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Sample records for model ip r-10

  1. Modelling ChIP-seq Data Using HMMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinciotti, Veronica

    2017-01-01

    Chromatin ImmunoPrecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) experiments have now become routine in biology for the detection of protein binding sites. In this chapter, we show how hidden Markov models can be used for the analysis of data generated by ChIP-seq experiments. We show how a hidden Markov model can naturally account for spatial dependencies in the ChIP-seq data, how it can be used in the presence of data from multiple ChIP-seq experiments under the same biological condition, and how it naturally accounts for the different IP efficiencies of individual ChIP-seq experiments.

  2. SU-F-R-10: Selecting the Optimal Solution for Multi-Objective Radiomics Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Z; Folkert, M; Wang, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an evidential reasoning approach for selecting the optimal solution from a Pareto solution set obtained by a multi-objective radiomics model for predicting distant failure in lung SBRT. Methods: In the multi-objective radiomics model, both sensitivity and specificity are considered as the objective functions simultaneously. A Pareto solution set with many feasible solutions will be resulted from the multi-objective optimization. In this work, an optimal solution Selection methodology for Multi-Objective radiomics Learning model using the Evidential Reasoning approach (SMOLER) was proposed to select the optimal solution from the Pareto solution set. The proposed SMOLER method used the evidential reasoning approach to calculate the utility of each solution based on pre-set optimal solution selection rules. The solution with the highest utility was chosen as the optimal solution. In SMOLER, an optimal learning model coupled with clonal selection algorithm was used to optimize model parameters. In this study, PET, CT image features and clinical parameters were utilized for predicting distant failure in lung SBRT. Results: Total 126 solution sets were generated by adjusting predictive model parameters. Each Pareto set contains 100 feasible solutions. The solution selected by SMOLER within each Pareto set was compared to the manually selected optimal solution. Five-cross-validation was used to evaluate the optimal solution selection accuracy of SMOLER. The selection accuracies for five folds were 80.00%, 69.23%, 84.00%, 84.00%, 80.00%, respectively. Conclusion: An optimal solution selection methodology for multi-objective radiomics learning model using the evidential reasoning approach (SMOLER) was proposed. Experimental results show that the optimal solution can be found in approximately 80% cases.

  3. Modeling ChIP sequencing in silico with applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengdong D Zhang

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available ChIP sequencing (ChIP-seq is a new method for genomewide mapping of protein binding sites on DNA. It has generated much excitement in functional genomics. To score data and determine adequate sequencing depth, both the genomic background and the binding sites must be properly modeled. To develop a computational foundation to tackle these issues, we first performed a study to characterize the observed statistical nature of this new type of high-throughput data. By linking sequence tags into clusters, we show that there are two components to the distribution of tag counts observed in a number of recent experiments: an initial power-law distribution and a subsequent long right tail. Then we develop in silico ChIP-seq, a computational method to simulate the experimental outcome by placing tags onto the genome according to particular assumed distributions for the actual binding sites and for the background genomic sequence. In contrast to current assumptions, our results show that both the background and the binding sites need to have a markedly nonuniform distribution in order to correctly model the observed ChIP-seq data, with, for instance, the background tag counts modeled by a gamma distribution. On the basis of these results, we extend an existing scoring approach by using a more realistic genomic-background model. This enables us to identify transcription-factor binding sites in ChIP-seq data in a statistically rigorous fashion.

  4. MODEL PEMBELAJARAN IPS BERBASIS MASALAH INDUSTRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edi Kurniawan Suwito Eko Pramono

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study establish an Industry problem-based learning model in social studies at Junior High School. Method in this study is the method Research and development (R&D. Location of the study is the first Junior High School in Gebog Kudus district. The conclusions of this study states that (1 the learning social studies in junior Kudus is done by varying the lecture method, (2 implementation of the model constraint is due to the absence of a model that allows teachers to implement an integrated social studies learning , and (3 the learning models developed used as a viable alternative model of learning in social studies learning activities at school . Furthermore , it is advisable to conduct training for teachers to improve the quality of teachers in implementing the learning model is developed.

  5. Joint modeling of ChIP-seq data via a Markov random field model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, Yanchun; Vinciotti, Veronica; Wit, Ernst; 't Hoen, Peter A C

    Chromatin ImmunoPrecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) experiments have now become routine in biology for the detection of protein-binding sites. In this paper, we present a Markov random field model for the joint analysis of multiple ChIP-seq experiments. The proposed model naturally accounts for

  6. An Attacker-Defender Model for IP-Based Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barkley, Timothy R

    2008-01-01

    .... Because IP flows are defined essentially in terms of origin-destination (O-D) pairs, we represent IP traffic engineering as a multi-commodity flow problem in which each O-D pair is treated as a separate commodity...

  7. Impact of time-domain IP pulse length on measured data and inverted models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, P. I.; Fiandaca, G.; Dahlin, T.

    2015-01-01

    The duration of time domain (TD) induced polarization (IP) current injections has significant impact on the acquired IP data as well as on the inversion models, if the standard evaluation procedure is followed. However, it is still possible to retrieve similar inversion models if the waveform...... of the injected current and the IP response waveform are included in the inversion. The on-time also generally affects the signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) where an increased on-time gives higher SNR for the IP data....

  8. Bayesian Modeling of ChIP-chip Data Through a High-Order Ising Model

    KAUST Repository

    Mo, Qianxing

    2010-01-29

    ChIP-chip experiments are procedures that combine chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and DNA microarray (chip) technology to study a variety of biological problems, including protein-DNA interaction, histone modification, and DNA methylation. The most important feature of ChIP-chip data is that the intensity measurements of probes are spatially correlated because the DNA fragments are hybridized to neighboring probes in the experiments. We propose a simple, but powerful Bayesian hierarchical approach to ChIP-chip data through an Ising model with high-order interactions. The proposed method naturally takes into account the intrinsic spatial structure of the data and can be used to analyze data from multiple platforms with different genomic resolutions. The model parameters are estimated using the Gibbs sampler. The proposed method is illustrated using two publicly available data sets from Affymetrix and Agilent platforms, and compared with three alternative Bayesian methods, namely, Bayesian hierarchical model, hierarchical gamma mixture model, and Tilemap hidden Markov model. The numerical results indicate that the proposed method performs as well as the other three methods for the data from Affymetrix tiling arrays, but significantly outperforms the other three methods for the data from Agilent promoter arrays. In addition, we find that the proposed method has better operating characteristics in terms of sensitivities and false discovery rates under various scenarios. © 2010, The International Biometric Society.

  9. ChIP-BIT: Bayesian inference of target genes using a novel joint probabilistic model of ChIP-seq profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Jung, Jin-Gyoung; Shajahan-Haq, Ayesha N; Clarke, Robert; Shih, Ie-Ming; Wang, Yue; Magnani, Luca; Wang, Tian-Li; Xuan, Jianhua

    2016-04-20

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation with massively parallel DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) has greatly improved the reliability with which transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) can be identified from genome-wide profiling studies. Many computational tools are developed to detect binding events or peaks, however the robust detection of weak binding events remains a challenge for current peak calling tools. We have developed a novel Bayesian approach (ChIP-BIT) to reliably detect TFBSs and their target genes by jointly modeling binding signal intensities and binding locations of TFBSs. Specifically, a Gaussian mixture model is used to capture both binding and background signals in sample data. As a unique feature of ChIP-BIT, background signals are modeled by a local Gaussian distribution that is accurately estimated from the input data. Extensive simulation studies showed a significantly improved performance of ChIP-BIT in target gene prediction, particularly for detecting weak binding signals at gene promoter regions. We applied ChIP-BIT to find target genes from NOTCH3 and PBX1 ChIP-seq data acquired from MCF-7 breast cancer cells. TF knockdown experiments have initially validated about 30% of co-regulated target genes identified by ChIP-BIT as being differentially expressed in MCF-7 cells. Functional analysis on these genes further revealed the existence of crosstalk between Notch and Wnt signaling pathways. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Modeling of IP scanning activities with Hidden Markov Models: Darknet case study

    OpenAIRE

    De Santis, Giulia; Lahmadi, Abdelkader; Francois, Jerome; Festor, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    International audience; We propose a methodology based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) to model scanning activities monitored by a darknet. The HMMs of scanning activities are built on the basis of the number of scanned IP addresses within a time window and fitted using mixtures of Poisson distributions. Our methodology is applied on real data traces collected from a darknet and generated by two large scale scanners, ZMap and Shodan. We demonstrated that the built models are able to characteri...

  11. Examples of modelling IP in AEM data: synthetic and real data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viezzoli, Andrea; Kaminskiy, Vladislav; Fiandaca, Gianluca

    There have been multiple evidences in the literature in the past several years of what has been referred to as IP effect in the Time Domain Airborne EM data (TDEM). This phenomenon is known to be responsible for incorrect inversion modelling of electrical resistivity, lower interpreted depth...... of investigation and lost information about chargeability of the subsurface as well as about other valuable parameters. Historically there have been many suggestions to account for the IP effect using the Cole-Cole model. In current paper we are showing the possibility to extract IP information from airborne TDEM...... with both high electrical conductivity and in resistive environments. Furthermore, modelling of IP effects allows corrected resistivity models. The Amakinskaya kimberlite pipe results highlight the relevance of chargeability for kimberlite exploration....

  12. IP cores design from specifications to production modeling, verification, optimization, and protection

    CERN Document Server

    Mohamed, Khaled Salah

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the life cycle process of IP cores, from specification to production, including IP modeling, verification, optimization, and protection. Various trade-offs in the design process are discussed, including  those associated with many of the most common memory cores, controller IPs  and system-on-chip (SoC) buses. Readers will also benefit from the author’s practical coverage of new verification methodologies. such as bug localization, UVM, and scan-chain.  A SoC case study is presented to compare traditional verification with the new verification methodologies. ·         Discusses the entire life cycle process of IP cores, from specification to production, including IP modeling, verification, optimization, and protection; ·         Introduce a deep introduction for Verilog for both implementation and verification point of view.  ·         Demonstrates how to use IP in applications such as memory controllers and SoC buses. ·         Describes a new ver...

  13. Modeling the downward transport of 210Pb in Peatlands: Initial Penetration‐Constant Rate of Supply (IP-CRS) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olid, Carolina; Diego, David; Garcia-Orellana, Jordi; Cortizas, Antonio Martínez; Klaminder, Jonatan

    2016-01-01

    The vertical distribution of 210 Pb is commonly used to date peat deposits accumulated over the last 100–150 years. However, several studies have questioned this method because of an apparent post-depositional mobility of 210 Pb within some peat profiles. In this study, we introduce the Initial Penetration–Constant Rate of Supply (IP-CRS) model for calculating ages derived from 210 Pb profiles that are altered by an initial migration of the radionuclide. This new, two-phased, model describes the distribution of atmospheric-derived 210 Pb ( 210 Pb xs ) in peat taking into account both incorporation of 210 Pb into the accumulating peat matrix as well as an initial flushing of 210 Pb through the uppermost peat layers. The validity of the IP-CRS model is tested in four anomalous 210 Pb peat records that showed some deviations from the typical exponential decay profile not explained by variations in peat accumulation rates. Unlike the most commonly used 210 Pb-dating model (Constant Rate of Supply (CRS)), the IP-CRS model estimates peat accumulation rates consistent with typical growth rates for peatlands from the same areas. Confidence in the IP-CRS chronology is also provided by the good agreement with independent chronological markers (i.e. 241 Am and 137 Cs). Our results showed that the IP-CRS can provide chronologies from peat records where 210 Pb mobility is evident, being a valuable tool for studies reconstructing past environmental changes using peat archives during the Anthropocene. - Highlights: • Accurate age dating of peat and sediment cores is critical for evaluating change. • A new 210 Pb dating model that includes vertical transport of 210 Pb was developed. • The IP-CRS model provided consistent peat accumulation rates. • The IP-CRS ages were consistent with independent chronological markers. • The IP-CRS model derives peat ages where downward 210 Pb transport is evidenced.

  14. Modeling Kidney Disease with iPS Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Benjamin S.

    2015-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are somatic cells that have been transcriptionally reprogrammed to an embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like state. iPSCs are a renewable source of diverse somatic cell types and tissues matching the original patient, including nephron-like kidney organoids. iPSCs have been derived representing several kidney disorders, such as ADPKD, ARPKD, Alport syndrome, and lupus nephritis, with the goals of generating replacement tissue and ‘disease in a dish’ laboratory models. Cellular defects in iPSCs and derived kidney organoids provide functional, personalized biomarkers, which can be correlated with genetic and clinical information. In proof of principle, disease-specific phenotypes have been described in iPSCs and ESCs with mutations linked to polycystic kidney disease or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. In addition, these cells can be used to model nephrotoxic chemical injury. Recent advances in directed differentiation and CRISPR genome editing enable more specific iPSC models and present new possibilities for diagnostics, disease modeling, therapeutic screens, and tissue regeneration using human cells. This review outlines growth opportunities and design strategies for this rapidly expanding and evolving field. PMID:26740740

  15. Spatio-temporal model for multiple ChIP-seq experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranciati, Saverio; Viroli, Cinzia; Wit, Ernst

    2015-01-01

    The increasing availability of ChIP-seq data demands for advanced statistical tools to analyze the results of such experiments. The inherent features of high-throughput sequencing output call for a modelling framework that can account for the spatial dependency between neighboring regions of the

  16. OccuPeak: ChIP-Seq peak calling based on internal background modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Bouke A.; van Duijvenboden, Karel; van den Boogaard, Malou; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Barnett, Phil; Ruijter, Jan M.

