WorldWideScience

Sample records for model language sensorml

  1. Modelling language

    CERN Document Server

    Cardey, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    In response to the need for reliable results from natural language processing, this book presents an original way of decomposing a language(s) in a microscopic manner by means of intra/inter‑language norms and divergences, going progressively from languages as systems to the linguistic, mathematical and computational models, which being based on a constructive approach are inherently traceable. Languages are described with their elements aggregating or repelling each other to form viable interrelated micro‑systems. The abstract model, which contrary to the current state of the art works in int

  2. Sensor metadata blueprints and computer-aided editing for disciplined SensorML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliolato, Paolo; Oggioni, Alessandro; Fugazza, Cristiano; Pepe, Monica; Carrara, Paola

    2016-04-01

    The need for continuous, accurate, and comprehensive environmental knowledge has led to an increase in sensor observation systems and networks. The Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) initiative has been promoted by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) to foster interoperability among sensor systems. The provision of metadata according to the prescribed SensorML schema is a key component for achieving this and nevertheless availability of correct and exhaustive metadata cannot be taken for granted. On the one hand, it is awkward for users to provide sensor metadata because of the lack in user-oriented, dedicated tools. On the other, the specification of invariant information for a given sensor category or model (e.g., observed properties and units of measurement, manufacturer information, etc.), can be labor- and timeconsuming. Moreover, the provision of these details is error prone and subjective, i.e., may differ greatly across distinct descriptions for the same system. We provide a user-friendly, template-driven metadata authoring tool composed of a backend web service and an HTML5/javascript client. This results in a form-based user interface that conceals the high complexity of the underlying format. This tool also allows for plugging in external data sources providing authoritative definitions for the aforementioned invariant information. Leveraging these functionalities, we compiled a set of SensorML profiles, that is, sensor metadata blueprints allowing end users to focus only on the metadata items that are related to their specific deployment. The natural extension of this scenario is the involvement of end users and sensor manufacturers in the crowd-sourced evolution of this collection of prototypes. We describe the components and workflow of our framework for computer-aided management of sensor metadata.

  3. Using SensorML to describe scientific workflows in distributed web service environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, TL

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available for increased collaboration through workflow sharing. The Sensor Web is an open complex adaptive system the pervades the internet and provides access to sensor resources. One mechanism for describing sensor resources is through the use of SensorML. It is shown...

  4. Modelling SDL, Modelling Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Piefel

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Today's software systems are too complex to implement them and model them using only one language. As a result, modern software engineering uses different languages for different levels of abstraction and different system aspects. Thus to handle an increasing number of related or integrated languages is the most challenging task in the development of tools. We use object oriented metamodelling to describe languages. Object orientation allows us to derive abstract reusable concept definitions (concept classes from existing languages. This language definition technique concentrates on semantic abstractions rather than syntactical peculiarities. We present a set of common concept classes that describe structure, behaviour, and data aspects of high-level modelling languages. Our models contain syntax modelling using the OMG MOF as well as static semantic constraints written in OMG OCL. We derive metamodels for subsets of SDL and UML from these common concepts, and we show for parts of these languages that they can be modelled and related to each other through the same abstract concepts.

  5. Automatic publishing ISO 19115 metadata with PanMetaDocs using SensorML information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, Vivien; Ulbricht, Damian; Schroeder, Matthias; Klump, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO) is an interdisciplinary and long-term research project spanning an Earth observation network across Germany. It includes four test sites within Germany from the North German lowlands to the Bavarian Alps and is operated by six research centers of the Helmholtz Association. The contribution by the participating research centers is organized as regional observatories. A challenge for TERENO and its observatories is to integrate all aspects of data management, data workflows, data modeling and visualizations into the design of a monitoring infrastructure. TERENO Northeast is one of the sub-observatories of TERENO and is operated by the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ) in Potsdam. This observatory investigates geoecological processes in the northeastern lowland of Germany by collecting large amounts of environmentally relevant data. The success of long-term projects like TERENO depends on well-organized data management, data exchange between the partners involved and on the availability of the captured data. Data discovery and dissemination are facilitated not only through data portals of the regional TERENO observatories but also through a common spatial data infrastructure TEODOOR (TEreno Online Data repOsitORry). TEODOOR bundles the data, provided by the different web services of the single observatories, and provides tools for data discovery, visualization and data access. The TERENO Northeast data infrastructure integrates data from more than 200 instruments and makes data available through standard web services. Geographic sensor information and services are described using the ISO 19115 metadata schema. TEODOOR accesses the OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) interfaces offered by the regional observatories. In addition to the SWE interface, TERENO Northeast also published data through DataCite. The necessary metadata are created in an automated process by extracting information from the SWE SensorML to

  6. Graphical Modeling Language Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rumnit, M.

    2003-01-01

    The group of the faculty EE-Math-CS of the University of Twente is developing a graphical modeling language for specifying concurrency in software design. This graphical modeling language has a mathematical background based on the theorie of CSP. This language contains the power to create trustworth

  7. Avionics Architecture Modelling Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alana, Elena; Naranjo, Hector; Valencia, Raul; Medina, Alberto; Honvault, Christophe; Rugina, Ana; Panunzia, Marco; Dellandrea, Brice; Garcia, Gerald

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the ESA AAML (Avionics Architecture Modelling Language) study, which aimed at advancing the avionics engineering practices towards a model-based approach by (i) identifying and prioritising the avionics-relevant analyses, (ii) specifying the modelling language features necessary to support the identified analyses, and (iii) recommending/prototyping software tooling to demonstrate the automation of the selected analyses based on a modelling language and compliant with the defined specification.

  8. Coordination models and languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadopoulos, G.A.; Arbab, F.

    1998-01-01

    A new class of models, formalisms and mechanisms has recently evolved for describing concurrent and distributed computations based on the concept of ``coordination''. The purpose of a coordination model and associated language is to provide a means of integrating a number of possibly heterogeneous c

  9. Parsimonious Language Models for Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd; Robertson, Stephen; Zaragoza, Hugo

    2004-01-01

    We systematically investigate a new approach to estimating the parameters of language models for information retrieval, called parsimonious language models. Parsimonious language models explicitly address the relation between levels of language models that are typically used for smoothing. As such,

  10. Assisted editing od SensorML with EDI. A bottom-up scenario towards the definition of sensor profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oggioni, Alessandro; Tagliolato, Paolo; Fugazza, Cristiano; Bastianini, Mauro; Pavesi, Fabio; Pepe, Monica; Menegon, Stefano; Basoni, Anna; Carrara, Paola

    2015-04-01

    Sensor observation systems for environmental data have become increasingly important in the last years. The EGU's Informatics in Oceanography and Ocean Science track stressed the importance of management tools and solutions for marine infrastructures. We think that full interoperability among sensor systems is still an open issue and that the solution to this involves providing appropriate metadata. Several open source applications implement the SWE specification and, particularly, the Sensor Observation Services (SOS) standard. These applications allow for the exchange of data and metadata in XML format between computer systems. However, there is a lack of metadata editing tools supporting end users in this activity. Generally speaking, it is hard for users to provide sensor metadata in the SensorML format without dedicated tools. In particular, such a tool should ease metadata editing by providing, for standard sensors, all the invariant information to be included in sensor metadata, thus allowing the user to concentrate on the metadata items that are related to the specific deployment. RITMARE, the Italian flagship project on marine research, envisages a subproject, SP7, for the set-up of the project's spatial data infrastructure. SP7 developed EDI, a general purpose, template-driven metadata editor that is composed of a backend web service and an HTML5/javascript client. EDI can be customized for managing the creation of generic metadata encoded as XML. Once tailored to a specific metadata format, EDI presents the users a web form with advanced auto completion and validation capabilities. In the case of sensor metadata (SensorML versions 1.0.1 and 2.0), the EDI client is instructed to send an "insert sensor" request to an SOS endpoint in order to save the metadata in an SOS server. In the first phase of project RITMARE, EDI has been used to simplify the creation from scratch of SensorML metadata by the involved researchers and data managers. An interesting by

  11. A general technique to train language models on language models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, MJ

    2005-01-01

    We show that under certain conditions, a language model can be trained oil the basis of a second language model. The main instance of the technique trains a finite automaton on the basis of a probabilistic context-free grammar, such that the Kullback-Leibler distance between grammar and trained auto

  12. Language Models With Meta-information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Language modeling plays a critical role in natural language processing and understanding. Starting from a general structure, language models are able to learn natural language patterns from rich input data. However, the state-of-the-art language models only take advantage of words themselves, which

  13. Natural language modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, J.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This seminar describes a process and methodology that uses structured natural language to enable the construction of precise information requirements directly from users, experts, and managers. The main focus of this natural language approach is to create the precise information requirements and to do it in such a way that the business and technical experts are fully accountable for the results. These requirements can then be implemented using appropriate tools and technology. This requirement set is also a universal learning tool because it has all of the knowledge that is needed to understand a particular process (e.g., expense vouchers, project management, budget reviews, tax, laws, machine function).

  14. Language acquisition and implication for language change: A computational model.

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Robert A.J.

    1997-01-01

    Computer modeling techniques, when applied to language acquisition problems, give an often unrealized insight into the diachronic change that occurs in language over successive generations. This paper shows that using assumptions about language acquisition to model successive generations of learners in a computer simulation, can have a drastic effect on the long term changes that occur in a language. More importantly, it shows that slight changes in the acquisition ...

  15. Student Modelling for Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Susan

    1994-01-01

    Describes the student model of an intelligent computer-assisted language learning (CALL) system that is based on current theories in the field of second-language acquisition. Highlights include acquisition order of the target rules; language learning strategies; language transfer; language awareness; and student reactions. (Contains seven…

  16. Beliefs about Language Learning: The Horwitz Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    Research on beliefs about second language learning based on a model designed by Elaine Horwitz is reviewed. The model is incorporated in the Beliefs About Language Learning Inventory (BALLI) developed for students of English as a Second Language, college students of commonly taught languages (French, German, Spanish), and college teachers of…

  17. The Control System Modeling Language

    CERN Document Server

    Zagar, K; Sekoranja, M; Tkacik, G; Vodovnik, A; Zagar, Klemen; Plesko, Mark; Sekoranja, Matej; Tkacik, Gasper; Vodovnik, Anze

    2001-01-01

    The well-known Unified Modeling Language (UML) describes software entities, such as interfaces, classes, operations and attributes, as well as relationships among them, e.g. inheritance, containment and dependency. The power of UML lies in Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools such as Rational Rose, which are also capable of generating software structures from visual object definitions and relations. UML also allows add-ons that define specific structures and patterns in order to steer and automate the design process. We have developed an add-on called Control System Modeling Language (CSML). It introduces entities and relationships that we know from control systems, such as "property" representing a single controllable point/channel, or an "event" specifying that a device is capable of notifying its clients through events. Entities can also possess CSML-specific characteristics, such as physical units and valid ranges for input parameters. CSML is independent of any specific language or technology...

  18. Contextual Information and Specific Language Models for Spoken Language Understanding

    CERN Document Server

    Baggia, P; Gerbino, E; Moisa, L M; Popovici, C; Baggia, Paolo; Danieli, Morena; Gerbino, Elisabetta; Moisa, Loreta M.; Popovici, Cosmin

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we explain how contextual expectations are generated and used in the task-oriented spoken language understanding system Dialogos. The hard task of recognizing spontaneous speech on the telephone may greatly benefit from the use of specific language models during the recognition of callers' utterances. By 'specific language models' we mean a set of language models that are trained on contextually appropriated data, and that are used during different states of the dialogue on the basis of the information sent to the acoustic level by the dialogue management module. In this paper we describe how the specific language models are obtained on the basis of contextual information. The experimental result we report show that recognition and understanding performance are improved thanks to the use of specific language models.

  19. Modeling Coevolution between Language and Memory Capacity during Language Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Memory is essential to many cognitive tasks including language. Apart from empirical studies of memory effects on language acquisition and use, there lack sufficient evolutionary explorations on whether a high level of memory capacity is prerequisite for language and whether language origin could influence memory capacity. In line with evolutionary theories that natural selection refined language-related cognitive abilities, we advocated a coevolution scenario between language and memory capacity, which incorporated the genetic transmission of individual memory capacity, cultural transmission of idiolects, and natural and cultural selections on individual reproduction and language teaching. To illustrate the coevolution dynamics, we adopted a multi-agent computational model simulating the emergence of lexical items and simple syntax through iterated communications. Simulations showed that: along with the origin of a communal language, an initially-low memory capacity for acquired linguistic knowledge was boosted; and such coherent increase in linguistic understandability and memory capacities reflected a language-memory coevolution; and such coevolution stopped till memory capacities became sufficient for language communications. Statistical analyses revealed that the coevolution was realized mainly by natural selection based on individual communicative success in cultural transmissions. This work elaborated the biology-culture parallelism of language evolution, demonstrated the driving force of culturally-constituted factors for natural selection of individual cognitive abilities, and suggested that the degree difference in language-related cognitive abilities between humans and nonhuman animals could result from a coevolution with language.

  20. Modeling Coevolution between Language and Memory Capacity during Language Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Memory is essential to many cognitive tasks including language. Apart from empirical studies of memory effects on language acquisition and use, there lack sufficient evolutionary explorations on whether a high level of memory capacity is prerequisite for language and whether language origin could influence memory capacity. In line with evolutionary theories that natural selection refined language-related cognitive abilities, we advocated a coevolution scenario between language and memory capacity, which incorporated the genetic transmission of individual memory capacity, cultural transmission of idiolects, and natural and cultural selections on individual reproduction and language teaching. To illustrate the coevolution dynamics, we adopted a multi-agent computational model simulating the emergence of lexical items and simple syntax through iterated communications. Simulations showed that: along with the origin of a communal language, an initially-low memory capacity for acquired linguistic knowledge was boosted; and such coherent increase in linguistic understandability and memory capacities reflected a language-memory coevolution; and such coevolution stopped till memory capacities became sufficient for language communications. Statistical analyses revealed that the coevolution was realized mainly by natural selection based on individual communicative success in cultural transmissions. This work elaborated the biology-culture parallelism of language evolution, demonstrated the driving force of culturally-constituted factors for natural selection of individual cognitive abilities, and suggested that the degree difference in language-related cognitive abilities between humans and nonhuman animals could result from a coevolution with language. PMID:26544876

  1. Formal Models of Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinker, Steven

    1979-01-01

    Research addressing development of mechanistic models capable of acquiring languages on the basis of exposure to linguistic data is reviewed. Research focuses on major issues in developmental psycholinguistics--in particular, nativism and empiricism, the role of semantics and pragmatics, cognitive development, and the importance of simplified…

  2. Models of natural language understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, M

    1995-10-24

    This paper surveys some of the fundamental problems in natural language (NL) understanding (syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and discourse) and the current approaches to solving them. Some recent developments in NL processing include increased emphasis on corpus-based rather than example- or intuition-based work, attempts to measure the coverage and effectiveness of NL systems, dealing with discourse and dialogue phenomena, and attempts to use both analytic and stochastic knowledge. Critical areas for the future include grammars that are appropriate to processing large amounts of real language; automatic (or at least semi-automatic) methods for deriving models of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics; self-adapting systems; and integration with speech processing. Of particular importance are techniques that can be tuned to such requirements as full versus partial understanding and spoken language versus text. Portability (the ease with which one can configure an NL system for a particular application) is one of the largest barriers to application of this technology.

  3. Better Language Models with Model Merging

    CERN Document Server

    Brants, T

    1996-01-01

    This paper investigates model merging, a technique for deriving Markov models from text or speech corpora. Models are derived by starting with a large and specific model and by successively combining states to build smaller and more general models. We present methods to reduce the time complexity of the algorithm and report on experiments on deriving language models for a speech recognition task. The experiments show the advantage of model merging over the standard bigram approach. The merged model assigns a lower perplexity to the test set and uses considerably fewer states.

  4. The OMG Modelling Language (SYSML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, M.

    2007-08-01

    On July 6th 2006, the Object Management Group (OMG) announced the adoption of the OMG Systems Modeling Language (OMG SysML). The SysML specification was in response to the joint Request for Proposal issued by the OMG and INCOSE (the International Council on Systems Engineering) for a customized version of UML 2, designed to address the specific needs of system engineers. SysML is a visual modeling language that extends UML 2 in order to support the specification, analysis, design, verification and validation of complex systems. This paper will look at the background of SysML and summarize the SysML specification including the modifications to UML 2.0, along with the new requirement and parametric diagrams. It will also show how SysML artifacts can be used to specify the requirements for other solution spaces such as software and hardware to provide handover to other disciplines.

  5. Language Learning Strategies and Its Training Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes and reviews the literature regarding language learning strategies and it's training model, pointing out the significance of language learning strategies to EFL learners and an applicable and effective language learning strategies training model, which is beneficial both to EFL learners and instructors, is badly needed.

  6. Linguistics: Modelling the dynamics of language death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Daniel M.; Strogatz, Steven H.

    2003-08-01

    Thousands of the world's languages are vanishing at an alarming rate, with 90% of them being expected to disappear with the current generation. Here we develop a simple model of language competition that explains historical data on the decline of Welsh, Scottish Gaelic, Quechua (the most common surviving indigenous language in the Americas) and other endangered languages. A linguistic parameter that quantifies the threat of language extinction can be derived from the model and may be useful in the design and evaluation of language-preservation programmes.

  7. Modeling Languages Refine Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Cincinnati, Ohio s TechnoSoft Inc. is a leading provider of object-oriented modeling and simulation technology used for commercial and defense applications. With funding from Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts issued by Langley Research Center, the company continued development on its adaptive modeling language, or AML, originally created for the U.S. Air Force. TechnoSoft then created what is now known as its Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Environment, or IDEA, which can be used to design a variety of vehicles and machinery. IDEA's customers include clients in green industries, such as designers for power plant exhaust filtration systems and wind turbines.

  8. Modelling language evolution: Examples and predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan; Zhang, Menghan

    2014-06-01

    We survey recent computer modelling research of language evolution, focusing on a rule-based model simulating the lexicon-syntax coevolution and an equation-based model quantifying the language competition dynamics. We discuss four predictions of these models: (a) correlation between domain-general abilities (e.g. sequential learning) and language-specific mechanisms (e.g. word order processing); (b) coevolution of language and relevant competences (e.g. joint attention); (c) effects of cultural transmission and social structure on linguistic understandability; and (d) commonalities between linguistic, biological, and physical phenomena. All these contribute significantly to our understanding of the evolutions of language structures, individual learning mechanisms, and relevant biological and socio-cultural factors. We conclude the survey by highlighting three future directions of modelling studies of language evolution: (a) adopting experimental approaches for model evaluation; (b) consolidating empirical foundations of models; and (c) multi-disciplinary collaboration among modelling, linguistics, and other relevant disciplines.

  9. Modelling language evolution: Examples and predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan; Zhang, Menghan

    2014-06-01

    We survey recent computer modelling research of language evolution, focusing on a rule-based model simulating the lexicon-syntax coevolution and an equation-based model quantifying the language competition dynamics. We discuss four predictions of these models: (a) correlation between domain-general abilities (e.g. sequential learning) and language-specific mechanisms (e.g. word order processing); (b) coevolution of language and relevant competences (e.g. joint attention); (c) effects of cultural transmission and social structure on linguistic understandability; and (d) commonalities between linguistic, biological, and physical phenomena. All these contribute significantly to our understanding of the evolutions of language structures, individual learning mechanisms, and relevant biological and socio-cultural factors. We conclude the survey by highlighting three future directions of modelling studies of language evolution: (a) adopting experimental approaches for model evaluation; (b) consolidating empirical foundations of models; and (c) multi-disciplinary collaboration among modelling, linguistics, and other relevant disciplines.

  10. Formal models, languages and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rangarajan, K; Mukund, M

    2006-01-01

    A collection of articles by leading experts in theoretical computer science, this volume commemorates the 75th birthday of Professor Rani Siromoney, one of the pioneers in the field in India. The articles span the vast range of areas that Professor Siromoney has worked in or influenced, including grammar systems, picture languages and new models of computation. Sample Chapter(s). Chapter 1: Finite Array Automata and Regular Array Grammars (150 KB). Contents: Finite Array Automata and Regular Array Grammars (A Atanasiu et al.); Hexagonal Contextual Array P Systems (K S Dersanambika et al.); Con

  11. A Review of Process Modeling Language Paradigms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qin-hai; GUAN Zhi-min; LI Ying; ZHAO Xi-nan

    2002-01-01

    Process representation or modeling plays an important role in business process engineering.Process modeling languages can be evaluated by the extent to which they provide constructs useful for representing and reasoning about the aspects of a process, and subsequently are chosen for a certain purpose.This paper reviews process modeling language paradigms and points out their advantages and disadvantages.

  12. Two Language Models Using Chinese Semantic Parsing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Mingqin; WANG Xia; WANG Zuoying

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents two language models that utilize a Chinese semantic dependency parsing technique for speech recognition. The models are based on a representation of the Chinese semantic structure with dependency relations. A semantic dependency parser was described to automatically tag the semantic class for each word with 90.9% accuracy and parse the sentence semantic dependency structure with 75.8% accuracy. The Chinese semantic parsing technique was applied to structure language models to develop two language models, the semantic dependency model (SDM) and the headword trigram model (HTM). These language models were evaluated using Chinese speech recognition. The experiments show that both models outperform the word trigram model in terms of the Chinese character recognition error rate.

  13. A Core Language for Separate Variability Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iosif-Lazăr, Alexandru Florin; Wasowski, Andrzej; Schaefer, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Separate variability modeling adds variability to a modeling language without requiring modifications of the language or the supporting tools. We define a core language for separate variability modeling using a single kind of variation point to define transformations of software artifacts in object...... hierarchical dependencies between variation points via copying and flattening. Thus, we reduce a model with intricate dependencies to a flat executable model transformation consisting of simple unconditional local variation points. The core semantics is extremely concise: it boils down to two operational rules...

  14. Specialized Language Models using Dialogue Predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Popovici, C; Popovici, Cosmin; Baggia, Paolo

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyses language modeling in spoken dialogue systems for accessing a database. The use of several language models obtained by exploiting dialogue predictions gives better results than the use of a single model for the whole dialogue interaction. For this reason several models have been created, each one for a specific system question, such as the request or the confirmation of a parameter. The use of dialogue-dependent language models increases the performance both at the recognition and at the understanding level, especially on answers to system requests. Moreover other methods to increase performance, like automatic clustering of vocabulary words or the use of better acoustic models during recognition, does not affect the improvements given by dialogue-dependent language models. The system used in our experiments is Dialogos, the Italian spoken dialogue system used for accessing railway timetable information over the telephone. The experiments were carried out on a large corpus of dialogues coll...

  15. Modelling Typical Online Language Learning Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Carlos; Hampel, Regine; Stickler, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the methods and results of a four-year-long research project focusing on the language learning activity of individual learners using online tasks conducted at the University of Guanajuato (Mexico) in 2009-2013. An activity-theoretical model (Blin, 2010; Engeström, 1987) of the typical language learning activity was used to…

  16. Microscopic Abrams Strogatz model of language competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Dietrich; Castelló, Xavier; Eguíluz, Víctor M.; San Miguel, Maxi

    2007-02-01

    The differential equation of Abrams and Strogatz for the competition between two languages is compared with agent-based Monte Carlo simulations for fully connected networks as well as for lattices in one, two and three dimensions, with up to 109 agents. In the case of socially equivalent languages, agent-based models and a mean-field approximation give grossly different results.

  17. Connectionist Models: Implications in Second Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Ghaemi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In language acquisition, ‘Emergentists’ claim that simple learning mechanisms, of the kind attested elsewhere in cognition, are sufficient to bring about the emergence of complex language
    representations (Gregg, 2003. Connectionist model is one of the models among others proposed by emergentists. This paper attempts to clarify the basic assumptions of this model, its advantages, and the criticisms leveled at it.

  18. Presheaf Models for CCS-like Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattani, Gian Luca; Winskel, Glynn

    2003-01-01

    for a general process language, in which CCS and related languages are easily encoded. The results are then transferred to traditional models for processes. By first establishing the congruence results for presheaf models, abstract, general proofs of congruence properties can be provided and the awkwardness...... caused through traditional models not always possessing the cartesian liftings, used in the breakdown of process operations, are side stepped. The abstract results are applied to show that hereditary history-preserving bisimulation is a congruence for CCS-like languages to which is added a refinement...

  19. Wave equation modelling using Julia programming language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ahreum; Ryu, Donghyun; Ha, Wansoo

    2016-04-01

    Julia is a young high-performance dynamic programming language for scientific computations. It provides an extensive mathematical function library, a clean syntax and its own parallel execution model. We developed 2d wave equation modeling programs using Julia and C programming languages and compared their performance. We used the same modeling algorithm for the two modeling programs. We used Julia version 0.3.9 in this comparison. We declared data type of function arguments and used inbounds macro in the Julia program. Numerical results showed that the C programs compiled with Intel and GNU compilers were faster than Julia program, about 18% and 7%, respectively. Taking the simplicity of dynamic programming language into consideration, Julia can be a novel alternative of existing statically typed programming languages.

  20. Improved world-based language model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yong(陈勇); CHAN Kwok-ping

    2004-01-01

    In order to construct a good language model used in the postprocessing phase of a recognition system.A smoothing technique must be used to solve the data sparseness problem. In the past, many smoothing techniques have been proposed. Among them, Katz' s smoothing technique is well known. However, we found that a weakness with the Katz' s smoothing technique. We improved this approach by incorporating one kind of special Chinese language information and Chinese word class information into the language model. We tested the new smoothing technique with a Chinese character recognition system. The experimental result showed that a better performance can be achieved.

  1. Probabilistic models of language processing and acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Nick; Manning, Christopher D

    2006-07-01

    Probabilistic methods are providing new explanatory approaches to fundamental cognitive science questions of how humans structure, process and acquire language. This review examines probabilistic models defined over traditional symbolic structures. Language comprehension and production involve probabilistic inference in such models; and acquisition involves choosing the best model, given innate constraints and linguistic and other input. Probabilistic models can account for the learning and processing of language, while maintaining the sophistication of symbolic models. A recent burgeoning of theoretical developments and online corpus creation has enabled large models to be tested, revealing probabilistic constraints in processing, undermining acquisition arguments based on a perceived poverty of the stimulus, and suggesting fruitful links with probabilistic theories of categorization and ambiguity resolution in perception.

  2. Extending the Compensatory Model of Second Language Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Levi

    2012-01-01

    Bernhardt (2005) proposed a compensatory model of second language reading. This model predicted that 50% of second language (L2) reading scores are attributed to second language knowledge and first-language (L1) reading ability. In this model, these two factors compensate for deficiencies in each other. Although this model explains a significant…

  3. Comparative analysis of business rules and business process modeling languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Rima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available During developing an information system is important to create clear models and choose suitable modeling languages. The article analyzes the SRML, SBVR, PRR, SWRL, OCL rules specifying language and UML, DFD, CPN, EPC and IDEF3 BPMN business process modeling language. The article presents business rules and business process modeling languages theoretical comparison. The article according to selected modeling aspects of the comparison between different business process modeling languages ​​and business rules representation languages sets. Also, it is selected the best fit of language set for three layer framework for business rule based software modeling.

  4. Domain-Specific Modelling Languages in Bigraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrone, Gian David

    " of models, in order to improve the utility of the models we build, and to ease the process of model construction by moving the languages we use to express such models closer to their respective domains. This thesis is concerned with the study of bigraphical reactive systems as a host for domain......-specic modelling languages. We present a number of novel technical developments, including a new complete meta-calculus presentation of bigraphical reactive systems, an abstract machine that instantiates to an abstract machine for any instance calculus, and a mechanism for dening declarative sorting predicates...... that always give rise to wellbehaved sortings. We explore bigraphical renement relations that permit formalisation of the relationship between dierent languages instantiated as bigraphical reactive systems. We detail a prototype verication tool for instance calculi, and provide a tractable heuristic...

  5. Incorporating POS Tagging into Language Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Heeman, P A; Heeman, Peter A.; Allen, James F.

    1997-01-01

    Language models for speech recognition tend to concentrate solely on recognizing the words that were spoken. In this paper, we redefine the speech recognition problem so that its goal is to find both the best sequence of words and their syntactic role (part-of-speech) in the utterance. This is a necessary first step towards tightening the interaction between speech recognition and natural language understanding.

  6. Melody Track Selection Using Discriminative Language Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; Li, Ming; Suo, Hongbin; Yan, Yonghong

    In this letter we focus on the task of selecting the melody track from a polyphonic MIDI file. Based on the intuition that music and language are similar in many aspects, we solve the selection problem by introducing an n-gram language model to learn the melody co-occurrence patterns in a statistical manner and determine the melodic degree of a given MIDI track. Furthermore, we propose the idea of using background model and posterior probability criteria to make modeling more discriminative. In the evaluation, the achieved 81.6% correct rate indicates the feasibility of our approach.

  7. A Bit Progress on Word—Based Language Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇; 陈国评

    2003-01-01

    A good language model is essential to a postprocessing algorithm for recognition systems. In the past, researchers have pre-sented various language models, such as character based language models, word based language model, syntactical rules :language mod-el, hybrid models, etc. The word N-gram model is by far an effective and efficient model, but one has to address the problem of data sparseness in establishing the model. Katz and Kneser et al. respectively presented effective remedies to solve this challenging prob-lem. In this study, we proposed an improvement to their methods by incorporating Chinese language-specific information or Chinese word class information into the system.

  8. Verified Visualisation of Textual Modelling Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fairmichael, Fintan; Kiniry, Joseph Roland

    Many modelling languages have both a textual and a graph- ical form. The relationship between these two forms ought to be clear and concrete, but is instead commonly underspecified, weak, and infor- mal. Further, processes and tool support for modelling often do not treat both forms as first-clas...

  9. Verified Visualisation of Textual Modelling Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fairmichael, Fintan; Kiniry, Joseph Roland

    2011-01-01

    Many modelling languages have both a textual and a graph- ical form. The relationship between these two forms ought to be clear and concrete, but is instead commonly underspecified, weak, and infor- mal. Further, processes and tool support for modelling often do not treat both forms as first-clas...

  10. Modeling Transient States in Language Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, G.J.; Truswell, Robert; Mattieu, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Models of language change may include, apart from an initial state and a terminal state, an intermediate transient state T. Building further on they Failed Change Model (Postma 2010) that ties the dynamics of the transient state T to the dynamics of the overall change A → B, we present an generalize

  11. Models of Integrating Content and Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaying Howard

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Content-based instruction has become increasingly recognized as a means of developing both linguistic and content ability. Drawing on educational practices at the Monterey Institute of International Studies, this paper analyzes conditions that encourage the integration of language and content learning, presents various content-based instructional models-including those that have been developed at the Monterey Institute, and examines the decisionmaking process of selecting a content-based instructional model for a particular educational setting. Discussions center on making decisions that are most likely to accelerate the growth of foreign language proficiency and the acquisition of content knowledge.

  12. Formal specification with the Java modeling language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Marieke; Ahrendt, Wolfgang; Grahl, Daniel; Hentschel, Martin; Ahrendt, Wolfgang; Beckert, Bernhard; Bubel, Richard; Hähnle, Reiner; Schmitt, Peter H.; Ulbrich, Mattoas

    2016-01-01

    This text is a general, self contained, and tool independent introduction into the Java Modeling Language, JML. It appears in a book about the KeY approach and tool, because JML is the dominating starting point of KeY style Java verification. However, this chapter does not depend on KeY, nor any

  13. Aligning Grammatical Theories and Language Processing Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Shevaun; Phillips, Colin

    2015-01-01

    We address two important questions about the relationship between theoretical linguistics and psycholinguistics. First, do grammatical theories and language processing models describe separate cognitive systems, or are they accounts of different aspects of the same system? We argue that most evidence is consistent with the one-system view. Second,…

  14. Language Models for Handwritten Short Message Services

    CERN Document Server

    Prochasson, Emmanuel Ep; Morin, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    Handwriting is an alternative method for entering texts composing Short Message Services. However, a whole new language features the texts which are produced. They include for instance abbreviations and other consonantal writing which sprung up for time saving and fashion. We have collected and processed a significant number of such handwriting SMS, and used various strategies to tackle this challenging area of handwriting recognition. We proposed to study more specifically three different phenomena: consonant skeleton, rebus, and phonetic writing. For each of them, we compare the rough results produced by a standard recognition system with those obtained when using a specific language model.

  15. An adaptive contextual quantum language model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingfei; Zhang, Peng; Song, Dawei; Hou, Yuexian

    2016-08-01

    User interactions in search system represent a rich source of implicit knowledge about the user's cognitive state and information need that continuously evolves over time. Despite massive efforts that have been made to exploiting and incorporating this implicit knowledge in information retrieval, it is still a challenge to effectively capture the term dependencies and the user's dynamic information need (reflected by query modifications) in the context of user interaction. To tackle these issues, motivated by the recent Quantum Language Model (QLM), we develop a QLM based retrieval model for session search, which naturally incorporates the complex term dependencies occurring in user's historical queries and clicked documents with density matrices. In order to capture the dynamic information within users' search session, we propose a density matrix transformation framework and further develop an adaptive QLM ranking model. Extensive comparative experiments show the effectiveness of our session quantum language models.

  16. Modeling social learning of language and skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Paul; Haasdijk, Evert

    2010-01-01

    We present a model of social learning of both language and skills, while assuming—insofar as possible—strict autonomy, virtual embodiment, and situatedness. This model is built by integrating various previous models of language development and social learning, and it is this integration that, under the mentioned assumptions, provides novel challenges. The aim of the article is to investigate what sociocognitive mechanisms agents should have in order to be able to transmit language from one generation to the next so that it can be used as a medium to transmit internalized rules that represent skill knowledge. We have performed experiments where this knowledge solves the familiar poisonous-food problem. Simulations reveal under what conditions, regarding population structure, agents can successfully solve this problem. In addition to issues relating to perspective taking and mutual exclusivity, we show that agents need to coordinate interactions so that they can establish joint attention in order to form a scaffold for language learning, which in turn forms a scaffold for the learning of rule-based skills. Based on these findings, we conclude by hypothesizing that social learning at one level forms a scaffold for the social learning at another, higher level, thus contributing to the accumulation of cultural knowledge.

  17. A Visual Meta-Language for Generic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    since models provide a communication mechanism. Modeling languages can be textual or visual. Kim Marriot and Bernd Meyer describe visual languages as...150, January 1997, USA. [MAR98A] Marriot , Kim, Bernd Meyer, Visual Language Theory, Articles of Workshop on Theory of Visual Languages (TVL ’96...1998, Spring-Verlag New York, USA. [MAR98B] Marriot , Kim, Bernd Meyer, Kent B. Wittenburg, “A Survey of Visual Language Specification and

  18. On the interoperability of model-to-model transformation languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jouault, Frédéric; Kurtev, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    Transforming models is a crucial activity in Model Driven Engineering (MDE). With the adoption of the OMG QVT standard for model transformation languages, it is anticipated that the experience in applying model transformations in various domains will increase. However, the QVT standard is just one p

  19. Statistical Language Model for Chinese Text Proofreading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张仰森; 曹元大

    2003-01-01

    Statistical language modeling techniques are investigated so as to construct a language model for Chinese text proofreading. After the defects of n-gram model are analyzed, a novel statistical language model for Chinese text proofreading is proposed. This model takes full account of the information located before and after the target word wi, and the relationship between un-neighboring words wi and wj in linguistic environment(LE). First, the word association degree between wi and wj is defined by using the distance-weighted factor, wj is l words apart from wi in the LE, then Bayes formula is used to calculate the LE related degree of word wi, and lastly, the LE related degree is taken as criterion to predict the reasonability of word wi that appears in context. Comparing the proposed model with the traditional n-gram in a Chinese text automatic error detection system, the experiments results show that the error detection recall rate and precision rate of the system have been improved.

  20. A simple branching model that reproduces language family and language population distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwämmle, Veit; de Oliveira, Paulo Murilo Castro

    2009-07-01

    Human history leaves fingerprints in human languages. Little is known about language evolution and its study is of great importance. Here we construct a simple stochastic model and compare its results to statistical data of real languages. The model is based on the recent finding that language changes occur independently of the population size. We find agreement with the data additionally assuming that languages may be distinguished by having at least one among a finite, small number of different features. This finite set is also used in order to define the distance between two languages, similarly to linguistics tradition since Swadesh.

  1. Clone Detection for Graph-Based Model Transformation Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strüber, Daniel; Plöger, Jennifer; Acretoaie, Vlad

    2016-01-01

    has been proposed for programming and modeling languages; yet no specific ones have emerged for model transformation languages. In this paper, we explore clone detection for graph-based model transformation languages. We introduce potential use cases for such techniques in the context of constructive...

  2. CML: the commonKADS conceptual modelling language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreiber, G.; Wielinga, B.J.; Akkermans, J.M.; Velde, van de W.; Anjewierden, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    We present a structured language for the specification of knowledge models according to the CommonKADS methodology. This language is called CML (Conceptual Modelling Language) and provides both a structured textual notation and a diagrammatic notation for expertise models. The use of our CML is illu

  3. A model of the mechanisms of language extinction and revitalization strategies to save endangered languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Chrisantha; Valijärvi, Riitta-Liisa; Goldstein, Richard A

    2010-02-01

    Why and how have languages died out? We have devised a mathematical model to help us understand how languages go extinct. We use the model to ask whether language extinction can be prevented in the future and why it may have occurred in the past. A growing number of mathematical models of language dynamics have been developed to study the conditions for language coexistence and death, yet their phenomenological approach compromises their ability to influence language revitalization policy. In contrast, here we model the mechanisms underlying language competition and look at how these mechanisms are influenced by specific language revitalization interventions, namely, private interventions to raise the status of the language and thus promote language learning at home, public interventions to increase the use of the minority language, and explicit teaching of the minority language in schools. Our model reveals that it is possible to preserve a minority language but that continued long-term interventions will likely be necessary. We identify the parameters that determine which interventions work best under certain linguistic and societal circumstances. In this way the efficacy of interventions of various types can be identified and predicted. Although there are qualitative arguments for these parameter values (e.g., the responsiveness of children to learning a language as a function of the proportion of conversations heard in that language, the relative importance of conversations heard in the family and elsewhere, and the amplification of spoken to heard conversations of the high-status language because of the media), extensive quantitative data are lacking in this field. We propose a way to measure these parameters, allowing our model, as well as others models in the field, to be validated.

  4. Models of Integrating Content and Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Jiaying Howard

    2006-01-01

    Content-based instruction has become increasingly recognized as a means of developing both linguistic and content ability. Drawing on educational practices at the Monterey Institute of International Studies, this paper analyzes conditions that encourage the integration of language and content learning, presents various content-based instructional models-including those that have been developed at the Monterey Institute, and examines the decisionmaking process of selecting...

  5. MODEL NATIVIS LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE (SEBUAH TEORI PEMEROLEHAN BAHASA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamluatul Hasanah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability of using mother tongue has been possessed by every child. They can master the language without getting specific education. In a short time a child has mastered the language to communicate with others. There are many theories of language acquisition. One of them that still exists is The Native Model of Language Acquisition (LAD. This theory was pioneered by Noam Chomsky. In this language naturally. This ability develops automatically when the language is used is Language Acquisition Device (LAD. LAD constitutes a hypothesis of feature of grammatical rules used progressively by a child in accordance with his psychological development.

  6. Language Preference and Time Allocation in the Joint Languages Diversification Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenning, Marie-Madeleine

    1994-01-01

    Presents a follow-up study of a joint languages diversification model. The research focuses on the evolution of the relative popularity of the three languages involved in the scheme (French, German, and Italian) and the impact of a timetable that allocates different amounts of time to two languages with a switch halfway through the year. (five…

  7. Understanding requirements via natural language information modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, J.K.; Becker, S.D.

    1993-07-01

    Information system requirements that are expressed as simple English sentences provide a clear understanding of what is needed between system specifiers, administrators, users, and developers of information systems. The approach used to develop the requirements is the Natural-language Information Analysis Methodology (NIAM). NIAM allows the processes, events, and business rules to be modeled using natural language. The natural language presentation enables the people who deal with the business issues that are to be supported by the information system to describe exactly the system requirements that designers and developers will implement. Computer prattle is completely eliminated from the requirements discussion. An example is presented that is based upon a section of a DOE Order involving nuclear materials management. Where possible, the section is analyzed to specify the process(es) to be done, the event(s) that start the process, and the business rules that are to be followed during the process. Examples, including constraints, are developed. The presentation steps through the modeling process and shows where the section of the DOE Order needs clarification, extensions or interpretations that could provide a more complete and accurate specification.

  8. Self-Organizing Map Models of Language Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping eLi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Connectionist models have had a profound impact on theories of language. While most early models were inspired by the classic PDP architecture, recent models of language have explored various other types of models, including self-organizing models for language acquisition. In this paper we aim at providing a review of the latter type of models, and highlight a number of simulation experiments that we have conducted based on these models. We show that self-organizing connectionist models can provide significant insights into long-standing debates in both monolingual and bilingual language development.

  9. Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV) Information Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-28

    required for a particular product and, through automatic manipulation and/or cartography , constructs a product suitable for a particular purpose. 28...www.opengeospatial.org/standards/sensorml. [36] GIS Open. Sensor model language (sensorml) implementation specification. OGC Geospatial Consortium INC, 2007

  10. A model for BPEL-like languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jifeng; ZHU Huibiao; PU Geguang

    2007-01-01

    Web service is increasingly being applied in solving many universal interoperability problems.Business Process Execution Language (BPEL)is a de facto standard for specifying the behavior of business processes.It contains several interesting features,including scope-based compensation,fault handling and shared-labels for synchronization.In this paper we explore an observation-oriented model for BPEL-like languages,which can be used to study program equivalence.The execution states of a program are divided into five types:completed state,waiting state and divergent state,as well as error state and undo state.The last two states are especially for dealing with compensation and fault handling.Based on the formalized model,a set of algebraic laws is investigated,including traditional laws and BPEL featured laws.The concept of guarded choice is also introduced in this model,which can be used to support the transformation of a parallel program into the form of guarded choice.Two special scopes are introduced:canonical structure and compensation structure,which are used to eliminate undo and compensation construct from finite processes.

  11. Computational modelling of evolution: ecosystems and language

    CERN Document Server

    Lipowski, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Recently, computational modelling became a very important research tool that enables us to study problems that for decades evaded scientific analysis. Evolutionary systems are certainly examples of such problems: they are composed of many units that might reproduce, diffuse, mutate, die, or in some cases for example communicate. These processes might be of some adaptive value, they influence each other and occur on various time scales. That is why such systems are so difficult to study. In this paper we briefly review some computational approaches, as well as our contributions, to the evolution of ecosystems and language. We start from Lotka-Volterra equations and the modelling of simple two-species prey-predator systems. Such systems are canonical example for studying oscillatory behaviour in competitive populations. Then we describe various approaches to study long-term evolution of multi-species ecosystems. We emphasize the need to use models that take into account both ecological and evolutionary processe...

  12. Klaim-DB: A Modeling Language for Distributed Database Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xi; Li, Ximeng; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto;

    2015-01-01

    We present the modelling language, Klaim-DB, for distributed database applications. Klaim-DB borrows the distributed nets of the coordination language Klaim but essentially re-incarnates the tuple spaces of Klaim as databases, and provides high-level language abstractions for the access and manip...

