorized based on teaching,…

  9. On Becoming an Educated Person: Salvadoran Adult Learners' Cultural Model of Educacion/Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: In contrast to cultural constructs that equate education with cognitive development and formal schooling, the Latin American cultural model of educacion encompasses academic knowledge and social competence. Prior scholarship has mainly investigated parental notions of educacion vis-a-vis childrearing and schooling, primarily…

  10. Collaborative Language Learning in Immersive Virtual Worlds: Competence-based Formative Feedback and Open Learner Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Michael D. Kickmeier-Rust; Susan Bull; Gerhilde Meissl-Egghart

    2014-01-01

    The uptake of information and communication technologies in the classrooms is a key trend over the past years and decades. Teachers are using Moodle courses, e-Portfolios, Google Docs, perhaps learning games or virtual worlds such as OpenSim for educational purposes. A second trend pushes towards a formatively inspired assessment and feedback, often combined with attempts of educational data mining and learning analytics. In this paper we present a role model for teaching English as a second ...

  11. The Role of a Learner - Centred Approach in Language Teaching on the Development of Learner Autonomy: A Model Course Design = Yabancı Dil Öğretimi'nde Öğrenci - Merkezli Yaklaşımın Bağımsız Öğrenmenin Gelişimindeki Rolü : Model Bir Ders Tasarımı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem KUCUROĞLU TİRKEŞ

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at assessing the role of a "Learner-centred" approach in language teaching on the development of learner autonomy. It is argued in this paper that a foreign language course designed with a learner-centred focus not only helps learners increase their competence in the use of the language but also allows them to develop some strategies on "learning how to learn". This, in effect, promotes the development of learner autonomy and encourages students to take responsibility for their own learning and to become independent learners, the two important requirements of university education. This is illustrated through the design of a model course, namely English -2, offered to freshman year students at Doğuş University. This course takes students through the stages of conducting academic research and presenting the findings of their research in the form of a written project which appropriately fulfills academic standards. The design of the course requires much of the work to be done outside class and by the learners themselves. Hence, this paper develops the idea that students who take this course increase their confidence in working on their own as well as learning to take the responsibility for their own learning, which are the two major demands of academic study in university education.

  12. Graphical models for inference under outcome-dependent sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didelez, V; Kreiner, S; Keiding, N

    2010-01-01

    We consider situations where data have been collected such that the sampling depends on the outcome of interest and possibly further covariates, as for instance in case-control studies. Graphical models represent assumptions about the conditional independencies among the variables. By including...

  13. Improving treatment outcome assessment in a mouse tuberculosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourik, Bas C; Svensson, Robin J; de Knegt, Gerjo J; Bax, Hannelore I; Verbon, Annelies; Simonsson, Ulrika S H; de Steenwinkel, Jurriaan E M

    2018-04-09

    Preclinical treatment outcome evaluation of tuberculosis (TB) occurs primarily in mice. Current designs compare relapse rates of different regimens at selected time points, but lack information about the correlation between treatment length and treatment outcome, which is required to efficiently estimate a regimens' treatment-shortening potential. Therefore we developed a new approach. BALB/c mice were infected with a Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype strain and were treated with rifapentine-pyrazinamide-isoniazid-ethambutol (R p ZHE), rifampicin-pyrazinamide-moxifloxacin-ethambutol (RZME) or rifampicin-pyrazinamide-moxifloxacin-isoniazid (RZMH). Treatment outcome was assessed in n = 3 mice after 9 different treatment lengths between 2-6 months. Next, we created a mathematical model that best fitted the observational data and used this for inter-regimen comparison. The observed data were best described by a sigmoidal E max model in favor over linear or conventional E max models. Estimating regimen-specific parameters showed significantly higher curative potentials for RZME and R p ZHE compared to RZMH. In conclusion, we provide a new design for treatment outcome evaluation in a mouse TB model, which (i) provides accurate tools for assessment of the relationship between treatment length and predicted cure, (ii) allows for efficient comparison between regimens and (iii) adheres to the reduction and refinement principles of laboratory animal use.

  14. THE MOTIVATIONAL MODEL OF YOUNG JAPANESE EFL LEARNERS: AFTER GETTING LESSONS BY HOMEROOM TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Adachi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study focuses on Japanese pupils’ motivation with other attitudinal attitudes about learning English. The writer surveyed the 5th and 6th grade pupils’ motivation and its effect factors at an elementary school in Japan at the end of the school year 2007 and 2008. The main focus of this study is to find the relationship between motivation and effect factors using both the 2007 and 2008 data and to examine differences of the pupils’ attitudes between 2007 and 2008. Since the 2008 school year, pupils have received lessons by not only an assistant language teacher (ALT but also their home room teachers (HRTs. The finding showed that the 2008 and 2007 results were similar in most valuables, but the value of “Motivation” increased in 2008 compared to the previous year. Furthermore, “people around the learner” influenced on motivation more positively. Finally, this study presented a model which could be suggested as one of the motivational models of Japanese pupils for English activities. The writer concluded that the involvement of HRTs brought about generally good effects on pupils’ attitudes in this elementary school at this point.

  15. Uncertainties in model-based outcome predictions for treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deasy, Joseph O.; Chao, K.S. Clifford; Markman, Jerry

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Model-based treatment-plan-specific outcome predictions (such as normal tissue complication probability [NTCP] or the relative reduction in salivary function) are typically presented without reference to underlying uncertainties. We provide a method to assess the reliability of treatment-plan-specific dose-volume outcome model predictions. Methods and Materials: A practical method is proposed for evaluating model prediction based on the original input data together with bootstrap-based estimates of parameter uncertainties. The general framework is applicable to continuous variable predictions (e.g., prediction of long-term salivary function) and dichotomous variable predictions (e.g., tumor control probability [TCP] or NTCP). Using bootstrap resampling, a histogram of the likelihood of alternative parameter values is generated. For a given patient and treatment plan we generate a histogram of alternative model results by computing the model predicted outcome for each parameter set in the bootstrap list. Residual uncertainty ('noise') is accounted for by adding a random component to the computed outcome values. The residual noise distribution is estimated from the original fit between model predictions and patient data. Results: The method is demonstrated using a continuous-endpoint model to predict long-term salivary function for head-and-neck cancer patients. Histograms represent the probabilities for the level of posttreatment salivary function based on the input clinical data, the salivary function model, and the three-dimensional dose distribution. For some patients there is significant uncertainty in the prediction of xerostomia, whereas for other patients the predictions are expected to be more reliable. In contrast, TCP and NTCP endpoints are dichotomous, and parameter uncertainties should be folded directly into the estimated probabilities, thereby improving the accuracy of the estimates. Using bootstrap parameter estimates, competing treatment

  16. A Model for Community-based Language Teaching to Young Learners: The Impact of University Outreach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Nyikos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A primary challenge given to university foreign language departments and Title VI National Resource Centers is to increase interest and participation in foreign language learning, with particular emphasis on less commonly taught languages (LCTLs. Given that many LCTLs in high demand by the US government, including Arabic, Chinese, Persian and Turkish, rarely find their way into the school curricula, this article offers a successful ongoing community-based model of how one university-town partnership addresses advocacy with programming for pre-K-grade 9. Non-native and heritage undergraduate language students who volunteered as community language teachers found the experience invaluable to their pedagogical development. Teacher education programs or language departments can employ this approach to community-based teaching, by providing free, sustained language teaching in existing community centers. This article offers guidance for how to start and expand such a program.

  17. An Intervention-Based Model of Student Retention in Adult Learners: Factors Predicting Intention to Consider Leaving or Staying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooshegian, Stephanie E.

    2010-01-01

    The current study merges theory and research in higher education and organizational psychology in order to investigate student retention in adult learners. Factors that are associated with student retention were examined and points of intervention are recommended. Specifically, this study focuses on the role of campus environment, classroom…

  18. Meeting the Needs of Chinese English Language Learners at Writing Centers in America: A Proposed Culturally Responsive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peizhen; Machado, Crystal

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the ways in which Writing Centers (WC) currently serve English Language Learners (ELL) at American universities. The authors argue that the pedagogy offered at these centers does not always meet the needs of the Chinese ELLs who make up the largest population of ELLs at American universities. The proposed supplemental model…

  19. Derivational Morphology in Reading Comprehension of Chinese-Speaking Learners of English: A Longitudinal Structural Equation Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongbo

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of morphological awareness to English as a Second Language (ESL) reading comprehension. Young Chinese-speaking ESL learners completed twice with a one-year interval the same set of tasks that measured derivational awareness, vocabulary breadth, fluency of reading derived words, and passage…

  1. Linguistic Models, Acquisition Theories, and Learner Corpora: Morphological Productivity in SLA Research Exemplified by Complex Verbs in German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdeling, Anke; Hirschmann, Hagen; Shadrova, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The present study analyzes morphological productivity for complex verbs in second language acquisition by analyzing a corpus of German as a Foreign Language (GFL). It shows that advanced learners of GFL use prefix and particle verbs relatively frequently and productively but less so than native speakers do and discusses these findings in the light…

  2. Whose voice matters? Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bansilal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available International and national mathematics studies have revealed the poor mathematics skills of South African learners. An essential tool that can be used to improve learners' mathematical skills is for educators to use effective feedback. Our purpose in this study was to elicit learners' understanding and expectations of teacher assessment feedback. The study was conducted with five Grade 9 mathematics learners. Data were generated from one group interview, seven journal entries by each learner, video-taped classroom observations and researcher field notes. The study revealed that the learners have insightful perceptions of the concept of educator feedback. While some learners viewed educator feedback as a tool to probe their understanding, others viewed it as a mechanism to get the educator's point of view. A significant finding of the study was that learners viewed educator assessment feedback as instrumental in building or breaking their self-confidence.

  3. The Trauma Outcome Process Assessment Model: A Structural Equation Model Examination of Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Susan E.; Callahan, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation sought to operationalize a comprehensive theoretical model, the Trauma Outcome Process Assessment, and test it empirically with structural equation modeling. The Trauma Outcome Process Assessment reflects a robust body of research and incorporates known ecological factors (e.g., family dynamics, social support) to explain…

  4. Designing prototype model to support language development of autistic learners in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Karahoca

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Los niños con autismo generalmente muestran dificultad tanto en la comunicación como en el aprendizaje de idiomas. En este estudio, las interfaces interactivas diseñadas para ayudar a los niños con autismo a satisfacerlos con la educación digital. Interfac es son utilizables y coloridos, hace una enorme contribución en las aplicaciones educativas desde el período de la primera infancia en. Función de explicación lingüística se integró a las interfaces en la plataforma móvil con la ayuda de un cuento para per mitir a los niños a aprender objetos y sus funciones. Jugará un rol activo con el desarrollo del lenguaje para los estudiantes de la primera infancia. En la transmisión audible del cuento, al poner en primer plano la presentación objetiva, el equivalente d e las imágenes del objeto se emparejaron con las voces. Mediante el uso de la correspondencia entre voz y objeto que se conoce como el método natural en la enseñanza de lenguas, la actualización del comportamiento esperado se apoya proporcionando libertad de iteración individual. La disponibilidad de la plataforma se prueba con un grupo de usuarios expertizado y el nivel de usabilidad de la plataforma se detectó con la escala de usabilidad del sistema (SUS. Muestra que la usabilidad y practicidad del model o prototipo tiene una buena eficacia, eficiencia y satisfacción basada en la evaluación de expertos.

  5. Clinical outcome measurement: Models, theory, psychometrics and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClimans, Leah; Browne, John; Cano, Stefan

    In the last decade much has been made of the role that models play in the epistemology of measurement. Specifically, philosophers have been interested in the role of models in producing measurement outcomes. This discussion has proceeded largely within the context of the physical sciences, with notable exceptions considering measurement in economics. However, models also play a central role in the methods used to develop instruments that purport to quantify psychological phenomena. These methods fall under the umbrella term 'psychometrics'. In this paper, we focus on Clinical Outcome Assessments (COAs) and discuss two measurement theories and their associated models: Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Rasch Measurement Theory. We argue that models have an important role to play in coordinating theoretical terms with empirical content, but to do so they must serve: 1) as a representation of the measurement interaction; and 2) in conjunction with a theory of the attribute in which we are interested. We conclude that Rasch Measurement Theory is a more promising approach than CTT in these regards despite the latter's popularity with health outcomes researchers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Learner councillors' perspectives on learner participation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    Learner participation in South Africa was legislated in 1996 through the South. African Schools Act, No. 84. Since then it has been a legal requirement to establish representative councils of learners (RCL) at secondary schools (with. Grade 8 and higher) countrywide. I investigate the perspectives and experiences.

  7. Thresholds of Knowledge Development in Complex Problem Solving: A Multiple-Case Study of Advanced Learners' Cognitive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogard, Treavor; Liu, Min; Chiang, Yueh-hui Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    This multiple-case study examined how advanced learners solved a complex problem, focusing on how their frequency and application of cognitive processes contributed to differences in performance outcomes, and developing a mental model of a problem. Fifteen graduate students with backgrounds related to the problem context participated in the study.…

  8. Nurturing gifted learners in Mainland China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Jiannong; Zhang, X.; Chen, N.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, based on the previous researches on the development of gifted learners, the authors summarized the problems in nurturing gifted learners due to lacking of the appropriate educational philosophy and educational methodology in Mainland China. The authors proposed the Bio......-socio-intellectual model, illustrated the nature of human being and the nature of gifted learners. From the perspective of the BSI model, the authors suggested three aspects are very critical to curriculum design to meet the needs of gifted education: physical maturation or physical development, social maturation...

  9. Role of a computer-generated three-dimensional laryngeal model in anatomy teaching for advanced learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S; Hu, A; Wilson, T; Ladak, H; Haase, P; Fung, K

    2012-04-01

    (1) To investigate the efficacy of a computer-generated three-dimensional laryngeal model for laryngeal anatomy teaching; (2) to explore the relationship between students' spatial ability and acquisition of anatomical knowledge; and (3) to assess participants' opinion of the computerised model. Forty junior doctors were randomised to undertake laryngeal anatomy study supplemented by either a three-dimensional computer model or two-dimensional images. Outcome measurements comprised a laryngeal anatomy test, the modified Vandenberg and Kuse mental rotation test, and an opinion survey. Mean scores ± standard deviations for the anatomy test were 15.7 ± 2.0 for the 'three dimensions' group and 15.5 ± 2.3 for the 'standard' group (p = 0.7222). Pearson's correlation between the rotation test scores and the scores for the spatial ability questions in the anatomy test was 0.4791 (p = 0.086, n = 29). Opinion survey answers revealed significant differences in respondents' perceptions of the clarity and 'user friendliness' of, and their preferences for, the three-dimensional model as regards anatomical study. The three-dimensional computer model was equivalent to standard two-dimensional images, for the purpose of laryngeal anatomy teaching. There was no association between students' spatial ability and functional anatomy learning. However, students preferred to use the three-dimensional model.

  10. Redefining Outcome Measurement: A Model for Brief Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinty, Everett; Nelson, John; Carlson, Alain; Crowther, Eric; Bednar, Dina; Foroughe, Mirisse

    2016-05-01

    The zeitgeist for short-term psychotherapy efficacy has fundamentally shifted away from evidence-based practices to include evidence-informed practices, resulting in an equally important paradigm shift in outcome measurement designed to reflect change in this short-term modality. The present article delineates a short-term psychotherapy structure which defines four fundamental stages that all brief therapies may have in common, and are represented through Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Solution-Focused Brief Therapy, Narrative Therapy, and Emotion-Focused Therapy. These four theoretical approaches were analyzed via a selected literature review through comparing and contrasting specific and common tasks as they relate to the process of psychotherapy and change. Once commonalities were identified within session, they were categorized or grouped into themes or general stages of change within the parameters of a four to six session model of short-term therapy. Commonalities in therapeutic stages of change may more accurately and uniformly measure outcome in short-term work, unlike the symptom-specific psychometric instruments of longer-term psychotherapy. A systematic framework for evaluating the client and clinician adherence to 20 specific tasks for these four short-term therapies is presented through the newly proposed, Brief Task Acquisition Scale (BTAS). It is further proposed that the client-clinicians' adherence to these tasks will track and ultimately increase treatment integrity. Thus, when the client-clinician relationship tracks and evaluates the three pillars of (1) stage/process change, (2) task acquisition, and (3) treatment integrity, the culmination of these efforts presents a new way of more sensitively measuring outcome in short-term psychotherapy. Data collection is suggested as a first step to empirically evaluate the testable hypotheses suggested within this current model. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message The

  11. Preoperative prediction model of outcome after cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borly, L; Anderson, I B; Bardram, Linda

    1999-01-01

    and sonography evaluated gallbladder motility, gallstones, and gallbladder volume. Preoperative variables in patients with or without postcholecystectomy pain were compared statistically, and significant variables were combined in a logistic regression model to predict the postoperative outcome. RESULTS: Eighty...... and by the absence of 'agonizing' pain and of symptoms coinciding with pain (P model 15 of 18 predicted patients had postoperative pain (PVpos = 0.83). Of 62 patients predicted as having no pain postoperatively, 56 were pain-free (PVneg = 0.90). Overall accuracy...... was 89%. CONCLUSION: From this prospective study a model based on preoperative symptoms was developed to predict postcholecystectomy pain. Since intrastudy reclassification may give too optimistic results, the model should be validated in future studies....

  12. The Assessment of Patient Clinical Outcome: Advantages, Models, Features of an Ideal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mou’ath Hourani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The assessment of patient clinical outcome focuses on measuring various aspects of the health status of a patient who is under healthcare intervention. Patient clinical outcome assessment is a very significant process in the clinical field as it allows health care professionals to better understand the effectiveness of their health care programs and thus for enhancing the health care quality in general. It is thus vital that a high quality, informative review of current issues regarding the assessment of patient clinical outcome should be conducted. Aims & Objectives: 1 Summarizes the advantages of the assessment of patient clinical outcome; 2 reviews some of the existing patient clinical outcome assessment models namely: Simulation, Markov, Bayesian belief networks, Bayesian statistics and Conventional statistics, and Kaplan-Meier analysis models; and 3 demonstrates the desired features that should be fulfilled by a well-established ideal patient clinical outcome assessment model. Material & Methods: An integrative review of the literature has been performed using the Google Scholar to explore the field of patient clinical outcome assessment. Conclusion: This paper will directly support researchers, clinicians and health care professionals in their understanding of developments in the domain of the assessment of patient clinical outcome, thus enabling them to propose ideal assessment models.

  13. Dynamics of Learner Affective Development in Early FLL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaljevic Djigunovic, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Affective learner factors were first considered as a cause of success in language learning. This was followed by a change in approach and recently authors (e.g., Edelenbos, Johnstone, & Kubanek, 2006) have considered them an important outcome, especially in early foreign language learning (FLL). Current research into affective learner factors…

  14. Task-Based Learning: The Interaction between Tasks and Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jacky

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between tasks and learners in task-based learning. Findings suggest that manipulation of task characteristics and conditions may not achieve the intended pedagogic outcomes, and that new ways are needed to focus learners' attention of form without sacrificing the meaning-driven principles of task-based learning.…

  15. Effects of traditional and discovery instructional approaches on learning outcomes for learners of different intellectual development: A study of chemistry students in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulopo, Moses M.; Seymour Fowler, H.

    This study examined the differential effectiveness of traditional and discovery methods of instruction for the teaching of science concepts, understandings about science, and scientific attitudes, to learners at the concrete and formal level of cognitive development. The dependent variables were achievement, understanding science, and scientific attitude; assessed through the use of the ACS Achievement Test (high school chemistry, Form 1979), the Test on Understanding Science (Form W), and the Test on Scientific Attitude, respectively. Mode of instruction and cognitive development were the independent variables. Subjects were 120 Form IV (11th grade) males enrolled in chemistry classes in Lusaka, Zambia. Sixty of these were concrete reasoners (mean age = 18.23) randomly selected from one of the two schools. The remaining 60 subjects were formal reasoners (mean age 18.06) randomly selected from a second boys' school. Each of these two groups was randomly split into two subgroups with 30 subjects. Traditional and discovery approaches were randomly assigned to the two subgroups of concrete reasoners and to the two subgroups of formal reasoners. Prior to instruction, the subjects were pretested using the ACS Achievement Test, the Test on Understanding Science, and the Test on Scientific Attitude. Subjects received instruction covering eight chemistry topics during approximately 10 weeks. Posttests followed using the same standard tests. Two-way analysis of covariance, with pretest scores serving as covariates was used and 0.05 level of significant was accepted. Tukey WSD technique was used as a follow-up test where applicable. It was found that (1) for the formal reasoners, the discovery group earned significantly higher understanding science scores than the traditional group. For the concrete reasoners mode of instruction did not make a difference; (2) overall, formal reasoners earned significantly higher achievement scores than concrete reasoners; (3) in general

  16. Evaluation of a learner-designed course for teaching health research skills in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbenyega Tsiri

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In developing countries the ability to conduct locally-relevant health research and high quality education are key tools in the fight against poverty. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel UK accredited, learner-designed research skills course delivered in a teaching hospital in Ghana. Methods Study participants were 15 mixed speciality health professionals from Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana. Effectiveness measures included process, content and outcome indicators to evaluate changes in learners' confidence and competence in research, and assessment of the impact of the course on changing research-related thinking and behaviour. Results were verified using two independent methods. Results 14/15 learners gained research competence assessed against UK Quality Assurance Agency criteria. After the course there was a 36% increase in the groups' positive responses to statements concerning confidence in research-related attitudes, intentions and actions. The greatest improvement (45% increase was in learners' actions, which focused on strengthening institutional research capacity. 79% of paired before/after responses indicated positive changes in individual learners' research-related attitudes (n = 53, 81% in intention (n = 52 and 85% in action (n = 52. The course had increased learners' confidence to start and manage research, and enhanced life-long skills such as reflective practice and self-confidence. Doing their own research within the work environment, reflecting on personal research experiences and utilising peer support and pooled knowledge were critical elements that promoted learning. Conclusion Learners in Ghana were able to design and undertake a novel course that developed individual and institutional research capacity and met international standards. Learning by doing and a supportive peer community at work were critical elements in promoting learning in this environment

  17. Evaluating alternate discrete outcome frameworks for modeling crash injury severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Shamsunnahar; Eluru, Naveen

    2013-10-01

    This paper focuses on the relevance of alternate discrete outcome frameworks for modeling driver injury severity. The study empirically compares the ordered response and unordered response models in the context of driver injury severity in traffic crashes. The alternative modeling approaches considered for the comparison exercise include: for the ordered response framework-ordered logit (OL), generalized ordered logit (GOL), mixed generalized ordered logit (MGOL) and for the unordered response framework-multinomial logit (MNL), nested logit (NL), ordered generalized extreme value logit (OGEV) and mixed multinomial logit (MMNL) model. A host of comparison metrics are computed to evaluate the performance of these alternative models. The study provides a comprehensive comparison exercise of the performance of ordered and unordered response models for examining the impact of exogenous factors on driver injury severity. The research also explores the effect of potential underreporting on alternative frameworks by artificially creating an underreported data sample from the driver injury severity sample. The empirical analysis is based on the 2010 General Estimates System (GES) data base-a nationally representative sample of road crashes collected and compiled from about 60 jurisdictions across the United States. The performance of the alternative frameworks are examined in the context of model estimation and validation (at the aggregate and disaggregate level). Further, the performance of the model frameworks in the presence of underreporting is explored, with and without corrections to the estimates. The results from these extensive analyses point toward the emergence of the GOL framework (MGOL) as a strong competitor to the MMNL model in modeling driver injury severity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A cross-sectional survey to compare the competence of learners registered for the Baccalaureus Curationis programme using different learning approaches at the University of the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Z. le Roux

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to compare the extent to which the different teaching approaches applied in the Baccalaureus Curationis programme adequately prepare graduating learners for professional competence. The research methodology was a quantitative approach, based on descriptive research, with a clinical competence development model to guide the data collection procedure. The target population of the study included a sample of 250 learners in the four-year B.Cur programme, that extended from first-to-fourth-year. Stratified random sampling was applied to select the sample learners for this research and data were collected by means of a five-point Likert scale questionnaire. Data were organised and managed using the SAS statistical software package. Descriptive statistics were gathered with measures of central tendency and dispersion included, and their findings were illustrated on descriptive tables. A correlation technique was applied to determine the effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable.The results of the study indicated that progression in competence did not occur as learners progressed through higher levels of their training, except during the third-year of study. However, the study’s results confirmed the strengths of the Case-based clinical reasoning approach to teaching and learning. This approach is able to combine the strengths of the traditional methods, which dealt with large class sizes and that had a focus on learner centred learning, with a focus on clinical practice. This approach provides realistic opportunities for learners to experiment with solutions to dilemmas encountered in real life situations, from the protected and safe environment of the classroom. The first-year learners who were observed in this study, who although novices, were exposed to Case-based teaching approaches and showed more self-perceived competence than learners in later years. This occurred in spite of the limited

  19. L2 irregular verb morphology: Exploring behavioral data from intermediate English learners of German as a foreign language using generalized mixed effects models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wagner

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines possible psycholinguistic mechanisms governing stem vowel changes of irregular verbs in intermediate English learners of German as a foreign language (GFL. In Experiment 1, nonce-infinitives embedded in an authentic fictional text had to be inflected for German preterite, thus testing possible analogy driven pattern associations. Experiment 2 explored the psycholinguistic reality of the so-called apophonic path by prompting two inflections for one given nonce-word. Data were analyzed using generalized mixed effects models accounting for within-subject as well as within-item variance. The results of Experiment 1 and 2 support the notion of a pattern associator and yield only scarce evidence for the psycholinguistic reality of a universal apophonic path. Therefore, the organization of irregular verb morphology in the mental lexicon of intermediate GFL learners might best be captured by the linguistic notion of structured lexical entries as well as the psycholinguistic mechanism of an analogy-based pattern associator.

  20. When Is an English Language Learner Not an English Language Learner? Exploring Individual Differences in Developmental Language and Literacy Acquisition for At-Risk Learners: A Latent Transition Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Orth, Danielle Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests oral language proficiency is correlated with literacy outcomes; however, the relationship between oral language proficiency and literacy outcomes for English Language Learners is highly variable. As a result, the field lacks critical direction to identify children who are English Language Learners experiencing general…

  1. Teaching and assessing professionalism in medical learners and practicing physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Paul S

    2015-04-01

    Professionalism is a core competency of physicians. Clinical knowledge and skills (and their maintenance and improvement), good communication skills, and sound understanding of ethics constitute the foundation of professionalism. Rising from this foundation are behaviors and attributes of professionalism: accountability, altruism, excellence, and humanism, the capstone of which is professionalism. Patients, medical societies, and accrediting organizations expect physicians to be professional. Furthermore, professionalism is associated with better clinical outcomes. Hence, medical learners and practicing physicians should be taught and assessed for professionalism. A number of methods can be used to teach professionalism (e.g. didactic lectures, web-based modules, role modeling, reflection, interactive methods, etc.). Because of the nature of professionalism, no single tool for assessing it among medical learners and practicing physicians exists. Instead, multiple assessment tools must be used (e.g. multi-source feedback using 360-degree reviews, patient feedback, critical incident reports, etc.). Data should be gathered continuously throughout an individual's career. For the individual learner or practicing physician, data generated by these tools can be used to create a "professionalism portfolio," the totality of which represents a picture of the individual's professionalism. This portfolio in turn can be used for formative and summative feedback. Data from professionalism assessments can also be used for developing professionalism curricula and generating research hypotheses. Health care leaders should support teaching and assessing professionalism at all levels of learning and practice and promote learning environments and institutional cultures that are consistent with professionalism precepts.

  2. Content Interactivity: The Effect of Higher Levels of Interactivity on Learner Performance Outcomes and Satisfaction in Web-Based Military Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Peggy L.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of content interactivity on performance outcomes and satisfaction has been studied by researchers who compared the results of Web-based and computer-based learning to classroom learning. Few scholars have compared the effects of the same content produced at different levels (low and high) of interactivity and the resulting effects. The…

  3. Predictive Models of Cognitive Outcomes of Developmental Insults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yupo; Bouaynaya, Nidhal; Chowdhury, Parimal; Leszczynska, Danuta; Patterson, Tucker A.; Tarasenko, Olga

    2010-04-01

    Representatives of Arkansas medical, research and educational institutions have gathered over the past four years to discuss the relationship between functional developmental perturbations and their neurological consequences. We wish to track the effect on the nervous system by developmental perturbations over time and across species. Except for perturbations, the sequence of events that occur during neural development was found to be remarkably conserved across mammalian species. The tracking includes consequences on anatomical regions and behavioral changes. The ultimate goal is to develop a predictive model of long-term genotypic and phenotypic outcomes that includes developmental insults. Such a model can subsequently be fostered into an educated intervention for therapeutic purposes. Several datasets were identified to test plausible hypotheses, ranging from evoked potential datasets to sleep-disorder datasets. An initial model may be mathematical and conceptual. However, we expect to see rapid progress as large-scale gene expression studies in the mammalian brain permit genome-wide searches to discover genes that are uniquely expressed in brain circuits and regions. These genes ultimately control behavior. By using a validated model we endeavor to make useful predictions.

  4. The Audacious Learner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice EKOKO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Audacious Learner is a risk taker. She approaches learning boldly, overcoming fear because she is driven by the will to know. In this paper, I utilize ideas from Blogging with Audacity (Skellie, 2008 whose work analyzes what makes a successful blogger and blog. I draw parallels between the successful, unconventional blogger and the unconventional, self directed learner.

  5. Engaging the learner by bridging the gap between theory and clinical competence: the impact of concept mapping and simulation as innovative strategies for nurse-sensitive outcome indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, Therese; Lis, Gail A

    2014-03-01

    Concept mapping and simulation provide professional nurses in the academic and practice environment with an opportunity for experiential learning. This integral combination allows for learning to be congruent with the national clinical practice guidelines that support and promote nurse-sensitive indicators. Implications for practice are forthcoming as data are collected on the impact on health outcomes when using concept mapping and simulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Outcome modelling strategies in epidemiology: traditional methods and basic alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, Sander; Daniel, Rhian; Pearce, Neil

    2016-04-01

    Controlling for too many potential confounders can lead to or aggravate problems of data sparsity or multicollinearity, particularly when the number of covariates is large in relation to the study size. As a result, methods to reduce the number of modelled covariates are often deployed. We review several traditional modelling strategies, including stepwise regression and the 'change-in-estimate' (CIE) approach to deciding which potential confounders to include in an outcome-regression model for estimating effects of a targeted exposure. We discuss their shortcomings, and then provide some basic alternatives and refinements that do not require special macros or programming. Throughout, we assume the main goal is to derive the most accurate effect estimates obtainable from the data and commercial software. Allowing that most users must stay within standard software packages, this goal can be roughly approximated using basic methods to assess, and thereby minimize, mean squared error (MSE). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  7. EFFECT OF INQUIRY LEARNING MODEL AND MOTIVATION ON PHYSICS OUTCOMES LEARNING STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahlia Megawati Pardede

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of the research are: (a to determine differences in learning outcomes of students with Inquiry Training models and conventional models, (b to determine differences in physics learning outcomes of students who have high motivation and low motivation, (c to determine the interaction between learning models with the level of motivation in improving student Physics learning outcomes. The results were found: (a there are differences in physical students learning outcomes are taught by Inquiry Training models and conventional models. (b learning outcomes of students who are taught by Inquiry Learning Model Training better than student learning outcomes are taught with conventional model. (c there is a difference in student's learning outcomes that have high motivation and low motivation. (d Student learning outcomes that have a high motivation better than student learning outcomes than have a low motivation. (e there is interaction between learning and motivation to student learning outcomes. Learning outcomes of students who are taught by the model is influenced also by the motivation, while learning outcomes of students who are taught with conventional models are not affected by motivation.

  8. Defining the e-learner's security profile: Towards awareness ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper presents an improved e-learner model that supports monitoring of user behavior related to information security. The model is built upon standardized IMS specification, according to literature research and survey conducted among e-learners. It is positioned as key part of an extended LTSA architecture in which ...

  9. DESIGNING INSTRUCTION FOR THE TRADITIONAL, ADULT, AND DISTANCE LEARNER: A New Engine for Technology-Based Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence A. Tomei

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Adult students demand a wider variety of instructional strategies that encompass real-world, interactive, cooperative, and discovery learning experiences.Designing Instruction for the Traditional, Adult, and Distance Learner: A New Engine for Technology-Based Teaching explores how technology impacts the process of devising instructional plans as well as learning itself in adult students. Containing research from leading international experts, this publication proposes realistic and accurate archetypes to assist educators in incorporating state-of-the-art technologies into online instruction.This text proposes a new paradigm for designing, developing, implementing, and assessed technology-based instruction. It addresses three target populations of today's learner: traditional, adult, and distance education. The text proposes a new model of instructional system design (ISD for developing effective technology-based education that involves a five-step process focusing on the learner, learning theories, resources, delivery modalities, and outcomes.

  10. The Integrated Medical Model: Outcomes from Independent Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J.; Garcia, Y.; Griffin, D.; Arellano, J.; Boley, L.; Goodenow, D. A.; Kerstman, E.; Reyes, D.; Saile, L.; Walton, M.; hide

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, the Integrated Medical Model (IMM) v4.0 underwent an extensive external review in preparation for transition to an operational status. In order to insure impartiality of the review process, the Exploration Medical Capabilities Element of NASA's Human Research Program convened the review through the Systems Review Office at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The review board convened by GSFC consisted of persons from both NASA and academia with expertise in the fields of statistics, epidemiology, modeling, software development, aerospace medicine, and project management (see Figure 1). The board reviewed software and code standards, as well as evidence pedigree associated with both the input and outcomes information. The board also assesses the models verification, validation, sensitivity to parameters and ability to answer operational questions. This talk will discuss the processes for designing the review, how the review progressed and the findings from the board, as well as summarize the IMM project responses to those findings. Overall, the board found that the IMM is scientifically sound, represents a necessary, comprehensive approach to identifying medical and environmental risks facing astronauts in long duration missions and is an excellent tool for communication between engineers and physicians. The board also found IMM and its customer(s) should convene an additional review of the IMM data sources and to develop a sustainable approach to augment, peer review, and maintain the information utilized in the IMM. The board found this is critically important because medical knowledge continues to evolve. Delivery of IMM v4.0 to the Crew Health and Safety (CHS) Program will occur in the 2017. Once delivered for operational decision support, IMM v4.0 will provide CHS with additional quantitative capability in to assess astronaut medical risks and required medical capabilities to help drive down overall mission risks.

  11. Dynamics of learner affective development in early FLL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Mihaljević Djigunović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Affective learner factors were first considered as a cause of success in language learning. This was followed by a change in approach and recently authors (e.g., Edelenbos, Johnstone, & Kubanek, 2006 have considered them an important outcome, especially in early foreign language learning (FLL. Current research into affective learner factors in early FLL tries to catch the developmental aspects too, and studies are emerging that take a contextual view as well. This paper describes a study on affective characteristics of young FL learners that combines the developmental and contextual perspectives. Using the case study methodology the author analyses the affective profiles of three young learners of English as a foreign language who were followed for 4 years. The analyses are done taking into account their immediate language learning environment, home support, out-of-school exposure to English and language achievement. The findings suggest that affective learner factors contribute to the dynamic complexity of early FLL.

  12. Learner motivation and interest

    OpenAIRE

    Daskalovska, Nina; Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Ivanovska, Biljana

    2012-01-01

    There are a lot of factors which influence success in learning. However, one of the most important factors is the learner’s motivation to reach the desired goals. Research and experience show that learners with strong motivation can achieve a lot regardless of circumstances. Studies of motivation in second language learning have led to several distinctions, one of which is the distinction between integrative and instrumental motivation. According to this distinction, some learners are motivat...