    2014-01-01

    ChIP-seq has become a major tool for the genome-wide identification of transcription factor binding or histone modification sites. Most peak-calling algorithms require input control datasets to model the occurrence of background reads to account for local sequencing and GC bias. However, the

  17. GenoGAM: genome-wide generalized additive models for ChIP-Seq analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Georg; Engelhardt, Alexander; Schulz, Daniel; Schmid, Matthias; Tresch, Achim; Gagneur, Julien

    2017-08-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-Seq) is a widely used approach to study protein-DNA interactions. Often, the quantities of interest are the differential occupancies relative to controls, between genetic backgrounds, treatments, or combinations thereof. Current methods for differential occupancy of ChIP-Seq data rely however on binning or sliding window techniques, for which the choice of the window and bin sizes are subjective. Here, we present GenoGAM (Genome-wide Generalized Additive Model), which brings the well-established and flexible generalized additive models framework to genomic applications using a data parallelism strategy. We model ChIP-Seq read count frequencies as products of smooth functions along chromosomes. Smoothing parameters are objectively estimated from the data by cross-validation, eliminating ad hoc binning and windowing needed by current approaches. GenoGAM provides base-level and region-level significance testing for full factorial designs. Application to a ChIP-Seq dataset in yeast showed increased sensitivity over existing differential occupancy methods while controlling for type I error rate. By analyzing a set of DNA methylation data and illustrating an extension to a peak caller, we further demonstrate the potential of GenoGAM as a generic statistical modeling tool for genome-wide assays. Software is available from Bioconductor: https://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/GenoGAM.html . gagneur@in.tum.de. Supplementary information is available at Bioinformatics online.

  18. IP Centrex

    OpenAIRE

    Massa Torrelles, Roger

    2006-01-01

    Este documento recoge el trabajo realizado para diseñar e implementar una centralita o PBX para Telefonía IP basada en VoIP (Voz sobre IP) mediante SIP. Proporcionando una alternativa a las actuales centralitas de telefonía, basadas en hardware, que son caras y poco escalables. Se detallan los conceptos VoIP, IP Centrex, se plantean diferentes esquemas para el diseño de IP Centrex y se presentan los detalles de la implementación de IP Centrex. Para la implementación de IP...

  19. Human iPS cell-derived dopaminergic neurons function in a primate Parkinson's disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Tetsuhiro; Morizane, Asuka; Doi, Daisuke; Magotani, Hiroaki; Onoe, Hirotaka; Hayashi, Takuya; Mizuma, Hiroshi; Takara, Sayuki; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Inoue, Haruhisa; Morita, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Michio; Okita, Keisuke; Nakagawa, Masato; Parmar, Malin; Takahashi, Jun

    2017-08-30

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) are a promising source for a cell-based therapy to treat Parkinson's disease (PD), in which midbrain dopaminergic neurons progressively degenerate. However, long-term analysis of human iPS cell-derived dopaminergic neurons in primate PD models has never been performed to our knowledge. Here we show that human iPS cell-derived dopaminergic progenitor cells survived and functioned as midbrain dopaminergic neurons in a primate model of PD (Macaca fascicularis) treated with the neurotoxin MPTP. Score-based and video-recording analyses revealed an increase in spontaneous movement of the monkeys after transplantation. Histological studies showed that the mature dopaminergic neurons extended dense neurites into the host striatum; this effect was consistent regardless of whether the cells were derived from patients with PD or from healthy individuals. Cells sorted by the floor plate marker CORIN did not form any tumours in the brains for at least two years. Finally, magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography were used to monitor the survival, expansion and function of the grafted cells as well as the immune response in the host brain. Thus, this preclinical study using a primate model indicates that human iPS cell-derived dopaminergic progenitors are clinically applicable for the treatment of patients with PD.

  20. Approaches in highly parameterized inversion - GENIE, a general model-independent TCP/IP run manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffels, Christopher T.; Schreuder, Willem A.; Doherty, John E.; Karanovic, Marinko; Tonkin, Matthew J.; Hunt, Randall J.; Welter, David E.

    2012-01-01

    GENIE is a model-independent suite of programs that can be used to generally distribute, manage, and execute multiple model runs via the TCP/IP infrastructure. The suite consists of a file distribution interface, a run manage, a run executer, and a routine that can be compiled as part of a program and used to exchange model runs with the run manager. Because communication is via a standard protocol (TCP/IP), any computer connected to the Internet can serve in any of the capacities offered by this suite. Model independence is consistent with the existing template and instruction file protocols of the widely used PEST parameter estimation program. This report describes (1) the problem addressed; (2) the approach used by GENIE to queue, distribute, and retrieve model runs; and (3) user instructions, classes, and functions developed. It also includes (4) an example to illustrate the linking of GENIE with Parallel PEST using the interface routine.

  1. A hidden Ising model for ChIP-chip data analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Mo, Q.

    2010-01-28

    Motivation: Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) coupled with tiling microarray (chip) experiments have been used in a wide range of biological studies such as identification of transcription factor binding sites and investigation of DNA methylation and histone modification. Hidden Markov models are widely used to model the spatial dependency of ChIP-chip data. However, parameter estimation for these models is typically either heuristic or suboptimal, leading to inconsistencies in their applications. To overcome this limitation and to develop an efficient software, we propose a hidden ferromagnetic Ising model for ChIP-chip data analysis. Results: We have developed a simple, but powerful Bayesian hierarchical model for ChIP-chip data via a hidden Ising model. Metropolis within Gibbs sampling algorithm is used to simulate from the posterior distribution of the model parameters. The proposed model naturally incorporates the spatial dependency of the data, and can be used to analyze data with various genomic resolutions and sample sizes. We illustrate the method using three publicly available datasets and various simulated datasets, and compare it with three closely related methods, namely TileMap HMM, tileHMM and BAC. We find that our method performs as well as TileMap HMM and BAC for the high-resolution data from Affymetrix platform, but significantly outperforms the other three methods for the low-resolution data from Agilent platform. Compared with the BAC method which also involves MCMC simulations, our method is computationally much more efficient. Availability: A software called iChip is freely available at http://www.bioconductor.org/. Contact: moq@mskcc.org. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org.

  2. A hidden Ising model for ChIP-chip data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Qianxing; Liang, Faming

    2010-03-15

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) coupled with tiling microarray (chip) experiments have been used in a wide range of biological studies such as identification of transcription factor binding sites and investigation of DNA methylation and histone modification. Hidden Markov models are widely used to model the spatial dependency of ChIP-chip data. However, parameter estimation for these models is typically either heuristic or suboptimal, leading to inconsistencies in their applications. To overcome this limitation and to develop an efficient software, we propose a hidden ferromagnetic Ising model for ChIP-chip data analysis. We have developed a simple, but powerful Bayesian hierarchical model for ChIP-chip data via a hidden Ising model. Metropolis within Gibbs sampling algorithm is used to simulate from the posterior distribution of the model parameters. The proposed model naturally incorporates the spatial dependency of the data, and can be used to analyze data with various genomic resolutions and sample sizes. We illustrate the method using three publicly available datasets and various simulated datasets, and compare it with three closely related methods, namely TileMap HMM, tileHMM and BAC. We find that our method performs as well as TileMap HMM and BAC for the high-resolution data from Affymetrix platform, but significantly outperforms the other three methods for the low-resolution data from Agilent platform. Compared with the BAC method which also involves MCMC simulations, our method is computationally much more efficient. A software called iChip is freely available at http://www.bioconductor.org/. moq@mskcc.org.

  3. Effects of glucose on the formation of PhIP in a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skog, K; Jägerstad, M

    1991-12-01

    The effect of glucose on the formation of the food mutagen PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) was studied in a model system. When a mixture of creatine (0.9 mmol), phenylalanine (0.9 mmol) and glucose (0.45 mmol) was heated in diethylene glycol and water (3 ml, 5:1) for 10 min at 180 or 225 degrees C several mutagens were produced. Identification by HPLC, UV absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry revealed the presence of PhIP as well as 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline and minor amounts of 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline. Heating the system without glucose produced PhIP as a single mutagen, but in considerably lower amount. An inhibiting effect of glucose in high concentrations was demonstrated. When glucose was added in more than or equimolar amounts of the other two reactants, the formation of mutagens was markedly reduced. Tyrosine heated under the same conditions, with creatine and glucose, showed mutagenic activity. However, no PhIP nor any other known food mutagen was identified from the tyrosine mixture.

  4. Bayesian modeling of ChIP-chip data using latent variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Yanan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ChIP-chip technology has been used in a wide range of biomedical studies, such as identification of human transcription factor binding sites, investigation of DNA methylation, and investigation of histone modifications in animals and plants. Various methods have been proposed in the literature for analyzing the ChIP-chip data, such as the sliding window methods, the hidden Markov model-based methods, and Bayesian methods. Although, due to the integrated consideration of uncertainty of the models and model parameters, Bayesian methods can potentially work better than the other two classes of methods, the existing Bayesian methods do not perform satisfactorily. They usually require multiple replicates or some extra experimental information to parametrize the model, and long CPU time due to involving of MCMC simulations. Results In this paper, we propose a Bayesian latent model for the ChIP-chip data. The new model mainly differs from the existing Bayesian models, such as the joint deconvolution model, the hierarchical gamma mixture model, and the Bayesian hierarchical model, in two respects. Firstly, it works on the difference between the averaged treatment and control samples. This enables the use of a simple model for the data, which avoids the probe-specific effect and the sample (control/treatment effect. As a consequence, this enables an efficient MCMC simulation of the posterior distribution of the model, and also makes the model more robust to the outliers. Secondly, it models the neighboring dependence of probes by introducing a latent indicator vector. A truncated Poisson prior distribution is assumed for the latent indicator variable, with the rationale being justified at length. Conclusion The Bayesian latent method is successfully applied to real and ten simulated datasets, with comparisons with some of the existing Bayesian methods, hidden Markov model methods, and sliding window methods. The numerical results

  5. Bayesian modeling of ChIP-chip data using latent variables.

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Mingqi

    2009-10-26

    BACKGROUND: The ChIP-chip technology has been used in a wide range of biomedical studies, such as identification of human transcription factor binding sites, investigation of DNA methylation, and investigation of histone modifications in animals and plants. Various methods have been proposed in the literature for analyzing the ChIP-chip data, such as the sliding window methods, the hidden Markov model-based methods, and Bayesian methods. Although, due to the integrated consideration of uncertainty of the models and model parameters, Bayesian methods can potentially work better than the other two classes of methods, the existing Bayesian methods do not perform satisfactorily. They usually require multiple replicates or some extra experimental information to parametrize the model, and long CPU time due to involving of MCMC simulations. RESULTS: In this paper, we propose a Bayesian latent model for the ChIP-chip data. The new model mainly differs from the existing Bayesian models, such as the joint deconvolution model, the hierarchical gamma mixture model, and the Bayesian hierarchical model, in two respects. Firstly, it works on the difference between the averaged treatment and control samples. This enables the use of a simple model for the data, which avoids the probe-specific effect and the sample (control/treatment) effect. As a consequence, this enables an efficient MCMC simulation of the posterior distribution of the model, and also makes the model more robust to the outliers. Secondly, it models the neighboring dependence of probes by introducing a latent indicator vector. A truncated Poisson prior distribution is assumed for the latent indicator variable, with the rationale being justified at length. CONCLUSION: The Bayesian latent method is successfully applied to real and ten simulated datasets, with comparisons with some of the existing Bayesian methods, hidden Markov model methods, and sliding window methods. The numerical results indicate that the

  6. Exact solution of the p + ip pairing Hamiltonian and a hierarchy of integrable models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, Clare; Ibañez, Miguel; Sierra, Germán; Links, Jon; Zhao, Shao-You

    2010-01-01

    Using the well-known trigonometric six-vertex solution of the Yang–Baxter equation we derive an integrable pairing Hamiltonian with anyonic degrees of freedom. The exact algebraic Bethe ansatz solution is obtained using standard techniques. From this model we obtain several limiting models, including the pairing Hamiltonian with p + ip-wave symmetry. An in-depth study of the p + ip model is then undertaken, including a mean-field analysis, analytical and numerical solutions of the Bethe ansatz equations and an investigation of the topological properties of the ground-state wavefunction. Our main result is that the ground-state phase diagram of the p + ip model consists of three phases. There is the known boundary line with gapless excitations that occurs for vanishing chemical potential, separating the topologically trivial strong pairing phase and the topologically non-trivial weak pairing phase. We argue that a second boundary line exists separating the weak pairing phase from a topologically trivial weak coupling BCS phase, which includes the Fermi sea in the limit of zero coupling. The ground state on this second boundary line is the Moore–Read state

  7. Testing Brain Overgrowth and Synaptic Models of Autism Using NPC’s and Neurons from Patient-Derived IPS Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Zikopoulos, B. & Barbas, H. Altered neural connectivity in excitatory and inhibitory cortical circuits in autism . Frontiers in human neuroscience 7, 609, doi:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00609 (2013). 11. APPENDICES: Nothing to report ...Models of Autism Using NPC’s and Neurons from Patient- Derived IPS Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Fred H. Gage, Ph.D...SUBTITLE Testing Brain Overgrowth and Synaptic Models of Autism Using NPC’s and Neurons from Patient- Derived IPS Cells 5a. CONTRACT

  8. Bayesian hierarchical model for transcriptional module discovery by jointly modeling gene expression and ChIP-chip data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaganesan Siva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcriptional modules (TM consist of groups of co-regulated genes and transcription factors (TF regulating their expression. Two high-throughput (HT experimental technologies, gene expression microarrays and Chromatin Immuno-Precipitation on Chip (ChIP-chip, are capable of producing data informative about expression regulatory mechanism on a genome scale. The optimal approach to joint modeling of data generated by these two complementary biological assays, with the goal of identifying and characterizing TMs, is an important open problem in computational biomedicine. Results We developed and validated a novel probabilistic model and related computational procedure for identifying TMs by jointly modeling gene expression and ChIP-chip binding data. We demonstrate an improved functional coherence of the TMs produced by the new method when compared to either analyzing expression or ChIP-chip data separately or to alternative approaches for joint analysis. We also demonstrate the ability of the new algorithm to identify novel regulatory relationships not revealed by ChIP-chip data alone. The new computational procedure can be used in more or less the same way as one would use simple hierarchical clustering without performing any special transformation of data prior to the analysis. The R and C-source code for implementing our algorithm is incorporated within the R package gimmR which is freely available at http://eh3.uc.edu/gimm. Conclusion Our results indicate that, whenever available, ChIP-chip and expression data should be analyzed within the unified probabilistic modeling framework, which will likely result in improved clusters of co-regulated genes and improved ability to detect meaningful regulatory relationships. Given the good statistical properties and the ease of use, the new computational procedure offers a worthy new tool for reconstructing transcriptional regulatory networks.