  13. VMTL: a language for end-user model transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acretoaie, Vlad; Störrle, Harald; Strüber, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    , these languages are largely ill-equipped for adoption by end-user modelers in areas such as requirements engineering, business process management, or enterprise architecture. We aim to introduce a model transformation language addressing the skills and requirements of end-user modelers. With this contribution, we......Model transformation is a key enabling technology of Model-Driven Engineering (MDE). Existing model transformation languages are shaped by and for MDE practitioners—a user group with needs and capabilities which are not necessarily characteristic of modelers in general. Consequently...... hope to broaden the application scope of model transformation and MDE technology in general. We discuss the profile of end-user modelers and propose a set of design guidelines for model transformation languages addressing them. We then introduce Visual Model Transformation Language (VMTL) following...

  14. A FORMAL SPECIFICATION LANGUAGE FOR DYNAMIC STRAND SPACE MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东喜; 李晓勇; 白英彩

    2002-01-01

    Specification language is used to provide enough information for the model of the cryptographic protocol. This paper first extends strand space model to dynamic strand model, and then a formal specification language for this model is defined by using BNF grammar. Compared with those in literatures, it is simpler because of only concerning the algebraic properties of cryptographic protocols.

  15. On the Computational Expressiveness of Model Transformation Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sibahi, Ahmad Salim

    2015-01-01

    Common folklore in the model transformation community dictates that most transformation languages are Turing-complete. It is however seldom that a proof or an explanation is provided on why such property holds; due to the widely different features and execution models in these language, it is not......Common folklore in the model transformation community dictates that most transformation languages are Turing-complete. It is however seldom that a proof or an explanation is provided on why such property holds; due to the widely different features and execution models in these language......, it is not immediately obvious what their computational expressiveness is. In this paper we present an analysis that clarifies the computational expressiveness of a large number of model transformation languages. The analysis confirms the folklore for all model transformation languages, except the bidirectional ones...

  16. Querying and Serving N-gram Language Models with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Statistical n-gram language modeling is a very important technique in Natural Language Processing (NLP and Computational Linguistics used to assess the fluency of an utterance in any given language. It is widely employed in several important NLP applications such as Machine Translation and Automatic Speech Recognition. However, the most commonly used toolkit (SRILM to build such language models on a large scale is written entirely in C++ which presents a challenge to an NLP developer or researcher whose primary language of choice is Python. This article first provides a gentle introduction to statistical language modeling. It then describes how to build a native and efficient Python interface (using SWIG to the SRILM toolkit such that language models can be queried and used directly in Python code. Finally, it also demonstrates an effective use case of this interface by showing how to leverage it to build a Python language model server. Such a server can prove to be extremely useful when the language model needs to be queried by multiple clients over a network: the language model must only be loaded into memory once by the server and can then satisfy multiple requests. This article includes only those listings of source code that are most salient. To conserve space, some are only presented in excerpted form. The complete set of full source code listings may be found in Volume 1 of The Python Papers Source Codes Journal.

  17. A Tool for Model-Based Language Specification

    CERN Document Server

    Quesada, Luis; Cubero, Juan-Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Formal languages let us define the textual representation of data with precision. Formal grammars, typically in the form of BNF-like productions, describe the language syntax, which is then annotated for syntax-directed translation and completed with semantic actions. When, apart from the textual representation of data, an explicit representation of the corresponding data structure is required, the language designer has to devise the mapping between the suitable data model and its proper language specification, and then develop the conversion procedure from the parse tree to the data model instance. Unfortunately, whenever the format of the textual representation has to be modified, changes have to propagated throughout the entire language processor tool chain. These updates are time-consuming, tedious, and error-prone. Besides, in case different applications use the same language, several copies of the same language specification have to be maintained. In this paper, we introduce a model-based parser generat...

  18. Towards a Model of Language Attrition: Neurobiological and Psychological Contributions

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshitomi, Asako

    1992-01-01

    Research in L2 attrition is a relatively new enterprise which is in need of a comprehensive theory/model. This paper presents a tentative cognitive-psychological model of language attrition, which draws on information from studies in L2 attrition, neurobiology, and psychology. This is to demonstrate that a model based on consideration of the brain has the potential of providing a plausible account of the process of language attrition, as well as the process of language acquisition.

  19. Multicriteria framework for selecting a process modelling language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanavachi Moreira Campos, Ana Carolina; Teixeira de Almeida, Adiel

    2016-01-01

    The choice of process modelling language can affect business process management (BPM) since each modelling language shows different features of a given process and may limit the ways in which a process can be described and analysed. However, choosing the appropriate modelling language for process modelling has become a difficult task because of the availability of a large number modelling languages and also due to the lack of guidelines on evaluating, and comparing languages so as to assist in selecting the most appropriate one. This paper proposes a framework for selecting a modelling language in accordance with the purposes of modelling. This framework is based on the semiotic quality framework (SEQUAL) for evaluating process modelling languages and a multicriteria decision aid (MCDA) approach in order to select the most appropriate language for BPM. This study does not attempt to set out new forms of assessment and evaluation criteria, but does attempt to demonstrate how two existing approaches can be combined so as to solve the problem of selection of modelling language. The framework is described in this paper and then demonstrated by means of an example. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of using SEQUAL and MCDA in an integrated manner are discussed.

  20. Towards a Model of Language Attrition: Neurobiological and Psychological Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitomi, Asako

    1992-01-01

    Presents a tentative cognitive-psychological model of language attrition, which draws on information from studies in second language attrition, neurobiology and psychology. Notes that this model is presented to demonstrate that a model based on consideration of the brain has the potential of providing a plausible account of the process of language…

  1. Toward Integration: An Instructional Model of Science and Academic Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cecilia; Weinburgh, Molly; Malloy, Robert; Smith, Kathy Horak; Marshall, Jenesta Nettles

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors outline an instructional model that can be used to optimize science and language learning in the classroom. The authors have developed the 5R instructional model (Weinburgh & Silva, 2010) to support teachers as they integrate academic language into content instruction. The model combines five strategies already…

  2. Modeling socioeconomic status effects on language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael S C; Forrester, Neil A; Ronald, Angelica

    2013-12-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is an important environmental predictor of language and cognitive development, but the causal pathways by which it operates are unclear. We used a computational model of development to explore the adequacy of manipulations of environmental information to simulate SES effects in English past-tense acquisition, in a data set provided by Bishop (2005). To our knowledge, this is the first application of computational models of development to SES. The simulations addressed 3 new challenges: (a) to combine models of development and individual differences in a single framework, (b) to expand modeling to the population level, and (c) to implement both environmental and genetic/intrinsic sources of individual differences. The model succeeded in capturing the qualitative patterns of regularity effects in both population performance and the predictive power of SES that were observed in the empirical data. The model suggested that the empirical data are best captured by relatively wider variation in learning abilities and relatively narrow variation in (and good quality of) environmental information. There were shortcomings in the model's quantitative fit, which are discussed. The model made several novel predictions, with respect to the influence of SES on delay versus giftedness, the change of SES effects over development, and the influence of SES on children of different ability levels (gene-environment interactions). The first of these predictions was that SES should reliably predict gifted performance in children but not delayed performance, and the prediction was supported by the Bishop data set. Finally, the model demonstrated limits on the inferences that can be drawn about developmental mechanisms on the basis of data from individual differences. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Integrating content and language in English language teaching in secondary education: Models, benefits, and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Banegas, Darío Luis

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, there has been a major interest in content-based instruction (CBI) and content and language integrated learning (CLIL). These are similar approaches which integrate content and foreign/second language learning through various methodologies and models as a result of different implementations around the world. In this paper, I first offer a sociocultural view of CBI-CLIL. Secondly, I define language and content as vital components in CBI-CLIL. Thirdly, I revie...

  4. A Grammar Analysis Model for the Unified Multimedia Query Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Sheng Cao; Zong-Da Wu; Yuan-Zhen Wang

    2008-01-01

    The unified multimedia query language(UMQL) is a powerful general-purpose multimediaquery language, and it is very suitable for multimediainformation retrieval. The paper proposes a grammaranalysis model to implement an effective grammaticalprocessing for the language. It separates the grammaranalysis of a UMQL query specification into two phases:syntactic analysis and semantic analysis, and thenrespectively uses Backus-Naur form (EBNF) and logicalalgebra to specify both restrictive grammar rules. As aresult, the model can present error guiding informationfor a query specification which owns incorrect grammar.The model not only suits well the processing of UMQLqueries, but also has a guiding significance for otherprojects concerning query processings of descriptivequery languages.

  5. Translation rescoring through recurrent neural network language models

    OpenAIRE

    PERIS ABRIL, ÁLVARO

    2014-01-01

    This work is framed into the Statistical Machine Translation field, more specifically into the language modeling challenge. In this area, have classically predominated the n-gram approach, but, in the latest years, different approaches have arisen in order to tackle this problem. One of this approaches is the use of artificial recurrent neural networks, which are supposed to outperform the n-gram language models. The aim of this work is to test empirically these new language...

  6. Modeling of Slovak Language for Broadcast News Transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Staš, Ján; JUHÁR Jozef

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes recent progress in the development the Slovak language models for transcription of spontaneous speech such as broadcast news, educational talks and lectures, or meetings. This work extends previous research oriented on the automatic transcription of dictated speech and brings some new extensions for improving perplexity and robustness of the Slovak language models trained on the web-based and electronic language resources for being more precise in recognition of spontaneou...

  7. Bayesian Recurrent Neural Network for Language Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Jen-Tzung; Ku, Yuan-Chu

    2016-02-01

    A language model (LM) is calculated as the probability of a word sequence that provides the solution to word prediction for a variety of information systems. A recurrent neural network (RNN) is powerful to learn the large-span dynamics of a word sequence in the continuous space. However, the training of the RNN-LM is an ill-posed problem because of too many parameters from a large dictionary size and a high-dimensional hidden layer. This paper presents a Bayesian approach to regularize the RNN-LM and apply it for continuous speech recognition. We aim to penalize the too complicated RNN-LM by compensating for the uncertainty of the estimated model parameters, which is represented by a Gaussian prior. The objective function in a Bayesian classification network is formed as the regularized cross-entropy error function. The regularized model is constructed not only by calculating the regularized parameters according to the maximum a posteriori criterion but also by estimating the Gaussian hyperparameter by maximizing the marginal likelihood. A rapid approximation to a Hessian matrix is developed to implement the Bayesian RNN-LM (BRNN-LM) by selecting a small set of salient outer-products. The proposed BRNN-LM achieves a sparser model than the RNN-LM. Experiments on different corpora show the robustness of system performance by applying the rapid BRNN-LM under different conditions.

  8. Innovations in Language Learning: The Oregon Chinese Flagship Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Falsgraf

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Language learning in the United States suffers from a culture of low expectations. Lacking bilingual role models around them, students often view language class as, at best, a way to become a tourist in a country with a language different from their own. Monolingual policymakers assume that learning another language fluently is impossible and inconsequential, since they themselves are capable professionals with one language. Educators, discouraged by years of inadequate funding and support, have come to hope for nothing more than incremental improvements. The National Flagship Language Program (NFLP aims to break this cycle of low expectations and low results by providing funding to institutions willing to accept the challenge of producing Superior (Level 3 language users through a radical re-engineering of the language learning enterprise. The need for fundamental change in language education is longstanding, but the events of September 11 brought the importance of this need to the awareness of national policymakers. Due to the emphasis of critical languages, responsibility for carrying out this fundamental re-examination of language learning has fallen to those engaged in the less commonly taught languages. 1

  9. LTSmin: high-performance language-independent model checking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kant, Gijs; Laarman, Alfons; Meijer, Jeroen; Pol, van de Jaco; Blom, Stefan; Dijk, van Tom; Baier, Christel; Tinelli, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the LTSmin model checker has been extended with support for several new modelling languages, including probabilistic (Mapa) and timed systems (Uppaal). Also, connecting additional language front-ends or ad-hoc state-space generators to LTSmin was simplified using custom C-code. From

  10. Null Objects in Second Language Acquisition: Grammatical vs. Performance Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyzik, Eve C.

    2008-01-01

    Null direct objects provide a favourable testing ground for grammatical and performance models of argument omission. This article examines both types of models in order to determine which gives a more plausible account of the second language data. The data were collected from second language (L2) learners of Spanish by means of four oral…

  11. Principles of parametric estimation in modeling language competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Menghan; Gong, Tao

    2013-06-11

    It is generally difficult to define reasonable parameters and interpret their values in mathematical models of social phenomena. Rather than directly fitting abstract parameters against empirical data, we should define some concrete parameters to denote the sociocultural factors relevant for particular phenomena, and compute the values of these parameters based upon the corresponding empirical data. Taking the example of modeling studies of language competition, we propose a language diffusion principle and two language inheritance principles to compute two critical parameters, namely the impacts and inheritance rates of competing languages, in our language competition model derived from the Lotka-Volterra competition model in evolutionary biology. These principles assign explicit sociolinguistic meanings to those parameters and calculate their values from the relevant data of population censuses and language surveys. Using four examples of language competition, we illustrate that our language competition model with thus-estimated parameter values can reliably replicate and predict the dynamics of language competition, and it is especially useful in cases lacking direct competition data.

  12. Syllable language models for Mandarin speech recognition: exploiting character language models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xunying; Hieronymus, James L; Gales, Mark J F; Woodland, Philip C

    2013-01-01

    Mandarin Chinese is based on characters which are syllabic in nature and morphological in meaning. All spoken languages have syllabiotactic rules which govern the construction of syllables and their allowed sequences. These constraints are not as restrictive as those learned from word sequences, but they can provide additional useful linguistic information. Hence, it is possible to improve speech recognition performance by appropriately combining these two types of constraints. For the Chinese language considered in this paper, character level language models (LMs) can be used as a first level approximation to allowed syllable sequences. To test this idea, word and character level n-gram LMs were trained on 2.8 billion words (equivalent to 4.3 billion characters) of texts from a wide collection of text sources. Both hypothesis and model based combination techniques were investigated to combine word and character level LMs. Significant character error rate reductions up to 7.3% relative were obtained on a state-of-the-art Mandarin Chinese broadcast audio recognition task using an adapted history dependent multi-level LM that performs a log-linearly combination of character and word level LMs. This supports the hypothesis that character or syllable sequence models are useful for improving Mandarin speech recognition performance.

  13. Self-organizing map models of language acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zhao, Xiaowei

    2013-01-01

    Connectionist models have had a profound impact on theories of language. While most early models were inspired by the classic parallel distributed processing architecture, recent models of language have explored various other types of models, including self-organizing models for language acquisition. In this paper, we aim at providing a review of the latter type of models, and highlight a number of simulation experiments that we have conducted based on these models. We show that self-organizing connectionist models can provide significant insights into long-standing debates in both monolingual and bilingual language development. We suggest future directions in which these models can be extended, to better connect with behavioral and neural data, and to make clear predictions in testing relevant psycholinguistic theories. PMID:24312061

  14. Self-organizing map models of language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zhao, Xiaowei

    2013-11-19

    Connectionist models have had a profound impact on theories of language. While most early models were inspired by the classic parallel distributed processing architecture, recent models of language have explored various other types of models, including self-organizing models for language acquisition. In this paper, we aim at providing a review of the latter type of models, and highlight a number of simulation experiments that we have conducted based on these models. We show that self-organizing connectionist models can provide significant insights into long-standing debates in both monolingual and bilingual language development. We suggest future directions in which these models can be extended, to better connect with behavioral and neural data, and to make clear predictions in testing relevant psycholinguistic theories.

  15. The Role of Learning Strategies in Second Language Acquisition: A Model for Research in Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    role of learning strategies in second language acquisition . While strategies used in acquiring productive language skills are discussed briefly, the...comprehensions. Keywords: Learning strategies, English as a second language, Second language acquisition , Basic skills, Research model.

  16. Declarative XML Update Language Based on a Higher Data Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Ren Wang; Xiao-Lin Zhang

    2005-01-01

    With the extensive use of XML in applications over the Web, how to update XML data is becoming an important issue because the role of XML has expanded beyond traditional applications in which XML is used for information exchange and data representation over the Web. So far, several languages have been proposed for updating XML data, but they are all based on lower, so-called graph-based or tree-based data models. Update requests are thus expressed in a nonintuitive and unnatural way and update statements are too complicated to comprehend. This paper presents a novel declarative XML update language which is an extension of the XML-RL query language. Compared with other existing XML update languages, it has the following features. First, it is the only XML data manipulation language based on a higher data model. Second, this language can express complex update requests at multiple levels in a hierarchy in a simple and flat way. Third, this language directly supports the functionality of updating complex objects while all other update languages do not support these operations. Lastly, most of existing languages use rename to modify attribute and element names, which is a different way from updates on value. The proposed language modifies tag names, values, and objects in a unified way by the introduction of three kinds of logical binding variables: object variables, value variables, and name variables.

  17. Extensible Markup Language Data Mining System Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炜; 宋瀚涛

    2003-01-01

    The existing data mining methods are mostly focused on relational databases and structured data, but not on complex structured data (like in extensible markup language(XML)). By converting XML document type description to the relational semantic recording XML data relations, and using an XML data mining language, the XML data mining system presents a strategy to mine information on XML.

  18. Pitch modelling for the Nguni languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, N

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available linguistic and physical variables of a prosodic nature in this family of languages. Firstly we undertake a set of experiments to select an appropriate pitch tracking algorithm for the the Nguni family of languages. We then use this pitch tracking algorithm...

  19. Modeling stroke rehabilitation processes using the Unified Modeling Language (UML).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Simona; Bonacina, Stefano; Pinciroli, Francesco

    2013-10-01

    In organising and providing rehabilitation procedures for stroke patients, the usual need for many refinements makes it inappropriate to attempt rigid standardisation, but greater detail is required concerning workflow. The aim of this study was to build a model of the post-stroke rehabilitation process. The model, implemented in the Unified Modeling Language, was grounded on international guidelines and refined following the clinical pathway adopted at local level by a specialized rehabilitation centre. The model describes the organisation of the rehabilitation delivery and it facilitates the monitoring of recovery during the process. Indeed, a system software was developed and tested to support clinicians in the digital administration of clinical scales. The model flexibility assures easy updating after process evolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Generating Systems Biology Markup Language Models from the Synthetic Biology Open Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehner, Nicholas; Zhang, Zhen; Nguyen, Tramy; Myers, Chris J

    2015-08-21

    In the context of synthetic biology, model generation is the automated process of constructing biochemical models based on genetic designs. This paper discusses the use cases for model generation in genetic design automation (GDA) software tools and introduces the foundational concepts of standards and model annotation that make this process useful. Finally, this paper presents an implementation of model generation in the GDA software tool iBioSim and provides an example of generating a Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) model from a design of a 4-input AND sensor written in the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL).

  1. Mathematical model of various statements of C-type Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Srivastav

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Some of the important components of high level languages are statements, keywords, variable declarations, arrays, user defined functions etc. In case of object oriented programming language we use class, object, inheritance, operator overloading, function overloading, polymorphism etc. There are some common category of statements such as control statement, loop statements etc. Pointers are also one important concept in C-language. User defined functions, function subprograms or subroutines are also important concepts in different programming languages. The language like ALGOL was developed using Chomsky context free grammar. The similar concept used in C-type languages. The high level languages are now based on mathematical derivations and logic. Most of the components of any high level language can be obtained from simple mathematical logic and derivations. In the present study the authors have tried to give some unified mathematical model of few statements, arrays, user defined functions of C-language. However, the present method may further be extended to any other high level language.

  2. Neutral evolution: A null model for language dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Blythe, R A

    2011-01-01

    We review the task of aligning simple models for language dynamics with relevant empirical data, motivated by the fact that this is rarely attempted in practice despite an abundance of abstract models. We propose that one way to meet this challenge is through the careful construction of null models. We argue in particular that rejection of a null model must have important consequences for theories about language dynamics if modelling is truly to be worthwhile. Our main claim is that the stochastic process of neutral evolution (also known as genetic drift or random copying) is a viable null model for language dynamics. We survey empirical evidence in favour and against neutral evolution as a mechanism behind historical language changes, highlighting the theoretical implications in each case.

  3. Incorporating Linguistic Structure into Maximum Entropy Language Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG GaoLin(方高林); GAO Wen(高文); WANG ZhaoQi(王兆其)

    2003-01-01

    In statistical language models, how to integrate diverse linguistic knowledge in a general framework for long-distance dependencies is a challenging issue. In this paper, an improved language model incorporating linguistic structure into maximum entropy framework is presented.The proposed model combines trigram with the structure knowledge of base phrase in which trigram is used to capture the local relation between words, while the structure knowledge of base phrase is considered to represent the long-distance relations between syntactical structures. The knowledge of syntax, semantics and vocabulary is integrated into the maximum entropy framework.Experimental results show that the proposed model improves by 24% for language model perplexity and increases about 3% for sign language recognition rate compared with the trigram model.

  4. LEARNING SEMANTICS-ENHANCED LANGUAGE MODELS APPLIED TO UNSUEPRVISED WSD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VERSPOOR, KARIN [Los Alamos National Laboratory; LIN, SHOU-DE [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-29

    An N-gram language model aims at capturing statistical syntactic word order information from corpora. Although the concept of language models has been applied extensively to handle a variety of NLP problems with reasonable success, the standard model does not incorporate semantic information, and consequently limits its applicability to semantic problems such as word sense disambiguation. We propose a framework that integrates semantic information into the language model schema, allowing a system to exploit both syntactic and semantic information to address NLP problems. Furthermore, acknowledging the limited availability of semantically annotated data, we discuss how the proposed model can be learned without annotated training examples. Finally, we report on a case study showing how the semantics-enhanced language model can be applied to unsupervised word sense disambiguation with promising results.

  5. A Model of Instruction for Integrating Culture and Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Anthony

    An integrated model of instruction in language and culture uses a sequential method of discovering sensation, perception, concept, and principle to develop self-analysis skills in students. When planning activities for learning a language and developing cultural understanding, teachers might follow a sequence such as the following: introduce…

  6. A graphical Specification Language for Modeling Concurrency based on CSP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilderink, Gerald H.; Pascoe, James; Welch, Peter; Loader, Roger; Sunderam, Vaidy

    2002-01-01

    Introduced in this paper is a new graphical modeling language for specifying concurrency in software designs. The language notations are derived from CSP and the resulting designs form CSP diagrams. The notations reflect both data-flow and control-flow aspects, as well as along with CSP algebraic ex

  7. A graphical Specification Language for Modeling Concurrency based on CSP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilderink, G.H.; Pascoe, James; Welch, Peter; Loader, Roger; Sunderam, Vaidy

    2002-01-01

    Introduced in this paper is a new graphical modeling language for specifying concurrency in software designs. The language notations are derived from CSP and the resulting designs form CSP diagrams. The notations reflect both data-flow and control-flow aspects, as well as along with CSP algebraic

  8. Graphical modelling language for spycifying concurrency based on CSP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilderink, G.H.

    2003-01-01

    Introduced in this (shortened) paper is a graphical modelling language for specifying concurrency in software designs. The language notations are derived from CSP and the resulting designs form CSP diagrams. The notations reflect both data-flow and control-flow aspects of concurrent software

  9. Guiding Principles for Language Assessment Reform: A Model for Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Brent A.; Andrade, Maureen Snow

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, practitioners interested in language test reform have focused on the qualities within an examination which result in either positive or negative impacts on participants, institutions, and society. Recent views suggest a multifaceted interaction among factors affecting language test reform. We introduce a model for test reform that…

  10. Leveraging Small-Lexicon Language Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-31

    and predictive capacity for) variation between related languages. Our deliverable is the finished product : normalized lexicons and marked cognate...Total vowels ”). It does not provide lexical items or transcribed phonological data. Table 4 Limited language-family coverage of currently...have provided. One additional character – / ʋ / – is used as the high, back, rounded, fricated vowel . It appears variously in the literature as /v

  11. A Dynamical Systems Model for Language Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-01

    11, Georgetown Universtiy, 1982. [6] A. S. Kroch. Function and gramar in the his- tory of english : Periphrastic "do.". In Ralph Fa- sold, editor...cally, posit 3 Boolean parameters, Speci er rst/ nal; Head rst/ nal; Verb second allowed or not, leading to 8 possible gram- mars/languages ( English ...Nonverb second populations tend to gain Verb second over time (e.g., English -type languages change to a more German type) contrary to historically

  12. Fence - An Efficient Parser with Ambiguity Support for Model-Driven Language Specification

    CERN Document Server

    Quesada, Luis; Cortijo, Francisco J

    2011-01-01

    Model-based language specification has applications in the implementation of language processors, the design of domain-specific languages, model-driven software development, data integration, text mining, natural language processing, and corpus-based induction of models. Model-based language specification decouples language design from language processing and, unlike traditional grammar-driven approaches, which constrain language designers to specific kinds of grammars, it needs general parser generators able to deal with ambiguities. In this paper, we propose Fence, an efficient bottom-up parsing algorithm with lexical and syntactic ambiguity support that enables the use of model-based language specification in practice.

  13. Integrating language models into classifiers for BCI communication: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speier, W.; Arnold, C.; Pouratian, N.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. The present review systematically examines the integration of language models to improve classifier performance in brain-computer interface (BCI) communication systems. Approach. The domain of natural language has been studied extensively in linguistics and has been used in the natural language processing field in applications including information extraction, machine translation, and speech recognition. While these methods have been used for years in traditional augmentative and assistive communication devices, information about the output domain has largely been ignored in BCI communication systems. Over the last few years, BCI communication systems have started to leverage this information through the inclusion of language models. Main results. Although this movement began only recently, studies have already shown the potential of language integration in BCI communication and it has become a growing field in BCI research. BCI communication systems using language models in their classifiers have progressed down several parallel paths, including: word completion; signal classification; integration of process models; dynamic stopping; unsupervised learning; error correction; and evaluation. Significance. Each of these methods have shown significant progress, but have largely been addressed separately. Combining these methods could use the full potential of language model, yielding further performance improvements. This integration should be a priority as the field works to create a BCI system that meets the needs of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis population.

  14. Language acquisition is model-based rather than model-free.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Felix Hao; Mintz, Toben H

    2016-01-01

    Christiansen & Chater (C&C) propose that learning language is learning to process language. However, we believe that the general-purpose prediction mechanism they propose is insufficient to account for many phenomena in language acquisition. We argue from theoretical considerations and empirical evidence that many acquisition tasks are model-based, and that different acquisition tasks require different, specialized models.

  15. How does language model size effects speech recognition accuracy for the Turkish language?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam ASEFİSARAY

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we aimed at investigating the effect of Language Model (LM size on Speech Recognition (SR accuracy. We also provided details of our approach for obtaining the LM for Turkish. Since LM is obtained by statistical processing of raw text, we expect that by increasing the size of available data for training the LM, SR accuracy will improve. Since this study is based on recognition of Turkish, which is a highly agglutinative language, it is important to find out the appropriate size for the training data. The minimum required data size is expected to be much higher than the data needed to train a language model for a language with low level of agglutination such as English. In the experiments we also tried to adjust the Language Model Weight (LMW and Active Token Count (ATC parameters of LM as these are expected to be different for a highly agglutinative language. We showed that by increasing the training data size to an appropriate level, the recognition accuracy improved on the other hand changes on LMW and ATC did not have a positive effect on Turkish speech recognition accuracy.

  16. VMTL: a language for end-user model transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acretoaie, Vlad; Störrle, Harald; Strüber, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    these guidelines. VMTL draws on our previous work on the usability-oriented Visual Model Query Language. We implement VMTL using the Henshin model transformation engine, and empirically investigate its learnability via two user experiments and a think-aloud protocol analysis. Our experiments, although conducted...... on computer science students exhibiting only some of the characteristics of end-user modelers, show that VMTL compares favorably in terms of learnability with two state-of the-art model transformation languages: Epsilon and Henshin. Our think-aloud protocol analysis confirms many of the design decisions......Model transformation is a key enabling technology of Model-Driven Engineering (MDE). Existing model transformation languages are shaped by and for MDE practitioners—a user group with needs and capabilities which are not necessarily characteristic of modelers in general. Consequently...

  17. Advanced language modeling approaches, case study: Expert search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2008-01-01

    This tutorial gives a clear and detailed overview of advanced language modeling approaches and tools, including the use of document priors, translation models, relevance models, parsimonious models and expectation maximization training. Expert search will be used as a case study to explain the

  18. Language Model Applications to Spelling with Brain-Computer Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Mora-Cortes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Within the Ambient Assisted Living (AAL community, Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs have raised great hopes as they provide alternative communication means for persons with disabilities bypassing the need for speech and other motor activities. Although significant advancements have been realized in the last decade, applications of language models (e.g., word prediction, completion have only recently started to appear in BCI systems. The main goal of this article is to review the language model applications that supplement non-invasive BCI-based communication systems by discussing their potential and limitations, and to discern future trends. First, a brief overview of the most prominent BCI spelling systems is given, followed by an in-depth discussion of the language models applied to them. These language models are classified according to their functionality in the context of BCI-based spelling: the static/dynamic nature of the user interface, the use of error correction and predictive spelling, and the potential to improve their classification performance by using language models. To conclude, the review offers an overview of the advantages and challenges when implementing language models in BCI-based communication systems when implemented in conjunction with other AAL technologies.

  19. Cognitive aging and hearing acuity: modeling spoken language comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Arthur; Amichetti, Nicole M; Lash, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The comprehension of spoken language has been characterized by a number of "local" theories that have focused on specific aspects of the task: models of word recognition, models of selective attention, accounts of thematic role assignment at the sentence level, and so forth. The ease of language understanding (ELU) model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) stands as one of the few attempts to offer a fully encompassing framework for language understanding. In this paper we discuss interactions between perceptual, linguistic, and cognitive factors in spoken language understanding. Central to our presentation is an examination of aspects of the ELU model that apply especially to spoken language comprehension in adult aging, where speed of processing, working memory capacity, and hearing acuity are often compromised. We discuss, in relation to the ELU model, conceptions of working memory and its capacity limitations, the use of linguistic context to aid in speech recognition and the importance of inhibitory control, and language comprehension at the sentence level. Throughout this paper we offer a constructive look at the ELU model; where it is strong and where there are gaps to be filled.

  20. Constructing Maximum Entropy Language Models for Movie Review Subjectivity Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Chen; Hui He; Jun Guo

    2008-01-01

    Document subjectivity analysis has become an important aspect of web text content mining. This problem is similar to traditional text categorization, thus many related classification techniques can be adapted here. However, there is one significant difference that more language or semantic information is required for better estimating the subjectivity of a document. Therefore, in this paper, our focuses are mainly on two aspects. One is how to extract useful and meaningful language features, and the other is how to construct appropriate language models efficiently for this special task. For the first issue, we conduct a Global-Filtering and Local-Weighting strategy to select and evaluate language features in a series of n-grams with different orders and within various distance-windows. For the second issue, we adopt Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling methods to construct our language model framework. Besides the classical MaxEnt models, we have also constructed two kinds of improved models with Gaussian and exponential priors respectively. Detailed experiments given in this paper show that with well selected and weighted language features, MaxEnt models with exponential priors are significantly more suitable for the text subjectivity analysis task.

  1. Imitation, Sign Language Skill and the Developmental Ease of Language Understanding (D-ELU) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmer, Emil; Heimann, Mikael; Rudner, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Imitation and language processing are closely connected. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) pre-existing mental representation of lexical items facilitates language understanding. Thus, imitation of manual gestures is likely to be enhanced by experience of sign language. We tested this by eliciting imitation of manual gestures from deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing and hearing non-signing children at a similar level of language and cognitive development. We predicted that the DHH signing children would be better at imitating gestures lexicalized in their own sign language (Swedish Sign Language, SSL) than unfamiliar British Sign Language (BSL) signs, and that both groups would be better at imitating lexical signs (SSL and BSL) than non-signs. We also predicted that the hearing non-signing children would perform worse than DHH signing children with all types of gestures the first time (T1) we elicited imitation, but that the performance gap between groups would be reduced when imitation was elicited a second time (T2). Finally, we predicted that imitation performance on both occasions would be associated with linguistic skills, especially in the manual modality. A split-plot repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that DHH signers imitated manual gestures with greater precision than non-signing children when imitation was elicited the second but not the first time. Manual gestures were easier to imitate for both groups when they were lexicalized than when they were not; but there was no difference in performance between familiar and unfamiliar gestures. For both groups, language skills at T1 predicted imitation at T2. Specifically, for DHH children, word reading skills, comprehension and phonological awareness of sign language predicted imitation at T2. For the hearing participants, language comprehension predicted imitation at T2, even after the effects of working memory capacity and motor skills were taken into

  2. Imitation, sign language skill and the Developmental Ease of Language Understanding (D-ELU model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil eHolmer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Imitation and language processing are closely connected. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU model (Rönnberg et al., 2013 pre-existing mental representation of lexical items facilitates language understanding. Thus, imitation of manual gestures is likely to be enhanced by experience of sign language. We tested this by eliciting imitation of manual gestures from deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH signing and hearing non-signing children at a similar level of language and cognitive development. We predicted that the DHH signing children would be better at imitating gestures lexicalized in their own sign language (Swedish Sign Language, SSL than unfamiliar British Sign Language (BSL signs, and that both groups would be better at imitating lexical signs (SSL and BSL than non-signs. We also predicted that the hearing non-signing children would perform worse than DHH signing children with all types of gestures the first time (T1 we elicited imitation, but that the performance gap between groups would be reduced when imitation was elicited a second time (T2. Finally, we predicted that imitation performance on both occasions would be associated with linguistic skills, especially in the manual modality. A split-plot repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that DHH signers imitated manual gestures with greater precision than non-signing children when imitation was elicited the second but not the first time. Manual gestures were easier to imitate for both groups when they were lexicalized than when they were not; but there was no difference in performance between familiar and unfamiliar gestures. For both groups, language skills at the T1 predicted imitation at T2. Specifically, for DHH children, word reading skills, comprehension and phonological awareness of sign language predicted imitation at T2. For the hearing participants, language comprehension predicted imitation at T2, even after the effects of working memory capacity and motor skills

  3. A Grammar Analysis Model for the Unified Multimedia Query Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Sheng Cao; Zong-Da Wu; Yuan-Zhen Wang

    2008-01-01

    The unified multimedia query language (UMQL) is a powerful general-purpose multimedia query language, and it is very suitable for multimedia information retrieval. The paper proposes a grammar analysis model to implement an effective grammatical processing for the language. It separates the grammar analysis of a UMQL query specification into two phases: syntactic analysis and semantic analysis, and then respectively uses Backus-Naur form (EBNF) and logical algebra to specify both restrictive grammar rules. As a result, the model can present error guiding information for a query specification which owns incorrect grammar. The model not only suits well the processing of UMQL queries, but also has a guiding significance for other projects concerning query processings of descriptive query languages.

  4. Methods & Strategies: A Model of Shared Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Kate; Coy, Stephanie; Pocock, Aija

    2015-01-01

    The authors' rural community experienced an explosion of young learners moving into their schools who did not have English as their primary language. To help their teachers meet these challenges, they began to partner with a program that provides grant-funded support for migrant learners (see Internet Resources) to find ways to address these…

  5. Methods & Strategies: A Model of Shared Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Kate; Coy, Stephanie; Pocock, Aija

    2015-01-01

    The authors' rural community experienced an explosion of young learners moving into their schools who did not have English as their primary language. To help their teachers meet these challenges, they began to partner with a program that provides grant-funded support for migrant learners (see Internet Resources) to find ways to address these…

  6. Formulating "Principles of Procedure" for the Foreign Language Classroom: A Framework for Process Model Language Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacañas de Castro, Luis S.

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to apply Stenhouse's process model of curriculum to foreign language (FL) education, a model which is characterized by enacting "principles of procedure" which are specific to the discipline which the school subject belongs to. Rather than to replace or dissolve current approaches to FL teaching and curriculum…

  7. Visualisation of Domain-Specific Modelling Languages Using UML

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, B.; Van Deursen, A.

    2006-01-01

    Currently, general-purpose modelling tools are often only used to draw diagrams for the documentation. The introduction of model-driven software development approaches involves the definition of domain-specific modelling languages that allow code generation. Although graphical representations of the

  8. Linguistic steganography on Twitter: hierarchical language modeling with manual interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alex; Blunsom, Phil; Ker, Andrew D.

    2014-02-01

    This work proposes a natural language stegosystem for Twitter, modifying tweets as they are written to hide 4 bits of payload per tweet, which is a greater payload than previous systems have achieved. The system, CoverTweet, includes novel components, as well as some already developed in the literature. We believe that the task of transforming covers during embedding is equivalent to unilingual machine translation (paraphrasing), and we use this equivalence to de ne a distortion measure based on statistical machine translation methods. The system incorporates this measure of distortion to rank possible tweet paraphrases, using a hierarchical language model; we use human interaction as a second distortion measure to pick the best. The hierarchical language model is designed to model the speci c language of the covers, which in this setting is the language of the Twitter user who is embedding. This is a change from previous work, where general-purpose language models have been used. We evaluate our system by testing the output against human judges, and show that humans are unable to distinguish stego tweets from cover tweets any better than random guessing.

  9. Modeling the language learning strategies and English language proficiency of pre-university students in UMS: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiram, J. J.; Sulaiman, J.; Swanto, S.; Din, W. A.

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to construct a mathematical model of the relationship between a student's Language Learning Strategy usage and English Language proficiency. Fifty-six pre-university students of University Malaysia Sabah participated in this study. A self-report questionnaire called the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning was administered to them to measure their language learning strategy preferences before they sat for the Malaysian University English Test (MUET), the results of which were utilised to measure their English language proficiency. We attempted the model assessment specific to Multiple Linear Regression Analysis subject to variable selection using Stepwise regression. We conducted various assessments to the model obtained, including the Global F-test, Root Mean Square Error and R-squared. The model obtained suggests that not all language learning strategies should be included in the model in an attempt to predict Language Proficiency.

  10. A database approach to information retrieval: The remarkable relationship between language models and region models

    CERN Document Server

    Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2010-01-01

    In this report, we unify two quite distinct approaches to information retrieval: region models and language models. Region models were developed for structured document retrieval. They provide a well-defined behaviour as well as a simple query language that allows application developers to rapidly develop applications. Language models are particularly useful to reason about the ranking of search results, and for developing new ranking approaches. The unified model allows application developers to define complex language modeling approaches as logical queries on a textual database. We show a remarkable one-to-one relationship between region queries and the language models they represent for a wide variety of applications: simple ad-hoc search, cross-language retrieval, video retrieval, and web search.

  11. A Model and Questionnaire of Language Identity in Iran: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Mohammad; Rezaei, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    This study consisted of three main phases including the development of a hypothesised model of language identity in Iran, developing and validating a questionnaire based on this model and finally testing the model based on the questionnaire data. In the first phase of this research, a hypothesised model of language identity in Iran was developed…

  12. Cross Language Information Retrieval Model for Discovering WSDL Documents Using Arabic Language Query

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Dr. Torkey I.Sultan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Web service discovery is the process of finding a suitable Web service for a given user’s query through analyzing the web service‘s WSDL content and finding the best match for the user’s query. The service query should be written in the same language of the WSDL, for example English. Cross Language Information Retrieval techniques does not exist in the web service discovery process. The absence of CLIR methods limits the search language to the English language keywords only, which raises the following question “How do people that do not know the English Language find a web service, This paper proposes the application of CLIR techniques and IR methods to support Bilingual Web service discovery process the second language that proposed here is Arabic. Text mining techniques were applied on WSDL content and user’s query to be ready for CLIR methods. The proposed model was tested on a curated catalogue of Life Science Web Services http://www.biocatalogue.org/ and used for solving the research problem with 99.87 % accuracy and 95.06 precision

  13. Cognitive aging and hearing acuity: Modeling spoken language comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur eWingfield

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The comprehension of spoken language has been characterized by a number of local theories that have focused on specific aspects of the task: models of word recognition, models of selective attention, accounts of thematic role assignment at the sentence level, and so forth. The Ease of Language Understanding (ELU model (Rönnberg et al., 2013 stands as one of the few attempts to offer a fully encompassing framework for language understanding. In this paper we examine aspects of the ELU model that apply especially to spoken language comprehension in adult aging, where speed of processing, working memory capacity, and hearing acuity are often compromised. We discuss, in relation to the ELU model, conceptions of working memory and its capacity limitations, the use of linguistic context to aid in speech recognition and the importance of inhibitory control, and language comprehension at the sentence level. Throughout our discussion our goal is to offer a constructive look at the ELU model; where it is strong and where there are gaps to be filled.

  14. Integrating content and language in English language teaching in secondary education: Models, benefits, and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Luis Banegas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, there has been a major interest in content-based instruction (CBI and content and language integrated learning (CLIL. These are similar approaches which integrate content and foreign/second language learning through various methodologies and models as a result of different implementations around the world. In this paper, I first offer a sociocultural view of CBI-CLIL. Secondly, I define language and content as vital components in CBI-CLIL. Thirdly, I review the origins of CBI and the continuum perspective, and CLIL definitions and models featured in the literature. Fourth, I summarise current aspects around research in programme evaluation. Last, I review the benefits and challenges of this innovative approach so as to encourage critically context-responsive endeavours.

  15. Language-Independent and Language-Specific Aspects of Early Literacy: An Evaluation of the Common Underlying Proficiency Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, J. Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    According to the common underlying proficiency model (Cummins, 1981), as children acquire academic knowledge and skills in their first language, they also acquire language-independent information about those skills that can be applied when learning a second language. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relevance of the common underlying…

  16. The Effect of Dual-Language and Transitional-Bilingual Education Instructional Models on Spanish Proficiency for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Audrey Figueroa

    2014-01-01

    The effects of "transitional-bilingual" and "dual-language" educational models on proficiency in students' home language (Spanish) were examined in a study of English language learners in the first and second grades in a large urban elementary school. In each grade, students were taught with either a transitional-bilingual…

  17. Modelling the Perceived Value of Compulsory English Language Education in Undergraduate Non-Language Majors of Japanese Nationality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Damian J.

    2012-01-01

    Adopting mixed methods of data collection and analysis, the current study models the "perceived value of compulsory English language education" in a sample of 138 undergraduate non-language majors of Japanese nationality at a national university in Japan. During the orientation period of a compulsory 15-week English language programme,…

  18. Language modeling for automatic speech recognition of inflective languages an applications-oriented approach using lexical data

    CERN Document Server

    Donaj, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    This book covers language modeling and automatic speech recognition for inflective languages (e.g. Slavic languages), which represent roughly half of the languages spoken in Europe. These languages do not perform as well as English in speech recognition systems and it is therefore harder to develop an application with sufficient quality for the end user. The authors describe the most important language features for the development of a speech recognition system. This is then presented through the analysis of errors in the system and the development of language models and their inclusion in speech recognition systems, which specifically address the errors that are relevant for targeted applications. The error analysis is done with regard to morphological characteristics of the word in the recognized sentences. The book is oriented towards speech recognition with large vocabularies and continuous and even spontaneous speech. Today such applications work with a rather small number of languages compared to the nu...

  19. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  20. Research on the Acculturation Model for Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, John H.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a model of second language acquisition based on the social-psychology of acculturation, including factors in social, affective, personality, cognitive, biological, aptitude, personal, input, and instructional areas. Studies which test this model are reviewed and evaluated. (Author/CB)

  1. Industrial application of formal models generated from domain specific languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooman, J.