  13. The Child Anxiety Prevention Study: intervention model and primary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Golda S

    2009-06-01

    The article presents the intervention model and primary outcomes of a preventive intervention designed to reduce anxiety symptoms and prevent the onset of anxiety disorders in the offspring of parents with anxiety disorders. Participants were 40 volunteer children (mean age = 8.94 years; 45% girls; 90% Caucasian) whose parents met criteria for a broad range of anxiety disorders. Families were randomly assigned to an 8-week cognitive-behavioral intervention, the Coping and Promoting Strength program (CAPS; n = 20) or a wait list control condition (WL; n = 20). Independent evaluators (IEs) conducted diagnostic interviews, and children and parents completed measures of anxiety symptoms. Assessments were conducted pre- and postintervention and 6 and 12 months after the postintervention assessment. On the basis of intent to treat analyses, 30% of the children in the WL group developed an anxiety disorder by the 1-year follow-up compared with 0% in the CAPS group. IE and parent-reported (but not child-reported) levels of anxiety showed significant decreases from the preintervention assessment to the 1-year follow-up assessment in the CAPS but not the WL group. Parental satisfaction with the intervention was high. Findings suggest that a family-based intervention may prevent the onset of anxiety disorders in the offspring of parents with anxiety disorders. Copyright 2009 APA

  14. Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Models: Pathophysiological Mechanisms and Fetal Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Damasceno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose homeostasis is controlled by endocrine pancreatic cells, and any pancreatic disturbance can result in diabetes. Because 8% to 12% of diabetic pregnant women present with malformed fetuses, there is great interest in understanding the etiology, pathophysiological mechanisms, and treatment of gestational diabetes. Hyperglycemia enhances the production of reactive oxygen species, leading to oxidative stress, which is involved in diabetic teratogenesis. It has also been suggested that maternal diabetes alters embryonic gene expression, which might cause malformations. Due to ethical issues involving human studies that sometimes have invasive aspects and the multiplicity of uncontrolled variables that can alter the uterine environment during clinical studies, it is necessary to use animal models to better understand diabetic pathophysiology. This review aimed to gather information about pathophysiological mechanisms and fetal outcomes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. To understand the pathophysiological mechanisms and factors involved in diabetes, the use of pancreatic regeneration studies is increasing in an attempt to understand the behavior of pancreatic beta cells. In addition, these studies suggest a new preventive concept as a treatment basis for diabetes, introducing therapeutic efforts to minimize or prevent diabetes-induced oxidative stress, DNA damage, and teratogenesis.

  15. THE EFFECTS OF INQUIRY LEARNING MODEL TRAINING AND CRITICAL THINKING TOWARDS SMA STUDENT LEARNING OUTCOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Lady Saura

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of the research are: (1 To determine differences in learning outcomes of students with Inquiry Training models and Direct Instruction teaching models, (2 to determine differences in physics learning outcomes of students who have high critical thinking and low critical thinking, (3 to determine the interaction between learning models with the level of critical thinking in improving student Physics learning outcomes. The sample in this study conducted in a cluster random sampling of two classes, where the first class as a class experiment applied Inquiry Training models as a class and the second class of controls implemented Direct Instruction models. The instrument is used in this study is physics learning outcomes tests in narrative form as many as 7 questions and critical thinking test in narrative form as 7 questions that have been declared valid and reliable. The results were found: (1 there are differences in physical students learning outcomes are taught by Inquiry Training models and Direct Instruction teaching models. Learning outcomes of students who are taught by Inquiry Learning Model Training better than student learning outcomes are taught with Direct Instruction Model Learning. (2 There is a difference in student's learning outcomes that have high critical thinking and low critical thinking. Student learning outcomes that have a high critical thinking better than student learning outcomes that have a low critical thinking. (3 There is interaction between learning and mastery of material Model Physics prerequisite to student learning outcomes. Learning outcomes of students who are taught by the model is influenced also by the Inquiry Training critical thinking, while learning outcomes of students who are taught with Direct Instruction models are not affected by the students' critical thinking.

  16. Time to Loosen the Apron Strings: Cohort-based Evaluation of a Learner-driven Remediation Model at One Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierer, S Beth; Dannefer, Elaine F; Tetzlaff, John E

    2015-09-01

    Remediation in the era of competency-based assessment demands a model that empowers students to improve performance. To examine a remediation model where students, rather than faculty, develop remedial plans to improve performance. Private medical school, 177 medical students. A promotion committee uses student-generated portfolios and faculty referrals to identify struggling students, and has them develop formal remediation plans with personal reflections, improvement strategies, and performance evidence. Students submit reports to document progress until formally released from remediation by the promotion committee. Participants included 177 students from six classes (2009-2014). Twenty-six were placed in remediation, with more referrals occurring during Years 1 or 2 (n = 20, 76 %). Unprofessional behavior represented the most common reason for referral in Years 3-5. Remedial students did not differ from classmates (n = 151) on baseline characteristics (Age, Gender, US citizenship, MCAT) or willingness to recommend their medical school to future students (p learner-driven remediation model promotes greater autonomy and reinforces self-regulated learning.

  17. Literacy-Related School Readiness Skills of English Language Learners in Head Start: An Analysis of the School Readiness Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yujeong; Gurel, Sungur; Oh, Jihyun; Bettini, Elizabeth A; Leite, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of Head Start on early literacy skills relevant to school readiness of English language learners compared to their peers. The comparisons of literacy outcomes were conducted between English language learners and non-English language learners when both groups participated and were not in Head…

  18. Outcome Inelasticity and Outcome Variability in Behaviour-Incidence Models: An Example from an SEIR Infection on a Dynamic Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryce Morsky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavior-incidence models have been used to model phenomena such as free-riding vaccinating behavior, where nonvaccinators free ride on herd immunity generated by vaccinators. Here, we develop and analyze a simulation model of voluntary ring vaccination on an evolving social contact network. Individuals make vaccination decisions by examining their expected payoffs, which are influenced by the infection status of their neighbors. We find that stochasticity can make outcomes extremely variable (near critical thresholds and thus unpredictable: some stochastic realizations result in rapid control through ring vaccination while others result in widespread transmission. We also explore the phenomenon of outcome inelasticity, wherein behavioral responses result in certain outcome measures remaining relatively unchanged. Finally, we explore examples where ineffective or risky vaccines are more widely adopted than safe, effective vaccines. This occurs when such a vaccine is unattractive to a sufficient number of contacts of an index case to cause failure of ring vaccination. As a result, the infection percolates through the entire network, causing the final epidemic size and vaccine coverage to be higher than would otherwise occur. Effects such as extreme outcome variability and outcome inelasticity have implications for vaccination policies that depend on individual choice for their success and predictability.

  19. Risk-adjusted models for adverse obstetric outcomes and variation in risk-adjusted outcomes across hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailit, Jennifer L; Grobman, William A; Rice, Madeline Murguia; Spong, Catherine Y; Wapner, Ronald J; Varner, Michael W; Thorp, John M; Leveno, Kenneth J; Caritis, Steve N; Shubert, Phillip J; Tita, Alan T; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram; Rouse, Dwight J; Blackwell, Sean C; Tolosa, Jorge E; Van Dorsten, J Peter

    2013-11-01

    Regulatory bodies and insurers evaluate hospital quality using obstetrical outcomes, however meaningful comparisons should take preexisting patient characteristics into account. Furthermore, if risk-adjusted outcomes are consistent within a hospital, fewer measures and resources would be needed to assess obstetrical quality. Our objective was to establish risk-adjusted models for 5 obstetric outcomes and assess hospital performance across these outcomes. We studied a cohort of 115,502 women and their neonates born in 25 hospitals in the United States from March 2008 through February 2011. Hospitals were ranked according to their unadjusted and risk-adjusted frequency of venous thromboembolism, postpartum hemorrhage, peripartum infection, severe perineal laceration, and a composite neonatal adverse outcome. Correlations between hospital risk-adjusted outcome frequencies were assessed. Venous thromboembolism occurred too infrequently (0.03%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.02-0.04%) for meaningful assessment. Other outcomes occurred frequently enough for assessment (postpartum hemorrhage, 2.29%; 95% CI, 2.20-2.38, peripartum infection, 5.06%; 95% CI, 4.93-5.19, severe perineal laceration at spontaneous vaginal delivery, 2.16%; 95% CI, 2.06-2.27, neonatal composite, 2.73%; 95% CI, 2.63-2.84). Although there was high concordance between unadjusted and adjusted hospital rankings, several individual hospitals had an adjusted rank that was substantially different (as much as 12 rank tiers) than their unadjusted rank. None of the correlations between hospital-adjusted outcome frequencies was significant. For example, the hospital with the lowest adjusted frequency of peripartum infection had the highest adjusted frequency of severe perineal laceration. Evaluations based on a single risk-adjusted outcome cannot be generalized to overall hospital obstetric performance. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Issues of promoting learner autonomy in EFL context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichugova Inna L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focuded on investigating the phenomenon of learner autonomy, which has mostly been explored in Europe and the USA and is now attracting attention of researchers and academics in many other countries including Russia. Learner autonomy through a focus on learner reflection and taking responsibility for one’s own learning processes has become a central concern in the recent history of language teaching. However, many language teachers, who are committed to concepts of learnercentredness and autonomy, struggle with the ways to foster learner autonomy or at least to encourage the idea of learner autonomy in language classroom. The study aims at investigating what the most important issues which have a great impact on developing learner autonomy are. Having given special attention to conditions which can insure development of learner autonomy, a model covering seven issues relating to the subject matter has been designed. The authors state that such aspects as choice, goals and needs, support, emotional climate, learning strategies, learner attitude and motivation, and self-esteem should be considered as the goal to promote learner autonomy in EFL context.

  1. A model for overview of student learning: a matrix of educational outcomes versus methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, David C; Marshall, Teresa A; Finkelstein, Michael W; Cunningham-Ford, Marsha A; Straub-Morarend, Cheryl L; Holmes, David C; Armstrong, Steven R; Aquilino, Steven A; Sharp, Helen M; Solow, Catherine M; McQuistan, Michelle R

    2011-02-01

    A concise overview of an institution's aspirations for its students becomes increasingly elusive because dental education has evolving emphases on priorities like critical thinking and adapting to new technology. The purpose of this article is to offer a learner-oriented matrix that gives a focus for discussion and an overview of an institution's educational outcomes. On one axis of the matrix, common educational outcomes are listed: knowledge, technical skills, critical thinking, ethical and professional values, patient and practice management, and social responsibility awareness. On the other axis, methodologies are listed: definition, cultivation strategies, measures (summative/formative, objective/subjective), institutional coordination, and competency determination. By completing the matrix, an overview of the process by which students reach these outcomes emerges. Each institution would likely complete the matrix differently and, ideally, with active discussion. While the matrix can first be used to establish "Where are we now?" for an institution, it can also be a starting point for more extensive matrices and further discussion. Vertical and horizontal analyses of the matrix provide a unique lens for viewing the institution's learning environment.

  2. Learners, teachers and curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2008-01-01

    of virtual e-learning, interviews with teachers and 10 learner participants in a virtual classroom setting, and discourse analysis of curriculum developed for the particular e-learning course The research has taken place in the context of a study of e-learning and virtual teaching of Danish as a Second...... language for adults. The research results indicate that teachers seem to compensate by trying to create virtual communities of learning. Learners, however, experience disembedded relations. Conversely, curriculum development, on tends to ‘exploit’ the conditions of disembedding social relations in e-learning......, locationally distant”. The aim of the paper is to analyse and discuss how different positions in e-learning settings result in different answers to modernity. These settings can be applied to either teacher, learner or curriculum positions. The research was based on a qualitative longitudinal case study...

  3. Prediction for Major Adverse Outcomes in Cardiac Surgery: Comparison of Three Prediction Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hung Hsieh

    2007-09-01

    Conclusion: The Parsonnet score performed as well as the logistic regression models in predicting major adverse outcomes. The Parsonnet score appears to be a very suitable model for clinicians to use in risk stratification of cardiac surgery.

  4. An evolution of trauma care evaluation: A thesis on trauma registry and outcome prediction models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosse, P.

    2013-01-01

    Outcome prediction models play an invaluable role in the evaluation and improvement of modern trauma care. Trauma registries underlying these outcome prediction models need to be accurate, complete and consistent. This thesis focused on the opportunities and limitations of trauma registries and

  5. Motivation Monitoring and Assessment Extension for Input-Process-Outcome Game Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghergulescu, Ioana; Muntean, Cristina Hava

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a Motivation Assessment-oriented Input-Process-Outcome Game Model (MotIPO), which extends the Input-Process-Outcome game model with game-centred and player-centred motivation assessments performed right from the beginning of the game-play. A feasibility case-study involving 67 participants playing an educational game and…

  6. From Creatures of Habit to Goal-Directed Learners: Tracking the Developmental Emergence of Model-Based Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Johannes H; Otto, A Ross; Daw, Nathaniel D; Hartley, Catherine A

    2016-06-01

    Theoretical models distinguish two decision-making strategies that have been formalized in reinforcement-learning theory. A model-based strategy leverages a cognitive model of potential actions and their consequences to make goal-directed choices, whereas a model-free strategy evaluates actions based solely on their reward history. Research in adults has begun to elucidate the psychological mechanisms and neural substrates underlying these learning processes and factors that influence their relative recruitment. However, the developmental trajectory of these evaluative strategies has not been well characterized. In this study, children, adolescents, and adults performed a sequential reinforcement-learning task that enabled estimation of model-based and model-free contributions to choice. Whereas a model-free strategy was apparent in choice behavior across all age groups, a model-based strategy was absent in children, became evident in adolescents, and strengthened in adults. These results suggest that recruitment of model-based valuation systems represents a critical cognitive component underlying the gradual maturation of goal-directed behavior. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Tweetalige aanleerderswoordeboek . bilingual learner's dictionary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this review article the discussion concentrates on the purpose of learner's dictionaries, viz. to improve the communicative competence of a foreign language learner, and on usage guidance in learner's dictionaries. It is pointed out that target users should be clearly identified and their needs assessed before the dictionary ...

  8. An Experimental Study on Effectiveness of Integrated Curriculum Model (ICM) in Social Studies Education for Gifted and Talented Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Özlem; Kahveci, Nihat Gürel

    2015-01-01

    This experimental study examines the effects of Integrated Curriculum Model (ICM) on 4th grade elementary gifted and talented students' academic achievement, creativity and critical thinking (Control Group N= 10, Experimental Group N= 11) in the social studies classroom context, in Istanbul, Turkey. Integrated Curriculum Model was utilized to…

  9. VERB TENSE SYSTEMS OF INDONESIAN EFL LEARNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Fauziati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Among aspect of studies on second language acquisition, IL is one of the most important one. To date research on IL features has provided benefits to the study of second language learning in particular to EFL classroom. The present study explored IL verb tense system to indicate present, past, and future events employed by Indonesian learners of English as a foreign language. Empirical data were 444 ill-formed utterances elicited through free compositions from the EFL learners. Error analysis and IL analysis were used as analytical tool for data analysis. The results indicate the students have developed their own grammatical system to express present, past, and future events. Whilst their IL system was typified by a number of non-targetlike variants, this study provides evidence of the systematicity of IL as well as a model of particular IL systems, i.e. Indonesian EFL learners.

  10. An assessment model in outcomes-based education and training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study addresses a concern in higher education and specifically in health sciences and technology regarding integrated and authentic assessment with an outcomes-based approach. Interviews were conducted with head-hunted academics in health sciences and technology. From the information generated, an ...

  11. BENCHMARKING LEARNER EDUCATION USING ONLINE BUSINESS SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred H. Miller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For programmatic accreditation by the Accreditation Council of Business Schools and Programs (ACBSP, business programs are required to meet STANDARD #4, Measurement and Analysis of Student Learning and Performance. Business units must demonstrate that outcome assessment systems are in place using documented evidence that shows how the results are being used to further develop or improve the academic business program. The Higher Colleges of Technology, a 17 campus federal university in the United Arab Emirates, differentiates its applied degree programs through a ‘learning by doing ethos,’ which permeates the entire curricula. This paper documents benchmarking of education for managing innovation. Using business simulation for Bachelors of Business, Year 3 learners, in a business strategy class; learners explored through a simulated environment the following functional areas; research and development, production, and marketing of a technology product. Student teams were required to use finite resources and compete against other student teams in the same universe. The study employed an instrument developed in a 60-sample pilot study of business simulation learners against which subsequent learners participating in online business simulation could be benchmarked. The results showed incremental improvement in the program due to changes made in assessment strategies, including the oral defense.

  12. An overview of animal models of pain: disease models and outcome measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, N; Harris, AL; Robinson, CR; Dougherty, PM; Fuchs, PN; Sluka, KA

    2013-01-01

    Pain is ultimately a perceptual phenomenon. It is built from information gathered by specialized pain receptors in tissue, modified by spinal and supraspinal mechanisms, and integrated into a discrete sensory experience with an emotional valence in the brain. Because of this, studying intact animals allows the multidimensional nature of pain to be examined. A number of animal models have been developed, reflecting observations that pain phenotypes are mediated by distinct mechanisms. Animal models of pain are designed to mimic distinct clinical diseases to better evaluate underlying mechanisms and potential treatments. Outcome measures are designed to measure multiple parts of the pain experience including reflexive hyperalgesia measures, sensory and affective dimensions of pain and impact of pain on function and quality of life. In this review we discuss the common methods used for inducing each of the pain phenotypes related to clinical pain syndromes, as well as the main behavioral tests for assessing pain in each model. PMID:24035349

  13. Discrimination of Arabic Contrasts by American Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mahmoud, Mahmoud S.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on second language perception of non-native contrasts. The study specifically tests the perceptual assimilation model (PAM) by examining American learners' ability to discriminate Arabic contrasts. Twenty two native American speakers enrolled in a university level Arabic language program took part in a forced choice AXB…

  14. Learners engaging with transformation geometry | Bansilal | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The framework for the study was based on transformations of semiotic representations as well as the visualiser/analyser model. The findings revealed that most learners performed treatments in the analytic mode when responding to the tasks, and showed limited movement across the two modes which are essential for a ...

  15. Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Development through Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khany, Reza; Khosravian, Fereshteh

    2014-01-01

    Language teaching has passed through a long way in search of a remedy for language learners and teachers. Countless theories, approaches, and methods have been recommended. With all these, however, more inclusive L2 theories and models ought to be considered to come up with real classroom practices. One of such crucial practices is authenticity,…

  16. The Rwandan teachers' and learners' perceived speaking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    Interpreted within the lens of language preference model and integrative theories of communication competence, the main finding is that both .... In addition to the learners' and teachers' self-assessment of their perceived speaking proficiency from a holistic and integrative ...... and practice of sociolinguistics (pp.23–36).

  17. Fragile Identities: Exploring Learner Identity, Learner Autonomy and Motivation through Young Learners' Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Terry Eric

    2011-01-01

    Recent research in the fields of motivation and learner autonomy in language learning has begun to explore their relationships to the construct of identity. This article builds on this through the voices of a group of six learners of French or German in a secondary school in England, over a two-year period. These young learners initially reveal a…

  18. Consequences of restudy choices in younger and older learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullis, Jonathan G; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2012-08-01

    Allowing young learners to exert metacognitive control over learning often improves memory performance; however, little research has examined the consequences of giving older adults control over learning. In this study, younger and older adults studied word pairs before choosing half of the word pairs for restudy. Learners either restudied the items they chose (in the honor condition) or the items they did not choose (the dishonor condition; Kornell & Metcalfe, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 32:609-622, 2006). Older and younger learners chose the same types of items for restudy, but the effectiveness of these choices differed greatly by age. For young learners, memory was superior in the honor condition, but older learners actually revealed numerically higher performance in the dishonor condition. This reveals a dramatic failure of metacognitive control, in the absence of any obvious monitoring deficit, in older adults. Implications for models of self-regulated learning are discussed.

  19. Learner Autonomy Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illes, Eva

    2012-01-01

    This article explores whether the perception of learner autonomy that is promoted in language pedagogy is suitable for preparing students to perform successfully in the changed circumstances of the use of English. Recent developments, which include the growing role of English as a lingua franca and computer-mediated communication (CMC), give rise…

  20. WORK AND LEARNER IDENTITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Sissel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to suggest a theoretical framework than can assess to how people’s engagement in specific historical and social work practices are significant to their development, maintenance or transformation of a learner identity. Such a framework is crucial in order to grasp how...

  1. Developing Responsible Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautum, Satyen; Jangam, Sachin; Loh, Kai Chee

    2018-01-01

    Developing responsible learners is one of the key education challenges of our time. Education literature suggests that for students to see themselves as active and necessary participants in their own learning, it is important that they view themselves as stakeholders in education. This research aims at exploring the effectiveness of instructional…

  2. Whose voice matters? LEARNERS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    he states, “Why do they keep making the same error …” despite the educators' best efforts. Our purpose in this article is to describe and share our findings about a classroom based study which explored five learners' understanding of educa- tor assessment feedback in a Grade 9 mathematics classroom in KwaZulu-.

  3. Teaching and Assessing Professionalism in Medical Learners and Practicing Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Mueller

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Professionalism is a core competency of physicians. Clinical knowledge and skills (and their maintenance and improvement, good communication skills, and sound understanding of ethics constitute the foundation of professionalism. Rising from this foundation are behaviors and attributes of professionalism: accountability, altruism, excellence, and humanism, the capstone of which is professionalism. Patients, medical societies, and accrediting organizations expect physicians to be professional. Furthermore, professionalism is associated with better clinical outcomes. Hence, medical learners and practicing physicians should be taught and assessed for professionalism. A number of methods can be used to teach professionalism (e.g. didactic lectures, web-based modules, role modeling, reflection, interactive methods, etc.. Because of the nature of professionalism, no single tool for assessing it among medical learners and practicing physicians exists. Instead, multiple assessment tools must be used (e.g. multi-source feedback using 360-degree reviews, patient feedback, critical incident reports, etc.. Data should be gathered continuously throughout an individual’s career. For the individual learner or practicing physician, data generated by these tools can be used to create a “professionalism portfolio,” the totality of which represents a picture of the individual’s professionalism. This portfolio in turn can be used for formative and summative feedback. Data from professionalism assessments can also be used for developing professionalism curricula and generating research hypotheses. Health care leaders should support teaching and assessing professionalism at all levels of learning and practice and promote learning environments and institutional cultures that are consistent with professionalism precepts.

  4. Indigenous health: designing a clinical orientation program valued by learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huria, Tania; Palmer, Suetonia; Beckert, Lutz; Lacey, Cameron; Pitama, Suzanne

    2017-10-05

    Indigenous health programs are seen as a curriculum response to addressing health disparities and social accountability. Several interrelated teaching approaches to cultural competency curricula have been recommended, however evidence of the impact of these on learner outcomes including engagement and self-reported competencies is limited. We aimed to explore undergraduate medical student perspectives of an indigenous health orientation program to inform curriculum strategies that promote learning and development of clinical skills. We analyzed quantitative and qualitative student evaluations (n = 602) of a three-day immersed indigenous health orientation program between 2006 and 2014 based on Likert-scale responses and open-text comments. We conducted a thematic analysis of narrative student experiences (n = 426). Overall, 509 of 551 respondents (92%) rated the indigenous health orientation program as extremely or highly valuable and most (87%) reported that the course strongly increased their interest in indigenous health. The features of the clinical course that enhanced value for learners included situated learning (learning environment; learning context); teaching qualities (enthusiasm and passion for Māori health; role-modelling); curriculum content (re-presenting Māori history; exploring Māori beliefs, values and practices; using a Māori health framework in clinical practice); teaching methodologies (multiple teaching methods; simulated patient interview); and building relationships with peers (getting to know the student cohort; developing professional working relationships). Undergraduate medical students valued an indigenous health program delivered in an authentic indigenous environment and that explicitly reframed historical notions of indigenous health to contextualize learning. Content relevant to clinical practice, faculty knowledge, and strengthened peer interactions combined to build learner confidence and self-reported indigenous health

  5. Artificial learners adopting normative conventions from human teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cederborg Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This survey provides an overview of implemented systems, theoretical work, as well as studies of biological systems relevant to the design of artificial learners trying to figure out what a human teacher would like them to do. Implementations of artificial learners are covered, with a focus on experiments trying to find better interpretations of human behavior, as well as algorithms that autonomously improve a model of the teacher. A distinction is made between learners trying to interpret teacher behavior in order to learn what the teacher would like the learner to do on the one hand, and learners whose explicit or implicit goal is to get something from the teacher on the other hand (for example rewards, or knowledge about how the world works. The survey covers the former type of systems. Human teachers are covered, focusing on studies that say something concrete about how one should interpret the behavior of a human teacher that is interacting with an artificial learner. Certain types of biological learners are interesting as inspiration for the types of artificial systems we are concerned with. The survey focus on studies of biological learners adopting normative conventions, as well as joint intentionality team efforts.

  6. Let me Count the Ways. Analysing the Relationship between the Learner and Everyday Technology in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Margaret

    2001-02-01

    The first part of this paper outlines four ways in which the relationship between the learner and everyday technology might be analysed, using early childhood studies as examples. The four different individual-technology relationships are described as: affording, anchoring, distributing or appropriating. They are associated with four different learning outcomes: skills and problem-solving strategies, working theories or schemas, personal style and abilities, and membership of a learning community. Each succeeding example describes an increasingly complex model of the relationship between a learner and everyday technology that departs from a focus on the individual as the site for learning. The second part of the paper then sets out a fifth example in which the relationship is analysed as a combination of all four processes: affording, anchoring, distributing and appropriating. In this fifth example the learning outcomes are described as learning narratives (a combination of learning dispositions).

  7. Implementation of a "Learner-Driven" Curriculum: An Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) Interdisciplinary Primary Care Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Marina R.; Atherton, W. Leigh; Toriello, Paul J.; Hodgson, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Although screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) has been a popular model to address potential substance abuse issues in primary care, there is a need for innovative approaches for training providers and staff on SBIRT protocols. An interdisciplinary approach to SBIRT training, named ICARE, was implemented at 3 different…

  8. Models of Lexical Knowledge Assessment of Second Language Learners of English at Higher Levels of Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareva, Alla

    2005-01-01

    The study presented in this paper was conducted within the theoretical framework of the three-dimensional global-trait model of lexical knowledge proposed by [Henrikson, B. 1999. Three dimensions of vocabulary development. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 21, pp. 303-317], consisting of "breadth," "depth," and "receptive-productive"…

  9. Flexible Learning in a Workplace Model: Blended a Motivation to a Lifelong Learner in a Social Network Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na-songkhla, Jaitip

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a model of learning in a workplace, in which an online course provides flexibility for staff to learn at their convenient hours. A motivation was brought into an account of the success of learning in a workplace program, based upon Behaviorist learning approach--an online mentor and an accumulated learning activities score was…

  10. Interpreting Hierarchical Linear and Hierarchical Generalized Linear Models with Slopes as Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Current descriptions of results from hierarchical linear models (HLM) and hierarchical generalized linear models (HGLM), usually based only on interpretations of individual model parameters, are incomplete in the presence of statistically significant and practically important "slopes as outcomes" terms in the models. For complete description of…

  11. Evaluating the Quality of the Learning Outcome in Healthcare Sector: The Expero4care Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervai, Sara; Polo, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present the Expero4care model. Considering the growing need for a training evaluation model that does not simply fix processes, the Expero4care model represents the first attempt of a "quality model" dedicated to the learning outcomes of healthcare trainings. Design/Methodology/Approach: Created as development…

  12. Children, computer exposure and musculoskeletal outcomes: the development of pathway models for school and home computer-related musculoskeletal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Courtenay; Straker, Leon; Pollock, Clare; Smith, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Children's computer use is rapidly growing, together with reports of related musculoskeletal outcomes. Models and theories of adult-related risk factors demonstrate multivariate risk factors associated with computer use. Children's use of computers is different from adult's computer use at work. This study developed and tested a child-specific model demonstrating multivariate relationships between musculoskeletal outcomes, computer exposure and child factors. Using pathway modelling, factors such as gender, age, television exposure, computer anxiety, sustained attention (flow), socio-economic status and somatic complaints (headache and stomach pain) were found to have effects on children's reports of musculoskeletal symptoms. The potential for children's computer exposure to follow a dose-response relationship was also evident. Developing a child-related model can assist in understanding risk factors for children's computer use and support the development of recommendations to encourage children to use this valuable resource in educational, recreational and communication environments in a safe and productive manner. Computer use is an important part of children's school and home life. Application of this developed model, that encapsulates related risk factors, enables practitioners, researchers, teachers and parents to develop strategies that assist young people to use information technology for school, home and leisure in a safe and productive manner.

  13. Conservative models: parametric entropy vs. temporal entropy in outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lumeng; Ritzi, Robert W; Ramanathan, Ramya

    2012-01-01

    The geologic architecture in aquifer systems affects the behavior of fluid flow and the dispersion of mass. The spatial distribution and connectivity of higher-permeability facies play an important role. Models that represent this geologic structure have reduced entropy in the spatial distribution of permeability relative to models without structure. The literature shows that the stochastic model with the greatest variance in the distribution of predictions (i.e., the most conservative model) will not simply be the model representing maximum disorder in the permeability field. This principle is further explored using the Shannon entropy as a single metric to quantify and compare model parametric spatial disorder to the temporal distribution of mass residence times in model predictions. The principle is most pronounced when geologic structure manifests as preferential-flow pathways through the system via connected high-permeability sediments. As per percolation theory, at certain volume fractions the full connectivity of the high-permeability sediments will not be represented unless the model is three-dimensional. At these volume fractions, two-dimensional models can profoundly underrepresent the entropy in the real, three-dimensional, aquifer system. Thus to be conservative, stochastic models must be three-dimensional and include geologic structure. © 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  14. Modeling Count Outcomes from HIV Risk Reduction Interventions: A Comparison of Competing Statistical Models for Count Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinglin Xia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling count data from sexual behavioral outcomes involves many challenges, especially when the data exhibit a preponderance of zeros and overdispersion. In particular, the popular Poisson log-linear model is not appropriate for modeling such outcomes. Although alternatives exist for addressing both issues, they are not widely and effectively used in sex health research, especially in HIV prevention intervention and related studies. In this paper, we discuss how to analyze count outcomes distributed with excess of zeros and overdispersion and introduce appropriate model-fit indices for comparing the performance of competing models, using data from a real study on HIV prevention intervention. The in-depth look at these common issues arising from studies involving behavioral outcomes will promote sound statistical analyses and facilitate research in this and other related areas.

  15. [Model for the systematic classification of outcomes in health promotion and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloetta, Bernhard; Spencer, Brenda; Spörri, Adrian; Ruckstuhl, Brigitte; Broesskamp-Stone, Ursel; Ackermann, Günter

    2005-01-01

    Successful demonstration of the effects of health promotion calls for systematic documentation and comparison of the outcome of different measures and projects. A model has been developed in the form of an outcome categorisation system for this purpose and is presented here. The model includes four categories covering the intermediate outcomes of health promotion measures, and three categories for outcomes at the level of health determinants (conditions necessary for health). Each category includes three to four sub-categories, for which examples of possible indicators are presented. The model can be applied both in the planning and in the evaluation stage of a project. This makes it possible for health promotion agencies and institutions responsible for funding and promotion to obtain a general overview of the outcome of their work.

  16. A Bayesian Approach to Functional Mixed Effect Modeling for Longitudinal Data with Binomial Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliethermes, Stephanie; Oleson, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal growth patterns are routinely seen in medical studies where individual and population growth is followed over a period of time. Many current methods for modeling growth presuppose a parametric relationship between the outcome and time (e.g., linear, quadratic); however, these relationships may not accurately capture growth over time. Functional mixed effects (FME) models provide flexibility in handling longitudinal data with nonparametric temporal trends. Although FME methods are well-developed for continuous, normally distributed outcome measures, nonparametric methods for handling categorical outcomes are limited. We consider the situation with binomially distributed longitudinal outcomes. Although percent correct data can be modeled assuming normality, estimates outside the parameter space are possible and thus estimated curves can be unrealistic. We propose a binomial FME model using Bayesian methodology to account for growth curves with binomial (percentage) outcomes. The usefulness of our methods is demonstrated using a longitudinal study of speech perception outcomes from cochlear implant users where we successfully model both the population and individual growth trajectories. Simulation studies also advocate the usefulness of the binomial model particularly when outcomes occur near the boundary of the probability parameter space and in situations with a small number of trials. PMID:24723495

  17. A Bayesian approach to functional mixed-effects modeling for longitudinal data with binomial outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliethermes, Stephanie; Oleson, Jacob

    2014-08-15

    Longitudinal growth patterns are routinely seen in medical studies where individual growth and population growth are followed up over a period of time. Many current methods for modeling growth presuppose a parametric relationship between the outcome and time (e.g., linear and quadratic); however, these relationships may not accurately capture growth over time. Functional mixed-effects (FME) models provide flexibility in handling longitudinal data with nonparametric temporal trends. Although FME methods are well developed for continuous, normally distributed outcome measures, nonparametric methods for handling categorical outcomes are limited. We consider the situation with binomially distributed longitudinal outcomes. Although percent correct data can be modeled assuming normality, estimates outside the parameter space are possible, and thus, estimated curves can be unrealistic. We propose a binomial FME model using Bayesian methodology to account for growth curves with binomial (percentage) outcomes. The usefulness of our methods is demonstrated using a longitudinal study of speech perception outcomes from cochlear implant users where we successfully model both the population and individual growth trajectories. Simulation studies also advocate the usefulness of the binomial model particularly when outcomes occur near the boundary of the probability parameter space and in situations with a small number of trials. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Defining Our Clinical Practice: The Identification of Genetic Counseling Outcomes Utilizing the Reciprocal Engagement Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlinger-Grosse, Krista; Veach, Patricia McCarthy; Cohen, Stephanie; LeRoy, Bonnie S; MacFarlane, Ian M; Zierhut, Heather

    2016-04-01

    The need for evidence-based medicine, including comparative effectiveness studies and patient-centered outcomes research, has become a major healthcare focus. To date, a comprehensive list of genetic counseling outcomes, as espoused by genetic counselors, has not been established and thus, identification of outcomes unique to genetic counseling services has become a priority for the National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC). The purpose of this study was to take a critical first step at identifying a more comprehensive list of genetic counseling outcomes. This paper describes the results of a focus group study using the Reciprocal-Engagement Model (REM) as a framework to characterize patient-centered outcomes of genetic counseling clinical practice. Five focus groups were conducted with 27 peer nominated participants who were clinical genetic counselors, genetic counseling program directors, and/or outcomes researchers in genetic counseling. Members of each focus group were asked to identify genetic counseling outcomes for four to five of the 17 goals of the REM. A theory-driven, thematic analysis of focus group data yielded 194 genetic counseling outcomes across the 17 goals. Participants noted some concerns about how genetic counseling outcomes will be measured and evaluated given varying stakeholders and the long-term nature of genetic concerns. The present results provide a list of outcomes for use in future genetic counseling outcomes research and for empirically-supported clinical interventions.

  19. Comparison of models for predicting outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease focusing on microsimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Amiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physicians have difficulty to subjectively estimate the cardiovascular risk of their patients. Using an estimate of global cardiovascular risk could be more relevant to guide decisions than using binary representation (presence or absence of risk factors data. The main aim of the paper is to compare different models of predicting the progress of a coronary artery diseases (CAD to help the decision making of physician. Methods: There are different standard models for predicting risk factors such as models based on logistic regression model, Cox regression model, dynamic logistic regression model, and simulation models such as Markov model and microsimulation model. Each model has its own application which can or cannot use by physicians to make a decision on treatment of each patient. Results: There are five main common models for predicting of outcomes, including models based on logistic regression model (for short-term outcomes, Cox regression model (for intermediate-term outcomes, dynamic logistic regression model, and simulation models such as Markov and microsimulation models (for long-term outcomes. The advantages and disadvantages of these models have been discussed and summarized. Conclusion: Given the complex medical decisions that physicians face in everyday practice, the multiple interrelated factors that play a role in choosing the optimal treatment, and the continuously accumulating new evidence on determinants of outcome and treatment options for CAD, physicians may potentially benefit from a clinical decision support system that accounts for all these considerations. The microsimulation model could provide cardiologists, researchers, and medical students a user-friendly software, which can be used as an intelligent interventional simulator.