  9. Methods and Technologies of XML Data Modeling for IP Mode Intelligent Measuring and Controlling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, G X; Hong, X B; Liu, J G

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the IP mode intelligent measuring and controlling system (IMIMCS). Based on object-oriented modeling technology of UML and XML Schema, the innovative methods and technologies of some key problems for XML data modeling in the IMIMCS were especially discussed, including refinement for systemic business by means of use-case diagram of UML, the confirmation of the content of XML data model and logic relationship of the objects of XML Schema with the aid of class diagram of UML, the mapping rules from the UML object model to XML Schema. Finally, the application of the IMIMCS based on XML for a modern greenhouse was presented. The results show that the modeling methods of the measuring and controlling data in the IMIMCS involving the multi-layer structure and many operating systems process strong reliability and flexibility, guarantee uniformity of complex XML documents and meet the requirement of data communication across platform

  10. An Iterative Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) Analysis Using Time-dependent 3-D MHD Models as Kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, B. V.; Yu, H. S.; Hick, P. P.; Buffington, A.; Odstrcil, D.; Kim, T. K.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Tokumaru, M.; Bisi, M. M.; Kim, J.; Yun, J.

    2017-12-01

    The University of California, San Diego has developed an iterative remote-sensing time-dependent three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction technique which provides volumetric maps of density, velocity, and magnetic field. We have applied this technique in near real time for over 15 years with a kinematic model approximation to fit data from ground-based interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations. Our modeling concept extends volumetric data from an inner boundary placed above the Alfvén surface out to the inner heliosphere. We now use this technique to drive 3-D MHD models at their inner boundary and generate output 3-D data files that are fit to remotely-sensed observations (in this case IPS observations), and iterated. These analyses are also iteratively fit to in-situ spacecraft measurements near Earth. To facilitate this process, we have developed a traceback from input 3-D MHD volumes to yield an updated boundary in density, temperature, and velocity, which also includes magnetic-field components. Here we will show examples of this analysis using the ENLIL 3D-MHD and the University of Alabama Multi-Scale Fluid-Kinetic Simulation Suite (MS-FLUKSS) heliospheric codes. These examples help refine poorly-known 3-D MHD variables (i.e., density, temperature), and parameters (gamma) by fitting heliospheric remotely-sensed data between the region near the solar surface and in-situ measurements near Earth.

  11. Model Pembelajaran CTL (Contextual Teaching and Learning dalam Meningkatkan Hasil Belajar Mahasiswa PGSD Pada MataKuliah Konsep IPS Dasar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Susiloningsih

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hasil belajar adalah suatu proses perubahan tingkah laku dalam pengetahuan, sikap, dan ketrampilan yang diperoleh dalam jangka waktu yang lama.Mata kuliah Konsep IPS Dasar merupakan mata kuliah yang memberikan pemahaman kepada mahasiswa PGSD tentang konsep dasar IPS sebagai landasan kajian yang bahannya bersumber dari kehidupan manusia di masyarakat, yang aspek-aspeknya meliputi social science (ilmu sosial, social studies (studi sosial, Ilmu Pengetahuan Sosial (IPS. IPS merupakan pembelajaran pada tingkat sekolah yang berperan mengfungsionalkan ilmu-ilmu sosial yang bersifat teoritik dalam kehidupan nyata dalam masyarakat. Model pembelajaran CTL adalah model pembelajaran yang menuntut kreatifitas guru dalam mengaitkan subject matter dengan kehidupan nyata mahasiswa guna membantu mahasiswa untuk lebih mudah memaknai materi tersebut.

  12. IPS – A SYSTEM FOR REAL-TIME NAVIGATION AND 3D MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Grießbach

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available fdaReliable navigation and 3D modeling is a necessary requirement for any autonomous system in real world scenarios. German Aerospace Center (DLR developed a system providing precise information about local position and orientation of a mobile platform as well as three-dimensional information about its environment in real-time. This system, called Integral Positioning System (IPS can be applied for indoor environments and outdoor environments. To achieve high precision, reliability, integrity and availability a multi-sensor approach was chosen. The important role of sensor data synchronization, system calibration and spatial referencing is emphasized because the data from several sensors has to be fused using a Kalman filter. A hardware operating system (HW-OS is presented, that facilitates the low-level integration of different interfaces. The benefit of this approach is an increased precision of synchronization at the expense of additional engineering costs. It will be shown that the additional effort is leveraged by the new design concept since the HW-OS methodology allows a proven, flexible and fast design process, a high re-usability of common components and consequently a higher reliability within the low-level sensor fusion. Another main focus of the paper is on IPS software. The DLR developed, implemented and tested a flexible and extensible software concept for data grabbing, efficient data handling, data preprocessing (e.g. image rectification being essential for thematic data processing. Standard outputs of IPS are a trajectory of the moving platform and a high density 3D point cloud of the current environment. This information is provided in real-time. Based on these results, information processing on more abstract levels can be executed.

  13. PENGEMBANGAN MODEL KOLABORASI JIGSAW ROLE PLAYING SEBAGAI UPAYA PENINGKATAN KEMAMPUAN BEKERJASAMA SISWA KELAS V SD PADA PELAJARAN IPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Ari Pratiwi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengembangkan model kolaborasi jigsaw, role playing untuk meningkatkan kemampuan bekerjasama siswa yang valid, efektif dan praktis. Metode penelitian adalah penelitian dan pengembangan (R&D. Tahap uji coba pengembangan terdiri atas uji coba ahli, uji coba skala terbatas dan uji coba skala luas. Keefektifan model kolaborasi jigsaw role playing  diperoleh rata-rata 51,83 dalam kategori baik diterapkan dalam pelajaran IPS, peningkatan kemampuan bekerjasama siswa hasil N-gain = 0,56 dengan kategori sedang, peningkatan hasil belajar IPS N-gain = 0,50 dengan kategori sedang dan hasil ketuntasan klasikal pembelajaran IPS 97,14%.  Hasil respon guru dan siswa terhadap model yang digunakan adalah berkriteria baik. Model final penelitian ini menghasilkan model kolaborasi jigsaw role playing yang dikemas dalam suatu buku pedoman.

  14. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) method for non-model fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and evidence of histone modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagalingam, Kumaran; Lorenc, Michał T; Manoli, Sahana; Cameron, Stephen L; Clarke, Anthony R; Dudley, Kevin J

    2018-01-01

    Interactions between DNA and proteins located in the cell nucleus play an important role in controlling physiological processes by specifying, augmenting and regulating context-specific transcription events. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a widely used methodology to study DNA-protein interactions and has been successfully used in various cell types for over three decades. More recently, by combining ChIP with genomic screening technologies and Next Generation Sequencing (e.g. ChIP-seq), it has become possible to profile DNA-protein interactions (including covalent histone modifications) across entire genomes. However, the applicability of ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq has rarely been extended to non-model species because of a number of technical challenges. Here we report a method that can be used to identify genome wide covalent histone modifications in a group of non-model fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae). The method was developed by testing and refining protocols that have been used in model organisms, including Drosophila melanogaster. We demonstrate that this method is suitable for a group of economically important pest fruit fly species, viz., Bactrocera dorsalis, Ceratitis capitata, Zeugodacus cucurbitae and Bactrocera tryoni. We also report an example ChIP-seq dataset for B. tryoni, providing evidence for histone modifications in the genome of a tephritid fruit fly for the first time. Since tephritids are major agricultural pests globally, this methodology will be a valuable resource to study taxa-specific evolutionary questions and to assist with pest management. It also provides a basis for researchers working with other non-model species to undertake genome wide DNA-protein interaction studies.

  15. Meningkatkan Prestasi Belajar IPS Materi Interaksi Sosial Melalui Penggunaan Model Pembelajaran Team Assisted Individualization (TAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliastuti .

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Berdasarkan hasil observasi dan wawancara dengan guru mata pelajaran IPS di SMPN 33 Surabaya Kota Surabaya, diperoleh bahwa nilai rata-rata penguasaan materi siswa kelas X1 pada materi Interaksi Sosial tahun pelajaran 2012/2013 masih rendah. Aktivitas siswa yang relevan dengan pembelajaran rendah. Salah satu upaya untuk meningkatkan aktivitas siswa dan penguasaan materi Interaksi Sosial adalah dengan menerapkan model pembelajaran kooperatif tipe TAI (Team Asissted Individualization. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mendeskripsikan penggunaan pembelajaran kooperatif tipe TAI untuk meningkatkan persentase rata-rata : (1 tiap jenis aktivitas siswa; (2 penguasaan materi siswa dari siklus ke siklus. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian tindakan kelas yang dilakukan sebanyak tiga siklus. Data penelitian ini terdiri dari data kualitatif, yaitu data aktivitas on task siswa yang diperoleh dari lembar observasi, serta data kuantitatif berupa nilai penguasaan materi interaksi sosial yang diperoleh melalui tes formatif. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan model pembelajaran kooperatif tipe memiliki dampak positif dalam meningkatkan prestasi belajar siswa yang ditandai dengan peningkatan ketuntasan belajar siswa dalam setiap siklus, yaitu siklus I 65,63%, siklus II 100%. Kata Kunci : Team Assisted Individualization ( TAI , Prestasi Belajar, IPS                                                                                                                        Based on observations and interviews with a social studies teacher at SMPN 33 Surabaya Surabaya, found that the average value of students' mastery of the material in the material class X1 Social Interaction in the academic year 2012/2013 is still low. Activities relevant to the learning of students is low. One effort to increase student activity and mastery of Social Interaction

  16. Comparison of photonic-layer protection and SDH-layer protection in an IP-over-optical overlay model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Michiaki; Otani, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Hideaki; Suzuki, Masatoshi

    2003-08-01

    The effectiveness of protection strategies that use a photonic layer and a synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) layer is experimentally investigated in an IP-over-optical overlay model. With SDH-layer protection, the path alarm-indication signal that reports upstream failures is able to hold the link states of customer edge (CE) routers and establish interworking operation between the SDH layer and the IP layer. However, photonic-layer protection requires guard-time setting for CE routers in order to avoid IP-layer restoration. When we apply a guard time that is longer than the photonic-layer protection time, interworking operation can be achieved. On the basis of these experimental results on the fault-recovery operation, the appropriate guard-time setting for photonic-layer protection is discussed.

  17. Evaluation of IP Portfolios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    2009-01-01

    As a result of an inquiry concerning how to evaluate IP (intellectual property) portfolios in order to enable the best possible use of IP resources within organizations, an IP evaluation approach primarily applicable for patents and utility models is developed. The developed approach is useful...... in order to discuss, visualize and align IPR issues with different management functions within the organization. Unlike existing approaches the present approach takes into account such value indicators as remaining lifetime, geographical range, broadness of scope and product strategic considerations...

  18. Voice over IP Security

    CERN Document Server

    Keromytis, Angelos D

    2011-01-01

    Voice over IP (VoIP) and Internet Multimedia Subsystem technologies (IMS) are rapidly being adopted by consumers, enterprises, governments and militaries. These technologies offer higher flexibility and more features than traditional telephony (PSTN) infrastructures, as well as the potential for lower cost through equipment consolidation and, for the consumer market, new business models. However, VoIP systems also represent a higher complexity in terms of architecture, protocols and implementation, with a corresponding increase in the potential for misuse. In this book, the authors examine the

  19. Mobile IP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijenk, Geert; Sallent, S.; Pras, Aiko

    1999-01-01

    The Internet is growing exponentially, both in the amount of traffic carried, and in the amount of hosts connected. IP technology is becoming more and more important, in company networks (Intranets), and also in the core networks for the next generation mobile networks. Further, wireless access to

  20. Ifabiyi, IP

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ifabiyi, IP. Vol 11, No 1 (2013) - Articles Analysis of the Impacts of Rainfall Variability on Public Water Supply in Ilorin, Nigeria Abstract. ISSN: 2006-7003. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of ...