    2016-01-01

    Domain Specific Languages (DSLs) provide a lightweight approach to incorporate formal techniques into the industrial workflow. From DSL instances, formal models and other artefacts can be generated, such as simulation models and code. Having a single source for all artefacts improves maintenance and

  2. Integrating Articulatory Constraints into Models of Second Language Phonological Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colantoni, Laura; Steele, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Models such as Eckman's markedness differential hypothesis, Flege's speech learning model, and Brown's feature-based theory of perception seek to explain and predict the relative difficulty second language (L2) learners face when acquiring new or similar sounds. In this paper, we test their predictive adequacy as concerns native English speakers'…

  3. F-Alloy: An Alloy Based Model Transformation Language

    OpenAIRE

    Gammaitoni, Loïc; Kelsen, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Model transformations are one of the core artifacts of a model-driven engineering approach. The relational logic language Alloy has been used in the past to verify properties of model transformations. In this paper we introduce the concept of functional Alloy modules. In essence a functional Alloy module can be viewed as an Alloy module representing a model transformation. We describe a sublanguage of Alloy called F-Alloy that allows the specification of functional Alloy modules. Module...

  4. Building CMU Sphinx language model for the Ho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Yassine El Amrani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the use of a simplified set of Arabic phonemes in an Arabic Speech Recognition system applied to Holy Quran. The CMU Sphinx 4 was used to train and evaluate a language model for the Hafs narration of the Holy Quran. The building of the language model was done using a simplified list of Arabic phonemes instead of the mainly used Romanized set in order to simplify the process of generating the language model. The experiments resulted in very low Word Error Rate (WER reaching 1.5% while using a very small set of audio files during the training phase when using all the audio data for both the training and the testing phases. However, when using 90% and 80% of the training data, the WER obtained was respectively 50.0% and 55.7%.

  5. Spin Glass Models of Syntax and Language Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Siva, Karthik; Marcolli, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    Using the SSWL database of syntactic parameters of world languages, and the MIT Media Lab data on language interactions, we construct a spin glass model of language evolution. We treat binary syntactic parameters as spin states, with languages as vertices of a graph, and assigned interaction energies along the edges. We study a rough model of syntax evolution, under the assumption that a strong interaction energy tends to cause parameters to align, as in the case of ferromagnetic materials. We also study how the spin glass model needs to be modified to account for entailment relations between syntactic parameters. This modification leads naturally to a generalization of Potts models with external magnetic field, which consists of a coupling at the vertices of an Ising model and a Potts model with q=3, that have the same edge interactions. We describe the results of simulations of the dynamics of these models, in different temperature and energy regimes. We discuss the linguistic interpretation of the paramete...

  6. Proposed Bilingual Model for Right to Left Language Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan M Al Obisat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Using right to left languages (RLL in software programming requires switching the direction of many components in the interface. Preserving the original interface layout and only changing the language may result in different semantics or interpretations of the content. However, this aspect is often dismissing in the field. This research, therefore, proposes a Bilingual Model (BL to check and correct the directions in social media applications. Moreover, test-driven development (TDD For RLL, such as Arabic, is considered in the testing methodologies. Similarly, the bilingual analysis has to follow both the TDD and BL models.

  7. Medical problem and document model for natural language understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meystre, Stephanie; Haug, Peter J

    2003-01-01

    We are developing tools to help maintain a complete, accurate and timely problem list within a general purpose Electronic Medical Record system. As a part of this project, we have designed a system to automatically retrieve medical problems from free-text documents. Here we describe an information model based on XML (eXtensible Markup Language) and compliant with the CDA (Clinical Document Architecture). This model is used to ease the exchange of clinical data between the Natural Language Understanding application that retrieves potential problems from narrative document, and the problem list management application.

  8. Contemporary model of language organization: an overview for neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Edward F; Raygor, Kunal P; Berger, Mitchel S

    2015-02-01

    Classic models of language organization posited that separate motor and sensory language foci existed in the inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area) and superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area), respectively, and that connections between these sites (arcuate fasciculus) allowed for auditory-motor interaction. These theories have predominated for more than a century, but advances in neuroimaging and stimulation mapping have provided a more detailed description of the functional neuroanatomy of language. New insights have shaped modern network-based models of speech processing composed of parallel and interconnected streams involving both cortical and subcortical areas. Recent models emphasize processing in "dorsal" and "ventral" pathways, mediating phonological and semantic processing, respectively. Phonological processing occurs along a dorsal pathway, from the posterosuperior temporal to the inferior frontal cortices. On the other hand, semantic information is carried in a ventral pathway that runs from the temporal pole to the basal occipitotemporal cortex, with anterior connections. Functional MRI has poor positive predictive value in determining critical language sites and should only be used as an adjunct for preoperative planning. Cortical and subcortical mapping should be used to define functional resection boundaries in eloquent areas and remains the clinical gold standard. In tracing the historical advancements in our understanding of speech processing, the authors hope to not only provide practicing neurosurgeons with additional information that will aid in surgical planning and prevent postoperative morbidity, but also underscore the fact that neurosurgeons are in a unique position to further advance our understanding of the anatomy and functional organization of language.

  9. A computational language approach to modeling prose recall in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, Mark; Diaz-Asper, Catherine; Foltz, Peter W; Elvevåg, Brita

    2014-06-01

    Many cortical disorders are associated with memory problems. In schizophrenia, verbal memory deficits are a hallmark feature. However, the exact nature of this deficit remains elusive. Modeling aspects of language features used in memory recall have the potential to provide means for measuring these verbal processes. We employ computational language approaches to assess time-varying semantic and sequential properties of prose recall at various retrieval intervals (immediate, 30 min and 24 h later) in patients with schizophrenia, unaffected siblings and healthy unrelated control participants. First, we model the recall data to quantify the degradation of performance with increasing retrieval interval and the effect of diagnosis (i.e., group membership) on performance. Next we model the human scoring of recall performance using an n-gram language sequence technique, and then with a semantic feature based on Latent Semantic Analysis. These models show that automated analyses of the recalls can produce scores that accurately mimic human scoring. The final analysis addresses the validity of this approach by ascertaining the ability to predict group membership from models built on the two classes of language features. Taken individually, the semantic feature is most predictive, while a model combining the features improves accuracy of group membership prediction slightly above the semantic feature alone as well as over the human rating approach. We discuss the implications for cognitive neuroscience of such a computational approach in exploring the mechanisms of prose recall.

  10. Lexical access in sign language: A computational model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Kenney Caselli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Psycholinguistic theories have predominantly been built upon data from spoken language, which leaves open the question: How many of the conclusions truly reflect language-general principles as opposed to modality-specific ones? We take a step toward answering this question in the domain of lexical access in recognition by asking whether a single cognitive architecture might explain diverse behavioral patterns in signed and spoken language. Chen and Mirman (2012 presented a computational model of word processing that unified opposite effects of neighborhood density in speech production, perception, and written word recognition. Neighborhood density effects in sign language also vary depending on whether the neighbors share the same handshape or location. We present a spreading activation architecture that borrows the principles proposed by Chen and Mirman (2012, and show that if this architecture is elaborated to incorporate relatively minor facts about either 1 the time course of sign perception or 2 the frequency of sub-lexical units in sign languages, it produces data that match the experimental findings from sign languages. This work serves as a proof of concept that a single cognitive architecture could underlie both sign and word recognition.

  11. Lexical access in sign language: a computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Naomi K; Cohen-Goldberg, Ariel M

    2014-01-01

    PSYCHOLINGUISTIC THEORIES HAVE PREDOMINANTLY BEEN BUILT UPON DATA FROM SPOKEN LANGUAGE, WHICH LEAVES OPEN THE QUESTION: How many of the conclusions truly reflect language-general principles as opposed to modality-specific ones? We take a step toward answering this question in the domain of lexical access in recognition by asking whether a single cognitive architecture might explain diverse behavioral patterns in signed and spoken language. Chen and Mirman (2012) presented a computational model of word processing that unified opposite effects of neighborhood density in speech production, perception, and written word recognition. Neighborhood density effects in sign language also vary depending on whether the neighbors share the same handshape or location. We present a spreading activation architecture that borrows the principles proposed by Chen and Mirman (2012), and show that if this architecture is elaborated to incorporate relatively minor facts about either (1) the time course of sign perception or (2) the frequency of sub-lexical units in sign languages, it produces data that match the experimental findings from sign languages. This work serves as a proof of concept that a single cognitive architecture could underlie both sign and word recognition.

  12. Modelling the coevolution of joint attention and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Tao; Shuai, Lan

    2012-11-22

    Joint attention (JA) is important to many social, communicative activities, including language, and humans exhibit a considerably high level of JA compared with non-human primates. We propose a coevolutionary hypothesis to explain this degree-difference in JA: once JA started to aid linguistic comprehension, along with language evolution, communicative success (CS) during cultural transmission could enhance the levels of JA among language users. We illustrate this hypothesis via a multi-agent computational model, where JA boils down to a genetically transmitted ability to obtain non-linguistic cues aiding comprehension. The simulation results and statistical analysis show that: (i) the level of JA is correlated with the understandability of the emergent language; and (ii) CS can boost an initially low level of JA and 'ratchet' it up to a stable high level. This coevolutionary perspective helps explain the degree-difference in many language-related competences between humans and non-human primates, and reflects the importance of biological evolution, individual learning and cultural transmission to language evolution.

  13. Specifying Usage Control ModelWith Object Constraint Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The recent usage control model (UCON is a foundation for next-generation access control models with distinguishing properties of decision continuity and attribute mutability. Constraints in UCON are one of the most important components that have involved in the principle motivations of usage analysis and design. The importance of constraints associated with authorizations, obligations, and conditions in UCON has been recognized but modeling these constraints has not been received much attention. In this paper we use a de facto constraints specification language in software engineering to analyze the constraints in UCON model. We show how to represent constraints with object constraint language (OCL and give out a formalized specification of UCON model which is built from basic constraints, such as authorization predicates, obligation actions and condition requirements. Further, we show the flexibility and expressive capability of this specified UCON model with extensive examples.

  14. Introducing the Collaborative Learning Modeling Language (ColeML)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    with a few basic concepts, 2) the language should make possible a visual graphic representation of the model, 3) elements of the model should be able to change status during the articulation, 4) the system should accept unfinished models, 5) models should be able to be built by integrating other models......, and differentiating teaching. Technology can help respond to these challenges (Brush & Saye, 2008; Bundsgaard, 2009, 2010; Ge, Planas, & Er, 2010; Helic, Krottmaier, Maurer, & Scerbakov, 2005; Daniel Schneider & Synteta, 2005; D. Schneider, Synteta, & Frété, 2002), but platforms are very expensive to build from...... the ground up. If these platforms are to find their way into everyday teaching and learning, they have to be easy and cheap to develop. Thus there is a need for easy to use application programming platforms. This paper argues that a visual modeling programming language would be an important part...

  15. Computer-Aided Transformation of PDE Models: Languages, Representations, and a Calculus of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-05

    Computer-aided transformation of PDE models: languages, representations, and a calculus of operations A domain-specific embedded language called...languages, representations, and a calculus of operations Report Title A domain-specific embedded language called ibvp was developed to model initial...Computer-aided transformation of PDE models: languages, representations, and a calculus of operations 1 Vision and background Physical and engineered systems

  16. Phase Transition in a Sexual Age-Structured Model of Learning Foreign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwämmle, V.

    The understanding of language competition helps us to predict extinction and survival of languages spoken by minorities. A simple agent-based model of a sexual population, based on the Penna model, is built in order to find out under which circumstances one language dominates other ones. This model considers that only young people learn foreign languages. The simulations show a first order phase transition of the ratio between the number of speakers of different languages with the mutation rate as control parameter.

  17. A model of competition among more than two languages

    CERN Document Server

    Fujie, Ryo; Masuda, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    We extend the Abrams-Strogatz model for competition between two languages [Nature 424, 900 (2003)] to the case of n(>=2) competing states (i.e., languages). Although the Abrams-Strogatz model for n=2 can be interpreted as modeling either majority preference or minority aversion, the two mechanisms are distinct when n>=3. We find that the condition for the coexistence of different states is independent of n under the pure majority preference, whereas it depends on n under the pure minority aversion. We also show that the stable coexistence equilibrium and stable monopoly equilibria can be multistable under the minority aversion and not under the majority preference. Furthermore, we obtain the phase diagram of the model when the effects of the majority preference and minority aversion are mixed, under the condition that different states have the same attractiveness. We show that the multistability is a generic property of the model facilitated by large n.

  18. Optlang: An algebraic modeling language for mathematical optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian; Cardoso, Joao; Sonnenschein, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Optlang is a Python package implementing a modeling language for solving mathematical optimization problems, i.e., maximizing or minimizing an objective function over a set of variables subject to a number of constraints. It provides a common native Python interface to a series of optimization...

  19. Using Different Models of Second-Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Anthony

    1975-01-01

    The teaching profession is encouraged to retreat from the search for one method of instruction and to recognize that there are many factors which lead to success in modern language learning. Several models offering different approaches for organizing classroom instruction are suggested. (Author/PMP)

  20. Structural Equation Modeling Reporting Practices for Language Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockey, Gary J.; Choi, Ikkyu

    2015-01-01

    Studies that use structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques are increasingly encountered in the language assessment literature. This popularity has created the need for a set of guidelines that can indicate what should be included in a research report and make it possible for research consumers to judge the appropriateness of the…

  1. Bayesian molecular design with a chemical language model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikebata, Hisaki; Hongo, Kenta; Isomura, Tetsu; Maezono, Ryo; Yoshida, Ryo

    2017-03-09

    The aim of computational molecular design is the identification of promising hypothetical molecules with a predefined set of desired properties. We address the issue of accelerating the material discovery with state-of-the-art machine learning techniques. The method involves two different types of prediction; the forward and backward predictions. The objective of the forward prediction is to create a set of machine learning models on various properties of a given molecule. Inverting the trained forward models through Bayes' law, we derive a posterior distribution for the backward prediction, which is conditioned by a desired property requirement. Exploring high-probability regions of the posterior with a sequential Monte Carlo technique, molecules that exhibit the desired properties can computationally be created. One major difficulty in the computational creation of molecules is the exclusion of the occurrence of chemically unfavorable structures. To circumvent this issue, we derive a chemical language model that acquires commonly occurring patterns of chemical fragments through natural language processing of ASCII strings of existing compounds, which follow the SMILES chemical language notation. In the backward prediction, the trained language model is used to refine chemical strings such that the properties of the resulting structures fall within the desired property region while chemically unfavorable structures are successfully removed. The present method is demonstrated through the design of small organic molecules with the property requirements on HOMO-LUMO gap and internal energy. The R package iqspr is available at the CRAN repository.

  2. An Empirical Generative Framework for Computational Modeling of Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterfall, Heidi R.; Sandbank, Ben; Onnis, Luca; Edelman, Shimon

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports progress in developing a computer model of language acquisition in the form of (1) a generative grammar that is (2) algorithmically learnable from realistic corpus data, (3) viable in its large-scale quantitative performance and (4) psychologically real. First, we describe new algorithmic methods for unsupervised learning of…

  3. How different are language models and word clouds?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.; Hiemstra, D.; Kamps, J.

    2010-01-01

    Word clouds are a summarised representation of a document’s text, similar to tag clouds which summarise the tags assigned to documents. Word clouds are similar to language models in the sense that they represent a document by its word distribution. In this paper we investigate the differences

  4. How Different are Language Models and Word Clouds?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, Rianne; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Kamps, Jaap

    Word clouds are a summarised representation of a document’s text, similar to tag clouds which summarise the tags assigned to documents. Word clouds are similar to language models in the sense that they represent a document by its word distribution. In this paper we investigate the differences

  5. How different are language models and word clouds?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.; Hiemstra, D.; Kamps, J.

    2010-01-01

    Word clouds are a summarised representation of a document’s text, similar to tag clouds which summarise the tags assigned to documents. Word clouds are similar to language models in the sense that they represent a document by its word distribution. In this paper we investigate the differences betwee

  6. How Different are Language Models and Word Clouds?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, Rianne; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Kamps, Jaap

    2010-01-01

    Word clouds are a summarised representation of a document’s text, similar to tag clouds which summarise the tags assigned to documents. Word clouds are similar to language models in the sense that they represent a document by its word distribution. In this paper we investigate the differences betwee

  7. Language modeling for what-with-where on GOOG-411

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the language modelling (LM) architectures and recognition experiments that enabled support of 'what-with-where' queries on GOOG-411. First the paper compares accuracy trade-offs between a single national business LM for business...

  8. Transformation Strategies between Block-Oriented and Graph-Oriented Process Modelling Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendling, Jan; Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; Zdun, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    Much recent research work discusses the transformation between different process modelling languages. This work, however, is mainly focussed on specific process modelling languages, and thus the general reusability of the applied transformation concepts is rather limited. In this paper, we aim...... to abstract from concrete transformation strategies by distinguishing two major paradigms for representing control flow in process modelling languages: block-oriented languages (such as BPEL and BPML) and graph-oriented languages (such as EPCs and YAWL). The contribution of this paper are generic strategies...... for transforming from block-oriented process languages to graph-oriented languages, and vice versa....

  9. Paired structures in logical and semiotic models of natural language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Franco, Camilo; Montero, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The evidence coming from cognitive psychology and linguistics shows that pairs of reference concepts (as e.g. good/bad, tall/short, nice/ugly, etc.) play a crucial role in the way we everyday use and understand natural languages in order to analyze reality and make decisions. Different situations...... languages through logical models usually assumes that reference concepts are just each other complement. In this paper, we informally discuss more deeply about these issues, claiming in a positional manner that an adequate logical study and representation of the features and complexity of natural languages...... relationships holding between the pair of reference concepts from which the valuation structure emerges. Different relationships may enable the representation of different types of neutrality, understood here as an epistemic hesitation regarding the references. However, the standard approach to natural...

  10. Modeling Educational Content: The Cognitive Approach of the PALO Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Felisa Verdejo Maíllo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a reference framework to describe educational material. It introduces the PALO Language as a cognitive based approach to Educational Modeling Languages (EML. In accordance with recent trends for reusability and interoperability in Learning Technologies, EML constitutes an evolution of the current content-centered specifications of learning material, involving the description of learning processes and methods from a pedagogical and instructional perspective. The PALO Language, thus, provides a layer of abstraction for the description of learning material, including the description of learning activities, structure and scheduling. The framework makes use of domain and pedagogical ontologies as a reusable and maintainable way to represent and store instructional content, and to provide a pedagogical level of abstraction in the authoring process.

  11. A temporal model for Clinical Data Analytics language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Leila; Patrick, Jon D

    2013-01-01

    The proposal of a special purpose language for Clinical Data Analytics (CliniDAL) is presented along with a general model for expressing temporal events in the language. The temporal dimension of clinical data needs to be addressed from at least five different points of view. Firstly, how to attach the knowledge of time based constraints to queries; secondly, how to mine temporal data in different CISs with various data models; thirdly, how to deal with both relative time and absolute time in the query language; fourthly, how to tackle internal time-event dependencies in queries, and finally, how to manage historical time events preserved in the patient's narrative. The temporal elements of the language are defined in Bachus Naur Form (BNF) along with a UML schema. Its use in a designed taxonomy of a five class hierarchy of data analytics tasks shows the solution to problems of time event dependencies in a highly complex cascade of queries needed to evaluate scientific experiments. The issues in using the model in a practical way are discussed as well.

  12. A Formal Semantic Model for the Access Specification Language RASP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Evered

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The access specification language RASP extends traditional role-based access control (RBAC concepts to provide greater expressive power often required for fine-grained access control in sensitive information systems. Existing formal models of RBAC are not sufficient to describe these extensions. In this paper, we define a new model for RBAC which formalizes the RASP concepts of controlled role appointment and transitions, object attributes analogous to subject roles and a transitive role/attribute derivation relationship.

  13. An Extended Clustering Algorithm for Statistical Language Models

    CERN Document Server

    Ueberla, J P

    1994-01-01

    Statistical language models frequently suffer from a lack of training data. This problem can be alleviated by clustering, because it reduces the number of free parameters that need to be trained. However, clustered models have the following drawback: if there is ``enough'' data to train an unclustered model, then the clustered variant may perform worse. On currently used language modeling corpora, e.g. the Wall Street Journal corpus, how do the performances of a clustered and an unclustered model compare? While trying to address this question, we develop the following two ideas. First, to get a clustering algorithm with potentially high performance, an existing algorithm is extended to deal with higher order N-grams. Second, to make it possible to cluster large amounts of training data more efficiently, a heuristic to speed up the algorithm is presented. The resulting clustering algorithm can be used to cluster trigrams on the Wall Street Journal corpus and the language models it produces can compete with exi...

  14. LANGUAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱妤

    2009-01-01

    @@ The word"language"comes from the Latin(拉丁语)word"lingua",which means"tongue".The tongue is used in more sound combinations(结合)than any other organ(器官)of speech.A broader(概括性的)interpretation(解释)of"language"is that it is any form of expression.This includes(包括)writing,sign(手势)language,dance,music,painting,and mathematics.But the basic(基本的)form of language is speech.

  15. Modeling of Future Initial Teacher of Foreign Language Training, Using Situation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryana М. Sidun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discloses the content of modeling of future initial teacher of foreign language, using situation analysis, defines the stages of modeling during the professional competence formation of future teacher of foreign language: preparatory, analytical and executive.

  16. Transformation Strategies between Block-Oriented and Graph-Oriented Process Modelling Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendling, Jan; Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; Zdun, Uwe

    Much recent research work discusses the transformation between differentprocess modelling languages. This work, however, is mainly focussed on specific processmodelling languages, and thus the general reusability of the applied transformationconcepts is rather limited. In this paper, we aim...... to abstract from concrete transformationstrategies by distinguishing two major paradigms for process modelling languages:block-oriented languages (such as BPEL and BPML) and graph-oriented languages(such as EPCs and YAWL). The contribution of this paper are generic strategiesfor transforming from block......-oriented process languages to graph-oriented languages,and vice versa. We also present two case studies of applying our strategies....

  17. Knowledge Structure Measures of Reader's Situation Models across Languages: Translation Engenders Richer Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung; Clariana, Roy B.

    2015-01-01

    In order to further validate and extend the application of recent knowledge structure (KS) measures to second language settings, this investigation explores how second language (L2, English) situation models are influenced by first language (L1, Korean) translation tasks. Fifty Korean low proficient English language learners were asked to read an…

  18. Categorical model of structural operational semantics for imperative language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Steingartner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Definition of programming languages consists of the formal definition of syntax and semantics. One of the most popular semantic methods used in various stages of software engineering is structural operational semantics. It describes program behavior in the form of state changes after execution of elementary steps of program. This feature makes structural operational semantics useful for implementation of programming languages and also for verification purposes. In our paper we present a new approach to structural operational semantics. We model behavior of programs in category of states, where objects are states, an abstraction of computer memory and morphisms model state changes, execution of a program in elementary steps. The advantage of using categorical model is its exact mathematical structure with many useful proved properties and its graphical illustration of program behavior as a path, i.e. a composition of morphisms. Our approach is able to accentuate dynamics of structural operational semantics. For simplicity, we assume that data are intuitively typed. Visualization and facility of our model is  not only  a  new model of structural operational semantics of imperative programming languages but it can also serve for education purposes.

  19. A Method to Build a Super Small but Practically Accurate Language Model for Handheld Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU GenQing (吴根清); ZHENG Fang (郑方)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, an important question, whether a small language model can be practically accurate enough, is raised. Afterwards, the purpose of a language model, the problems that a language model faces, and the factors that affect the performance of a language model,are analyzed. Finally, a novel method for language model compression is proposed, which makes the large language model usable for applications in handheld devices, such as mobiles, smart phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and handheld personal computers (HPCs). In the proposed language model compression method, three aspects are included. First, the language model parameters are analyzed and a criterion based on the importance measure of n-grams is used to determine which n-grams should be kept and which removed. Second, a piecewise linear warping method is proposed to be used to compress the uni-gram count values in the full language model. And third, a rank-based quantization method is adopted to quantize the bi-gram probability values. Experiments show that by using this compression method the language model can be reduced dramatically to only about 1M bytes while the performance almost does not decrease. This provides good evidence that a language model compressed by means of a well-designed compression technique is practically accurate enough, and it makes the language model usable in handheld devices.

  20. A language for easy and efficient modeling of Turing machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pinaki Chakraborty

    2007-01-01

    A Turing Machine Description Language (TMDL) is developed for easy and efficient modeling of Turing machines.TMDL supports formal symbolic representation of Turing machines. The grammar for the language is also provided. Then a fast singlepass compiler is developed for TMDL. The scope of code optimization in the compiler is examined. An interpreter is used to simulate the exact behavior of the compiled Turing machines. A dynamically allocated and resizable array is used to simulate the infinite tape of a Turing machine. The procedure for simulating composite Turing machines is also explained. In this paper, two sample Turing machines have been designed in TMDL and their simulations are discussed. The TMDL can be extended to model the different variations of the standard Turing machine.

  1. Learning to attend: a connectionist model of situated language comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Marshall R; Crocker, Matthew W; Knoeferle, Pia

    2009-05-01

    Evidence from numerous studies using the visual world paradigm has revealed both that spoken language can rapidly guide attention in a related visual scene and that scene information can immediately influence comprehension processes. These findings motivated the coordinated interplay account (Knoeferle & Crocker, 2006) of situated comprehension, which claims that utterance-mediated attention crucially underlies this closely coordinated interaction of language and scene processing. We present a recurrent sigma-pi neural network that models the rapid use of scene information, exploiting an utterance-mediated attentional mechanism that directly instantiates the CIA. The model is shown to achieve high levels of performance (both with and without scene contexts), while also exhibiting hallmark behaviors of situated comprehension, such as incremental processing, anticipation of appropriate role fillers, as well as the immediate use, and priority, of depicted event information through the coordinated use of utterance-mediated attention to the scene.

  2. Modeling Hydrates and the Gas Hydrate Markup Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Wang

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas hydrates, as an important potential fuels, flow assurance hazards, and possible factors initiating the submarine geo-hazard and global climate change, have attracted the interest of scientists all over the world. After two centuries of hydrate research, a great amount of scientific data on gas hydrates has been accumulated. Therefore the means to manage, share, and exchange these data have become an urgent task. At present, metadata (Markup Language is recognized as one of the most efficient ways to facilitate data management, storage, integration, exchange, discovery and retrieval. Therefore the CODATA Gas Hydrate Data Task Group proposed and specified Gas Hydrate Markup Language (GHML as an extensible conceptual metadata model to characterize the features of data on gas hydrate. This article introduces the details of modeling portion of GHML.

  3. Human task animation from performance models and natural language input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esakov, Jeffrey; Badler, Norman I.; Jung, Moon

    1989-01-01

    Graphical manipulation of human figures is essential for certain types of human factors analyses such as reach, clearance, fit, and view. In many situations, however, the animation of simulated people performing various tasks may be based on more complicated functions involving multiple simultaneous reaches, critical timing, resource availability, and human performance capabilities. One rather effective means for creating such a simulation is through a natural language description of the tasks to be carried out. Given an anthropometrically-sized figure and a geometric workplace environment, various simple actions such as reach, turn, and view can be effectively controlled from language commands or standard NASA checklist procedures. The commands may also be generated by external simulation tools. Task timing is determined from actual performance models, if available, such as strength models or Fitts' Law. The resulting action specification are animated on a Silicon Graphics Iris workstation in real-time.

  4. The Radio Language Arts Project: adapting the radio mathematics model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, P R

    1985-01-01

    Kenya's Radio Language Arts Project, directed by the Academy for Educational Development in cooperation with the Kenya Institute of Education in 1980-85, sought to teach English to rural school children in grades 1-3 through use of an intensive, radio-based instructional system. Daily 1/2 hour lessons are broadcast throughout the school year and supported by teachers and print materials. The project further was aimed at testing the feasibility of adaptation of the successful Nicaraguan Radio Math Project to a new subject area. Difficulties were encountered in articulating a language curriculum with the precision required for a media-based instructional system. Also a challenge was defining the acceptable regional standard for pronunciation and grammar; British English was finally selected. An important modification of the Radio Math model concerned the role of the teacher. While Radio Math sought to reduce the teacher's responsibilities during the broadcast, Radio Language Arts teachers played an important instructional role during the English lesson broadcasts by providing translation and checks on work. Evaluations of the Radio language Arts Project suggest significant gains in speaking, listening, and reading skills as well as high levels of satisfaction on the part of parents and teachers.

  5. Towards an Improved Performance Measure for Language Models

    CERN Document Server

    Ueberla, J P

    1997-01-01

    In this paper a first attempt at deriving an improved performance measure for language models, the probability ratio measure (PRM) is described. In a proof of concept experiment, it is shown that PRM correlates better with recognition accuracy and can lead to better recognition results when used as the optimisation criterion of a clustering algorithm. Inspite of the approximations and limitations of this preliminary work, the results are very encouraging and should justify more work along the same lines.

  6. A Time-Aware Language Model for Microblog Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    A Time-Aware Language Model for Microblog Retrieval Bingjie Wei, Shuai Zhang, Rui Li, Bin Wang Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy...of Sciences Beijing, China , 100190 Email: weibingjie, zhangshuai01,lirui, wangbin@ict.ac.cn Abstract This paper describes our work (the... social media, has become immensely popular in recent years. There exists many Microblog websites, such as twitter. Compared the twitter queries and

  7. Rosen's (M,R) system in Unified Modelling Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Williams, Richard A; Gatherer, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Robert Rosen's (M,R) system is an abstract biological network architecture that is allegedly non-computable on a Turing machine. If (M,R) is truly non-computable, there are serious implications for the modelling of large biological networks in computer software. A body of work has now accumulated addressing Rosen's claim concerning (M,R) by attempting to instantiate it in various software systems. However, a conclusive refutation has remained elusive, principally since none of the attempts to date have unambiguously avoided the critique that they have altered the properties of (M,R) in the coding process, producing merely approximate simulations of (M,R) rather than true computational models. In this paper, we use the Unified Modelling Language (UML), a diagrammatic notation standard, to express (M,R) as a system of objects having attributes, functions and relations. We believe that this instantiates (M,R) in such a way than none of the original properties of the system are corrupted in the process. Crucially, we demonstrate that (M,R) as classically represented in the relational biology literature is implicitly a UML communication diagram. Furthermore, since UML is formally compatible with object-oriented computing languages, instantiation of (M,R) in UML strongly implies its computability in object-oriented coding languages.

  8. The language of worry: examining linguistic elements of worry models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geronimi, Elena M C; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Despite strong evidence that worry is a verbal process, studies examining linguistic features in individuals with generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) are lacking. The aim of the present study is to investigate language use in individuals with GAD and controls based on GAD and worry theoretical models. More specifically, the degree to which linguistic elements of the avoidance and intolerance of uncertainty worry models can predict diagnostic status was analysed. Participants were 19 women diagnosed with GAD and 22 control women and their children. After participating in a diagnostic semi-structured interview, dyads engaged in a free-play interaction where mothers' language sample was collected. Overall, the findings provided evidence for distinctive linguistic features of individuals with GAD. That is, after controlling for the effect of demographic variables, present tense, future tense, prepositions and number of questions correctly classified those with GAD and controls such that a considerable amount of the variance in diagnostic status was explained uniquely by language use. Linguistic confirmation of worry models is discussed.

  9. A methodology to annotate systems biology markup language models with the synthetic biology open language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehner, Nicholas; Myers, Chris J

    2014-02-21

    Recently, we have begun to witness the potential of synthetic biology, noted here in the form of bacteria and yeast that have been genetically engineered to produce biofuels, manufacture drug precursors, and even invade tumor cells. The success of these projects, however, has often failed in translation and application to new projects, a problem exacerbated by a lack of engineering standards that combine descriptions of the structure and function of DNA. To address this need, this paper describes a methodology to connect the systems biology markup language (SBML) to the synthetic biology open language (SBOL), existing standards that describe biochemical models and DNA components, respectively. Our methodology involves first annotating SBML model elements such as species and reactions with SBOL DNA components. A graph is then constructed from the model, with vertices corresponding to elements within the model and edges corresponding to the cause-and-effect relationships between these elements. Lastly, the graph is traversed to assemble the annotating DNA components into a composite DNA component, which is used to annotate the model itself and can be referenced by other composite models and DNA components. In this way, our methodology can be used to build up a hierarchical library of models annotated with DNA components. Such a library is a useful input to any future genetic technology mapping algorithm that would automate the process of composing DNA components to satisfy a behavioral specification. Our methodology for SBML-to-SBOL annotation is implemented in the latest version of our genetic design automation (GDA) software tool, iBioSim.

  10. Why Are There Developmental Stages in Language Learning? A Developmental Robotics Model of Language Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Anthony F; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2017-02-01

    Most theories of learning would predict a gradual acquisition and refinement of skills as learning progresses, and while some highlight exponential growth, this fails to explain why natural cognitive development typically progresses in stages. Models that do span multiple developmental stages typically have parameters to "switch" between stages. We argue that by taking an embodied view, the interaction between learning mechanisms, the resulting behavior of the agent, and the opportunities for learning that the environment provides can account for the stage-wise development of cognitive abilities. We summarize work relevant to this hypothesis and suggest two simple mechanisms that account for some developmental transitions: neural readiness focuses on changes in the neural substrate resulting from ongoing learning, and perceptual readiness focuses on the perceptual requirements for learning new tasks. Previous work has demonstrated these mechanisms in replications of a wide variety of infant language experiments, spanning multiple developmental stages. Here we piece this work together as a single model of ongoing learning with no parameter changes at all. The model, an instance of the Epigenetic Robotics Architecture (Morse et al 2010) embodied on the iCub humanoid robot, exhibits ongoing multi-stage development while learning pre-linguistic and then basic language skills. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. A Comparison and Evaluation of Real-Time Software Systems Modeling Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evensen, Kenneth D.; Weiss, Kathryn Anne

    2010-01-01

    A model-driven approach to real-time software systems development enables the conceptualization of software, fostering a more thorough understanding of its often complex architecture and behavior while promoting the documentation and analysis of concerns common to real-time embedded systems such as scheduling, resource allocation, and performance. Several modeling languages have been developed to assist in the model-driven software engineering effort for real-time systems, and these languages are beginning to gain traction with practitioners throughout the aerospace industry. This paper presents a survey of several real-time software system modeling languages, namely the Architectural Analysis and Design Language (AADL), the Unified Modeling Language (UML), Systems Modeling Language (SysML), the Modeling and Analysis of Real-Time Embedded Systems (MARTE) UML profile, and the AADL for UML profile. Each language has its advantages and disadvantages, and in order to adequately describe a real-time software system's architecture, a complementary use of multiple languages is almost certainly necessary. This paper aims to explore these languages in the context of understanding the value each brings to the model-driven software engineering effort and to determine if it is feasible and practical to combine aspects of the various modeling languages to achieve more complete coverage in architectural descriptions. To this end, each language is evaluated with respect to a set of criteria such as scope, formalisms, and architectural coverage. An example is used to help illustrate the capabilities of the various languages.

  12. Robust model selection and the statistical classification of languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J. E.; González-López, V. A.; Viola, M. L. L.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we address the problem of model selection for the set of finite memory stochastic processes with finite alphabet, when the data is contaminated. We consider m independent samples, with more than half of them being realizations of the same stochastic process with law Q, which is the one we want to retrieve. We devise a model selection procedure such that for a sample size large enough, the selected process is the one with law Q. Our model selection strategy is based on estimating relative entropies to select a subset of samples that are realizations of the same law. Although the procedure is valid for any family of finite order Markov models, we will focus on the family of variable length Markov chain models, which include the fixed order Markov chain model family. We define the asymptotic breakdown point (ABDP) for a model selection procedure, and we show the ABDP for our procedure. This means that if the proportion of contaminated samples is smaller than the ABDP, then, as the sample size grows our procedure selects a model for the process with law Q. We also use our procedure in a setting where we have one sample conformed by the concatenation of sub-samples of two or more stochastic processes, with most of the subsamples having law Q. We conducted a simulation study. In the application section we address the question of the statistical classification of languages according to their rhythmic features using speech samples. This is an important open problem in phonology. A persistent difficulty on this problem is that the speech samples correspond to several sentences produced by diverse speakers, corresponding to a mixture of distributions. The usual procedure to deal with this problem has been to choose a subset of the original sample which seems to best represent each language. The selection is made by listening to the samples. In our application we use the full dataset without any preselection of samples. We apply our robust methodology estimating

  13. The Impact of the "First Language First" Model on Vocabulary Development among Preschool Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to examine the role of the "First Language First" model for preschool bilingual education in the development of vocabulary depth. The languages studied were Russian (L1) and Hebrew (L2) among bilingual children aged 4-5 years in Israel. According to this model, the children's first language of…

  14. Ambiguity and Incomplete Information in Categorical Models of Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Marsden

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate notions of ambiguity and partial information in categorical distributional models of natural language. Probabilistic ambiguity has previously been studied using Selinger's CPM construction. This construction works well for models built upon vector spaces, as has been shown in quantum computational applications. Unfortunately, it doesn't seem to provide a satisfactory method for introducing mixing in other compact closed categories such as the category of sets and binary relations. We therefore lack a uniform strategy for extending a category to model imprecise linguistic information. In this work we adopt a different approach. We analyze different forms of ambiguous and incomplete information, both with and without quantitative probabilistic data. Each scheme then corresponds to a suitable enrichment of the category in which we model language. We view different monads as encapsulating the informational behaviour of interest, by analogy with their use in modelling side effects in computation. Previous results of Jacobs then allow us to systematically construct suitable bases for enrichment. We show that we can freely enrich arbitrary dagger compact closed categories in order to capture all the phenomena of interest, whilst retaining the important dagger compact closed structure. This allows us to construct a model with real convex combination of binary relations that makes non-trivial use of the scalars. Finally we relate our various different enrichments, showing that finite subconvex algebra enrichment covers all the effects under consideration.

  15. The Language of Flexible Reuse; Reuse, Portability and Interoperability of Learning Content or Why an Educational Modelling Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Sloep, P.B. (2004). Reuse, Portability and Interoperability of Learning Content: Or Why an Educational Modelling Language. In R. McGreal, (Ed.), Online Education Using Learning Objects (pp. 128-137). London: Routledge/Falmer.

  16. Computational cognitive modeling for the diagnosis of Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Jesus; Serrano, J Ignacio; del Castillo, M Dolores; Iglesias, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Specific Language Impairment (SLI), as many other cognitive deficits, is difficult to diagnose given its heterogeneous profile and its overlap with other impairments. Existing techniques are based on different criteria using behavioral variables on different tasks. In this paper we propose a methodology for the diagnosis of SLI that uses computational cognitive modeling in order to capture the internal mechanisms of the normal and impaired brain. We show that machine learning techniques that use the information of these models perform better than those that only use behavioral variables.

  17. Improving Statistical Language Model Performance with Automatically Generated Word Hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    McMahon, J; Mahon, John Mc

    1995-01-01

    An automatic word classification system has been designed which processes word unigram and bigram frequency statistics extracted from a corpus of natural language utterances. The system implements a binary top-down form of word clustering which employs an average class mutual information metric. Resulting classifications are hierarchical, allowing variable class granularity. Words are represented as structural tags --- unique $n$-bit numbers the most significant bit-patterns of which incorporate class information. Access to a structural tag immediately provides access to all classification levels for the corresponding word. The classification system has successfully revealed some of the structure of English, from the phonemic to the semantic level. The system has been compared --- directly and indirectly --- with other recent word classification systems. Class based interpolated language models have been constructed to exploit the extra information supplied by the classifications and some experiments have sho...

  18. Text generation from Taiwanese Sign Language using a PST-based language model for augmentative communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chung-Hsien; Chiu, Yu-Hsien; Guo, Chi-Shiang

    2004-12-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to the generation of Chinese sentences from ill-formed Taiwanese Sign Language (TSL) for people with hearing impairments. First, a sign icon-based virtual keyboard is constructed to provide a visualized interface to retrieve sign icons from a sign database. A proposed language model (LM), based on a predictive sentence template (PST) tree, integrates a statistical variable n-gram LM and linguistic constraints to deal with the translation problem from ill-formed sign sequences to grammatical written sentences. The PST tree trained by a corpus collected from the deaf schools was used to model the correspondence between signed and written Chinese. In addition, a set of phrase formation rules, based on trigger pair category, was derived for sentence pattern expansion. These approaches improved the efficiency of text generation and the accuracy of word prediction and, therefore, improved the input rate. For the assessment of practical communication aids, a reading-comprehension training program with ten profoundly deaf students was undertaken in a deaf school in Tainan, Taiwan. Evaluation results show that the literacy aptitude test and subjective satisfactory level are significantly improved.

  19. Improved head-driven statistical models for natural language parsing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁里驰

    2013-01-01

    Head-driven statistical models for natural language parsing are the most representative lexicalized syntactic parsing models, but they only utilize semantic dependency between words, and do not incorporate other semantic information such as semantic collocation and semantic category. Some improvements on this distinctive parser are presented. Firstly, "valency" is an essential semantic feature of words. Once the valency of word is determined, the collocation of the word is clear, and the sentence structure can be directly derived. Thus, a syntactic parsing model combining valence structure with semantic dependency is purposed on the base of head-driven statistical syntactic parsing models. Secondly, semantic role labeling(SRL) is very necessary for deep natural language processing. An integrated parsing approach is proposed to integrate semantic parsing into the syntactic parsing process. Experiments are conducted for the refined statistical parser. The results show that 87.12% precision and 85.04% recall are obtained, and F measure is improved by 5.68% compared with the head-driven parsing model introduced by Collins.

  20. New Retrieval Method Based on Relative Entropy for Language Modeling with Different Smoothing Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huo Hua; Liu Junqiang; Feng Boqin

    2006-01-01

    A language model for information retrieval is built by using a query language model to generate queries and a document language model to generate documents. The documents are ranked according to the relative entropies of estimated document language models with respect to the estimated query language model. Two popular and relatively efficient smoothing methods, the JelinekMercer method and the absolute discounting method, are used to smooth the document language model in estimation of the document language. A combined model composed of the feedback document language model and the collection language model is used to estimate the query model. A performacne comparison between the new retrieval method and the existing method with feedback is made,and the retrieval performances of the proposed method with the two different smoothing techniques are evaluated on three Text Retrieval Conference (TREC) data sets. Experimental results show that the method is effective and performs better than the basic language modeling approach; moreover, the method using the Jelinek-Mercer technique performs better than that using the absolute discounting technique, and the perfomance is sensitive to the smoothing paramters.

  1. Modulation of Language Switching by Cue Timing: Implications for Models of Bilingual Language Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khateb, Asaid; Shamshoum, Rana; Prior, Anat

    2017-01-01

    The current study examines the interplay between global and local processes in bilingual language control. We investigated language-switching performance of unbalanced Arabic-Hebrew bilinguals in cued picture naming, using 5 different cuing parameters. The language cue could precede the picture, follow it, or appear simultaneously with it. Naming…

  2. Linguistic Evolution through Language Acquisition: Formal and Computational Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Ted, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines how children acquire language and how this affects language change over the generations. It proceeds from the basis that it is important to address not only the language faculty per se within the framework of evolutionary theory, but also the origins and subsequent development of languages themselves, suggesting…

  3. TumorML: Concept and requirements of an in silico cancer modelling markup language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David; Cooper, Jonathan; McKeever, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the initial groundwork carried out as part of the European Commission funded Transatlantic Tumor Model Repositories project, to develop a new markup language for computational cancer modelling, TumorML. In this paper we describe the motivations for such a language, arguing that current state-of-the-art biomodelling languages are not suited to the cancer modelling domain. We go on to describe the work that needs to be done to develop TumorML, the conceptual design, and a description of what existing markup languages will be used to compose the language specification.

  4. Phase transition in a sexual age-structured model of learning foreign languages

    CERN Document Server

    Schwämmle, V

    2005-01-01

    The understanding of language competition helps us to predict extinction and survival of languages spoken by minorities. A simple agent-based model of a sexual population, based on the Penna model, is built in order to find out under which circumstances one language dominates other ones. This model considers that only young people learn foreign languages. The simulations show a first order phase transition where the ratio between the number of speakers of different languages is the order parameter and the mutation rate is the control one.