  20. Development and Validation of a Predictive Model for Functional Outcome After Stroke Rehabilitation: The Maugeri Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrutinio, Domenico; Lanzillo, Bernardo; Guida, Pietro; Mastropasqua, Filippo; Monitillo, Vincenzo; Pusineri, Monica; Formica, Roberto; Russo, Giovanna; Guarnaschelli, Caterina; Ferretti, Chiara; Calabrese, Gianluigi

    2017-12-01

    Prediction of outcome after stroke rehabilitation may help clinicians in decision-making and planning rehabilitation care. We developed and validated a predictive tool to estimate the probability of achieving improvement in physical functioning (model 1) and a level of independence requiring no more than supervision (model 2) after stroke rehabilitation. The models were derived from 717 patients admitted for stroke rehabilitation. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to build each model. Then, each model was prospectively validated in 875 patients. Model 1 included age, time from stroke occurrence to rehabilitation admission, admission motor and cognitive Functional Independence Measure scores, and neglect. Model 2 included age, male gender, time since stroke onset, and admission motor and cognitive Functional Independence Measure score. Both models demonstrated excellent discrimination. In the derivation cohort, the area under the curve was 0.883 (95% confidence intervals, 0.858-0.910) for model 1 and 0.913 (95% confidence intervals, 0.884-0.942) for model 2. The Hosmer-Lemeshow χ 2 was 4.12 ( P =0.249) and 1.20 ( P =0.754), respectively. In the validation cohort, the area under the curve was 0.866 (95% confidence intervals, 0.840-0.892) for model 1 and 0.850 (95% confidence intervals, 0.815-0.885) for model 2. The Hosmer-Lemeshow χ 2 was 8.86 ( P =0.115) and 34.50 ( P =0.001), respectively. Both improvement in physical functioning (hazard ratios, 0.43; 0.25-0.71; P =0.001) and a level of independence requiring no more than supervision (hazard ratios, 0.32; 0.14-0.68; P =0.004) were independently associated with improved 4-year survival. A calculator is freely available for download at https://goo.gl/fEAp81. This study provides researchers and clinicians with an easy-to-use, accurate, and validated predictive tool for potential application in rehabilitation research and stroke management. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Determinants of Students' Outcome: A Full-Fledged Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musah, Mohammed Borhandden; Ali, Hairuddin Bin Mohd; Al-Hudawi, Shafeeq Hussain Vazhathodi; Tahir, Lokman Mohd; Daud, Khadijah Binti; Hamdan, Abdul Rahim

    2015-01-01

    The vibrant demand for academic excellence in the twenty-first century has brought diverse determinants of students' outcome into play. However, few studies have validated the instruments and examined the mediating effect between exogenous and endogenous variables of the student outcome model. This study, therefore, investigates the psychometric…

  2. Improving pregnancy outcome during imprisonment: a model residential care program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefert, K; Pimlott, S

    2001-04-01

    The female prison population has increased dramatically in recent years. Most women prisoners are involved with drugs, and as many as 25 percent are pregnant or have delivered within the past year. Reproductive health and drug treatment services for women in prison are inadequate, if they are available at all, and although illicit drugs are readily available in prison, drug-involved pregnant women often are incarcerated to protect fetal health. Studies of pregnancy outcome among women prisoners have demonstrated high rates of perinatal mortality and morbidity. This article examines issues related to pregnancy among women prisoners and describes an innovative residential program designed for pregnant, drug-dependent women in a state adult corrections system. Social workers can play an important role in promoting policy reform and improved services for this underserved population.

  3. L2 Irregular Verb Morphology: Exploring Behavioral Data from Intermediate English Learners of German as a Foreign Language Using Generalized Mixed Effects Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines possible psycholinguistic mechanisms governing stem vowel changes of irregular verbs in intermediate English learners of German as a foreign language (GFL). In Experiment 1, nonce-infinitives embedded in an authentic fictional text had to be inflected for German preterite, thus testing possible analogy-driven pattern…

  4. Prosody-Syntax Integration in a Second Language: Contrasting Event-Related Potentials from German and Chinese Learners of English Using Linear Mixed Effect Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickels, Stefanie; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2018-01-01

    The role of prosodic information in sentence processing is not usually addressed in second language (L2) instruction, and neurocognitive studies on prosody-syntax interactions are rare. Here we compare event-related potentials (ERP) of Chinese and German learners of English L2 to those of native English speakers and show how first language (L1)…

  5. Why Do Students Use Mobile Technology for Social Purposes during Class? Modeling Teacher Credibility, Learner Empowerment, and Online Communication Attitude as Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Andrew M.; Finn, Amber N.

    2016-01-01

    Following research indicating prevalent and deleterious use of social communication technology in college classrooms, this study investigated teacher credibility, learner empowerment, and online communication attitude as predictors of such use. The sample included 379 participants who completed an online survey about a college course. Results…

  6. Development of Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge in Spanish-Speaking Language Minority Learners: A Parallel Process Latent Growth Curve Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2012-01-01

    Despite acknowledgement of the limited English vocabularies demonstrated by many language minority (LM) learners, few studies have identified skills that relate to variation in vocabulary growth in this population. This study investigated the concurrent development of morphological awareness (i.e., students' understanding of complex words as…

  7. A model of global citizenship: antecedents and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reysen, Stephen; Katzarska-Miller, Iva

    2013-01-01

    As the world becomes increasingly interconnected, exposure to global cultures affords individuals opportunities to develop global identities. In two studies, we examine the antecedents and outcomes of identifying with a superordinate identity--global citizen. Global citizenship is defined as awareness, caring, and embracing cultural diversity while promoting social justice and sustainability, coupled with a sense of responsibility to act. Prior theory and research suggest that being aware of one's connection with others in the world (global awareness) and embedded in settings that value global citizenship (normative environment) lead to greater identification with global citizens. Furthermore, theory and research suggest that when global citizen identity is salient, greater identification is related to adherence to the group's content (i.e., prosocial values and behaviors). Results of the present set of studies showed that global awareness (knowledge and interconnectedness with others) and one's normative environment (friends and family support global citizenship) predicted identification with global citizens, and global citizenship predicted prosocial values of intergroup empathy, valuing diversity, social justice, environmental sustainability, intergroup helping, and a felt responsibility to act for the betterment of the world. The relationship between antecedents (normative environment and global awareness) and outcomes (prosocial values) was mediated by identification with global citizens. We discuss the relationship between the present results and other research findings in psychology, the implications of global citizenship for other academic domains, and future avenues of research. Global citizenship highlights the unique effect of taking a global perspective on a multitude of topics relevant to the psychology of everyday actions, environments, and identity.

  8. Learning from Consistently High Performing and Improving Schools for English Language Learners in Boston Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Rosann; Diez, Virginia; Gagnon, Laurie; Uriarte, Miren; Stazesky, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    This study is part of a collaborative project entitled "Identifying Success in Schools and Programs for English Language Learners in Boston Public Schools". The companion to this report, entitled "Improving Educational Outcomes of English Language Learners in Schools and Programs in Boston Public Schools", provides a…

  9. The Purpose of Focus Groups in Ascertaining Learner Satisfaction with a Virtual Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tainsh, Yana I.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the contribution of focus groups in evaluating learner satisfaction with a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE). It explores the views of a group of introductory level Post Compulsory Education learners that have a history of disaffection, impoverished learning and challenged written and communication skills. The outcome of this…

  10. Learner corpus profiles the case of Romanian learner English

    CERN Document Server

    Chitez, Madalina

    2014-01-01

    The first three chapters of the book offer relevant information on the new methodological approach, learner corpus profiling, and the exemplifying case, Romanian Learner English. The description of the Romanian Corpus of Learner English is also given special attention. The following three chapters include corpus-based frequency analyses of selected grammatical categories (articles, prepositions, genitives), combined with error analyses. In the concluding discussion, the book summarizes the features compiled as lexico-grammatical profiles.

  11. Using competing risks model and competing events in outcome of pulmonary tuberculosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Kazempour Dizaji

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Use of competing risks model with competing events can provide a better way to understand the associated risk factors co-related with outcome of the pulmonary TB process, especially among DR-TB patients.

  12. Continuity of Care and Outcomes in Residential Care: A Comparison of Two Care Giving Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Loring

    2006-01-01

    This study examined differences in two residential care giving models (houseparent vs. child care worker) in providing continuity of care for youth in residential placement, and the effect that a care giving model had on selected program outcomes. Data for this research were collected in a residential facility that used both models. Youth with…

  13. [Application of statistical models for prognostication of outcomes in injured persons with severe trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boĭko, V V; Zamiatin, P N; Dubrovina, N A; Zamiatin, D P

    2014-02-01

    Basing on data, concerning the injured persons state, the investigations results for elaboration and application of statistic models, prognosticating the trauma outcome, were analyzed. Selected information about 373 injured persons, who were treated in Traumatic Shock Department, is presented. There was established, that the statistical models elaborated is expedient to use together with other qualitative and quantitative methods of prognostic determination of outcome in severely injured persons.

  14. Increasing Self-Efficacy Expectations and Outcome Expectations: A Model to Facilitate Transfer of Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Jean M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Without organizationwide commitment to training programs, educators may be able to increase learners' self-efficacy to acquire desired skills or behavior. But behavior and skills will not be transferred to the job if learners have low expectations about their use or if positive reinforcement is lacking. (SK)

  15. Maternal depressive symptoms, maternal behavior, and toddler internalizing outcomes: a moderated mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Alexandra C; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2015-02-01

    Maternal depression relates to child internalizing outcomes, but one missing aspect of this association is how variation in depressive symptoms, including mild and moderate symptoms, relates to young children's outcomes. The current study examined a moderated mediation model to investigate how maternal behaviors may mediate this association in the context of child temperament and gender. Mothers and toddlers completed a free-play/clean-up task in the laboratory. Mothers rated their depressive symptoms and their toddlers' temperament and internalizing behaviors. Results indicated a significant indirect effect of maternal warmth on the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and toddler internalizing outcomes for boys with low negative emotionality. Toddler gender and temperament moderated the relation between maternal intrusiveness and toddler internalizing outcomes, but mediation was not supported. Results highlight the important interaction between child and maternal variables in predicting child outcomes, and suggest mechanisms by and conditions under which mild maternal depressive symptomatology can be a risk factor for toddler internalizing outcomes.

  16. Computational models as predictors of HIV treatment outcomes for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Selecting the optimal combination of HIV drugs for an individual in resourcelimited settings is challenging because of the limited availability of drugs and genotyping. Objective: The evaluation as a potential treatment support tool of computational models that predict response to therapy without a genotype, ...

  17. Knowledge Modeling for the Outcome of Brain Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Jillian E.

    Purpose: To build a model that will predict the survival time for patients that were treated with stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases using support vector machine (SVM) regression. Methods and Materials: This study utilized data from 481 patients, which were equally divided into training and validation datasets randomly. The SVM model used a Gaussian RBF function, along with various parameters, such as the size of the epsilon insensitive region and the cost parameter (C) that are used to control the amount of error tolerated by the model. The predictor variables for the SVM model consisted of the actual survival time of the patient, the number of brain metastases, the graded prognostic assessment (GPA) and Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) scores, prescription dose, and the largest planning target volume (PTV). The response of the model is the survival time of the patient. The resulting survival time predictions were analyzed against the actual survival times by single parameter classification and two-parameter classification. The predicted mean survival times within each classification were compared with the actual values to obtain the confidence interval associated with the model's predictions. In addition to visualizing the data on plots using the means and error bars, the correlation coefficients between the actual and predicted means of the survival times were calculated during each step of the classification. Results: The number of metastases and KPS scores, were consistently shown to be the strongest predictors in the single parameter classification, and were subsequently used as first classifiers in the two-parameter classification. When the survival times were analyzed with the number of metastases as the first classifier, the best correlation was obtained for patients with 3 metastases, while patients with 4 or 5 metastases had significantly worse results. When the KPS score was used as the first classifier, patients with a KPS score of 60 and

  18. Management outcome of acute urinary retention: model of prediction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Daly, Padraig

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVES: To assess for predictors of outcome in patients presenting with acute urinary retention (AUR). METHODS: A study was performed in our unit to evaluate trial without catheter (TWOC) and successive management. We assessed for predictors of surgical or medical management, which included: age, volume drained at time of catheterisation, cause of retention, serum creatinine, success of trial of voiding, co-morbidities, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate size on digital rectal examination (DRE). RESULTS: 72 men were entered into the study over an 18-month period: 27 had a successful first TWOC, 20 patients had a second TWOC, and 6 were successful. In total, 31 of the 33 patients with a successful TWOC remained on alpha-blockers without a further episode of AUR within a minimum of 6 months\\' follow-up. Patients failing TWOC were managed by transurethral resection of the prostate (n = 22), long-term catheterisation (n = 15) or prostatic stents (n = 3), and 1 patient died prior to intervention. Three predictors were significant on multivariate analysis: PSA (>2.9 ng\\/ml), prostate size on DRE (large) and volume drained at time of catheterisation (>or=1,000 ml). CONCLUSION: Patients with elevated PSA (>2.9 ng\\/ml), a large prostate size on DRE and a volume drained at time of catheterisation >1,000 ml are best managed by surgical intervention, while those with volumes drained at time of catheterisation of <1,000 ml, a PSA

  19. Tutorial on Using Regression Models with Count Outcomes Using R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alexander Beaujean

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Education researchers often study count variables, such as times a student reached a goal, discipline referrals, and absences. Most researchers that study these variables use typical regression methods (i.e., ordinary least-squares either with or without transforming the count variables. In either case, using typical regression for count data can produce parameter estimates that are biased, thus diminishing any inferences made from such data. As count-variable regression models are seldom taught in training programs, we present a tutorial to help educational researchers use such methods in their own research. We demonstrate analyzing and interpreting count data using Poisson, negative binomial, zero-inflated Poisson, and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models. The count regression methods are introduced through an example using the number of times students skipped class. The data for this example are freely available and the R syntax used run the example analyses are included in the Appendix.

  20. A Markov Model for Analyzing Polytomous Outcome Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ataharul Islam

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} This paper highlights the estimation and test procedures for multi-state Markov models with covariate dependences in higher orders. Logistic link functions are used to analyze the transition probabilities of three or more states of a Markov model emerging from a longitudinal study. For illustration purpose the models are used for analysis of panel data on Health and Retirement Study conducted in USA during 1992-2002. The applications use self reported data on perceived emotional health at each round of the nationwide survey conducted among the elderly people. Useful and detailed results on the change in the perceived emotional health status among the elderly people are obtained.

  1. Queue-based modelling and detection of parameters involved in stroke outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilic, Adnan; Petersen, John Asger; Wienecke, Troels

    2017-01-01

    We designed a queue-based model, and investigated which parameters are of importance when predicting stroke outcome. Medical record forms have been collected for 57 ischemic stroke patients, including medical history and vital sign measurement along with neurological scores for the first twenty-f......, where outcome for patients were 36.75 ± 10.99. The queue-based model integrating multiple linear regression shows promising results for automatic selection of significant medically relevant parameters.......-four hours of admission. The importance of each parameter is identified using multiple regression combined with a circular queue to iteratively fit outcome. Out of 39 parameters, the model isolated 14 which combined could estimate outcome with a root mean square error of 1.69 on the Scandinavian Stroke Scale...

  2. A Random Pattern Mixture Model for Ordinal Outcomes with Informative Dropouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengcheng; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Guo, Wensheng

    2016-01-01

    We extend a random pattern mixture joint model for longitudinal ordinal outcomes and informative dropouts. The patients are generalized to ”pattern” groups based on known covariates that are potential surrogated for the severity of the underlying condition. The random pattern effects are defined as the latent effects linking the dropout process and the ordinal longitudinal outcome. Conditional on the random pattern effects, the longitudinal outcome and the dropout times are assumed independent. Estimates are obtained via the EM algorithm. We applied the model to the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) data. Anemia was found to be significantly affected by baseline iron treatment when the dropout information was adjusted via the study model; as opposed to an independent or shared parameter model. Simulations were performed to evaluate the performance of the random pattern mixture model under various assumptions. PMID:25894456

  3. Stakes in the eye of the beholder: an international study of learners' perceptions within programmatic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schut, Suzanne; Driessen, Erik; van Tartwijk, Jan; van der Vleuten, Cees; Heeneman, Sylvia

    2018-03-24

    Within programmatic assessment, the ambition is to simultaneously optimise the feedback and the decision-making function of assessment. In this approach, individual assessments are intended to be low stakes. In practice, however, learners often perceive assessments designed to be low stakes as high stakes. In this study, we explored how learners perceive assessment stakes within programmatic assessment and which factors influence these perceptions. Twenty-six learners were interviewed from three different countries and five different programmes, ranging from undergraduate to postgraduate medical education. The interviews explored learners' experience with and perception of assessment stakes. An open and qualitative approach to data gathering and analyses inspired by the constructivist grounded theory approach was used to analyse the data and reveal underlying mechanisms influencing learners' perceptions. Learners' sense of control emerged from the analysis as key for understanding learners' perception of assessment stakes. Several design factors of the assessment programme provided or hindered learners' opportunities to exercise control over the assessment experience, mainly the opportunities to influence assessment outcomes, to collect evidence and to improve. Teacher-learner relationships that were characterised by learners' autonomy and in which learners feel safe were important for learners' believed ability to exercise control and to use assessment to support their learning. Knowledge of the factors that influence the perception of assessment stakes can help design effective assessment programmes in which assessment supports learning. Learners' opportunities for agency, a supportive programme structure and the role of the teacher are particularly powerful mechanisms to stimulate the learning value of programmatic assessment. © 2018 The Authors. Medical Education published by Association for the Study of Medical Education and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Outcomes of a Joint Replacement Surgical Home Model Clinical Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Chaurasia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing perioperative care to provide maximum benefit at minimum cost may be best achieved using a perioperative clinical pathway (PCP. Using our joint replacement surgical home (JSH model PCP, we examined length of stay (LOS following total joint arthroplasty (TJA to evaluate patient care optimization. We reviewed a spectrum of clinical measurements in 190 consecutive patients who underwent TJA. Patients who had surgery earlier in the week and who were earlier cases of the day had a significantly lower LOS than patients whose cases started both later in the week and later in the day. Patients discharged home had significantly lower LOS than those discharged to a secondary care facility. Patients who received regional versus general anesthesia had a significantly lower LOS. Scheduling patients discharged to home and who will likely receive regional anesthesia for the earliest morning slot and earlier in the week may help decrease overall LOS.

  5. Design of learner-centred constructivism based learning process

    OpenAIRE

    Schreurs, Jeanne; Al-Huneidi, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    A Learner-centered learning is constructivism based and Competence directed. We define general competencies, domain competencies and specific course competencies. Constructivism based learning activities are based on constructivism theory. For each course module the intended learning level will be defined. A model is built for the design of a learner centered constructivism based and competency directed learning process. The application of it in two courses are presented. Constructivism ba...

  6. Cotrainers as Models of Relationships: Effects of the Outcome of Couples Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Norman; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Investigated the generally neglected effects of the cotrainer relationship in studies of the outcome of couples communication training. Male-female cotrainer pairs modeled verbal dominance patterns similar or dissimilar to those of client couples. Changes in couples' speaking patterns after a two-hour workshop mirrored their trainers' models.…

  7. An outcome-based learning model to identify emerging threats : experimental and simulation results.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Moyano, I. J.; Conrad, S. H.; Andersen, D. F.; Decision and Information Sciences; SNL; Univ. at Albany

    2007-01-01

    The authors present experimental and simulation results of an outcome-based learning model as it applies to the identification of emerging threats. This model integrates judgment, decision making, and learning theories to provide an integrated framework for the behavioral study of emerging threats.

  8. Overview of data-synthesis in systematic reviews of studies on outcome prediction models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van den Berg (Tobias); M.W. Heymans (Martijn); O. Leone; D. Vergouw (David); J. Hayden (Jill); A.P. Verhagen (Arianne); H.C. de Vet (Henrica C)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Many prognostic models have been developed. Different types of models, i.e. prognostic factor and outcome prediction studies, serve different purposes, which should be reflected in how the results are summarized in reviews. Therefore we set out to investigate how authors of

  9. Towards a Model and Methodology for Assessing Student Learning Outcomes and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Lola C.; Weeks, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to introduce a conceptual model for assessing undergraduate student learning outcomes and satisfaction that involves concepts drawn from the services marketing and assessment literatures; second, to illustrate the utility of the model as implemented in an academic department (geography)…

  10. Logistic random effects regression models: A comparison of statistical packages for binary and ordinal outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Li (Bayoue); B. Roozenbeek (Bob); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); E.M.E.H. Lesaffre (Emmanuel)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Logistic random effects models are a popular tool to analyze multilevel also called hierarchical data with a binary or ordinal outcome. Here, we aim to compare different statistical software implementations of these models. Methods. We used individual patient data from 8509

  11. Assessing the Quality of the Learning Outcome in Vocational Education: The Expero Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervai, Sara; Cian, Luca; Berlanga, Alicia; Borelli, Massimo; Kekale, Tauno

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present an innovative model to evaluate the quality of the learning outcome in vocational education and training (VET) considering a wide approach that includes, in particular, stakeholders' expectations and perceptions. Design/methodology/approach: The Expero model was implemented in various kinds of vocational schools…

  12. Improved Characters and Student Learning Outcomes through Development of Character Education Based General Physics Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlina; Sabani; Mihardi, Satria

    2015-01-01

    Education Research in Indonesia has begun to lead to the development of character education and is no longer fixated on the outcomes of cognitive learning. This study purposed to produce character education based general physics learning model (CEBGP Learning Model) and with valid, effective and practical peripheral devices to improve character…

  13. The Constructionism and Neurocognitive-Based Teaching Model for Promoting Science Learning Outcomes and Creative Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripongwiwat, Supathida; Bunterm, Tassanee; Srisawat, Niwat; Tang, Keow Ngang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect, after intervention on both experimental and control groups, of constructionism and neurocognitive-based teaching model, and conventional teaching model, on the science learning outcomes and creative thinking of Grade 11 students. The researchers developed a constructionism and neurocognitive-based…

  14. Fitting Multilevel Models with Ordinal Outcomes: Performance of Alternative Specifications and Methods of Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Daniel J.; Sterba, Sonya K.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has compared methods of estimation for fitting multilevel models to binary data, but there are reasons to believe that the results will not always generalize to the ordinal case. This article thus evaluates (a) whether and when fitting multilevel linear models to ordinal outcome data is justified and (b) which estimator to employ…

  15. The Effect of Integrated Learning Model and Critical Thinking Skill of Science Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazriyah, N.; Supriyati, Y.; Rahayu, W.

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of integrated learning model and critical thinking skill toward science learning outcomes. The study was conducted in SDN Kemiri Muka 1 Depok in fifth grade school year 2014/2015 using cluster random sampling was done to 80 students. Retrieval of data obtained through tests and analysis by Variance (ANOVA) and two lines with the design treatment by level 2x2. The results showed that: (1) science learning outcomes students that given thematic integrated learning model is higher than in the group of students given fragmented learning model, (2) there is an interaction effect between critical thinking skills with integrated learning model, (3) for students who have high critical thinking skills, science learning outcomes students who given by thematic integrated learning model higher than fragmented learning model and (4) for students who have the ability to think critically low yield higher learning science fragmented model. The results of this study indicate that thematic learning model with critical thinking skills can improve science learning outcomes of students.

  16. Poisson regression for modeling count and frequency outcomes in trauma research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, David R; Doron-LaMarca, Susan; Bell, Margret; O'Farrell, Timothy J; Taft, Casey T

    2008-10-01

    The authors describe how the Poisson regression method for analyzing count or frequency outcome variables can be applied in trauma studies. The outcome of interest in trauma research may represent a count of the number of incidents of behavior occurring in a given time interval, such as acts of physical aggression or substance abuse. Traditional linear regression approaches assume a normally distributed outcome variable with equal variances over the range of predictor variables, and may not be optimal for modeling count outcomes. An application of Poisson regression is presented using data from a study of intimate partner aggression among male patients in an alcohol treatment program and their female partners. Results of Poisson regression and linear regression models are compared.

  17. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are…

  18. High Ability and Learner Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindal, Huda; Reid, Norman; Whitehead, Rex

    2013-01-01

    The outstandingly able learner has been conceptualised, in terms of test and examination performance, as the learner showing superior academic performance which is markedly better than that of peers and in ways regarded as of value by wider society. In Kuwait, such superior examination performance leads to a classification regarded as being…

  19. Developing a risk prediction model for the functional outcome after hip arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Patrick; Röling, Maarten A; Mathijssen, Nina M C; Hannink, Gerjon; Bloem, Rolf M

    2018-04-19

    Hip arthroscopic treatment is not equally beneficial for every patient undergoing this procedure. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a clinical prediction model for functional outcome after surgery based on preoperative factors. Prospective data was collected on a cohort of 205 patients having undergone hip arthroscopy between 2011 and 2015. Demographic and clinical variables and patient reported outcome (PRO) scores were collected, and considered as potential predictors. Successful outcome was defined as either a Hip Outcome Score (HOS)-ADL score of over 80% or improvement of 23%, defined by the minimal clinical important difference, 1 year after surgery. The prediction model was developed using backward logistic regression. Regression coefficients were converted into an easy to use prediction rule. The analysis included 203 patients, of which 74% had a successful outcome. Female gender (OR: 0.37 (95% CI 0.17-0.83); p = 0.02), pincer impingement (OR: 0.47 (95% CI 0.21-1.09); p = 0.08), labral tear (OR: 0.46 (95% CI 0.20-1.06); p = 0.07), HOS-ADL score (IQR OR: 2.01 (95% CI 0.99-4.08); p = 0.05), WHOQOL physical (IQR OR: 0.43 (95% CI 0.22-0.87); p = 0.02) and WHOQOL psychological (IQR OR: 2.40 (95% CI 1.38-4.18); p = prediction model of successful functional outcome 1 year after hip arthroscopy. The model's discriminating accuracy turned out to be fair, as 71% (95% CI: 64-80%) of the patients were classified correctly. The developed prediction model can predict the functional outcome of patients that are considered for a hip arthroscopic intervention, containing six easy accessible preoperative risk factors. The model can be further improved trough external validation and/or adding additional potential predictors.

  20. The Balanced Scorecard: A Systemic Model for Evaluation and Assessment of Learning Outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Bielavitz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – The goal of this paper is to explore using Kaplan and Norton’s balanced scorecard methodology as a systemic model for outcomes assessment. The expectations of academic accrediting agencies have shifted from measurement of inputs and outputs to that of the library’s impact on learning and demonstrating accountability. Recent literature has presented methods for performing specific aspects of outcomes assessment. However, the scorecard methodology may provide a systemic advantage beneficial to library administrators and managers.Methods – This paper provides a selective review of outcomes assessment in academic libraries and a description of the balanced scorecard methodology, focusing on its relevance to assessment and demonstration of accountability.Results – A theoretical scenario is outlined, including examples of a scorecard used for outcomes assessment. For each example, the benefits of using a systemic approach are examined.Conclusions – Using a systems‐thinking approach to outcomes assessment may provide significant advantages to library administrators and managers. As the model includes traditional methods of outcomes assessment, the scorecard approach adds elements of process improvement, identification of the inputs and outputs that create outcomes, and a tool for communicating accountability for resources.

  1. HEMS in Slovenia: one country, four models, different quality outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Tomazin, Iztok; Kersnik, Janko

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the quality of patient care using quality indicators in 4 different Slovenian helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) models. This was a cross-sectional study of all 4 HEMS in Slovenia. We collected data on quality for the period from July 2003 to August 2008, in a sample of all eligible patients that were managed by HEMS during the study period (N = 833). We obtained the following data on emergency operations: the time and organizational features of the operation; the description of the patients' condition; and the on-site diagnostic and treatment procedures. We used the following as quality indicators: the number of resuscitated patients that were intubated; the number of patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of # 8 that were intubated; the number of patients with acute coronary syndrome that received treatment with morphine, oxygen, nitroglycerine, and aspirin (MONA); the number of patients with a National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) scale score of $ 4 with an intravenous line; the number of patients with a NACA score of $ 5 that were given oxygen; and the number of patients with a NACA score of $ 4 that were given appropriate analgesic treatment. Across all HEMS bases, 36 (87.8%) resuscitated patients were intubated; 122 (81.9%) patients with GCS # 8 were intubated; 149 (89.2%) patients with ACS were given MONA treatment; 52 (92.9%) patients with a NACA score of $ 4 were given an intravenous line; 254 (92.7%) patients with a NACA score of $ 5 were given oxygen; and 18 (32.7%) trauma patients with a NACA score of $ 4 were given intravenous analgesics. The quality of patient management in HEMS in Slovenia is affected by the callout procedure, the presence or absence of a fixed rope, the type of helicopter operator, and the provider of the doctor in the helicopter team. The data from our study indicates that the quality of patient management in HEMS in Slovenia is high. It also seems that

  2. Evaluating midwifery-led antenatal care: using a programme logic model to identify relevant outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Michelle M; Brosnan, Mary C; Drennan, Jonathan; Feeney, Patricia; Gavigan, Orla; Kington, Maureen; O'Brien, Denise; Sheehy, Lucille; Walsh, Maura C

    2014-01-01

    a range of initiatives has been introduced in Ireland and internationally in recent years to establish midwifery-led models of care, generally aimed at increasing the choices available for women for maternity care. A midwifery-led antenatal clinic was first established at the study site (a large urban maternity hospital in Dublin) and extended over recent years. This paper reports on the design of an evaluation of these midwives clinics, in particular the use of a programme logic model to select outcomes to be included in the evaluation. the programme logic model is used to identify the theory of a programme and is an integrative framework for the design and analysis of evaluations using qualitative and quantitative methods. Through an inclusive approach, the aim was to identify the most relevant outcomes to be included in the evaluation, by identifying and linking programme (midwifery-led antenatal clinic) outcomes to the goals, inputs and processes involved in the production of these outcomes. the process involved a literature review, a review of policy documents and previous reviews of the clinics, interviews with midwives, obstetricians and managers to identify possible outcomes, a focus group with midwives, obstetricians, managers and women who had attended the clinics to refine and prioritise outcomes, and a follow-up survey to refine and prioritise the outcomes identified and to identify sources of data on each outcome. seven categories of outcomes were identified: (1) choice, (2) relationship/interaction with caregiver, (3) experience of care, (4) preparation and education for childbirth and parenthood, (5) effectiveness of care, (6) organisational outcomes, and (7) programme viability. A range of sources of information was identified for each outcome, including existing documentation and data, chart audit, survey of women, and interviews and focus groups with midwives, obstetricians, managers and women. the programme logic model provided an inclusive

  3. Functional outcome measures in a surgical model of hip osteoarthritis in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Dianne; Johnson, Stephen; Hash, Jonathan; Olson, Steven A.; Estes, Bradley T.; Moutos, Franklin T.; Lascelles, B. Duncan X.; Guilak, Farshid

    2016-01-01

    Background The hip is one of the most common sites of osteoarthritis in the body, second only to the knee in prevalence. However, current animal models of hip osteoarthritis have not been assessed using many of the functional outcome measures used in orthopaedics, a characteristic that could increase their utility in the evaluation of therapeutic interventions. The canine hip shares similarities with the human hip, and functional outcome measures are well documented in veterinary medicine, pr...

  4. Engaging learners in STEM education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Krajcik

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript we focus on how to develop STEM learning environments, and how STEM can be implemented in K-12 schools. We focus on the following question: “How can we support students in building a deep, integrated knowledge of STEM so that they have the practical knowledge and problem solving skills necessary to live in and improve the world?” We also discuss criteria for evaluating STEM learning environments and the challenges teachers face in implementing STEM. We define STEM as the integration of science, engineering, technology, and mathematics to focus on solving pressing individual and societal problems. Engaging students in STEM also means engaging learners in the design process. Design is integral to student thinking in the STEM world. The design process is very non-linear and iterative in its nature but requires clearly articulating and identifying the design problem, researching what is known about the problem, generating potential solutions, developing prototype designs (artifacts that demonstrate solutions, and sharing and receiving feedback. With the integration of design, STEM education has the potential to support students in learning big ideas in science and engineering, as well as important scientific and engineering practices, and support students in developing important motivational outcomes such as ownership, agency and efficacy. Moreover, students who engage in STEM learning environments will also develop 21st century capabilities such as problem solving, communication, and collaboration skills.

  5. Insight, psychopathology, explanatory models and outcome of schizophrenia in India: a prospective 5-year cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Shanthi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sole focus of models of insight on bio-medical perspectives to the complete exclusion of local, non-medical and cultural constructs mandates review. This study attempted to investigate the impact of insight, psychopathology, explanatory models of illness on outcome of first episode schizophrenia. Method Patients diagnosed to have DSM IV schizophrenia (n = 131 were assessed prospectively for insight, psychopathology, explanatory models of illness at baseline, 6, 12 and 60 months using standard instruments. Multiple linear and logistic regression and generalized estimating equations (GEE were employed to assess predictors of outcome. Results We could follow up 95 (72.5% patients. Sixty-five of these patients (68.4% achieved remission. There was a negative relationship between psychosis rating and insight scores. Urban residence, fluctuating course of the initial illness, and improvement in global functioning at 6 months and lower psychosis rating at 12 months were significantly related to remission at 5 years. Insight scores, number of non-medical explanatory models and individual explanatory models held during the later course of the illness were significantly associated with outcome. Analysis of longitudinal data using GEE showed that women, rural residence, insight scores and number of non-medical explanatory models of illness held were significantly associated with BPRS scores during the study period. Conclusions Insight, the disease model and the number of non-medical model positively correlated with improvement in psychosis arguing for a complex interaction between the culture, context and illness variables. These finding argue that insight and explanatory models are secondary to psychopathology, course and outcome of the illness. The awareness of mental illness is a narrative act in which people make personal sense of the many challenges they face. The course and outcome of the illness, cultural context

  6. Implementing Outcome Measures Within an Enhanced Palliative Care Day Care Model.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kilonzo, Isae

    2015-04-23

    Specialist palliative care day care (SPDC) units provide an array of services to patients and their families and can increase continuity of care between inpatient and homecare settings. A multidisciplinary teamwork approach is emphasized, and different models of day care exist. Depending on the emphasis of care, the models can be social, medical, therapeutic, or mixed. We describe our experience of introducing an enhanced therapeutic specialist day care model and using both patient- and carer-rated tools to monitor patient outcomes.

  7. Development and validation of a dynamic outcome prediction model for paracetamol-induced acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernal, William; Wang, Yanzhong; Maggs, James

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early, accurate prediction of survival is central to management of patients with paracetamol-induced acute liver failure to identify those needing emergency liver transplantation. Current prognostic tools are confounded by recent improvements in outcome independent of emergency liver...... transplantation, and constrained by static binary outcome prediction. We aimed to develop a simple prognostic tool to reflect current outcomes and generate a dynamic updated estimation of risk of death. METHODS: Patients with paracetamol-induced acute liver failure managed at intensive care units in the UK...... normalised ratio (INR), and cardiovascular failure were used to derive an initial predictive model, with a second (day 2) model including additional changes in INR and lactate. FINDINGS: We developed and validated new high-performance statistical models to support decision making in patients with paracetamol...

  8. Sample size and power calculations based on generalized linear mixed models with correlated binary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Qianyu; Mazumdar, Sati; Houck, Patricia R

    2008-08-01

    The generalized linear mixed model (GLIMMIX) provides a powerful technique to model correlated outcomes with different types of distributions. The model can now be easily implemented with SAS PROC GLIMMIX in version 9.1. For binary outcomes, linearization methods of penalized quasi-likelihood (PQL) or marginal quasi-likelihood (MQL) provide relatively accurate variance estimates for fixed effects. Using GLIMMIX based on these linearization methods, we derived formulas for power and sample size calculations for longitudinal designs with attrition over time. We found that the power and sample size estimates depend on the within-subject correlation and the size of random effects. In this article, we present tables of minimum sample sizes commonly used to test hypotheses for longitudinal studies. A simulation study was used to compare the results. We also provide a Web link to the SAS macro that we developed to compute power and sample sizes for correlated binary outcomes.

  9. Has growth mixture modeling improved our understanding of how early change predicts psychotherapy outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffmann, Andrew

    2017-03-02

    Early change in psychotherapy predicts outcome. Seven studies have used growth mixture modeling [GMM; Muthén, B. (2001). Second-generation structural equation modeling with a combination of categorical and continuous latent variables: New opportunities for latent class-latent growth modeling. In L. M. Collins & A. G. Sawyers (Eds.), New methods for the analysis of change (pp. 291-322). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association] to identify patient classes based on early change but have yielded conflicting results. Here, we review the earlier studies and apply GMM to a new data set. In a university-based training clinic, 251 patients were administered the Outcome Questionnaire-45 [Lambert, M. J., Hansen, N. B., Umphress, V., Lunnen, K., Okiishi, J., Burlingame, G., … Reisinger, C. W. (1996). Administration and scoring manual for the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ 45.2). Wilmington, DE: American Professional Credentialing Services] at each psychotherapy session. We used GMM to identify class structure based on change in the first six sessions and examined trajectories as predictors of outcome. The sample was best described as a single class. There was no evidence of autoregressive trends in the data. We achieved better fit to the data by permitting latent variables some degree of kurtosis, rather than to assume multivariate normality. Treatment outcome was predicted by the amount of early improvement, regardless of initial level of distress. The presence of sudden early gains or losses did not further improve outcome prediction. Early improvement is an easily computed, powerful predictor of psychotherapy outcome. The use of GMM to investigate the relationship between change and outcome is technically complex and computationally intensive. To date, it has not been particularly informative.