  1. PENERAPAN MODEL THINK PAIR SHARE BERBANTUAN MEDIA UNTUK MENINGKATKAN AKTIVITAS, SIKAP, DAN HASIL BELAJAR IPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Ngafifi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan: (1 Aktivitas Belajar Siswa, (2 Sikap Siswa, dan (3 Hasil Belajar IPS siswa kelas VIII B SMP Negeri 2 Sukoharjo, Wonosobo. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian tindakan kelas (PTK yang terlaksana dalam dua siklus dengan menggunakan desain Kemmis & Taggart. Teknik pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah observasi, tes hasil belajar, angket, dokumentasi, dan catatan lapangan. Teknik analisis data menggunakan analisis deskriptif kuantitatif. Hasil penelitian ini adalah: (1 Terjadi peningkatan aktivitas belajar siswa; pada akhir siklus I dengan rata-rata 67,84 menjadi 81,20 pada akhir siklus II. (2 Ada peningkatan nilai sikap siswa. Rata-rata nilai sikap siswa pada akhir siklus I 77,20 menjadi 84,49 pada akhir siklus II. (3 Terjadi Peningkatan hasil belajar dari kondisi awal dengan nilai rata-rata 65,58, pada akhir siklus I menjadi 79,10, dan pada akhir siklus II menjadi 85,90.Kata Kunci: model Think Pair Share, media pembelajaran, hasil belajar

  2. PENGGUNAAN MODEL TEAMS ASSISTED INDIVIDUALIZATION (TAI TERHADAP HASIL BELAJAR IPS TERPADU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoirunnisa Ana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of cooperative learning type team assisted individualization to study result of IPS Integrated. The type of this research is experiment with Non-equivalent control group design. The data are collected by using observation, interview, documentation and multiple choice tests. The data analysis which is used is simple linier regression. The result of the research shows that the value of hypothesis test Tcount = 2,42 > ttable = 1,70 (α = 0,05, so Ha is accepted team assisted individualization in cooperative learning to study result of IPS Integrated.

  3. Landscape-scale Ips typographus attack dynamics: from monitoring plots to GIS-based disturbance models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakuš, R.; Zajíčková, L.; Cudlín, Pavel; Blaženec, M.; Turčani, M.; Ježík, M.; Střelcová, K.; Lieutier, F.; Schlyter, F.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 4, - (2011), s. 256-261 ISSN 1971-7458 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC10022 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Spruce * Ips typographus * Attack * Drought * Host Subject RIV: GK - Forest ry Impact factor: 0.507, year: 2011 http://www.sisef.it/iforest/pdf/?id=ifor0589-004

  4. Analisa Karakteristik Teori Antrian pada Jaringan IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS Menggunakan OPNET Modeler 14.5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Fajar Cahyadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan teknologi telekomunikasi yang semakin pesat, membuat para operator dan vendor telekomunikasi harus dapat menyediakan layanan telekomunikasi yang aman, cepat, dan multi guna, untuk mendorong terciptanya ekosistem layanan telekomunikasi yang beragam bagi para penggunanya. Next Generation Network (NGN merupakan sebuah teknologi masa depan yang mendukung beberapa layanan terintegrasi seperti voice, data, dan multimedia. Hal utama dari konsep NGN adalah konvergensi dan layanan yang berbasis IP sehingga diperlukan sebuah teknologi yang dikenal dengan IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS. Agar pengiriman data dalam layanan IMS menjadi lebih efektif dan efisien maka diperlukan sebuah teori antrian yang tepat untuk digunakan sebagai pengatur aliran paket data. Penelitian ini melakukan pengamatan terhadap beberapa layanan pada jaringan IMS dengan menggunakan tiga teori antrian yang berbeda yaitu First In First Out (FIFO, Priority Queuing (PQ, dan Weighted-Fair Queuing (WFQ. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap layanan Video Conference dan VoIP. Dari hasil simulasi dapat diketahui bahwa teori antrian WFQ pada layanan video conference menghasilkan rata-rata delay sebesar 9.22 ms , delay variation sebesar 0.036 ms dan packet loss sebesar 0.88%. Sedangkan untuk layanan VoIP menghasilkan rata-rata delay sebesar 144 ms, delay variation sebesar 0.021 ms, dan packet loss sebesar 0.05% serta menghasilkan rata-rata throughput sebesar 7.052 Mbps, sehingga teori antrian yang tepat digunakan dalam jaringan IMS dalam penelitian ini adalah WFQ.

  5. PENGARUH PELAKSANAAN MODEL PEMBELAJARAN KOOPERATIF TIPE THINK PAIR SHARE TERHADAP HASIL BELAJAR IPS SISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    andi fathur asdar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to describe: 1 Teacher ability in the implementation of cooperative learning Think Pair Share, 2 Ttudent activities in the implementation of cooperative learning Think Pair Share, 3 Tearning result on IPS before and after the implementation of cooperative learning Think Pair Share, 4 learning result on IPS before and after learning process with lecture method, 5 to find out the influence of the implementation of cooperative learning Think Pair Share toward learning result on IPS. The method used was true experiment with pre-test post-test control group design. The population in the study are 4th grade student at SDN Sungguminasa II Somba Opu District Gowa Regency. Samples used are 40 student 20 student each from experiment and comparing group. chosen by simple random sampling. The data obtained from samples were analyzed with descritive and inferensial statistic. The result shows: 1 teacher ability in the implementation of cooperative learning Think Pair Share have increased, 2 student activities in the implementation of cooperative learning Think Pair Share, 3 student learning result who teached by cooperative learning Think Pair Share have increased, 4 student learning result who teached by lecture method have not increased, 5 the implementation of cooperative learning Think Pair Share is influencing toward learning result on IPS in 4th grade student at SDN Sungguminasa II Somba Opu District Gowa Regency.

  6. Hidden Markov Model-based Packet Loss Concealment for Voice over IP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødbro, Christoffer A.; Murthi, Manohar N.; Andersen, Søren Vang

    2006-01-01

    As voice over IP proliferates, packet loss concealment (PLC) at the receiver has emerged as an important factor in determining voice quality of service. Through the use of heuristic variations of signal and parameter repetition and overlap-add interpolation to handle packet loss, conventional PLC...

  7. Modeling and comparison of IP and fuzzy-pi regulators of speed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deals with a comparison between a fuzzy logic controller and a conventional IP controller utilized for speed control with a direct stator flux orientation control of a doubly fed induction. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategy is measured under diverse operating conditions such as of reference speed ...

  8. Integrative analysis of histone ChIP-seq and transcription data using Bayesian mixture models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Hans-Ulrich; Schäfer, Martin; Porse, Bo T

    2014-01-01

    Histone modifications are a key epigenetic mechanism to activate or repress the transcription of genes. Datasets of matched transcription data and histone modification data obtained by ChIP-seq exist, but methods for integrative analysis of both data types are still rare. Here, we present a novel...

  9. Running TCP/IP over ATM Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Discusses Internet protocol (IP) and subnets and describes how IP may operate over asynchronous transfer mode (ATM). Topics include TCP (transmission control protocol), ATM cells and adaptation layers, a basic architectural model for IP over ATM, address resolution, mapping IP to a subnet technology, and connection management strategy. (LRW)

  10. Testing Brain Overgrowth and Synaptic Models of Autism Using NPCs and Neurons From Patient Derived iPS Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    impaired social interaction, as well as limited and repetitive interests and behavior . Recent studies have led to two major hypotheses for autism ...10-12, we next applied a Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) to provide a higher order view of the biological processes altered in...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0414 TITLE: Testing Brain Overgrowth and Synaptic Models of Autism Using NPCs and Neurons From Patient-Derived iPS

  11. Testing Brain Overgrowth and Synaptic Models of Autism Using NPCs and Neurons from Patient-Derived IPS Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-13-1-0415 TITLE: Testing Brain Overgrowth and Synaptic Models of Autism Using NPC’s and Neurons from Patient-Derived IPS...Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex...impaired social interaction, and limited and repetitive interests and behavior. Recent studies have led to two major hypotheses for autism

  12. Modulation of elementary calcium release mediates a transition from puffs to waves in an IP3R cluster model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Rückl

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The oscillating concentration of intracellular calcium is one of the most important examples for collective dynamics in cell biology. Localized releases of calcium through clusters of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor channels constitute elementary signals called calcium puffs. Coupling by diffusing calcium leads to global releases and waves, but the exact mechanism of inter-cluster coupling and triggering of waves is unknown. To elucidate the relation of puffs and waves, we here model a cluster of IP3R channels using a gating scheme with variable non-equilibrium IP3 binding. Hybrid stochastic and deterministic simulations show that puffs are not stereotyped events of constant duration but are sensitive to stimulation strength and residual calcium. For increasing IP3 concentration, the release events become modulated at a timescale of minutes, with repetitive wave-like releases interspersed with several puffs. This modulation is consistent with experimental observations we present, including refractoriness and increase of puff frequency during the inter-wave interval. Our results suggest that waves are established by a random but time-modulated appearance of sustained release events, which have a high potential to trigger and synchronize activity throughout the cell.

  13. Business innovation symposium ‘At what price? IP-related thoughts on new business models for space information’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lesley Jane

    2011-09-01

    Spatial data and imagery generators are set to become tomorrow's key players in the information society. This is why satellite owners and operators are examining new revenue-producing models for developing space-related products and services. The use and availability of broadband internet width and satellite data-based services will continue to increase in the future. With the capacity to deliver real time precision downstream data, space agencies and the satellite industry can respond to the demand for high resolution digital space information which, with the appropriate technology, can be integrated into a variety of web-based applications. At a time when the traditional roles of space agencies are becoming more hybrid, largely as a result of the greater drive towards commercial markets, new value-added markets for space-related information products are continuing to attract attention. This paper discusses whether traditional data policies on space data access and IP licensing schemes stand to remain the feasible prototype for distributing and marketing space data, and how this growth market might benefit from looking at an 'up and running' global IP management system already operating to manage end user digital demand. PrefaceThe terminology describing the various types of spatial data and space-based information is not uniformly used within the various principles, laws and policies that govern space data. For convenience only this paper refers to primary or raw data gathered by the space-based industry as spatial or raw data, and the data as processed and sold on or distributed by ground-based companies as space information products and services. In practise, spatial data range from generic to specific data sets, digital topography, through to pictures and imagery services at various resolutions, with 3-D perspectives underway. The paper addresses general IP considerations relating to spatial data, with some reference to remote sensing itself. Exact IP details

  14. Foundations of hardware IP protection

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Lionel

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date guide to the design of security-hardened, hardware intellectual property (IP). Readers will learn how IP can be threatened, as well as protected, by using means such as hardware obfuscation/camouflaging, watermarking, fingerprinting (PUF), functional locking, remote activation, hidden transmission of data, hardware Trojan detection, protection against hardware Trojan, use of secure element, ultra-lightweight cryptography, and digital rights management. This book serves as a single-source reference to design space exploration of hardware security and IP protection. · Provides readers with a comprehensive overview of hardware intellectual property (IP) security, describing threat models and presenting means of protection, from integrated circuit layout to digital rights management of IP; · Enables readers to transpose techniques fundamental to digital rights management (DRM) to the realm of hardware IP security; · Introduce designers to the concept of salutar...

  15. IP over DWDM Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Qiong Wang

    2012-01-01

    This study has discussed some shortages of IP over SDH used currently, and has proposed the necessities of IP over DWDM. It has given the structure of IP over DWDM, and has explained why it can increase its bandwidth when transiting IP packets over DWDM. The study has also discussed the two methods of realizing IP over DWDM transmission network.

  16. An integrated model of multiple-condition ChIP-Seq data reveals predeterminants of Cdx2 binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Mahony

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory proteins can bind to different sets of genomic targets in various cell types or conditions. To reliably characterize such condition-specific regulatory binding we introduce MultiGPS, an integrated machine learning approach for the analysis of multiple related ChIP-seq experiments. MultiGPS is based on a generalized Expectation Maximization framework that shares information across multiple experiments for binding event discovery. We demonstrate that our framework enables the simultaneous modeling of sparse condition-specific binding changes, sequence dependence, and replicate-specific noise sources. MultiGPS encourages consistency in reported binding event locations across multiple-condition ChIP-seq datasets and provides accurate estimation of ChIP enrichment levels at each event. MultiGPS's multi-experiment modeling approach thus provides a reliable platform for detecting differential binding enrichment across experimental conditions. We demonstrate the advantages of MultiGPS with an analysis of Cdx2 binding in three distinct developmental contexts. By accurately characterizing condition-specific Cdx2 binding, MultiGPS enables novel insight into the mechanistic basis of Cdx2 site selectivity. Specifically, the condition-specific Cdx2 sites characterized by MultiGPS are highly associated with pre-existing genomic context, suggesting that such sites are pre-determined by cell-specific regulatory architecture. However, MultiGPS-defined condition-independent sites are not predicted by pre-existing regulatory signals, suggesting that Cdx2 can bind to a subset of locations regardless of genomic environment. A summary of this paper appears in the proceedings of the RECOMB 2014 conference, April 2-5.