  5. On Combining Language Models to Improve a Text-based Human-machine Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cruz Cavalieri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on improving a text-based human-machine interface integrated into a robotic wheelchair. Since word prediction is one of the most common methods used in such systems, the goal of this work is to improve the results using this specific module. For this, an exponential interpolation language model (LM is considered. First, a model based on partial differential equations is proposed; with the appropriate initial conditions, we are able to design a interpolation language model that merges a word-based n-gram language model and a part-of-speech-based language model. Improvements in keystroke saving (KSS and perplexity (PP over the word-based ngram language model and two other traditional interpolation models are obtained, considering two different task domains and three different languages. The proposed interpolation model also provides additional improvements over the hit rate (HR parameter.

  6. Models, Languages and Logics for Concurrent Distributed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The EEC Esprit Basic Research Action No 3011, Models, Languages and Logics for Con current Distributed Systems, CEDISYS, held its second workshop at Aarhus University in May, l991, following the successful workshop in San Miniato in 1990. The Aarhus Workshop was centered around CEDISYS research...... activities, and the selected themes of Applications and Automated Tools in the area of Distributed Systerns. The 24 participants were CEDISYS partners, and invited guests with expertise on the selected themes. This booklet contains the program of the workshop, short abstracts for the talks presented...

  7. An Empirical Study of Smoothing Techniques for Language Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, S F; Chen, Stanley F.; Goodman, Joshua T.

    1996-01-01

    We present an extensive empirical comparison of several smoothing techniques in the domain of language modeling, including those described by Jelinek and Mercer (1980), Katz (1987), and Church and Gale (1991). We investigate for the first time how factors such as training data size, corpus (e.g., Brown versus Wall Street Journal), and n-gram order (bigram versus trigram) affect the relative performance of these methods, which we measure through the cross-entropy of test data. In addition, we introduce two novel smoothing techniques, one a variation of Jelinek-Mercer smoothing and one a very simple linear interpolation technique, both of which outperform existing methods.

  8. The First Language in the Foreign Language Classroom: Teacher Model and Student Language Use--An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Monika

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how three teachers differed in the amount of first language (L1; here, English) they used during teacher-led instruction in a foreign language (FL; here, German) class and whether differences in the three teachers' L1 were associated with similar differences in their respective students' L1 use, both during teacher-led…

  9. RSMM: a network language for modeling pollutants in river systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, N.B.; Standridge, C.R.; Schnoor, J.L.

    1983-06-01

    Predicting the steady state distribution of pollutants in rivers is important for water quality managers. A new simulation language, the River System Modeling Methodology (RSMM), helps users construct simulation models for analyzing river pollution. In RSMM, a network of nodes and branches represents a river system. Nodes represent elements such as junctions, dams, withdrawals, and pollutant sources; branches represent homogeneous river segments, or reaches. The RSMM processor is a GASP V program. Models can employ either the embedded Streeter-Phelps equations or user supplied equations. The user describes the network diagram with GASP-like input cards. RSMM outputs may be printed or stored in an SDL database. An interface between SDL and DISSPLA provides high quality graphical output.

  10. The Utility of Cognitive Plausibility in Language Acquisition Modeling: Evidence from Word Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Lawrence; Pearl, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The informativity of a computational model of language acquisition is directly related to how closely it approximates the actual acquisition task, sometimes referred to as the model's "cognitive plausibility." We suggest that though every computational model necessarily idealizes the modeled task, an informative language acquisition…

  11. The Utility of Cognitive Plausibility in Language Acquisition Modeling: Evidence from Word Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Lawrence; Pearl, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The informativity of a computational model of language acquisition is directly related to how closely it approximates the actual acquisition task, sometimes referred to as the model's "cognitive plausibility." We suggest that though every computational model necessarily idealizes the modeled task, an informative language acquisition…

  12. The Agent Modeling Language AML A Comprehensive Approach to Modeling Multi-agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cervenka, Radovan

    2007-01-01

    Multi-agent systems are already a focus of studies for more than 25 years. Despite substantial effort of an active research community, modeling of multi-agent systems still lacks complete and proper definition, general acceptance, and practical application. Due to the vast potential of these systems e.g., to improve the practice in software and to extent the applications that can feasibly be tackled, this book tries to provide a comprehensive modeling language - the Agent Modeling Language (AML) - as an extension of UML 2.0, concentrating on multi-agent systems and applications.

  13. Declarative business process modelling: principles and modelling languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedertier, Stijn; Vanthienen, Jan; Caron, Filip

    2015-02-01

    The business process literature has proposed a multitude of business process modelling approaches or paradigms, each in response to a different business process type with a unique set of requirements. Two polar paradigms, i.e. the imperative and the declarative paradigm, appear to define the extreme positions on the paradigm spectrum. While imperative approaches focus on explicitly defining how an organisational goal should be reached, the declarative approaches focus on the directives, policies and regulations restricting the potential ways to achieve the organisational goal. In between, a variety of hybrid-paradigms can be distinguished, e.g. the advanced and adaptive case management. This article focuses on the less-exposed declarative approach on process modelling. An outline of the declarative process modelling and the modelling approaches is presented, followed by an overview of the observed declarative process modelling principles and an evaluation of the declarative process modelling approaches.

  14. The medical simulation markup language - simplifying the biomechanical modeling workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwelack, Stefan; Stoll, Markus; Schalck, Sebastian; Schoch, Nicolai; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Bendl, Rolf; Heuveline, Vincent; Speidel, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Modeling and simulation of the human body by means of continuum mechanics has become an important tool in diagnostics, computer-assisted interventions and training. This modeling approach seeks to construct patient-specific biomechanical models from tomographic data. Usually many different tools such as segmentation and meshing algorithms are involved in this workflow. In this paper we present a generalized and flexible description for biomechanical models. The unique feature of the new modeling language is that it not only describes the final biomechanical simulation, but also the workflow how the biomechanical model is constructed from tomographic data. In this way, the MSML can act as a middleware between all tools used in the modeling pipeline. The MSML thus greatly facilitates the prototyping of medical simulation workflows for clinical and research purposes. In this paper, we not only detail the XML-based modeling scheme, but also present a concrete implementation. Different examples highlight the flexibility, robustness and ease-of-use of the approach.

  15. A novel dependency language model for information retrieval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Ke-ke; BU Jia-jun; CHEN Chun; QIU Guang

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the application of term dependency in information retrieval (IR) and proposes a novel dependency retrieval model. This retrieval model suggests an extension to the existing language modeling (LM) approach to IR by introducing dependency models for both query and document. Relevance between document and query is then evaluated by reference to the Kullback-Leibler divergence between their dependency models. This paper introduces a novel hybrid dependency structure, which allows integration of various forms of dependency within a single framework. A pseudo relevance feedback based method is also introduced for constructing query dependency model. The basic idea is to use query-relevant top-ranking sentences extracted from the top documents at retrieval time as the augmented representation of query, from which the relationships between query terms are identified. A Markov Random Field (MRF) based approach is presented to ensure the relevance of the extracted sentences,which utilizes the association features between query terms within a sentence to evaluate the relevance of each sentence. This dependency retrieval model was compared with other traditional retrieval models. Experiments indicated that it produces significant improvements in retrieval effectiveness.

  16. An Iterative Algorithm to Build Chinese Language Models

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, X; Luo, Xiaoqiang; Roukos, Salim

    1996-01-01

    We present an iterative procedure to build a Chinese language model (LM). We segment Chinese text into words based on a word-based Chinese language model. However, the construction of a Chinese LM itself requires word boundaries. To get out of the chicken-and-egg problem, we propose an iterative procedure that alternates two operations: segmenting text into words and building an LM. Starting with an initial segmented corpus and an LM based upon it, we use a Viterbi-liek algorithm to segment another set of data. Then, we build an LM based on the second set and use the resulting LM to segment again the first corpus. The alternating procedure provides a self-organized way for the segmenter to detect automatically unseen words and correct segmentation errors. Our preliminary experiment shows that the alternating procedure not only improves the accuracy of our segmentation, but discovers unseen words surprisingly well. The resulting word-based LM has a perplexity of 188 for a general Chinese corpus.

  17. A Modeling Language Based on UML for Modeling Simulation Testing System of Avionic Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lize; LIU Bin; LU Minyan

    2011-01-01

    With direct expression of individual application domain patterns and ideas, domain-specific modeling language (DSML) is more and more frequently used to build models instead of using a combination of one or more general constructs. Based on the profile mechanism of unified modeling language (UML) 2.2, a kind of DSML is presented to model simulation testing systems of avionic software (STSAS). To define the syntax, semantics and notions of the DSML, the domain model of the STSAS from which we generalize the domain concepts and relationships among these concepts is given, and then, the domain model is mapped into a UML meta-model, named UML-STSAS profile. Assuming a flight control system (FCS) as system under test (SUT), we design the relevant STSAS. The results indicate that extending UML to the simulation testing domain can effectively and precisely model STSAS.

  18. The GPlates Geological Information Model and Markup Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Qin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding tectonic and geodynamic processes leading to the present-day configuration of the Earth involves studying data and models across a variety of disciplines, from geochemistry, geochronology and geophysics, to plate kinematics and mantle dynamics. All these data represent a 3-dimensional spatial and 1-dimensional temporal framework, a formalism which is not exploited by traditional spatial analysis tools. This is arguably a fundamental limit in both the rigour and sophistication in which datasets can be combined for geological "deep time" analysis, and often confines the extent of data analyses to the present-day configurations of geological objects. The GPlates Geological Information Model (GPGIM represents a formal specification of geological and geophysical data in a time-varying plate tectonics context, used by the GPlates virtual-globe software. It provides a framework in which relevant types of geological data are attached to a common plate tectonic reference frame, allowing the data to be reconstructed in a time-dependent spatio-temporal plate reference frame. The GPlates Markup Language (GPML, being an extension of the open standard Geography Markup Language (GML, is both the modelling language for the GPGIM and an XML-based data format for the interoperable storage and exchange of data modelled by it. The GPlates software implements the GPGIM allowing researchers to query, visualise, reconstruct and analyse a rich set of geological data including numerical raster data. The GPGIM has recently been extended to support time-dependent geo-referenced numerical raster data by wrapping GML primitives into the time-dependent framework of the GPGIM. Coupled with GPlates' ability to reconstruct numerical raster data and import/export from/to a variety of raster file formats, as well as its handling of time-dependent plate boundary topologies, interoperability with geodynamic softwares is established, leading to a new generation of deep

  19. The GPlates Geological Information Model and Markup Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Qin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding tectonic and geodynamic processes leading to the present-day configuration of the Earth involves studying data and models across a variety of disciplines, from geochemistry, geochronology and geophysics, to plate kinematics and mantle dynamics. All these data represent a 3-D spatial and 1-D temporal framework, a formalism which is not exploited by traditional spatial analysis tools. This is arguably a fundamental limit in both the rigour and sophistication in which datasets can be combined for geological deep time analysis, and often confines the extent of data analyses to the present-day configurations of geological objects. The GPlates Geological Information Model (GPGIM represents a formal specification of geological and geophysical data in a time-varying plate tectonics context, used by the GPlates virtual-globe software. It provides a framework in which relevant types of geological data are attached to a common plate tectonic reference frame, allowing the data to be reconstructed in a time-dependent spatio-temporal plate reference frame. The GPlates Markup Language (GPML, being an extension of the open standard Geography Markup Language (GML, is both the modelling language for the GPGIM and an XML-based data format for the interoperable storage and exchange of data modelled by it. The GPlates software implements the GPGIM allowing researchers to query, visualise, reconstruct and analyse a rich set of geological data including numerical raster data. The GPGIM has recently been extended to support time-dependent geo-referenced numerical raster data by wrapping GML primitives into the time-dependent framework of the GPGIM. Coupled with GPlates' ability to reconstruct numerical raster data and import/export from/to a variety of raster file formats, as well as its handling of time-dependent plate boundary topologies, interoperability with geodynamic softwares is established, leading to a new generation of deep-time spatio

  20. A Model of a Generic Natural Language Interface for Querying Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanane Bais

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Extracting information from database is typically done by using a structured language such as SQL (Structured Query Language. But non expert users can’t use this later. Wherefore using Natural Language (NL for communicating with database can be a powerful tool. But without any help, computers can’t understand this language; that is why it is essential to develop an interface able to translate user’s query given in NL into an equivalent one in Database Query Language (DBQL. This paper presents a model of a generic natural language query interface for querying database. This model is based on machine learning approach which allows interface to automatically improve its knowledge base through experience. The advantage of this interface is that it functions independently of the database language, content and model. Experimentations are realized to study the performance of this interface and make necessary corrections for its amelioration

  1. The logical foundations of scientific theories languages, structures, and models

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Decio

    2016-01-01

    This book addresses the logical aspects of the foundations of scientific theories. Even though the relevance of formal methods in the study of scientific theories is now widely recognized and regaining prominence, the issues covered here are still not generally discussed in philosophy of science. The authors focus mainly on the role played by the underlying formal apparatuses employed in the construction of the models of scientific theories, relating the discussion with the so-called semantic approach to scientific theories. The book describes the role played by this metamathematical framework in three main aspects: considerations of formal languages employed to axiomatize scientific theories, the role of the axiomatic method itself, and the way set-theoretical structures, which play the role of the models of theories, are developed. The authors also discuss the differences and philosophical relevance of the two basic ways of aximoatizing a scientific theory, namely Patrick Suppes’ set theoretical predicate...

  2. Visual unified modeling language for the composition of scenarios in modeling and simulation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert, Michael L.; Swayne, Daniel E.

    2006-05-01

    The Department of Defense uses modeling and simulation systems in many various roles, from research and training to modeling likely outcomes of command decisions. Simulation systems have been increasing in complexity with the increased capability of low-cost computer systems to support these DOD requirements. The demand for scenarios is also increasing, but the complexity of the simulation systems has caused a bottleneck in scenario development due to the limited number of individuals with knowledge of the arcane simulator languages in which these scenarios are written. This research combines the results of previous efforts from the Air Force Institute of Technology in visual modeling languages to create a language that unifies description of entities within a scenario with its behavior using a visual tool that was developed in the course of this research. The resulting language has a grammar and syntax that can be parsed from the visual representation of the scenario. The language is designed so that scenarios can be described in a generic manner, not tied to a specific simulation system, allowing the future development of modules to translate the generic scenario into simulation system specific scenarios.

  3. Modeling second language change using skill retention theory

    OpenAIRE

    Shearer, Samuel R.

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Loss of foreign language proficiency is a major concern for the Department of Defense (DoD). Despite significant expenditures to develop and sustain foreign language skills in the armed forces, the DoD has not been able to create a sufficient pool of qualified linguists. Many theories and hypotheses about the learning of foreign languages are not based on cognitive processes and lack the ability to explain how and why foreign language ...

  4. Analysis of the Model Checkers' Input Languages for Modeling Traffic Light Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathiah A. Samat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Model checking is an automated verification technique that can be used for verifying properties of a system. A number of model checking systems have been developed over the last few years. However, there is no guideline that is available for selecting the most suitable model checker to be used to model a particular system. Approach: In this study, we compare the use of four model checkers: SMV, SPIN, UPPAAL and PRISM for modeling a distributed control system. In particular, we are looking at the capabilities of the input languages of these model checkers for modeling this type of system. Limitations and differences of their input language are compared and analyses by using a set of questions. Results: The result of the study shows that although the input languages of these model checkers have a lot of similarities, they also have a significant number of differences. The result of the study also shows that one model checker may be more suitable than others for verifying this type of systems Conclusion: User need to choose the right model checker for the problem to be verified.

  5. Event Modeling in UML. Unified Modeling Language and Unified Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2002-01-01

    We show how events can be modeled in terms of UML. We view events as change agents that have consequences and as information objects that represent information. We show how to create object-oriented structures that represent events in terms of attributes, associations, operations, state charts......, and messages. We outline a run-time environment for the processing of events with multiple participants....

  6. Developing a Language Support Model for Mainstream Primary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Elspeth; Ellis, Sue; Boyle, James; Turnbull, Mary; Kerr, Jane

    2010-01-01

    In the UK, speech and language therapists (SLTs) work with teachers to support children with language impairment (LI) in mainstream schools. Consultancy approaches are often used, where SLTs advise educational staff who then deliver language-learning activities. However, some research suggests that schools may not always sustain activities as…

  7. Stochastic model for the vocabulary growth in natural languages

    CERN Document Server

    Gerlach, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We propose a stochastic model for the number of different words in a given database which incorporates the dependence on the database size and historical changes. The main feature of our model is the existence of two different classes of words: (i) a finite number of core-words which have higher frequency and do not affect the probability of a new word to be used; and (ii) the remaining virtually infinite number of noncore-words which have lower frequency and once used reduce the probability of a new word to be used in the future. Our model relies on a careful analysis of the google-ngram database of books published in the last centuries and its main consequence is the generalization of Zipf's and Heaps' law to two scaling regimes. We confirm that these generalizations yield the best simple description of the data among generic descriptive models and that the two free parameters depend only on the language but not on the database. From the point of view of our model the main change on historical time scales i...

  8. Stochastic Model for the Vocabulary Growth in Natural Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Martin; Altmann, Eduardo G.

    2013-04-01

    We propose a stochastic model for the number of different words in a given database which incorporates the dependence on the database size and historical changes. The main feature of our model is the existence of two different classes of words: (i) a finite number of core words, which have higher frequency and do not affect the probability of a new word to be used, and (ii) the remaining virtually infinite number of noncore words, which have lower frequency and, once used, reduce the probability of a new word to be used in the future. Our model relies on a careful analysis of the Google Ngram database of books published in the last centuries, and its main consequence is the generalization of Zipf’s and Heaps’ law to two-scaling regimes. We confirm that these generalizations yield the best simple description of the data among generic descriptive models and that the two free parameters depend only on the language but not on the database. From the point of view of our model, the main change on historical time scales is the composition of the specific words included in the finite list of core words, which we observe to decay exponentially in time with a rate of approximately 30 words per year for English.

  9. A Hierarchical Model for Language Maintenance and Language Shift: Focus on the Malaysian Chinese Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaomei; Chong, Siew Ling

    2011-01-01

    Social factors involved in language maintenance and language shift (LMLS) have been the focus of LMLS studies. Previous studies provide fundamental support for the theoretical development of this research branch. However, there is no discussion regarding the hierarchical order of these social factors, i.e. the degree of importance of various…

  10. Cross-Linguistic Influence in Non-Native Languages: Explaining Lexical Transfer Using Language Production Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this research is on the nature of lexical cross-linguistic influence (CLI) between non-native languages. Using oral interviews with 157 L1 Italian high-school students studying English and German as non-native languages, the project investigated which kinds of lexis appear to be more susceptible to transfer from German to English and…

  11. Cross-Linguistic Influence in Non-Native Languages: Explaining Lexical Transfer Using Language Production Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this research is on the nature of lexical cross-linguistic influence (CLI) between non-native languages. Using oral interviews with 157 L1 Italian high-school students studying English and German as non-native languages, the project investigated which kinds of lexis appear to be more susceptible to transfer from German to English and…

  12. UML as a cell and biochemistry modeling language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Ken; White, Tony

    2005-06-01

    The systems biology community is building increasingly complex models and simulations of cells and other biological entities, and are beginning to look at alternatives to traditional representations such as those provided by ordinary differential equations (ODE). The lessons learned over the years by the software development community in designing and building increasingly complex telecommunication and other commercial real-time reactive systems, can be advantageously applied to the problems of modeling in the biology domain. Making use of the object-oriented (OO) paradigm, the unified modeling language (UML) and Real-Time Object-Oriented Modeling (ROOM) visual formalisms, and the Rational Rose RealTime (RRT) visual modeling tool, we describe a multi-step process we have used to construct top-down models of cells and cell aggregates. The simple example model described in this paper includes membranes with lipid bilayers, multiple compartments including a variable number of mitochondria, substrate molecules, enzymes with reaction rules, and metabolic pathways. We demonstrate the relevance of abstraction, reuse, objects, classes, component and inheritance hierarchies, multiplicity, visual modeling, and other current software development best practices. We show how it is possible to start with a direct diagrammatic representation of a biological structure such as a cell, using terminology familiar to biologists, and by following a process of gradually adding more and more detail, arrive at a system with structure and behavior of arbitrary complexity that can run and be observed on a computer. We discuss our CellAK (Cell Assembly Kit) approach in terms of features found in SBML, CellML, E-CELL, Gepasi, Jarnac, StochSim, Virtual Cell, and membrane computing systems.

  13. Cross-language linking of news stories on the web using interlingual topic modelling

    OpenAIRE

    De Smet, Wim; Moens, Marie-Francine

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the problem of linking event information across different languages without the use of translation systems or dictionaries. The linking is based on interlingua information obtained through probabilistic topic models trained on comparable corpora written in two languages (in our case English and Dutch). To achieve this goal, we expand the Latent Dirichlet Allocation model to process documents in two languages. We demonstrate the validity of the learned interlingual topics in a...

  14. Towards a continuous population model for natural language vowel shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, Patrick D; Faria, Sérgio H; Strickland, Christopher

    2013-09-07

    The Great English Vowel Shift of 16th-19th centuries and the current Northern Cities Vowel Shift are two examples of collective language processes characterized by regular phonetic changes, that is, gradual changes in vowel pronunciation over time. Here we develop a structured population approach to modeling such regular changes in the vowel systems of natural languages, taking into account learning patterns and effects such as social trends. We treat vowel pronunciation as a continuous variable in vowel space and allow for a continuous dependence of vowel pronunciation in time and age of the speaker. The theory of mixtures with continuous diversity provides a framework for the model, which extends the McKendrick-von Foerster equation to populations with age and phonetic structures. We develop the general balance equations for such populations and propose explicit expressions for the factors that impact the evolution of the vowel pronunciation distribution. For illustration, we present two examples of numerical simulations. In the first one we study a stationary solution corresponding to a state of phonetic equilibrium, in which speakers of all ages share a similar phonetic profile. We characterize the variance of the phonetic distribution in terms of a parameter measuring a ratio of phonetic attraction to dispersion. In the second example we show how vowel shift occurs upon starting with an initial condition consisting of a majority pronunciation that is affected by an immigrant minority with a different vowel pronunciation distribution. The approach developed here for vowel systems may be applied also to other learning situations and other time-dependent processes of cognition in self-interacting populations, like opinions or perceptions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Network Statistical Models for Language Learning Contexts: Exponential Random Graph Models and Willingness to Communicate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, H. Colin; Robins, Garry

    2015-01-01

    As part of the shift within second language acquisition (SLA) research toward complex systems thinking, researchers have called for investigations of social network structure. One strand of social network analysis yet to receive attention in SLA is network statistical models, whereby networks are explained in terms of smaller substructures of…

  16. Advances in Modeling Languages%建模语言及其研究进展初谈

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴桂兰

    2002-01-01

    Based on the common features of modeling languages,the paper attempts to present a definition,description content,application domains for modeling languages.In terms of their derivation and foundation,modeling languages can be divided into four kinds:formal modeling languages,graphic modeling languages,integration graphic and formalization,and meta-modeling languages,form which we outline their representative work,the state of the atr,fundamental issues,and development directions for the further researches.

  17. Distance Learning Class Model for Teaching a Foreign Language in University-Level Education Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Min

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to introduce the distance learning class model for a foreign language in university-level education context, and to prove that this class model is effective in cultivating the motivation and interest of university students for learning a foreign language. This distance learning lesson consists of two parts: Online chatting session,…

  18. An ontology-based approach for evaluating the domain appropriateness and comprehensibility appropriateness of modeling languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guizzardi, G.; Ferreira Pires, Luis; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Briand, L.; Williams, C.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present a framework for the evaluation and (re)design of modeling languages. We focus here on the evaluation of the suitability of a language to model a set or real-world phenomena in a given domain. In our approach, this property can be systematically evaluated by comparing the

  19. Co-Teaching: Towards a New Model for Teacher Preparation in Foreign Language Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altstaedter, Laura Levi; Smith, Judith J.; Fogarty, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This overview article focuses on the co-teaching model, an innovative and comprehensive model for student teaching experiences that provides opportunities to foreign language preservice teachers to develop their knowledge base about teaching and learning foreign languages while gaining in other areas: autonomy, collaboration, and agency. The…

  20. Co-Teaching: Towards a New Model for Teacher Preparation in Foreign Language Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altstaedter, Laura Levi; Smith, Judith J.; Fogarty, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This overview article focuses on the co-teaching model, an innovative and comprehensive model for student teaching experiences that provides opportunities to foreign language preservice teachers to develop their knowledge base about teaching and learning foreign languages while gaining in other areas: autonomy, collaboration, and agency. The…

  1. Language Model Combination and Adaptation Using Weighted Finite State Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Gales, M. J. F.; Hieronymus, J. L.; Woodland, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    In speech recognition systems language model (LMs) are often constructed by training and combining multiple n-gram models. They can be either used to represent different genres or tasks found in diverse text sources, or capture stochastic properties of different linguistic symbol sequences, for example, syllables and words. Unsupervised LM adaption may also be used to further improve robustness to varying styles or tasks. When using these techniques, extensive software changes are often required. In this paper an alternative and more general approach based on weighted finite state transducers (WFSTs) is investigated for LM combination and adaptation. As it is entirely based on well-defined WFST operations, minimum change to decoding tools is needed. A wide range of LM combination configurations can be flexibly supported. An efficient on-the-fly WFST decoding algorithm is also proposed. Significant error rate gains of 7.3% relative were obtained on a state-of-the-art broadcast audio recognition task using a history dependently adapted multi-level LM modelling both syllable and word sequences

  2. A Model for Community-based Language Teaching to Young Learners: The Impact of University Outreach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Nyikos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A primary challenge given to university foreign language departments and Title VI National Resource Centers is to increase interest and participation in foreign language learning, with particular emphasis on less commonly taught languages (LCTLs. Given that many LCTLs in high demand by the US government, including Arabic, Chinese, Persian and Turkish, rarely find their way into the school curricula, this article offers a successful ongoing community-based model of how one university-town partnership addresses advocacy with programming for pre-K-grade 9. Non-native and heritage undergraduate language students who volunteered as community language teachers found the experience invaluable to their pedagogical development. Teacher education programs or language departments can employ this approach to community-based teaching, by providing free, sustained language teaching in existing community centers. This article offers guidance for how to start and expand such a program.

  3. Agent Based Models of Language Competition: Macroscopic descriptions and Order-Disorder transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Vazquez, F; Miguel, M San

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of two agent based models of language competition. In the first model, each individual can be in one of two possible states, either using language $X$ or language $Y$, while the second model incorporates a third state XY, representing individuals that use both languages (bilinguals). We analyze the models on complex networks and two-dimensional square lattices by analytical and numerical methods, and show that they exhibit a transition from one-language dominance to language coexistence. We find that the coexistence of languages is more difficult to maintain in the Bilinguals model, where the presence of bilinguals in use facilitates the ultimate dominance of one of the two languages. A stability analysis reveals that the coexistence is more unlikely to happen in poorly-connected than in fully connected networks, and that the dominance of only one language is enhanced as the connectivity decreases. This dominance effect is even stronger in a two-dimensional space, where domain coar...

  4. Examination of Modeling Languages to Allow Quantitative Analysis for Model-Based Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    model of the system (Friendenthal, Moore and Steiner 2008, 17). The premise is that maintaining a logical and consistent model can be accomplished...Standard for Exchange of Product data (STEP) subgroup of ISO, and defines a standard data format for certain types of SE information ( Johnson 2006...search.credoreference.com/content/entry/encyccs/formal_languages/0. Friedenthal, Sanford, Alan Moore, and Rick Steiner . 2008. A Practical Guide to SysML

  5. The Cummins model: a framework for teaching nursing students for whom English is a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abriam-Yago, K; Yoder, M; Kataoka-Yahiro, M

    1999-04-01

    The health care system requires nurses with the language ability and the cultural knowledge to meet the health care needs of ethnic minority immigrants. The recruitment, admission, retention, and graduation of English as a Second Language (ESL) students are essential to provide the workforce to meet the demands of the multicultural community. Yet, ESL students possess language difficulties that affect their academic achievement in nursing programs. The application of the Cummins Model of language proficiency is discussed. The Cummins Model provides a framework for nursing faculty to develop educational support that meets the learning needs of ESL students.

  6. Network simulation using the simulation language for alternate modeling (SLAM 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, S.; Morris, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    The simulation language for alternate modeling (SLAM 2) is a general purpose language that combines network, discrete event, and continuous modeling capabilities in a single language system. The efficacy of the system's network modeling is examined and discussed. Examples are given of the symbolism that is used, and an example problem and model are derived. The results are discussed in terms of the ease of programming, special features, and system limitations. The system offers many features which allow rapid model development and provides an informative standardized output. The system also has limitations which may cause undetected errors and misleading reports unless the user is aware of these programming characteristics.

  7. Foreign Languages in Vienna Primary Schools – in Mainstream Education and in Current Experimental Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Seebauer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Starting with a short retrospective and an overview of the incorporation of foreign language learning into the Austrian curriculum for primary schools the paper in hand describes the current situation of foreign language teaching in primary schools as well as various current models of foreign language education in primary schools in Vienna (school year 1 to 4. In terms of objectives these models exceed the requirements of the curriculum of the formal education system or regard themselves as quantitative and qualitative enrichment. They follow different didactic approaches and/or site-specific characteristics and needs. The formulation of basic skills is to be understood as an attempt to find a common basis of output indicators and to facilitate the transition to secondary education. Although English is the most commonly chosen resp. offered language the paper also refers to school experiments that focus on Romance or Slavic languages or on languages of Austra’s neighbouring countries.

  8. Exploiting Language Models to Classify Events from Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc-Thuan Vo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Classifying events is challenging in Twitter because tweets texts have a large amount of temporal data with a lot of noise and various kinds of topics. In this paper, we propose a method to classify events from Twitter. We firstly find the distinguishing terms between tweets in events and measure their similarities with learning language models such as ConceptNet and a latent Dirichlet allocation method for selectional preferences (LDA-SP, which have been widely studied based on large text corpora within computational linguistic relations. The relationship of term words in tweets will be discovered by checking them under each model. We then proposed a method to compute the similarity between tweets based on tweets’ features including common term words and relationships among their distinguishing term words. It will be explicit and convenient for applying to k-nearest neighbor techniques for classification. We carefully applied experiments on the Edinburgh Twitter Corpus to show that our method achieves competitive results for classifying events.

  9. The Utility of Cognitive Plausibility in Language Acquisition Modeling: Evidence From Word Segmentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, Lawrence; Pearl, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The informativity of a computational model of language acquisition is directly related to how closely it approximates the actual acquisition task, sometimes referred to as the model's cognitive plausibility...

  10. Mother Tongue Use in Task-Based Language Teaching Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Nguyen Viet

    2012-01-01

    Researches of English language teaching (ELT) have focused on using mother tongue (L1) for years. The proliferation of task-based language teaching (TBLT) has been also occurred. Considerable findings have been made in the existing literature of the two fields; however, no mentions have been made in the combination of these two ELT aspects, i.e.,…

  11. A Model for Community-based Language Teaching to Young Learners: The Impact of University Outreach

    OpenAIRE

    Martha Nyikos; Vesna Dimitrieska

    2015-01-01

    A primary challenge given to university foreign language departments and Title VI National Resource Centers is to increase interest and participation in foreign language learning, with particular emphasis on less commonly taught languages (LCTLs). Given that many LCTLs in high demand by the US government, including Arabic, Chinese, Persian and Turkish, rarely find their way into the school curricula, this article offers a successful ongoing community-based model of how one university-town par...

  12. Language Recognition Using Latent Dynamic Conditional Random Field Model with Phonological Features

    OpenAIRE

    Sirinoot Boonsuk; Atiwong Suchato; Proadpran Punyabukkana; Chai Wutiwiwatchai; Nattanun Thatphithakkul

    2014-01-01

    Spoken language recognition (SLR) has been of increasing interest in multilingual speech recognition for identifying the languages of speech utterances. Most existing SLR approaches apply statistical modeling techniques with acoustic and phonotactic features. Among the popular approaches, the acoustic approach has become of greater interest than others because it does not require any prior language-specific knowledge. Previous research on the acoustic approach has shown less interest in apply...

  13. Analytic solution of a model of language competition with bilingualism and interlinguistic similarity

    CERN Document Server

    Otero-Espinar, Victoria; Nieto, Juan J; Mira, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth analytic study of a model of language dynamics is presented: a model which tackles the problem of the coexistence of two languages within a closed community of speakers taking into account bilingualism and incorporating a parameter to measure the distance between languages. After previous numerical simulations, the model yielded that coexistence might lead to survival of both languages within monolingual speakers along with a bilingual community or to extinction of the weakest tongue depending on different parameters. In this paper, such study is closed with thorough analytical calculations to settle the results in a robust way and previous results are refined with some modifications. From the present analysis it is possible to almost completely assay the number and nature of the equilibrium points of the model, which depend on its parameters, as well as to build a phase space based on them. Also, we obtain conclusions on the way the languages evolve with time. Our rigorous considerations also sug...

  14. State impulsive control strategies for a two-languages competitive model with bilingualism and interlinguistic similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Lin-Fei; Teng, Zhi-Dong; Nieto, Juan J.; Jung, Il Hyo

    2015-07-01

    For reasons of preserving endangered languages, we propose, in this paper, a novel two-languages competitive model with bilingualism and interlinguistic similarity, where state-dependent impulsive control strategies are introduced. The novel control model includes two control threshold values, which are different from the previous state-dependent impulsive differential equations. By using qualitative analysis method, we obtain that the control model exhibits two stable positive order-1 periodic solutions under some general conditions. Moreover, numerical simulations clearly illustrate the main theoretical results and feasibility of state-dependent impulsive control strategies. Meanwhile numerical simulations also show that state-dependent impulsive control strategy can be applied to other general two-languages competitive model and obtain the desired result. The results indicate that the fractions of two competitive languages can be kept within a reasonable level under almost any circumstances. Theoretical basis for finding a new control measure to protect the endangered language is offered.

  15. Perancangan Aplikasi Informasi SMS untuk Alumni Unsoed Menggunakan UML (Unified Modeling Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangun Wijayanto

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Unified Modeling Language (UML is a language which have come to the standard in industry to visualize, design and document the software system. Using UML we can make model for All software application type, where the application can also written in many language. SMS (Short Message Service is the best choice to solve geographic problems in spreading information to the alumni Unsoed. The aim of this research is to compile notation of UML (Unified Modeling Language in development of SMS Server for Alumni Unsoed. This research is conducted with software engineer method. The design result of software SMS alumni Unsoed present that UML (Unified Modeling Language help in design and software programming

  16. A Model-Based Systems Engineering Methodology for Employing Architecture In System Analysis: Developing Simulation Models Using Systems Modeling Language Products to Link Architecture and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    ENGINEERING METHODOLOGY FOR EMPLOYING ARCHITECTURE IN SYSTEM ANALYSIS: DEVELOPING SIMULATION MODELS USING SYSTEMS MODELING LANGUAGE PRODUCTS TO LINK... ENGINEERING METHODOLOGY FOR EMPLOYING ARCHITECTURE IN SYSTEM ANALYSIS: DEVELOPING SIMULATION MODELS USING SYSTEMS MODELING LANGUAGE PRODUCTS TO LINK...to model-based systems engineering (MBSE) by formally defining an MBSE methodology for employing architecture in system analysis (MEASA) that presents

  17. Developing a blended learning based model for teaching foreign languages in engineering institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudryashova Alexandra V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with studying theoretical and methodical background of the concept of blended learning, which is the major didactic tool of the modern methods of foreign languages teaching. It also considers the principles of integrating blended learning in teaching foreign languages in engineering institutions. The basics of pedagogical modelling used for developing a model of integrating blended learning in the foreign language teaching are defined. The schematic model representation is given and the way of implementing the described model into the educational process is shown via the example of the lesson on “Cohesive devices”.

  18. A conceptual data model and modelling language for fields and agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bakker, Merijn; de Jong, Kor; Schmitz, Oliver; Karssenberg, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Modelling is essential in order to understand environmental systems. Environmental systems are heterogeneous because they consist of fields and agents. Fields have a value defined everywhere at all times, for example surface elevation and temperature. Agents are bounded in space and time and have a value only within their bounds, for example biomass of a tree crown or the speed of a car. Many phenomena have properties of both fields and agents. Although many systems contain both fields and agents and integration of these concepts would be required for modelling, existing modelling frameworks concentrate on either agent-based or field-based modelling and are often low-level programming frameworks. A concept is lacking that integrates fields and agents in a way that is easy to use for modelers who are not software engineers. To address this issue, we develop a conceptual data model that represents fields and agents uniformly. We then show how the data model can be used in a high-level modelling language. The data model represents fields and agents in space-time. Also relations and networks can be represented using the same concepts. Using the conceptual data model we can represent static and mobile agents that may have spatial and temporal variation within their extent. The concepts we use are phenomenon, property set, item, property, domain and value. The phenomenon is the thing that is modelled, which can be any real world thing, for example trees. A phenomenon usually consists of several items, e.g. single trees. The domain is the spatiotemporal location and/or extent for which the items in the phenomenon are defined. Multiple different domains can coexist for a given phenomenon. For example a domain describing the extent of the trees and a domain describing the stem locations. The same goes for the property, which is an attribute of the thing that is being modeled. A property has a value, which is possibly discretized, for example the biomass over the tree crown

  19. Acoustic Model Adaptation for Indonesian Language Utterance Training System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Indrayanti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In order to build an utterance training system for Indonesian language, a speech recognition system designed for Indonesian is necessary. However, the system hardly works well due to the pronunciation variants of non-native utterances may lead to substitution/deletion error. This research investigated the pronunciation variant and proposes acoustic model adaptation to improve performance of the system. Approach: The proposed acoustic model adaptation worked in three steps: to analyze pronunciation variant with knowledge-based and data-derived methods; to align knowledge-based and data-derived results in order to list frequently mispronounced phones with their variants; to perform a state-clustering procedure with the list obtained from the second step. Further, three Speaker Adaptation (SA techniques were used in combination with the acoustic model adaptation and they are compared each other. In order to evaluate and tune the adaptation techniques, perceptual-based evaluation by three human raters is performed to obtain the "true"recognition results. Results: The proposed method achieved an average gain in Hit + Rejection (the percentage of correctly accepted and correctly rejected utterances by the system as the human raters do of 2.9 points and 2 points for native and non-native subjects, respectively, when compared with the system without adaptation. Average gains of 12.7 and 6.2 points for native and non-native students in Hit + Rejection were obtained by combining SA to the acoustic model adaptation. Conclusion/Recommendations: Performance evaluation of the adapted system demonstrated that the proposed acoustic model adaptation can improve Hit even though there is a slight increase of False Alarm (FA, the percentage of incorrectly accepted utterances by the system of which the human raters reject. The performance of the proposed acoustic model adaptation depends strongly on the effectiveness of state-clustering procedure

  20. A Qualitative Study of Domain Specific Languages for Model Driven Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Qaiser Saleem

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Model-Driven development, software system design is represented through models which are created using general purpose modeling languages e.g., UML. Later on system artifacts are automatically generated from these models. Model-Driven Security is a specialization of Model-Driven paradigm towards the domain of security, where security objectives are modeled along the system models and security infrastructures are directly generated from these models. Currently available general purpose modeling languages like UML do not have capability to model the security objectives along the system models. Over the past decade, many researchers are trying to address these limitations of the general purpose modeling languages and come up with several Domain Specific Modeling Languages for Model Driven Security. In this study, a comparative study is presented regarding the security Domain Specific Modeling Languages presented by the most prominent researchers for the development of secure system. A success criteria has been defined and these DSLs are critically analyzed based on it to obtain the qualitative results.

  1. Modelling the language shift process of Hispanic immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltman, C

    1988-01-01

    Using data from the 1976 Survey of Income and Education, this article examines the language shift process of 3455 persons of Spanish mother tongue who were not born in the US. Findings show that 1) nearly 1/3 of the Spanish language immigrants arrive in the US in their middle teens to their early 20s, over 20% arrive before age 10, and less than 20% arrive after age 35; 2) the longer the length of stay, the more extensive the adoption of the English language; 3) the process of anglicization begins soon after arrival (within 18 months, 6.6% had made English their usual personal language); 4) some who had arrived before 1970 had become English monolinguals; 5) 20% of each immigrant group will remain essentially monolingual in Spanish, even after prolonged US residence; 6) the language shift process is more or less completed within about 15 years; 7) the younger the person at the time of arrival, the more extensive the shift to English; and 8) no additional language shift occurs after some 15 years of residence in the US. Approximately 80% of those aged 15-24 at time of arrival, 70% of those aged 25-34, 50% of those aged 35-44, and 30% of those aged 45 or more will come to speak English on a regular basis. Except for the oldest group, about 20% of those in each cohort will have been anglicized. Mexican and Puerto Rican immigrants have somewhat lower rates of language shift of all types to English than do Cuban, Central American, and other Hispanic immigrants. Spanish language immigrants are resisting neither the learning of English nor its adoption as a preferred usual language. However, the full impact of the anglicization occurring at any given time will not be felt until the next generation.

  2. Improving Language Models in Speech-Based Human-Machine Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Justo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on speech‐based human‐machine interaction. Specifically, a Spoken Dialogue System (SDS that could be integrated into a robot is considered. Since Automatic Speech Recognition is one of the most sensitive tasks that must be confronted in such systems, the goal of this work is to improve the results obtained by this specific module. In order to do so, a hierarchical Language Model (LM is considered. Different series of experiments were carried out using the proposed models over different corpora and tasks. The results obtained show that these models provide greater accuracy in the recognition task. Additionally, the influence of the Acoustic Modelling (AM in the improvement percentage of the Language Models has also been explored. Finally the use of hierarchical Language Models in a language understanding task has been successfully employed, as shown in an additional series of experiments.

  3. Improving Language Models in Speech-Based Human-Machine Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Justo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on speech-based human-machine interaction. Specifically, a Spoken Dialogue System (SDS that could be integrated into a robot is considered. Since Automatic Speech Recognition is one of the most sensitive tasks that must be confronted in such systems, the goal of this work is to improve the results obtained by this specific module. In order to do so, a hierarchical Language Model (LM is considered. Different series of experiments were carried out using the proposed models over different corpora and tasks. The results obtained show that these models provide greater accuracy in the recognition task. Additionally, the influence of the Acoustic Modelling (AM in the improvement percentage of the Language Models has also been explored. Finally the use of hierarchical Language Models in a language understanding task has been successfully employed, as shown in an additional series of experiments.

  4. On religion and language evolutions seen through mathematical and agent based models

    CERN Document Server

    Ausloos, M

    2011-01-01

    (shortened version) Religions and languages are social variables, like age, sex, wealth or political opinions, to be studied like any other organizational parameter. In fact, religiosity is one of the most important sociological aspects of populations. Languages are also a characteristics of the human kind. New religions, new languages appear though others disappear. All religions and languages evolve when they adapt to the society developments. On the other hand, the number of adherents of a given religion, the number of persons speaking a language is not fixed. Several questions can be raised. E.g. from a macroscopic point of view : How many religions/languages exist at a given time? What is their distribution? What is their life time? How do they evolve?. From a microscopic view point: can one invent agent based models to describe macroscopic aspects? Does it exist simple evolution equations? It is intuitively accepted, but also found through from statistical analysis of the frequency distribution that an ...