  10. Bayesian Mixed Hidden Markov Models: A Multi-Level Approach to Modeling Categorical Outcomes with Differential Misclassification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Berhane, Kiros

    2014-01-01

    Questionnaire-based health status outcomes are often prone to misclassification. When studying the effect of risk factors on such outcomes, ignoring any potential misclassification may lead to biased effect estimates. Analytical challenges posed by these misclassified outcomes are further complicated when simultaneously exploring factors for both the misclassification and health processes in a multi-level setting. To address these challenges, we propose a fully Bayesian Mixed Hidden Markov Model (BMHMM) for handling differential misclassification in categorical outcomes in a multi-level setting. The BMHMM generalizes the traditional Hidden Markov Model (HMM) by introducing random effects into three sets of HMM parameters for joint estimation of the prevalence, transition and misclassification probabilities. This formulation not only allows joint estimation of all three sets of parameters, but also accounts for cluster level heterogeneity based on a multi-level model structure. Using this novel approach, both the true health status prevalence and the transition probabilities between the health states during follow-up are modeled as functions of covariates. The observed, possibly misclassified, health states are related to the true, but unobserved, health states and covariates. Results from simulation studies are presented to validate the estimation procedure, to show the computational efficiency due to the Bayesian approach and also to illustrate the gains from the proposed method compared to existing methods that ignore outcome misclassification and cluster level heterogeneity. We apply the proposed method to examine the risk factors for both asthma transition and misclassification in the Southern California Children's Health Study (CHS). PMID:24254432

  11. Trans-sodium crocetinate improves outcomes in rodent models of occlusive and hemorrhagic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Yoshimura, Ryo; Manabe, Hiroaki; Schretter, Catherine; Clarke, Ryon; Cai, Yu; Fitzgerald, Mark; Lee, Kevin S

    2014-10-02

    Trans-sodium crocetinate (TSC) is a novel carotenoid compound capable of enhancing the diffusion of small molecules in aqueous solutions. TSC improves the diffusion of oxygen and glucose, and increases oxygenation in ischemic brain tissue. TSC also dampens the intensity of an ischemic challenge during an ongoing ischemic event. The current study examined the impact of TSC in rat models of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Rat three vessel occlusion (3VO), and combined 3VO and one vessel occlusion (3VO/1VO) models of ischemic stroke were evaluated for structural and behavioral outcomes. The effects of TSC were also tested in a rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Delayed treatment with TSC reduced infarct volume in a rodent model of transient focal ischemia involving either 2 or 6h of ischemia. Neurological outcomes, based on a multi-scale assessment and automated gait analysis, also were improved by TSC treatment. Additionally, TSC reduced edema and hemorrhagic volume in a rat model of ICH. An optimal therapeutic candidate for early intervention in ischemic stroke should be effective when administered on a delayed basis and should not aggravate outcomes associated with hemorrhagic stroke. The current findings demonstrate that delayed TSC treatment improves outcomes in experimental models of both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Together, these findings suggest that TSC may be a safe and beneficial therapeutic modality for early stroke intervention, irrespective of the type of stroke involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. EFL Proficiency in Language Learning and Learner Autonomy Perceptions of Turkish Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Süleyman; Çeliköz, Nadir; Sari, Irfan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the relationships of Turkish-English Language Teaching (ELT) learners' perceptions of learner autonomy with ELT learner's proficiency level in language learning. Particularly, the study aimed at investigating to what extent ELT learners' autonomy perceptions are affected by proficiency level of learners.…

  13. Defining the e-learner’s security profile: Towards awareness ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Marjan Milošević

    Abstract. The paper presents an improved e-learner model that supports monitoring of user behavior related to information security. The model is built upon standardized IMS specification, according to literature research and survey conducted among e-learners. It is positioned as key part of an extended LTSA architecture in ...

  14. An academic hospitalist model to improve healthcare worker communication and learner education: Results from a quasi-experimental study at a veterans affairs medical center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint, Sanjay; Fowler, Karen E; Krein, Sarah L; Flanders, Scott A; Bodnar, Timothy W; Young, Eric; Moseley, Richard H

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although hospitalists may improve efficiency and quality of inpatient care, their effect on healthcare-worker communication and education has been less well-studied. OBJECTIVE To test various approaches to improving healthcare-worker communication and learner education within the context of a newly designed academic hospital medicine program. DESIGN Before-and-after design with concurrent control group. SETTING A Midwestern Veterans Affairs medical center. INTERVENTION Multimodal systems redesign of 1 of 4 medical teams (Gold team) that included clinical modifications (change in rounding structure, with inclusion of nurses, a Clinical Care Coordinator, and a pharmacist) and educational interventions (providing explicit expectations of learners and providing a reading list for both learners and attending physicians). MEASUREMENTS Number of admissions, length of stay, readmissions, house officer and medical student ratings of attendings' teaching, medical student internal medicine National Board of Medical Examiners Subject Examination (“shelf” exam) scores, and clinical staff surveys. RESULTS Length of stay was reduced by about 0.3 days on all teams after the initiative began (P = 0.004), with no significant differences between Gold and non-Gold teams. The majority of physicians (83%) and nurses (68%) felt that including nurses during rounds improved healthcare-worker communication; significantly more nurses were satisfied with communication with the Gold team than with the other teams (71% vs 53%; P = 0.02). Gold attendings generally received higher teaching scores compared with non-Gold attendings, and third-year medical students on the Gold team scored significantly higher on the shelf exam compared with non–Gold team students (84 vs 82; P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS Academic hospitalists working within a systems redesign intervention were able to improve healthcare-worker communication and enhance learner education without increasing

  15. Learner Autonomy Based On Constructivism Learning Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Haiyan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Constuctivism learning theory lays emphasis on the learners' active learning, such as learning initiative, sociality and context. By analyzing the relationship between constructivism learning theory and learner autonomy, this paper explores how to cultivate learners' learner autonomy under the guidance of constructivism learning theory.

  16. Performance of models for estimating absolute risk difference in multicenter trials with binary outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pedroza

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reporting of absolute risk difference (RD is recommended for clinical and epidemiological prospective studies. In analyses of multicenter studies, adjustment for center is necessary when randomization is stratified by center or when there is large variation in patients outcomes across centers. While regression methods are used to estimate RD adjusted for baseline predictors and clustering, no formal evaluation of their performance has been previously conducted. Methods We performed a simulation study to evaluate 6 regression methods fitted under a generalized estimating equation framework: binomial identity, Poisson identity, Normal identity, log binomial, log Poisson, and logistic regression model. We compared the model estimates to unadjusted estimates. We varied the true response function (identity or log, number of subjects per center, true risk difference, control outcome rate, effect of baseline predictor, and intracenter correlation. We compared the models in terms of convergence, absolute bias and coverage of 95 % confidence intervals for RD. Results The 6 models performed very similar to each other for the majority of scenarios. However, the log binomial model did not converge for a large portion of the scenarios including a baseline predictor. In scenarios with outcome rate close to the parameter boundary, the binomial and Poisson identity models had the best performance, but differences from other models were negligible. The unadjusted method introduced little bias to the RD estimates, but its coverage was larger than the nominal value in some scenarios with an identity response. Under the log response, coverage from the unadjusted method was well below the nominal value (<80 % for some scenarios. Conclusions We recommend the use of a binomial or Poisson GEE model with identity link to estimate RD for correlated binary outcome data. If these models fail to run, then either a logistic regression, log Poisson

  17. Evaluating the impact of the laborist model of obstetric care on maternal and neonatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Sindhu K; Small, Dylan S; Macheras, Michelle; Hsu, Jesse Y; Caldwell, Donna; Lorch, Scott

    2016-12-01

    The laborist model of obstetric care represents a change in care delivery with the potential of improving maternal and neonatal outcomes. We evaluated the effectiveness of the laborist model of care compared to the traditional model of obstetric care using specific maternal and neonatal outcome measures. This is a population cohort study with laborist and nonlaborist hospitals matched 1:2 on delivery volume, geography, teaching status, and neonatal intensive care unit level using data from the National Perinatal Information Center/Quality Analytic Services database. A before-and-after study design with an untreated comparison group analyzed with the method of difference-in-differences was used to examine the impact of laborists on maternal and neonatal outcome measures within the 3 years after implementing the laborist system, after adjusting for secular trends, sociodemographic factors, and maternal medical conditions. The final outcome measures evaluated included cesarean delivery, chorioamnionitis, induction of labor, preterm birth, prolonged length of stay, Apgar at 5 minutes of outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Combining the Performance Strengths of the Logistic Regression and Neural Network Models: A Medical Outcomes Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wun Wong

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of medical outcomes is important in the effort to contain costs, streamline patient management, and codify medical practices. As such, it is necessary to develop predictive models that will make accurate predictions of these outcomes. The neural network methodology has often been shown to perform as well, if not better, than the logistic regression methodology in terms of sample predictive performance. However, the logistic regression method is capable of providing an explanation regarding the relationship(s between variables. This explanation is often crucial to understanding the clinical underpinnings of the disease process. Given the respective strengths of the methodologies in question, the combined use of a statistical (i.e., logistic regression and machine learning (i.e., neural network technology in the classification of medical outcomes is warranted under appropriate conditions. The study discusses these conditions and describes an approach for combining the strengths of the models.

  19. Perception of vowels by learners of Spanish and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Bayonas, Mariche

    2005-04-01

    This study investigates the perception of English vowels /i I/, /u U/, and /e EI/ and Spanish /i u e/ by native-speakers (NS) and learners (L) and compares these two sets of vowels cross-linguistically. Research on the acquisition of vowels indicates that learners can improve their perception with exposure to the second language [Bohn and Flege (1990)]. Johnson, Flemming, and Wright (1993) investigated the hyperspace effect and how listeners tended to choose extreme vowel qualities in a method of adjustment (MOA) task. The theoretical framework of this study is Fleges (1995) Speech Learning Model. The research question is: Are vowels selected differently by NS and L using synthesized data? Spanish learners (n=54) and English learners (n=17) completed MOA tasks in which they were exposed to 330 synthetically produced vowels to analyze spectral differences in the acquisition of both sound systems, and how the learners vowel system may vary from that of the NS. In the MOA tasks they were asked to select which synthesized vowel sounds resembled the most the ones whose spelling was presented to them. The results include an overview of the vowel formant analysis performed, and which vowels are the most challenging ones to learners.

  20. Meta-analysis of studies with bivariate binary outcomes: a marginal beta-binomial model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Hong, Chuan; Ning, Yang; Su, Xiao

    2016-01-15

    When conducting a meta-analysis of studies with bivariate binary outcomes, challenges arise when the within-study correlation and between-study heterogeneity should be taken into account. In this paper, we propose a marginal beta-binomial model for the meta-analysis of studies with binary outcomes. This model is based on the composite likelihood approach and has several attractive features compared with the existing models such as bivariate generalized linear mixed model (Chu and Cole, 2006) and Sarmanov beta-binomial model (Chen et al., 2012). The advantages of the proposed marginal model include modeling the probabilities in the original scale, not requiring any transformation of probabilities or any link function, having closed-form expression of likelihood function, and no constraints on the correlation parameter. More importantly, because the marginal beta-binomial model is only based on the marginal distributions, it does not suffer from potential misspecification of the joint distribution of bivariate study-specific probabilities. Such misspecification is difficult to detect and can lead to biased inference using currents methods. We compare the performance of the marginal beta-binomial model with the bivariate generalized linear mixed model and the Sarmanov beta-binomial model by simulation studies. Interestingly, the results show that the marginal beta-binomial model performs better than the Sarmanov beta-binomial model, whether or not the true model is Sarmanov beta-binomial, and the marginal beta-binomial model is more robust than the bivariate generalized linear mixed model under model misspecifications. Two meta-analyses of diagnostic accuracy studies and a meta-analysis of case-control studies are conducted for illustration. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Tiered Models of Integrated Academic and Behavioral Support: Effect of Implementation Level on Academic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noltemeyer, Amity; Sansosti, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study examined (a) Integrated Systems Model (ISM) implementation levels, and (b) the effect of implementation of the academic and behavioral components of ISM on student academic outcomes. Participants included 2,660 students attending six suburban elementary schools. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted using a control…

  2. Linking HR strategy, e-HR goals, architectures, and outcomes: a model and case study evidence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reddington, Martin; Martin, Graeme; Bondarouk, T.V.; Bondarouk, Tatiana; Ruel, H.; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Looise, J.C.; Looise, Jan C.

    2011-01-01

    Building on our earlier model of the links between HR strategy, e-HR goals, architectures, and outcomes, we illustrate the relationship between some of these elements with data from three global organizations. In doing so, we aim to help academics and practitioners understand this increasingly

  3. Change for the better: an innovative model of care delivering positive patient and workforce outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Tina; Gardner, Anne

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate patient and workforce outcomes following the implementation of the Practice Partnership Model of Care. Pre-test-post-test design. A 29-bed surgical ward at a tertiary-level regional hospital. Summary de-identified data from all patients and ward nursing staff in the study period. The Practice Partnership Model of Care has four main components: working in partnership; clinical handover at the bedside; comfort rounds; and environmental modifications. These reflect patient-centered and quality focused initiatives and use a total quality improvement framework that aims to transform care at the bedside. Patient outcomes: changes in patient safety (measured by numbers of medication errors and patient falls); satisfaction with care (use of the call bell system, number of complaints and compliments). Workforce outcomes: changes in staff satisfaction (measured through staff sick leave). A statistically significant reduction in use of nurse call bells (p=<0.001) post-implementation. Medication errors and patient falls reduced, with an overall reduction of 4% in staff sick leave. The Practice Partnership Model of Care positively affected patient and workforce outcomes, suggesting further exploration of this model in other hospital contexts is warranted.

  4. Functional outcome measures in a surgical model of hip osteoarthritis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Dianne; Johnson, Stephen; Hash, Jonathan; Olson, Steven A; Estes, Bradley T; Moutos, Franklin T; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Guilak, Farshid

    2016-12-01

    The hip is one of the most common sites of osteoarthritis in the body, second only to the knee in prevalence. However, current animal models of hip osteoarthritis have not been assessed using many of the functional outcome measures used in orthopaedics, a characteristic that could increase their utility in the evaluation of therapeutic interventions. The canine hip shares similarities with the human hip, and functional outcome measures are well documented in veterinary medicine, providing a baseline for pre-clinical evaluation of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of hip osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a surgical model of hip osteoarthritis in a large laboratory animal model and to evaluate functional and end-point outcome measures. Seven dogs were subjected to partial surgical debridement of cartilage from one femoral head. Pre- and postoperative pain and functional scores, gait analysis, radiographs, accelerometry, goniometry and limb circumference were evaluated through a 20-week recovery period, followed by histological evaluation of cartilage and synovium. Animals developed histological and radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis, which was correlated with measurable functional impairment. For example, Mankin scores in operated limbs were positively correlated to radiographic scores but negatively correlated to range of motion, limb circumference and 20-week peak vertical force. This study demonstrates that multiple relevant functional outcome measures can be used successfully in a large laboratory animal model of hip osteoarthritis. These measures could be used to evaluate relative efficacy of therapeutic interventions relevant to human clinical care.

  5. Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation Treatment of Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain: A Prognostic Model for Its Outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, Marije; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina Gerarda Maria; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Objectives: (1) To determine if treatment outcome in chronic low back pain can be predicted by a predefined multivariate prognostic model based on consistent predictors from the literature and (2) to explore the value of potentially prognostic factors further. Methods: Data were derived from a

  6. Early Treatment Outcome in Failure to Thrive: Predictions from a Transactional Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drotar, Dennis

    Children diagnosed with environmentally based failure to thrive early during their first year of life were seen at 12 and 18 months for assessment of psychological development (cognition, language, symbolic play, and behavior during testing). Based on a transactional model of outcome, factors reflecting biological vulnerability (wasting and…

  7. Self-regulation across time of first-generation online learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Barnard-Brak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-regulatory skills have been associated with positive outcomes for learners. In the current study, we examined the self-regulatory skills of students who are firstgeneration online learners over the course of their first semester of online instruction. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the online selfregulatory skills of learners changed across time as associated with being immersed in their first online learning environment. The results of the current study indicate no significant differences in the online self-regulatory skills of learners across time. Results suggest that environmental factors such as being immersed in an online learning environment for the first time is not, in and of itself, associated with the development of self-regulatory skills of online learners. We conclude that the design of online courses needs to consider ways of developing self-regulatory skills as these skills are not automatically developed with students' online learning experiences.

  8. Corruption and population health outcomes: an analysis of data from 133 countries using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factor, Roni; Kang, Minah

    2015-09-01

    The current study aims to develop a theoretical framework for understanding the antecedents of corruption and the effects of corruption on various health indicators. Using structural equation models, we analyzed a multinational dataset of 133 countries that included three main groups of variables--antecedents of corruption, corruption measures, and health indicators. Controlling for various factors, our results suggest that corruption rises as GDP per capita falls and as the regime becomes more autocratic. Higher corruption is associated with lower levels of health expenditure as a percentage of GDP per capita, and with poorer health outcomes. Countries with higher GDP per capita and better education for women have better health outcomes regardless of health expenditures and regime type. Our results suggest that there is no direct relationship between health expenditures and health outcomes after controlling for the other factors in the model. Our study enhances our understanding of the conceptual and theoretical links between corruption and health outcomes in a population, including factors that may mediate how corruption can affect health outcomes.

  9. Parameter dependence and outcome dependence in dynamical models for state vector reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.; Grassi, R.; Butterfield, J.; Fleming, G.N.

    1993-01-01

    The authors apply the distinction between parameter independence and outcome independence to the linear and nonlinear models of a recent nonrelativistic theory of continuous state vector reduction. It is shown that in the nonlinear model there is a set of realizations of the stochastic process that drives the state vector reduction for which parameter independence is violated for parallel spin components in the EPR-Bohm setup. Such a set has an appreciable probability of occurrence (∼ 1/2). On the other hand, the linear model exhibits only extremely small parameter dependence effects. Some specific features of the models are investigated and it is recalled that, as has been pointed out recently, to be able to speak of definite outcomes (or equivalently of possessed objective elements of reality) at finite times, the criteria for their attribution to physical systems must be slightly changed. The concluding section is devoted to a detailed discussion of the difficulties met when attempting to take, as a starting point for the formulation of a relativistic theory, a nonrelativistic scheme which exhibits parameter dependence. Here the authors derive a theorem which identifies the precise sense in which the occurrence of parameter dependence forbids a genuinely relativistic generalization. Finally, the authors show how the appreciable parameter dependence of the nonlinear model gives rise to problems with relativity, while the extremely weak parameter dependence of the linear model does not give rise to any difficulty, provided the appropriate criteria for the attribution of definite outcomes are taken into account. 19 refs

  10. Learner-centred medical education: Improved learning or increased stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Michelle; Gibbs, Trevor J

    2009-12-01

    Globally, as medical education undergoes significant reform towards more "learner-centred" approaches, specific implications arise for medical educators and learners. Although this learner-centredness is grounded in educational theory, a point of discussion would be whether the application and practice of these new curricula alleviate or exacerbate student difficulties and levels of stress. This commentary will argue that while this reform in medical education is laudable, with positive implications for learning, medical educators may not have understood or perhaps not embraced "learner-centredness" in its entirety. During their training, medical students are expected to be "patient-centred". They are asked to apply a biopsychosocial model, which takes cognisance of all aspects of a patient's well-being. While many medical schools profess that their curricula reflect these principles, in reality, many may not always practice what they preach. Medical training all too often remains grounded in the biomedical model, with the cognitive domain overshadowing the psychosocial development and needs of learners. Entrusted by parents and society with the education and training of future healthcare professionals, medical education needs to move to a "learner-centred philosophy", in which the "whole" student is acknowledged. As undergraduate and post-graduate students increasingly apply their skills in an international arena, this learner-centredness should equally encapsulate the gender, cultural and religious diversity of both patients and students. Appropriate support structures, role models and faculty development are required to develop skills, attitudes and professional behaviour that will allow our graduates to become caring and sensitive healthcare providers.

  11. Teachers of adults as learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Larsen, Lea

    This poster is a part of an on-going qualitative empirical research project: “Teachers of adults as learners. A study on teachers’ experiences in practice”. Adult learners have particular needs and characteristics that their teachers must be able to address. Some of the competencies that teachers...... (cf. Knowles, Brookfield, Illeris, Lawler, King, Wahlgreen). If we study adult teachers as learners in practice, we may be able to identify what the teachers’ practice requires, and thereby qualify the efforts of teacher educators.......This poster is a part of an on-going qualitative empirical research project: “Teachers of adults as learners. A study on teachers’ experiences in practice”. Adult learners have particular needs and characteristics that their teachers must be able to address. Some of the competencies that teachers...... need can be taught in formal settings, but in most teaching settings, the teachers act alone and develop their pedagogical approaches/-teaching strategies with no synchronous sparring from a colleague. Adult learners have particular needs and characteristics that their teachers must be able to address...

  12. Chinese English Learners' Strategic Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dianjian; Lai, Hongling; Leslie, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate Chinese English learners' ability to use communication strategies (CSs). The subjects are put in a relatively real English referential communication setting and the analyses of the research data show that Chinese English learners, when encountering problems in foreign language (FL) communication, are characterized by the frequent use of substitution, approximation, circumlocution, literal translation, exemplification, word-coinage, repetition, and the infrequent use of cultural-knowledge and paralinguistic CSs. The rare use of paralinguistic strategies is found to be typical of Chinese English learners. The high frequency of literal translation, one first language (L1)-based strategy in our study sample, suggests that FL learners' use of L1-based CSs may depend more upon the developmental stage of their target language than the typology distance between L1 and the target language. The frequency of repetition reveals one fact that the Chinese English learners lack variety and flexibility in their use of CSs. Based on these findings, it was indicated that learners' use of CSs is influenced by a variety of factors, among which the development stage of their interlanguage and their cultural background are identified as two important factors. Some implications are finally suggested for the English foreign language teaching practice in China.

  13. Joint modeling of correlated binary outcomes: The case of contraceptive use and HIV knowledge in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Di; Sun, Renyuan

    2018-01-01

    Recent advances in statistical methods enable the study of correlation among outcomes through joint modeling, thereby addressing spillover effects. By joint modeling, we refer to simultaneously analyzing two or more different response variables emanating from the same individual. Using the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, we jointly address spillover effects between contraceptive use (CUC) and knowledge of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. Jointly modeling these two outcomes is appropriate because certain types of contraceptive use contribute to the prevention of HIV and STDs and the knowledge and awareness of HIV and STDs typically lead to protection during sexual intercourse. In particular, we compared the differences as they pertained to the interpretive advantage of modeling the spillover effects of joint modeling HIV and CUC as opposed to addressing them separately. We also identified risk factors that determine contraceptive use and knowledge of HIV and STDs among women in Bangladesh. We found that by jointly modeling the correlation between HIV knowledge and contraceptive use, the importance of education decreased. The HIV prevention program had a spillover effect on CUC: what seemed to be impacted by education can be partially contributed to one’s exposure to HIV knowledge. The joint model revealed a less significant impact of covariates as opposed to both separate models and standard models. Additionally, we found a spillover effect that would have otherwise been undiscovered if we did not jointly model. These findings further suggested that the simultaneous impact of correlated outcomes can be adequately addressed for the commonality between different responses and deflate, which is otherwise overestimated when examined separately. PMID:29351328

  14. Developing and Testing a Model to Predict Outcomes of Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, David H; Sainfort, François; Eichler, Mary; Adams, Laura; Bisognano, Maureen; Steudel, Harold

    2003-01-01

    Objective To test the effectiveness of a Bayesian model employing subjective probability estimates for predicting success and failure of health care improvement projects. Data Sources Experts' subjective assessment data for model development and independent retrospective data on 221 healthcare improvement projects in the United States, Canada, and the Netherlands collected between 1996 and 2000 for validation. Methods A panel of theoretical and practical experts and literature in organizational change were used to identify factors predicting the outcome of improvement efforts. A Bayesian model was developed to estimate probability of successful change using subjective estimates of likelihood ratios and prior odds elicited from the panel of experts. A subsequent retrospective empirical analysis of change efforts in 198 health care organizations was performed to validate the model. Logistic regression and ROC analysis were used to evaluate the model's performance using three alternative definitions of success. Data Collection For the model development, experts' subjective assessments were elicited using an integrative group process. For the validation study, a staff person intimately involved in each improvement project responded to a written survey asking questions about model factors and project outcomes. Results Logistic regression chi-square statistics and areas under the ROC curve demonstrated a high level of model performance in predicting success. Chi-square statistics were significant at the 0.001 level and areas under the ROC curve were greater than 0.84. Conclusions A subjective Bayesian model was effective in predicting the outcome of actual improvement projects. Additional prospective evaluations as well as testing the impact of this model as an intervention are warranted. PMID:12785571

  15. How Do Novice and Expert Learners Represent, Understand, and Discuss Geologic Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layow, Erica Amanda

    This dissertation examined the representations novice and expert learners constructed for the geologic timescale. Learners engaged in a three-part activity. The purpose was to compare novice learners' representations to those of expert learners. This provided insight into the similarities and differences between their strategies for event ordering, assigning values and scale to the geologic timescale model, as well as their language and practices to complete the model. With a qualitative approach to data analysis informed by an expert-novice theoretical framework grounded in phenomenography, learner responses comprised the data analyzed. These data highlighted learners' metacognitive thoughts that might not otherwise be shared through lectures or laboratory activities. Learners' responses were analyzed using a discourse framework that positioned learners as knowers. Novice and expert learners both excelled at ordering and discussing events before the Phanerozoic, but were challenged with events during the Phanerozoic. Novice learners had difficulty assigning values to events and establishing a scale for their models. Expert learners expressed difficulty with determining a scale because of the size of the model, yet eventually used anchor points and unitized the model to establish a scale. Despite challenges constructing their models, novice learners spoke confidently using claims and few hedging phrases indicating their confidence in statements made. Experts used more hedges than novices, however the hedging comments were made about more complex conceptions. Using both phenomenographic and discourse analysis approaches for analysis foregrounded learners' discussions of how they perceived geologic time and their ways of knowing and doing. This research is intended to enhance the geoscience community's understanding of the ways novice and expert learners think and discuss conceptions of geologic time, including the events and values of time, and the strategies used

  16. Improving Student Learning Outcomes Marketing Strategy Lesson By Applying SFAE Learning Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winda Nur Rohmawati

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Research objectives for improving student learning outcomes on the subjects of marketing strategy through the implementation of model learning SFAE. This type of research this is a class action research using a qualitative approach which consists of two cycles with the subject Marketing X grade SMK YPI Darussalam 2 Cerme Gresik Regency. This research consists of four stages: (1 the Planning Act, (2 the implementation of the action, (3 observations (observation, and (4 Reflection. The result of the research shows that cognitive and affective learning outcomes of students have increased significantly.

  17. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF FORECASTING FOR OUTCOMES IN VICTIMS OF METHANE-COAL MIXTURE EXPLOSION

    OpenAIRE

    E. Y. Fistal; V. G. Guryanov; V. V. Soloshenko

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The severity of the victims’ state  in the early period after the combined  trauma (with the prevalence of a thermal  injury) is associated with the development of numerous  changes  in all organs and systems  which make proper  diagnosis  of complications and estimation of lethal  outcome  probability extremely  difficult to be performed.MATERIAL AND METHODS. The article  presents a mathematical model  for predicting  lethal  outcomes  in victims of methanecoal mixture explosion,...

  18. A distributed delay approach for modeling delayed outcomes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shuhua; Dunlavey, Michael; Guzy, Serge; Teuscher, Nathan

    2018-04-01

    A distributed delay approach was proposed in this paper to model delayed outcomes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics studies. This approach was shown to be general enough to incorporate a wide array of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models as special cases including transit compartment models, effect compartment models, typical absorption models (either zero-order or first-order absorption), and a number of atypical (or irregular) absorption models (e.g., parallel first-order, mixed first-order and zero-order, inverse Gaussian, and Weibull absorption models). Real-life examples were given to demonstrate how to implement distributed delays in Phoenix ® NLME™ 8.0, and to numerically show the advantages of the distributed delay approach over the traditional methods.

  19. The Impact of Information Culture on Patient Safety Outcomes. Development of a Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jylhä, Virpi; Mikkonen, Santtu; Saranto, Kaija; Bates, David W

    2017-03-08

    An organization's information culture and information management practices create conditions for processing patient information in hospitals. Information management incidents are failures that could lead to adverse events for the patient if they are not detected. To test a theoretical model that links information culture in acute care hospitals to information management incidents and patient safety outcomes. Reason's model for the stages of development of organizational accidents was applied. Study data were collected from a cross-sectional survey of 909 RNs who work in medical or surgical units at 32 acute care hospitals in Finland. Structural equation modeling was used to assess how well the hypothesized model fit the study data. Fit indices indicated a good fit for the model. In total, 18 of the 32 paths tested were statistically significant. Documentation errors had the strongest total effect on patient safety outcomes. Organizational guidance positively affected information availability and utilization of electronic patient records, whereas the latter had the strongest total effect on the reduction of information delays. Patient safety outcomes are associated with information management incidents and information culture. Further, the dimensions of the information culture create work conditions that generate errors in hospitals.

  20. Modeling Outcomes with Floor or Ceiling Effects: An Introduction to the Tobit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    In gifted education research, it is common for outcome variables to exhibit strong floor or ceiling effects due to insufficient range of measurement of many instruments when used with gifted populations. Common statistical methods (e.g., analysis of variance, linear regression) produce biased estimates when such effects are present. In practice,…

  1. Mediation Analysis with Survival Outcomes: Accelerated Failure Time Versus Proportional Hazards Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lois A Gelfand

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Survival time is an important type of outcome variable in treatment research. Currently, limited guidance is available regarding performing mediation analyses with survival outcomes, which generally do not have normally distributed errors, and contain unobserved (censored events. We present considerations for choosing an approach, using a comparison of semi-parametric proportional hazards (PH and fully parametric accelerated failure time (AFT approaches for illustration.Method: We compare PH and AFT models and procedures in their integration into mediation models and review their ability to produce coefficients that estimate causal effects. Using simulation studies modeling Weibull-distributed survival times, we compare statistical properties of mediation analyses incorporating PH and AFT approaches (employing SAS procedures PHREG and LIFEREG, respectively under varied data conditions, some including censoring. A simulated data set illustrates the findings.Results: AFT models integrate more easily than PH models into mediation models. Furthermore, mediation analyses incorporating LIFEREG produce coefficients that can estimate causal effects, and demonstrate superior statistical properties. Censoring introduces bias in the coefficient estimate representing the treatment effect on outcome – underestimation in LIFEREG, and overestimation in PHREG. With LIFEREG, this bias can be addressed using an alternative estimate obtained from combining other coefficients, whereas this is not possible with PHREG.Conclusions: When Weibull assumptions are not violated, there are compelling advantages to using LIFEREG over PHREG for mediation analyses involving survival-time outcomes. Irrespective of the procedures used, the interpretation of coefficients, effects of censoring on coefficient estimates, and statistical properties should be taken into account when reporting results.

  2. Joint generalized models for multidimensional outcomes: a case study of neuroscience data from multimodalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Feng

    2012-03-01

    This paper is motivated from the analysis of neuroscience data in a study of neural and muscular mechanisms of muscle fatigue. Multidimensional outcomes of different natures were obtained simultaneously from multiple modalities, including handgrip force, electromyography (EMG), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We first study individual modeling of the univariate response depending on its nature. A mixed-effects beta model and a mixed-effects simplex model are compared for modeling the force/EMG percentages. A mixed-effects negative-binomial model is proposed for modeling the fMRI counts. Then, I present a joint modeling approach to model the multidimensional outcomes together, which allows us to not only estimate the covariate effects but also to evaluate the strength of association among the multiple responses from different modalities. A simulation study is conducted to quantify the possible benefits by the new approaches in finite sample situations. Finally, the analysis of the fatigue data is illustrated with the use of the proposed methods. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Outcomes of a behavioral education model for children with autism in a mainstream school setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindle, Corinna F; Hastings, Richard P; Saville, Maria; Hughes, J Carl; Huxley, Kathleen; Kovshoff, Hanna; Griffith, Gemma M; Walker-Jones, Elin; Devonshire, Katherine; Remington, Bob

    2012-05-01

    The authors report 1-year outcomes for 11 children (3-7 years) with autism who attended an "Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) classroom" educational intervention in a mainstream school setting. The children learned new skills by the end of 1 year and learned additional skills during a 2nd year. Group analysis of standardized test outcomes (IQ and adaptive behavior) showed moderate to large effect size changes over 1 year, with further changes during a 2nd year. Standardized test outcomes for nine children after 2 years were also analyzed against a comparison group (n = 18) of children with autism receiving "education as usual." These controlled comparisons were associated with statistically significant large effects in favor of the ABA group for adaptive skills. Exploratory analysis also showed that increases in language and learning skills in the ABA class group were generally associated with positive changes in standardized test scores. A comprehensive behavioral intervention model can be successfully implemented in a mainstream school setting.

  4. Learning outcomes from participatory modelling: A case study in the Tamar catchment, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Tobias; Inman, Alex; Chilvers, Jason

    2014-05-01

    Strong arguments for participatory modelling in hydrology can be made on substantive, instrumental and normative grounds. These arguments have led to increasingly diverse groups of stakeholders (here anyone affecting or affected by an issue) getting involved in hydrological research and the management of water resources. In fact, participation has become a requirement of many research grants, programmes, plans and policies. However, evidence of beneficial outcomes of participation as suggested by the arguments is difficult to generate and therefore rare. This is because outcomes are diverse, distributed, often tacit, and take time to emerge. In this paper we present results from applying an evaluation framework focussed on learning outcomes (Krueger et al., 2012) to a participatory modelling process within the Tamar catchment pilot of the UK government's new Catchment Based Approach of managing water resources. The process was run as a series of workshops with email and telephone conversations in between. The outputs were models of sediment and Faecal Coliform transfers from land to water and down to the catchment outlet, mitigated by sewage treatment options, land use, livestock densities and farm management practices. The learning outcomes were assessed through semi-structured interviews with the participants. The results indicate a lack of fairness and some competence issues of the participatory modelling process. Nevertheless, salience, credibility and legitimacy of the models were judged positively by the majority of participants, and some substantive and instrumental benefits of participatory modelling theory could be confirmed, specifically input of better data and increased buy-in and ownership from the participants, respectively. Instrumental learning by the participants was high and facilitated through the models as well as the group setting. Communicative learning by the participants was mixed, with people increasingly appreciating the views of others

  5. Uneven Profiles: Language Minority Learners' Word Reading, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesaux, Nonie K; Crosson, Amy C; Kieffer, Michael J; Pierce, Margaret

    2010-12-01

    English reading comprehension skill development was examined in a group of 87 native Spanish-speakers developing English literacy skills, followed from fourth through fifth grade. Specifically, the effects of Spanish (L1) and English (L2) oral language and word reading skills on reading comprehension were investigated. The participants showed average word reading skills and below average comprehension skills, influenced by low oral language skills. Structural equation modeling confirmed that L2 oral language skills had a large, significant effect on L2 reading comprehension, whereas students' word-level reading skills, whether in L1 or L2, were not significantly related to English reading comprehension in three of four models fitted. The results converge with findings from studies with monolinguals demonstrating the influence of oral language on reading comprehension outcomes, and extend these findings by showing that, for language minority learners, L2 oral language exerts a stronger influence than word reading in models of L2 reading.

  6. A New Statistical Method to Determine the Degree of Validity of Health Economic Model Outcomes against Empirical Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corro Ramos, Isaac; van Voorn, George A K; Vemer, Pepijn; Feenstra, Talitha L; Al, Maiwenn J

    2017-09-01

    The validation of health economic (HE) model outcomes against empirical data is of key importance. Although statistical testing seems applicable, guidelines for the validation of HE models lack guidance on statistical validation, and actual validation efforts often present subjective judgment of graphs and point estimates. To discuss the applicability of existing validation techniques and to present a new method for quantifying the degrees of validity statistically, which is useful for decision makers. A new Bayesian method is proposed to determine how well HE model outcomes compare with empirical data. Validity is based on a pre-established accuracy interval in which the model outcomes should fall. The method uses the outcomes of a probabilistic sensitivity analysis and results in a posterior distribution around the probability that HE model outcomes can be regarded as valid. We use a published diabetes model (Modelling Integrated Care for Diabetes based on Observational data) to validate the outcome "number of patients who are on dialysis or with end-stage renal disease." Results indicate that a high probability of a valid outcome is associated with relatively wide accuracy intervals. In particular, 25% deviation from the observed outcome implied approximately 60% expected validity. Current practice in HE model validation can be improved by using an alternative method based on assessing whether the model outcomes fit to empirical data at a predefined level of accuracy. This method has the advantage of assessing both model bias and parameter uncertainty and resulting in a quantitative measure of the degree of validity that penalizes models predicting the mean of an outcome correctly but with overly wide credible intervals. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Teachers' Roles in Promoting Students' Learner Autonomy in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumin, Fang; Li, Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Since 2007, the Ministry of Education of China has been promoting a shift from traditional teaching models to a new teaching model where students' autonomous learning skills can be enhanced. In particular, college students are encouraged to learn English free from the constraints of time or place. While learner autonomy has been perceived as…

  8. Differentiated Rates of Growth across Preschool Dual Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Richard G.; Kim, Do-Hong; Durham, Sean; Burts, Diane C.