  17. Mixture model with multiple allocations for clustering spatially correlated observations in the analysis of ChIP-Seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranciati, Saverio; Viroli, Cinzia; Wit, Ernst C

    2017-11-01

    Model-based clustering is a technique widely used to group a collection of units into mutually exclusive groups. There are, however, situations in which an observation could in principle belong to more than one cluster. In the context of next-generation sequencing (NGS) experiments, for example, the signal observed in the data might be produced by two (or more) different biological processes operating together and a gene could participate in both (or all) of them. We propose a novel approach to cluster NGS discrete data, coming from a ChIP-Seq experiment, with a mixture model, allowing each unit to belong potentially to more than one group: these multiple allocation clusters can be flexibly defined via a function combining the features of the original groups without introducing new parameters. The formulation naturally gives rise to a 'zero-inflation group' in which values close to zero can be allocated, acting as a correction for the abundance of zeros that manifest in this type of data. We take into account the spatial dependency between observations, which is described through a latent conditional autoregressive process that can reflect different dependency patterns. We assess the performance of our model within a simulation environment and then we apply it to ChIP-seq real data. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Penerapan Model Pembelajaran Kooperatif Tipe Quick in the Draw Untuk Meningkatkan Hasil Belajar Sosiologi Siswa Kelas XI IPS 1 SMA Negeri 2 Karanganyar Tahun Pelajaran 2013/2014

    OpenAIRE

    Biru, Linggar Banyu

    2014-01-01

    Linggar Banyu Biru. K8410034. PENERAPAN MODEL PEMBELAJARAN KOOPERATIF TIPE QUICK ON THE DRAW UNTUK MENINGKATKAN HASIL BELAJAR SOSIOLOGI SISWA KELAS XI IPS 1 SMA NEGERI 2 KARANGANYAR TAHUN PELAJARAN 2013/2014. Skripsi, Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta. Juni 2014.Tujuan penelitian ini adalah perbaikan pembelajaran sosiologi untuk meningkatkan hasil belajar sosiologi pada siswa kelas XI IPS 1 SMA Negeri 2 Karanganyar tahun pelajaran 2013/2014 melalui pen...

  19. miR-10 in development and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anders Henrik

    2010-01-01

    The microRNA (miRNA) miR-10 family has attracted attention because of its conservation and the position of the miR-10 genes within the Hox clusters of developmental regulators. In several species, miR-10 is coexpressed with a set of Hox genes and has been found to regulate the translation of Hox ...... function to the miRNA repertoire.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 22 May 2009; doi:10.1038/cdd.2009.58....

  20. The miR-10 microRNA precursor family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tehler, Disa; Høyland-Kroghsbo, Nina Molin; Lund, Anders H

    2011-01-01

    The miR-10 microRNA precursor family encodes a group of short non-coding RNAs involved in gene regulation. The miR-10 family is highly conserved and has sparked the interest of many research groups because of the genomic localization in the vicinity of, coexpression with and regulation of the Hox...... gene developmental regulators. Here, we review the current knowledge of the evolution, physiological function and involvement in cancer of this family of microRNAs.......The miR-10 microRNA precursor family encodes a group of short non-coding RNAs involved in gene regulation. The miR-10 family is highly conserved and has sparked the interest of many research groups because of the genomic localization in the vicinity of, coexpression with and regulation of the Hox...

  1. PVM and IP multicast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunigan, T.H.; Hall, K.A.

    1996-12-01

    This report describes a 1994 demonstration implementation of PVM that uses IP multicast. PVM`s one-to-many unicast implementation of its pvm{_}mcast() function is replaced with reliable IP multicast. Performance of PVM using IP multicast over local and wide-area networks is measured and compared with the original unicast implementation. Current limitations of IP multicast are noted.

  2. VoIP Security

    OpenAIRE

    Fontanini, Piero

    2008-01-01

    VOIP or Voice Over Internet Protocol is a common term for phone service over IP based networks. There are much information about VoIP and some of how VoIP can be secured. There is however no standard for VoIP and no general solution for VoIP Security. The security in VoIP systems today are often non existing or in best case weak and often based on proprietary solutions. This master thesis investigates threats to VoIP system and describes existing alternatives for securing Vo...

  3. KEEFEKTIFAN MODEL CONNECTED DAN INTEGRATED DALAM PEMBELAJARAN IPS SMP DI KOTA YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrus idrus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to: (1 analyze the differences in social studies learning achievement between the students using connected and integrated models and those using conventional model; and (2 analyze the hierarchy of the effect of the learning models  among the connected, integrated, and conventional. This experimental research employed a matching post-test comparison group design. The population of this research was National Standardized Schools of Junior Secondary Schools in Yogyakarta. The technique used for sample drawing was multistage sampling. In this research, the independent variable was the learning model which consisted of three categories: integrated, connected, and conventional models. The dependent variable was the mean score of students’ learning achievement in social studies subject. Data collection was done by means of an achievement test. Instrument validation was done by discriminating power and difficulty index, while the reliability was calculated by KR-20. The pre-requisite  test included normality and homogeneity tests. The normality test used Kolmogorov-Smirnov and the homogeneity test used Levene Test. Data were analyzed in one way anova analysis and continued with Scheffe comparison test on the significance level of 0.05. The results of the experiment show that there are  significant difference among the students’ learning achievement who used integrated, connected, and conventional models. The continued test using Scheffe ensured that the integrated model was more effective than the connected and conventional models, while the connected model was more effective in improving the students’ learning achievement in social studies subject compared with the conventional model. Therefore, the hierarchy of the effect of the learning models is first the integrated model followed by connected and conventional models. Key words: Connected, Integrated Models, Social Studies Learning

  4. KEEFEKTIFAN MODEL CONNECTED DAN INTEGRATED DALAM PEMBELAJARAN IPS SMP DI KOTA YOGYAKARTA

    OpenAIRE

    Idrus idrus

    2011-01-01

    This research aimed to: (1) analyze the differences in social studies learning achievement between the students using connected and integrated models and those using conventional model; and (2) analyze the hierarchy of the effect of the learning models  among the connected, integrated, and conventional. This experimental research employed a matching post-test comparison group design. The population of this research was National Standardized Schools of Junior Secondary Schools in Yogya...

  5. Penggunaan Model Pembelajaran SAVI Untuk Meningkatkan Prestasi Belajar IPS Pada Siswa Kelas V SD Al Husna Kota Madiun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Nofri Ari Yanto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Berdasarkan hasil observasi yang dilakukan peneliti di SD Al Husna (IFDS, diketahui bahwa proses pembelajaran di kelas V masih bersifat konvensional sehingga kurang mengembangkan pola pikir dan kreatifitas siswa. Terdapat beberapa guru khususnya pada mata pelajaran IPS kelas V hanya berceramah dan siswa hanya mendengarkan, mencatat dan menghafalkan materi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan prestasi belajar siswa khususnya pada mata pelajaran IPS kelas VA dengan menggunakan model pembelajaran SAVI. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode Penelitian Tindakan Kelas (PTK, prosedur penelitian yang digunakan berupa siklus yang terdiri dari empat tahap yaitu tahap perencanaan, pelaksanaan, observasi dan refleksi.Teknik pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah tes kognitif dan alat pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah instrumen soal dan lembar observasi. Hasil analisis data yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa terjadi peningkatan pada hasil belajar yang berdampak pada prestasi belajar siswa.Hal ini dapat dilihat dari hasil presentase rata-rata pada siklus I yaitu 75% yang artinya ada 15 dari 20 siswa yang tuntas. Terjadi peningkatan pada siklus yang ke II yaitu 80% yang artinya ada 16 dari 20 siswa yang tuntas dalam pembelajaran. Pada siklus terakhir juga mengalami peningkatan yang signifikan dari siklus sebelumnya yaitu 90% yang artinya ada 18 dari 20 siswa yang tuntas pada siklus terkhir ini. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa implementasi model pembelajaran SAVI dapat meningkatkan prestasi belajar siswa pada mata pelajaran IPS kelas V SD Al Husna (IFDS. The result of observation in Al Husna Elementary School (IFDS is learning process on 5th grade which is still conventional so student’s mindset’s development and creativity is less. There are some teachers especially 5th grade’s teachers which only tell the learning material to the students and the students only listen, make a note and memorize the material. This research aims

  6. PENGARUH MODEL COOPERATIVE LEARNING TIPE TEAMS GAMES TOURNAMENT (TGT TERHADAP KECERDASAN INTERPERSONAL PADA MATA PELAJARAN IPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari anti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal intelligence is one of the goals in elementary school education. Interpersonal intelligence is a key element in the adaptation of children in their social relationships. SDN Kebon Jeruk 11 Pagi West Jakarta found a number of 19 students of 30 children (63% have barriers Interpersonal intelligence. Quantitative Research with One Shot Case Study Experiment using sample saturated with size 30 in research influence influence model cooperative learning type Teams Games Tournament (TGT to interpersonal intelligence. The results of this study prove that: The more effective the steps of cooperative learning model type TGT done then the better the interpersonal intelligence. So in this research result that model Cooperative Learning type Teams Games Tournament (TGT have positive effect to interpersonal intelligence.

  7. Mobile IP: Security & application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuquerres, G.; Salvador, M.R.; Sprenkels, Ron

    1999-01-01

    As required in the TGS Mobile IP Advanced Module, this paper presents a survey of common security threats which mobile IP networks are exposed to as well as some proposed solutions to deal with such threats.

  8. PENGARUH MODEL TEAMS GAMES TOURNAMENT TERHADAP KETERAMPILAN PENGAMBILAN KEPUTUSAN DALAM PEMBELAJARAN IPS DI SEKOLAH DASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galih Dani Septiyan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research is about the influence of application of Teams Games Tournament (TGT type cooperative model in elementary school to decision-making skill. The research method is quasi experiment with non randomized pretest-posttes control group design. The population of all grade III elementary school in Maja subdistrict and its sampling sampling in this research is student of class III SDN Cieurih I and SDN Kertabasuki II. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of TGT model on student decision-making skills in class III elementary school. The result of this research can be concluded that there is a difference of decision-making skills improvement between experimental and control group, besides cooperative learning of TGT is better than conventional learning in improving student decision-making skills in elementary school social study learning and there is difference of improvement of decision making skill among student group higher, middle and lower achiever using TGT model and conventional learning. Keywords: TGT type cooperative model, decision-making skill.

  9. A model for the parabolic slices Per1(e2πip/q) in moduli space of quadratic rational maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The notion of relatedness loci in the parabolic slices Per1(e2πip/q) in moduli space of quadratic rational maps is introduced. They are counterparts of the disconnectedness or escape locus in the slice of quadratic polynomials. A model for these loci is presented, and a strategy of proof of the f...

  10. On the phase space structure of IP3 induced Ca2+ signalling and concepts for predictive modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcke, Martin; Moein, Mahsa; TilÅ«naitÄ--, Agne; Thul, Rüdiger; Skupin, Alexander

    2018-04-01

    The correspondence between mathematical structures and experimental systems is the basis of the generalizability of results found with specific systems and is the basis of the predictive power of theoretical physics. While physicists have confidence in this correspondence, it is less recognized in cellular biophysics. On the one hand, the complex organization of cellular dynamics involving a plethora of interacting molecules and the basic observation of cell variability seem to question its possibility. The practical difficulties of deriving the equations describing cellular behaviour from first principles support these doubts. On the other hand, ignoring such a correspondence would severely limit the possibility of predictive quantitative theory in biophysics. Additionally, the existence of functional modules (like pathways) across cell types suggests also the existence of mathematical structures with comparable universality. Only a few cellular systems have been sufficiently investigated in a variety of cell types to follow up these basic questions. IP3 induced Ca2+signalling is one of them, and the mathematical structure corresponding to it is subject of ongoing discussion. We review the system's general properties observed in a variety of cell types. They are captured by a reaction diffusion system. We discuss the phase space structure of its local dynamics. The spiking regime corresponds to noisy excitability. Models focussing on different aspects can be derived starting from this phase space structure. We discuss how the initial assumptions on the set of stochastic variables and phase space structure shape the predictions of parameter dependencies of the mathematical models resulting from the derivation.

  11. Ensuring Software IP Cleanliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshad Koohgoli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available At many points in the life of a software enterprise, determination of intellectual property (IP cleanliness becomes critical. The value of an enterprise that develops and sells software may depend on how clean the software is from the IP perspective. This article examines various methods of ensuring software IP cleanliness and discusses some of the benefits and shortcomings of current solutions.