  5. You Just Want to Be Like that Teacher: Modelling and Intercultural Competence in Young Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Robyn

    2008-01-01

    Language teachers are called upon to understand both the nature of students' intercultural competence and their own role in its development. Limited research attention has been paid to the relationship between the types of behaviour that language teachers model and the intercultural competence their students acquire. This article reports on a case…

  6. Multi-language Development Enviroments:Design Space, Models, Prototypes, Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeiffer, Rolf-Helge

    2013-01-01

    Non-trivial software systems are constructed out of many artifacts expressedin multiple modeling and programming languages, describing different systemaspects on different levels of abstraction. I call such systems multi-languagesoftware systems. Even though artifacts constituting multi-language softwaresystems are heavily interrelated, existing development environments do notsufficiently support developers in development of such systems. In particular,handling relations between heterogeneous...

  7. Modeling the Process of Summary Writing of Chinese Learners of English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiuliang

    2016-01-01

    In language learning contexts, writing tasks that involve reading of source texts are often used to elicit more authentic integrative language use. Thus, interests in researching these read-to-write tasks in general and as assessment tasks keep growing. This study examined and modeled the process of summary writing as a read-to-write integrated…

  8. Computational models of language diversity: a determination of social and individual benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorna, R.J.; Faber, N.R.; Jorna, R.J.; Liu, K.; Faber, N.R.

    2011-01-01

    In studying benefits and costs of language diversity the use of computer models is rare. There may be various reasons for this situation, e.g. a) the complexity of the interpretation of language diversity, b) the difficulty in operationalizing factors and dimensions of diversity, c) the absence of

  9. Testing a Model of Teaching for Anxiety and Success for English Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önem, Evrim; Ergenç, Iclal

    2013-01-01

    Much research has shown that there is a negative relationship between high levels of anxiety and success for English language teaching. This paper aimed to test a model of teaching for anxiety and success in English language teaching to affect anxiety and success levels at the same time in a control-experiment group with pre- and post-test study…

  10. MoDeST: A Modelling language for Stochastic Timed Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Argenio, Pedro R.; Hermanns, Holger; Katoen, Joost-Pieter; Klaren, Ric; de Alfaro, L.; Gilmore, S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a modelling language, called MoDeST, for describing the behaviour of discrete event systems. The language combines conventional programming constructs — such as iteration, alternatives, atomic statements, and exception handling — with means to describe complexsystems in a composi

  11. Assisted Imitation: First Steps in the Seed Model of Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukow-Goldring, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I present the theoretical and empirical grounding for the SEED ("situated", culturally "embodied", "emergent", "distributed") model of early language development. A fundamental prerequisite to the emergence of language behavior/communication is a hands-on, active understanding of everyday events (, and ). At the heart of this…

  12. Speech-Language Pathologist and General Educator Collaboration: A Model for Tier 2 Service Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Gina D.; Bellon-Harn, Monica L.

    2014-01-01

    Tier 2 supplemental instruction within a response to intervention framework provides a unique opportunity for developing partnerships between speech-language pathologists and classroom teachers. Speech-language pathologists may participate in Tier 2 instruction via a consultative or collaborative service delivery model depending on district needs.…

  13. Vocabulary and Grammar Knowledge in Second Language Reading Comprehension: A Structural Equation Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongbo

    2012-01-01

    Using structural equation modeling analysis, this study examined the contribution of vocabulary and grammatical knowledge to second language reading comprehension among 190 advanced Chinese English as a foreign language learners. Vocabulary knowledge was measured in both breadth (Vocabulary Levels Test) and depth (Word Associates Test);…

  14. Learning a Generative Probabilistic Grammar of Experience: A Process-Level Model of Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodny, Oren; Lotem, Arnon; Edelman, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a set of biologically and computationally motivated design choices for modeling the learning of language, or of other types of sequential, hierarchically structured experience and behavior, and describe an implemented system that conforms to these choices and is capable of unsupervised learning from raw natural-language corpora. Given…

  15. Computational models of language diversity: a determination of social and individual benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorna, R.J.; Faber, N.R.; Jorna, R.J.; Liu, K.; Faber, N.R.

    2011-01-01

    In studying benefits and costs of language diversity the use of computer models is rare. There may be various reasons for this situation, e.g. a) the complexity of the interpretation of language diversity, b) the difficulty in operationalizing factors and dimensions of diversity, c) the absence of r

  16. Polychronous Interpretation of Synoptic, a Domain Specific Modeling Language for Embedded Flight-Software

    CERN Document Server

    Besnard, L; Ouy, J; Talpin, J -P; Bodeveix, J -P; Cortier, A; Pantel, M; Strecker, M; Garcia, G; Rugina, A; Buisson, J; Dagnat, F

    2010-01-01

    The SPaCIFY project, which aims at bringing advances in MDE to the satellite flight software industry, advocates a top-down approach built on a domain-specific modeling language named Synoptic. In line with previous approaches to real-time modeling such as Statecharts and Simulink, Synoptic features hierarchical decomposition of application and control modules in synchronous block diagrams and state machines. Its semantics is described in the polychronous model of computation, which is that of the synchronous language Signal.

  17. Maternal sensitivity and language in early childhood: a test of the transactional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Patricia; Nievar, M Angela; Nathans, Laura

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the relation between mothers' sensitive responsiveness to their children and the children's expressive language skills during early childhood. Reciprocal effects were tested with dyads of mothers and their children participating in the National Institute of Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Sensitive maternal interactions positively affected children's later expressive language in the second and third years of life. Although maternal sensitivity predicted later language skills in children, children's language did not affect later maternal sensitivity as indicated in a structural equation model. These results do not support the 1975 transactional model of child development of Sameroff and Chandler. A consistent pattern of sensitivity throughout infancy and early childhood indicates the importance of fostering maternal sensitivity in infancy for prevention or remediation of expressive language problems in young children.

  18. Applicability of the Compensatory Encoding Model in Foreign Language Reading: An Investigation with Chinese College English Language Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Feifei

    2017-01-01

    While some first language (L1) reading models suggest that inefficient word recognition and small working memory tend to inhibit higher-level comprehension processes; the Compensatory Encoding Model maintains that slow word recognition and small working memory do not normally hinder reading comprehension, as readers are able to operate metacognitive strategies to compensate for inefficient word recognition and working memory limitation as long as readers process a reading task without time constraint. Although empirical evidence is accumulated for support of the Compensatory Encoding Model in L1 reading, there is lack of research for testing of the Compensatory Encoding Model in foreign language (FL) reading. This research empirically tested the Compensatory Encoding Model in English reading among Chinese college English language learners (ELLs). Two studies were conducted. Study one focused on testing whether reading condition varying time affects the relationship between word recognition, working memory, and reading comprehension. Students were tested on a computerized English word recognition test, a computerized Operation Span task, and reading comprehension in time constraint and non-time constraint reading. The correlation and regression analyses showed that the strength of association was much stronger between word recognition, working memory, and reading comprehension in time constraint than that in non-time constraint reading condition. Study two examined whether FL readers were able to operate metacognitive reading strategies as a compensatory way of reading comprehension for inefficient word recognition and working memory limitation in non-time constraint reading. The participants were tested on the same computerized English word recognition test and Operation Span test. They were required to think aloud while reading and to complete the comprehension questions. The think-aloud protocols were coded for concurrent use of reading strategies, classified

  19. What's left in language? Beyond the classical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corballis, Michael C

    2015-11-01

    Until recently it was widely held that language, and its left-hemispheric representation in the brain, were uniquely human, emerging abruptly after the emergence of Homo sapiens. Changing views of language suggest that it was not a recent and sudden development in human evolution, but was adapted from dual-stream circuity long predating hominins, including a system in nonhuman primates specialized for intentional grasping. This system was gradually tailored for skilled manual operations (praxis) and communication. As processing requirements grew more demanding, the neural circuits were increasingly lateralized, with the left hemisphere assuming dominance, at least in the majority of individuals. The trend toward complexity and lateralization was probably accelerated in hominins when bipedalism freed the hands for more complex manufacture and tool use, and more expressive communication. The incorporation of facial and vocal gestures led to the emergence of speech as the dominant mode of language, although gestural communication may have led to generative language before speech became dominant. This scenario provides a more Darwinian perspective on language and its lateralization than has been commonly assumed.

  20. A corpus for mining drug-related knowledge from Twitter chatter: Language models and their utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeed Sarker

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this data article, we present to the data science, natural language processing and public heath communities an unlabeled corpus and a set of language models. We collected the data from Twitter using drug names as keywords, including their common misspelled forms. Using this data, which is rich in drug-related chatter, we developed language models to aid the development of data mining tools and methods in this domain. We generated several models that capture (i distributed word representations and (ii probabilities of n-gram sequences. The data set we are releasing consists of 267,215 Twitter posts made during the four-month period—November, 2014 to February, 2015. The posts mention over 250 drug-related keywords. The language models encapsulate semantic and sequential properties of the texts.

  1. Modelling of internal architecture of kinesin nanomotor as a machine language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khataee, H R; Ibrahim, M Y

    2012-09-01

    Kinesin is a protein-based natural nanomotor that transports molecular cargoes within cells by walking along microtubules. Kinesin nanomotor is considered as a bio-nanoagent which is able to sense the cell through its sensors (i.e. its heads and tail), make the decision internally and perform actions on the cell through its actuator (i.e. its motor domain). The study maps the agent-based architectural model of internal decision-making process of kinesin nanomotor to a machine language using an automata algorithm. The applied automata algorithm receives the internal agent-based architectural model of kinesin nanomotor as a deterministic finite automaton (DFA) model and generates a regular machine language. The generated regular machine language was acceptable by the architectural DFA model of the nanomotor and also in good agreement with its natural behaviour. The internal agent-based architectural model of kinesin nanomotor indicates the degree of autonomy and intelligence of the nanomotor interactions with its cell. Thus, our developed regular machine language can model the degree of autonomy and intelligence of kinesin nanomotor interactions with its cell as a language. Modelling of internal architectures of autonomous and intelligent bio-nanosystems as machine languages can lay the foundation towards the concept of bio-nanoswarms and next phases of the bio-nanorobotic systems development.

  2. Is it time to Leave Behind the Revised Hierarchical Model of Bilingual Language Processing after Fifteen Years of Service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brysbaert, Marc; Duyck, Wouter

    2010-01-01

    The Revised Hierarchical Model (RHM) of bilingual language processing dominates current thinking on bilingual language processing. Recently, basic tenets of the model have been called into question. First, there is little evidence for separate lexicons. Second, there is little evidence for language selective access. Third, the inclusion of…

  3. Word-level language modeling for P300 spellers based on discriminative graphical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Saa, Jaime F.; de Pesters, Adriana; McFarland, Dennis; Çetin, Müjdat

    2015-04-01

    Objective. In this work we propose a probabilistic graphical model framework that uses language priors at the level of words as a mechanism to increase the performance of P300-based spellers. Approach. This paper is concerned with brain-computer interfaces based on P300 spellers. Motivated by P300 spelling scenarios involving communication based on a limited vocabulary, we propose a probabilistic graphical model framework and an associated classification algorithm that uses learned statistical models of language at the level of words. Exploiting such high-level contextual information helps reduce the error rate of the speller. Main results. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach offers several advantages over existing methods. Most importantly, it increases the classification accuracy while reducing the number of times the letters need to be flashed, increasing the communication rate of the system. Significance. The proposed approach models all the variables in the P300 speller in a unified framework and has the capability to correct errors in previous letters in a word, given the data for the current one. The structure of the model we propose allows the use of efficient inference algorithms, which in turn makes it possible to use this approach in real-time applications.

  4. Hypermedia for language learning: the FREE model at Coventry University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Orsini-Jones

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The tradition of incorporating CALL into the language-learning curriculum goes back to the early 1980s at Coventry University, and since then has evolved in keeping with changes in the technology available (Corness 1984; Benwell 1986; Orsini-Jones 1987; Corness et al 1992; Orsini-Jones 1993. Coventry University is at present pioneering the integration of hypermedia into the curriculum for the teaching of Italian language and society. The syllabus for a complete module of the BA Modern Languages and BA European Studies Degrees, which will count as l/8th of the students' programme for year 2, has been designed upon in-house produced hypermedia courseware.

  5. A Study on Competency Model of the Chinese Language Teachers in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    In recent years,people increasingly have taken notice of the importance of human resource management based on the competen-cy.This research focuses on the Competency Model of the Chinese Lan-guage Teachers.Through the survey on the words questionnaire of com-petency and the details questionnaire of competency, applying Likert Scale to selectwords relating to competency,The research will achieved objective is four dimension Competency Model of Chinese language teachers will be built.

  6. Lichtheim 2: Synthesizing aphasia and the neural basis of language in a neurocomputational model of the dual dorsal-ventral language pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Ueno, Taiji; Saito, Satoru; Rogers, Timothy T.; Matthew A. Lambon Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Traditional neurological models of language were based on a single neural pathway (the dorsal pathway underpinned by the arcuate fasciculus). Contemporary neuroscience indicates that anterior temporal regions and the " ventral" language pathway also make a significant contribution, yet there is no computationally-implemented model of the dual pathway, nor any synthesis of normal and aphasic behavior. The " Lichtheim 2" model was implemented by developing a new variety of computational model w...

  7. The possibility of coexistence and co-development in language competition: ecology-society computational model and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jian; Shang, Song-Chao; Wei, Xiao-Dan; Liu, Shuang; Li, Zhi-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Language is characterized by both ecological properties and social properties, and competition is the basic form of language evolution. The rise and decline of one language is a result of competition between languages. Moreover, this rise and decline directly influences the diversity of human culture. Mathematics and computer modeling for language competition has been a popular topic in the fields of linguistics, mathematics, computer science, ecology, and other disciplines. Currently, there are several problems in the research on language competition modeling. First, comprehensive mathematical analysis is absent in most studies of language competition models. Next, most language competition models are based on the assumption that one language in the model is stronger than the other. These studies tend to ignore cases where there is a balance of power in the competition. The competition between two well-matched languages is more practical, because it can facilitate the co-development of two languages. A third issue with current studies is that many studies have an evolution result where the weaker language inevitably goes extinct. From the integrated point of view of ecology and sociology, this paper improves the Lotka-Volterra model and basic reaction-diffusion model to propose an "ecology-society" computational model for describing language competition. Furthermore, a strict and comprehensive mathematical analysis was made for the stability of the equilibria. Two languages in competition may be either well-matched or greatly different in strength, which was reflected in the experimental design. The results revealed that language coexistence, and even co-development, are likely to occur during language competition.

  8. Phonemic diversity supports a serial founder effect model of language expansion from Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Quentin D

    2011-04-15

    Human genetic and phenotypic diversity declines with distance from Africa, as predicted by a serial founder effect in which successive population bottlenecks during range expansion progressively reduce diversity, underpinning support for an African origin of modern humans. Recent work suggests that a similar founder effect may operate on human culture and language. Here I show that the number of phonemes used in a global sample of 504 languages is also clinal and fits a serial founder-effect model of expansion from an inferred origin in Africa. This result, which is not explained by more recent demographic history, local language diversity, or statistical non-independence within language families, points to parallel mechanisms shaping genetic and linguistic diversity and supports an African origin of modern human languages.

  9. A Model for Self-Regulated Distance Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Maureen S.; Bunker, Ellen L.

    2009-01-01

    The role of learner autonomy and self-regulated learning in distance education has received much attention. The application of these concepts impacts course design and, potentially, learner achievement. In the case of distance language learning, course designers must consider not only how to help learners gain communicative competence but also…

  10. Structural equation modeling: Possibilities for language learning researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hancock, G.R.; Schoonen, R.

    2015-01-01

    Although classical statistical techniques have been a valuable tool in second language (L2) research, L2 research questions have started to grow beyond those techniques’ capabilities, and indeed are often limited by them. Questions about how complex constructs relate to each other or to constituent

  11. A language modeling approach to the Text Retrieval Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, D.; Kraaij, W.

    2005-01-01

    In deze bijdrage wordt beschreven hoe taalmodelleren kan helpen Information Retrieval te gebruiken voor het systematisch combineren van informatie uit verschillende bronnen. Vier subtaken van TREC (Ad Hoc, Entry Page, Adaptive Filtering en Cross-language) worden gebruikt om de toepassing te demonstr

  12. A Model for Self-Regulated Distance Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Maureen S.; Bunker, Ellen L.

    2009-01-01

    The role of learner autonomy and self-regulated learning in distance education has received much attention. The application of these concepts impacts course design and, potentially, learner achievement. In the case of distance language learning, course designers must consider not only how to help learners gain communicative competence but also…

  13. A DYNAMIC-SYSTEMS MODEL OF COGNITIVE AND LANGUAGE GROWTH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANGEERT, P

    In the first part of the article, a conceptual framework is sketched to define cognitive growth, including language growth, as a process of growth under limited resources. Important concepts are the process, level, and rate of growth; minimal structural growth level; carrying capacity and unutilized

  14. Concurrent Constraint Programming: A Language and Its Execution Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖乐健; 曹元大

    2003-01-01

    To overcome inefficiency in traditional logic programming, a declarative programming language COPS is designed based on the notion of concurrent constraint programming (CCP). The improvement is achieved by the adoption of constraint-based heuristic strategy and the introduction of deterministic components in the framework of CCP. Syntax specification and an operational semantic description are presented.

  15. Structural Equation Modeling: Possibilities for Language Learning Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Gregory R.; Schoonen, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Although classical statistical techniques have been a valuable tool in second language (L2) research, L2 research questions have started to grow beyond those techniques' capabilities, and indeed are often limited by them. Questions about how complex constructs relate to each other or to constituent subskills, about longitudinal development in…

  16. The Optimal Distance Model of Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H. Douglas

    1980-01-01

    It is argued that acculturation, anomie, social distance, and perceived social distance rather than biological factors define a critical period independent of the age of the learner for second language acquisition. Suggestions for planning instructional strategies and selecting materials based on this hypothesis are given. (PMJ)

  17. Language for Survival: A Model Study-Abroad Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Thomas; And Others

    1975-01-01

    In 1971 the College of the Holy Cross (Minnesota) set up a summer language and cultural program in Cuernavaca, Mexico for their students of Spanish. After intensive grammar in the classroom students are sent out on "survival" situations involving verbal communication with Mexicans in the market place, schools, prisons, etc. (SC)

  18. Adaptive Statistical Language Modeling; A Maximum Entropy Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-19

    recognition systems were built that could recognize vowels or digits, but they could not be successfully extended to handle more realistic language...maximum likelihood of gener- ating the training data. The identity of the ML and ME solutions, apart from being aesthetically pleasing, is extremely

  19. Using Multilevel Modeling in Language Assessment Research: A Conceptual Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkaoui, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    This article critiques traditional single-level statistical approaches (e.g., multiple regression analysis) to examining relationships between language test scores and variables in the assessment setting. It highlights the conceptual, methodological, and statistical problems associated with these techniques in dealing with multilevel or nested…

  20. A Goal-Oriented Model of Natural Language Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    be terminated. * The term "Dialogue-game" was adopted by analogy from Wittgenstein’s term "language game" ( Wittgenstein , 1958). However, Dialogue...comprehension and memory of narrative discourse. Cognitive Psychology, 1977, 9, 77-110. Wittgenstein , L Philosophical investigations (3rd ed

  1. A language modeling approach to the Text Retrieval Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, D.; Kraaij, W.

    2005-01-01

    In deze bijdrage wordt beschreven hoe taalmodelleren kan helpen Information Retrieval te gebruiken voor het systematisch combineren van informatie uit verschillende bronnen. Vier subtaken van TREC (Ad Hoc, Entry Page, Adaptive Filtering en Cross-language) worden gebruikt om de toepassing te

  2. The Optimal Distance Model of Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H. Douglas

    1980-01-01

    It is argued that acculturation, anomie, social distance, and perceived social distance rather than biological factors define a critical period independent of the age of the learner for second language acquisition. Suggestions for planning instructional strategies and selecting materials based on this hypothesis are given. (PMJ)

  3. Modeling Learners' Social Centrality and Performance through Language and Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Nia M.; Skrypnyk, Oleksandra; Joksimovic, Srecko; Graesser, Arthur C.; Dawson, Shane; Gaševic, Dragan; Hennis, Thieme A.; de Vries, Pieter; Kovanovic, Vitomir

    2015-01-01

    There is an emerging trend in higher education for the adoption of massive open online courses (MOOCs). However, despite this interest in learning at scale, there has been limited work investigating the impact MOOCs can play on student learning. In this study, we adopt a novel approach, using language and discourse as a tool to explore its…

  4. An amodal shared resource model of language-mediated visual attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair Charles Smith

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Language-mediated visual attention describes the interaction of two fundamental components of the human cognitive system, language and vision. Within this paper we present an amodal shared resource model of language-mediated visual attention that offers a description of the information and processes involved in this complex multimodal behaviour and a potential explanation for how this ability is acquired. We demonstrate that the model is not only sufficient to account for the experimental effects of Visual World Paradigm studies but also that these effects are emergent properties of the architecture of the model itself, rather than requiring separate information processing channels or modular processing systems. The model provides an explicit description of the connection between the modality-specific input from language and vision and the distribution of eye gaze in language mediated visual attention. The paper concludes by discussing future applications for the model, specifically its potential for investigating the factors driving observed individual differences in language mediated eye gaze.

  5. Lexical prediction via forward models: N400 evidence from German Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosemann, Jana; Herrmann, Annika; Steinbach, Markus; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2013-09-01

    Models of language processing in the human brain often emphasize the prediction of upcoming input-for example in order to explain the rapidity of language understanding. However, the precise mechanisms of prediction are still poorly understood. Forward models, which draw upon the language production system to set up expectations during comprehension, provide a promising approach in this regard. Here, we present an event-related potential (ERP) study on German Sign Language (DGS) which tested the hypotheses of a forward model perspective on prediction. Sign languages involve relatively long transition phases between one sign and the next, which should be anticipated as part of a forward model-based prediction even though they are semantically empty. Native speakers of DGS watched videos of naturally signed DGS sentences which either ended with an expected or a (semantically) unexpected sign. Unexpected signs engendered a biphasic N400-late positivity pattern. Crucially, N400 onset preceded critical sign onset and was thus clearly elicited by properties of the transition phase. The comprehension system thereby clearly anticipated modality-specific information about the realization of the predicted semantic item. These results provide strong converging support for the application of forward models in language comprehension.

  6. Words as alleles: connecting language evolution with Bayesian learners to models of genetic drift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reali, Florencia; Griffiths, Thomas L

    2010-02-07

    Scientists studying how languages change over time often make an analogy between biological and cultural evolution, with words or grammars behaving like traits subject to natural selection. Recent work has exploited this analogy by using models of biological evolution to explain the properties of languages and other cultural artefacts. However, the mechanisms of biological and cultural evolution are very different: biological traits are passed between generations by genes, while languages and concepts are transmitted through learning. Here we show that these different mechanisms can have the same results, demonstrating that the transmission of frequency distributions over variants of linguistic forms by Bayesian learners is equivalent to the Wright-Fisher model of genetic drift. This simple learning mechanism thus provides a justification for the use of models of genetic drift in studying language evolution. In addition to providing an explicit connection between biological and cultural evolution, this allows us to define a 'neutral' model that indicates how languages can change in the absence of selection at the level of linguistic variants. We demonstrate that this neutral model can account for three phenomena: the s-shaped curve of language change, the distribution of word frequencies, and the relationship between word frequencies and extinction rates.

  7. Code-switching across brainstorming sessions: implications for the revised hierarchical model of bilingual language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blot, Kevin J; Zárate, Michael A; Paulus, Paul B

    2003-01-01

    The revised hierarchical model (RHM) of bilingual language processing posits independent word form representations for the dominant language (L1) and the nondominant language (L2), facilitated translation from L2 words to L1 words, access to common concepts for L1 and L2, and stronger activation of concepts for L1 than for L2. Spanish-English and English-Spanish bilinguals brainstormed for two sessions; half switched languages (L1-L2 or L2-L1) and half stayed in the same language (L1-L1 or L2-L2) across sessions. In both sessions, L1 brainstorming resulted in more efficient idea productivity than L2 brainstorming, supporting stronger concept activation for L1, consistent with the RHM. Switching languages from L2 to L1 resulted in the most efficient idea productivity in Session 2, suggesting that switching to L1 not only permits strong concept activation, but also the activation of concepts that are relatively different than those activated by L2, inconsistent with the RHM. Switching languages increased the proportion of Session 1 ideas repeated during Session 2, despite instructions not to repeat. This finding suggests that there is activation of concepts as well as word forms in same language brainstorming and that this dual activation aids in following instructions not to repeat, consistent with the RHM. It is suggested that the RHM be re-specified to accommodate the notion that L1 and L2 access relatively different concepts.

  8. Classroom tandem – Outlining a Model for Language Learning and Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri KARJALAINEN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to outline classroom tandem by comparing it with informal tandem learning contexts and other language instruction methods. Classroom tandem is used for second language instruction in mixed language groups in the subjects of Finnish and Swedish as L2. Tandem learning entails that two persons with different mother tongues learn each other’s native languages in reciprocal cooperation. The students function, in turns, as a second language learner and as a model in the native language. We aim to give an overview description of the interaction in classroom tandem practice. The empirical data consists of longitudinal video recordings of meetings of one tandem dyad within a co-located Swedish-medium and Finnish-medium school. Focus in the analysis is on the language aspects the informants orient to and topicalize in their interaction. The language aspects vary depending on what classroom activities they are engaged in, text-based or oral activities.

  9. Using the Rasch model to develop a measure of second language learners' willingness to communicate within a language classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to use Rasch measurement to study the psychometric properties of a 34 item questionnaire designed to measure second language learners' willingness to communicate (WTC) in English inside their language class. 490 Japanese university students' responses to the questionnaire were subjected to a number of different analyses. The first involved a comparison of the category threshold estimates produced by the Rating Scale and Partial Credit models. The questionnaire's items were then evaluated according to how well they defined the willingness to communicate construct. The potential dimensionality of using items that involved different speaking and writing tasks/situations in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of students' willingness to communicate was also investigated. Next there was an examination of the questionnaire's four-point scale to ensure that it captured meaningful differences in students' WTC. Finally, the questionnaire items were compared using differential item functioning to determine if second year students were more willing than first year students in any of the different speaking and writing tasks/situations. This investigation closes with some suggestions on how the WTC questionnaire can inform second language instruction and curriculum design.

  10. SISP : Simplified Interface for Stochastic Programming Establishing a hard link between mathematical programming modeling languages and SMPS codes

    CERN Document Server

    Condevaux Lanloy, Christian; King, A J

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this article is to propose a general approach to link a stochastic programming enabler to a mathematical programming modeling language. Modelers often choose to formulate their problems in well- tested, general purpose modeling languages such as GAMS and AMPL, but these modeling languages do not currently implement a natural syntax for stochastic programming. Specialized stochastic programming tools are available to efficiently generate and solve large-scale stochastic programs, but they lack many of the convenient features of the modeling languages. The lack of a well developed link between these tools and modeling languages prevents many modelers from accessing a powerful and convenient technique to take into account uncertainties. As an attempt to fill this gap, we will present SISP (Simplified Interface for Stochastic Programming), an interface between Algebraic Modeling Languages and specialized Stochastic Programming solvers, also known as SP solvers. 12 Refs.

  11. Categorization of Digital Games in English Language Learning Studies: Introducing the SSI Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Pia

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of the present paper is to introduce a model for digital game categorization suitable for use in English language learning studies: the Scale of Social Interaction (SSI) Model (original idea published as Sundqvist, 2013). The SSI Model proposes a classification of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) digital games into three categories:…

  12. SPECIFIC USE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN A BLENDED MODEL OF TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Kameneva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article determines the role and analyzes specificity of the use of information technology in a mixed model of learning foreign languages in higher educational institutions. The authors also describe such forms of e-learning as a webinar, seminar videos, video conferencing, case-technology. The ways of overcoming difficulties in learning foreign languages, which the students can face when using distance learning technologies, are indicated. The positive experience of using E-learning System «Virtual Campus» in the teaching foreign languages at the Moscow State University of Economics, Statistics and Informatics is mentioned.

  13. Language learning apps or games: an investigation utilizing the RETAIN model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda A. Gunter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Combining games with mobile devices can promote learning opportunities at the learners' fingertips and enable ubiquitous learning experiences. As teachers increasingly assign games to reinforce language learning, it becomes essential to evaluate how effective these applications are in helping students learn the content or develop the skills that the games are reinforcing. This article examines two English language learning apps under the RETAIN model (GUNTER; KENNY; VICK, 2008. The findings indicate that although these apps offer some language learning opportunities, they do not present scenario-based quality or gameplay, among other elements, if they are to be considered games.

  14. DEPICT: A High-level Formal Language for Modeling Constraint Satisfaction Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdulwahed M. Abbas; Edward P. K. Tsang; Ahmad H. Nasri

    2008-01-01

    The past decade witnessed rapid development of constraint satisfaction technologies, where algorithms are now able to cope with larger and harder problems. However, owing to the fact that constraints are inherently declarative, attention is quickly turning toward developing high-level programming languages within which such problems can be modeled and also solved. Along these lines, this paper presents DEPICT, the language. Its use is illustrated through modeling a number of benchmark examples. The paper continues with a description of a prototype system within which such models may be interpreted. The paper concludes with a description of a sample run of this interpreter showing how a problem modeled as such is typically solved.

  15. Coupled dynamics of node and link states in complex networks: A model for language competition

    CERN Document Server

    Carro, Adrián; Miguel, Maxi San

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by language competition processes, we present a model of coupled evolution of node and link states. In particular, we focus on the interplay between the use of a language and the preference or attitude of the speakers towards it, which we model, respectively, as a property of the interactions between speakers (a link state) and as a property of the speakers themselves (a node state). Furthermore, we restrict our attention to the case of two socially equivalent languages and to socially inspired network topologies based on a mechanism of triadic closure. As opposed to most of the previous literature, where language extinction is an inevitable outcome of the dynamics, we find a broad range of possible asymptotic configurations, which we classify as: frozen extinction states, frozen coexistence states, and dynamically trapped coexistence states. Moreover, metastable coexistence states with very long survival times and displaying a non-trivial dynamics are found to be abundant. Interestingly, a system si...

  16. From developmental metaphor to developmental model: the shrinking role of language in the talking cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Jeanine M

    2006-01-01

    Psychoanalysts have invoked infant development diversely to understand nonverbal and unspoken aspects of lived experience. Two uses of developmental notions and their implications for understanding language and the therapeutic action of psychoanalysis are juxtaposed here: Hans Loewald's conception of developmental metaphors to illuminate ineffable aspects of the clinical situation and Daniel Stern's currently popular developmental model, which draws on findings from quantitative research to explain therapeutic action in the nonverbal realm. Loewald's metaphorical use of early development identifies and thus potentiates a central role for language in psychoanalytic treatment. By contrast, Stern and his colleagues exaggerate the abstract, orderly, and disembodied qualities of language, and consequently underestimate the degree to which lived interpersonal experience can be meaningfully verbalized, as demonstrated here with illustrations from published clinical material. As contemporary psychoanalysis moves toward embracing developmental models such as Stern's, it is concluded, psychoanalysts accept a shrinking role for language in the talking cure.

  17. Beyond Zipf's law: Modeling the structure of human language

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, M Angeles; Menczer, Filippo

    2009-01-01

    Human language, the most powerful communication system in history, is closely associated with cognition. Written text is one of the fundamental manifestations of language, and the study of its universal regularities can give clues about how our brains process information and how we, as a society, organize and share it. Still, only classical patterns such as Zipf's law have been explored in depth. In contrast, other basic properties like the existence of bursts of rare words in specific documents, the topical organization of collections, or the sublinear growth of vocabulary size with the length of a document, have only been studied one by one and mainly applying heuristic methodologies rather than basic principles and general mechanisms. As a consequence, there is a lack of understanding of linguistic processes as complex emergent phenomena. Beyond Zipf's law for word frequencies, here we focus on Heaps' law, burstiness, and the topicality of document collections, which encode correlations within and across d...

  18. Effects of the teach-model-coach-review instructional approach on caregiver use of language support strategies and children's expressive language skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan Y; Kaiser, Ann P; Wolfe, Cathy E; Bryant, Julie D; Spidalieri, Alexandria M

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the authors examined the effects of the Teach-Model-Coach-Review instructional approach on caregivers' use of four enhanced milieu teaching (EMT) language support strategies and on their children's use of expressive language. Four caregiver-child dyads participated in a single-subject, multiple-baseline study. Children were between 24 and 42 months of age and had language impairment. Interventionists used the Teach-Model-Coach-Review instructional approach to teach caregivers to use matched turns, expansions, time delays, and milieu teaching prompts during 24 individualized clinic sessions. Caregiver use of each EMT language support strategy and child use of communication targets were the dependent variables. The caregivers demonstrated increases in their use of each EMT language support strategy after instruction. Generalization and maintenance of strategy use to the home was limited, indicating that teaching across routines is necessary to achieve maximal outcomes. All children demonstrated gains in their use of communication targets and in their performance on norm-referenced measures of language. The results indicate that the Teach-Model-Coach-Review instructional approach resulted in increased use of EMT language support strategies by caregivers. Caregiver use of these strategies was associated with positive changes in child language skills.

  19. Spoken language interaction with model uncertainty: an adaptive human-robot interaction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Finale; Roy, Nicholas

    2008-12-01

    Spoken language is one of the most intuitive forms of interaction between humans and agents. Unfortunately, agents that interact with people using natural language often experience communication errors and do not correctly understand the user's intentions. Recent systems have successfully used probabilistic models of speech, language and user behaviour to generate robust dialogue performance in the presence of noisy speech recognition and ambiguous language choices, but decisions made using these probabilistic models are still prone to errors owing to the complexity of acquiring and maintaining a complete model of human language and behaviour. In this paper, a decision-theoretic model for human-robot interaction using natural language is described. The algorithm is based on the Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP), which allows agents to choose actions that are robust not only to uncertainty from noisy or ambiguous speech recognition but also unknown user models. Like most dialogue systems, a POMDP is defined by a large number of parameters that may be difficult to specify a priori from domain knowledge, and learning these parameters from the user may require an unacceptably long training period. An extension to the POMDP model is described that allows the agent to acquire a linguistic model of the user online, including new vocabulary and word choice preferences. The approach not only avoids a training period of constant questioning as the agent learns, but also allows the agent actively to query for additional information when its uncertainty suggests a high risk of mistakes. The approach is demonstrated both in simulation and on a natural language interaction system for a robotic wheelchair application.

  20. Talking about Poetry--Using the Model of Language in Systemic Functional Linguistics to Talk about Poetic Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Poetry is the art shaped through language; to talk about a poem we need at least to talk about its language--but what can be said will depend on the particular linguistic theory, with its particular modelling of language, which we bring to the description. This paper outlines the approach of SFL (Systemic Functional Linguistics), describing in…

  1. OxLM: A Neural Language Modelling Framework for Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Baltescu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an open source implementation1 of a neural language model for machine translation. Neural language models deal with the problem of data sparsity by learning distributed representations for words in a continuous vector space. The language modelling probabilities are estimated by projecting a word's context in the same space as the word representations and by assigning probabilities proportional to the distance between the words and the context's projection. Neural language models are notoriously slow to train and test. Our framework is designed with scalability in mind and provides two optional techniques for reducing the computational cost: the so-called class decomposition trick and a training algorithm based on noise contrastive estimation. Our models may be extended to incorporate direct n-gram features to learn weights for every n-gram in the training data. Our framework comes with wrappers for the cdec and Moses translation toolkits, allowing our language models to be incorporated as normalized features in their decoders (inside the beam search.

  2. THE MODEL OF TEACHING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES IN A TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherkashina, E.I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a new model of a linguistic educational process that can be implemented in the practice of teaching a foreign language in a technical university. The proposed model takes into account the characteristic features of mindset of students of technical universities and faculties, and it constitutes a matrix with a binary opposition. Filled-in matrix cells represent a structure of the language knowledge content in a visual form. Knowledge of the system organization of a language helps the students to understand "language in action" in the way that corresponds to their left hemisphere mindset. The knowledge of the dominant hemisphere cerebration peculiarities of the students of technical specializations (engineering physicists lets us model a lingvo-educational process in a non-linguistic university. A complex linking of lingvo-didactic components makes the teachers of foreign language take into consideration the results of the research in the field of functional interhemispheric asymmetry of the brain. The emphasis on the abilities of the left hemisphere dominating among the students has to change the approach of the teachers of foreign languages to the organization of the linguistic educational process in a technical university. It is also important to consider that the skills which led the life in the information age remain necessary, but they alone are no longer sufficient for personal self-realization in the new conceptual age.

  3. Neural systems language: a formal modeling language for the systematic description, unambiguous communication, and automated digital curation of neural connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ramsay A; Swanson, Larry W

    2013-09-01

    Systematic description and the unambiguous communication of findings and models remain among the unresolved fundamental challenges in systems neuroscience. No common descriptive frameworks exist to describe systematically the connective architecture of the nervous system, even at the grossest level of observation. Furthermore, the accelerating volume of novel data generated on neural connectivity outpaces the rate at which this data is curated into neuroinformatics databases to synthesize digitally systems-level insights from disjointed reports and observations. To help address these challenges, we propose the Neural Systems Language (NSyL). NSyL is a modeling language to be used by investigators to encode and communicate systematically reports of neural connectivity from neuroanatomy and brain imaging. NSyL engenders systematic description and communication of connectivity irrespective of the animal taxon described, experimental or observational technique implemented, or nomenclature referenced. As a language, NSyL is internally consistent, concise, and comprehensible to both humans and computers. NSyL is a promising development for systematizing the representation of neural architecture, effectively managing the increasing volume of data on neural connectivity and streamlining systems neuroscience research. Here we present similar precedent systems, how NSyL extends existing frameworks, and the reasoning behind NSyL's development. We explore NSyL's potential for balancing robustness and consistency in representation by encoding previously reported assertions of connectivity from the literature as examples. Finally, we propose and discuss the implications of a framework for how NSyL will be digitally implemented in the future to streamline curation of experimental results and bridge the gaps among anatomists, imagers, and neuroinformatics databases.

  4. Genetic biasing through cultural transmission: do simple Bayesian models of language evolution generalize?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dediu, Dan

    2009-08-07

    The recent Bayesian approaches to language evolution and change seem to suggest that genetic biases can impact on the characteristics of language, but, at the same time, that its cultural transmission can partially free it from these same genetic constraints. One of the current debates centres on the striking differences between sampling and a posteriori maximising Bayesian learners, with the first converging on the prior bias while the latter allows a certain freedom to language evolution. The present paper shows that this difference disappears if populations more complex than a single teacher and a single learner are considered, with the resulting behaviours more similar to the sampler. This suggests that generalisations based on the language produced by Bayesian agents in such homogeneous single agent chains are not warranted. It is not clear which of the assumptions in such models are responsible, but these findings seem to support the rising concerns on the validity of the "acquisitionist" assumption, whereby the locus of language change and evolution is taken to be the first language acquirers (children) as opposed to the competent language users (the adults).

  5. An analytic solution of a model of language competition with bilingualism and interlinguistic similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Espinar, M. V.; Seoane, L. F.; Nieto, J. J.; Mira, J.

    2013-12-01

    An in-depth analytic study of a model of language dynamics is presented: a model which tackles the problem of the coexistence of two languages within a closed community of speakers taking into account bilingualism and incorporating a parameter to measure the distance between languages. After previous numerical simulations, the model yielded that coexistence might lead to survival of both languages within monolingual speakers along with a bilingual community or to extinction of the weakest tongue depending on different parameters. In this paper, such study is closed with thorough analytical calculations to settle the results in a robust way and previous results are refined with some modifications. From the present analysis it is possible to almost completely assay the number and nature of the equilibrium points of the model, which depend on its parameters, as well as to build a phase space based on them. Also, we obtain conclusions on the way the languages evolve with time. Our rigorous considerations also suggest ways to further improve the model and facilitate the comparison of its consequences with those from other approaches or with real data.

  6. Brain-computer interface with language model-electroencephalography fusion for locked-in syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oken, Barry S; Orhan, Umut; Roark, Brian; Erdogmus, Deniz; Fowler, Andrew; Mooney, Aimee; Peters, Betts; Miller, Meghan; Fried-Oken, Melanie B

    2014-05-01

    Some noninvasive brain-computer interface (BCI) systems are currently available for locked-in syndrome (LIS) but none have incorporated a statistical language model during text generation. To begin to address the communication needs of individuals with LIS using a noninvasive BCI that involves rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of symbols and a unique classifier with electroencephalography (EEG) and language model fusion. The RSVP Keyboard was developed with several unique features. Individual letters are presented at 2.5 per second. Computer classification of letters as targets or nontargets based on EEG is performed using machine learning that incorporates a language model for letter prediction via Bayesian fusion enabling targets to be presented only 1 to 4 times. Nine participants with LIS and 9 healthy controls were enrolled. After screening, subjects first calibrated the system, and then completed a series of balanced word generation mastery tasks that were designed with 5 incremental levels of difficulty, which increased by selecting phrases for which the utility of the language model decreased naturally. Six participants with LIS and 9 controls completed the experiment. All LIS participants successfully mastered spelling at level 1 and one subject achieved level 5. Six of 9 control participants achieved level 5. Individuals who have incomplete LIS may benefit from an EEG-based BCI system, which relies on EEG classification and a statistical language model. Steps to further improve the system are discussed.

  7. Polychronous Interpretation of Synoptic, a Domain Specific Modeling Language for Embedded Flight-Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Besnard

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The SPaCIFY project, which aims at bringing advances in MDE to the satellite flight software industry, advocates a top-down approach built on a domain-specific modeling language named Synoptic. In line with previous approaches to real-time modeling such as Statecharts and Simulink, Synoptic features hierarchical decomposition of application and control modules in synchronous block diagrams and state machines. Its semantics is described in the polychronous model of computation, which is that of the synchronous language SIGNAL.

  8. Formulaic language in cortical and subcortical disease: Evidence of the dual process model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Bridges

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that an intact cortical left hemisphere is crucial for language production. Recently, more credit is given to the right hemisphere and subcortical areas in the production of non-novel language, including formulaic language. John Hughlings Jackson (1874/1958, first described how propositional and non-propositional speech are differentially affected by neural impairment. Non-propositional language is often preserved following left hemisphere stroke even when aphasia is present (Code, 1982; Sidtis et al., 2009; Van Lancker Sidtis & Postman, 2006. With right hemisphere and subcortical stroke, formulaic language is reduced (Sidtis et al., 2009; Van Lancker Sidtis & Postman, 2006; Speedie et al., 1993. The dual process model of language competence states that propositional and non-propositional speech are processed differently in the brain, with novel speech controlled by the left hemisphere, and a right hemisphere/subcortical circuit modulating formulaic language (Van Lancker Sidtis, 2004; 2012. Two studies of formulaic language will be presented as further evidence of the dual process model: a study of formulaic language in Alzheimer’s disease, and a study of recited speech in Parkinson’s disease. Formulaic language includes overlearned words, phrases or longer linguistic units that are known to the native speaker, occur naturally in discourse, and are important for normal social interaction (Fillmore, 1979; Pawley & Syder, 1983; Van Lancker, 1988; Van Lancker Sidtis, 2004; Wray, 2002. Formulaic expressions include conversational speech formulas, idioms, proverbs, expletives, pause fillers, discourse elements, and sentence stems (stereotyped sentence-initials. Longer units of linguistic material, such as prayers, rhymes, and poems, termed recited speech, is another subtype of formulaic language that is learned in childhood and recited periodically throughout life. Cortical disease: Alzheimer’s disease and formulaic

  9. Hybrid parallel execution model for logic-based specification languages

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Jeffrey J P

    2001-01-01

    Parallel processing is a very important technique for improving the performance of various software development and maintenance activities. The purpose of this book is to introduce important techniques for parallel executation of high-level specifications of software systems. These techniques are very useful for the construction, analysis, and transformation of reliable large-scale and complex software systems. Contents: Current Approaches; Overview of the New Approach; FRORL Requirements Specification Language and Its Decomposition; Rewriting and Data Dependency, Control Flow Analysis of a Lo

  10. 关于信息处理用语言模型的研究%A Bit Progress on Word-Based Language Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇; 陈国评

    2003-01-01

    A good language model is essential to a postprocessing algorithm for recognition systems. In the past, researchers have pre-sented various language models, such as character based language models, word based language model, syntactical rules language mod-el, hybrid models, etc. The word N-gram model is by far an effective and efficient model, but one has to address the problem of datasparseness in establishing the model. Katz and Kneser et al. respectively presented effective remedies to solve this challenging prob-lem. In this study, we proposed an improvement to their methods by incorporating Chinese language-specific information or Chineseword class information into the system.