    2017-01-01

    This study illustrates why preschool children who are dual language learners (DLLs) are not a homogeneous group. An empirically developed model of preschool DLL subgroups, based on latent class analysis, was presented. The model reflects three separate subgroups of DLL children present in many classrooms where DLL children are served: Bilinguals,…

  9. Successful Strategies for Teaching Reading to Middle Grades English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolos, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The author reviews exemplary strategies for teaching reading to middle grades English language learners (ELLs) derived from 21 peer-reviewed journal articles and professional books. The author presents an in-depth look at three successful categories of reading strategies: interactive read-alouds to model fluent reading and engage learners, the…

  10. "Can We Do That Again?" Engaging Learners and Developing beyond the "Wow" Factor in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astall, Chris; Bruce, Warren

    2010-01-01

    Adding Mentos to an open bottle of Diet Coke can produce a fountain of liquid and froth extending several metres high. This activity can engage a wide audience of learners in a relevant and meaningful way, provide a model for creative science teaching, and help to develop learners' attitudes towards school science as a subject. In this paper, the…

  11. Why Learner-Centered New Faculty Orientations Matter: Organizational Culture and Faculty Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Whitney; Lemus, Daisy; Knotts, Greg; Oh, Janet

    2016-01-01

    A learner-centered New Faculty Orientation (NFO) can be a powerful way to immediately engage new faculty and develop their organizational identification to the institution and its values. Unfortunately, some NFOs do not model a learner-centered philosophy and miss opportunities to establish a collaborative and celebratory tone. In this paper, we…

  12. Recognition of Learner's Personality Traits through Digital Annotations in Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omheni, Nizar; Kalboussi, Anis; Mazhoud, Omar; Kacem, Ahmed Hadj

    2017-01-01

    Researchers in distance education are interested in observing and modelling of learner's personality profile, and adapting their learning experiences accordingly. When learners read and interact with their reading materials, they do unselfconscious activities like annotation which may be a key feature of their personalities. Annotation activity…

  13. Learner Self-Regulation in Distance Education: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harthi, Aisha S.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated cultural variations between two samples of Arab and American distance learners (N = 190). The overarching purpose was to chart the underlying relationships between learner self-regulation and cultural orientation within distance education environments using structural equation modeling. The study found significant…

  14. Investigating Learner Attitudes toward E-Books as Learning Tools: Based on the Activity Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Huang, Hsiu-Mei

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of e-books as learning tools in terms of learner satisfaction, usefulness, behavioral intention, and learning effectiveness. Based on the activity theory approach, this research develops a research model to understand learner attitudes toward e-books in two physical sizes: 10? and 7?. Results suggest that screen…

  15. Treatment effects model for assessing disease management: measuring outcomes and strengthening program management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Jeanne; Dumitras, Diana

    2005-06-01

    This paper describes an analytical methodology for obtaining statistically unbiased outcomes estimates for programs in which participation decisions may be correlated with variables that impact outcomes. This methodology is particularly useful for intraorganizational program evaluations conducted for business purposes. In this situation, data is likely to be available for a population of managed care members who are eligible to participate in a disease management (DM) program, with some electing to participate while others eschew the opportunity. The most pragmatic analytical strategy for in-house evaluation of such programs is likely to be the pre-intervention/post-intervention design in which the control group consists of people who were invited to participate in the DM program, but declined the invitation. Regression estimates of program impacts may be statistically biased if factors that impact participation decisions are correlated with outcomes measures. This paper describes an econometric procedure, the Treatment Effects model, developed to produce statistically unbiased estimates of program impacts in this type of situation. Two equations are estimated to (a) estimate the impacts of patient characteristics on decisions to participate in the program, and then (b) use this information to produce a statistically unbiased estimate of the impact of program participation on outcomes. This methodology is well-established in economics and econometrics, but has not been widely applied in the DM outcomes measurement literature; hence, this paper focuses on one illustrative application.

  16. The effect of learning models and emotional intelligence toward students learning outcomes on reaction rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutiani, Ani; Silitonga, Mei Y.

    2017-08-01

    This research focused on the effect of learning models and emotional intelligence in students' chemistry learning outcomes on reaction rate teaching topic. In order to achieve the objectives of the research, with 2x2 factorial research design was used. There were two factors tested, namely: the learning models (factor A), and emotional intelligence (factor B) factors. Then, two learning models were used; problem-based learning/PBL (A1), and project-based learning/PjBL (A2). While, the emotional intelligence was divided into higher and lower types. The number of population was six classes containing 243 grade X students of SMAN 10 Medan, Indonesia. There were 15 students of each class were chosen as the sample of the research by applying purposive sampling technique. The data were analyzed by applying two-ways analysis of variance (2X2) at the level of significant α = 0.05. Based on hypothesis testing, there was the interaction between learning models and emotional intelligence in students' chemistry learning outcomes. Then, the finding of the research showed that students' learning outcomes in reaction rate taught by using PBL with higher emotional intelligence is higher than those who were taught by using PjBL. There was no significant effect between students with lower emotional intelligence taught by using both PBL and PjBL in reaction rate topic. Based on the finding, the students with lower emotional intelligence were quite hard to get in touch with other students in group discussion.

  17. Mobility Device Quality Affects Participation Outcomes for People With Disabilities: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magasi, Susan; Wong, Alex; Miskovic, Ana; Tulsky, David; Heinemann, Allen W

    2018-01-01

    To test the effect that indicators of mobility device quality have on participation outcomes in community-dwelling adults with spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, and stroke by using structural equation modeling. Survey, cross-sectional study, and model testing. Clinical research space at 2 academic medical centers and 1 free-standing rehabilitation hospital. Community-dwelling adults (N=250; mean age, 48±14.3y) with spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, and stroke. Not applicable. The Mobility Device Impact Scale, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Social Function (version 2.0) scale, including Ability to Participate in Social Roles and Activities and Satisfaction with Social Roles and Activities, and the 2 Community Participation Indicators' enfranchisement scales. Details about device quality (reparability, reliability, ease of maintenance) and device type were also collected. Respondents used ambulation aids (30%), manual (34%), and power wheelchairs (30%). Indicators of device quality had a moderating effect on participation outcomes, with 3 device quality variables (repairability, ease of maintenance, device reliability) accounting for 20% of the variance in participation. Wheelchair users reported lower participation enfranchisement than did ambulation aid users. Mobility device quality plays an important role in participation outcomes. It is critical that people have access to mobility devices and that these devices be reliable. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A model and scoring system to predict outcome of intrauterine pregnancies of uncertain viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottomley, C; Van Belle, V; Pexsters, A; Papageorghiou, A T; Mukri, F; Kirk, E; Van Huffel, S; Timmerman, D; Bourne, T

    2011-05-01

    To define the incidence and outcome of intrauterine pregnancy of uncertain viability (PUV) and to develop and assess the performance of a model and a scoring system to predict ongoing viability. Of 1881 consecutive women undergoing transvaginal ultrasonography, a cohort of 493 women with an empty gestational sac model and a 'simple' model in the prediction of viability at each outcome point, based on maternal demographics, ultrasound features and symptoms. The performance of each system was assessed by receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis and calibration plots on a test dataset. The incidence of PUV in this population was 29.2% (549/1881). Of the 493 pregnancies with initial (7-14 days) follow-up available, 307 (62.3%) were viable at this time and of the 444 pregnancies with follow-up at the end of the first trimester, 225 (50.7%) were still viable. Initial (7-14-day) viability was predicted by the model with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.837 (95% CI, 0.791-0.884) in the training dataset and 0.821 (95% CI, 0.756-0.885) in the test dataset. First-trimester (11-14-week) viability was predicted by the model with an AUC of 0.788 (95% CI, 0.734-0.842) in the training dataset and 0.774 (95% CI, 0.701-0.848) in the test dataset. The scoring system performed slightly worse than did the model, but had the advantage of being easily applicable. When early pregnancy viability cannot be established immediately with ultrasound, use of either a logistic regression model or a scoring system allows an individualized prediction of first-trimester outcome. Copyright © 2011 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Learner-centered Approach in Teaching Foreign Language: Psychological and Pedagogical Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Matukhin, Dmitriy Leonidovich; Bolgova, Daria

    2015-01-01

    The paper dwells on the psychological and pedagogical conditions of implementing learner-centered approach in teaching foreign language to engineering students at the Tomsk Polytechnic University. The concept of learner-centered approach in teaching foreign language was in detail pedagogically, psychologically and methodologically studied, foreign language teaching regulatory documents in the technical university were analyzed, teaching methods and learning outcomes in accordance with the exi...

  20. Effects of Risk Aversion on Market Outcomes: A Stochastic Two-Stage Equilibrium Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazempour, Jalal; Pinson, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates how different risk preferences of electricity producers alter the market-clearing outcomes. Toward this goal, we propose a stochastic equilibrium model for electricity markets with two settlements, i.e., day-ahead and balancing, in which a number of conventional and stochastic...... by its optimality conditions, resulting in a mixed complementarity problem. Numerical results from a case study based on the IEEE one-area reliability test system are derived and discussed....

  1. Validation of a model of family caregiver communication types and related caregiver outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg, Elaine; Kravits, Kate; Goldsmith, Joy; Ferrell, Betty; Fujinami, Rebecca

    2017-02-01

    Caring for the family is included as one of the eight domains of quality palliative care, calling attention to the importance of the family system and family communications about cancer during care and treatment of the disease. Previously, a model of family caregiver communication defined four caregiver communication types-Manager, Carrier, Partner, Lone-each with a unique communication pattern. The purpose of the present study was to extend the model of family caregiver communication in cancer care to further understand the impact of family communication burden on caregiving outcomes. This mixed-method study employed fieldnotes from a family caregiver intervention focused on quality of life and self-reported caregiver communication items to identify a specific family caregiver type. Caregiver types were then analyzed using outcome measures on psychological distress, skills preparedness, family inventory of needs, and quality-of-life domains. Corroboration between fieldnotes and self-reported communication for caregivers (n = 21, 16 women, mean age of 53 years) revealed a definitive classification of the four caregiver types (Manager = 6, Carrier = 5, Partner = 6, Lone = 4). Mean scores on self-reported communication items documented different communication patterns congruent with the theoretical framework of the model. Variation in caregiver outcomes measures confirmed the model of family caregiver communication types. Partner and Lone caregivers reported the lowest psychological distress, with Carrier caregivers feeling least prepared and Manager caregivers reporting the lowest physical quality of life. This study illustrates the impact of family communication on caregiving and increases our knowledge and understanding about the role of communication in caregiver burden. The research provides the first evidence-based validation for a family caregiver communication typology and its relationship to caregiver outcomes. Future research is needed to develop and test

  2. Examining Teacher Outcomes of the School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Model in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Mari-Anne Sørlie; Terje Ogden; Asgeir Røyrhus Olseth

    2016-01-01

    Research on teacher outcomes of the School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) model has been scarce. The present study adds to the knowledge base by examining the effects of the Norwegian version of SWPBS (N-PALS) on school staffs’ behavior management practices and on their individual and collective efficacy. Questionnaire data were collected from staff and students (Grades 4-7) at four measurement points across fo...

  3. An Exploratory Study of the Determinants and Outcomes of Shared Mental Models of Skill Use in Autonomous Work Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Tarnoff, Karen Ann

    1999-01-01

    This research investigated the determinants and outcomes of shared mental models of skill use in autonomous work teams. A model of the determinants and outcomes (team task behaviors) of shared mental models of skill use was tested. Three components of shared mental models of skill use were investigated: shared knowledge pertaining to skill use in task performance (i.e., knowledge about the task, equipment, team, and team interaction), shared expectations for skill use in task p...

  4. Linear mixed model approach to network meta-analysis for continuous outcomes in periodontal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yu-Kang

    2015-02-01

    Analysing continuous outcomes for network meta-analysis by means of linear mixed models is a great challenge, as it requires statistical software packages to specify special patterns of model error variance and covariance structure. This article demonstrates a non-Bayesian approach to network meta-analysis for continuous outcomes in periodontal research with a special focus on the adjustment of data dependency. Seventeen studies on guided tissue regeneration were used to illustrate how the proposed linear mixed models for network meta-analysis of continuous outcomes. Arm-based network meta-analysis use treatment arms from each study as the unit of analysis; when patients are randomly assigned to each arm, data are deemed independent and therefore no adjustment is required for multi-arm trials. Trial-based network meta-analysis use treatment contrasts as the unit of analysis, and therefore treatment contrasts within a multi-arm trial are not independent. This data dependency occurs also in split-mouth studies, and adjustments for data dependency are therefore required. Arm-based analysis is the preferred approach to network meta-analysis, when all included studies use the parallel group design and some compare more than two treatment arms. When included studies used designs that yield dependent data, the trial-based analysis is the preferred approach. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Prognostic Model to Predict Post-Autologous Stem-Cell Transplantation Outcomes in Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Fong Chun; Mottok, Anja; Gerrie, Alina S; Power, Maryse; Nijland, Marcel; Diepstra, Arjan; van den Berg, Anke; Kamper, Peter; d'Amore, Francesco; d'Amore, Alexander Lindholm; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen; Savage, Kerry J; Shah, Sohrab P; Connors, Joseph M; Gascoyne, Randy D; Scott, David W; Steidl, Christian

    2017-11-10

    Purpose Our aim was to capture the biology of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) at the time of relapse and discover novel and robust biomarkers that predict outcomes after autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT). Materials and Methods We performed digital gene expression profiling on a cohort of 245 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor specimens from 174 patients with cHL, including 71 with biopsies taken at both primary diagnosis and relapse, to investigate temporal gene expression differences and associations with post-ASCT outcomes. Relapse biopsies from a training cohort of 65 patients were used to build a gene expression-based prognostic model of post-ASCT outcomes (RHL30), and two independent cohorts were used for validation. Results Gene expression profiling revealed that 24% of patients exhibited poorly correlated expression patterns between their biopsies taken at initial diagnosis and relapse, indicating biologic divergence. Comparative analysis of the prognostic power of gene expression measurements in primary versus relapse specimens demonstrated that the biology captured at the time of relapse contained superior properties for post-ASCT outcome prediction. We developed RHL30, using relapse specimens, which identified a subset of high-risk patients with inferior post-ASCT outcomes in two independent external validation cohorts. The prognostic power of RHL30 was independent of reported clinical prognostic markers (both at initial diagnosis and at relapse) and microenvironmental components as assessed by immunohistochemistry. Conclusion We have developed and validated a novel clinically applicable prognostic assay that at the time of first relapse identifies patients with unfavorable post-ASCT outcomes. Moving forward, it will be critical to evaluate the clinical use of RHL30 in the context of positron emission tomography-guided response assessment and the evolving cHL treatment landscape.

  6. Mediation Analysis with Survival Outcomes: Accelerated Failure Time vs. Proportional Hazards Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Lois A.; MacKinnon, David P.; DeRubeis, Robert J.; Baraldi, Amanda N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Survival time is an important type of outcome variable in treatment research. Currently, limited guidance is available regarding performing mediation analyses with survival outcomes, which generally do not have normally distributed errors, and contain unobserved (censored) events. We present considerations for choosing an approach, using a comparison of semi-parametric proportional hazards (PH) and fully parametric accelerated failure time (AFT) approaches for illustration. Method: We compare PH and AFT models and procedures in their integration into mediation models and review their ability to produce coefficients that estimate causal effects. Using simulation studies modeling Weibull-distributed survival times, we compare statistical properties of mediation analyses incorporating PH and AFT approaches (employing SAS procedures PHREG and LIFEREG, respectively) under varied data conditions, some including censoring. A simulated data set illustrates the findings. Results: AFT models integrate more easily than PH models into mediation models. Furthermore, mediation analyses incorporating LIFEREG produce coefficients that can estimate causal effects, and demonstrate superior statistical properties. Censoring introduces bias in the coefficient estimate representing the treatment effect on outcome—underestimation in LIFEREG, and overestimation in PHREG. With LIFEREG, this bias can be addressed using an alternative estimate obtained from combining other coefficients, whereas this is not possible with PHREG. Conclusions: When Weibull assumptions are not violated, there are compelling advantages to using LIFEREG over PHREG for mediation analyses involving survival-time outcomes. Irrespective of the procedures used, the interpretation of coefficients, effects of censoring on coefficient estimates, and statistical properties should be taken into account when reporting results. PMID:27065906

  7. Interaction of African American Learners Online: An Adult Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…

  8. Hearing Learner Voice in health promoting schools through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The participation of learners in school life and learner voice is important for learner development and the implementation of school interventions. In this paper we argue that learner participation and learner voice in school-community interventions contribute to learners' development of a critical consciousness and to their ...

  9. Goals, Motivation for, and Outcomes of Personal Learning through Networks: Results of a Tweetstorm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sie, Rory; Pataraia, Nino; Boursinou, Eleni; Rajagopal, Kamakshi; Margaryan, Anoush; Falconer, Isobel; Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Littlejohn, Allison; Sloep, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Recent developments in the use of social media for learning have posed serious challenges for learners. The information overload that these online social tools create has changed the way learners learn and from whom they learn. An investigation of learners' goals, motivations and expected outcomes

  10. Goals, Motivation for, and Outcomes of Personal Learning through Networks: Results of a Tweetstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sie, Rory L. L.; Pataraia, Nino; Boursinou, Eleni; Rajagopal, Kamakshi; Margaryan, Anoush; Falconer, Isobel; Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Littlejohn, Allison; Sloep, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in the use of social media for learning have posed serious challenges for learners. The information overload that these online social tools create has changed the way learners learn and from whom they learn. An investigation of learners' goals, motivations and expected outcomes when using a personal learning network is…

  11. 41 CFR 50-202.3 - Learners, student learners, apprentices, and handicapped workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Learners, student learners, apprentices, and handicapped workers. 50-202.3 Section 50-202.3 Public Contracts and Property... handicapped workers. Learners, student learners, apprentices, and handicapped workers may be employed at less...

  12. Assessing Learner Satisfaction by Simultaneously Measuring Learner Attitude, Motivation, Loyalty and Service Quality in English Academies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Vu Thi; Casadesus, Marti; Marimon, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study are threefold in their approach to English academy teaching: (i) to assess learner satisfaction, (ii) to assess the impact of satisfaction on loyalty and (iii) to assess the three constructs that we considered to be the antecedents of learner satisfaction: learner motivation, learner attitude and service quality. To collect…

  13. Teacher Perceptions of Learner-Learner Engagement at a Cyber High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borup, Jered

    2016-01-01

    Distance education has historically contained little or no learner-learner interactions. Currently the Internet allows for unprecedented levels of learner-learner interaction and has the potential to transform how students learn online. However, many courses offered online focus more on flexibility and independence than on interaction and…

  14. A Learner Corpus-Based Study on Verb Errors of Turkish EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Cem

    2017-01-01

    As learner corpora have presently become readily accessible, it is practicable to examine interlanguage errors and carry out error analysis (EA) on learner-generated texts. The data available in a learner corpus enable researchers to investigate authentic learner errors and their respective frequencies in terms of types and tokens as well as…

  15. Turning university professors into competent learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefanova, Eliza; Ilieva, Miroslava; Nikolova, Nikolina; Stefanov, Krassen

    2008-01-01

    Stefanova, E., Ilieva, M., Nikolova, N, & Stefanov, K. (2008). Turning university professors into competent learners. In H. W. Sligte & R. Koper (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th TENCompetence Open Workshop. Empowering Learners for Lifelong Competence Development: pedagogical, organisational and

  16. Exploring educators' understanding of developing learners' reading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring educators' understanding of developing learners' reading skills and their readiness to implement CAPS. ... Journal for Language Teaching ... Phase English First Additional Language teachers understood about reading and teaching reading, and the strategies they used to develop learners' reading skills.

  17. Stress enhances model-free reinforcement learning only after negative outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Heyeon; Lee, Daeyeol; Chey, Jeanyung

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies found that stress shifts behavioral control by promoting habits while decreasing goal-directed behaviors during reward-based decision-making. It is, however, unclear how stress disrupts the relative contribution of the two systems controlling reward-seeking behavior, i.e. model-free (or habit) and model-based (or goal-directed). Here, we investigated whether stress biases the contribution of model-free and model-based reinforcement learning processes differently depending on the valence of outcome, and whether stress alters the learning rate, i.e., how quickly information from the new environment is incorporated into choices. Participants were randomly assigned to either a stress or a control condition, and performed a two-stage Markov decision-making task in which the reward probabilities underwent periodic reversals without notice. We found that stress increased the contribution of model-free reinforcement learning only after negative outcome. Furthermore, stress decreased the learning rate. The results suggest that stress diminishes one's ability to make adaptive choices in multiple aspects of reinforcement learning. This finding has implications for understanding how stress facilitates maladaptive habits, such as addictive behavior, and other dysfunctional behaviors associated with stress in clinical and educational contexts.

  18. The Context, Process, and Outcome Evaluation Model for Organisational Health Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridrich, Annemarie; Jenny, Gregor J.; Bauer, Georg F.

    2015-01-01

    To facilitate evaluation of complex, organisational health interventions (OHIs), this paper aims at developing a context, process, and outcome (CPO) evaluation model. It builds on previous model developments in the field and advances them by clearly defining and relating generic evaluation categories for OHIs. Context is defined as the underlying frame that influences and is influenced by an OHI. It is further differentiated into the omnibus and discrete contexts. Process is differentiated into the implementation process, as the time-limited enactment of the original intervention plan, and the change process of individual and collective dynamics triggered by the implementation process. These processes lead to proximate, intermediate, and distal outcomes, as all results of the change process that are meaningful for various stakeholders. Research questions that might guide the evaluation of an OHI according to the CPO categories and a list of concrete themes/indicators and methods/sources applied within the evaluation of an OHI project at a hospital in Switzerland illustrate the model's applicability in structuring evaluations of complex OHIs. In conclusion, the model supplies a common language and a shared mental model for improving communication between researchers and company members and will improve the comparability and aggregation of evaluation study results. PMID:26557665

  19. Legal Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    depends on the translation strategy chosen. To meet the needs of learners, legal translation dictionaries should be designed as augmented reference tools. Electronic and printed dictionaries should include sections or CD-ROMs with syntactic, translation etc. data as well as exercises and illustrative......Legal translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain-specific discourse in a foreign language. The most common type is the bilingual law dictionary covering several or all the sub-fields within the general field of law. However, such law dictionaries tend...... strategies. When learners translate legal texts into a foreign language, it is important that their dictionaries can help them produce texts that conform to the expected style. This style requirement may be met by producing translations that use natural and idiomatic language, and really crafted dictionaries...

  20. How clinician-patient communication contributes to health improvement: modeling pathways from talk to outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Richard L

    2013-09-01

    Although researchers have long investigated relationships between clinician-patient communication and health outcomes, much of the research has produced null, inconsistent, or contradictory findings. This essay examines challenges in the study of how clinician-patient communication contributes to a patient's health and offers recommendations for future research. Communication may directly impact outcomes, but more often it will have an indirect effect through its influence on intervening variables (e.g., patient understanding, clinician-patient agreement on treatment, adherence to treatment). For example, a patient communication skills intervention may not directly improve pain control for cancer patients. However, it may do so indirectly by activating patients to talk about cancer pain, which prompts the physician to change pain medication, which leads to better pain control. Additionally, communication measurement is complicated because relationships among communication behavior, meaning, and evaluation are complex. Researchers must do more to model pathways linking clinician-patient communication to the outcomes of interest, particularly pathways in which the communication effects are indirect or mediated through other variables. To better explicate how communication contributes to health outcomes, researchers must critically reflect on the assumptions they are making about communication process and choose measures consistent with those assumptions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Esp teaching strategies based on language learners'' beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    KOROLYOVA L.YU.; VOYAKINA E.YU.

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with teaching Business English according to language learners'' beliefs and attitudes. The study was conducted among first and second-year students doing Business English course in high school and having different levels of language fluency. The authors discuss the most efficient teaching strategies used in teaching Business English in interaction with students'' needs and expectations, which helps teachers to improve learning outcomes. The research shows that the most product...

  2. Insight, self-stigma and psychosocial outcomes in Schizophrenia: a structural equation modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Y-J; Chang, H-A; Kao, Y-C; Tzeng, N-S; Lu, C-W; Loh, C-H

    2018-04-01

    Poor insight is prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and has been associated with acute illness severity, medication non-adherence and poor treatment outcomes. Paradoxically, high insight has been associated with various undesirable outcomes, including low self-esteem, depression and low subjective quality of life (QoL) in patients with schizophrenia. Despite the growing body of studies conducted in Western countries supporting the pernicious effects of improved insight in psychosis, which bases on the level of self-stigma, the effects are unclear in non-Western societies. The current study examined the role of self-stigma in the relationship between insight and psychosocial outcomes in a Chinese population. A total of 170 outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were recruited from two general university hospitals. Sociodemographic data and clinical variables were recorded and self-report scales were employed to measure self-stigma, depression, insight, self-esteem and subjective QoL. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to analyse the cross-sectional data. High levels of self-stigma were reported by 39% of the participants (n = 67). The influences of insight, self-stigma, self-esteem and depression on subjective QoL were confirmed by the SEM results. Our model with the closest fit to the data (χ 2 = 33.28; df = 20; p = 0.03; χ 2/df = 1.66; CFI = 0.98; TLI = 0.97; RMSEA = 0.06) demonstrated that self-stigma might fully mediate the association of insight with low self-esteem, depression and poor subjective QoL. High insight into illness contributed to self-stigma, which caused low self-esteem and depression and, consequently, low QoL. Notably, insight did not directly affect self-esteem, depression or QoL. Furthermore, the association of insight with poor psychosocial outcomes was not moderated by self-stigma. Our findings support the mediating model of insight relevant to the poor psychosocial outcomes of individuals diagnosed with

  3. Motivation Classification and Grade Prediction for MOOCs Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While MOOCs offer educational data on a new scale, many educators find great potential of the big data including detailed activity records of every learner. A learner’s behavior such as if a learner will drop out from the course can be predicted. How to provide an effective, economical, and scalable method to detect cheating on tests such as surrogate exam-taker is a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a grade predicting method that uses student activity features to predict whether a learner may get a certification if he/she takes a test. The method consists of two-step classifications: motivation classification (MC and grade classification (GC. The MC divides all learners into three groups including certification earning, video watching, and course sampling. The GC then predicts a certification earning learner may or may not obtain a certification. Our experiment shows that the proposed method can fit the classification model at a fine scale and it is possible to find a surrogate exam-taker.

  4. Outcome prediction in a mathematical model of immune response to infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Manuel; Wang, Kun; Kirby, Michael; Shattuck, Mark D.; O'Hern, Corey S.

    2014-03-01

    In clinical settings, it is of great importance to diagnose patients in the shortest amount of time and with the highest achievable accuracy. Current open questions concerning the modeling of the host response to infection include: How many measurements and with what frequency are needed to diagnose patients with a given accuracy? What is the effect of patient variation on the prediction accuracy? We employ machine-learning techniques to predict disease outcomes from data generated from a set of ordinary differential equations (ODE) used to model the immune response to infection. ODE models have the advantage that we can generate an unlimited amount of data, and we can easily simulate patient differences by varying model parameters. We explore the dependence of the prediction accuracy on data sets generated from the sets of ODEs as a function of the number of and spacing between measurements, number of measured variables, and the size of the patient variability.

  5. Unskilled Work and Learner Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Sissel

    2014-01-01

    . The main argument is that participation research must abandon the notion of motivation as an individual attribute and apply a dialectic concept of learner identity acknowledging work-life as a pivotal space for learning and formation of identity. I outline how a work-life-historical approach combining...... a critical theoretical approach inspired by Salling-Olesen’s and Archer’s concepts of identity and concerns can contribute to an understanding of the relationship between work and learner identity. Through narrative work-life interviews I examine how engagement in unskilled work in small and medium sized...

  6. Specialised Translation Dictionaries for Learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    the needs of learners, it is proposed that specialised translation dictionaries should be designed as augmented reference tools. It is argued that electronic and printed dictionaries should include sections or CD-ROMs with syntactic, translation etc. data as well as exercises and illustrative documents......Specialised translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain discourse in a foreign language in connection with translation. The most common type is the business dictionary covering several more or less related subject fields. However, business dictionaries...

  7. High school learners' mental construction during solving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structured activity sheets with three tasks were given to learners; these tasks were done in groups, and the group leaders were interviewed. It was found that learners tended to do well with routine-type questions, implying that they were functioning at an action level. From the interviews it appeared that learners might have ...

  8. Basic problems of learner's lexicography | Tarp | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foreign language learning is a complex process and the very concept of a learner is in no way unambiguous. Dictionaries can be conceived to assist the learner in different aspects of the language-learning process. Accordingly, at least four main functions of a learner's dictionary can be distinguished corresponding to the ...

  9. Don't Forget the Slow Learner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Daniel L.; Rangel, Lyle

    1989-01-01

    Advocates cooperative learning as an effective tool for reaching slow learners, by bridging the gaps between the learning styles of slow learners and the teaching requirements of the classroom, resulting in improved academic performance for both slow learners and high achievers. (SR)

  10. Emotional Intelligence of Self Regulated Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Ami

    2018-01-01

    The study was conducted on self regulated learners of senior secondary school. The main objectives of the study were to find out significant dimensions of emotional intelligence held by self regulated learners. To compare the emotional intelligence dimensions of self regulated learners, in terms of subject and gender. To find out the relationship…

  11. Predictive models of objective oropharyngeal OSA surgery outcomes: Success rate and AHI reduction ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Ho; Lee, Jae Yong; Cha, Jaehyung; Kim, Kangwoo; Hong, Seung-No; Lee, Seung Hoon

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a predictive model of objective oropharyngeal obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) surgery outcomes including success rate and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) reduction ratio in adult OSA patients. Retrospective outcome research. All subjects with OSA who underwent oropharyngeal and/or nasal surgery and were followed for at least 3 months were enrolled in this study. Demographic, anatomical [tonsil size (TS) and palate-tongue position (PTP) grade (Gr)], and polysomnographic parameters were analyzed. The AHI reduction ratio (%) was defined as [(postoperative AHI-preoperative AHI) x 100 / postoperative AHI], and surgical success was defined as a ≥ 50% reduction in preoperative AHI with a postoperative AHI predictive equation by Forward Selection likelihood ratio (LR) logistic regression analysis was: [Formula: see text]The best predictive equation according to stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was: [Formula: see text] (TS/PTP Gr = 1 if TS/PTP Gr 3 or 4, TS/PTP Gr = 0 if TS/PTP Gr 1 or 2). The predictive models for oropharyngeal surgery described in this study may be useful for planning surgical treatments and improving objective outcomes in adult OSA patients.

  12. A repeated measures model for analysis of continuous outcomes in sequential parallel comparison design studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doros, Gheorghe; Pencina, Michael; Rybin, Denis; Meisner, Allison; Fava, Maurizio

    2013-07-20

    Previous authors have proposed the sequential parallel comparison design (SPCD) to address the issue of high placebo response rate in clinical trials. The original use of SPCD focused on binary outcomes, but recent use has since been extended to continuous outcomes that arise more naturally in many fields, including psychiatry. Analytic methods proposed to date for analysis of SPCD trial continuous data included methods based on seemingly unrelated regression and ordinary least squares. Here, we propose a repeated measures linear model that uses all outcome data collected in the trial and accounts for data that are missing at random. An appropriate contrast formulated after the model has been fit can be used to test the primary hypothesis of no difference in treatment effects between study arms. Our extensive simulations show that when compared with the other methods, our approach preserves the type I error even for small sample sizes and offers adequate power and the smallest mean squared error under a wide variety of assumptions. We recommend consideration of our approach for analysis of data coming from SPCD trials. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Predictive models of objective oropharyngeal OSA surgery outcomes: Success rate and AHI reduction ratio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Ho Choi

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a predictive model of objective oropharyngeal obstructive sleep apnea (OSA surgery outcomes including success rate and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI reduction ratio in adult OSA patients.Retrospective outcome research.All subjects with OSA who underwent oropharyngeal and/or nasal surgery and were followed for at least 3 months were enrolled in this study. Demographic, anatomical [tonsil size (TS and palate-tongue position (PTP grade (Gr], and polysomnographic parameters were analyzed. The AHI reduction ratio (% was defined as [(postoperative AHI-preoperative AHI x 100 / postoperative AHI], and surgical success was defined as a ≥ 50% reduction in preoperative AHI with a postoperative AHI < 20.A total of 156 consecutive OSAS adult patients (mean age ± SD = 38.9 ± 9.6, M / F = 149 / 7 were included in this study. The best predictive equation by Forward Selection likelihood ratio (LR logistic regression analysis was: [Formula: see text]The best predictive equation according to stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was: [Formula: see text] (TS/PTP Gr = 1 if TS/PTP Gr 3 or 4, TS/PTP Gr = 0 if TS/PTP Gr 1 or 2.The predictive models for oropharyngeal surgery described in this study may be useful for planning surgical treatments and improving objective outcomes in adult OSA patients.

  14. Clever Nihilism: Cynicism in Evidence Based Medicine Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meserve, Chris; Kalet, Adina; Zabar, Sondra; Hanley, Kathleen; Schwartz, Mark D

    2005-12-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) educators are often confronted with learners who use their new critical appraisal skills to dismiss much of the medical literature. Does this cynical attitude of "clever nihilism" affect educational outcomes, such that educators need to tailor their curricula to these learners? The authors proposed that this critical skepticism may be an intermediate developmental stage for EBM learners as they progress from "naïve empiricism" to "mature pragmatism" and sought to observe its effect on educational outcomes from an intensive, 6 week EBM course. In this course, fifty-four medical residents reported significantly improved skills in critical appraisal and electronic searching. However there was no association between a measure of clever nihilism and the self-reported educational outcomes. The role of clever nihilism in the EBM classroom remains a potentially important issue, and its lack of effect here may be a product of several methodological limitations addressed in the discussion. Such a construct requires further validation The question remains as to whether such cynicism is a learning style or a developmental phase.

  15. Learner Reading Problems: A Case of Khoe Learners at Junior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article is part of a larger tracer study that investigated Khoe learners' reading ability of English at junior secondary school in Botswana. The research was carried out at Motshegaletau Primary School and Mothamo Junior Community Secondary. The purpose of the study was to examine whether the reading problems ...

  16. Differential cytokine gene expression according to outcome in a hamster model of leptospirosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Vernel-Pauillac

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parameters predicting the evolution of leptospirosis would be useful for clinicians, as well as to better understand severe leptospirosis, but are scarce and rarely validated. Because severe leptospirosis includes septic shock, similarities with predictors evidenced for sepsis and septic shock were studied in a hamster model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using an LD50 model of leptospirosis in hamsters, we first determined that 3 days post-infection was a time-point that allowed studying the regulation of immune gene expression and represented the onset of the clinical signs of the disease. In the absence of tools to assess serum concentrations of immune effectors in hamsters, we determined mRNA levels of various immune genes, especially cytokines, together with leptospiraemia at this particular time-point. We found differential expression of both pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, with significantly higher expression levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1alpha, cyclo-oxygenase 2 and interleukin 10 genes in nonsurvivors compared to survivors. Higher leptospiraemia was also observed in nonsurvivors. Lastly, we demonstrated the relevance of these results by comparing their respective expression levels using a LD100 model or an isogenic high-passage nonvirulent variant. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Up-regulated gene expression of both pro- and anti-inflammatory immune effectors in hamsters with fatal outcome in an LD50 model of leptospirosis, together with a higher Leptospira burden, suggest that these gene expression levels could be predictors of adverse outcome in leptospirosis.

  17. Multiscale modeling and distributed computing to predict cosmesis outcome after a lumpectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbey, M.; Salmon, R.; Thanoon, D.; Bass, B. L.