  12. PENERAPAN MODEL PROBLEM BASED LEARNING MENINGKATKAN MOTIVASI DAN HASIL BELAJAR IPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auliah Sumitro H

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to improve motivation and student learning outcomes in applying Problem Based Learning model. This research is a classroom action research conducted in two cycles. The subjects of the reasearch was the fourth graders of SD Inpres Bangkala III Makassar city in the academic year of 2016/2017. The research data obtained through observation and test. The result showed an increase in student motivation of the fourth aspect with detail, on aspect of attention increased by 11,28% from 73,04 in the first cycle to 84,32% in the second cycle, the relevance aspect increasde by 9,64% of 76.55% in the first cycle to 86,19% in the second cycle, the aspect of confidence increased by 10,62% of 71.56% in the first cycle to 82.18% in the second cycle, and on aspects of satisfaction increased by 14,88% of 71,79% in the first cycle to 86.67% in the second cycle. Learning outcome increased by 14,29% of 71,42 in the first cycle to 85,71 in the second cycle. This result indicate problem based learning model can improve motivation and student learning outcomes. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan motivasi dan hasil belajar siswa menerapkan model Problem Based Learning. Penelitian ini merupakan Penelitian Tindakan Kelas (PTK yang dilaksanakan dalam dua siklus. Subjek penelitian adalah siswa kelas IV SD Inpres Bangkala III Kota Makassar tahun pelajaran 2016/2017. Data penelitian diperoleh melalui observasi dan tes. Hasil penelitian ini terjadi peningkatan motivasi siswa pada keempat aspek dengan rincian, pada aspek attention sebesar 11,28% dari 73,04% pada siklus I menjadi 84,32% pada siklus II, pada aspek relevance meningkat sebesar 9,64% dari 76,55% pada siklus I menjadi 86,19% pada siklus II, pada aspek confidence meningkat sebesar 10,62% dari 71,56% pada siklus I menjadi 82,18% pada siklus II, dan pada aspek satisfaction meningkat sebesar 14,88% dari 71,79% pada siklus I menjadi 86,67% pada siklus II. Hasil belajar meningkat sebesar 14

  13. iPS Cells for Modelling and Treatment of Retinal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred K. Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For many decades, we have relied on immortalised retinal cell lines, histology of enucleated human eyes, animal models, clinical observation, genetic studies and human clinical trials to learn more about the pathogenesis of retinal diseases and explore treatment options. The recent availability of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC for deriving retinal lineages has added a powerful alternative tool for discovering new disease-causing mutations, studying genotype-phenotype relationships, performing therapeutics-toxicity screening and developing personalised cell therapy. This review article provides a clinical perspective on the current and potential benefits of iPSC for managing the most common blinding diseases of the eye: inherited retinal diseases and age-related macular degeneration.

  14. IMPLEMENTASI MODEL PEMBELAJARAN BERBASIS MASALAH LOKAL DALAM MENGEMBANGKAN KOMPETENSI EKOLOGIS PADA PEMBELAJARAN IPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhaimin Muhaimin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Human and the environment is an integrated system to form ecosystems in which humans are physically and socially dependent. One concern is the content of social studies related to the ecological interactions between humans and the environment. In the factual context, ecological competence developed in social studies only at the level of knowlegde ecological, moral, and behavior, which has not been valued and embodied in the form of concrete to protect and sustain the environment. The results showed no differences in ecological competence for aspects of knowledge, attitudes, and skills between the pre-test and post-test. The study recommends that the implementation of learning social science education in a broader scope based on local environmental issues are found in everyday life. Schools cultivate ecological competence through the formation of habits, role modeling, and school behavior and culture form a joint motion which is in line with the curriculum green and green living. Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15408/sd.v2i1.1409

  15. Integrative Analysis of PRKAG2 Cardiomyopathy iPS and Microtissue Models Identifies AMPK as a Regulator of Metabolism, Survival, and Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Travis Hinson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is a metabolic enzyme that can be activated by nutrient stress or genetic mutations. Missense mutations in the regulatory subunit, PRKAG2, activate AMPK and cause left ventricular hypertrophy, glycogen accumulation, and ventricular pre-excitation. Using human iPS cell models combined with three-dimensional cardiac microtissues, we show that activating PRKAG2 mutations increase microtissue twitch force by enhancing myocyte survival. Integrating RNA sequencing with metabolomics, PRKAG2 mutations that activate AMPK remodeled global metabolism by regulating RNA transcripts to favor glycogen storage and oxidative metabolism instead of glycolysis. As in patients with PRKAG2 cardiomyopathy, iPS cell and mouse models are protected from cardiac fibrosis, and we define a crosstalk between AMPK and post-transcriptional regulation of TGFβ isoform signaling that has implications in fibrotic forms of cardiomyopathy. Our results establish critical connections among metabolic sensing, myocyte survival, and TGFβ signaling.

  16. PENGARUH MODEL PEMBELAJARAN KOOPERATIF MAKE A MATCH BERBANTUAN SLIDE SHARE TERHADAP HASIL BELAJAR KOGNITIF IPS DAN KETERAMPILAN SOSIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udin Cahya Ari Prastya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research is conducted due to the problems faced by the fifth graders of Ampelgading 01 Public Elementary School. They find difficulties in understanding social science subject, indicated by students’ learning outcomes. Only 5% students of class pass the Minimum Passing Criteria of 70. Teacher-centered learning decreases the interaction between teachers and students and students with students, which related to the development of social skills such. Therefore, interactive learning model is needed to build good classroom atmosphere and improve students’ interactions. One model of interactive learning is a Make a Match.This research used quantitative and quasi-experiment methods, Quasi-experimental design used is nonequivalent control group design, using independent t-test assisted with SPSS 16 software for data analysis.The research result presents following the treatment in experimental class using cooperative teaching model ‘Make a Match’ using slide share, average grade of posttest obtained from control group is 66,15 while the experimental class gained the average of 75,18; control class obtained social skills scores with the average of 45 and 61 for experimental class. t test result indicates the cognitive learning measured from gain score of pretest and posttest have significant value of 0.000 and social skills shows significant value of 0.000. It is known that 0.000> 0.05, indicates that is related to the effect of cooperative teaching model ‘Make a Match’ using slide share to the social science cognitive and social skill. Pelaksanaan penelitian ini dikarenakan adanya masalah yang dihadapi oleh siswa kelas V di SDN Ampelgading 01. Meraka merasa kesulitas dalam memahami materi mata pelajaran IPS, hal ini dibuktikan dengan nilai hasil belajar siswa yang mendapatkan nilai di atas KKM dengan nilai KKM 70 hanya 5% dari jumlah total keseluruan siswa. Pembelajaran guru yang bersifat aksi menimbulkan tidak adanya interaksi antara

  17. High Reliability R-10 Windows Using Vacuum Insulating Glass Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, David

    2012-08-16

    The objective of this effort was for EverSealed Windows (“EverSealed” or “ESW”) to design, assemble, thermally and environmentally test and demonstrate a Vacuum Insulating Glass Unit (“VIGU” or “VIG”) that would enable a whole window to meet or exceed the an R-10 insulating value (U-factor ≤ 0.1). To produce a VIGU that could withstand any North American environment, ESW believed it needed to design, produce and use a flexible edge seal system. This is because a rigid edge seal, used by all other know VIG producers and developers, limits the size and/or thermal environment of the VIG to where the unit is not practical for typical IG sizes and cannot withstand severe outdoor environments. The rigid-sealed VIG’s use would be limited to mild climates where it would not have a reasonable economic payback when compared to traditional double-pane or triple-pane IGs. ESW’s goals, in addition to achieving a sufficiently high R-value to enable a whole window to achieve R-10, included creating a VIG design that could be produced for a cost equal to or lower than a traditional triple-pane IG (low-e, argon filled). ESW achieved these goals. EverSealed produced, tested and demonstrated a flexible edge-seal VIG that had an R-13 insulating value and the edge-seal system durability to operate reliably for at least 40 years in the harshest climates of North America.

  18. Agency IP Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Public data set for NASA Agency Intellectual Property (IP). The distribution contains both Patent information as well as General Release of Open Source Software.

  19. VoIP paslaugos pasiekiamumo analizė

    OpenAIRE

    Butėnas, Rimvydas

    2015-01-01

    This article examines VoIP service availability over PSTN and fibre access networks. To assess VoIP service availability there was made a call center VoIP network model. Analysis was made by using user-user VoIP service availability precast structure for SIP and media sessions. All functional elements were incorporated into precast VoIP service availability structure. Individual elements that influence VoIP service availability and whole system was characterized using MTBF, failure rate, reli...

  20. PENGELOLAAN PEMBELAJARAN PRAKTEK AKUNTANSI MENGGUNAKAN MODEL KONTEKTUAL UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KOMPETENSI SISWA PADA MATA PELAJARAN AKUNTANSI DI KELAS XI IPS 1 SMA NEGERI 7 BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Herawati

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aim to develop management of study of practice of accountancy applies contextual model which can be exploited in process of study to increase student interest at accountancy subject. This research done in class XI IPS1 SMAN 7 Bogor applies Classroom Action Research contextual model consisted of two cycles to refer to Model Kurt Lewin its (the activity covering: (1 planning, (2 action of execution, (3 observation, and ( 4 reflection. Based on finding result of research indicates that: (1 In executing management of study of practice of teacher accountancy have been able to apply contextual model to increase attainment of student learning interest; this thing is visible result of first cycle interest test result has not shown Criteria Complete Minimal (KKM, while second cycle interest test result hardly gladdens because result of acquirement above indicator Criteria Complete Minimal (KKM what specified. (2 Approach study plan of contextual correctly can be exploited in class XI IPS SMAN 7 that is management of study of practice of accountancy applies contextual model and student spread sheet as study guidance referring to study indicator. (3 Study activity is done not only in class but for study activity of accountancy computer can apply computer laboratory. (4 Percentage of enthusiastic and involvement of student learning at showing second cycle is improvement, this thing is a real good result mean attention of student to study and can entangle itself in study.

  1. Beyond iPS!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It’s undoubtedly a jubilant moment for scientists and clinicians working in the stem cell arena as Prof. Gurdon and Prof. Shinya Yamanaka have been chosen for the Nobel Prize in Physiology & Medicine this year. The mystery of cell biology is something unfathomable and probably the work of this duo as well as the other scientists, who have put their hands on in- vitro de-differentiation have opened our eyes to a new window or a new paradigm in cell biology. The iPS invention has brought a lot of hope in terms of potential direct benefits to treat several diseases, which have no definite options at the moment. But, we envisage that several spin-offs could come out of this invention and one very significant spin-off finding recently witnessed is the finding by Prof. Masaharu Seno and his team of researchers at the Okayama University, Japan (Chen L, et al. 2012, PLoS ONE 7(4:e33544.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0033544. According to Prof. Seno, mouse iPS cells (miPS when cultured in the conditioned medium derived from cancer cell lines, differentiate into cancer stem cells (CSCs. While differentiating into CSCs, they do retain the potential to develop endothelial progenitor cells. Several questions arise here: 1.Are these miPS derived CSCs really pluripotent, even if the terminal differentiation destined to specific phenotypes? 2.Shouldn’t the Cancer Stem Cells be termed as cancer progenitor cells, as till date they are considered to be producing only cancer cells but not pluripotent to yield other types of normal tissues? The spin-offs could be infinite as the process of differentiation and de-differentiation happening due to trillions of signals and pathways, most still remaining not-so-well understood. A special mention should be made to Prof. Shinya Yamanaka as he has several sterling qualities to be a role-model for budding scientists. Apart from his passion for science, which made him shift his career from orthopedics to a cell biologist, his

  2. Quantitative analysis of protein phosphorylations and interactions by multi-colour IP-FCM as an input for kinetic modelling of signalling networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Deswal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To understand complex biological signalling mechanisms, mathematical modelling of signal transduction pathways has been applied successfully in last few years. However, precise quantitative measurements of signal transduction events such as activation-dependent phosphorylation of proteins, remains one bottleneck to this success. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We use multi-colour immunoprecipitation measured by flow cytometry (IP-FCM for studying signal transduction events to unrivalled precision. In this method, antibody-coupled latex beads capture the protein of interest from cellular lysates and are then stained with differently fluorescent-labelled antibodies to quantify the amount of the immunoprecipitated protein, of an interaction partner and of phosphorylation sites. The fluorescence signals are measured by FCM. Combining this procedure with beads containing defined amounts of a fluorophore allows retrieving absolute numbers of stained proteins, and not only relative values. Using IP-FCM we derived multidimensional data on the membrane-proximal T-cell antigen receptor (TCR-CD3 signalling network, including the recruitment of the kinase ZAP70 to the TCR-CD3 and subsequent ZAP70 activation by phosphorylation in the murine T-cell hybridoma and primary murine T cells. Counter-intuitively, these data showed that cell stimulation by pervanadate led to a transient decrease of the phospho-ZAP70/ZAP70 ratio at the TCR. A mechanistic mathematical model of the underlying processes demonstrated that an initial massive recruitment of non-phosphorylated ZAP70 was responsible for this behaviour. Further, the model predicted a temporal order of multisite phosphorylation of ZAP70 (with Y319 phosphorylation preceding phosphorylation at Y493 that we subsequently verified experimentally. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The quantitative data sets generated by IP-FCM are one order of magnitude more precise than Western blot data. This accuracy allowed

  3. HOCOMOCO: towards a complete collection of transcription factor binding models for human and mouse via large-scale ChIP-Seq analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Kulakovskiy, Ivan V.

    2017-10-31

    We present a major update of the HOCOMOCO collection that consists of patterns describing DNA binding specificities for human and mouse transcription factors. In this release, we profited from a nearly doubled volume of published in vivo experiments on transcription factor (TF) binding to expand the repertoire of binding models, replace low-quality models previously based on in vitro data only and cover more than a hundred TFs with previously unknown binding specificities. This was achieved by systematic motif discovery from more than five thousand ChIP-Seq experiments uniformly processed within the BioUML framework with several ChIP-Seq peak calling tools and aggregated in the GTRD database. HOCOMOCO v11 contains binding models for 453 mouse and 680 human transcription factors and includes 1302 mononucleotide and 576 dinucleotide position weight matrices, which describe primary binding preferences of each transcription factor and reliable alternative binding specificities. An interactive interface and bulk downloads are available on the web: http://hocomoco.autosome.ru and http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/hocomoco11. In this release, we complement HOCOMOCO by MoLoTool (Motif Location Toolbox, http://molotool.autosome.ru) that applies HOCOMOCO models for visualization of binding sites in short DNA sequences.