  11. Linguistic Models at the Crossroads of Agents, Learning and Formal Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor BECERRA-BONACHE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at reviewing the most relevant linguistic applications developed in the intersection between three different fields: machine learning, formal language theory and agent technologies. On the one hand, we present some of the main linguistic contributions of the intersection between machine learning and formal languages, which constitutes a well-established research area known as Grammatical Inference. On the other hand, we present an overview of the main linguistic applications of models developed in the intersection between agent technologies and formal languages, such as colonies, grammar systems and eco-grammar systems. Our goal is to show how interdisciplinary research between these three fields can contribute to better understand how natural language is acquired and processed.

  12. Development of clinical contents model markup language for electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ji-Hyun; Ahn, Sun-Ju; Kim, Yoon

    2012-09-01

    To develop dedicated markup language for clinical contents models (CCM) to facilitate the active use of CCM in electronic health record systems. Based on analysis of the structure and characteristics of CCM in the clinical domain, we designed extensible markup language (XML) based CCM markup language (CCML) schema manually. CCML faithfully reflects CCM in both the syntactic and semantic aspects. As this language is based on XML, it can be expressed and processed in computer systems and can be used in a technology-neutral way. CCML HAS THE FOLLOWING STRENGTHS: it is machine-readable and highly human-readable, it does not require a dedicated parser, and it can be applied for existing electronic health record systems.

  13. The dual loop model: its relation to language and other modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel eRijntjes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The current neurobiological consensus of a general dual-loop system scaffolding human and primate brains gives evidence that the dorsal and ventral connections subserve similar functions, independent of the modality and species. However, most current commentators agree that, although bees dance and chimpanzees grunt, these systems of communication differ qualitatively from human language. So why is language in humans unique?We discuss anatomical differences between humans and other animals, the meaning of lesion studies in patients, the role of inner speech, and compare functional imaging studies in language with other modalities in respect to the dual loop model. These aspects might be helpful for understanding what kind of biological system the language faculty is, and how it relates to other systems in our own species and others.

  14. Supervisory Control of Flowlines by Modelling the Legal Language as Inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Kristian Skjoldborg; Michelsen, Axel Gottlieb; Rudie, Karen

    2006-01-01

    A method for modelling the class of discrete-event systems that characterise flowlines is developed. The legal languages are modelled as a set of inequalities, which effectively reduces the amount of memory needed for implementing the resulting supervisors, called inequality supervisors. An example...... that the solution can be implemented in a distributed control architecture utilising DES concepts such as nonconflicting and nonblocking....

  15. Effect of Network-Assisted Language Teaching Model on Undergraduate English Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunyan

    2013-01-01

    With the coming of the information age, computer-based teaching model has had an important impact on English teaching. Since 2004, the trial instruction on Network-assisted Language Teaching (NALT) Model integrating the English instruction and computer technology has been launched at some universities in China, including China university of…

  16. A Metadata Model for E-Learning Coordination through Semantic Web Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elci, Atilla

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on a study aiming to develop a metadata model for e-learning coordination based on semantic web languages. A survey of e-learning modes are done initially in order to identify content such as phases, activities, data schema, rules and relations, etc. relevant for a coordination model. In this respect, the study looks into the…

  17. The Utility of Cognitive Plausibility in Language Acquisition Modeling: Evidence From Word Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Lawrence; Pearl, Lisa

    2015-11-01

    The informativity of a computational model of language acquisition is directly related to how closely it approximates the actual acquisition task, sometimes referred to as the model's cognitive plausibility. We suggest that though every computational model necessarily idealizes the modeled task, an informative language acquisition model can aim to be cognitively plausible in multiple ways. We discuss these cognitive plausibility checkpoints generally and then apply them to a case study in word segmentation, investigating a promising Bayesian segmentation strategy. We incorporate cognitive plausibility by using an age-appropriate unit of perceptual representation, evaluating the model output in terms of its utility, and incorporating cognitive constraints into the inference process. Our more cognitively plausible model shows a beneficial effect of cognitive constraints on segmentation performance. One interpretation of this effect is as a synergy between the naive theories of language structure that infants may have and the cognitive constraints that limit the fidelity of their inference processes, where less accurate inference approximations are better when the underlying assumptions about how words are generated are less accurate. More generally, these results highlight the utility of incorporating cognitive plausibility more fully into computational models of language acquisition.

  18. QUANTIFYING THE CONTRIBUTION OF LANGUAGE MODELING TO WRITER­INDEPENDENT ON­LINE HANDWRITING RECOGNITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitrelli, J.F.; Ratzlaf, E.H.

    2004-01-01

    We describe experiments varying the degree of language­model constraint applied to writer­independent on­line handwriting recognition. Six types of models are used, varying statistical components and hard constraints which govern recognition search during the sequencing of characters to form valid t

  19. A Blended Learning Model for Teaching Reading in English as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkour, Islam

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a blended learning model to be used in Egyptian schools when teaching reading classes in English as a foreign language. This paper is divided into three parts. The first part outlines the Egyptian context and describes the target learners. The second part describes the suggested blended learning model, which is…

  20. Modelling the phonotactic structure of natural language words with simple recurrent networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoianov, [No Value; Nerbonne, J; Bouma, H; Coppen, PA; vanHalteren, H; Teunissen, L

    1998-01-01

    Simple Recurrent Networks (SRN) are Neural Network (connectionist) models able to process natural language. Phonotactics concerns the order of symbols in words. We continued an earlier unsuccessful trial to model the phonotactics of Dutch words with SRNs. In order to overcome the previously reported

  1. Integration PCK: Modeling the Knowledge(s) Underlying a World Language Teacher's Implementation of CBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyan, Francis J.; Cammarata, Laurent; Martel, Jason

    2017-01-01

    This case study enabled researchers to understand the knowledge embedded in a world language teacher's enactment of content-based instruction (CBI) through the lens of a theoretical model inspired by Shulman's (1987) construct of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). The model, called integration pedagogical content knowledge (I-PCK), represents an…

  2. DESIGN OF OBJECT-ORIENTED DEBUGGER MODEL BY USING UNIFIED MODELING LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Fazlida Mohd Sani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Debugging on computer program is a complex cognitive activity. Although it is complex, it’s still one of the popular issues in computer programming task. It is a difficult task, which is to understand what the error is and how to solve such error? In computer programming the difficulty is to understand the Object-Oriented programming concept together with the programming logic. If the programming logic is incorrect, the program codes will have such error named as logic error and can caused highly maintenance cost. Logic error is a bug in a program that causes it to operate incorrectly, without terminating or crashing the program. It will produce unintended output or other behavior than what we are expecting. Method that use to develop a propose model Object Oriented Debugger is Unified Modeling Language (UML. It is the best choice model and suitable to design the Object Oriented Debugger which will be developed in an object oriented programming environment. The model will provide an ability to capture the characteristics of a system by using notations in the process of designing and implementing the system. The model of Object Oriented Debugger has been successfully implemented. This model has been developed using Unified Approach methodology, which consists of two methods such as Object-Oriented Analysis (OOA and Object-Oriented Design (OOD. The model developed is to capture the structure and behavior of the Object Oriented Debugger by using the UML diagram. The model also can ease the readability of the documentation for the maintenance purposes. The design of the Object Oriented Debugger Model has been developed using the UML notation. It’s consisting of two parts that are object-oriented analysis and object-oriented design. All the developing and designing are based on the model in UML.

  3. Coupled dynamics of node and link states in complex networks: a model for language competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Adrián; Toral, Raúl; San Miguel, Maxi

    2016-11-01

    Inspired by language competition processes, we present a model of coupled evolution of node and link states. In particular, we focus on the interplay between the use of a language and the preference or attitude of the speakers towards it, which we model, respectively, as a property of the interactions between speakers (a link state) and as a property of the speakers themselves (a node state). Furthermore, we restrict our attention to the case of two socially equivalent languages and to socially inspired network topologies based on a mechanism of triadic closure. As opposed to most of the previous literature, where language extinction is an inevitable outcome of the dynamics, we find a broad range of possible asymptotic configurations, which we classify as: frozen extinction states, frozen coexistence states, and dynamically trapped coexistence states. Moreover, metastable coexistence states with very long survival times and displaying a non-trivial dynamics are found to be abundant. Interestingly, a system size scaling analysis shows, on the one hand, that the probability of language extinction vanishes exponentially for increasing system sizes and, on the other hand, that the time scale of survival of the non-trivial dynamical metastable states increases linearly with the size of the system. Thus, non-trivial dynamical coexistence is the only possible outcome for large enough systems. Finally, we show how this coexistence is characterized by one of the languages becoming clearly predominant while the other one becomes increasingly confined to ‘ghetto-like’ structures: small groups of bilingual speakers arranged in triangles, with a strong preference for the minority language, and using it for their intra-group interactions while they switch to the predominant language for communications with the rest of the population.

  4. A model for Social Communication And Language Evolution and Development (SCALED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catani, Marco; Bambini, Valentina

    2014-10-01

    In humans, brain connectivity implements a system for language and communication that spans from basic pre-linguistic social abilities shared with non-human primates to syntactic and pragmatic functions particular to our species. The arcuate fasciculus is a central connection in this architecture, linking regions devoted to formal aspects of language with regions involved in intentional and social communication. Here, we outline a new anatomical model of communication that incorporates previous neurofunctional accounts of language with recent advances in tractography and neuropragmatics. The model consists of five levels, from the representation of informative actions and communicative intentions, to lexical/semantic processing, syntactic analysis, and pragmatic integration. The structure of the model is hierarchical in relation to developmental and evolutionary trajectories and it may help interpreting clinico-anatomical correlation in communication disorders.

  5. Increasing genotype-phenotype model determinism: application to bivariate reading/language traits and epistatic interactions in language-impaired families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Tabatha R; Flax, Judy F; Azaro, Marco A; Hayter, Jared E; Justice, Laura M; Petrill, Stephen A; Bassett, Anne S; Tallal, Paula; Brzustowicz, Linda M; Bartlett, Christopher W

    2010-01-01

    While advances in network and pathway analysis have flourished in the era of genome-wide association analysis, understanding the genetic mechanism of individual loci on phenotypes is still readily accomplished using genetic modeling approaches. Here, we demonstrate two novel genotype-phenotype models implemented in a flexible genetic modeling platform. The examples come from analysis of families with specific language impairment (SLI), a failure to develop normal language without explanatory factors such as low IQ or inadequate environment. In previous genome-wide studies, we observed strong evidence for linkage to 13q21 with a reading phenotype in language-impaired families. First, we elucidate the genetic architecture of reading impairment and quantitative language variation in our samples using a bivariate analysis of reading impairment in affected individuals jointly with language quantitative phenotypes in unaffected individuals. This analysis largely recapitulates the baseline analysis using the categorical trait data (posterior probability of linkage (PPL) = 80%), indicating that our reading impairment phenotype captured poor readers who also have low language ability. Second, we performed epistasis analysis using a functional coding variant in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene previously associated with reduced performance on working memory tasks. Modeling epistasis doubled the evidence on 13q21 and raised the PPL to 99.9%, indicating that BDNF and 13q21 susceptibility alleles are jointly part of the genetic architecture of SLI. These analyses provide possible mechanistic insights for further cognitive neuroscience studies based on the models developed herein.

  6. Instinctive Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokoe, William C.

    1994-01-01

    "Patterns of the Mind," by Ray Jackendoff, and "The Language Instinct," by Steven Pinker, are reviewed. Each are written to support the theory that language is predetermined by genetically endowed brain structure but also include discussions of studies that use sign language to confirm the standard model of linguistic theory. (Contains seven…

  7. A Processing Model for Free Word Order Languages

    CERN Document Server

    Rambow, O; Rambow, Owen; Joshi, Aravind K.

    1995-01-01

    Like many verb-final languages, Germn displays considerable word-order freedom: there is no syntactic constraint on the ordering of the nominal arguments of a verb, as long as the verb remains in final position. This effect is referred to as ``scrambling'', and is interpreted in transformational frameworks as leftward movement of the arguments. Furthermore, arguments from an embedded clause may move out of their clause; this effect is referred to as ``long-distance scrambling''. While scrambling has recently received considerable attention in the syntactic literature, the status of long-distance scrambling has only rarely been addressed. The reason for this is the problematic status of the data: not only is long-distance scrambling highly dependent on pragmatic context, it also is strongly subject to degradation due to processing constraints. As in the case of center-embedding, it is not immediately clear whether to assume that observed unacceptability of highly complex sentences is due to grammatical restric...

  8. Implications of Multimodal Learning Models for foreign language teaching and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Farías

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This literature review article approaches the topic of information and communications technologies from the perspective of their impact on the language learning process, with particular emphasis on the most appropriate designs of multimodal texts as informed by models of multimodal learning. The first part contextualizes multimodality within the fields of discourse studies, the psychology of learning and CALL; the second, deals with multimodal conceptions of reading and writing by discussing hypertextuality and literacy. A final section outlines the possible implications of multimodal learning models for foreign language teaching and learning.

  9. The intentionality model and language acquisition: engagement, effort, and the essential tension in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, L; Tinker, E

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the longitudinal research reported in this Monograph was to examine language acquisition in the second year of life in the context of developments in cognition, affect, and social connectedness. The theoretical focus for the research is on the agency of the child and the importance of the child's intentionality for explaining development, rather than on language as an independent object. The model of development for the research is a Model of Intentionality with two components: the engagement in a world of persons and objects that motivates acquiring a language, and the effort that is required to express and articulate increasingly discrepant and elaborate intentional state representations. The fundamental assumption in the model is that the driving force for acquiring language is in the essential tension between engagement and effort for linguistic, emotional, and physical actions of interpretation and expression. Results of lag sequential analyses are reported to show how different behaviors--words, sentences, emotional expressions, conversational interactions, and constructing thematic relations between objects in play--converged, both in the stream of children's actions in everyday events, in real time, and in developmental time between the emergence of words at about 13 months and the transition to simple sentences at about 2 years of age. Patterns of deviation from baseline rates of the different behaviors show that child emotional expression, child speech, and mother speech clearly influence each other, and the mutual influences between them are different at times of either emergence or achievement in both language and object play. The three conclusions that follow from the results of the research are that (a) expression and interpretation are the acts of performance in which language is learned, which means that performance counts for explaining language acquisition; (b) language is not an independent object but is acquired by a child in

  10. Approximate N-Gram Markov Model for Natural Language Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, H H; Chen, Hsin-Hsi; Lee, Yue-Shi

    1994-01-01

    This paper proposes an Approximate n-gram Markov Model for bag generation. Directed word association pairs with distances are used to approximate (n-1)-gram and n-gram training tables. This model has parameters of word association model, and merits of both word association model and Markov Model. The training knowledge for bag generation can be also applied to lexical selection in machine translation design.

  11. Learning a generative probabilistic grammar of experience: a process-level model of language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodny, Oren; Lotem, Arnon; Edelman, Shimon

    2015-03-01

    We introduce a set of biologically and computationally motivated design choices for modeling the learning of language, or of other types of sequential, hierarchically structured experience and behavior, and describe an implemented system that conforms to these choices and is capable of unsupervised learning from raw natural-language corpora. Given a stream of linguistic input, our model incrementally learns a grammar that captures its statistical patterns, which can then be used to parse or generate new data. The grammar constructed in this manner takes the form of a directed weighted graph, whose nodes are recursively (hierarchically) defined patterns over the elements of the input stream. We evaluated the model in seventeen experiments, grouped into five studies, which examined, respectively, (a) the generative ability of grammar learned from a corpus of natural language, (b) the characteristics of the learned representation, (c) sequence segmentation and chunking, (d) artificial grammar learning, and (e) certain types of structure dependence. The model's performance largely vindicates our design choices, suggesting that progress in modeling language acquisition can be made on a broad front-ranging from issues of generativity to the replication of human experimental findings-by bringing biological and computational considerations, as well as lessons from prior efforts, to bear on the modeling approach. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  12. Why Are There Developmental Stages in Language Learning? A Developmental Robotics Model of Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Anthony F.; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Most theories of learning would predict a gradual acquisition and refinement of skills as learning progresses, and while some highlight exponential growth, this fails to explain why natural cognitive development typically progresses in stages. Models that do span multiple developmental stages typically have parameters to "switch" between…

  13. Why Are There Developmental Stages in Language Learning? A Developmental Robotics Model of Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Anthony F.; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Most theories of learning would predict a gradual acquisition and refinement of skills as learning progresses, and while some highlight exponential growth, this fails to explain why natural cognitive development typically progresses in stages. Models that do span multiple developmental stages typically have parameters to "switch" between…

  14. Modelling biological behaviours with the unified modelling language: an immunological case study and critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Mark; Andrews, Paul S; Timmis, Jon; Kumar, Vipin

    2014-10-01

    We present a framework to assist the diagrammatic modelling of complex biological systems using the unified modelling language (UML). The framework comprises three levels of modelling, ranging in scope from the dynamics of individual model entities to system-level emergent properties. By way of an immunological case study of the mouse disease experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, we show how the framework can be used to produce models that capture and communicate the biological system, detailing how biological entities, interactions and behaviours lead to higher-level emergent properties observed in the real world. We demonstrate how the UML can be successfully applied within our framework, and provide a critique of UML's ability to capture concepts fundamental to immunology and biology more generally. We show how specialized, well-explained diagrams with less formal semantics can be used where no suitable UML formalism exists. We highlight UML's lack of expressive ability concerning cyclic feedbacks in cellular networks, and the compounding concurrency arising from huge numbers of stochastic, interacting agents. To compensate for this, we propose several additional relationships for expressing these concepts in UML's activity diagram. We also demonstrate the ambiguous nature of class diagrams when applied to complex biology, and question their utility in modelling such dynamic systems. Models created through our framework are non-executable, and expressly free of simulation implementation concerns. They are a valuable complement and precursor to simulation specifications and implementations, focusing purely on thoroughly exploring the biology, recording hypotheses and assumptions, and serve as a communication medium detailing exactly how a simulation relates to the real biology.

  15. Languages for model-driven development of user interfaces: Review of the state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Mlađan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In model-driven user interface development, several models are used to describe different aspects of user interface when level of detail varies. The relations between the models are established through model transformations. The Model Driven Engineering (MDE approach has been proposed in software engineering domain in order to provide techniques and tools to deal with models in the automated way. In this paper, we will review existing user interface languages that gain wider acceptance, and discuss their applicability for model-driven user interface development.

  16. American Dietetic Association's Standardized Nutrition Language: Project logic model and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Melinda; Myers, Esther; Charney, Pam; Escott-Stump, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    Standardized terminology and digital sources of evidence are essential for evidence-based practice. Dieticians desire concise and consistent documentation of nutrition diagnoses, interventions and outcomes that will be fit for electronic health records. Building on more than 5 years of work to generate the Nutrition Care Process and Model as a road map to quality nutrition care and outcomes, and recognizing existing standardized languages serving other health professions, a task force of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) has begun to develop and disseminate standardized nutrition language. This paper will describe the group's working logic model, the Nutrition Care Process, and the current status of the nutrition language with comparisons to nursing process and terminology.

  17. A goal-oriented requirements modelling language for enterprise architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartel, Dick; Engelsman, Wilco; Jonkers, Henk; Sinderen, van Marten

    2009-01-01

    Methods for enterprise architecture, such as TOGAF, acknowledge the importance of requirements engineering in the development of enterprise architectures. Modelling support is needed to specify, document, communicate and reason about goals and requirements. Current modelling techniques for enterpris

  18. A goal-oriented requirements modelling language for enterprise architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartel, Dick; Engelsman, W.; Jonkers, Henk; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    2009-01-01

    Methods for enterprise architecture, such as TOGAF, acknowledge the importance of requirements engineering in the development of enterprise architectures. Modelling support is needed to specify, document, communicate and reason about goals and requirements. Current modelling techniques for

  19. VMQL: A Visual Language for Ad-Hoc Model Querying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2011-01-01

    In large scale model based development, analysis level models are more like knowledge bases than engineering artifacts. Their effectiveness depends, to a large degree, on the ability of domain experts to retrieve information from them ad hoc. For large scale models, however, existing query facili...

  20. Language Recognition Using Latent Dynamic Conditional Random Field Model with Phonological Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirinoot Boonsuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spoken language recognition (SLR has been of increasing interest in multilingual speech recognition for identifying the languages of speech utterances. Most existing SLR approaches apply statistical modeling techniques with acoustic and phonotactic features. Among the popular approaches, the acoustic approach has become of greater interest than others because it does not require any prior language-specific knowledge. Previous research on the acoustic approach has shown less interest in applying linguistic knowledge; it was only used as supplementary features, while the current state-of-the-art system assumes independency among features. This paper proposes an SLR system based on the latent-dynamic conditional random field (LDCRF model using phonological features (PFs. We use PFs to represent acoustic characteristics and linguistic knowledge. The LDCRF model was employed to capture the dynamics of the PFs sequences for language classification. Baseline systems were conducted to evaluate the features and methods including Gaussian mixture model (GMM based systems using PFs, GMM using cepstral features, and the CRF model using PFs. Evaluated on the NIST LRE 2007 corpus, the proposed method showed an improvement over the baseline systems. Additionally, it showed comparable result with the acoustic system based on i-vector. This research demonstrates that utilizing PFs can enhance the performance.

  1. A Fast Variational Approach for Learning Markov Random Field Language Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    our class of models. Learning undirected graphical models is challenging because of the global nor- malization constant, or partition function. We...503–528, 1989. Marcus, Mitchell P, Marcinkiewicz, Mary Ann, and San- torini, Beatrice. Building a large annotated corpus of english : The penn treebank...A Fast Variational Approach for Learning Markov Random Field Language Models Yacine Jernite JERNITE@CS.NYU.EDU CIMS, New York University, 251 Mercer

  2. A general diagnostic model applied to language testing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Davier, Matthias

    2008-11-01

    Probabilistic models with one or more latent variables are designed to report on a corresponding number of skills or cognitive attributes. Multidimensional skill profiles offer additional information beyond what a single test score can provide, if the reported skills can be identified and distinguished reliably. Many recent approaches to skill profile models are limited to dichotomous data and have made use of computationally intensive estimation methods such as Markov chain Monte Carlo, since standard maximum likelihood (ML) estimation techniques were deemed infeasible. This paper presents a general diagnostic model (GDM) that can be estimated with standard ML techniques and applies to polytomous response variables as well as to skills with two or more proficiency levels. The paper uses one member of a larger class of diagnostic models, a compensatory diagnostic model for dichotomous and partial credit data. Many well-known models, such as univariate and multivariate versions of the Rasch model and the two-parameter logistic item response theory model, the generalized partial credit model, as well as a variety of skill profile models, are special cases of this GDM. In addition to an introduction to this model, the paper presents a parameter recovery study using simulated data and an application to real data from the field test for TOEFL Internet-based testing.

  3. SBRML: a markup language for associating systems biology data with models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Joseph O; Spasić, Irena; Paton, Norman W; Mendes, Pedro

    2010-04-01

    Research in systems biology is carried out through a combination of experiments and models. Several data standards have been adopted for representing models (Systems Biology Markup Language) and various types of relevant experimental data (such as FuGE and those of the Proteomics Standards Initiative). However, until now, there has been no standard way to associate a model and its entities to the corresponding datasets, or vice versa. Such a standard would provide a means to represent computational simulation results as well as to frame experimental data in the context of a particular model. Target applications include model-driven data analysis, parameter estimation, and sharing and archiving model simulations. We propose the Systems Biology Results Markup Language (SBRML), an XML-based language that associates a model with several datasets. Each dataset is represented as a series of values associated with model variables, and their corresponding parameter values. SBRML provides a flexible way of indexing the results to model parameter values, which supports both spreadsheet-like data and multidimensional data cubes. We present and discuss several examples of SBRML usage in applications such as enzyme kinetics, microarray gene expression and various types of simulation results. The XML Schema file for SBRML is available at http://www.comp-sys-bio.org/SBRML under the Academic Free License (AFL) v3.0.

  4. Business Process Modelling Languages in Designing Integrated Information System for Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mohammadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A business process model is very germane to the formation of an appropriate information system. For a marked infusion of business processes in the supply chain, the status quo regarding the processes must be totally understood and well secured. Business activities and sequence have to be well kept and properly coordinated by predicting business procedures process from diverse views. This study examines seven BPMLs Data Flow Diagram (DFD, Unified Modelling Language (UML, Business Process Modelling Notation(BPMN, Event Driven Process Chain (EPC, IDEF, Petri Net, and Role Activity Diagram (RAD. The submissions of this study are the subject of the Business Process Modelling Languages (BPMLs in developing an integrated dissemination mechanism and classification of modelling tools.

  5. Incorporating Linguistic Rules in Statistical Chinese Language Model for Pinyin-to-character Conversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An N-gram Chinese language model incorporating linguistic rules is presented. By constructing elements lattice, rules information is incorporated in statistical frame. To facilitate the hybrid modeling, novel methods such as MI-based rule evaluating, weighted rule quantification and element-based n-gram probability approximation are presented. Dynamic Viterbi algorithm is adopted to search the best path in lattice. To strengthen the model, transformation-based error-driven rules learning is adopted. Applying proposed model to Chinese Pinyin-to-character conversion, high performance has been achieved in accuracy, flexibility and robustness simultaneously. Tests show correct rate achieves 94.81% instead of 90.53% using bi-gram Markov model alone. Many long-distance dependency and recursion in language can be processed effectively.

  6. A Strongly Grounded Stable Model Semantics for Full Propositional Language

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Answer set programming is one of the most praised frameworks for declarative programming in general and non-monotonic reasoning in particular. There has been many efforts to extend stable model semantics so that answer set programs can use a more extensive syntax. To such endeavor, the community of non-monotonic reasoning has introduced extensions such as equilibrium models and FLP semantics. However, both of these extensions suffer from two problems: intended models according to such extensi...

  7. A Bayesian Model of Biases in Artificial Language Learning: The Case of a Word-Order Universal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Jennifer; Smolensky, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we develop a hierarchical Bayesian model of learning in a general type of artificial language-learning experiment in which learners are exposed to a mixture of grammars representing the variation present in real learners' input, particularly at times of language change. The modeling goal is to formalize and quantify hypothesized…

  8. The Effectiveness of Synectics Instructional Model on Foreign Language Vocabulary Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eristi, Bahadir; Polat, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    This study, which is an experimental research with pre-test and post-test control groups, aims to determine the effectiveness of the Synectics Instructional Model on foreign language vocabulary teaching. The research was conducted with two experimental and two control groups and 82 students taking part in these groups. The experimental application…

  9. A Model of Motivation for Extensive Reading in Japanese as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Burgh-Hirabe, Ryoko; Feryok, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported that extensive reading (ER) has a positive influence on affect. Recent studies suggest that motivation for ER changes. This is in line with recent developments in second language (L2) motivation research that have highlighted the complex and dynamic nature of L2 motivation. This study presents a model of complex and…

  10. Selected translated abstracts of Russian-language climate-change publications. 4: General circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtis, M.D. [comp.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Razuvaev, V.N.; Sivachok, S.G. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Hydrometeorological Information--World Data Center, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents English-translated abstracts of important Russian-language literature concerning general circulation models as they relate to climate change. Into addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  11. Action and Language Mechanisms in the Brain: Data, Models and Neuroinformatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arbib, Michael A.; Bonaiuto, James J.; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2014-01-01

    We assess the challenges of studying action and language mechanisms in the brain, both singly and in relation to each other to provide a novel perspective on neuroinformatics, integrating the development of databases for encoding - separately or together - neurocomputational models and empirical...

  12. A User-Centered Educational Modeling Language Improving the Controllability of Learning Design Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendi, Asma; Bouhadada, Tahar; Bousbia, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Semiformal EMLs are developed to facilitate the adoption of educational modeling languages (EMLs) and to address practitioners' learning design concerns, such as reusability and readability. In this article, SDLD (Structure Dialogue Learning Design) is presented, which is a semiformal EML that aims to improve controllability of learning design…

  13. A Model of Motivation for Extensive Reading in Japanese as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Burgh-Hirabe, Ryoko; Feryok, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported that extensive reading (ER) has a positive influence on affect. Recent studies suggest that motivation for ER changes. This is in line with recent developments in second language (L2) motivation research that have highlighted the complex and dynamic nature of L2 motivation. This study presents a model of complex and…

  14. OER "Produsage" as a Model to Support Language Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Teresa; Pasfield-Neofitou, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Language education faculty face myriad challenges in finding teaching resources that are suitable, of high quality, and allow for the modifications needed to meet the requirements of their course contexts and their learners. The article elaborates the grassroots model of "produsage" (a portmanteau of "production" and…

  15. Teaching Mathematics with Intelligent Support in Natural Language. Tertiary Education Students Working with Parametrized Modelling Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojano, Teresa; García-Campos, Montserrat

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the outcomes of a study that seeks to investigate the role of feedback, by way of an intelligent support system in natural language, in parametrized modelling activities carried out by a group of tertiary education students. With such a system, it is possible to simultaneously display on a computer screen a dialogue window and…

  16. Modeling of phonological encoding in spoken word production: From Germanic languages to Mandarin Chinese and Japanese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2015-01-01

    It is widely assumed that spoken word production in Germanic languages like Dutch and English involves a parallel activation of phonemic segments and metrical frames in memory, followed by a serial association of segments to the frame, as implemented in the WEAVER++ model (Levelt, Roelofs, & Meyer,

  17. A Model for Teaching Written Language to Hearing-Impaired Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Stephen L.; Luckner, John L.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a model of written language that can guide the instruction of hearing-impaired students, and strategies and techniques for improving writing skills, using research and theory from such areas as fluency, syntax, vocabulary, content, conventions, student motivation, guided practice, student interaction, and selective feedback. (CB) (Adjunct…

  18. Anchored Instruction: A Model for Integrating the Language Arts through Content Area Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cena, Michael E.; Mitchell, Judith P.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a description of anchored instruction, a model of curriculum integration combined with inquiry learning that builds prior knowledge and engages students in the application of the language arts. Sets out the eight steps involved in creating an anchored instruction unit. (SR)

  19. The Gender-Linked Language Effect: An Empirical Test of a General Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulac, Anthony; Giles, Howard; Bradac, James J.; Palomares, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    The gender-linked language effect (GLLE) is a phenomenon in which transcripts of female communicators are rated higher on Socio-Intellectual Status and Aesthetic Quality and male communicators are rated higher on Dynamism. This study proposed and tested a new general process model explanation for the GLLE, a central mediating element of which…

  20. Exploring Topic-based Language Models for Effective Web Information Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, R.; Kaptein, Rianne; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Kamps, Jaap; Hoenkamp, E.; De Cock, M.; Hoste, V.

    2008-01-01

    The main obstacle for providing focused search is the relative opaqueness of search request -- searchers tend to express their complex information needs in only a couple of keywords. Our overall aim is to find out if, and how, topic-based language models can lead to more effective web information re

  1. Extending the Flipped Classroom Model: Developing Second Language Writing Skills through Student-Created Digital Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Marion

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a project that aimed to leverage the students' interest and experience of technology and multimodal environments to develop their academic writing skills and second language learning. Students were expected to follow a model, research a topic, and craft a digital video tutorial on an aspect of academic writing which would form…

  2. A User-Centered Educational Modeling Language Improving the Controllability of Learning Design Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendi, Asma; Bouhadada, Tahar; Bousbia, Nabila

    2016-01-01

    Semiformal EMLs are developed to facilitate the adoption of educational modeling languages (EMLs) and to address practitioners' learning design concerns, such as reusability and readability. In this article, SDLD (Structure Dialogue Learning Design) is presented, which is a semiformal EML that aims to improve controllability of learning design…

  3. Public space patterns: Modelling the language of urban space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montenegro, N.; Beirao, J.N.; Duarte, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the “Public Space Patterns” ontology including its related rule-based model, used as a basic structure of a “City Information Modelling” (CIM). This model was developed within a larger research project aimed at developing a tool for urban planning and design. The main purpose is

  4. Computational Modeling for Language Acquisition: A Tutorial With Syntactic Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Lisa S; Sprouse, Jon

    2015-06-01

    Given the growing prominence of computational modeling in the acquisition research community, we present a tutorial on how to use computational modeling to investigate learning strategies that underlie the acquisition process. This is useful for understanding both typical and atypical linguistic development. We provide a general overview of why modeling can be a particularly informative tool and some general considerations when creating a computational acquisition model. We then review a concrete example of a computational acquisition model for complex structural knowledge referred to as syntactic islands. This includes an overview of syntactic islands knowledge, a precise definition of the acquisition task being modeled, the modeling results, and how to meaningfully interpret those results in a way that is relevant for questions about knowledge representation and the learning process. Computational modeling is a powerful tool that can be used to understand linguistic development. The general approach presented here can be used to investigate any acquisition task and any learning strategy, provided both are precisely defined.

  5. The effects of program model and language on science TAKS scores among fifth graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenak, Stephanie

    This study examined the conditions of learning allowing students in one classroom to succeed on the fifth grade science TAKS test whereas students in other classrooms on the same campus do not succeed. It focused on the relationship of program models, specifically as it pertains to the influence of language within the content area of science and student performance on the fifth grade science TAKS scores. To compare the academic achievement, as measured by the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) test, in grade five students as a function of program model, the mean levels of achievement of students served by straight monolingual, 50/50 TWB (Spanish component of dual), 50/50 TWM (English component of dual) and 90/10 OWB programs were examined. The mean levels of achievement of students on the fifth grade science TAKS were also compared as a function of language of instruction and the language in which the test was administered to the students. The mean levels of achievement of students were also compared as a function of various teacher characteristics. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was the statistical procedure used in this study. The findings of this study revealed that a statistically significant difference was present in TAKS science scores as a function of Program Model. Students in a Two-Way (dual) program model outperformed the students in the One-Way model. No significant differences were found in the mean scores of students as a function of teachers' area of certification, teachers' source of certification, teachers' first language, teachers' language of formal education, or teacher/student language match. In the analysis of teacher characteristics, students taught by teachers educated in the U.S. in grades K-12 significantly outscored the students taught by teachers educated in Mexico in grades K-12. Students taught by teachers with a master's degree significantly outscored students taught by teachers without a master's degree. The students

  6. A prototype natural language interface to a large complex knowledge base, the Foundational Model of Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distelhorst, Gregory; Srivastava, Vishrut; Rosse, Cornelius; Brinkley, James F

    2003-01-01

    We describe a constrained natural language interface to a large knowledge base, the Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA). The interface, called GAPP, handles simple or nested questions that can be parsed to the form, subject-relation-object, where subject or object is unknown. With the aid of domain-specific dictionaries the parsed sentence is converted to queries in the StruQL graph-searching query language, then sent to a server we developed, called OQAFMA, that queries the FMA and returns output as XML. Preliminary evaluation shows that GAPP has the potential to be used in the evaluation of the FMA by domain experts in anatomy.

  7. Deutsch als Fremdsprachenphilologie: Das Heidelberger Modell (German as a Foreign Language Philology: The Heidelberg Model)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Rainer; Heuer, Fritz

    1975-01-01

    German as a Foreign Language Philology is a new subject developed at the New Philology Faculty of the University of Heidelberg. Students whose native language is not German can earn a Master of Arts in this field. The study plan, educational goals, and the content and organization of the curriculum are described. (Text is in German.) (TL)

  8. From Natural Language Text to Visual Models: A survey of Issues and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Claudia OSMAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 20 years, research groups focused on automating the process of extracting valuable information from Natural Language text in order to discover data and process models. In this context, several tools and approaches have been proposed. The overall objective of this survey is to examine existing literature works that transform textual specifications into visual models. This paper aims to give a comprehensive account of the existing tools meant to discover data and process models from natural language text. Our analysis focuses on approaches of these tools in the model extraction process and highlight issues of each proposed approach. In the case of object oriented software modelling of data models extraction we analyze the degree of automation, efficiency and completeness of the transformation process. Regarding process models extraction, the study is not limited only to business process discovery, but it also provides case studies from several fields such as medical or archaeological. Even if not all the tools developed are clearly depicting a Natural Language Processing technique, a review of each approach is presented.

  9. A Cultural Diffusion Model for the Rise and Fall of Programming Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Sergi; Solé, Ricard V

    2015-07-01

    Our interaction with complex computing machines is mediated by programming languages (PLs), which constitute one of the major innovations in the evolution of technology. PLs allow flexible, scalable, and fast use of hardware and are largely responsible for shaping the history of information technology since the rise of computers in the 1950s. The rapid growth and impact of computers were followed closely by the development of PLs. As occurs with natural, human languages, PLs have emerged and gone extinct. There has been always a diversity of coexisting PLs that compete somewhat while occupying special niches. Here we show that the statistical patterns of language adoption, rise, and fall can be accounted for by a simple model in which a set of programmers can use several PLs, decide to use existing PLs used by other programmers, or decide not to use them. Our results highlight the influence of strong communities of practice in the diffusion of PL innovations.

  10. A Model of Phonological Processing, Language, and Reading for Students with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, R. Michael; Sevcik, Rose A.; Morris, Robin D.; Romski, MaryAnn

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the relationships between phonological processing, language, and reading in children with intellectual disability (ID). We examined the structure of phonological processing in 294 school-aged children with mild ID and the relationships between its components and expressive and receptive language and reading skills using structural equation modeling. Phonological processing consisted of two distinct but correlated latent abilities: phonological awareness and naming speed. Phonological awareness had strong relationships with expressive and receptive language and reading skills. Naming speed had moderate relationships with these variables. Results suggest that children with ID bring the same skills to the task of learning to read as children with typical development, highlighting that phonologically based reading instruction should be considered a viable approach. PMID:24245730

  11. MOCQL: A Declarative Language for Ad-Hoc Model Querying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2013-01-01

    This paper starts from the observation that existing model query facilities are not easy to use, and are thus not suitable for users without substantial IT/Computer Science background. In an attempt to highlight this issue and explore alternatives, we have created the Model Constraint and Query L...... with MOCQL than when working with OCL. While MOCQL is currently only implemented and validated for the different notations defined by UML, its concepts should be universally applicable....

  12. Pharmacometrics Markup Language (PharmML): Opening New Perspectives for Model Exchange in Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swat, M J; Moodie, S; Wimalaratne, S M; Kristensen, N R; Lavielle, M; Mari, A; Magni, P; Smith, M K; Bizzotto, R; Pasotti, L; Mezzalana, E; Comets, E; Sarr, C; Terranova, N; Blaudez, E; Chan, P; Chard, J; Chatel, K; Chenel, M; Edwards, D; Franklin, C; Giorgino, T; Glont, M; Girard, P; Grenon, P; Harling, K; Hooker, A C; Kaye, R; Keizer, R; Kloft, C; Kok, J N; Kokash, N; Laibe, C; Laveille, C; Lestini, G; Mentré, F; Munafo, A; Nordgren, R; Nyberg, H B; Parra-Guillen, Z P; Plan, E; Ribba, B; Smith, G; Trocóniz, I F; Yvon, F; Milligan, P A; Harnisch, L; Karlsson, M; Hermjakob, H; Le Novère, N

    2015-06-01

    The lack of a common exchange format for mathematical models in pharmacometrics has been a long-standing problem. Such a format has the potential to increase productivity and analysis quality, simplify the handling of complex workflows, ensure reproducibility of research, and facilitate the reuse of existing model resources. Pharmacometrics Markup Language (PharmML), currently under development by the Drug Disease Model Resources (DDMoRe) consortium, is intended to become an exchange standard in pharmacometrics by providing means to encode models, trial designs, and modeling steps.

  13. Use of Unified Modeling Language (UML) in Model-Based Development (MBD) For Safety-Critical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    unmanned applications. Moreover, college and university courses use UML to help teach software and system design principles, as shown in Reference...43DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A-42 • “A modeling language simply defines a  grammar — a set of rules that

  14. Modeling the emergence of a new language: Naming Game with hybridization

    CERN Document Server

    Pucci, L; Servedio, V D P

    2013-01-01

    In recent times, the research field of language dynamics has focused on the investigation of language evolution, dividing the work in three evolutive steps, according to the level of complexity: lexicon, categories and grammar. The Naming Game is a simple model capable of accounting for the emergence of a lexicon, intended as the set of words through which objects are named. We introduce a stochastic modification of the Naming Game model with the aim of characterizing the emergence of a new language as the result of the interaction of agents. We fix the initial phase by splitting the population in two sets speaking either language A or B. Whenever the result of the interaction of two individuals results in an agent able to speak both A and B, we introduce a finite probability that this state turns into a new idiom C, so to mimic a sort of hybridization process. We study the system in the space of parameters defining the interaction, and show that the proposed model displays a rich variety of behaviours, despi...

  15. Software dependability modeling using an industry-standard architecture description language

    CERN Document Server

    Rugina, Ana-Elena; Kanoun, Karama; Kaaniche, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Performing dependability evaluation along with other analyses at architectural level allows both making architectural tradeoffs and predicting the effects of architectural decisions on the dependability of an application. This paper gives guidelines for building architectural dependability models for software systems using the AADL (Architecture Analysis and Design Language). It presents reusable modeling patterns for fault-tolerant applications and shows how the presented patterns can be used in the context of a subsystem of a real-life application.

  16. A modeling and simulation language for biological cells with coupled mechanical and chemical processes

    OpenAIRE

    Somogyi, Endre; Glazier, James A.

    2017-01-01

    Biological cells are the prototypical example of active matter. Cells sense and respond to mechanical, chemical and electrical environmental stimuli with a range of behaviors, including dynamic changes in morphology and mechanical properties, chemical uptake and secretion, cell differentiation, proliferation, death, or migration. Modeling and simulation of such dynamic phenomena poses a number of computational challenges. A modeling language to describe cellular dynamics must be able to natur...

  17. Using the Unified Modelling Language (UML) to guide the systemic description of biological processes and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux-Rouquié, Magali; Caritey, Nicolas; Gaubert, Laurent; Rosenthal-Sabroux, Camille

    2004-07-01

    One of the main issues in Systems Biology is to deal with semantic data integration. Previously, we examined the requirements for a reference conceptual model to guide semantic integration based on the systemic principles. In the present paper, we examine the usefulness of the Unified Modelling Language (UML) to describe and specify biological systems and processes. This makes unambiguous representations of biological systems, which would be suitable for translation into mathematical and computational formalisms, enabling analysis, simulation and prediction of these systems behaviours.