    2013-07-01

    Surgery for early stage breast carcinoma is either total mastectomy (complete breast removal) or surgical lumpectomy (only tumor removal). The lumpectomy or partial mastectomy is intended to preserve a breast that satisfies the woman's cosmetic, emotional and physical needs. But in a fairly large number of cases the cosmetic outcome is not satisfactory. Today, predicting that surgery outcome is essentially based on heuristic. Modeling such a complex process must encompass multiple scales, in space from cells to tissue, as well as in time, from minutes for the tissue mechanics to months for healing. The goal of this paper is to present a first step in multiscale modeling of the long time scale prediction of breast shape after tumor resection. This task requires coupling very different mechanical and biological models with very different computing needs. We provide a simple illustration of the application of heterogeneous distributed computing and modular software design to speed up the model development. Our computational framework serves currently to test hypothesis on breast tissue healing in a pilot study with women who have been elected to undergo BCT and are being treated at the Methodist Hospital in Houston, TX.

  18. Validation of the hospital outcome prediction equation (HOPE) model for monitoring clinical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, G J; Graco, M; Santamaria, J; Shann, F

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a risk-adjusted hospital outcome prediction equation (HOPE) using a statewide administrative dataset. Retrospective observational study using multivariate logistic regression modelling. Calibration and discrimination were assessed by standardized mortality ratio (SMR), area under the receiver operating characteristic plot (ROC AUC), Hosmer-Lemeshow contingency tables and goodness-of-fit statistic in an independent dataset, and in all 23 important tertiary, metropolitan and regional hospitals. The dependent variable was in-hospital death. All consecutive adult hospital separations between 1 July 2004 and 30 June 2006, excluding obstetric and day-case only admissions, from all acute health services within the State of Victoria, Australia were included. A total of 379 676 consecutive records (1 July 2004 to 30 June 2005) was used to derive the HOPE model. Six variables (age, male sex, admission diagnosis, emergency admission, aged-care resident and inter-hospital transfer) were selected for inclusion in the final model. It was validated in the 384 489 consecutive records from the following year (1 July 2005 to 30 June 2006). The 95% confidence interval for the SMR was 0.98-1.02, and for the ROC AUC, 0.87-0.88. Discrimination and (one or more) calibration criteria were achieved in 22 (96%) of the 23 hospitals. The HOPE model is a simple risk-adjusted outcome prediction tool, based on six variables from data that are routinely collected for administrative purposes and appears to be a reliable predictor of hospital outcome.

  19. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF FORECASTING FOR OUTCOMES IN VICTIMS OF METHANE-COAL MIXTURE EXPLOSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. Fistal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. The severity of the victims’ state  in the early period after the combined  trauma (with the prevalence of a thermal  injury is associated with the development of numerous  changes  in all organs and systems  which make proper  diagnosis  of complications and estimation of lethal  outcome  probability extremely  difficult to be performed.MATERIAL AND METHODS. The article  presents a mathematical model  for predicting  lethal  outcomes  in victims of methanecoal mixture explosion, based on case histories of 220 miners who were treated at the Donetsk Burn Center in 1994–2012.RESULTS. It was revealed  that  the  probability  of lethal  outcomes  in victims of methane-coal mixture  explosion was statistically significantly affected  with the  area  of deep  burns  (p<0.001, and  the  severe traumatic brain injury (p<0.001. In the probability of lethal  outcomes,  tactics  of surgical treatment for burn wounds in the early hours after the injury was statistically significant (p=0.003. It involves the primary debridement of burn wounds in the period of burn shock with the simultaneous closure of affected  surfaces with temporary biological covering.CONCLUSION. These neural network models are easy to practice and may be created  for the most common pathologic conditions  frequently encountered in clinical practice.

  20. Cognitive Correlates of Vocabulary Growth in English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnia, Fataneh; Geva, Esther

    2011-01-01

    This study modeled vocabulary trajectories in 91 English language learners (ELLs) with Punjabi, Tamil, or Portuguese home languages, and 50 English monolinguals (EL1) from Grades 1 to 6. The concurrent and longitudinal relationships between phonological awareness and phonological short-term memory and vocabulary were examined. ELLs underperformed…

  1. Building English Language Learners' Academic Vocabulary: Strategies and Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibold, Claire

    2011-01-01

    According to Beck, McKeown, and Kucan's Three Tier Model (2002), when it comes to language instruction the distinction between academic vocabulary words and content specific words has a significant bearing on the language success of English language learners (ELLs). In this article, the author describes strategies that give teachers and parents…

  2. A Study of Language Arts Curriculum Effectiveness with Gifted Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanTassel-Baska, Joyce; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study of language arts curriculum effectiveness presents data supporting utilization of the Integrated Curriculum Model (ICM) with high-ability learners in various grouping contexts. Significant gains were demonstrated in literary analysis, persuasive writing, and linguistic competency for seven elementary classes using the ICM. Implications…

  3. Vowel Epenthesis and Segment Identity in Korean Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Kenneth; Park, Hanyong

    2012-01-01

    Recent literature has sought to understand the presence of epenthetic vowels after the productions of postvocalic word-final consonants by second language (L2) learners whose first languages (L1s) restrict the presence of obstruents in coda position. Previous models include those in which epenthesis is seen as a strategy to mitigate the effects of…

  4. Connected minds technology and today's learners

    CERN Document Server

    Pedrò, Francesc

    2012-01-01

    In all OECD countries, digital media and connectedness are integral to the lives of todays learners. It is often claimed that these learners are ""new millennium learners"", or ""digital natives"", who have different expectations about education. This book contributes to the debate about the effects of technology attachment and connectedness on todays learners, and their expectations about teaching. The book sets out to answer the following questions: Can the claim that todays students are ""new millenium learners"" or ""digital natives be sustained empirically? Is there consistent research evidence demonstrating the effects of technology on cognitive development, social values, and learning expectations? What are the implications for educational policy and practice?

  5. Requirements for flexible learner monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Specht, Marcus; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Glahn, C., Specht, M., & Koper, R. (2007). Requirements for flexible learner monitoring. In T. Navarette, J. Blat & R. Koper (Eds.). Proceedings of the 3rd TENCompetence Open Workshop 'Current Research on IMS Learning Design and Lifelong Competence Development Infrastructures' (pp. 89-96). June,

  6. Individual Learner Differences in SLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabski, Janusz; Wojtaszek, Adam

    2011-01-01

    "Individual Learner Differences in SLA" addresses the apparently insoluble conflict between the unquestionably individual character of the process of second language acquisition/foreign language learning and the institutionalised, often inflexible character of formal instruction in which it takes place. How, then, is success in SLA so prevalent?

  7. Factors Influencing Learner Permit Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnathon P. Ehsani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of countries are requiring an extended learner permit prior to independent driving. The question of when drivers begin the learner permit period, and how long they hold the permit before advancing to independent licensure has received little research attention. Licensure timing is likely to be related to “push” and “pull” factors which may encourage or inhibit the process. To examine this question, we recruited a sample of 90 novice drivers (49 females and 41 males, average age of 15.6 years soon after they obtained a learner permit and instrumented their vehicles to collect a range of driving data. Participants completed a series of surveys at recruitment related to factors that may influence licensure timing. Two distinct findings emerged from the time-to-event analysis that tested these push and pull factors in relation to licensure timing. The first can be conceptualized as teens’ motivation to drive (push, reflected in a younger age when obtaining a learner permit and extensive pre-permit driving experience. The second finding was teens’ perceptions of their parents’ knowledge of their activities (pull; a proxy for a parents’ attentiveness to their teens’ lives. Teens who reported higher levels of their parents’ knowledge of their activities took longer to advance to independent driving. These findings suggest time-to-licensure may be related to teens’ internal motivation to drive, and the ability of parents to facilitate or impede early licensure.

  8. Teacher Investment in Learner Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Jenelle

    2009-01-01

    From a sociocultural perspective, teacher identity is constructed in relation to others, including other teachers and students. Drawing on positioning theory and the concept of investment, this study analyzed the case of a secondary English teacher who negotiated his teacher identity in relation to English language learners (ELLs). Findings…

  9. Learners' independent records of vocabulary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Philip; Leeke, Philip

    1999-01-01

    currently do. We administered a questionnaire, interviewed learners who said that they kept vocabulary records of some kind and examined their records. Two-thirds had given up making vocabulary lists on entering the L2 environment and/or starting to read extensively, but several made interesting lists...

  10. Empowering Learners through Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owston, Ron

    2018-01-01

    Blended learning appears to facilitate learner empowerment more readily than either face-to-face or fully online courses. This contention is supported by a review of literature on the affordances of blended learning that support Thomas and Velthouse's (1990) four conditions of empowerment: choice, meaningfulness, competence, and impact. Blended…

  11. Developing Collections to Empower Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Sue C.

    2014-01-01

    "Developing Collections to Empower Learners" examines collection development in the context of today's shifts toward digital resources while emphasizing the foundational beliefs of the school library profession. Writer Sue Kimmel includes practical advice about needs assessment, planning, selection, acquisitions, evaluation, and…

  12. Rich Environments for Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentham, Renee

    2008-01-01

    Unaware of the messages a bare adult learning environment sends and its effect on adult learners, a trainer attends an intensive Reggio Emilia course and learns that the physical environment is the "third teacher"--for adults as well as for children. Using principles of Reggio, she offers suggestions for enhancing adult learning spaces and…

  13. Are Deaf Students Visual Learners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschark, Marc; Morrison, Carolyn; Lukomski, Jennifer; Borgna, Georgianna; Convertino, Carol

    2013-01-01

    It is frequently assumed that by virtue of their hearing losses, deaf students are visual learners. Deaf individuals have some visual-spatial advantages relative to hearing individuals, but most have been linked to use of sign language rather than auditory deprivation. How such cognitive differences might affect academic performance has been…

  14. Learners engaging with transformation geometry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grade 12, learners would have been exposed to both visual and analytical strategies. The visual approach is one ... movement), dynamic imagery, memory images and pattern imagery. She found that concrete .... the visual and analytic modes of thinking when working with transformation geometry? We hope then to set out ...

  15. Language Learners' Perceptions of Accent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, Julie; Wennerstrom, Ann; Richard, Dara; Wu, Su Hui

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzed the accent perceptions of a group of 37 English language learners and 10 American undergraduate students. Each subject listened to a one-minute passage read by four speakers with different accents of English: General American, British English, Chinese English, and Mexican English. Participants then attempted to identify the…

  16. Comparative study analysing women's childbirth satisfaction and obstetric outcomes across two different models of maternity care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conesa Ferrer, Ma Belén; Canteras Jordana, Manuel; Ballesteros Meseguer, Carmen; Carrillo García, César; Martínez Roche, M Emilia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the differences in obstetrical results and women's childbirth satisfaction across 2 different models of maternity care (biomedical model and humanised birth). Setting 2 university hospitals in south-eastern Spain from April to October 2013. Design A correlational descriptive study. Participants A convenience sample of 406 women participated in the study, 204 of the biomedical model and 202 of the humanised model. Results The differences in obstetrical results were (biomedical model/humanised model): onset of labour (spontaneous 66/137, augmentation 70/1, p=0.0005), pain relief (epidural 172/132, no pain relief 9/40, p=0.0005), mode of delivery (normal vaginal 140/165, instrumental 48/23, p=0.004), length of labour (0–4 hours 69/93, >4 hours 133/108, p=0.011), condition of perineum (intact perineum or tear 94/178, episiotomy 100/24, p=0.0005). The total questionnaire score (100) gave a mean (M) of 78.33 and SD of 8.46 in the biomedical model of care and an M of 82.01 and SD of 7.97 in the humanised model of care (p=0.0005). In the analysis of the results per items, statistical differences were found in 8 of the 9 subscales. The highest scores were reached in the humanised model of maternity care. Conclusions The humanised model of maternity care offers better obstetrical outcomes and women's satisfaction scores during the labour, birth and immediate postnatal period than does the biomedical model. PMID:27566632

  17. Associations of patient safety outcomes with models of nursing care organization at unit level in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Carl-Ardy; D'amour, Danielle; Tchouaket, Eric; Clarke, Sean; Rivard, Michèle; Blais, Régis

    2013-04-01

    To examine the associations of four distinct nursing care organizational models with patient safety outcomes. Cross-sectional correlational study. Using a standardized protocol, patients' records were screened retrospectively to detect occurrences of patient safety-related events. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the associations of those events with four nursing care organizational models. Twenty-two medical units in 11 hospitals in Quebec, Canada, were clustered into 4 nursing care organizational models: 2 professional models and 2 functional models. Two thousand six hundred and ninety-nine were patients hospitalized for at least 48 h on the selected units. Composite of six safety-related events widely-considered sensitive to nursing care: medication administration errors, falls, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, unjustified restraints and pressure ulcers. Events were ultimately sorted into two categories: events 'without major' consequences for patients and events 'with' consequences. After controlling for patient characteristics, patient risk of experiencing one or more events (of any severity) and of experiencing an event with consequences was significantly lower, by factors of 25-52%, in both professional models than in the functional models. Event rates for both functional models were statistically indistinguishable from each other. Data suggest that nursing care organizational models characterized by contrasting staffing, work environment and innovation characteristics may be associated with differential risk for hospitalized patients. The two professional models, which draw mainly on registered nurses (RNs) to deliver nursing services and reflect stronger support for nurses' professional practice, were associated with lower risks than are the two functional models.

  18. Modeling Verdict Outcomes Using Social Network Measures: The Watergate and Caviar Network Cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo Masías

    Full Text Available Modelling criminal trial verdict outcomes using social network measures is an emerging research area in quantitative criminology. Few studies have yet analyzed which of these measures are the most important for verdict modelling or which data classification techniques perform best for this application. To compare the performance of different techniques in classifying members of a criminal network, this article applies three different machine learning classifiers-Logistic Regression, Naïve Bayes and Random Forest-with a range of social network measures and the necessary databases to model the verdicts in two real-world cases: the U.S. Watergate Conspiracy of the 1970's and the now-defunct Canada-based international drug trafficking ring known as the Caviar Network. In both cases it was found that the Random Forest classifier did better than either Logistic Regression or Naïve Bayes, and its superior performance was statistically significant. This being so, Random Forest was used not only for classification but also to assess the importance of the measures. For the Watergate case, the most important one proved to be betweenness centrality while for the Caviar Network, it was the effective size of the network. These results are significant because they show that an approach combining machine learning with social network analysis not only can generate accurate classification models but also helps quantify the importance social network variables in modelling verdict outcomes. We conclude our analysis with a discussion and some suggestions for future work in verdict modelling using social network measures.

  19. Modeling Verdict Outcomes Using Social Network Measures: The Watergate and Caviar Network Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masías, Víctor Hugo; Valle, Mauricio; Morselli, Carlo; Crespo, Fernando; Vargas, Augusto; Laengle, Sigifredo

    2016-01-01

    Modelling criminal trial verdict outcomes using social network measures is an emerging research area in quantitative criminology. Few studies have yet analyzed which of these measures are the most important for verdict modelling or which data classification techniques perform best for this application. To compare the performance of different techniques in classifying members of a criminal network, this article applies three different machine learning classifiers-Logistic Regression, Naïve Bayes and Random Forest-with a range of social network measures and the necessary databases to model the verdicts in two real-world cases: the U.S. Watergate Conspiracy of the 1970's and the now-defunct Canada-based international drug trafficking ring known as the Caviar Network. In both cases it was found that the Random Forest classifier did better than either Logistic Regression or Naïve Bayes, and its superior performance was statistically significant. This being so, Random Forest was used not only for classification but also to assess the importance of the measures. For the Watergate case, the most important one proved to be betweenness centrality while for the Caviar Network, it was the effective size of the network. These results are significant because they show that an approach combining machine learning with social network analysis not only can generate accurate classification models but also helps quantify the importance social network variables in modelling verdict outcomes. We conclude our analysis with a discussion and some suggestions for future work in verdict modelling using social network measures.

  20. Modeling Verdict Outcomes Using Social Network Measures: The Watergate and Caviar Network Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Modelling criminal trial verdict outcomes using social network measures is an emerging research area in quantitative criminology. Few studies have yet analyzed which of these measures are the most important for verdict modelling or which data classification techniques perform best for this application. To compare the performance of different techniques in classifying members of a criminal network, this article applies three different machine learning classifiers–Logistic Regression, Naïve Bayes and Random Forest–with a range of social network measures and the necessary databases to model the verdicts in two real–world cases: the U.S. Watergate Conspiracy of the 1970’s and the now–defunct Canada–based international drug trafficking ring known as the Caviar Network. In both cases it was found that the Random Forest classifier did better than either Logistic Regression or Naïve Bayes, and its superior performance was statistically significant. This being so, Random Forest was used not only for classification but also to assess the importance of the measures. For the Watergate case, the most important one proved to be betweenness centrality while for the Caviar Network, it was the effective size of the network. These results are significant because they show that an approach combining machine learning with social network analysis not only can generate accurate classification models but also helps quantify the importance social network variables in modelling verdict outcomes. We conclude our analysis with a discussion and some suggestions for future work in verdict modelling using social network measures. PMID:26824351

  1. Deconstructing Constructivism: Modeling Causal Relationships Among Constructivist Learning Environment Factors and Student Outcomes in Introductory Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komperda, Regis

    The purpose of this dissertation is to test a model of relationships among factors characterizing aspects of a student-centered constructivist learning environment and student outcomes of satisfaction and academic achievement in introductory undergraduate chemistry courses. Constructivism was chosen as the theoretical foundation for this research because of its widespread use in chemical education research and practice. In a constructivist learning environment the role of the teacher shifts from delivering content towards facilitating active student engagement in activities that encourage individual knowledge construction through discussion and application of content. Constructivist approaches to teaching introductory chemistry courses have been adopted by some instructors as a way to improve student outcomes, but little research has been done on the causal relationships among particular aspects of the learning environment and student outcomes. This makes it difficult for classroom teachers to know which aspects of a constructivist teaching approach are critical to adopt and which may be modified to better suit a particular learning environment while still improving student outcomes. To investigate a model of these relationships, a survey designed to measure student perceptions of three factors characterizing a constructivist learning environment in online courses was adapted for use in face-to-face chemistry courses. These three factors, teaching presence, social presence, and cognitive presence, were measured using a slightly modified version of the Community of Inquiry (CoI) instrument. The student outcomes investigated in this research were satisfaction and academic achievement, as measured by standardized American Chemical Society (ACS) exam scores and course grades. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to statistically model relationships among the three presence factors and student outcome variables for 391 students enrolled in six sections of a

  2. Predicting outcome of Morris water maze test in vascular dementia mouse model with deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Akinori; Mogi, Masaki; Iwanami, Jun; Min, Li-Juan; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kukida, Masayoshi; Kan-No, Harumi; Ikeda, Shuntaro; Higaki, Jitsuo; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2018-01-01

    The Morris water maze test (MWM) is one of the most popular and established behavioral tests to evaluate rodents' spatial learning ability. The conventional training period is around 5 days, but there is no clear evidence or guidelines about the appropriate duration. In many cases, the final outcome of the MWM seems predicable from previous data and their trend. So, we assumed that if we can predict the final result with high accuracy, the experimental period could be shortened and the burden on testers reduced. An artificial neural network (ANN) is a useful modeling method for datasets that enables us to obtain an accurate mathematical model. Therefore, we constructed an ANN system to estimate the final outcome in MWM from the previously obtained 4 days of data in both normal mice and vascular dementia model mice. Ten-week-old male C57B1/6 mice (wild type, WT) were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (WT-BCAS) or sham-operation (WT-sham). At 6 weeks after surgery, we evaluated their cognitive function with MWM. Mean escape latency was significantly longer in WT-BCAS than in WT-sham. All data were collected and used as training data and test data for the ANN system. We defined a multiple layer perceptron (MLP) as a prediction model using an open source framework for deep learning, Chainer. After a certain number of updates, we compared the predicted values and actual measured values with test data. A significant correlation coefficient was derived form the updated ANN model in both WT-sham and WT-BCAS. Next, we analyzed the predictive capability of human testers with the same datasets. There was no significant difference in the prediction accuracy between human testers and ANN models in both WT-sham and WT-BCAS. In conclusion, deep learning method with ANN could predict the final outcome in MWM from 4 days of data with high predictive accuracy in a vascular dementia model.

  3. Predicting outcome of Morris water maze test in vascular dementia mouse model with deep learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinori Higaki

    Full Text Available The Morris water maze test (MWM is one of the most popular and established behavioral tests to evaluate rodents' spatial learning ability. The conventional training period is around 5 days, but there is no clear evidence or guidelines about the appropriate duration. In many cases, the final outcome of the MWM seems predicable from previous data and their trend. So, we assumed that if we can predict the final result with high accuracy, the experimental period could be shortened and the burden on testers reduced. An artificial neural network (ANN is a useful modeling method for datasets that enables us to obtain an accurate mathematical model. Therefore, we constructed an ANN system to estimate the final outcome in MWM from the previously obtained 4 days of data in both normal mice and vascular dementia model mice. Ten-week-old male C57B1/6 mice (wild type, WT were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (WT-BCAS or sham-operation (WT-sham. At 6 weeks after surgery, we evaluated their cognitive function with MWM. Mean escape latency was significantly longer in WT-BCAS than in WT-sham. All data were collected and used as training data and test data for the ANN system. We defined a multiple layer perceptron (MLP as a prediction model using an open source framework for deep learning, Chainer. After a certain number of updates, we compared the predicted values and actual measured values with test data. A significant correlation coefficient was derived form the updated ANN model in both WT-sham and WT-BCAS. Next, we analyzed the predictive capability of human testers with the same datasets. There was no significant difference in the prediction accuracy between human testers and ANN models in both WT-sham and WT-BCAS. In conclusion, deep learning method with ANN could predict the final outcome in MWM from 4 days of data with high predictive accuracy in a vascular dementia model.

  4. Improving Information Technology Curriculum Learning Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick L Anderson

    2017-06-01

    The case study research methodology has been selected to conduct the inquiry into this phenomenon. This empirical inquiry facilitates exploration of a contemporary phenomenon in depth within its real-life context using a variety of data sources. The subject of analysis will be two Information Technology classes composed of a combination of second year and third year students; both classes have six students, the same six students. Contribution It is the purpose of this research to show that the use of improved approaches to learning will produce more desirable learning outcomes. Findings The results of this inquiry clearly show that the use of the traditional behaviorist based pedagogic model to achieve college and university IT program learning outcomes is not as effective as a more constructivist based andragogic model. Recommendations Instruction based purely on either of these does a disservice to the typical college and university level learner. The correct approach lies somewhere in between them; the most successful outcome attainment would be the product of incorporating the best of both. Impact on Society Instructional strategies produce learning outcomes; learning outcomes demonstrate what knowledge has been acquired. Acquired knowledge is used by students as they pursue professional careers and other ventures in life. Future Research Learning and teaching approaches are not “one-size-fits-all” propositions; different strategies are appropriate for different circumstances and situations. Additional research should seek to introduce vehicles that will move learners away from one the traditional methodology that has been used throughout much of their educational careers to an approach that is better suited to equip them with the skills necessary to meet the challenges awaiting them in the professional world.

  5. Comparing Dynamic Treatment Regimes Using Repeated-Measures Outcomes: Modeling Considerations in SMART Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xi; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Kasari, Connie; Lynch, Kevin G.; Oslin, David W.; Pelham, William E.; Fabiano, Gregory; Almirall, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    A dynamic treatment regime (DTR) is a sequence of decision rules, each of which recommends a treatment based on a patient’s past and current health status. Sequential, multiple assignment, randomized trials (SMARTs) are multi-stage trial designs that yield data specifically for building effective DTRs. Modeling the marginal mean trajectories of a repeated-measures outcome arising from a SMART presents challenges, because traditional longitudinal models used for randomized clinical trials do not take into account the unique design features of SMART. We discuss modeling considerations for various forms of SMART designs, emphasizing the importance of considering the timing of repeated measures in relation to the treatment stages in a SMART. For illustration, we use data from three SMART case studies with increasing level of complexity, in autism, child attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and adult alcoholism. In all three SMARTs we illustrate how to accommodate the design features along with the timing of the repeated measures when comparing DTRs based on mean trajectories of the repeated-measures outcome. PMID:26638988

  6. Sequencing learning experiences to engage different level learners in the workplace: An interview study with excellent clinical teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H Carrie; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Teherani, Arianne; Fogh, Shannon; Kobashi, Brent; ten Cate, Olle

    2015-01-01

    Learning in the clinical workplace can appear to rely on opportunistic teaching. The cognitive apprenticeship model describes assigning tasks based on learner rather than just workplace needs. This study aimed to determine how excellent clinical teachers select clinical learning experiences to support the workplace participation and development of different level learners. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, we conducted semi-structured interviews with medical school faculty identified as excellent clinical teachers teaching multiple levels of learners. We explored their approach to teach different level learners and their perceived role in promoting learner development. We performed thematic analysis of the interview transcripts using open and axial coding. We interviewed 19 clinical teachers and identified three themes related to their teaching approach: sequencing of learning experiences, selection of learning activities and teacher responsibilities. All teachers used sequencing as a teaching strategy by varying content, complexity and expectations by learner level. The teachers initially selected learning activities based on learner level and adjusted for individual competencies over time. They identified teacher responsibilities for learner education and patient safety, and used sequencing to promote both. Excellent clinical teachers described strategies for matching available learning opportunities to learners' developmental levels to safely engage learners and improve learning in the clinical workplace.

  7. The Influence Of Modeling Learning Strategies To The Learning Outcomes Of Citizenship Education

    OpenAIRE

    Evi Susilawati; Harun Sitompul; Julaga Situmorang

    2017-01-01

    The general objective of this research is to see the effect of modeling learning strategy on students learning outcomes of Civic Education. The subject of this research is the students of SMP Negeri I Labuhan Deli Deli Serdang in class VII. The sample of research students of class VII-3 seven-three SMP Negeri 1 Labuhan Deli Deli Serdang of North Sumatra Province as many as 380 students with the subject of research amounted to 73 people. Data analysis using Analytical Technique of Variance ANA...

  8. Motion Verbs in Learner Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pınar BABANOĞLU

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Motions verbs differ across languages in respect of spatial relations and syntactic/semantic conceptualization. Languages have two typological groups for motion events: (a verb-framed languages in which the main verb expresses the core information of the path of movement, and the manner information is expressed in a subordinate structure (e.g. a gerundive and (b satellite-framed languages where the main verb expresses information about manner of movement and a subordinate satellite element (e.g., a verb particle to the verb conveys the path of movement (Talmy, 1985; Chen & Guo, 2009. In this corpus-based study, two learner corpora from two different native languages as Turkish as a verb-framed language and German as satellite-framed language are investigated in terms of motion verbs in English like move, fly, walk, go via frequency and statistical analysis for corpora comparison. The purpose of the study is to find out whether there is a statistical difference in the use of motion verbs by Turkish (as a verb-framed L1 and German (as a satellite-framed L1 learners in due of cross-linguistic difference between Turkish and German which may be a factor that influence learners essay writing in English (as a satellite-framed L2 in the use of motion verbs. Results indicated that German learners of English use especially manner of motion verbs in English statistically more frequent and lexically more diverse in their essays than Turkish learners of English.

  9. Meaningful Use in Chronic Care: Improved Diabetes Outcomes Using a Primary Care Extension Center Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cykert, Samuel; Lefebvre, Ann; Bacon, Thomas; Newton, Warren

    The effect of practice facilitation that provides onsite quality improvement (QI) and electronic health record (EHR) coaching on chronic care outcomes is unclear. This study evaluates the effectiveness of such a program-similar to an agricultural extension center model-that provides these services. Through the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) portion of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, the North Carolina Area Health Education Centers program became the Regional Extension Center for Health Information Technology (REC) for North Carolina. The REC program provides onsite technical assistance to help small primary care practices achieve meaningful use of certified EHRs. While pursuing meaningful use functionality, practices were also offered complementary onsite advice regarding QI issues. We followed the first 50 primary care practices that utilized both EHR and QI advice targeting diabetes care. The achievement of meaningful use of certified EHRs and performance of QI with onsite practice facilitation showed an absolute improvement of 19% in the proportion of patients who achieved excellent diabetes control (hemoglobin A1c 9%) fell steeply in these practices. No control group was available for comparison. Practice facilitation that provided EHR and QI coaching support showed important improvements in diabetes outcomes in practices that achieved meaningful use of their EHR systems. This approach holds promise as a way to help small primary care practices achieve excellent patient outcomes. ©2016 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  10. A comparative study of four intensive care outcome prediction models in cardiac surgery patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehmann Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outcome prediction scoring systems are increasingly used in intensive care medicine, but most were not developed for use in cardiac surgery patients. We compared the performance of four intensive care outcome prediction scoring systems (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II [APACHE II], Simplified Acute Physiology Score II [SAPS II], Sequential Organ Failure Assessment [SOFA], and Cardiac Surgery Score [CASUS] in patients after open heart surgery. Methods We prospectively included all consecutive adult patients who underwent open heart surgery and were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU between January 1st 2007 and December 31st 2008. Scores were calculated daily from ICU admission until discharge. The outcome measure was ICU mortality. The performance of the four scores was assessed by calibration and discrimination statistics. Derived variables (Mean- and Max- scores were also evaluated. Results During the study period, 2801 patients (29.6% female were included. Mean age was 66.9 ± 10.7 years and the ICU mortality rate was 5.2%. Calibration tests for SOFA and CASUS were reliable throughout (p-value not Conclusions CASUS and SOFA are reliable ICU mortality risk stratification models for cardiac surgery patients. SAPS II and APACHE II did not perform well in terms of calibration and discrimination statistics.

  11. Impact of learners' role (active participant-observer or observer only) on learning outcomes during high-fidelity simulation sessions in anaesthesia: A single center, prospective and randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanié, Antonia; Gorse, Sophie; Roulleau, Philippe; Figueiredo, Samy; Benhamou, Dan

    2018-01-05

    The increasing use of high-fidelity simulation is limited by the imbalance between the growing number of students and the human resources available in such a way that all residents cannot play a role during scenarios. The learning outcomes of observers need to be studied. This prospective randomised study was approved by the institutional review board. Anaesthesia residents attending a one-day training session were enrolled. In each of the four scenarios, three residents played an active role while others observed in a separate room. All participants attended debriefing sessions. Residents were randomised between active participant-observer group (AP-O group) and observer group (O group). A similar questionnaire was distributed before, immediately after the session and after three months and included self-reported assessment of satisfaction, medical knowledge (noted 0-16), and non-technical skills. A hundred and four questionnaires were analysed. Immediately after the simulation, a significant increase in medical knowledge was recorded but was higher in the AP-O group (6 [5-8] to 10 [8-11]/16) than in the O group (7 [5-8] to 9 [7-10]/16). High scores for non-technical skills were similarly observed in both groups. Satisfaction was high in both groups but was higher in the AP-O group (9 [8-9] versus 8 [8-9]/10, P=0.019). Decay of knowledge was observed for most main outcomes at three months. This study suggests an immediate improvement of learning outcomes for both roles after immersive simulation but some learning outcomes may be better for residents engaged as players in scenarios. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Linking Adverse Outcome Pathways to Dynamic Energy Budgets: A Conceptual Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Cheryl [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Nisbet, Roger [University of California Santa Barbara; Antczak, Philipp [University of Liverpool, UK; Reyero, Natalia [Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg; Gergs, Andre [Gaiac; Lika, Dina [University of Crete; Mathews, Teresa J. [ORNL; Muller, Eric [University of California, Santa Barbara; Nacci, Dianne [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); Peace, Angela L. [ORNL; Remien, Chris [University of Idaho; Schulz, Irv [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Watanabe, Karen [Arizona State University

    2018-02-01

    Ecological risk assessment quantifies the likelihood of undesirable impacts of stressors, primarily at high levels of biological organization. Data used to inform ecological risk assessments come primarily from tests on individual organisms or from suborganismal studies, indicating a disconnect between primary data and protection goals. We know how to relate individual responses to population dynamics using individual-based models, and there are emerging ideas on how to make connections to ecosystem services. However, there is no established methodology to connect effects seen at higher levels of biological organization with suborganismal dynamics, despite progress made in identifying Adverse Outcome Pathways (AOPs) that link molecular initiating events to ecologically relevant key events. This chapter is a product of a working group at the National Center for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis (NIMBioS) that assessed the feasibility of using dynamic energy budget (DEB) models of individual organisms as a “pivot” connecting suborganismal processes to higher level ecological processes. AOP models quantify explicit molecular, cellular or organ-level processes, but do not offer a route to linking sub-organismal damage to adverse effects on individual growth, reproduction, and survival, which can be propagated to the population level through individual-based models. DEB models describe these processes, but use abstract variables with undetermined connections to suborganismal biology. We propose linking DEB and quantitative AOP models by interpreting AOP key events as measures of damage-inducing processes in a DEB model. Here, we present a conceptual model for linking AOPs to DEB models and review existing modeling tools available for both AOP and DEB.

  13. The Relationship between Learner Autonomy and Willingness to Communicate (WTC in Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahab Khaki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available WTC is very important for English learners. Without WTC it is impossible to use the target language. On the other hand, developing learner autonomy as the independence in one’s own learning is considered a crucial goal of education. More important than that learner autonomy in WTC is a necessity that has to be considered in language education. In this study, the researcher investigated whether there is any statistically significant relationship between learner autonomy and WTC in Iranian EFL learners. To this end, 77 English learners were homogenized out of 100 advanced learners. A learner autonomy questionnaire and a WTC scale, for measuring trait-like WTC, was given to them; and they were observed, for measuring situational WTC, for 6 sessions. The quantitative data gathered through these instruments were analyzed to determine the degree of correlation between these two constructs. The results demonstrated a significant and strong relationship between learner autonomy and trait-like WTC in Iranian EFL learners and a significant but weak correlation between learner autonomy and situational WTC in Iranian EFL learners. So it can be concluded that a significant relationship between learner autonomy and WTC can be seen in Iranian EFL learners. The regression analysis provided further support for this result.

  14. Physical Training Outcome Predictions With Biomechanics, Part I: Army Physical Fitness Test Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, Bryant L; Negus, Charles H

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Army Basic Combat Training (BCT) is the first step in preparing soldier trainees for the physical demands of the military. Unfortunately, a substantial number of trainees fail BCT due to failure on the final Army Physical Fitness Test (also known as the "end of cycle" APFT). Current epidemiological studies have used statistics to identify several risk factors for poor APFT performance, but these studies have had limited utility for guiding regimen design to maximize APFT outcome. This is because such studies focus on intrinsic risks to APFT failure and do not utilize detailed BCT activity data to build models which offer guidance for optimizing the training regimen to improve graduation rates. In this study, a phenomenological run performance model that accounts for physiological changes in fitness and fatigue due to training was applied to recruits undergoing U.S. Army BCT using high resolution (minute-by-minute) activity data. The phenomenological model was better at predicting both the final as well as intermediate APFTs (R(2) range = 0.55-0.59) compared to linear regression models (LRMs) that used the same intrinsic input variables (R(2) range = 0.36-0.50). Unlike a statistical approach, a phenomenological model accounts for physiological changes and, therefore, has the potential to not only identify trainees at risk of failing BCT on novel training regimens, but offer guidance to regimen planners on how to change the regimen for maximizing physical performance. This paper is Part I of a 2-part series on physical training outcome predictions. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  15. LEARNER AUTONOMY ON ESSAY WRITING ACCURACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hafidz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Learner autonomy on writing is independently teaching and learning that keeps students’ control to explore their knowledge and experiences in written language, find out and evaluate their errors based on the conceptual courses to make accurately simple essay. The aim was to know the effectiveness of the learner autonomy on writing accuracy. This quantitative research conducted in one group pretest and posttest design. The number of samples was 21 students in Bangkalan. The instrument were tests to gain students’ writing score before and after treatment. Researcher statistically analyzed the data using SPSS 23 version by running a Paired Samples Test. The result shown the means of pretes score was 66,83 and posttest score was 74,57, Paired Samples Correlations was 0,614 (strong correlation. Significance was 0,005, it means that  a (0,05 is higher than r value (0,005 with high variance of mean value (14,091. As a result, the hypothesis (H1­ was received that learner autonomy contributed effectively to learners’ in organizing own ideas (Ene, 2006 such as making a topic  map becomes some explanable sub-topics, writing down main and supporting idea, clustering some objects, editing next and learners  absolutely accumulate some selected vocabularies inappropriate topics  (Chengping W, 2008. Keyword: Learner Autonomy, Learning process, outcomes Absrak: Pembelajaran otonomi  adalah pembelajaran mandiri yang mengontrol mahasiswa untuk menyampaikan gagasan dan pengalamannya, mencatat dan mengevaluasi kesalahan yang terjadi dalam penulisan esai sederhana berdasarkan pembelajaran yang tersetruktur. Tujuan adalah untuk mengetahui efektifitas pembelajaran otonomi terhadap akurasi tulisan secara statistik. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan desain tes awal dan akhir. Jumlah sampel terdiri dari 21 siswa di Bangkalan. Isntrumen yang digunakan adalah tes untuk mengetahui hasil nilai mahasiswa sebelum dan sesudah melakukan

  16. A comparative study of four intensive care outcome prediction models in cardiac surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Fabian; Badreldin, Akmal Ma; Heldwein, Matthias B; Bossert, Torsten; Richter, Markus; Lehmann, Thomas; Bayer, Ole; Hekmat, Khosro

    2011-03-01

    Outcome prediction scoring systems are increasingly used in intensive care medicine, but most were not developed for use in cardiac surgery patients. We compared the performance of four intensive care outcome prediction scoring systems (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II [APACHE II], Simplified Acute Physiology Score II [SAPS II], Sequential Organ Failure Assessment [SOFA], and Cardiac Surgery Score [CASUS]) in patients after open heart surgery. We prospectively included all consecutive adult patients who underwent open heart surgery and were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) between January 1st 2007 and December 31st 2008. Scores were calculated daily from ICU admission until discharge. The outcome measure was ICU mortality. The performance of the four scores was assessed by calibration and discrimination statistics. Derived variables (Mean- and Max- scores) were also evaluated. During the study period, 2801 patients (29.6% female) were included. Mean age was 66.9 ± 10.7 years and the ICU mortality rate was 5.2%. Calibration tests for SOFA and CASUS were reliable throughout (p-value not predicted and observed outcome for SAPS II (days 1, 2, 3 and 5) and APACHE II (days 2 and 3). CASUS, and its mean- and maximum-derivatives, discriminated better between survivors and non-survivors than the other scores throughout the study (area under curve ≥ 0.90). In order of best discrimination, CASUS was followed by SOFA, then SAPS II, and finally APACHE II. SAPS II and APACHE II derivatives had discrimination results that were superior to those of the SOFA derivatives. CASUS and SOFA are reliable ICU mortality risk stratification models for cardiac surgery patients. SAPS II and APACHE II did not perform well in terms of calibration and discrimination statistics.