  4. HOCOMOCO: towards a complete collection of transcription factor binding models for human and mouse via large-scale ChIP-Seq analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakovskiy, Ivan V; Vorontsov, Ilya E; Yevshin, Ivan S; Sharipov, Ruslan N; Fedorova, Alla D; Rumynskiy, Eugene I; Medvedeva, Yulia A; Magana-Mora, Arturo; Bajic, Vladimir B; Papatsenko, Dmitry A; Kolpakov, Fedor A; Makeev, Vsevolod J

    2018-01-04

    We present a major update of the HOCOMOCO collection that consists of patterns describing DNA binding specificities for human and mouse transcription factors. In this release, we profited from a nearly doubled volume of published in vivo experiments on transcription factor (TF) binding to expand the repertoire of binding models, replace low-quality models previously based on in vitro data only and cover more than a hundred TFs with previously unknown binding specificities. This was achieved by systematic motif discovery from more than five thousand ChIP-Seq experiments uniformly processed within the BioUML framework with several ChIP-Seq peak calling tools and aggregated in the GTRD database. HOCOMOCO v11 contains binding models for 453 mouse and 680 human transcription factors and includes 1302 mononucleotide and 576 dinucleotide position weight matrices, which describe primary binding preferences of each transcription factor and reliable alternative binding specificities. An interactive interface and bulk downloads are available on the web: http://hocomoco.autosome.ru and http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/hocomoco11. In this release, we complement HOCOMOCO by MoLoTool (Motif Location Toolbox, http://molotool.autosome.ru) that applies HOCOMOCO models for visualization of binding sites in short DNA sequences. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. Penerapan Model Pembelajaran Inkuiri untuk Meningkatkan Hasil Belajar IPS Siswa Kelas V Sdn 009 Binio Jaya Kecamatan Kelayang Kabupaten Indragiri Hulu

    OpenAIRE

    Ningsih, Aris Setia; Marhadi, Hendri; Kurniaman, Otang

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted because of the expected learning outcomes IPS has not reached KKM set by the school 70. It is necessary for research with the aim to improve the learning outcomes of students of class V SDN 009 Binio Jaya 2014/2015 school year by implementing inquiry learning model that held on 11, 18, March 25, 2015 in the first cycle and the 1st, 8th, April 15, 2015 for the second cycle. The subjects were students of class V SDN 009 Binio Jaya, amounting to 25. The results showed th...

  6. Gene expression profiling upon (212) Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab treatment in the LS-174T i.p. xenograft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Kwon J; Milenic, Diane E; Baidoo, Kwamena E; Kim, Young-Seung; Brechbiel, Martin W

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that therapy with (212) Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab resulted in (1) induction of apoptosis, (2) G2/M arrest, and (3) blockage of double-strand DNA damage repair in LS-174T i.p. (intraperitoneal) xenografts. To further understand the molecular basis of the cell killing efficacy of (212) Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab, gene expression profiling was performed with LS-174T xenografts 24 h after exposure to (212) Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab. DNA damage response genes (84) were screened using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction array (qRT-PCR array). Differentially regulated genes were identified following exposure to (212) Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab. These included genes involved in apoptosis (ABL, GADD45α, GADD45γ, PCBP4, and p73), cell cycle (ATM, DDIT3, GADD45α, GTSE1, MKK6, PCBP4, and SESN1), and damaged DNA binding (DDB) and repair (ATM and BTG2). The stressful growth arrest conditions provoked by (212) Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab were found to induce genes involved in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. The expression of genes involved in DDB and single-strand DNA breaks was also enhanced by (212) Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab while no modulation of genes involved in double-strand break repair was apparent. Furthermore, the p73/GADD45 signaling pathway mediated by p38 kinase signaling may be involved in the cellular response, as evidenced by the enhanced expression of genes and proteins of this pathway. These results further support the previously described cell killing mechanism by (212) Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab in the same LS-174T i.p. xenograft. Insight into these mechanisms could lead to improved strategies for rational application of radioimmunotherapy using α-particle emitters. © 2013 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. IP Infrastructure Geolocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    test . its . utexas . edu, to Chile because the PTR contains the sub- string "ccp", which is the airport code for Concepcion , Chile. Similarly, DRoP... Concepcion , km Jilin, China Chile Table 4.4: The result of geolocating 146.6.137.125. Target 146.6.137.125 Nearest Land- (ccp-test . its . utexas...edu) mark 128.83.10.110 Location (tnh-gi5-5-nocb10 . gw. utexas. edu) Location By DRoP By IP2Location By DRoP By IP2Location Concepcion , Austin

  8. PERBEDAAN HASIL BELAJAR EKONOMI SISWA YANG MENGGUNAKAN MODEL PEMBELAJARANKOOPERATIFTIPETHINK PAIR SHARE (TPS DENGAN TIPE STUDENT TEAMS ACHIEVEMENT DIVISION(STADSISWA KELAS XI IPS SMAN 11 PADANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Sofianti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to analyze the difference of learning points by using the cooperative learning models between Think Pair Share (TPS and Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD types of the XI-grade students of IPS SMAN 11 Padang. It is an experimental research. The population of this research is all XI-grade students of IPS SMAN 11 Padang, who were registered in the year 2013-2014. Two samples were selected by using the technique of Purposive Sampling method. The data of this research is primary data, and the data analyses are descriptive and inductive, conducted through t-test by first making tests of normality and homogeneity of both sample variants. Based on the data analyses, it is obtained that the learning points for the experimental class 1 is 76.80 and the experimental class 2 is 65.64 on the average, meaning that Sig 0.018 is smaller than α = 0.05. From the hypothesis tests, tcalc.is 2.444 and ttable is 1.67, so that H0 is rejected, meaning that there is the difference between TPS and STAD. From the results, it is expected that this could provide a solution for the problem of lowering learning points especially in economics subject. Finally, for improving the learning points of economical students, it is suggested for teachers to consider the learning models from Think Pair Share TPS and STAD.

  9. Mobile IP and protocol authentication extension

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Phuc V.

    2011-01-01

    Mobile IP is an open standard, defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) RFC 3220. By using Mobile IP, you can keep the same IP address, stay connected, and maintain ongoing applications while roaming between IP networks. Mobile IP is scalable for the Internet because it is based on IP - any media that can support IP can support Mobile IP.

  10. 26 CFR 1.414(r)-10 - Separate application of section 129(d)(8). [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Separate application of section 129(d)(8). [Reserved] 1.414(r)-10 Section 1.414(r)-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE.... § 1.414(r)-10 Separate application of section 129(d)(8). [Reserved] ...

  11. Ade-Ojo, IP

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ade-Ojo, IP. Vol 40, No 2 (2013) - Articles Myasthenia gravis following chicken pox infection in a Nigerian primary school girl. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0302-4660. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions ...

  12. Endogenous PGI2 signaling through IP inhibits neutrophilic lung inflammation in LPS-induced acute lung injury mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toki, Shinji; Zhou, Weisong; Goleniewska, Kasia; Reiss, Sara; Dulek, Daniel E; Newcomb, Dawn C; Lawson, William E; Peebles, R Stokes

    2018-04-13

    Endogenous prostaglandin I 2 (PGI 2 ) has inhibitory effects on immune responses against pathogens or allergens; however, the immunomodulatory activity of endogenous PGI 2 signaling in endotoxin-induced inflammation is unknown. To test the hypothesis that endogenous PGI 2 down-regulates endotoxin-induced lung inflammation, C57BL/6 wild type (WT) and PGI 2 receptor (IP) KO mice were challenged intranasally with LPS. Urine 6-keto-PGF 1α , a stable metabolite of PGI 2, was significantly increased following the LPS-challenge, suggesting that endogenous PGI 2 signaling modulates the host response to LPS-challenge. IPKO mice had a significant increase in neutrophils in the BAL fluid as well as increased proteins of KC, LIX, and TNF-α in lung homogenates compared with WT mice. In contrast, IL-10 was decreased in LPS-challenged IPKO mice compared with WT mice. The PGI 2 analog cicaprost significantly decreased LPS-induced KC, and TNF-α, but increased IL-10 and AREG in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) compared with vehicle-treatment. These results indicated that endogenous PGI 2 signaling attenuated neutrophilic lung inflammation through the reduced inflammatory cytokine and chemokine and enhanced IL-10. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Discrete Fourier Transform IP Generator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nordin, Grace; Hoe, James C; Pueschel, Markus

    2004-01-01

    .... These static IP libraries do not allow the designers flexibility in customizing trade-offs. We propose a parameterized DSP IP generator that allows designers to specify the cost/performance tradeoff...

  14. SoC: A Real Platform for IP Reuse, IP Infringement, and IP Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Debasri; Sur-Kolay, Susmita

    2011-01-01

    Increased design complexity, shrinking design cycle, and low cost—this three-dimensional demand mandates advent of system-on-chip (SoC) methodology in semiconductor industry. The key concept of SoC is reuse of the intellectual property (IP) cores. Reuse of IPs on SoC increases the risk of misappropriation of IPs due to introduction of several new attacks and involvement of various parties as adversaries. Existing literature has huge number of proposals for IP protectio...

  15. Inhibition of 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) Formation by Alkoxy Radical Scavenging of Flavonoids and Their Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship in a Model System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chundi; Shao, Zeping; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Shuo

    2016-08-01

    The inhibitory effect of 10 flavonoids on the formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in a creatinine-phenylalanine model system was investigated through electronic spin resonance and a quantitative structure-activity relationship. Alkoxy radicals were observed during the heating process, providing evidence for a radical pathway in the formation of PhIP. The alkoxy radical scavenging capability of the flavonoids was proportional to their inhibition of PhIP formation (IC50 ). We deduced that flavonoid inhibition of PhIP generation occurs via scavenging of alkoxy radicals during the heating process. Multiple linear regression and partial least squares models were used to elucidate the relationship between PhIP inhibition activity and structure characteristics of the flavonoids. The lipo-hydro partition coefficient and molecular fractional polar surface area of the flavonoids were found to be predictive of the inhibition effect. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Amino Acids Inhibitory Effects and Mechanism on 2-Amino-1-Methyl-6-Phenylimidazo [4,5-b]Pyridine (PhIP) Formation in the Maillard Reaction Model Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linghu, Ziyi; Karim, Faris; Smith, J Scott

    2017-12-01

    This study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of amino acids (AAs) on the formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and to evaluate the inhibition mechanism of PhIP in Maillard model systems. Different AAs were individually added into model systems heat-treated at 180 °C/1 h. The PhIP, phenylacetaldehyde (PheAce), and pyrazines derivatives were determined using HPLC and GC-MS. AAs significantly reduced (P Pro > Leu > Met > Val > Ile > Thr > Phe > Asp, at the highest molar ratio. The PheAce content was gradually reduced with increasing AAs levels, suggesting that AAs may inhibit PhIP formation through scavenging the available PheAce. A correlation between PhIP inhibition and PheAce-scavenging activity of AAs was observed when PheAce and AAs were heated. The variety and quantity of pyrazines formed are highly depending on the type of AAs. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. PENINGKATAN HASIL BELAJAR IPS MELALUI MODEL PEMBELAJARAN BERBASIS MASALAH (Penelitian Tindakan di SD Islam Insan Taqwa Cikarang Selatan Kabupaten Bekasi)

    OpenAIRE

    Cecep M. Hermawan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the research is to get the data about utilization problem based learning model in improvement learning result of social science students.The research are as follows: (1) enhanced of social science result in the third grade students elementary school, (2) enhanced of social science concepts understanding in the third grade students, (3) Applying of problem based learning model in social science in the third grade students. Based on the result of research indicates that: proble...

  18. APLIKASI SERVER VIRTUAL IP UNTUK MIKROKONTROLER

    OpenAIRE

    Ashari, Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    Selama ini mikrokontroler yang terhubung ke satu komputer hanya dapat diakses melalui satu IP saja, padahal kebanyakan sistem operasi sekarang dapat memperjanjikan lebih dari satu IP untuk setiap komputer dalam bentuk virtual IP. Penelitian ini mengkaji pemanfaatan virtual IP dari IP aliasing pada sistem operasi Linux sebagai Server Virtual IP untuk mikrokontroler. Prinsip dasar Server Virtual IP adalah pembuatan Virtual Host pada masing-masing IP untuk memproses paket-paket data dan menerjem...

  19. Mixture model with multiple allocations for clustering spatially correlated observations in the analysis of ChIP-Seq data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranciati, Saverio; Viroli, Cinzia; Wit, Ernst C.