  18. Pidgins and Creoles as Models of Language Change: The State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhorter, John H.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the interface between language change and Creole studies. Discusses the Language Bioprogram Hypothesis, the Creole continuum, Creoles and grammaticalization, theoretic syntax, creole prototypes, and second language acquisition and language change. (Author/VWL)

  19. Testing a social psychological model of strategy use with students of english as a foreign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Tsung-Yuan

    2004-12-01

    This replication study tested MacIntyre's Social Psychological Model of Strategy Use. Participants were 137 first-year college students (100 men and 37 women), all in their late teens or early 20s, learning English as a foreign language in a university in Taiwan. McIntyre specified three conditions for use of language-learning strategies in his model: awareness of the strategy, having a reason to use it, and not having a reason not to use it. Stepwise multiple regression analyses of data measured by Oxford's 50-item Strategy Inventory for Language Learning partially support this model because only Knowledge about the Strategy (representing the first condition) and Difficulty about Using It (representing the third condition) made significant independent contributions to the prediction of use of most of the 50 strategies. Close examination of the results poses questions about MacIntyre and Noels' thesis, as implied in their revised model, that reason to use the strategy and reason not to use the strategy are independent. The present replication suggests a need for further revision of the model. Use of methods more advanced than the multiple regression is recommended to test and refine the model.

  20. Shopping Behavior Recognition using a Language Modeling Analogy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M.C.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.; Wiggers, P.; Shan, C.

    2012-01-01

    Automatic understanding and recognition of human shopping behavior has many potential applications, attracting an increasing interest inthe market- ing domain. The reliability and performance of the automatic recognition system is highly in uenced by the adopted theoretical model of behavior. In thi

  1. Nonspherical Szekeres models in the language of cosmological perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Roberto A.; Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Delgado Gaspar, Ismael; Germán, Gabriel

    2017-03-01

    We study the differences and equivalences between the nonperturbative description of the evolution of cosmic structure furnished by the Szekeres dust models (a nonspherical exact solution of Einstein's equations) and the dynamics of cosmological perturbation theory (C P T ) for dust sources in a Λ CDM background. We show how the dynamics of Szekeres models can be described by evolution equations given in terms of "exact fluctuations" that identically reduce (at all orders) to evolution equations of C P T in the comoving isochronous gauge. We explicitly show how Szekeres linearized exact fluctuations are specific (deterministic) realizations of standard linear perturbations of C P T given as random fields, but, as opposed to the latter perturbations, they can be evolved exactly into the full nonlinear regime. We prove two important results: (i) the conservation of the curvature perturbation (at all scales) also holds for the appropriate linear approximation of the exact Szekeres fluctuations in a Λ CDM background, and (ii) the different collapse morphologies of Szekeres models yields, at nonlinear order, different functional forms for the growth factor that follows from the study of redshift space distortions. The metric-based potentials used in linear C P T are computed in terms of the parameters of the linearized Szekeres models, thus allowing us to relate our results to linear C P T results in other gauges. We believe that these results provide a solid starting stage to examine the role of non-perturbative general relativity in current cosmological research.

  2. Language Intent Models for Inferring User Browsing Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsagkias, M.; Blanco, R.

    2012-01-01

    Modeling user browsing behavior is an active research area with tangible real-world applications, e.g., organizations can adapt their online presence to their visitors browsing behavior with positive effects in user engagement, and revenue. We concentrate on online news agents, and present a semi-su

  3. Language modeling approaches to blog post and feed finding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ernsting, B.J.; Weerkamp, W.; de Rijke, M.; Voorhees, E.M.; Buckland, L.P.

    2008-01-01

    We describe our participation in the TREC 2007 Blog track. In the opinion task we looked at the differences in performance between Indri and our mixture model, the influence of external expansion and document priors to improve opinion finding; results show that an out-of-the-box Indri implementation

  4. Accommodating 'unaccustomed pragmatic spaces' in Arbib's model Comment on "Towards a Computational Comparative Neuroprimatology: Framing the language-ready brain" by Michael A. Arbib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Alison

    2016-03-01

    Arbib's article [1] offers a sophisticated and convincing account of the evolution of human language that does not shy away from nailing together neurophysiology and the forms and functions of language. The core recognition of what language does, rather than just what language looks like or how its forms are generated, gives the model a high level of explanatory significance.

  5. On Religion and Language Evolutions Seen Through Mathematical and Agent Based Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausloos, M.

    Religions and languages are social variables, like age, sex, wealth or political opinions, to be studied like any other organizational parameter. In fact, religiosity is one of the most important sociological aspects of populations. Languages are also obvious characteristics of the human species. Religions, languages appear though also disappear. All religions and languages evolve and survive when they adapt to the society developments. On the other hand, the number of adherents of a given religion, or the number of persons speaking a language is not fixed in time, - nor space. Several questions can be raised. E.g. from a oscopic point of view : How many religions/languages exist at a given time? What is their distribution? What is their life time? How do they evolve? From a "microscopic" view point: can one invent agent based models to describe oscopic aspects? Do simple evolution equations exist? How complicated must be a model? These aspects are considered in the present note. Basic evolution equations are outlined and critically, though briefly, discussed. Similarities and differences between religions and languages are summarized. Cases can be illustrated with historical facts and data. It is stressed that characteristic time scales are different. It is emphasized that "external fields" are historically very relevant in the case of religions, rending the study more " interesting" within a mechanistic approach based on parity and symmetry of clusters concepts. Yet the modern description of human societies through networks in reported simulations is still lacking some mandatory ingredients, i.e. the non scalar nature of the nodes, and the non binary aspects of nodes and links, though for the latter this is already often taken into account, including directions. From an analytical point of view one can consider a population independently of the others. It is intuitively accepted, but also found from the statistical analysis of the frequency distribution that an

  6. Models of phonology in the education of speech-language pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ryan; Ball, Martin J

    2003-01-01

    We discuss developments in theoretical phonology and, in particular, at the divide between theories aiming to be adequate accounts of the data, as opposed to those claiming psycholinguistic validity. It would seem that the latter might have greater utility for thye speech-language pathologist. However, we need to know the dominant models of clinical phonology, in both clinical education and practise, before we can promote other theoretical approaches. This article describes preliminary results from a questionnaire designed to discover what models of phonology are taught in institutions training speech-language pathologists in the United States. Results support anecdotal evidence that only a limited number of approaches (phonemic, distinctive features, and processes) are taught in many instances. They also demonstrate that some correspondents were unable to distinguish aspects of theoretical phonology from similar sounding (but radically different) models of intervention. This ties in with the results showing that some instructors of phonology courses have little or no background in the subject.

  7. Recognizing Chinese characters in digital ink from non-native language writers using hierarchical models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hao; Zhang, Xi-wen

    2017-06-01

    While Chinese is learned as a second language, its characters are taught step by step from their strokes to components, radicals to components, and their complex relations. Chinese Characters in digital ink from non-native language writers are deformed seriously, thus the global recognition approaches are poorer. So a progressive approach from bottom to top is presented based on hierarchical models. Hierarchical information includes strokes and hierarchical components. Each Chinese character is modeled as a hierarchical tree. Strokes in one Chinese characters in digital ink are classified with Hidden Markov Models and concatenated to the stroke symbol sequence. And then the structure of components in one ink character is extracted. According to the extraction result and the stroke symbol sequence, candidate characters are traversed and scored. Finally, the recognition candidate results are listed by descending. The method of this paper is validated by testing 19815 copies of the handwriting Chinese characters written by foreign students.

  8. CloudLM: a Cloud-based Language Model for Machine Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrández-Tordera Jorge

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Language models (LMs are an essential element in statistical approaches to natural language processing for tasks such as speech recognition and machine translation (MT. The advent of big data leads to the availability of massive amounts of data to build LMs, and in fact, for the most prominent languages, using current techniques and hardware, it is not feasible to train LMs with all the data available nowadays. At the same time, it has been shown that the more data is used for a LM the better the performance, e.g. for MT, without any indication yet of reaching a plateau. This paper presents CloudLM, an open-source cloud-based LM intended for MT, which allows to query distributed LMs. CloudLM relies on Apache Solr and provides the functionality of state-of-the-art language modelling (it builds upon KenLM, while allowing to query massive LMs (as the use of local memory is drastically reduced, at the expense of slower decoding speed.

  9. Introduction to the special issue: parsimony and redundancy in models of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechmann, Daniel; Kerz, Elma; Snider, Neal; Jaeger, T Florian

    2013-09-01

    One of the most fundamental goals in linguistic theory is to understand the nature of linguistic knowledge, that is, the representations and mechanisms that figure in a cognitively plausible model of human language-processing. The past 50 years have witnessed the development and refinement of various theories about what kind of 'stuff' human knowledge of language consists of, and technological advances now permit the development of increasingly sophisticated computational models implementing key assumptions of different theories from both rationalist and empiricist perspectives. The present special issue does not aim to present or discuss the arguments for and against the two epistemological stances or discuss evidence that supports either of them (cf. Bod, Hay, & Jannedy, 2003; Christiansen & Chater, 2008; Hauser, Chomsky, & Fitch, 2002; Oaksford & Chater, 2007; O'Donnell, Hauser, & Fitch, 2005). Rather, the research presented in this issue, which we label usage-based here, conceives of linguistic knowledge as being induced from experience. According to the strongest of such accounts, the acquisition and processing of language can be explained with reference to general cognitive mechanisms alone (rather than with reference to innate language-specific mechanisms). Defined in these terms, usage-based approaches encompass approaches referred to as experience-based, performance-based and/or emergentist approaches (Amrnon & Snider, 2010; Bannard, Lieven, & Tomasello, 2009; Bannard & Matthews, 2008; Chater & Manning, 2006; Clark & Lappin, 2010; Gerken, Wilson, & Lewis, 2005; Gomez, 2002;

  10. Model Driven Testing of Web Applications Using Domain Specific Language

    OpenAIRE

    Viet-Cuong Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    As more and more systems move to the cloud, the importance of web applications has increased recently. Web applications need more strict requirements in order to sup-port higher availability. The techniques in quality assurance of these applications hence become essential, the role of testing for web application becomes more significant. Model-driven testing is a promising paradigm for the automation of software testing. In the web domain, the challenge however remains in the creation of mode...

  11. Markovian language model of the DNA and its information content

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Shambhavi

    2015-01-01

    This work proposes a markovian memoryless model for the DNA that simplifies enormously the complexity of it. We encode nucleotide sequences into symbolic sequences, called words, from which we establish meaningful length of words and group of words that share symbolic similarities. Interpreting a node to represent a group of similar words and edges to represent their functional connectivity allows us to construct a network of the grammatical rules governing the appearance of group of words in the DNA. Our model allows to predict the transition between group of words in the DNA with unprecedented accuracy, and to easily calculate many informational quantities to better characterize the DNA. In addition, we reduce the DNA of known bacteria to a network of only tens of nodes, show how our model can be used to detect similar (or dissimilar) genes in different organisms, and which sequences of symbols are responsible for the most of the information content of the DNA. Therefore, the DNA can indeed be treated as a ...

  12. The Ease of Language Understanding (ELU model: theoretical, empirical, and clinical advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerker eRönnberg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Working memory is important for online language processing during conversation. We use it to maintain relevant information, to inhibit or ignore irrelevant information, and to attend to conversation selectively. Working memory helps us to keep track of and actively participate in conversation, including taking turns and following the gist. This paper examines the Ease of Language Understanding model (i.e., the ELU model, Rönnberg, 2003; Rönnberg et al., 2008 in light of new behavioral and neural findings concerning the role of working memory capacity (WMC in uni-modal and bimodal language processing. The new ELU model is a meaning prediction system that depends on phonological and semantic interactions in rapid implicit and slower explicit processing mechanisms that both depend on WMC albeit in different ways. A revised ELU model is proposed based on findings that address the relationship between WMC and (a early attention processes in listening to speech, (b signal processing in hearing aids and its effects on short-term memory, (c inhibition of speech maskers and its effect on episodic long-term memory, (d the effects of hearing impairment on episodic and semantic long-term memory, and finally, (e listening effort. New predictions and clinical implications are outlined. Comparisons with other WMC and speech perception models are made.

  13. Elementary School ELLs' Reading Skill Profiles Using Cognitive Diagnosis Modeling: Roles of Length of Residence and Home Language Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eunice Eunhee; Dunlop, Maggie; Wagner, Maryam; Kim, Youn-Hee; Gu, Zhimei

    2013-01-01

    The study examined differences in reading achievement and mastery skill development among Grade-6 students with different language background profiles, using cognitive diagnosis modeling applied to large-scale provincial reading test performance data. Our analyses revealed that students residing in various home language environments show different…

  14. Teachers, Families, and Communities Supporting English Language Learners in Inclusive Pre-Kindergartens: An Evaluation of a Professional Development Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Belinda J.; Lower, Joanna K.; Smallwood, Gretchen Robinson; Chakravarthi, Swetha; Li, Linlin; Jordan, Carol

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the "Teachers, Families, and Communities Supporting English Language Learners" (TFC) project was to implement and evaluate a sustainable model of high-quality professional development focused on improving inclusive pre-kindergarten services for English Language Learners (ELL) and their families. The professional…

  15. Teaching Culture and Language through the Multiple Intelligences Film Teaching Model in the ESL/EFL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    This paper will demonstrate how to enhance second language (L2) learners' linguistic and cultural competencies through the use of the Multiple Intelligences Film Teaching (MIFT) model. The paper will introduce two ideas to teachers of English as a Second/Foreign Language (ESL/EFL). First, the paper shows how L2 learners learn linguistic and…

  16. Learning to perceive and recognize a second language: the L2LP model revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leussen, Jan-Willem; Escudero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We present a test of a revised version of the Second Language Linguistic Perception (L2LP) model, a computational model of the acquisition of second language (L2) speech perception and recognition. The model draws on phonetic, phonological, and psycholinguistic constructs to explain a number of L2 learning scenarios. However, a recent computational implementation failed to validate a theoretical proposal for a learning scenario where the L2 has less phonemic categories than the native language (L1) along a given acoustic continuum. According to the L2LP, learners faced with this learning scenario must not only shift their old L1 phoneme boundaries but also reduce the number of categories employed in perception. Our proposed revision to L2LP successfully accounts for this updating in the number of perceptual categories as a process driven by the meaning of lexical items, rather than by the learners' awareness of the number and type of phonemes that are relevant in their new language, as the previous version of L2LP assumed. Results of our simulations show that meaning-driven learning correctly predicts the developmental path of L2 phoneme perception seen in empirical studies. Additionally, and to contribute to a long-standing debate in psycholinguistics, we test two versions of the model, with the stages of phonemic perception and lexical recognition being either sequential or interactive. Both versions succeed in learning to recognize minimal pairs in the new L2, but make diverging predictions on learners' resulting phonological representations. In sum, the proposed revision to the L2LP model contributes to our understanding of L2 acquisition, with implications for speech processing in general. PMID:26300792

  17. Learning to perceive and recognize a second language: the L2LP model revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Willem eVan Leussen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a test of a revised version of the Second Language Linguistic Perception (L2LP model, a computational model of the acquisition of second language (L2 speech perception and recognition. The model draws on phonetic, phonological and psycholinguistic constructs to explain a number of L2 learning scenarios. However, a recent computational implementation failed to validate a theoretical proposal for a learning scenario where the L2 has less phonemic categories than the native language (L1 along a given acoustic continuum. According to the L2LP, learners faced with this learning scenario must not only shift their old L1 phoneme boundaries but also reduce the number of categories employed in perception. Our proposed revision to L2LP successfully accounts for this updating in the number of perceptual categories as a process driven by the meaning of lexical items, rather than by the learners’ awareness of the number and type of phonemes that are relevant in their new language, as the previous version of L2LP assumed. Results of our simulations show that meaning-driven learning correctly predicts the developmental path of L2 phoneme perception seen in empirical studies. Additionally, and to contribute to a long-standing debate in psycholinguistics, we test two versions of the model, with the stages of phonemic perception and lexical recognition being either sequential or interactive. Both versions succeed in learning to recognize minimal pairs in the new L2, but make diverging predictions on learners' resulting phonological representations. In sum, the proposed revision to the L2LP model contributes to our understanding of L2 acquisition, with implications for speech processing in general.

  18. Learning to perceive and recognize a second language: the L2LP model revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leussen, Jan-Willem; Escudero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We present a test of a revised version of the Second Language Linguistic Perception (L2LP) model, a computational model of the acquisition of second language (L2) speech perception and recognition. The model draws on phonetic, phonological, and psycholinguistic constructs to explain a number of L2 learning scenarios. However, a recent computational implementation failed to validate a theoretical proposal for a learning scenario where the L2 has less phonemic categories than the native language (L1) along a given acoustic continuum. According to the L2LP, learners faced with this learning scenario must not only shift their old L1 phoneme boundaries but also reduce the number of categories employed in perception. Our proposed revision to L2LP successfully accounts for this updating in the number of perceptual categories as a process driven by the meaning of lexical items, rather than by the learners' awareness of the number and type of phonemes that are relevant in their new language, as the previous version of L2LP assumed. Results of our simulations show that meaning-driven learning correctly predicts the developmental path of L2 phoneme perception seen in empirical studies. Additionally, and to contribute to a long-standing debate in psycholinguistics, we test two versions of the model, with the stages of phonemic perception and lexical recognition being either sequential or interactive. Both versions succeed in learning to recognize minimal pairs in the new L2, but make diverging predictions on learners' resulting phonological representations. In sum, the proposed revision to the L2LP model contributes to our understanding of L2 acquisition, with implications for speech processing in general.

  19. Modeling a Nursing Guideline with Standard Terminology and Unified Modeling Language for a Nursing Decision Support System: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeeyae; Jansen, Kay; Coenen, Amy

    In recent years, Decision Support Systems (DSSs) have been developed and used to achieve "meaningful use". One approach to developing DSSs is to translate clinical guidelines into a computer-interpretable format. However, there is no specific guideline modeling approach to translate nursing guidelines to computer-interpretable guidelines. This results in limited use of DSSs in nursing. Unified modeling language (UML) is a software writing language known to accurately represent the end-users' perspective, due to its expressive characteristics. Furthermore, standard terminology enabled DSSs have been shown to smoothly integrate into existing health information systems. In order to facilitate development of nursing DSSs, the UML was used to represent a guideline for medication management for older adults encode with the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP®). The UML was found to be a useful and sufficient tool to model a nursing guideline for a DSS.

  20. Language Acquisition Theories and the Second Foreign Language Learning Models%语言习得理论与第二外语学习模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范荣玲

    2001-01-01

    Based on linguistice acquisition theory and from the respect of psychology,this paper analyses children's languageaequisition approaches and the learning models of the second foreign language. The paper draws a conclusion that although language acquisition differs from language learning ,its learning approaches bring light on the latter. Besides,the learning models of the second foreign language are not fixed or perfect methods,but with their positive effects,they can be applied to foreign language lèarning and be expected to achieve better results.%本文从心理学言语角度,以语言习得理论为基础,解析了儿童语言习得的方式和第二外语学习模式。文章指出语言学习不同于语言习得,但是后者的学习方式对前者具有很大的启发意义;第二外语学习模式也并不是一条完美而又固定的方法,但是却对外语学习起着积极的参考作用,能够帮助提高外语学习的效果。

  1. F-Nets and Software Cabling: Deriving a Formal Model and Language for Portable Parallel Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNucci, David C.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Parallel programming is still being based upon antiquated sequence-based definitions of the terms "algorithm" and "computation", resulting in programs which are architecture dependent and difficult to design and analyze. By focusing on obstacles inherent in existing practice, a more portable model is derived here, which is then formalized into a model called Soviets which utilizes a combination of imperative and functional styles. This formalization suggests more general notions of algorithm and computation, as well as insights into the meaning of structured programming in a parallel setting. To illustrate how these principles can be applied, a very-high-level graphical architecture-independent parallel language, called Software Cabling, is described, with many of the features normally expected from today's computer languages (e.g. data abstraction, data parallelism, and object-based programming constructs).

  2. A Semantic Model to Study Neural Organization of Language in Bilingualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ursino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A neural network model of object semantic representation is used to simulate learning of new words from a foreign language. The network consists of feature areas, devoted to description of object properties, and a lexical area, devoted to words representation. Neurons in the feature areas are implemented as Wilson-Cowan oscillators, to allow segmentation of different simultaneous objects via gamma-band synchronization. Excitatory synapses among neurons in the feature and lexical areas are learned, during a training phase, via a Hebbian rule. In this work, we first assume that some words in the first language (L1 and the corresponding object representations are initially learned during a preliminary training phase. Subsequently, second-language (L2 words are learned by simultaneously presenting the new word together with the L1 one. A competitive mechanism between the two words is also implemented by the use of inhibitory interneurons. Simulations show that, after a weak training, the L2 word allows retrieval of the object properties but requires engagement of the first language. Conversely, after a prolonged training, the L2 word becomes able to retrieve object per se. In this case, a conflict between words can occur, requiring a higher-level decision mechanism.

  3. A semantic model to study neural organization of language in bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursino, M; Cuppini, C; Magosso, E

    2010-01-01

    A neural network model of object semantic representation is used to simulate learning of new words from a foreign language. The network consists of feature areas, devoted to description of object properties, and a lexical area, devoted to words representation. Neurons in the feature areas are implemented as Wilson-Cowan oscillators, to allow segmentation of different simultaneous objects via gamma-band synchronization. Excitatory synapses among neurons in the feature and lexical areas are learned, during a training phase, via a Hebbian rule. In this work, we first assume that some words in the first language (L1) and the corresponding object representations are initially learned during a preliminary training phase. Subsequently, second-language (L2) words are learned by simultaneously presenting the new word together with the L1 one. A competitive mechanism between the two words is also implemented by the use of inhibitory interneurons. Simulations show that, after a weak training, the L2 word allows retrieval of the object properties but requires engagement of the first language. Conversely, after a prolonged training, the L2 word becomes able to retrieve object per se. In this case, a conflict between words can occur, requiring a higher-level decision mechanism.

  4. Timing in turn-taking and its implications for processing models of language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C. Levinson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The core niche for language use is in verbal interaction, involving the rapid exchange of turns at talking. This paper reviews the extensive literature about this system, adding new statistical analyses of behavioural data where they have been missing, demonstrating that turn-taking has the systematic properties originally noted by Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson (1974; hereafter SSJ. This system poses some significant puzzles for current theories of language processing: the gaps between turns are short (of the order of 200 ms, but the latencies involved in language production are much longer (over 600 ms. This seems to imply that participants in conversation must predict (or ‘project’ as SSJ have it the end of the current speaker’s turn in order to prepare their response in advance. This in turn implies some overlap between production and comprehension despite their use of common processing resources. Collecting together what is known behaviourally and experimentally about the system, the space for systematic explanations of language processing for conversation can be significantly narrowed, and we sketch some first model of the mental processes involved for the participant preparing to speak next.

  5. Cognitive Scale-Free Networks as a Model for Intermittency in Human Natural Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, Paolo; Grigolini, Paolo; Palatella, Luigi

    We model certain features of human language complexity by means of advanced concepts borrowed from statistical mechanics. Using a time series approach, the diffusion entropy method (DE), we compute the complexity of an Italian corpus of newspapers and magazines. We find that the anomalous scaling index is compatible with a simple dynamical model, a random walk on a complex scale-free network, which is linguistically related to Saussurre's paradigms. The model yields the famous Zipf's law in terms of the generalized central limit theorem.

  6. SSBRP Communication & Data System Development using the Unified Modeling Language (UML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windrem, May; Picinich, Lou; Givens, John J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is the standard method for specifying, visualizing, and documenting the artifacts of an object-oriented system under development. UML is the unification of the object-oriented methods developed by Grady Booch and James Rumbaugh, and of the Use Case Model developed by Ivar Jacobson. This paper discusses the application of UML by the Communications and Data Systems (CDS) team to model the ground control and command of the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) User Operations Facility (UOF). UML is used to define the context of the system, the logical static structure, the life history of objects, and the interactions among objects.

  7. Analysis of Geometrical Specification Model Based on the New GeometricalProduct Specification Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马利民; 王金星; 蒋向前; 李柱; 徐振高

    2004-01-01

    Geometrical Product Specification and verification (GPS) is an ISO standard system coveting standards of size, dimension,geometrical tolerance and surface texture of geometrical product. ISO/TC213 on the GPS has been working towards coordination of the previous standards in tolerance and related metrology in order to publish the next generation of the GPS language. This paper introduces the geometrical product specification model for design, manufacturing and verification based on the improved GPS and its new concepts,i.e., surface models, geometrical features and operations. An application example for the geometrical product specification model is then given.

  8. The Evolution of a Connectionist Model of Situated Human Language Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Marshall R.; Crocker, Matthew W.

    The Adaptive Mechanisms in Human Language Processing (ALPHA) project features both experimental and computational tracks designed to complement each other in the investigation of the cognitive mechanisms that underlie situated human utterance processing. The models developed in the computational track replicate results obtained in the experimental track and, in turn, suggest further experiments by virtue of behavior that arises as a by-product of their operation.

  9. Use of Time-Aware Language Model in Entity Driven Filtering System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    information monitoring, market - ing,...). We are interesting in how to repre- sent an entity profile to fulfill two purposes: 1. entity detection and...are caught is a real challenge and has many applications (e.g., information monitoring, marketing ,...). We are interesting in how to represent an...a language model build using the top-n documents found on Google . Then, they compare the obtained result with the Wikipedia page corresponding to the

  10. TEACHER SELF-EVALUATION MODELS AS AUTHENTIC PORTFOLIO TO MONITOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS' PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singgih Widodo Limantoro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Teachers may not feel satisfied with the feedback they have got from their superiors' evaluation. This paper aims at inspiring teachers with ideas of self-learning to improve their teaching performance for professional development. The writer shares his own experience as a principal and a head of the English department in exploring self-evaluation models to monitor language teachers' performance in the classroom.

  11. Research in language didactics: a model for the evaluation of oral discursive competence in secondary education

    OpenAIRE

    N????ez-Delgado, Pilar; Fern??ndez de Haro, Eduardo; Romero L??pez, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Research concerning oral language teaching is one of the most unattended fields in linguistic education, both in general terms as well as specifically in Secondary education. This paper tries to take one step towards improving this state of affairs. For this purpose, we create a model for the development of oral discursive competence and we test it in a secondary education course. The pattern of results indicates improvement in the students??? oral discursive competence during the ...

  12. A METHODOLOGICAL MODEL FOR INTEGRATING CHARACTER WITHIN CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING IN SOCIOLOGY OF RELIGION

    OpenAIRE

    Moh Yasir Alimi

    2014-01-01

    AbstractIn this article, I describe a methodological model I used in a experimental study on how to integrate character within the practice of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) at the higher education Indonesia.This research can be added to research about character education and CLIL in tertiary education, giving nuances to the practice of CLIL so far predominantly a practice in primary and secondary schools.The research was conducted in Semarang State University, in the Departm...

  13. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Domain-Specific Languages and Models for Robotic Systems (DSLRob 2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlegel, Christian; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Stinckwich, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Domain-Specific Languages and Models for Robotic Systems (DSLRob'12), held at the 2012 International Conference on Simulation, Modeling, and Programming for Autonomous Robots (SIMPAR 2012), November 2012 in Tsukuba, Japan. The main topics...... of the workshop were Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) and Model-driven Architecture (MDA) for robotics. A domain-specific language (DSL) is a programming language dedicated to a particular problem domain that offers specific notations and abstractions that increase programmer productivity within that domain....... Models-driven architecture (MDA) offers a high-level way for domain users to specify the functionality of their system at the right level of abstraction. DSLs and models have historically been used for programming complex systems. However recently they have garnered interest as a separate field of study...

  14. Usability Evaluation of Variability Modeling by means of Common Variability Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Echeverria

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Common Variability Language (CVL is a recent proposal for OMG's upcoming Variability Modeling standard. CVL models variability in terms of Model Fragments.  Usability is a widely-recognized quality criterion essential to warranty the successful use of tools that put these ideas in practice. Facing the need of evaluating the usability of CVL modeling tools, this paper presents a Usability Evaluation of CVL applied to a Modeling Tool for firmware code of Induction Hobs. This evaluation addresses the configuration, scoping and visualization facets. The evaluation involved the end users of the tool whom are engineers of our Induction Hob industrial partner. Effectiveness and efficiency results indicate that model configuration in terms of model fragment substitutions is intuitive enough but both scoping and visualization require improved tool support. Results also enabled us to identify a list of usability problems which may contribute to alleviate scoping and visualization issues in CVL.

  15. Modeling virtual organizations with Latent Dirichlet Allocation: a case for natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Alexander; Murthy, Dhiraj

    2014-10-01

    This paper explores a variety of methods for applying the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) automated topic modeling algorithm to the modeling of the structure and behavior of virtual organizations found within modern social media and social networking environments. As the field of Big Data reveals, an increase in the scale of social data available presents new challenges which are not tackled by merely scaling up hardware and software. Rather, they necessitate new methods and, indeed, new areas of expertise. Natural language processing provides one such method. This paper applies LDA to the study of scientific virtual organizations whose members employ social technologies. Because of the vast data footprint in these virtual platforms, we found that natural language processing was needed to 'unlock' and render visible latent, previously unseen conversational connections across large textual corpora (spanning profiles, discussion threads, forums, and other social media incarnations). We introduce variants of LDA and ultimately make the argument that natural language processing is a critical interdisciplinary methodology to make better sense of social 'Big Data' and we were able to successfully model nested discussion topics from forums and blog posts using LDA. Importantly, we found that LDA can move us beyond the state-of-the-art in conventional Social Network Analysis techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mining association language patterns using a distributional semantic model for negative life event classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang-Chih; Chan, Chien-Lung; Lin, Chao-Cheng; Lin, I-Chun

    2011-08-01

    Negative life events, such as the death of a family member, an argument with a spouse or the loss of a job, play an important role in triggering depressive episodes. Therefore, it is worthwhile to develop psychiatric services that can automatically identify such events. This study describes the use of association language patterns, i.e., meaningful combinations of words (e.g., ), as features to classify sentences with negative life events into predefined categories (e.g., Family, Love, Work). This study proposes a framework that combines a supervised data mining algorithm and an unsupervised distributional semantic model to discover association language patterns. The data mining algorithm, called association rule mining, was used to generate a set of seed patterns by incrementally associating frequently co-occurring words from a small corpus of sentences labeled with negative life events. The distributional semantic model was then used to discover more patterns similar to the seed patterns from a large, unlabeled web corpus. The experimental results showed that association language patterns were significant features for negative life event classification. Additionally, the unsupervised distributional semantic model was not only able to improve the level of performance but also to reduce the reliance of the classification process on the availability of a large, labeled corpus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. L-Py: an L-System simulation framework for modeling plant development based on a dynamic language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic eBoudon

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of plant development requires increasingly powerful modeling tools to help understand and simulate the growth and functioning of plants. In the last decade, the formalism of L-systems has emerged as a major paradigm for modeling plant development. Previous implementations of this formalism were made based on static languages, i.e. languages that require explicit definition of variable types before using them. These languages are often efficient but involve quite a lot of syntactic overhead, thus restricting the flexibility of use for modelers. In this work, we present an adaptation of L-systems to the Python language, a popular and powerful open-license dynamic language. We show that the use of dynamic language properties makes it possible to enhance the development of plant growth models: i by keeping a simple syntax while allowing for high-level programming constructs, ii by making code execution easy and avoiding compilation overhead iii allowing a high level of model reusability and the building of complex modular models iv and by providing powerful solutions to integrate MTG data-structures (that are a common way to represent plants at several scales into L-systems and thus enabling to use a wide spectrum of computer tools based on MTGs developed for plant architecture. We then illustrate the use of L-Py in real applications to build complex models or to teach plant modeling in the classroom.

  18. L-py: an L-system simulation framework for modeling plant architecture development based on a dynamic language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudon, Frédéric; Pradal, Christophe; Cokelaer, Thomas; Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Godin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    The study of plant development requires increasingly powerful modeling tools to help understand and simulate the growth and functioning of plants. In the last decade, the formalism of L-systems has emerged as a major paradigm for modeling plant development. Previous implementations of this formalism were made based on static languages, i.e., languages that require explicit definition of variable types before using them. These languages are often efficient but involve quite a lot of syntactic overhead, thus restricting the flexibility of use for modelers. In this work, we present an adaptation of L-systems to the Python language, a popular and powerful open-license dynamic language. We show that the use of dynamic language properties makes it possible to enhance the development of plant growth models: (i) by keeping a simple syntax while allowing for high-level programming constructs, (ii) by making code execution easy and avoiding compilation overhead, (iii) by allowing a high-level of model reusability and the building of complex modular models, and (iv) by providing powerful solutions to integrate MTG data-structures (that are a common way to represent plants at several scales) into L-systems and thus enabling to use a wide spectrum of computer tools based on MTGs developed for plant architecture. We then illustrate the use of L-Py in real applications to build complex models or to teach plant modeling in the classroom.

  19. Synthesis of image sequences for Korean sign language using 3D shape model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mun-Ho; Choi, Chang-Seok; Kim, Chang-Seok; Jeon, Joon-Hyeon

    1995-05-01

    This paper proposes a method for offering information and realizing communication to the deaf-mute. The deaf-mute communicates with another person by means of sign language, but most people are unfamiliar with it. This method enables to convert text data into the corresponding image sequences for Korean sign language (KSL). Using a general 3D shape model of the upper body leads to generating the 3D motions of KSL. It is necessary to construct the general 3D shape model considering the anatomical structure of the human body. To obtain a personal 3D shape model, this general model is to adjust to the personal base images. Image synthesis for KSL consists of deforming a personal 3D shape model and texture-mapping the personal images onto the deformed model. The 3D motions for KSL have the facial expressions and the 3D movements of the head, trunk, arms and hands and are parameterized for easily deforming the model. These motion parameters of the upper body are extracted from a skilled signer's motion for each KSL and are stored to the database. Editing the parameters according to the inputs of text data yields to generate the image sequences of 3D motions.

  20. Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling to Examine How Individual SLPs Differentially Contribute to Children's Language and Literacy Gains in Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Kelly; Tambyraja, Sherine R; Logan, Jessica; Justice, Laura M; Schmitt, Mary Beth

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to determine the unique contributions in children's language and literacy gains, over 1 academic year, that are attributable to the individual speech-language pathologist (SLP) and (b) to explore possible child- and SLP-level factors that may further explain SLPs' contributions to children's language and literacy gains. Participants were 288 kindergarten and 1st-grade children with language impairment who were currently receiving school-based language intervention from SLPs. Using hierarchical linear modeling, we partitioned the variance in children's gains in language (i.e., grammar, vocabulary) and literacy (i.e., word decoding) that could be attributed to their individual SLP. Results revealed a significant contribution of individual SLPs to children's gains in grammar, vocabulary, and word decoding. Children's fall language scores and grade were significant predictors of SLPs' contributions, although no SLP-level predictors were significant. The present study makes a first step toward incorporating implementation science and suggests that, for children receiving school-based language intervention, variance in child language and literacy gains in an academic year is at least partially attributable to SLPs. Continued work in this area should examine the possible SLP-level characteristics that may further explicate the relative contributions of SLPs.

  1. Modeling language and cognition with deep unsupervised learning: a tutorial overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Marco; Testolin, Alberto; Stoianov, Ivilin P.

    2013-01-01

    Deep unsupervised learning in stochastic recurrent neural networks with many layers of hidden units is a recent breakthrough in neural computation research. These networks build a hierarchy of progressively more complex distributed representations of the sensory data by fitting a hierarchical generative model. In this article we discuss the theoretical foundations of this approach and we review key issues related to training, testing and analysis of deep networks for modeling language and cognitive processing. The classic letter and word perception problem of McClelland and Rumelhart (1981) is used as a tutorial example to illustrate how structured and abstract representations may emerge from deep generative learning. We argue that the focus on deep architectures and generative (rather than discriminative) learning represents a crucial step forward for the connectionist modeling enterprise, because it offers a more plausible model of cortical learning as well as a way to bridge the gap between emergentist connectionist models and structured Bayesian models of cognition. PMID:23970869

  2. Modeling Language and Cognition with Deep Unsupervised Learning:A Tutorial Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eZorzi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Deep unsupervised learning in stochastic recurrent neural networks with many layers of hidden units is a recent breakthrough in neural computation research. These networks build a hierarchy of progressively more complex distributed representations of the sensory data by fitting a hierarchical generative model. In this article we discuss the theoretical foundations of this approach and we review key issues related to training, testing and analysis of deep networks for modeling language and cognitive processing. The classic letter and word perception problem of McClelland and Rumelhart (1981 is used as a tutorial example to illustrate how structured and abstract representations may emerge from deep generative learning. We argue that the focus on deep architectures and generative (rather than discriminative learning represents a crucial step forward for the connectionist modeling enterprise, because it offers a more plausible model of cortical learning as well as way to bridge the gap between emergentist connectionist models and structured Bayesian models of cognition.

  3. Modeling language and cognition with deep unsupervised learning: a tutorial overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Marco; Testolin, Alberto; Stoianov, Ivilin P

    2013-01-01

    Deep unsupervised learning in stochastic recurrent neural networks with many layers of hidden units is a recent breakthrough in neural computation research. These networks build a hierarchy of progressively more complex distributed representations of the sensory data by fitting a hierarchical generative model. In this article we discuss the theoretical foundations of this approach and we review key issues related to training, testing and analysis of deep networks for modeling language and cognitive processing. The classic letter and word perception problem of McClelland and Rumelhart (1981) is used as a tutorial example to illustrate how structured and abstract representations may emerge from deep generative learning. We argue that the focus on deep architectures and generative (rather than discriminative) learning represents a crucial step forward for the connectionist modeling enterprise, because it offers a more plausible model of cortical learning as well as a way to bridge the gap between emergentist connectionist models and structured Bayesian models of cognition.

  4. N-gram analysis of 970 microbial organisms reveals presence of biological language models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganapathiraju Madhavi K

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested previously that genome and proteome sequences show characteristics typical of natural-language texts such as "signature-style" word usage indicative of authors or topics, and that the algorithms originally developed for natural language processing may therefore be applied to genome sequences to draw biologically relevant conclusions. Following this approach of 'biological language modeling', statistical n-gram analysis has been applied for comparative analysis of whole proteome sequences of 44 organisms. It has been shown that a few particular amino acid n-grams are found in abundance in one organism but occurring very rarely in other organisms, thereby serving as genome signatures. At that time proteomes of only 44 organisms were available, thereby limiting the generalization of this hypothesis. Today nearly 1,000 genome sequences and corresponding translated sequences are available, making it feasible to test the existence of biological language models over the evolutionary tree. Results We studied whole proteome sequences of 970 microbial organisms using n-gram frequencies and cross-perplexity employing the Biological Language Modeling Toolkit and Patternix Revelio toolkit. Genus-specific signatures were observed even in a simple unigram distribution. By taking statistical n-gram model of one organism as reference and computing cross-perplexity of all other microbial proteomes with it, cross-perplexity was found to be predictive of branch distance of the phylogenetic tree. For example, a 4-gram model from proteome of Shigellae flexneri 2a, which belongs to the Gammaproteobacteria class showed a self-perplexity of 15.34 while the cross-perplexity of other organisms was in the range of 15.59 to 29.5 and was proportional to their branching distance in the evolutionary tree from S. flexneri. The organisms of this genus, which happen to be pathotypes of E.coli, also have the closest perplexity values with

  5. Preface to the special issue: “Comparing Educational Modelling Languages on the 'Planet Game' Case Study"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Sloep, P. B. (2008). Preface to the special issue: "Comparing Educational Modelling Languages on the 'Planet Game' Case Study" [Electronic Version]. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2008 from http://jime.open.ac.uk/2008/17/.

  6. Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Domain-Specific Languages and Models for Robotic Systems (DSLRob 2011)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Stinckwich, Serge

    that domain. Models offer a high-level way for domain users to specify the functionality of their system at the right level of abstraction. DSLs and models have historically been used for programming complex systems. However recently they have garnered interest as a separate field of study. Robotic systems......Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Domain-Specific Languages and Models for Robotic Systems (DSLRob'11), held in conjunction with the 2011 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2011), September 2011 in San Francisco, USA. The main topics...... of the workshop were Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs) and Model-driven Software Development (MDSD) for robotics. A domain-specific language (DSL) is a programming language dedicated to a particular problem domain that offers specific notations and abstractions that increase programmer productivity within...

  7. The AltaRica data-flow language in use: modeling of production availability of a multi-state system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boiteau, M. [8 rue Samonzet, 64000 Pau (France)]. E-mail: boiteau@fractal-systeme.com; Dutuit, Y. [LAPS, Universite Bordeaux I, 33405 Talence Cedex (France)]. E-mail: yves.dutuit@iut.u-bordeaux1.fr; Rauzy, A. [IML/CNRS, 169 avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France)]. E-mail: arauzy@iml.univ-mrs.fr; Signoret, J.-P. [Total, CSTJF, Avenue Larribau, 64018 Pau Cedex (France)]. E-mail: signoret@total.com

    2006-07-15

    This article presents an application of the AltaRica Data-Flow language to the assessment of the average production of a production line throughout a period of time. Its contribution is twofold. The problem is described. Modelling difficulties are pointed out. Solutions are proposed via the use of the AltaRica Data-Flow language. The ability of this language to represent complex systems is demonstrated. It is shown, by means of an experimental study, that AltaRica Data-Flow models can be assessed efficiently.

  8. Suite of tools for statistical N-gram language modeling for pattern mining in whole genome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathiraju, Madhavi K; Mitchell, Asia D; Thahir, Mohamed; Motwani, Kamiya; Ananthasubramanian, Seshan

    2012-12-01

    Genome sequences contain a number of patterns that have biomedical significance. Repetitive sequences of various kinds are a primary component of most of the genomic sequence patterns. We extended the suffix-array based Biological Language Modeling Toolkit to compute n-gram frequencies as well as n-gram language-model based perplexity in windows over the whole genome sequence to find biologically relevant patterns. We present the suite of tools and their application for analysis on whole human genome sequence.

  9. Cost-Efficient Development of Acoustic Models for Speech Recognition of Related Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nouza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available When adapting an existing speech recognition system to a new language, major development costs are associated with the creation of an appropriate acoustic model (AM. For its training, a certain amount of recorded and annotated speech is required. In this paper, we show that not only the annotation process, but also the process of speech acquisition can be automated to minimize the need of human and expert work. We demonstrate the proposed methodology on Croatian language, for which the target AM has been built via cross-lingual adaptation of a Czech AM in 2 ways: a using commercially available GlobalPhone database, and b by automatic speech data mining from HRT radio archive. The latter approach is cost-free, yet it yields comparable or better results in LVCSR experiments conducted on 3 Croatian test sets.

  10. Teacher Self-Evaluation Models As Authentic Portfolio To Monitor Language Teachers' Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singgih Widodo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Many principals or heads of English departments usually use supervising checklists to monitor or evaluate their teachers' performance. As a matter of fact, teachers may not feel satisfied with the feedback they have got from their superiors. This paper aims at inspiring them with ideas of self-learning to improve their own teaching performance for professional development. In this paper, the writer would like to share his own experience as a principal and a head of the English department by exploring self-evaluation models to monitor language teachers' performance in the classroom. For this purpose, it is necessary to identify the needs of language teachers and later this teacher portfolio may also help principals or head of the department evaluate their teachers' performance.

  11. Formulaic speech in disorders of language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Sidtis

    2014-04-01

    Formulaic language studies remain less well recognized in language disorders. Profiles of differential formulaic language abilities in neurological disease have implications for cerebral models of language and for clinical evaluation and treatment of neurogenic language disorders.