  17. Joint Models of Longitudinal and Time-to-Event Data with More Than One Event Time Outcome: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Graeme L; Philipson, Pete; Jorgensen, Andrea; Kolamunnage-Dona, Ruwanthi

    2018-01-31

    Methodological development and clinical application of joint models of longitudinal and time-to-event outcomes have grown substantially over the past two decades. However, much of this research has concentrated on a single longitudinal outcome and a single event time outcome. In clinical and public health research, patients who are followed up over time may often experience multiple, recurrent, or a succession of clinical events. Models that utilise such multivariate event time outcomes are quite valuable in clinical decision-making. We comprehensively review the literature for implementation of joint models involving more than a single event time per subject. We consider the distributional and modelling assumptions, including the association structure, estimation approaches, software implementations, and clinical applications. Research into this area is proving highly promising, but to-date remains in its infancy.

  18. Conceptualizing and Evaluating Learner Aptitudes Related to Instructional Stimuli in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, William G.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a heuristic model that facilitates the conceptualization of linguistic-imaginal processes and forms the basis for a method of relating learner aptitudes to specific instructional stimuli in science education. (MLH)

  19. Logistic random effects regression models: a comparison of statistical packages for binary and ordinal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baoyue; Lingsma, Hester F; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Lesaffre, Emmanuel

    2011-05-23

    Logistic random effects models are a popular tool to analyze multilevel also called hierarchical data with a binary or ordinal outcome. Here, we aim to compare different statistical software implementations of these models. We used individual patient data from 8509 patients in 231 centers with moderate and severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) enrolled in eight Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) and three observational studies. We fitted logistic random effects regression models with the 5-point Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) as outcome, both dichotomized as well as ordinal, with center and/or trial as random effects, and as covariates age, motor score, pupil reactivity or trial. We then compared the implementations of frequentist and Bayesian methods to estimate the fixed and random effects. Frequentist approaches included R (lme4), Stata (GLLAMM), SAS (GLIMMIX and NLMIXED), MLwiN ([R]IGLS) and MIXOR, Bayesian approaches included WinBUGS, MLwiN (MCMC), R package MCMCglmm and SAS experimental procedure MCMC.Three data sets (the full data set and two sub-datasets) were analysed using basically two logistic random effects models with either one random effect for the center or two random effects for center and trial. For the ordinal outcome in the full data set also a proportional odds model with a random center effect was fitted. The packages gave similar parameter estimates for both the fixed and random effects and for the binary (and ordinal) models for the main study and when based on a relatively large number of level-1 (patient level) data compared to the number of level-2 (hospital level) data. However, when based on relatively sparse data set, i.e. when the numbers of level-1 and level-2 data units were about the same, the frequentist and Bayesian approaches showed somewhat different results. The software implementations differ considerably in flexibility, computation time, and usability. There are also differences in the availability of additional tools for model

  20. Logistic random effects regression models: a comparison of statistical packages for binary and ordinal outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steyerberg Ewout W

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Logistic random effects models are a popular tool to analyze multilevel also called hierarchical data with a binary or ordinal outcome. Here, we aim to compare different statistical software implementations of these models. Methods We used individual patient data from 8509 patients in 231 centers with moderate and severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI enrolled in eight Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs and three observational studies. We fitted logistic random effects regression models with the 5-point Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS as outcome, both dichotomized as well as ordinal, with center and/or trial as random effects, and as covariates age, motor score, pupil reactivity or trial. We then compared the implementations of frequentist and Bayesian methods to estimate the fixed and random effects. Frequentist approaches included R (lme4, Stata (GLLAMM, SAS (GLIMMIX and NLMIXED, MLwiN ([R]IGLS and MIXOR, Bayesian approaches included WinBUGS, MLwiN (MCMC, R package MCMCglmm and SAS experimental procedure MCMC. Three data sets (the full data set and two sub-datasets were analysed using basically two logistic random effects models with either one random effect for the center or two random effects for center and trial. For the ordinal outcome in the full data set also a proportional odds model with a random center effect was fitted. Results The packages gave similar parameter estimates for both the fixed and random effects and for the binary (and ordinal models for the main study and when based on a relatively large number of level-1 (patient level data compared to the number of level-2 (hospital level data. However, when based on relatively sparse data set, i.e. when the numbers of level-1 and level-2 data units were about the same, the frequentist and Bayesian approaches showed somewhat different results. The software implementations differ considerably in flexibility, computation time, and usability. There are also differences in

  1. Physical aggression, compromised social support, and 10-year marital outcomes: Testing a relational spillover model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kieran T; Pasch, Lauri A; Lawrence, Erika; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test a relational spillover model of physical aggression whereby physical aggression affects marital outcomes due to its effects on how spouses ask for and provide support to one another. Newlywed couples (n = 172) reported levels of physical aggression over the past year and engaged in interactions designed to elicit social support; marital adjustment, and stability were assessed periodically over the first 10 years of marriage. Multilevel modeling revealed that negative support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and 10-year marital adjustment levels whereas positive support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and divorce status. These findings emphasize the need to look beyond conflict when explaining how aggression affects relationships and when working with couples with a history of physical aggression who are seeking to improve their relationships. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Examining Teacher Outcomes of the School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Model in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari-Anne Sørlie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Research on teacher outcomes of the School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS model has been scarce. The present study adds to the knowledge base by examining the effects of the Norwegian version of SWPBS (N-PALS on school staffs’ behavior management practices and on their individual and collective efficacy. Questionnaire data were collected from staff and students (Grades 4-7 at four measurement points across four successive school years in 28 intervention schools and 20 comparison schools. Using longitudinal multilevel analyses, indications of positive 3-year main effects of the N-PALS model were observed for staff-reported collective efficacy, self-efficacy, and positive behavior support practices. The intervention effects as measured by Cohen’s d ranged from .14 to .91. The effects on student perceptions of teachers’ behavior management strategies were, however, not consistent with the positive staff ratings. Results are discussed in relation to prior research, future research, and study limitations.

  3. The Effect of Cooperative Learning Model of Teams Games Tournament (TGT) and Students' Motivation toward Physics Learning Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadrah; Tolla, Ismail; Ali, Muhammad Sidin; Muris

    2017-01-01

    This research aims at describing the effect of cooperative learning model of Teams Games Tournament (TGT) and motivation toward physics learning outcome. This research was a quasi-experimental research with a factorial design conducted at SMAN 2 Makassar. Independent variables were learning models. They were cooperative learning model of TGT and…

  4. A Different Approach to Answering a Good Question: A Response to Hewes's Models of Communication Effects on Small Group Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonito, Joseph A.; Sanders, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the authors' response to Hewes's (1986, 1996, 2009) models of communication effects on small group outcomes. As sophisticated and thoughtful as Hewes's new model is, however, the authors take issue with it. For one, there is reason to question whether his approach is feasible. For another, his models are not founded on solid…

  5. Modeling strategy to identify patients with primary immunodeficiency utilizing risk management and outcome measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modell, Vicki; Quinn, Jessica; Ginsberg, Grant; Gladue, Ron; Orange, Jordan; Modell, Fred

    2017-06-01

    This study seeks to generate analytic insights into risk management and probability of an identifiable primary immunodeficiency defect. The Jeffrey Modell Centers Network database, Jeffrey Modell Foundation's 10 Warning Signs, the 4 Stages of Testing Algorithm, physician-reported clinical outcomes, programs of physician education and public awareness, the SPIRIT® Analyzer, and newborn screening, taken together, generates P values of less than 0.05%. This indicates that the data results do not occur by chance, and that there is a better than 95% probability that the data are valid. The objectives are to improve patients' quality of life, while generating significant reduction of costs. The advances of the world's experts aligned with these JMF programs can generate analytic insights as to risk management and probability of an identifiable primary immunodeficiency defect. This strategy reduces the uncertainties related to primary immunodeficiency risks, as we can screen, test, identify, and treat undiagnosed patients. We can also address regional differences and prevalence, age, gender, treatment modalities, and sites of care, as well as economic benefits. These tools support high net benefits, substantial financial savings, and significant reduction of costs. All stakeholders, including patients, clinicians, pharmaceutical companies, third party payers, and government healthcare agencies, must address the earliest possible precise diagnosis, appropriate intervention and treatment, as well as stringent control of healthcare costs through risk assessment and outcome measurement. An affected patient is entitled to nothing less, and stakeholders are responsible to utilize tools currently available. Implementation offers a significant challenge to the entire primary immunodeficiency community.

  6. In vivo outcome study of BPD-mediated PDT using a macroscopic singlet oxygen model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Michele M.; Penjweini, Rozhin; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2015-03-01

    Macroscopic modeling of the apparent reacted singlet oxygen concentration ([1O2]rx) for use with photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been developed and studied for benzoporphryin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD), a common photosensitizer. The four photophysical parameters (ξ, σ, β, δ) and threshold singlet oxygen dose ([1O2]rx, sh) have been investigated and determined using the RIF model of murine fibrosarcomas and interstitial treatment delivery. These parameters are examined and verified further by monitoring tumor growth post-PDT. BPD was administered at 1 mg/kg, and mice were treated 3 hours later with fluence rates ranging between 75 - 150 mW/cm2 and total fluences of 100 - 350 J/cm2. Treatment was delivered superficially using a collimated beam. Changes in tumor volume were tracked following treatment. The tumor growth rate was fitted for each treatment condition group and compared using dose metrics including total light dose, PDT dose, and reacted singlet oxygen. Initial data showing the correlation between outcomes and various dose metrics indicate that reacted singlet oxygen serves as a good dosimetric quantity for predicting PDT outcome.

  7. Models of Workplace Incivility: The Relationships to Instigated Incivility and Negative Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Holm

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate workplace incivility as a social process, examining its components and relationships to both instigated incivility and negative outcomes in the form of well-being, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and sleeping problems. The different components of incivility that were examined were experienced and witnessed incivility from coworkers as well as supervisors. In addition, the organizational factors, social support, control, and job demands, were included in the models. A total of 2871 (2058 women and 813 men employees who were connected to the Swedish Hotel and Restaurant Workers Union completed an online questionnaire. Overall, the results from structural equation modelling indicate that whereas instigated incivility to a large extent was explained by witnessing coworker incivility, negative outcomes were to a high degree explained by experienced supervisor incivility via mediation through perceived low social support, low control, and high job demands. Unexpectedly, the relationships between incivility (experienced coworker and supervisor incivility, as well as witnessed supervisor incivility and instigated incivility were moderated by perceived high control and high social support. The results highlight the importance of including different components of workplace incivility and organizational factors in future studies of the area.

  8. Models of Workplace Incivility: The Relationships to Instigated Incivility and Negative Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Kristoffer; Torkelson, Eva; Bäckström, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate workplace incivility as a social process, examining its components and relationships to both instigated incivility and negative outcomes in the form of well-being, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and sleeping problems. The different components of incivility that were examined were experienced and witnessed incivility from coworkers as well as supervisors. In addition, the organizational factors, social support, control, and job demands, were included in the models. A total of 2871 (2058 women and 813 men) employees who were connected to the Swedish Hotel and Restaurant Workers Union completed an online questionnaire. Overall, the results from structural equation modelling indicate that whereas instigated incivility to a large extent was explained by witnessing coworker incivility, negative outcomes were to a high degree explained by experienced supervisor incivility via mediation through perceived low social support, low control, and high job demands. Unexpectedly, the relationships between incivility (experienced coworker and supervisor incivility, as well as witnessed supervisor incivility) and instigated incivility were moderated by perceived high control and high social support. The results highlight the importance of including different components of workplace incivility and organizational factors in future studies of the area.

  9. A dual-stage moderated mediation model linking authoritarian leadership to follower outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, John M; Shen, Yimo; Chong, Sinhui

    2017-02-01

    Although authoritarian leadership is viewed pejoratively in the literature, in general it is not strongly related to important follower outcomes. We argue that relationships between authoritarian leadership and individual employee outcomes are mediated by perceived insider status, yet in different ways depending on work unit power distance climate and individual role breadth self-efficacy. Results from technology company employees in China largely supported our hypothesized model. We observed negative indirect effects of authoritarian leadership on job performance, affective organizational commitment, and intention to stay among employees in units with relatively low endorsement of power distance, whereas the indirect relationships were not significant among employees in relatively high power distance units. These conditional indirect effects of authoritarian leadership on performance and intention to stay were significantly stronger among employees with relatively high role breadth self-efficacy. We discuss how the model and findings promote understanding of how, and under what circumstances, authoritarian leadership may influence followers' performance and psychological connections to their organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Modelling the results of health promotion activities in Switzerland: development of the Swiss Model for Outcome Classification in Health Promotion and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Brenda; Broesskamp-Stone, Ursel; Ruckstuhl, Brigitte; Ackermann, Günter; Spoerri, Adrian; Cloetta, Bernhard

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes the Model for Outcome Classification in Health Promotion and Prevention adopted by Health Promotion Switzerland (SMOC, Swiss Model for Outcome Classification) and the process of its development. The context and method of model development, and the aim and objectives of the model are outlined. Preliminary experience with application of the model in evaluation planning and situation analysis is reported. On the basis of an extensive literature search, the model is situated within the wider international context of similar efforts to meet the challenge of developing tools to assess systematically the activities of health promotion and prevention.

  11. [Acute kidney injury after pediatric cardiac surgery: risk factors and outcomes. Proposal for a predictive model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Bárbara; Laranjo, Sérgio; Gomes, Inês; Freitas, Isabel; Trigo, Conceição; Fragata, Isabel; Fragata, José; Pinto, Fátima

    2016-02-01

    To characterize the epidemiology and risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI) after pediatric cardiac surgery in our center, to determine its association with poor short-term outcomes, and to develop a logistic regression model that will predict the risk of AKI for the study population. This single-center, retrospective study included consecutive pediatric patients with congenital heart disease who underwent cardiac surgery between January 2010 and December 2012. Exclusion criteria were a history of renal disease, dialysis or renal transplantation. Of the 325 patients included, median age three years (1 day-18 years), AKI occurred in 40 (12.3%) on the first postoperative day. Overall mortality was 13 (4%), nine of whom were in the AKI group. AKI was significantly associated with length of intensive care unit stay, length of mechanical ventilation and in-hospital death (p<0.01). Patients' age and postoperative serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and lactate levels were included in the logistic regression model as predictor variables. The model accurately predicted AKI in this population, with a maximum combined sensitivity of 82.1% and specificity of 75.4%. AKI is common and is associated with poor short-term outcomes in this setting. Younger age and higher postoperative serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and lactate levels were powerful predictors of renal injury in this population. The proposed model could be a useful tool for risk stratification of these patients. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. An interface finite element model can be used to predict healing outcome of bone fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alierta, J A; Pérez, M A; García-Aznar, J M

    2014-01-01

    After fractures, bone can experience different potential outcomes: successful bone consolidation, non-union and bone failure. Although, there are a lot of factors that influence fracture healing, experimental studies have shown that the interfragmentary movement (IFM) is one of the main regulators for the course of bone healing. In this sense, computational models may help to improve the development of mechanical-based treatments for bone fracture healing. Hence, based on this fact, we propose a combined repair-failure mechanistic computational model to describe bone fracture healing. Despite being a simple model, it is able to correctly estimate the time course evolution of the IFM compared to in vivo measurements under different mechanical conditions. Therefore, this mathematical approach is especially suitable for modeling the healing response of bone to fractures treated with different mechanical fixators, simulating realistic clinical conditions. This model will be a useful tool to identify factors and define targets for patient specific therapeutics interventions. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Models of psychological service provision under Australia's Better Outcomes in Mental Health Care program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkis, Jane; Burgess, Philip; Kohn, Fay; Morley, Belinda; Blashki, Grant; Naccarella, Lucio

    2006-08-01

    The Access to Allied Psychological Services component of Australia's Better Outcomes in Mental Health Care program enables eligible general practitioners to refer consumers to allied health professionals for affordable, evidence-based mental health care, via 108 projects conducted by Divisions of General Practice. The current study profiled the models of service delivery across these projects, and examined whether particular models were associated with differential levels of access to services. We found: 76% of projects were retaining their allied health professionals under contract, 28% via direct employment, and 7% some other way; Allied health professionals were providing services from GPs' rooms in 63% of projects, from their own rooms in 63%, from a third location in 42%; and The referral mechanism of choice was direct referral in 51% of projects, a voucher system in 27%, a brokerage system in 24%, and a register system in 25%. Many of these models were being used in combination. No model was predictive of differential levels of access, suggesting that the approach of adapting models to the local context is proving successful.

  14. Social learners require process information to outperform individual learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derex, Maxime; Godelle, Bernard; Raymond, Michel

    2013-03-01

    Humans exhibit a rich and complex material culture with no equivalent in animals. Also, social learning, a crucial requirement for culture, is particularly developed in humans and provides a means to accumulate knowledge over time and to develop advanced technologies. However, the type of social learning required for the evolution of this complex material culture is still debated. Here, using a complex and opaque virtual task, the efficiency of individual learning and two types of social learning (product-copying and process-copying) were compared. We found that (1) individuals from process-copying groups outperformed individuals from product-copying groups or individual learners, whereas access to product information was not a sufficient condition for providing an advantage to social learners compared to individual learners; (2) social learning did not seem to affect the exploration of the fitness landscape; (3) social learning led to strong within-group convergence and also to between-group convergence, and (4) individuals used widely variable social learning strategies. The implications of these results for cumulative culture evolution are discussed. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. The impact of an immersive elective on learners' understanding of lifestyle medicine and its role in patients' lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattison, Melissa J; Nemec, Eric C

    2014-10-15

    To design an immersive, active learning, lifestyle medicine (LM) elective and evaluate its impact on a pharmacy learners' ability to understand the challenges of implementing lifestyle changes. A 3-credit elective was developed that incorporated goal setting and immersion into the realm of LM as experienced by both the patient and the practitioner. Learners were assessed via a survey instrument, formal assignments, reflections, and the Presidential Fitness Challenge. Learners reported that their ability to initiate LM as a primary intervention within a care plan significantly increased after taking this course. They also improved their overall health. By identifying and implementing self-identified lifestyle modifications, learners increased confidence in their abilities to produce evidence-based outcomes for patients. Learners were able to understand the challenges of trying to change their daily habits as they undertook their own personal goals.

  16. Processing morphologically complex words in second-language learners: the effect of proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lijuan; Chen, Baoguo

    2014-07-01

    The present study explored how the processing of morphologically complex words in second-language (L2) learners changes as their proficiency increases. ERPs were recorded from highly proficient and less proficient L2 learners, using the repetition priming paradigm. Three experimental conditions were investigated: morphological related/unrelated pairs, semantically related/unrelated pairs, and form related/unrelated pairs. The presence of priming in each condition was assessed by comparing responses to targets preceded by related primes with those preceded by unrelated primes. ERP results showed that highly proficient L2 learners demonstrated priming effect within 350-550 ms in the morphological condition, associating with an N400 reduction, while less proficient L2 learners showed no morphological priming effect within the N400 range. Besides, form priming effect was observed in both highly proficient and less proficient L2 learners within 400-450 ms and 450-500 ms, and semantic inhibiting effect was observed in both groups within 450-500 ms, suggesting that less proficient L2 learners were equally sensitive to the word form and meaning. The ERP results indicate that highly proficient L2 learners manifest rule-based decomposition, while less proficient L2 learners rely more on lexical storage in processing morphologically complex words. Less proficient L2 learners have not developed the decomposing mechanism, despite their sensitivity to word form and meaning. The way in which morphologically complex words are processed in L2 learners does change as their proficiency increases, validating the predictions of the declarative/procedural model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Multilingual classrooms, language and literacy learners: Global childhoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Vedsgaard; Daugaard, Line Møller; Cox, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    classrooms across the globe and a multifaceted analysis of the multilingual nature of global childhoods. The first paper reports on research study conducted in primary schools in Sydney, Australia which investigated how multilingual children understand their own linguistic practices and how they report...... teaching’ in Dari and Pashto for Afghan children in a Danish primary school. The third paper is based on a Danish intervention study aiming at raising the learning outcomes of multilingual children through mother-tongue-based literacy activities. As part of the intervention, systematic quantitative data......Globalisation processes have resulted in a complex diversification in the group of young language learners in classrooms throughout the world. From Denmark to Australia, learners from multilingual and multiliterate backgrounds are part of everyday life in the classroom, and these global childhoods...

  18. Unskilled work and learner identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Sissel

    The main argument in this paper is: In order to comprehend the ‘invisible’ conditions for forming motivation to participate in different kinds of learning activities (formal, non-formal and informal) in relation to work-life it is crucial to develop a dialectic concept of learner identity....... A concept enabling researcher in the field of work and learning to examine how the orientation toward learning activities are situated in and conditioned by specific work-life experiences. Based on a qualitative research-project (Kondrup 2012) the paper outlines how unskilled work forms a specific condition...... to be least likely to participate in VET, and the long arm of education has significant influence on how people perceive adult education.. The aim of the project was to examine how an unskilled work-life present certain conditions for the formation, maintenance and transformation of a learner identity...

  19. Unskilled Work and Learner Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Sissel

    The paper examines how unskilled work forms conditions for meeting the obligation to position oneself as an educable subject and engage in formal learning activities. Sensitivity to peoples’ work-life-experiences is necessary to understand their orientation toward different learning activities....... The main argument is that participation research must abandon the notion of motivation as an individual attribute and apply a dialectic concept of learner identity acknowledging work-life as a pivotal space for learning and formation of identity. I outline how a work-life-historical approach combining...... a critical theoretical approach inspired by Salling- Olesen’s and Archer’s concepts of identity and concerns can contribute to an understanding of the relationship between work and learner identity. Through narrative work-life interviews I examine how engagement in unskilled work in small and medium sized...

  20. Chronic stress impacts the cardiovascular system: animal models and clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbidi, Saeid; Frisbee, Jefferson C; Laher, Ismail

    2015-06-15

    Psychological stresses are associated with cardiovascular diseases to the extent that cardiovascular diseases are among the most important group of psychosomatic diseases. The longstanding association between stress and cardiovascular disease exists despite a large ambiguity about the underlying mechanisms. An array of possibilities have been proposed including overactivity of the autonomic nervous system and humoral changes, which then converge on endothelial dysfunction that initiates unwanted cardiovascular consequences. We review some of the features of the two most important stress-activated systems, i.e., the humoral and nervous systems, and focus on alterations in endothelial function that could ensue as a result of these changes. Cardiac and hematologic consequences of stress are also addressed briefly. It is likely that activation of the inflammatory cascade in association with oxidative imbalance represents key pathophysiological components of stress-induced cardiovascular changes. We also review some of the commonly used animal models of stress and discuss the cardiovascular outcomes reported in these models of stress. The unique ability of animals for adaptation under stressful conditions lessens the extrapolation of laboratory findings to conditions of human stress. An animal model of unpredictable chronic stress, which applies various stress modules in a random fashion, might be a useful solution to this predicament. The use of stress markers as indicators of stress intensity is also discussed in various models of animal stress and in clinical studies. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. High Ability and Learner Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Hindal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The outstandingly able learner has been conceptualised, in terms of test and examination performance, as the learner showing superior academic performance which is markedly better than that of peers and in ways regarded as of value by wider society. In Kuwait, such superior examination performance leads to a classification regarded as being ‘gifted’. This study looks at the inter-correlations between performance in various subjects in examinations and then considers how examination performance correlates with measures of working memory capacity, extent of field dependency, extent of divergency and visual-spatial abilities. A very large sample of grade 7 Kuwaiti students (aged ~13 was involved, the sample being selected in such a way that it contained a high proportion of those regarded as ‘gifted’ under the procedures used in Kuwait. While specific learner characteristics have been related to examination performance, this study brings four different characteristics together to gain a picture of the way these characteristics may be seen in those who perform extremely well in examinations. Principal components analysis using varimax rotation, was used to look at the examination data and one factor accounted for 87% of the variance. A consideration of the examination papers led to the conclusion that the national examinations tested only recall-recognition. It was also found that those who performed best in all six subjects tended to be those who are highly divergent and strongly visual-spatial as well as those tending to have higher working memory capacities and being more field independent. The inter-correlations between the various learner characteristics are explained in terms of the way the brain is known to process information. The implications of the findings for assessment and for the way high ability is considered are discussed.

  2. Analisis Proses Pembelajaran Matematika pada Anak Berkebutuhan Khusus (ABK Slow Learner di Kelas Inklusif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfian Nur Aziz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui bagaimana proses pembelajaran matematika pada anak berkebutuhan khusus (ABK slow learner di kelas inklusif SMP Negeri 7 Salatiga dalam mencapai keberhasilan belajar. Data penelitian ini adalah mengenai proses pembelajaran matemetika pada anak berkebutuhan khusus slow learner di kelas inklusif. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif. Teknik pengumpulan data menggunakan metode observasi, wawancara, dan studi dokumentasi. Teknik analisis data meliputi pengumpulan data,reduksi data, penyajian data, penarikan kesimpulan dan verifikasi. Berdasarkan hasil analisis diperoleh hasil : (1 Guru mata pelajaran matematika sudah memahami karakterstik siswa slow learner secara umum. Tidak Terdapat perbedaan dalam Rencana Pelaksanan Pembelajaran (RPP namun perencanaan tetap memperhatikan karakteristik siswa slow learner.(2 Dalam pelaksanaan pembelajaran guru melakukan pengkondisian dengan mempersiapkan siswa secara fisik dan psikis. Penggunaan model, metode, media pembelajaran disamakan antara siswa reguler dan slow learner. Dalam pelaksanaan ada metode yang sudah dapat mengakomodir siswa reguler dan siswa slow learner, namun masih ada metode yang membuat siswa slow learner semakin mengalami kesulitan dalam belajar.(3 Kegiatan evaluasi dilakukan ketika satu materi bahasan selesai dan dilakukan denga tes tertulis maupun tes lisan. Hasil evaluasi digunakan sebagai acuan kegiatan tidak lanjut yang dilaksanakan di bimbingan khusus oleh Guru Pendamping Khusus (GPK.This study intends to unveil how mathematics-learning process in disabilities of slow learners in inclusive class of SMP Negeri 7 Salatiga achieves the learning goals. The data of this study is related to mathematics-learning process in disabilities of slow learners in inclusive class. This study employs qualitative method. The techniques of collecting the data are observation, interview, and documentation. The techniques of analysis vary on collecting

  3. Animal models for clinical and gestational diabetes: maternal and fetal outcomes

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    Kiss Ana CI

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes in pregnant women is associated with an increased risk of maternal and neonatal morbidity and remains a significant medical challenge. Diabetes during pregnancy may be divided into clinical diabetes and gestational diabetes. Experimental models are developed with the purpose of enhancing understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of diseases that affect humans. With regard to diabetes in pregnancy, experimental findings from models will lead to the development of treatment strategies to maintain a normal metabolic intrauterine milieu, improving perinatal development by preventing fetal growth restriction or macrosomia. Based on animal models of diabetes during pregnancy previously reported in the medical literature, the present study aimed to compare the impact of streptozotocin-induced severe (glycemia >300 mg/dl and mild diabetes (glycemia between 120 and 300 mg/dl on glycemia and maternal reproductive and fetal outcomes of Wistar rats to evaluate whether the animal model reproduces the maternal and perinatal results of clinical and gestational diabetes in humans. Methods On day 5 of life, 96 female Wistar rats were assigned to three experimental groups: control (n = 16, severe (n = 50 and mild diabetes (n = 30. At day 90 of life, rats were mated. On day 21 of pregnancy, rats were killed and their uterine horns were exposed to count implantation and fetus numbers to determine pre- and post-implantation loss rates. The fetuses were classified according to their birth weight. Results Severe and mild diabetic dams showed different glycemic responses during pregnancy, impairing fetal glycemia and weight, confirming that maternal glycemia is directly associated with fetal development. Newborns from severe diabetic mothers presented growth restriction, but mild diabetic mothers were not associated with an increased rate of macrosomic fetuses. Conclusion Experimental models of severe diabetes during pregnancy

  4. Distinctiveness of Saudi Arabian EFL Learners

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    Manssour Habbash

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs (Preparatory Year Programs in Saudi Arabia. This study examines the distinctiveness with regard to the learning attitudes of Saudi students that are often cultivated by the culture and academic environment in their homeland. Employing an emic approach for collecting the required data an analysis was carried out in light of the other studies on ‘education’ in Saudi Arabia that have particular reference to the factors that can positively influence student motivation, student success and the academic environment. The findings were used in constructing the rationale behind such distinctiveness. Assuming that the outcome of the discussion on the findings of this exploration can be helpful for teachers in adapting their teaching methodology and improving their teacher efficacy in dealing with students both from the kingdom and in the kingdom, some recommendations are made. Keywords: China Distinctiveness, Saudi Arabian University context, Expatriate teachers’ perspective, Distinctiveness Theory

  5. Bayesian semiparametric regression models for evaluating pathway effects on continuous and binary clinical outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inyoung; Pang, Herbert; Zhao, Hongyu

    2013-01-01

    Many statistical methods for microarray data analysis consider one gene at a time, and they may miss subtle changes at the single gene level. This limitation may be overcome by considering a set of genes simultaneously where the gene sets are derived from prior biological knowledge. Limited work has been carried out in the regression setting to study the effects of clinical covariates and expression levels of genes in a pathway either on a continuous or on a binary clinical outcome. Hence, we propose a Bayesian approach for identifying pathways related to both types of outcomes. We compare our Bayesian approaches with a likelihood-based approach that was developed by relating a least squares kernel machine for nonparametric pathway effect with a restricted maximum likelihood for variance components. Unlike the likelihood-based approach, the Bayesian approach allows us to directly estimate all parameters and pathway effects. It can incorporate prior knowledge into Bayesian hierarchical model formulation and makes inference by using the posterior samples without asymptotic theory. We consider several kernels (Gaussian, polynomial, and neural network kernels) to characterize gene expression effects in a pathway on clinical outcomes. Our simulation results suggest that the Bayesian approach has more accurate coverage probability than the likelihood-based approach, and this is especially so when the sample size is small compared with the number of genes being studied in a pathway. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approaches through its applications to a type II diabetes mellitus data set. Our approaches can also be applied to other settings where a large number of strongly correlated predictors are present. PMID:22438129

  6. Lassoing Skill Through Learner Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, Gabriele; Iwatsuki, Takehiro; Machin, Brittney; Kellogg, Jessica; Copeland, Clint; Lewthwaite, Rebecca

    2017-08-30

    The authors examined several issues related to the motor learning benefits resulting from giving learners choices. In 2 experiments, participants practiced a novel task, throwing a lasso. In Experiment 1, giving learners a choice ostensibly irrelevant to performance (color of mat under target) resulted in enhanced learning relative to a control group. The choice group also reported more positive affect. Experiment 2 compared the effectiveness of task-irrelevant (mat color) versus task-relevant (video demonstrations of the skill) choices. In both choice groups, each participant was yoked to a participant in the other group, and each received the same mat color or saw the video demonstration, respectively, as chosen by their counterpart in the other group. In the control group, participants were yoked to their respective counterparts in each of the choice groups. On a retention test, the 2 choice groups did not differ from each other, but both outperformed the control group. The affective and learning effects seen when learners are given choices, and the fact that task-relevant and task-irrelevant choices resulted in similar learning benefits, are consistent with a content-neutral mechanism for the effects of choice on learning, as described in the OPTIMAL theory of motor learning (Wulf & Lewthwaite, 2016 ).

  7. Learner discipline: An Australian perspective

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    D. Stewart

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Australian schools by and large are safe schools. Nonetheless discipline problems do exist – including bullying behaviour. For this kind of problem schools should have management policies in place. As traditional behaviour-management practices – including corporal punishment – are largely prohibited in Australian schools, contemporary practices centre on management through supportive school programmes, including appropriate curricula and school-support structures. This article supports the belief that measures such as the exclusion of misbehaving learners should be treated with caution. Measures such as this might not reflect accepted international principles and practices and should only be exercised in the most extreme circumstances. The article also supports the view that it is part of the school’s role to ensure that all learners are aware of the reality that while they have rights, they also have corresponding responsibilities. This awareness is more likely to be achieved in a supportive school culture where each learner is recognised as having unique qualities that can mature and grow in an appropriate learning environment.

  8. Projections of global health outcomes from 2005 to 2060 using the International Futures integrated forecasting model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Barry B; Kuhn, Randall; Peterson, Cecilia M; Rothman, Dale S; Solórzano, José R; Mathers, Colin D; Dickson, Janet R

    2011-07-01

    To develop an integrated health forecasting model as part of the International Futures (IFs) modelling system. The IFs model begins with the historical relationships between economic and social development and cause-specific mortality used by the Global Burden of Disease project but builds forecasts from endogenous projections of these drivers by incorporating forward linkages from health outcomes back to inputs like population and economic growth. The hybrid IFs system adds alternative structural formulations for causes not well served by regression models and accounts for changes in proximate health risk factors. Forecasts are made to 2100 but findings are reported to 2060. The base model projects that deaths from communicable diseases (CDs) will decline by 50%, whereas deaths from both non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and injuries will more than double. Considerable cross-national convergence in life expectancy will occur. Climate-induced fluctuations in agricultural yield will cause little excess childhood mortality from CDs, although other climate-health pathways were not explored. An optimistic scenario will produce 39 million fewer deaths in 2060 than a pessimistic one. Our forward linkage model suggests that an optimistic scenario would result in a 20% per cent increase in gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, despite one billion additional people. Southern Asia would experience the greatest relative mortality reduction and the largest resulting benefit in per capita GDP. Long-term, integrated health forecasting helps us understand the links between health and other markers of human progress and offers powerful insight into key points of leverage for future improvements.

  9. Disparity of outcomes: the limits of modeling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in murine models and translating results clinically

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    Pierre Zwiegers

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a devastatingly progressive neurodegenerative disorder with multiple underlying etiological factors contributing to disease pathogenesis. Despite intensive research efforts and therapeutic development, disease presentation in ALS remains largely intractable to intervention. To date, the most common rodent model used in pre-clinical drug development accounts for a small proportion of the affected patient population and is predicated upon the significant overexpression of a mutant form of the human antioxidant protein, superoxide dismutase 1 (mSOD1. After more than 50 clinical trials, there is an alarming paucity of positive outcomes at the clinical level of ALS therapeutics with strong supporting pre-clinical data in mSOD1 models. Potential reasons for the negative clinical results are multifactorial in nature and include an overly reductionist model system that is heavily influenced by individual transgene level variation, as well as attempting to widely apply findings derived from a model of specific genetic causality to a patient population where the majority of cases are of unknown etiology. With such a tremendous disease burden and a lack of therapeutic options, it is critical that the research community re-evaluate the dependence on mSOD1 pre-clinical models as the gold standard prior to translating findings at the clinical level. Here we briefly review both the clinical and pre-clinical findings of select therapeutics, discuss the limitations of pre-clinical mSOD1 models, and suggest future stratagems that could aid in the clinical translation of efficacious therapeutic agents. Supplementary files: The supplementary files of this article are found under 'Article Tools' at the right  side bar.

  10. Evaluating the Outcomes of Students’ Training in the Context of Information Technology Model of Education

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    B. Y. Staritchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the urgent problem of estimating the students training quality in higher educational institutions; the authors emphasize the need for transition to the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS corresponding with the Bologna Declaration in order to provide both academic and labor mobility of students and university graduates. The system of credit accumulation is described according to the ECTS grading scale along with the specifics of its implementation in the Russian universities. However, as the statistic success criterion can not be applied to the Russian higher schools, the author recommends using the percentage of a performed task as the outcome index indicating the discipline mastering. The algorithm of academic activity and its outcome estimation is observed in the framework of the IT-educational model. The examples of planning the content of the discipline basic minimum are given along with the complexity valuation, timing and credit distribution. The formula for identifying the volume and individual task assessment are given; the possibility of combining the national assessment scale with ECTS is denoted.

  11. Cancer imaging phenomics toolkit: quantitative imaging analytics for precision diagnostics and predictive modeling of clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davatzikos, Christos; Rathore, Saima; Bakas, Spyridon; Pati, Sarthak; Bergman, Mark; Kalarot, Ratheesh; Sridharan, Patmaa; Gastounioti, Aimilia; Jahani, Nariman; Cohen, Eric; Akbari, Hamed; Tunc, Birkan; Doshi, Jimit; Parker, Drew; Hsieh, Michael; Sotiras, Aristeidis; Li, Hongming; Ou, Yangming; Doot, Robert K; Bilello, Michel; Fan, Yong; Shinohara, Russell T; Yushkevich, Paul; Verma, Ragini; Kontos, Despina

    2018-01-01

    The growth of multiparametric imaging protocols has paved the way for quantitative imaging phenotypes that predict treatment response and clinical outcome, reflect underlying cancer molecular characteristics and spatiotemporal heterogeneity, and can guide personalized treatment planning. This growth has underlined the need for efficient quantitative analytics to derive high-dimensional imaging signatures of diagnostic and predictive value in this emerging era of integrated precision diagnostics. This paper presents cancer imaging phenomics toolkit (CaPTk), a new and dynamically growing software platform for analysis of radiographic images of cancer, currently focusing on brain, breast, and lung cancer. CaPTk leverages the value of quantitative imaging analytics along with machine learning to derive phenotypic imaging signatures, based on two-level functionality. First, image analysis algorithms are used to extract comprehensive panels of diverse and complementary features, such as multiparametric intensity histogram distributions, texture, shape, kinetics, connectomics, and spatial patterns. At the second level, these quantitative imaging signatures are fed into multivariate machine learning models to produce diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers. Results from clinical studies in three areas are shown: (i) computational neuro-oncology of brain gliomas for precision diagnostics, prediction of outcome, and treatment planning; (ii) prediction of treatment response for breast and lung cancer, and (iii) risk assessment for breast cancer.

  12. Patterns of Use of an Agent-Based Model and a System Dynamics Model: The Application of Patterns of Use and the Impacts on Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kate; Reimann, Peter

    2010-01-01

    A classification system that was developed for the use of agent-based models was applied to strategies used by school-aged students to interrogate an agent-based model and a system dynamics model. These were compared, and relationships between learning outcomes and the strategies used were also analysed. It was found that the classification system…

  13. Association of automated data collection and data completeness with outcomes of intensive care. A new customised model for outcome prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinikainen, M; Mussalo, P; Hovilehto, S; Uusaro, A; Varpula, T; Kari, A; Pettilä, V

    2012-10-01

    The Finnish Intensive Care Consortium coordinates a national intensive care benchmarking programme. Clinical information systems (CISs) that collect data automatically are widely used. The aim of this study was to explore whether the severity of illness-adjusted hospital mortality of Finnish intensive care unit (ICU) patients has changed in recent years and whether the changes reflect genuine improvements in the quality of care or are explained by changes in measuring severity of illness. We retrospectively analysed data collected prospectively to the database of the Consortium. During the years 2001-2008, there were 116,065 admissions to the participating ICUs. We excluded readmissions, cardiac surgery patients, patients under 18 years of age and those discharged from an ICU to another hospital's ICU. The study population comprised 85,547 patients. The Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) was used to measure severity of illness and to calculate standardised mortality ratios (SMRs, the number of observed deaths divided by the number of expected deaths). The overall hospital mortality rate was 18.4%. The SAPS II-based SMRs were 0.74 in 2001-2004 and 0.64 in 2005-2008. The severity of illness-adjusted odds of death were 24% lower in 2005-2008 than in 2001-2004. One fifth of this computational difference could be explained by differences in data completeness and the automation of data collection with a CIS. The use of a CIS and improving data completeness do decrease severity-adjusted mortality rates. However, this explains only one fifth of the improvement in measured outcomes of intensive care in Finland. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica © 2012 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  14. Computational Models for Predicting Outcomes of Neuroprosthesis Implantation: the Case of Cochlear Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceresa, Mario; Mangado, Nerea; Andrews, Russell J; Gonzalez Ballester, Miguel A

    2015-10-01

    Electrical stimulation of the brain has resulted in the most successful neuroprosthetic techniques to date: deep brain stimulation (DBS) and cochlear implants (CI). In both cases, there is a lack of pre-operative measures to predict the outcomes after implantation. We argue that highly detailed computational models that are specifically tailored for a patient can provide useful information to improve the precision of the nervous system electrode interface. We apply our framework to the case of CI, showing how we can predict nerve response for patients with both intact and degenerated nerve fibers. Then, using the predicted response, we calculate a metric for the usefulness of the stimulation protocol and use this information to rerun the simulations with better parameters.

  15. A Corpus-Based Discourse Information Analysis of Chinese EFL Learners' Autonomy in Legal Case Brief Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinshi

    2017-01-01

    Legal case brief writing is pedagogically important yet insufficiently discussed for Chinese EFL learners majoring in law. Based on process genre approach and discourse information theory (DIT), the present study designs a corpus-based analytical model for Chinese EFL learners' autonomy in legal case brief writing and explores the process of case…

  16. Assessing correlation of clustered mixed outcomes from a multivariate generalized linear mixed model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiang-Chun; Wehrly, Thomas E

    2015-02-20

    The classic concordance correlation coefficient measures the agreement between two variables. In recent studies, concordance correlation coefficients have been generalized to deal with responses from a distribution from the exponential family using the univariate generalized linear mixed model. Multivariate data arise when responses on the same unit are measured repeatedly by several methods. The relationship among these responses is often of interest. In clustered mixed data, the correlation could be present between repeated measurements either within the same observer or between different methods on the same subjects. Indices for measuring such association are needed. This study proposes a series of indices, namely, intra-correlation, inter-correlation, and total correlation coefficients to measure the correlation under various circumstances in a multivariate generalized linear model, especially for joint modeling of clustered count and continuous outcomes. The proposed indices are natural extensions of the concordance correlation coefficient. We demonstrate the methodology with simulation studies. A case example of osteoarthritis study is provided to illustrate the use of these proposed indices. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. FAR FROM THE CITY LIGHTS: ENGLISH READING PERFORMANCE OF ESL LEARNERS IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF RURAL PRIMARY SCHOOL

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    Tintswalo Manyike

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the findings of a research study, in which the English reading performances of Grade 7 English Second Language (ESL learners in four different types of rural primary school which use English as the language of learning and teaching (LoLT were observed, are examined and how poor scores can be partly explained by the social context of learners and schools is explored. Although the Language in Education Policy in South Africa seeks to distribute and maintain the linguistic capital of the official languages through its support of multilingualism, the predominant preference for English as the LoLT in schooling disadvantages most ESL learners and perpetuates inequality in learner outcomes. This situation is exacerbated in certain school contexts such as those in rural settings. Bourdieu’s theory of linguistic capital and Coleman’s distinction between school social capital and home social capital are used as theoretical frameworks to the empirical inquiry undertaken in this study. The findings indicate a difference in the grammar and comprehension scores of learners in the respective participating schools as well as a sharp difference in the performance of learners in the different types of school involved. This suggests the current use of English as the LoLT does not mean that linguistic capital is equally distributed throughout schools. School type can thus act as an agent of cultural reproduction which influences learner outcomes.

  18. Strategy-Based Instruction: A Learner-Focused Approach to Developing Learner Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Le Thi Cam; Gu, Yongqi

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of strategy-based instruction (SBI) on the promotion of learner autonomy (LA). LA was conceptualized and operationally defined as learner self-initiation and learner self-regulation. An intervention study was conducted with the participation of 37 students in an experimental group, and 54 students in two control…

  19. Learner Councils in South African Schools: Adult Involvement and Learners' Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Frances

    2014-01-01

    Each secondary school in South Africa is legally obliged to establish a representative council of learners, a democratically elected, learner-only council. This article looks at how the representative councils of learners are realised in practice in four secondary schools. Three research questions focus on the practice of representative councils…

  20. Re-Awakening the Learner: Creating Learner-Centric, Standards-Driven Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Copper; Giddings, Gene

    2012-01-01

    Transformation of public education requires the reawakening of the sleeping giant in the room: the learners. Students, teachers, and principals must develop a learner-centric, standards-driven school. "Reawakening the Learner" is a guide to creating just such an environment. Continua describe the journey of teachers, teacher leaders, and…

  1. Why Do Learners Choose Online Learning: The Learners' Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgaz, Hale; Gulbahar, Yasemin

    2017-01-01

    Offering many advantages to adult learners, e-Learning is now being recognized--and preferred--by more and more people, resulting in an increased number of distance learners in recent years. Numerous research studies focus on learner preferences for online learning, with most converging around the individual characteristics and differences, if not…

  2. Outcomes of an innovative model of acute delirium care: the Geriatric Monitoring Unit (GMU

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    Chong MS

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mei Sian Chong, Mark Chan, Laura Tay, Yew Yoong Ding Department of Geriatric Medicine, Institute of Geriatrics and Active Ageing, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore Objective: Delirium is associated with poor outcomes following acute hospitalization. The Geriatric Monitoring Unit (GMU is a specialized five-bedded unit for acute delirium care. It is modeled after the Delirium Room program, with adoption of core interventions from the Hospital Elder Life Program and use of evening light therapy to consolidate circadian rhythms and improve sleep in older inpatients. This study examined whether the GMU program improved outcomes in delirious patients. Method: A total of 320 patients, including 47 pre-GMU, 234 GMU, and 39 concurrent control subjects, were studied. Clinical characteristics, cognitive status, functional status (Modified Barthel Index [MBI], and chemical restraint-use data were obtained. We also looked at in-hospital complications of falls, pressure ulcers, nosocomial infection rate, and discharge destination. Secondary outcomes of family satisfaction (for the GMU subjects were collected. Results: There were no significant demographic differences between the three groups. Pre-GMU subjects had longer duration of delirium and length of stay. MBI improvement was most evident in the GMU compared with pre-GMU and control subjects (19.2±18.3, 7.5±11.2, 15.1±18.0, respectively (P<0.05. The GMU subjects had a zero restraint rate, and pre-GMU subjects had higher antipsychotic dosages. This translated to lower pressure ulcer and nosocomial infection rate in the GMU (4.1% and 10.7%, respectively and control (1.3% and 7.7%, respectively subjects compared with the pre-GMU (9.1% and 23.4%, respectively subjects (P<0.05. No differences were observed in mortality or discharge destination among the three groups. Caregivers of GMU subjects felt the multicomponent intervention to be useful, with scheduled activities voted the most beneficial in patient

  3. Second language listening difficulties perceived by low-level learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anna C-S; Wu, Bill Wen-Pin; Pang, Jerry C-L

    2013-04-01

    The purpose was the develop a questionnaire to identify the specific listening difficulties of second language (L2) learners. Based on previous research, a questionnaire containing 31 items was developed and administered to 1,056 college freshmen. The whole sample was split randomly into two subsamples, each containing 528 cases. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to analyse the first subsample, and six factors were extracted, explaining a total of 57.1% of variance. To test the factor model, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted with the second subsample. Various fit indices were examined. The best fitting model for the data was a 23-item, six-factor model representing text, input channel and surroundings, relevance, listener, speaker, and task. Apart from the listener factor, all components are external ones and deemed to be uncontrollable by listeners. L2 learners must take an active role in listening practice to overcome L2 listening difficulties.

  4. South African Law and Policy Regulating Learner Absenteeism at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Packard Bell

    Keywords: ecosystemic theory; learner absenteeism; management approach; South African law and policy ..... System (DoE, 2001). An inclusive education sys- tem supports an ecosystemic management approach to learner absenteeism, acknowledging the .... promote open communication, and help the learner.

  5. Use of games as a learner-centered strategy in gerontology, geriatrics, and aging-related courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmall, Vicki; Grabinski, C Joanne; Bowman, Sally

    2008-01-01

    Based on their experience as designers and/or users of games as a learner-centered strategy in gerontology, geriatric, and aging-related courses and training programs, the authors note multiple advantages of using games as a learning tool, list six relevant games (including order information), and suggest a variety of ways games can be used. They offer guidelines to apply in selecting appropriate games and discuss key aspects of the instructor or facilitator's role in preparing learners for game playing, monitoring game play, and debriefing students once game play has ended. Outcomes for learners and course instructors are shared.

  6. Consistencies far beyond chance: an analysis of learner preconceptions of reflective symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kainose Mhlolo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on regularities observed in learners' preconceptions of reflective symmetry. Literature suggests that the very existence of such regularities indicates a gap between what learners know and what they need to know. Such a gap inhibits further understanding and application, and hence needed to be investigated. A total of 235 Grade 11 learners, from 13 high schools that participate in the First Rand Foundation-funded Mathematics Education project in the Eastern Cape, responded to a task on reflective symmetry. Our framework for analysing the responses was based on the taxonomy of structure of the observed learning outcome. The results indicated that 85% of learner responses reflect a motion understanding of reflections, where learners considered geometric figures as physical motions on top of the plane. While this understanding is useful in some cases, it is not an essential aspect of mapping understanding, which is critical for application in function notations and other analytical geometry contexts. We suggest that if this gap is to be closed, learners need to construct these reflections physically so that they may think of reflections beyond motion.

  7. Supporting a Learner Community with Software Agents

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    Pierre Tchounikine

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a multi- agent approach that aims at supporting learners involved in a collective activity. We consider pedagogical situations where students have to explicitly define the articulation of their collective work and then achieve the different tasks they have defined. Our objective is to support these students by taking some of these tasks in charge whilst making them work out such organisation features. For this purpose, we propose to consider that the group of students forms a multi- agent system and to introduce software agents that can achieve some of the tasks within this group. This conducts students to tackle the problem in terms of human and software agent coordination. We present how this approach can be conceptualized and modelled using Engeström’s triangle, how task delegation can be used as a means to enable students to define the software agents’ behaviour and the multi-agent implementation we propose.

  8. High school learners' mental construction during solving optimisation problems in Calculus: a South African case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deonarain Brijlall

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative case study in a rural school in Umgungundlovu District in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, explored Grade 12 learners' mental constructions of mathematical knowledge during engagement with optimisation problems. Ten Grade 12 learners who do pure Mathematics participated, and data were collected through structured activity sheets and semi-structured interviews. Structured activity sheets with three tasks were given to learners; these tasks were done in groups, and the group leaders were interviewed. It was found that learners tended to do well with routine-type questions, implying that they were functioning at an action level. From the interviews it appeared that learners might have the correct answer, but lacked conceptual understanding. Exploring learners' mental constructions via their responses to activity sheets and interviews enabled common errors and misconceptions to be identified. Themes that emerged were that learners: 1 lacked the understanding of notation dy/dx, 2 had not constructed the derivative and minima/maxima schema, 3 had some difficulty in modelling problems, 4 preferred rules and formulas, and 5 applied algebraic notions incorrectly. Inferences are drawn for curriculum developers and teachers. This study also formulated itemised genetic decompositions for particular tasks, which contribute to APOS theory.

  9. A dual process model of diversity outcomes: The case of the South African Police Service in the Pretoria area

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, L.T.B.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Molokoane, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    Orientation: The study addresses the question of how employees of the South African Police Service (SAPS) cope with intercultural relations in an increasingly diverse organisation. Research purpose: A dual-process model of diversity outcomes was tested in which a distinction is made between a positive (work-related) stream that links positive diversity conditions through active coping to work outcomes and a relatively independent health related) stream of negative antecedents, mediating passi...

  10. A dual–purpose model of diversity outcomes: the case South African police service in the Pretoria area

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Leon T.B.; Molokoane, Davey H.; Van de Vijver, Fons J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Orientation: The study addresses the question of how employees of the South African Police Service (SAPS) cope with intercultural relations in an increasingly diverse organisation. Research purpose: A dual-process model of diversity outcomes was tested in which a distinction is made between a positive (work-related) stream that links positive diversity conditions through active coping to work outcomes and a relatively independent (healthrelated) stream of negative antecedents, ...

  11. A dual-process model of diversity outcomes: The case South African police service in the Pretoria area

    OpenAIRE

    Leon T.B. Jackson; Fons J.R. van de Vijver; Davey H. Molokoane

    2013-01-01

    Orientation: The study addresses the question of how employees of the South African Police Service (SAPS) cope with intercultural relations in an increasingly diverse organisation.Research purpose: A dual-process model of diversity outcomes was tested in which a distinction is made between a positive (work-related) stream that links positive diversity conditions through active coping to work outcomes and a relatively independent health related) stream of negative antecedents, mediating passiv...

  12. Learner Satisfaction in Online Learning: An Analysis of the Perceived Impact of Learner-Social Media and Learner-Instructor Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jeffery C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between general course satisfaction, learner-instructor interaction, and the learner-social media interaction scores of participants. This study used an online survey with 60 questions to gather the participants' demographic data, learner-instructor interaction data, learner-social…

  13. Learner-Generated Noticing Behavior by Novice Learners: Tracing the Effects of Learners' L1 on Their Emerging L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Sung

    2013-01-01

    This study examines novice learners' self-generated input noticing approaches and strategies. It is motivated by previous research on input enhancement which yielded insights that learners are naturally prone to notice certain aspects of L2 input on their own without any external means to channel their attention. Two L1 groups (Japanese and…

  14. Regression models for linking patterns of growth to a later outcome: infant growth and childhood overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Wills

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regression models are widely used to link serial measures of anthropometric size or changes in size to a later outcome. Different parameterisations of these models enable one to target different questions about the effect of growth, however, their interpretation can be challenging. Our objective was to formulate and classify several sets of parameterisations by their underlying growth pattern contrast, and to discuss their utility using an expository example. Methods We describe and classify five sets of model parameterisations in accordance with their underlying growth pattern contrast (conditional growth; being bigger v being smaller; becoming bigger and staying bigger; growing faster v being bigger; becoming and staying bigger versus being bigger. The contrasts are estimated by including different sets of repeated measures of size and changes in size in a regression model. We illustrate these models in the setting of linking infant growth (measured on 6 occasions: birth, 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months in weight-for-height-for-age z-scores to later childhood overweight at 8y using complete cases from the Norwegian Childhood Growth study (n = 900. Results In our expository example, conditional growth during all periods, becoming bigger in any interval and staying bigger through infancy, and being bigger from birth were all associated with higher odds of later overweight. The highest odds of later overweight occurred for individuals who experienced high conditional growth or became bigger in the 3 to 6 month period and stayed bigger, and those who were bigger from birth to 24 months. Comparisons between periods and between growth patterns require large sample sizes and need to consider how to scale associations to make comparisons fair; with respect to the latter, we show one approach. Conclusion Studies interested in detrimental growth patterns may gain extra insight from reporting several sets of growth pattern

  15. Use of learning models and media regarding reproductive health attitudes and reproductive system learning outcomes in senior high schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isoh Sukaesah, Rusdi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Model and learning media is an important component that may affect the achievement of learning objectives. Model selection and appropriate learning media can improve student learning outcomes both in the cognitive and affective domains. This study was aimed to examine the effect of the learning model Think Pair Share (TPS, Student Team Achievement Division (STAD and Conventional learning model and the interaction model and learning media attitude towards reproductive health and student learning outcomes in the material reproductive system. The study was conducted at XI MIA grade students in four Senior High Schools in North Jakarta the academic year 2014/2015. Data were collected through the test instrument scale reproductive health attitudes and learning outcomes instruments reproductive system. Data were analyzed by Two-Way ANOVA and Tukey Test. The results showed that the use of models and instructional media and the interaction between the model and learning media significantly influence the attitude of reproductive health and learning outcomes of the reproductive system of high school students with a significance value (p<  = 0.01.

  16. Boolean network model for cancer pathways: predicting carcinogenesis and targeted therapy outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman F Fumiã

    Full Text Available A Boolean dynamical system integrating the main signaling pathways involved in cancer is constructed based on the currently known protein-protein interaction network. This system exhibits stationary protein activation patterns--attractors--dependent on the cell's microenvironment. These dynamical attractors were determined through simulations and their stabilities against mutations were tested. In a higher hierarchical level, it was possible to group the network attractors into distinct cell phenotypes and determine driver mutations that promote phenotypic transitions. We find that driver nodes are not necessarily central in the network topology, but at least they are direct regulators of central components towards which converge or through which crosstalk distinct cancer signaling pathways. The predicted drivers are in agreement with those pointed out by diverse census of cancer genes recently performed for several human cancers. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that cell phenotypes can evolve towards full malignancy through distinct sequences of accumulated mutations. In particular, the network model supports routes of carcinogenesis known for some tumor types. Finally, the Boolean network model is employed to evaluate the outcome of molecularly targeted cancer therapies. The major find is that monotherapies were additive in their effects and that the association of targeted drugs is necessary for cancer eradication.

  17. Transforming Healthcare Delivery: Integrating Dynamic Simulation Modelling and Big Data in Health Economics and Outcomes Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Deborah A; Burgos-Liz, Lina; Pasupathy, Kalyan S; Padula, William V; IJzerman, Maarten J; Wong, Peter K; Higashi, Mitchell K; Engbers, Jordan; Wiebe, Samuel; Crown, William; Osgood, Nathaniel D

    2016-02-01

    In the era of the Information Age and personalized medicine, healthcare delivery systems need to be efficient and patient-centred. The health system must be responsive to individual patient choices and preferences about their care, while considering the system consequences. While dynamic simulation modelling (DSM) and big data share characteristics, they present distinct and complementary value in healthcare. Big data and DSM are synergistic-big data offer support to enhance the application of dynamic models, but DSM also can greatly enhance the value conferred by big data. Big data can inform patient-centred care with its high velocity, volume, and variety (the three Vs) over traditional data analytics; however, big data are not sufficient to extract meaningful insights to inform approaches to improve healthcare delivery. DSM can serve as a natural bridge between the wealth of evidence offered by big data and informed decision making as a means of faster, deeper, more consistent learning from that evidence. We discuss the synergies between big data and DSM, practical considerations and challenges, and how integrating big data and DSM can be useful to decision makers to address complex, systemic health economics and outcomes questions and to transform healthcare delivery.

  18. Assessing Efficiency of Prompts Based on Learner Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Backhaus

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Personalized prompting research has shown the significant learning benefit of prompting. The current paper outlines and examines a personalized prompting approach aimed at eliminating performance differences on the basis of a number of learner characteristics (capturing learning strategies and traits. The learner characteristics of interest were the need for cognition, work effort, computer self-efficacy, the use of surface learning, and the learner’s confidence in their learning. The approach was tested in two e-modules, using similar assessment forms (experimental n = 413; control group n = 243. Several prompts which corresponded to the learner characteristics were implemented, including an explanation prompt, a motivation prompt, a strategy prompt, and an assessment prompt. All learning characteristics were significant correlates of at least one of the outcome measures (test performance, errors, and omissions. However, only the assessment prompt increased test performance. On this basis, and drawing upon the testing effect, this prompt may be a particularly promising option to increase performance in e-learning and similar personalized systems.

  19. Simulation in Undergraduate Psychiatry: Exploring the Depth of Learner Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdool, Petal S; Nirula, Latika; Bonato, Sarah; Rajji, Tarek K; Silver, Ivan L

    2017-04-01

    Simulation-based methodologies are increasingly used in undergraduate medical education to expand students' exposure to complex clinical scenarios. Engagement of students in these simulation-based methodologies is a key determinant of their success in learning. Thus, the authors conducted a systematic review to (1) identify simulation methods in use within the undergraduate psychiatry curriculum and (2) assess learner engagement using these methods. Following a PRISMA methodology, the authors searched MEDLINE, ERIC, and PsychINFO databases from 1977 to 2015. Studies applying simulation in undergraduate psychiatric education were reviewed. The depth of learner engagement was assessed using Kolb's four-stage learning cycle. Of 371 publications identified, 63 met all the inclusion criteria: 48 used standardized patients and 16 used online or virtual learning case modules. Only one study used high fidelity mannequins. Three studies satisfied multiple stages in Kolb's Learning Cycle, including a single study that addressed all four domains. Despite the varied uses of simulation across other health disciplines, there were few novel or innovative uses of simulation in undergraduate psychiatric education since the last review in 2008. Expanding on the use of simulation to improve communication, build empathy, and decrease stigma in psychiatry is essential given the relevance to all facets of medical practice. Given the complexity of psychiatry, simulation interventions should extend beyond communication scenarios. Medical students need more opportunities to reflect and debrief on simulation experiences and integrate learning into new contexts. Faculty development should focus on these novel approaches to simulation to deeply engage learners and enhance outcomes.

  20. Preoperative Cognitive Impairment As a Predictor of Postoperative Outcomes in a Collaborative Care Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietlow, Kahli; McDonald, Shelley R; Sloane, Richard; Browndyke, Jeffrey; Lagoo-Deenadayalan, Sandhya; Heflin, Mitchell T

    2018-01-13

    To compare postoperative outcomes of individuals with and without cognitive impairment enrolled in the Perioperative Optimization of Senior Health (POSH) program at Duke University, a comanagement model involving surgery, anesthesia, and geriatrics. Retrospective analysis of individuals enrolled in a quality improvement program. Tertiary academic center. Older adults undergoing surgery and referred to POSH (N = 157). Cognitive impairment was defined as a score less than 25 out of 30 (adjusted for education) on the St. Louis University Mental Status (SLUMS) Examination. Median length of stay (LOS), mean number of postoperative complications, rates of postoperative delirium (POD, %), 30-day readmissions (%), and discharge to home (%) were compared using bivariate analysis. Seventy percent of participants met criteria for cognitive impairment (mean SLUMS score 20.3 for those with cognitive impairment and 27.7 for those without). Participants with and without cognitive impairment did not significantly differ in demographic characteristics, number of medications (including anticholinergics and benzodiazepines), or burden of comorbidities. Participants with and without cognitive impairment had similar LOS (P = .99), cumulative number of complications (P = .70), and 30-day readmission (P = .20). POD was more common in those with cognitive impairment (31% vs 24%), but the difference was not significant (P = .34). Participants without cognitive impairment had higher rates of discharge to home (80.4% vs 65.1%, P = .05). Older adults with and without cognitive impairment referred to the POSH program fared similarly on most postoperative outcomes. Individuals with cognitive impairment may benefit from perioperative geriatric comanagement. Questions remain regarding the validity of available measures of cognition in the preoperative period. © 2018, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2018, The American Geriatrics Society.

  1. The Value of the Model of a Socially Integral Teaching/Learning Environment in the Classroom from the Point of View of Learners Who Tend to Socially Withdraw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyburiene, Laima; Navickiene, Gemma

    2015-01-01

    The article gives a review of the investigations publicised in the scientific papers of various countries, which reveal the increase in social closure and analyse the problematic conception of social withdrawal; introduces the theoretical (ideal) model of a socially integral teaching/learning environment in the classroom; uncovers its impact on…

  2. THE EFFECT OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING MODEL GROUP INVESTIGATION TOWARD LEARNING OUTCOMES PHYSICS VIEWED FROM LOGICAL THINKING ABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Sari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research to determine: the results of physics learning with cooperative learning model type group investigation and conventional learning, learning outcomes physics that has the ability to think logically above average and the ability to think logically below the average as well as the interaction model of cooperative learning type group investigation and the ability to think logically in influencing the outcomes of learning physics. This research is quasi experimental. Technique that used to gain a sample is random cluster sampling. The instrument used is the science process skills test and test critical thinking skills.The results showed that: the learning outcomes of physics with cooperative learning model type group investigation better than conventional learning, learning outcomes physics that has the ability to think logically above average better than students who have the ability to think logically is below average and there is no interaction among cooperative learning model type group investigation and logical thinking skills in influencing the outcomes of learning physics.

  3. Increasing the Vocabulary Acquisition Rate for Third Grade English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergrass, Jennifer D.

    2017-01-01

    Given the ongoing demographic transformations of U.S classrooms, knowledge of the strategies teachers use to address the vocabulary needs of English language learners (ELLs) is central for improving student outcomes. The problem in a Georgia school system was that ELLs were not building grade-level appropriate vocabulary at a pace comparable to…

  4. The Impact and Implications of Virtual Character Expressiveness on Learning and Agent-Learner Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veletsianos, G.

    2009-01-01

    The possible benefits of agent expressiveness have been highlighted in previous literature; yet, the issue of verbal expressiveness has been left unexplored. I hypothesize that agent verbal expressiveness may improve the interaction between pedagogical agents and learners, ultimately enhancing learning outcomes. Evidence from a quasi-experimental…

  5. English Language Learners and Kindergarten Entry Age: Achievement and Social-Emotional Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Michael; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Datar, Ashlesha

    2016-01-01

    In evaluating the role of kindergarten entry age, previous researchers have not examined the entry-age effects for English language learners (ELL). Additionally, little work has assessed the role of entry age on both achievement and social-emotional outcomes. This study is the first to do both simultaneously. The authors used data from a…

  6. Demonstrating Empathy: A Phenomenological Study of Instructional Designers Making Instructional Strategy Decisions for Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Linda S.

    2017-01-01

    Instructional designers are tasked with making instructional strategy decisions to facilitate achievement of learning outcomes as part of their professional responsibilities. While the instructional design process includes learner analysis, that analysis alone does not embody opportunities to assist instructional designers with demonstrations of…

  7. Embracing Student Experience in Inclusive Design Education through Learner-Centred Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Burçak; Ballice, Gülnur; Bengisu, Ebru; Alkan-Korkmaz, Sevinç; Paykoç, Eda

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the process and outcome of using learner-centred methods to develop students' empathic design abilities during an educational workshop on inclusive design. In the first section of the paper, we suggest the significance of incorporating inclusive design within the education of design disciplines. Then, we introduce a workshop on…

  8. Evaluation of Intelligent Grouping Based on Learners' Collaboration Competence Level in Online Collaborative Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muuro, Maina Elizaphan; Oboko, Robert; Wagacha, Waiganjo Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we explore the impact of an intelligent grouping algorithm based on learners' collaborative competency when compared with (a) instructor based Grade Point Average (GPA) method level and (b) random method, on group outcomes and group collaboration problems in an online collaborative learning environment. An intelligent grouping…

  9. EFL Learners' Vocabulary Consolidation Strategy Use and Corresponding Performance on Vocabulary Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ying-Chun

    2016-01-01

    This study describes English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners' use of vocabulary consolidation strategies and explores the connection between strategy use and vocabulary learning outcomes. This study included 218 participants who were students from five freshman English classes at a university in Taiwan. Students' self-reports on their use of…

  10. Factors Impacting Students' Online Learning Experience in a Learner-Centred Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Technologies bring a new era of content presentation for online teaching and learning. With more instructors adopting new tools to design online teaching materials, students are often put into learning contexts with certain new design components. Assessing learner experience and outcome in these contexts is challenging because of the complexity…

  11. Self-Determined Learning to Motivate Struggling Learners in Reading and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Shogren, Karrie A.; Toste, Jessica R.; Mahal, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Promoting self-determined learning through student-directed learning strategies has been documented to promote more positive school-related outcomes for upper elementary grade learners with disabilities and other students who are struggling. These strategies are typically introduced in multicomponent interventions combining several…

  12. Reasons for Errors Done by Belarusian Learners Learning Turkish as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tum, Gulden

    2012-01-01

    Teaching Turkish as a Foreign Language (TFL) has gained importance recently and several studies are carried out in this field. Especially, learners of linguistically different communities (Byelorussian/Russian) are observed to make errors while learning Turkish. If making errors is an integral outcome in learning a TFL, then to what extent is it…

  13. The Effect of Flexible Learning Schedule on Online Learners' Learning, Application, and Instructional Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Doo H.

    2004-01-01

    Learning style has been an important area of study to improve learner satisfaction and learning outcomes. This study examined the effect of flexible learning schedule on learning and application of learning made by a group of undergraduate students. Results revealed flexible learning schedule influenced students' learning. Various reasons why…

  14. An assessment of estimation methods for generalized linear mixed models with binary outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capanu, Marinela; Gönen, Mithat; Begg, Colin B

    2013-11-20

    Two main classes of methodology have been developed for addressing the analytical intractability of generalized linear mixed models: likelihood-based methods and Bayesian methods. Likelihood-based methods such as the penalized quasi-likelihood approach have been shown to produce biased estimates especially for binary clustered data with small clusters sizes. More recent methods using adaptive Gaussian quadrature perform well but can be overwhelmed by problems with large numbers of random effects, and efficient algorithms to better handle these situations have not yet been integrated in standard statistical packages. Bayesian methods, although they have good frequentist properties when the model is correct, are known to be computationally intensive and also require specialized code, limiting their use in practice. In this article, we introduce a modification of the hybrid approach of Capanu and Begg, 2011, Biometrics 67, 371-380, as a bridge between the likelihood-based and Bayesian approaches by employing Bayesian estimation for the variance components followed by Laplacian estimation for the regression coefficients. We investigate its performance as well as that of several likelihood-based methods in the setting of generalized linear mixed models with binary outcomes. We apply the methods to three datasets and conduct simulations to illustrate their properties. Simulation results indicate that for moderate to large numbers of observations per random effect, adaptive Gaussian quadrature and the Laplacian approximation are very accurate, with adaptive Gaussian quadrature preferable as the number of observations per random effect increases. The hybrid approach is overall similar to the Laplace method, and it can be superior for data with very sparse random effects. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. What Is This Thing Called Learner's Lexicography?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    , namely its functions, data and structures, as this strengthens the basis of learner lexicography because it leads to a proper study and understanding of the competences and needs of learners. Finally, the modern theory of dictionary functions encourages theoretical and practical lexicographers to adopt...

  16. Learner Autonomy Scale: A Scale Development Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orakci, Senol; Gelisli, Yücel

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the study is to develop a scale named "Learner Autonomy Scale" (LAS) for determining the learner autonomy of the students toward English lesson. The proposal scale, composed of 29 items, was applied to two study groups in Turkey. The group of Exploratory Factor Analysis that aims to determine the psychometric properties…

  17. A questioning environment for scaffolding learners' questioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given that questioning is one of the most important learning-teaching tools available to both learner and educator, we have created a computer-based scaffolding environment in which students are required to generate questions to interrogate academic texts. Learners have been using this new scaffolding tool this year, and ...

  18. "Harry Potter" and the English Language Learner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coatney, Kathy

    2001-01-01

    Describes one teacher's success with using "Harry Potter" in a program to teach elementary school English language learners. Provides comprehension strategies incorporated to help learners understand the story. Highlights the importance of creating a classroom environment with a low level of anxiety, the implications of the program, and the value…

  19. Scaffolding Learner Autonomy in Online University Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribbe, Elisa; Bezanilla, María José

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the question in what ways teachers and course designers can support the development and exertion of learner autonomy among online university students. It advocates that a greater attention to learner autonomy could help more students to complete their course successfully and thus contribute the decrease of the high dropout…

  20. The Indonesian EFL Learners' Motivation in Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salikin, Hairus; Bin-Tahir, Saidna Zulfiqar; Kusumaningputri, Reni; Yuliandari, Dian Puji

    2017-01-01

    The motivation will drive the EFL learners to be successful in reading. This study examined the Indonesian EFL learners' motivation in reading activity based on Deci and Ryans' theory of motivation including intrinsic and extrinsic. This study employed mixed-method design. The data obtained by distributing questionnaire and arranging the group…