  12. Early neural disruption and auditory processing outcomes in rodent models: Implications for developmental language disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslyn Holly Fitch

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Most researchers in the field of neural plasticity are familiar with the Kennard Principle," which purports a positive relationship between age at brain injury and severity of subsequent deficits (plateauing in adulthood. As an example, a child with left hemispherectomy can recover seemingly normal language, while an adult with focal injury to sub-regions of left temporal and/or frontal cortex can suffer dramatic and permanent language loss. Here we present data regarding the impact of early brain injury in rat models as a function of type and timing, measuring long-term behavioral outcomes via auditory discrimination tasks varying in temporal demand. These tasks were created to model (in rodents aspects of human sensory processing that may correlate – both developmentally and functionally – with typical and atypical language. We found that bilateral focal lesions to the cortical plate in rats during active neuronal migration led to worse auditory outcomes than comparable lesions induced after cortical migration was complete. Conversely, unilateral hypoxic-ischemic injuries (similar to those seen in premature infants and term infants with birth complications led to permanent auditory processing deficits when induced at a neurodevelopmental point comparable to human "term," but only transient deficits (undetectable in adulthood when induced in a "preterm" window. Convergent evidence suggests that regardless of when or how disruption of early neural development occurs, the consequences may be particularly deleterious to rapid auditory processing outcomes when they trigger developmental alterations that extend into subcortical structures (i.e., lower sensory processing stations. Collective findings hold implications for the study of behavioral outcomes following early brain injury as well as genetic/environmental disruption, and are relevant to our understanding of the neurologic risk factors underlying developmental language disability in

  13. Is Afrikaans a suitable model in planning the development of African Languages?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley G M Ridge

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The repeated claim that Afrikaans provides a useful model for planning the development of theAfrican languages is examined critically in this article with a view to elucidating importantissues in South African language planning. The first part acknowledges the fascination of alanguage which has developed sofast for all domains of use, before examining thefactors whichdrove that development, identifying particularly its affinity to Dutch and its tempestuous politicaland social history as making it a deceptive model for African languages. The second partexplores some aspects of its history which do suggest valuable perspectives for other languagesat this stage of our history. The examples discussed are language medium in schooling, thedangers of loss of confidence in a language considered with the possibilities of effective statusinterventions, and the complex issues surrounding language standards. The third part brieflyexamines the history of Afrikaans's ambiguous relation to English. It notes the persistence of theEnglish 'enemy' metaphor along with a practical demand for English, considers the racialpolitics of the statutory equality debate at the time of Union, and analyses three distortionsoccasioned by an ambiguous attitude to English in a contemporary discussion of the role of Afrikaans. Finally, the notion of a model or example is itself questioned. The article proposesdeveloping a deeper understanding of actual needs and attitudes in an ongoing process oflanguage planning as the most likely way of doingjustice to all South Africa's languages.Die herhaalde aanspraak dat Afrikaans 'n bruikbare model bied waarvolgens die ontwikkelingvan Afrika-tale beplan kan word, word in hierdie artikel krities ondersoek met die oog daaropom belangrike vraagstukke in die Suid-Afrikaanse taalbeplanning toe te lig. Die eerste deel geeerkenning aan die bekoring van 'n taal wat op aile gebruiksterreine baie vinnig ontwikkel het,voordat die faktore wat aan

  14. Selected Topics on Systems Modeling and Natural Language Processing: Editorial Introduction to the Issue 7 of CSIMQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Andrzejewski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The seventh issue of Complex Systems Informatics and Modeling Quarterly presents five papers devoted to two distinct research topics: systems modeling and natural language processing (NLP. Both of these subjects are very important in computer science. Through modeling we can simplify the studied problem by concentrating on only one aspect at a time. Moreover, a properly constructed model allows the modeler to work on higher levels of abstraction and not having to concentrate on details. Since the size and complexity of information systems grows rapidly, creating good models of such systems is crucial. The analysis of natural language is slowly becoming a widely used tool in commerce and day to day life. Opinion mining allows recommender systems to provide accurate recommendations based on user-generated reviews. Speech recognition and NLP are the basis for such widely used personal assistants as Apple’s Siri, Microsoft’s Cortana, and Google Now. While a lot of work has already been done on natural language processing, the research usually concerns widely used languages, such as English. Consequently, natural language processing in languages other than English is very relevant subject and is addressed in this issue.

  15. An investigation of difficulties experienced by students developing unified modelling language (UML) class and sequence diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sien, Ven Yu

    2011-12-01

    Object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) is not an easy subject to learn. There are many challenges confronting students when studying OOAD. Students have particular difficulty abstracting real-world problems within the context of OOAD. They are unable to effectively build object-oriented (OO) models from the problem domain because they essentially do not know "what" to model. This article investigates the difficulties and misconceptions undergraduate students have with analysing systems using unified modelling language analysis class and sequence diagrams. These models were chosen because they represent important static and dynamic aspects of the software system under development. The results of this study will help students produce effective OO models, and facilitate software engineering lecturers design learning materials and approaches for introductory OOAD courses.

  16. The "Ecology of Pressures" in the Shift of an Indigenous Language to Spanish. The Presentation of a Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Terborg

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Mexico represents a multilingual context in which certain pressures bring about a language shift among speakers of indigenous languages (IL to speak Spanish. This occurs when the balance of "linguistic ecology" is disturbed (MÜHLHÄUSLER 1996. The purpose of this article is to present and demonstrate a model that helps to explain the origin of the different pressures that positively or negatively influence IL maintenance. I refer to this model as "the ecology of pressures" because it deals with pressures in a linguistic context, and these, the same as the languages, can be in a balanced or unbalanced relationship. This model can be used for either quantitative or qualitative analyses. I illustrate the dynamics of the different pressures by taking a hypothetical case in a situation of indigenous language shift by Spanish, without presenting empirical data. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0604396

  17. Unifying Speech and Language in a Developmentally Sensitive Model of Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redford, Melissa A

    2015-11-01

    Speaking is an intentional activity. It is also a complex motor skill; one that exhibits protracted development and the fully automatic character of an overlearned behavior. Together these observations suggest an analogy with skilled behavior in the non-language domain. This analogy is used here to argue for a model of production that is grounded in the activity of speaking and structured during language acquisition. The focus is on the plan that controls the execution of fluent speech; specifically, on the units that are activated during the production of an intonational phrase. These units are schemas: temporally structured sequences of remembered actions and their sensory outcomes. Schemas are activated and inhibited via associated goals, which are linked to specific meanings. Schemas may fuse together over developmental time with repeated use to form larger units, thereby affecting the relative timing of sequential action in participating schemas. In this way, the hierarchical structure of the speech plan and ensuing rhythm patterns of speech are a product of development. Individual schemas may also become differentiated during development, but only if subsequences are associated with meaning. The necessary association of action and meaning gives rise to assumptions about the primacy of certain linguistic forms in the production process. Overall, schema representations connect usage-based theories of language to the action of speaking.

  18. Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 2 Version 5: Structures and Facilities for Model Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucka, Michael; Bergmann, Frank T; Dräger, Andreas; Hoops, Stefan; Keating, Sarah M; Le Novère, Nicolas; Myers, Chris J; Olivier, Brett G; Sahle, Sven; Schaff, James C; Smith, Lucian P; Waltemath, Dagmar; Wilkinson, Darren J

    2015-09-04

    Computational models can help researchers to interpret data, understand biological function, and make quantitative predictions. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) is a file format for representing computational models in a declarative form that can be exchanged between different software systems. SBML is oriented towards describing biological processes of the sort common in research on a number of topics, including metabolic pathways, cell signaling pathways, and many others. By supporting SBML as an input/output format, different tools can all operate on an identical representation of a model, removing opportunities for translation errors and assuring a common starting point for analyses and simulations. This document provides the specification for Version 5 of SBML Level 2. The specification defines the data structures prescribed by SBML as well as their encoding in XML, the eXtensible Markup Language. This specification also defines validation rules that determine the validity of an SBML document, and provides many examples of models in SBML form. Other materials and software are available from the SBML project web site, http://sbml.org.

  19. Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Level 2 Version 5: Structures and Facilities for Model Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucka, Michael; Bergmann, Frank T.; Dräger, Andreas; Hoops, Stefan; Keating, Sarah M.; Le Novére, Nicolas; Myers, Chris J.; Olivier, Brett G.; Sahle, Sven; Schaff, James C.; Smith, Lucian P.; Waltemath, Dagmar; Wilkinson, Darren J.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Computational models can help researchers to interpret data, understand biological function, and make quantitative predictions. The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) is a file format for representing computational models in a declarative form that can be exchanged between different software systems. SBML is oriented towards describing biological processes of the sort common in research on a number of topics, including metabolic pathways, cell signaling pathways, and many others. By supporting SBML as an input/output format, different tools can all operate on an identical representation of a model, removing opportunities for translation errors and assuring a common starting point for analyses and simulations. This document provides the specification for Version 5 of SBML Level 2. The specification defines the data structures prescribed by SBML as well as their encoding in XML, the eXtensible Markup Language. This specification also defines validation rules that determine the validity of an SBML document, and provides many examples of models in SBML form. Other materials and software are available from the SBML project web site, http://sbml.org/. PMID:26528569

  20. Categorization of Unorganized Text Corpora for better Domain-Specific Language Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Stas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the process of categorization of unorganized text data gathered from the Internet to the in-domain and out-of-domain data for better domain-specific language modeling and speech recognition. An algorithm for text categorization and topic detection based on the most frequent key phrases is presented. In this scheme, each document entered into the process of text categorization is represented by a vector space model with term weighting based on computing the term frequency and inverse document frequency. Text documents are then classified to the in-domain and out-of-domain data automatically with predefined threshold using one of the selected distance/similarity measures comparing to the list of key phrases. The experimental results of the language modeling and adaptation to the judicial domain show significant improvement in the model perplexity about 19 % and decreasing of the word error rate of the Slovak transcription and dictation system about 5,54 %, relatively.

  1. The Use of a Block Diagram Simulation Language for Rapid Model Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlow, Johnathan E.; Engrand, Peter

    1996-01-01

    The research performed this summer was a continuation of work performed during the 1995 NASA/ASEE Summer Fellowship. The focus of the work was to expand previously generated predictive models for liquid oxygen (LOX) loading into the external fuel tank of the shuttle. The models which were developed using a block diagram simulation language known as VisSim, were evaluated on numerous shuttle flights and found to well in most cases. Once the models were refined and validated, the predictive methods were integrated into the existing Rockwell software propulsion advisory tool (PAT). Although time was not sufficient to completely integrate the models developed into PAT, the ability to predict flows and pressures in the orbiter section and graphically display the results was accomplished.

  2. American Sign Language/English bilingual model: a longitudinal study of academic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Cheryl M; Lane-Outlaw, Susan; Lange, William E; Sherwood, Dyan L

    2013-10-01

    This study examines reading and mathematics academic growth of deaf and hard-of-hearing students instructed through an American Sign Language (ASL)/English bilingual model. The study participants were exposed to the model for a minimum of 4 years. The study participants' academic growth rates were measured using the Northwest Evaluation Association's Measure of Academic Progress assessment and compared with a national-normed group of grade-level peers that consisted primarily of hearing students. The study also compared academic growth for participants by various characteristics such as gender, parents' hearing status, and secondary disability status and examined the academic outcomes for students after a minimum of 4 years of instruction in an ASL/English bilingual model. The findings support the efficacy of the ASL/English bilingual model.

  3. English as a Forgotten Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porte, Graeme

    1999-01-01

    Examined how living outside native-language environments, and subsequent language attrition, affected the language model provided by native speakers teaching English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) in Spain. Surveys indicated that the first language was a changeable system susceptible to the pervasive influence of the second language and to the…

  4. Communicating about quantity without a language model: number devices in homesign grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Marie; Spaepen, Elizabet; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2013-01-01

    All natural languages have formal devices for communicating about number, be they lexical (e.g., two, many) or grammatical (e.g., plural markings on nouns and/or verbs). Here we ask whether linguistic devices for number arise in communication systems that have not been handed down from generation to generation. We examined deaf individuals who had not been exposed to a usable model of conventional language (signed or spoken), but had nevertheless developed their own gestures, called homesigns, to communicate. Study 1 examined four adult homesigners and a hearing communication partner for each homesigner. The adult homesigners produced two main types of number gestures: gestures that enumerated sets (cardinal number marking), and gestures that signaled one vs. more than one (non-cardinal number marking). Both types of gestures resembled, in form and function, number signs in established sign languages and, as such, were fully integrated into each homesigner's gesture system and, in this sense, linguistic. The number gestures produced by the homesigners' hearing communication partners displayed some, but not all, of the homesigners' linguistic patterns. To better understand the origins of the patterns displayed by the adult homesigners, Study 2 examined a child homesigner and his hearing mother, and found that the child's number gestures displayed all of the properties found in the adult homesigners' gestures, but his mother's gestures did not. The findings suggest that number gestures and their linguistic use can appear relatively early in homesign development, and that hearing communication partners are not likely to be the source of homesigners' linguistic expressions of non-cardinal number. Linguistic devices for number thus appear to be so fundamental to language that they can arise in the absence of conventional linguistic input. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Modules based on the geochemical model PHREEQC for use in scripting and programming languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Scott R.; Parkhurst, David L.

    2011-10-01

    The geochemical model PHREEQC is capable of simulating a wide range of equilibrium reactions between water and minerals, ion exchangers, surface complexes, solid solutions, and gases. It also has a general kinetic formulation that allows modeling of nonequilibrium mineral dissolution and precipitation, microbial reactions, decomposition of organic compounds, and other kinetic reactions. To facilitate use of these reaction capabilities in scripting languages and other models, PHREEQC has been implemented in modules that easily interface with other software. A Microsoft COM (component object model) has been implemented, which allows PHREEQC to be used by any software that can interface with a COM server—for example, Excel ®, Visual Basic ®, Python, or MATLAB ®. PHREEQC has been converted to a C++ class, which can be included in programs written in C++. The class also has been compiled in libraries for Linux and Windows that allow PHREEQC to be called from C++, C, and Fortran. A limited set of methods implements the full reaction capabilities of PHREEQC for each module. Input methods use strings or files to define reaction calculations in exactly the same formats used by PHREEQC. Output methods provide a table of user-selected model results, such as concentrations, activities, saturation indices, and densities. The PHREEQC module can add geochemical reaction capabilities to surface-water, groundwater, and watershed transport models. It is possible to store and manipulate solution compositions and reaction information for many cells within the module. In addition, the object-oriented nature of the PHREEQC modules simplifies implementation of parallel processing for reactive-transport models. The PHREEQC COM module may be used in scripting languages to fit parameters; to plot PHREEQC results for field, laboratory, or theoretical investigations; or to develop new models that include simple or complex geochemical calculations.

  6. Modules based on the geochemical model PHREEQC for use in scripting and programming languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Scott R.; Parkhurst, David L.

    2011-01-01

    The geochemical model PHREEQC is capable of simulating a wide range of equilibrium reactions between water and minerals, ion exchangers, surface complexes, solid solutions, and gases. It also has a general kinetic formulation that allows modeling of nonequilibrium mineral dissolution and precipitation, microbial reactions, decomposition of organic compounds, and other kinetic reactions. To facilitate use of these reaction capabilities in scripting languages and other models, PHREEQC has been implemented in modules that easily interface with other software. A Microsoft COM (component object model) has been implemented, which allows PHREEQC to be used by any software that can interface with a COM server—for example, Excel®, Visual Basic®, Python, or MATLAB". PHREEQC has been converted to a C++ class, which can be included in programs written in C++. The class also has been compiled in libraries for Linux and Windows that allow PHREEQC to be called from C++, C, and Fortran. A limited set of methods implements the full reaction capabilities of PHREEQC for each module. Input methods use strings or files to define reaction calculations in exactly the same formats used by PHREEQC. Output methods provide a table of user-selected model results, such as concentrations, activities, saturation indices, and densities. The PHREEQC module can add geochemical reaction capabilities to surface-water, groundwater, and watershed transport models. It is possible to store and manipulate solution compositions and reaction information for many cells within the module. In addition, the object-oriented nature of the PHREEQC modules simplifies implementation of parallel processing for reactive-transport models. The PHREEQC COM module may be used in scripting languages to fit parameters; to plot PHREEQC results for field, laboratory, or theoretical investigations; or to develop new models that include simple or complex geochemical calculations.

  7. Cumulative Semantic Interference Is Blind to Language: Implications for Models of Bilingual Speech Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnqvist, Elin; Strijkers, Kristof; Alario, F.-Xavier; Costa, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have shown that concepts spread activation to words of both of a bilingual's languages. Therefore, a central issue that needs to be clarified is how a bilingual manages to restrict his speech production to a single language. One influential proposal is that when speaking in one language, the other language is inhibited. An…

  8. A Working Model for Intercultural Learning and Engagement in Collaborative Online Language Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Given the emerging focus on the intercultural dimension in language teaching and learning, language educators have been exploring the use of information and communications technology ICT-mediated language learning environments to link learners in intercultural language learning communities around the globe. Despite the potential promise of…

  9. Beyond the Ancestral Code: Towards a Model for Sociolinguistic Language Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Tucker; Good, Jeff; Mitchell, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Most language documentation efforts focus on capturing lexico-grammatical information on individual languages. Comparatively little effort has been devoted to considering a language's sociolinguistic contexts. In parts of the world characterized by high degrees of multilingualism, questions surrounding the factors involved in language choice and…

  10. A Working Model for Intercultural Learning and Engagement in Collaborative Online Language Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Given the emerging focus on the intercultural dimension in language teaching and learning, language educators have been exploring the use of information and communications technology ICT-mediated language learning environments to link learners in intercultural language learning communities around the globe. Despite the potential promise of…

  11. FuGEFlow: data model and markup language for flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yu; Tchuvatkina, Olga; Spidlen, Josef; Wilkinson, Peter; Gasparetto, Maura; Jones, Andrew R; Manion, Frank J; Scheuermann, Richard H; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Brinkman, Ryan R

    2009-06-16

    Flow cytometry technology is widely used in both health care and research. The rapid expansion of flow cytometry applications has outpaced the development of data storage and analysis tools. Collaborative efforts being taken to eliminate this gap include building common vocabularies and ontologies, designing generic data models, and defining data exchange formats. The Minimum Information about a Flow Cytometry Experiment (MIFlowCyt) standard was recently adopted by the International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. This standard guides researchers on the information that should be included in peer reviewed publications, but it is insufficient for data exchange and integration between computational systems. The Functional Genomics Experiment (FuGE) formalizes common aspects of comprehensive and high throughput experiments across different biological technologies. We have extended FuGE object model to accommodate flow cytometry data and metadata. We used the MagicDraw modelling tool to design a UML model (Flow-OM) according to the FuGE extension guidelines and the AndroMDA toolkit to transform the model to a markup language (Flow-ML). We mapped each MIFlowCyt term to either an existing FuGE class or to a new FuGEFlow class. The development environment was validated by comparing the official FuGE XSD to the schema we generated from the FuGE object model using our configuration. After the Flow-OM model was completed, the final version of the Flow-ML was generated and validated against an example MIFlowCyt compliant experiment description. The extension of FuGE for flow cytometry has resulted in a generic FuGE-compliant data model (FuGEFlow), which accommodates and links together all information required by MIFlowCyt. The FuGEFlow model can be used to build software and databases using FuGE software toolkits to facilitate automated exchange and manipulation of potentially large flow cytometry experimental data sets. Additional project documentation, including

  12. FuGEFlow: data model and markup language for flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manion Frank J

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flow cytometry technology is widely used in both health care and research. The rapid expansion of flow cytometry applications has outpaced the development of data storage and analysis tools. Collaborative efforts being taken to eliminate this gap include building common vocabularies and ontologies, designing generic data models, and defining data exchange formats. The Minimum Information about a Flow Cytometry Experiment (MIFlowCyt standard was recently adopted by the International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. This standard guides researchers on the information that should be included in peer reviewed publications, but it is insufficient for data exchange and integration between computational systems. The Functional Genomics Experiment (FuGE formalizes common aspects of comprehensive and high throughput experiments across different biological technologies. We have extended FuGE object model to accommodate flow cytometry data and metadata. Methods We used the MagicDraw modelling tool to design a UML model (Flow-OM according to the FuGE extension guidelines and the AndroMDA toolkit to transform the model to a markup language (Flow-ML. We mapped each MIFlowCyt term to either an existing FuGE class or to a new FuGEFlow class. The development environment was validated by comparing the official FuGE XSD to the schema we generated from the FuGE object model using our configuration. After the Flow-OM model was completed, the final version of the Flow-ML was generated and validated against an example MIFlowCyt compliant experiment description. Results The extension of FuGE for flow cytometry has resulted in a generic FuGE-compliant data model (FuGEFlow, which accommodates and links together all information required by MIFlowCyt. The FuGEFlow model can be used to build software and databases using FuGE software toolkits to facilitate automated exchange and manipulation of potentially large flow cytometry experimental data sets

  13. Efficient Analysis of Systems Biology Markup Language Models of Cellular Populations Using Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Leandro; Myers, Chris J

    2016-08-19

    The Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) has been widely used for modeling biological systems. Although SBML has been successful in representing a wide variety of biochemical models, the core standard lacks the structure for representing large complex regular systems in a standard way, such as whole-cell and cellular population models. These models require a large number of variables to represent certain aspects of these types of models, such as the chromosome in the whole-cell model and the many identical cell models in a cellular population. While SBML core is not designed to handle these types of models efficiently, the proposed SBML arrays package can represent such regular structures more easily. However, in order to take full advantage of the package, analysis needs to be aware of the arrays structure. When expanding the array constructs within a model, some of the advantages of using arrays are lost. This paper describes a more efficient way to simulate arrayed models. To illustrate the proposed method, this paper uses a population of repressilator and genetic toggle switch circuits as examples. Results show that there are memory benefits using this approach with a modest cost in runtime.

  14. NEEDS ANALYSIS MODEL STUDENT LEARNING TO SPEAK FOR EDUCATION STUDY LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus DARMUKI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is the initial part of a doctoral dissertation research conducted with the aim at designing a learning model in teaching speaking according to the needs of faculty and students. The learning model is designed based on curriculum of Indonesian Language Education and Literature study program, IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro, UnirowTuban, and UnisdaLamongan, East Java, Indonesia. The development of this model is done to improve the students speaking skills. Research and development are the steps consist of a needs analysis, document analysis, design models, development models and experimental models. Needs analysis was conducted by researchers to the students of the first semester and three teachers’ and the head of study program of IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro, UnirowTuban and Unisdalamongan to get information related to the needs of students and faculty to model of learning speaking. Needs analysis and documents analysis were collected through questionnaires, interviews, and discussions with students and academics. Document and needs analysis in this study a syllabus, lesson plan (RPP and the model used for this study. This research was carried out by following the nature of the procedures of research and development covering the steps of (1 an exploratory study, (2 the stage of development, (3 the testing phase models, (4 dissemination (Borg and Gall (1983 and Sukmadinata (2008. The results of the analysis of questionnaires, and interviews revealed that lecturers need guidelines for the implementation of learning speaking. Learning model strategies wite that foster self-confidence in speaking is needed by students’.

  15. Tie-breaker: Using language models to quantify gender bias in sports journalism

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Liye; Lee, Lillian

    2016-01-01

    Gender bias is an increasingly important issue in sports journalism. In this work, we propose a language-model-based approach to quantify differences in questions posed to female vs. male athletes, and apply it to tennis post-match interviews. We find that journalists ask male players questions that are generally more focused on the game when compared with the questions they ask their female counterparts. We also provide a fine-grained analysis of the extent to which the salience of this bias depends on various factors, such as question type, game outcome or player rank.

  16. The use of categorization information in language models for question retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Cui, Bin

    2009-01-01

    and have become important information resources on the Web. To make the body of knowledge accumulated in CQA archives accessible, effective and efficient question search is required. Question search in a CQA archive aims to retrieve historical questions that are relevant to new questions posed by users....... This paper proposes a category-based framework for search in CQA archives. The framework embodies several new techniques that use language models to exploit categories of questions for improving question-answer search. Experiments conducted on real data from Yahoo! Answers demonstrate that the proposed...

  17. Dialogue as a Model of Business Language Training in the Teaching Methods of Russian as a Second Language

    OpenAIRE

    Vorobyova, Lyudmila Vladimirovna; Vladimirova, Tatiana Leonidovna; Filippova, Elena Mikhailovna

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the methods of training foreign students in the fluent dialogic communication skill of the business sphere. Training of the dialogic communication in business sphere is understood to be a key method of professional competences' development with the students. The system of the dialogic communication skills development in the business sphere is included in the general system of the development of oral communication skills in teaching Russian as a Second Language. Described ...

  18. Gaussian mixture modeling of hemispheric lateralization for language in a large sample of healthy individuals balanced for handedness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Mazoyer

    Full Text Available Hemispheric lateralization for language production and its relationships with manual preference and manual preference strength were studied in a sample of 297 subjects, including 153 left-handers (LH. A hemispheric functional lateralization index (HFLI for language was derived from fMRI acquired during a covert sentence generation task as compared with a covert word list recitation. The multimodal HFLI distribution was optimally modeled using a mixture of 3 and 4 Gaussian functions in right-handers (RH and LH, respectively. Gaussian function parameters helped to define 3 types of language hemispheric lateralization, namely "Typical" (left hemisphere dominance with clear positive HFLI values, 88% of RH, 78% of LH, "Ambilateral" (no dominant hemisphere with HFLI values close to 0, 12% of RH, 15% of LH and "Strongly-atypical" (right-hemisphere dominance with clear negative HFLI values, 7% of LH. Concordance between dominant hemispheres for hand and for language did not exceed chance level, and most of the association between handedness and language lateralization was explained by the fact that all Strongly-atypical individuals were left-handed. Similarly, most of the relationship between language lateralization and manual preference strength was explained by the fact that Strongly-atypical individuals exhibited a strong preference for their left hand. These results indicate that concordance of hemispheric dominance for hand and for language occurs barely above the chance level, except in a group of rare individuals (less than 1% in the general population who exhibit strong right hemisphere dominance for both language and their preferred hand. They call for a revisit of models hypothesizing common determinants for handedness and for language dominance.

  19. Using Advanced Continuous Simulation Language (ACSL) to simulate, solve, and fit mathematical models in nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heidi A

    2003-01-01

    The ACSL programs (AEgis Technologies, 2000a, b) are fairly easy to use and provide a good combination of canned programming with the flexibility to do more, if one is willing to learn the language (for Fortran and m files). The manuals are fairly easy to understand but are not detailed enough. The manuals are geared toward operating the software. For the Optimize software, the best references are the Simusolv manuals (Steiner et al., 1990). ACSL also provides an interface (Open API or ACSL Server) which can be purchased separately. The interface allows compiled models to be distributed and run as independent programs with Visual Basic or C/C++. For models built with the Graphic Modeler, the interface is shareware.

  20. The application of the unified modeling language in object-oriented analysis of healthcare information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Vinod

    2002-10-01

    This paper concerns itself with the beneficial effects of the Unified Modeling Language (UML), a nonproprietary object modeling standard, in specifying, visualizing, constructing, documenting, and communicating the model of a healthcare information system from the user's perspective. The author outlines the process of object-oriented analysis (OOA) using the UML and illustrates this with healthcare examples to demonstrate the practicality of application of the UML by healthcare personnel to real-world information system problems. The UML will accelerate advanced uses of object-orientation such as reuse technology, resulting in significantly higher software productivity. The UML is also applicable in the context of a component paradigm that promises to enhance the capabilities of healthcare information systems and simplify their management and maintenance.

  1. Model of the Dynamic Construction Process of Texts and Scaling Laws of Words Organization in Language Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shan; Lin, Ruokuang; Bian, Chunhua; Ma, Qianli D. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Scaling laws characterize diverse complex systems in a broad range of fields, including physics, biology, finance, and social science. The human language is another example of a complex system of words organization. Studies on written texts have shown that scaling laws characterize the occurrence frequency of words, words rank, and the growth of distinct words with increasing text length. However, these studies have mainly concentrated on the western linguistic systems, and the laws that govern the lexical organization, structure and dynamics of the Chinese language remain not well understood. Here we study a database of Chinese and English language books. We report that three distinct scaling laws characterize words organization in the Chinese language. We find that these scaling laws have different exponents and crossover behaviors compared to English texts, indicating different words organization and dynamics of words in the process of text growth. We propose a stochastic feedback model of words organization and text growth, which successfully accounts for the empirically observed scaling laws with their corresponding scaling exponents and characteristic crossover regimes. Further, by varying key model parameters, we reproduce differences in the organization and scaling laws of words between the Chinese and English language. We also identify functional relationships between model parameters and the empirically observed scaling exponents, thus providing new insights into the words organization and growth dynamics in the Chinese and English language. PMID:28006026

  2. Bringing Chatbots into education: Towards Natural Language Negotiation of Open Learner Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlyl, Alice; Hall, Phil; Bull, Susan

    There is an extensive body of work on Intelligent Tutoring Systems: computer environments for education, teaching and training that adapt to the needs of the individual learner. Work on personalisation and adaptivity has included research into allowing the student user to enhance the system's adaptivity by improving the accuracy of the underlying learner model. Open Learner Modelling, where the system's model of the user's knowledge is revealed to the user, has been proposed to support student reflection on their learning. Increased accuracy of the learner model can be obtained by the student and system jointly negotiating the learner model. We present the initial investigations into a system to allow people to negotiate the model of their understanding of a topic in natural language. This paper discusses the development and capabilities of both conversational agents (or chatbots) and Intelligent Tutoring Systems, in particular Open Learner Modelling. We describe a Wizard-of-Oz experiment to investigate the feasibility of using a chatbot to support negotiation, and conclude that a fusion of the two fields can lead to developing negotiation techniques for chatbots and the enhancement of the Open Learner Model. This technology, if successful, could have widespread application in schools, universities and other training scenarios.

  3. Do current connectionist learning models account for reading development in different languages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutzler, Florian; Ziegler, Johannes C; Perry, Conrad; Wimmer, Heinz; Zorzi, Marco

    2004-04-01

    Learning to read a relatively irregular orthography, such as English, is harder and takes longer than learning to read a relatively regular orthography, such as German. At the end of grade 1, the difference in reading performance on a simple set of words and nonwords is quite dramatic. Whereas children using regular orthographies are already close to ceiling, English children read only about 40% of the words and nonwords correctly. It takes almost 4 years for English children to come close to the reading level of their German peers. In the present study, we investigated to what extent recent connectionist learning models are capable of simulating this cross-language learning rate effect as measured by nonword decoding accuracy. We implemented German and English versions of two major connectionist reading models, Plaut et al.'s (Plaut, D. C., McClelland, J. L., Seidenberg, M. S., & Patterson, K. (1996). Understanding normal and impaired word reading: computational principles in quasi-regular domains. Psychological Review, 103, 56-115) parallel distributed model and Zorzi et al.'s (Zorzi, M., Houghton, G., & Butterworth, B. (1998a). Two routes or one in reading aloud? A connectionist dual-process model. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 24, 1131-1161); two-layer associative network. While both models predicted an overall advantage for the more regular orthography (i.e. German over English), they failed to predict that the difference between children learning to read regular versus irregular orthographies is larger earlier on. Further investigations showed that the two-layer network could be brought to simulate the cross-language learning rate effect when cross-language differences in teaching methods (phonics versus whole-word approach) were taken into account. The present work thus shows that in order to adequately capture the pattern of reading acquisition displayed by children, current connectionist models must not only be

  4. Conversion of HSPF Legacy Model to a Platform-Independent, Open-Source Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaphy, R. T.; Burke, M. P.; Love, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Since its initial development over 30 years ago, the Hydrologic Simulation Program - FORTAN (HSPF) model has been used worldwide to support water quality planning and management. In the United States, HSPF receives widespread endorsement as a regulatory tool at all levels of government and is a core component of the EPA's Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS) system, which was developed to support nationwide Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) analysis. However, the model's legacy code and data management systems have limitations in their ability to integrate with modern software, hardware, and leverage parallel computing, which have left voids in optimization, pre-, and post-processing tools. Advances in technology and our scientific understanding of environmental processes that have occurred over the last 30 years mandate that upgrades be made to HSPF to allow it to evolve and continue to be a premiere tool for water resource planners. This work aims to mitigate the challenges currently facing HSPF through two primary tasks: (1) convert code to a modern widely accepted, open-source, high-performance computing (hpc) code; and (2) convert model input and output files to modern widely accepted, open-source, data model, library, and binary file format. Python was chosen as the new language for the code conversion. It is an interpreted, object-oriented, hpc code with dynamic semantics that has become one of the most popular open-source languages. While python code execution can be slow compared to compiled, statically typed programming languages, such as C and FORTRAN, the integration of Numba (a just-in-time specializing compiler) has allowed this challenge to be overcome. For the legacy model data management conversion, HDF5 was chosen to store the model input and output. The code conversion for HSPF's hydrologic and hydraulic modules has been completed. The converted code has been tested against HSPF's suite of "test" runs and shown

  5. SBMLeditor: effective creation of models in the Systems Biology Markup language (SBML).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nicolas; Donizelli, Marco; Le Novère, Nicolas

    2007-03-06

    The need to build a tool to facilitate the quick creation and editing of models encoded in the Systems Biology Markup language (SBML) has been growing with the number of users and the increased complexity of the language. SBMLeditor tries to answer this need by providing a very simple, low level editor of SBML files. Users can create and remove all the necessary bits and pieces of SBML in a controlled way, that maintains the validity of the final SBML file. SBMLeditor is written in JAVA using JCompneur, a library providing interfaces to easily display an XML document as a tree. This decreases dramatically the development time for a new XML editor. The possibility to include custom dialogs for different tags allows a lot of freedom for the editing and validation of the document. In addition to Xerces, SBMLeditor uses libSBML to check the validity and consistency of SBML files. A graphical equation editor allows an easy manipulation of MathML. SBMLeditor can be used as a module of the Systems Biology Workbench. SBMLeditor contains many improvements compared to a generic XML editor, and allow users to create an SBML model quickly and without syntactic errors.

  6. Plant Phenotyping using Probabilistic Topic Models: Uncovering the Hyperspectral Language of Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahabzada, Mirwaes; Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Bauckhage, Christian; Steiner, Ulrike; Oerke, Erich-Christian; Kersting, Kristian

    2016-03-09

    Modern phenotyping and plant disease detection methods, based on optical sensors and information technology, provide promising approaches to plant research and precision farming. In particular, hyperspectral imaging have been found to reveal physiological and structural characteristics in plants and to allow for tracking physiological dynamics due to environmental effects. In this work, we present an approach to plant phenotyping that integrates non-invasive sensors, computer vision, as well as data mining techniques and allows for monitoring how plants respond to stress. To uncover latent hyperspectral characteristics of diseased plants reliably and in an easy-to-understand way, we "wordify" the hyperspectral images, i.e., we turn the images into a corpus of text documents. Then, we apply probabilistic topic models, a well-established natural language processing technique that identifies content and topics of documents. Based on recent regularized topic models, we demonstrate that one can track automatically the development of three foliar diseases of barley. We also present a visualization of the topics that provides plant scientists an intuitive tool for hyperspectral imaging. In short, our analysis and visualization of characteristic topics found during symptom development and disease progress reveal the hyperspectral language of plant diseases.

  7. The "SignOn"-Model for Teaching Written Language to Deaf People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Hilzensauer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a method of teaching written language to deaf people using sign language as the language of instruction. Written texts in the target language are combined with sign language videos which provide the users with various modes of translation (words/phrases/sentences. As examples, two EU projects for English for the Deaf are presented which feature English texts and translations into the national sign languages of all the partner countries plus signed grammar explanations and interactive exercises. Both courses are web-based; the programs may be accessed free of charge via the respective homepages (without any download or log-in.

  8. Language, Language Teaching and Language Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文华

    2002-01-01

    Departing from a brief presentation of the various views of language, this article elaborates the influence of views of languageon language teaching and language testing. This will help us have background knowledge on language teaching and language testing.

  9. Behind the tracks of the language: theoretical review of the model RR of Karmiloff-Smith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defagó, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we reflect upon a model of cognitive development, so called "Representational Redescription" formulated by Karmiloff-Smith (1994. Her offer contributes new ways of understanding processes and mental representations beyond old dichotomies: conscious / unconscious, innate / acquired, linguistic / non linguistic processes. Her propose appears as going over two model of mental functioning, the constructivism of Piaget and Fodor's innatism, taking elements of each one of them but developing an original offer, contributing explanations to phenomena not included by the above mentioned theories. We assume this analysis will offer a reflection on the cognitive aspects involved in the development of the language, its specificity and its relation with other cognitive processes, so much for the cognitive / linguistic phenomena that explains like for what is not explained for it. About the last point, we consider appropriate the proposal offers by the Minimalist Program of N. Chomsky.

  10. A model of destination-language acquisition: application to male immigrants in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiswick, B R; Miller, P W

    2001-08-01

    We develop a model using human capital theory and an immigrant adjustment process to generate hypotheses on the acquisition of destination-language skills among immigrants. The model is tested for adult male immigrants in the 1991 Census of Canada. Use of English or French is greater, the younger the age at migration, the longer the duration of residence, the higher the educational attainment, the farther the country of origin from Canada, and the linguistically closer the mother tongue to English or French, and among those who are not refugees, those from a former British, French, or American colony, and those who live in an area where fewer people speak the respondent's mother tongue. The explanatory variables based on birthplace have behavioral interpretations and possess almost as much explanatory power as the birthplace dummy variables.

  11. SBML-PET-MPI: a parallel parameter estimation tool for Systems Biology Markup Language based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Zhike

    2011-04-01

    Parameter estimation is crucial for the modeling and dynamic analysis of biological systems. However, implementing parameter estimation is time consuming and computationally demanding. Here, we introduced a parallel parameter estimation tool for Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML)-based models (SBML-PET-MPI). SBML-PET-MPI allows the user to perform parameter estimation and parameter uncertainty analysis by collectively fitting multiple experimental datasets. The tool is developed and parallelized using the message passing interface (MPI) protocol, which provides good scalability with the number of processors. SBML-PET-MPI is freely available for non-commercial use at http://www.bioss.uni-freiburg.de/cms/sbml-pet-mpi.html or http://sites.google.com/site/sbmlpetmpi/.

  12. Collaborative Language Learning in Immersive Virtual Worlds: Competence-based Formative Feedback and Open Learner Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Kickmeier-Rust

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The uptake of information and communication technologies in the classrooms is a key trend over the past years and decades. Teachers are using Moodle courses, e-Portfolios, Google Docs, perhaps learning games or virtual worlds such as OpenSim for educational purposes. A second trend pushes towards a formatively inspired assessment and feedback, often combined with attempts of educational data mining and learning analytics. In this paper we present a role model for teaching English as a second language using OpenSim and a tool that enables teachers to perform real-time learning analytics and direct formative feedback and interventions in the virtual learning session. Also we present an approach to aggregate and store the learning information into open learner models.

  13. CoCAR: An Online Synchronous Training Model for Empowering ICT Capacity of Teachers of Chinese as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yu-Ju; Chang, Kuo-En; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2012-01-01

    In response to the need to cultivate pre-service Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) teachers' information and communication technology (ICT) competency in online synchronous environments, this research adopted a three-stage cyclical model named "cooperation-based cognition, action, and reflection" (CoCAR). The model was implemented in an 18-week…

  14. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Domain-Specific Languages and Models for Robotic Systems (DSLRob 2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlegel, Christian; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Stinckwich, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Domain-Specific Languages and Models for Robotic Systems (DSLRob'12), held at the 2012 International Conference on Simulation, Modeling, and Programming for Autonomous Robots (SIMPAR 2012), November 2012 in Tsukuba, Japan. The main topics...

  15. A neuroanatomically grounded Hebbian-learning model of attention-language interactions in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garagnani, Max; Wennekers, Thomas; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2008-01-01

    Meaningful familiar stimuli and senseless unknown materials lead to different patterns of brain activation. A late major neurophysiological response indexing 'sense' is the negative component of event-related potential peaking at around 400 ms (N400), an event-related potential that emerges in attention-demanding tasks and is larger for senseless materials (e.g. meaningless pseudowords) than for matched meaningful stimuli (words). However, the mismatch negativity (latency 100-250 ms), an early automatic brain response elicited under distraction, is larger to words than to pseudowords, thus exhibiting the opposite pattern to that seen for the N400. So far, no theoretical account has been able to reconcile and explain these findings by means of a single, mechanistic neural model. We implemented a neuroanatomically grounded neural network model of the left perisylvian language cortex and simulated: (i) brain processes of early language acquisition and (ii) cortical responses to familiar word and senseless pseudoword stimuli. We found that variation of the area-specific inhibition (the model correlate of attention) modulated the simulated brain response to words and pseudowords, producing either an N400- or a mismatch negativity-like response depending on the amount of inhibition (i.e. available attentional resources). Our model: (i) provides a unifying explanatory account, at cortical level, of experimental observations that, so far, had not been given a coherent interpretation within a single framework; (ii) demonstrates the viability of purely Hebbian, associative learning in a multilayered neural network architecture; and (iii) makes clear predictions on the effects of attention on latency and magnitude of event-related potentials to lexical items. Such predictions have been confirmed by recent experimental evidence.

  16. MISTRAL: A language for model transformations in the MOF meta-modeling architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurtev, I.; Berg, van den K.G.

    2005-01-01

    In the Meta Object Facility (MOF) meta-modeling architecture a number of model transformation scenarios can be identified. It could be expected that a meta-modeling architecture will be accompanied by a transformation technology supporting the model transformation scenarios in a uniform way. Despite

  17. Model-Based Systems Engineering With the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) Applied to NASA Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Fernandez, Michela Miche

    2014-01-01

    The potential of Model Model Systems Engineering (MBSE) using the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) applied to space systems will be described. AADL modeling is applicable to real-time embedded systems- the types of systems NASA builds. A case study with the Juno mission to Jupiter showcases how this work would enable future missions to benefit from using these models throughout their life cycle from design to flight operations.

  18. Stuttering, language, and cognition: a review and a model of stuttering as suprasegmental sentence plan alignment (SPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karniol, R

    1995-01-01

    Extant models of stuttering do not account for the emergence of stuttering at the onset of productive language use; the greater incidence of stuttering during spontaneous speech, on complex sentences, and at sentence-initial positions; the greater incidence of stuttering in bilinguals' 2nd language; the apparent deficiency of stutterers in expressive and receptive language skills; the prevalence of spontaneous recovery from stuttering; and the lack of chronic physiological or articulatory deficits in stuttering children's fluent speech. The author presents a model of stuttering as points of suprasegmental sentence plan alignment (SPA). Such alignment processes occur when, due to on-line sentence production processes, SPAs adopted prior to utterance initiation need to be aligned with revised SPAs. This model parsimoniously accounts for the findings reviewed in the article.

  19. The model of the first-year students’ adaptation to vocational training: the example of foreign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galishninkova Elena M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of adaptation of the first-year students to professional activity by means of foreign language. To design the adaptation model, we developed four-block questionnaires to determine students’ readiness for adaptation. The experiment resulted in the three groups of students with high, average and low levels of adaptation. Students with low level of adaptation become the target of our research. To remove the difficulties in studying a foreign language by the third group of students, an adaptation model was elaborated. Further, we identified the conditions for the effective implementation of the adaptation model of students to vocational training. In our view, these pedagogical conditions promote a more “sparing” transition of students to their main function as first-year students and increase the level of foreign language learning as well as improve the educational indicators.

  20. An Understanding of Language Development Models--Pidginization from the Perspective of Chaos Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guodong

    2010-01-01

    With the accelerated globalization, domestic and international communications become more frequent than ever before. As the major media of international communication, languages contact with each other more actively by day. And in the active contact any language would gradually develop and change. Pidgin language is a unique linguistic phenomenon…