    2017-01-01

    Model-based clustering is a technique widely used to group a collection of units into mutually exclusive groups. There are, however, situations in which an observation could in principle belong to more than one cluster. In the context of next-generation sequencing (NGS) experiments, for example, the

  20. iPS cell technologies and their prospect for bone regeneration and disease modeling: A mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Csobonyeiova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bone disorders are a group of varied acute and chronic traumatic, degenerative, malignant or congenital conditions affecting the musculoskeletal system. They are prevalent in society and, with an ageing population, the incidence and impact on the population’s health is growing. Severe persisting pain and limited mobility are the major symptoms of the disorder that impair the quality of life in affected patients. Current therapies only partially treat the disorders, offering management of symptoms, or temporary replacement with inert materials. However, during the last few years, the options for the treatment of bone disorders have greatly expanded, thanks to the advent of regenerative medicine. Skeletal cell-based regeneration medicine offers promising reparative therapies for patients. Mesenchymal stem (stromal cells from different tissues have been gradually translated into clinical practice; however, there are a number of limitations. The introduction of reprogramming methods and the subsequent production of induced pluripotent stem cells provides a possibility to create human-specific models of bone disorders. Furthermore, human-induced pluripotent stem cell-based autologous transplantation is considered to be future breakthrough in the field of regenerative medicine. The main goal of the present paper is to review recent applications of induced pluripotent stem cells in bone disease modeling and to discuss possible future therapy options. The present article contributes to the dissemination of scientific and pre-clinical results between physicians, mainly orthopedist and thus supports the translation to clinical practice.

  1. IMPLEMENTASI MODEL PEMBELAJARAN KOOPERATIF TALKING CHIPS DAN FAN-N-PICK DALAM MENINGKATKAN MOTIVASI DAN HASIL BELAJAR IPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus Logo Radja

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to describe how Talking Chips and Fan-N-Pick learning model to improve VIII D class students’ motivation and learning outcomes at SMP Kristen Citra Bangsa Kota Kupang. The study is a Classroom Action Research (CAR study. The study consists of four phases, i.e. plan, action, observation, and reflection. The phases in CAR are conducted in 2 cycles. The subject of the study is 20 VIII D class students of SMP Kristen Citra Bangsa Kota Kupang. The collected data consists of students’ motivation and learning result test. The result of the study shows that there is an improvement on students’ motivation in the first cycle and the high criteria is improved to very high criteria in the end of the second cycle. The improvement is also occurred in students’ learning outcome and implementation whether it is from the students or the teacher. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan bagaimana penerapan model pembelajaran Talking Chips dan Fan-N-Pick untuk meningkatkan motivasi dan hasil belajar siswa kelas VIII-D di SMP Kristen Citra Bangsa Kota Kupang. Jenis penelitian ini adalah Penelitian Tindakan Kelas (PTK. Penelitian ini terdiri atas empat tahap, yaitu tahap perencanaan, pelaksanaan, pengamatan/observasi dan refleksi. Tahapan dalam PTK ini dilaksanakan dalam dua siklus. Subjek dalam penelitian ini ialah siswa kelas VIII-D SMP Kristen Citra Bangsa Kupang yang berjumlah 20 orang. Data yang dikumpulkan dalam penelitian ini adalah motivasi siswa dan tes hasil belajar. Hasil penelitian menunjukan terjadinya peningkatan motivasi siswa pada siklus I dengan kriteria tinggi meningkat menjadi sangat tinggi pada akhir siklus II. Peningkatan juga terjadi pada hasil belajar siswa dan keterlaksanaan pembelajaran baik oleh guru dan siswa.

  2. Identification of a major IP5 kinase in Cryptococcus neoformans confirms that PP-IP5/IP7, not IP6, is essential for virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Cecilia; Lev, Sophie; Saiardi, Adolfo; Desmarini, Desmarini; Sorrell, Tania C.; Djordjevic, Julianne T.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal inositol polyphosphate (IP) kinases catalyse phosphorylation of IP3 to inositol pyrophosphate, PP-IP5/IP7, which is essential for virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans. Cryptococcal Kcs1 converts IP6 to PP-IP5/IP7, but the kinase converting IP5 to IP6 is unknown. Deletion of a putative IP5 kinase-encoding gene (IPK1) alone (ipk1?), and in combination with KCS1 (ipk1?kcs1?), profoundly reduced virulence in mice. However, deletion of KCS1 and IPK1 had a greater impact on virulence attenua...

  3. 15/16 ips Operation of the Precision Instrument Company Model P15100 tape recorder to record the standard (30 Hz) NCER seismic data multiplex system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Jerry P.

    1976-01-01

    In recent months the need has arisen to record special seismic networks consisting of a dozen or more standard NCER seismic systems telemetered to a central collection point on a reliable, portable, low-power tape recorder. Because of its simplicity and the ease with which it can be adapted for the purpose, the PI 5100 field recorder should be considered for such use. In the tests described here, a PI 5100 was speeded up to run at 15/16 inches per second (ips) and signals from the standard multiplex system test modulator bank were recorded on one tape track by means of a simple, improvised AM record amplifier. The results of these tests are extremely encouraging: the dynamic range of the system when played back on the Bell and Howell Model 3700 B reproduce machine, with subtractive compensation, is nearly as high as for the system employing the B&H 3700 B for recording. These notes indicate the principle employed to speed up the recorder, outline the circuit required to drive the tape heads in the AM record mode, and describe the tests carried out to evaluate the system's performance.

  4. Winterzwiebeln: Anbau IP oder Bio

    OpenAIRE

    Theiler, R.; Buser, Hp.; Ingold, U.; Schätti, P.; Hurni, M.; Koller, M.

    2003-01-01

    Bei der Sorte Radar führt das Stecken von «grossen» Steckzwiebeln zu einem höheren Ertrag in beiden Anbausystemen, IP und Bio. Auch wird der Anteil an grossen und Metzgerzwiebeln gesteigert, besonders ausgeprägt unter IP-Bedingungen. Dies ging einher mit einer leichten Zunahme (

  5. Gevaar VoIP voor telecomsector overdreven

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deventer, M.O. van; Wegberg, M. van

    2004-01-01

    Het is een hype Voice-over-IP (VoIP) voor te stellen als een ontwrichtende technologie die de telecomindustrie ingrijpend zal veranderen. Maar hoe ontwrichtend is VoIP eigenlijk? Oskar van Deventer en Marc van Wegberg analyseren drie vormen van VoIP en laten zien dat alleen ‘VoIP-chat’ potentieel

  6. Imaging in ChIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.; Burke, D.; Evans, I.; Evans, J. D.; McLaughlin, W.

    2011-07-01

    The Chandra Interactive Plotting System (ChIPS) included in CIAO now allows users to incorporate and manipulate images in their plots. ChIPS uses the Visualization Toolkit (VTK) as a back end to provide basic imaging support, which includes displaying images in pseudo color or RGBA true color, adjusting the translucency of images, and several ways to threshold images. Users also have the ability to enhance them with annotations and place curves and contours directly onto the image. ChIPS imaging support provides a mechanism to adjust the image display resolution as necessary to provide high quality publication ready output. Beyond basic imaging, ChIPS includes the ability to recognize and incorporate WCS metadata into plots. ChIPS accurately calculates the intersections of world coordinate grids and plot axes, ensuring that these elements distort correctly with a tangent plane projection. Multiple image overlays are handled by reprojecting the overlaid images onto the reference image's coordinate system. New zooming and panning functions, and existing limits commands, use the WCS information from the image overlays to update the axes to reflect the new field of view being displayed. Although ChIPS already provides a number of user interactive commands, additional interactive capabilities are being considered for future releases. Enhanced interactive interfaces alongside the ability to script ChIPS in Python provide a more capable and user-friendly system.

  7. A Laboratory Practical Illustrating the Use of the ChIP-qPCR Method in a Robust Model: Estrogen Receptor Alpha Immunoprecipitation Using MCF-7 Culture Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacazette, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by qPCR analysis (ChIP-qPCR) is a widely used technique to study gene expression. A large number of students in molecular biology and more generally in life sciences will be confronted with the use of this technique, which is quite difficult to set up and can lead to misinterpretation if not carefully…

  8. Effects of flavonoid mixtures on the transport of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) through Caco-2 monolayers: An in vitro and kinetic modeling approach to predict the combined effects on transporter inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, M.E.; Boersma, M.G.; Verhallen, D.A.M.; Groten, J.P.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes and kinetically models the effect of flavonoid mixtures on PhIP transport through Caco-2 monolayers. Previously it was shown that quercetin, luteolin, naringenin and myricetin increase the apical to basolateral PhIP transport in Caco-2 monolayers. In this study, apigenin was

  9. Effects of flavonoid mixtures on the transport of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) through Caco-2 monolayers: an in vitro and a kinetic modeling approach to predict the combined effects on transporter inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, M.E.; Boersma, M.G.; Verhallen, D.A.M.; Groten, J.P.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes and kinetically models the effect of flavonoid mixtures on PhIP transport through Caco-2 monolayers. Previously it was shown that quercetin, luteolin, naringenin and myricetin increase the apical to basolateral PhIP transport in Caco-2 monolayers. In this study, apigenin was

  10. IP validation in remote microelectronics testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osseiran, Adam; Eshraghian, Kamran; Lachowicz, Stefan; Zhao, Xiaoli; Jeffery, Roger; Robins, Michael

    2004-03-01

    This paper presents the test and validation of FPGA based IP using the concept of remote testing. It demonstrates how a virtual tester environment based on a powerful, networked Integrated Circuit testing facility, aimed to complement the emerging Australian microelectronics based research and development, can be employed to perform the tasks beyond the standard IC test. IC testing in production consists in verifying the tested products and eliminating defective parts. Defects could have a number of different causes, including process defects, process migration and IP design and implementation errors. One of the challenges in semiconductor testing is that while current fault models are used to represent likely faults (stuck-at, delay, etc.) in a global context, they do not account for all possible defects. Research in this field keeps growing but the high cost of ATE is preventing a large community from accessing test and verification equipment to validate innovative IP designs. For these reasons a world class networked IC teletest facility has been established in Australia under the support of the Commonwealth government. The facility is based on a state-of-the-art semiconductor tester operating as a virtual centre spanning Australia and accessible internationally. Through a novel approach the teletest network provides virtual access to the tester on which the DUT has previously been placed. The tester software is then accessible as if the designer is sitting next to the tester. This paper presents the approach used to test and validate FPGA based IPs using this remote test approach.

  11. Hardware IP security and trust

    CERN Document Server

    Bhunia, Swarup; Tehranipoor, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview of current Intellectual Property (IP) based System-on-Chip (SoC) design methodology and highlights how security of IP can be compromised at various stages in the overall SoC design-fabrication-deployment cycle. Readers will gain a comprehensive understanding of the security vulnerabilities of different types of IPs. This book would enable readers to overcome these vulnerabilities through an efficient combination of proactive countermeasures and design-for-security solutions, as well as a wide variety of IP security and trust assessment and validation techniques. This book serves as a single-source of reference for system designers and practitioners for designing secure, reliable and trustworthy SoCs.

  12. Research on implementation of proxy Arp in IP DSLAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chuanqing; Wang, Li; Huang, Qiugen

    2005-02-01

    While the ethernet is applied more and more in public network environment and xdsl service become the most common access mode ,IP kenel DSLAM undertakes some functions such as service distribution and convergence ,security management and customer management.Facing the contradiction of the need of port isolation and the shortage of ip address,VLAN aggregation technology is applied in DSLAM.How to implement the communicatio between the two vlan but share the same ip subnet,proxy arp does this. This paper introduces how to implement proxy arp in the DSLAM. TCP/IP communication detail procedure betweent two host ,the relation of VLAN and network segment are discussed. The proxy arp model and its implementation in IP DSLAM is also expatiated in this paper and a conformance tesing is given.

  13. Mathematical Representation of VoIP Connection Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Halas

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of this article is to define mathematical formulation of VoIP connection delay model. It handles about all partial delay components, the mechanism of their generation, facilities and their mathematical formulation. Thereafter based on mathematical formulation of all partial delay components, the final mathematical model of whole VoIP call delay is created. In conclusion of this article the results of the designed mathematical model are compared with the experimentally gained results.

  14. Heterogeneous IP Ecosystem enabling Reuse (HIER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-22

    Modern digital design involves billions of transistors, leveraging a large amount of com- mercially available and silicon proven IP because it is...including silicon CMOS/BiCMOS, compound semiconductors including InP/GaN/GaAs/InGaAs need to be properly modeled and simulated in an integrated...determine which items are time-intensive, cost-intensive, or both to formulate an appropriate schedule for solving the problem. The key challenges

  15. Offloading IP Flows onto Lambda-Connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fioreze, Tiago; Oude Wolbers, Mattijs; van de Meent, R.; Pras, Aiko

    2007-01-01

    Optical networks are capable of switching IP traffic via lambda connections. In this way, big IP flows that overload the regular IP routing level may be moved to the optical level, where they get better Quality of Service (QoS). At the same time, the IP routing level is off-loaded and can serve

  16. Briefer assessment of social network drinking: A test of the Important People Instrument-5 (IP-5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Kevin A; Barnett, Nancy P

    2016-12-01

    The Important People instrument (IP; Longabaugh et al., 2010) is one of the most commonly used measures of social network drinking. Although its reliability and validity are well-supported, the length of the instrument may limit its use in many settings. The present study evaluated whether a briefer, 5-person version of the IP (IP-5) adequately reproduces scores from the full IP. College freshmen (N = 1,053) reported their own past-month drinking, alcohol-related consequences, and information about drinking in their close social networks at baseline and 1 year later. From this we derived network members' drinking frequency, percentage of drinkers, and percentage of heavy drinkers, assessed for up to 10 (full IP) or 5 (IP-5) network members. We first modeled the expected concordance between full-IP scores and scores from simulated shorter IP instruments by sampling smaller subsets of network members from full IP data. Then, using quasi-experimental methods, we administered the full IP and IP-5 and compared the 2 instruments' score distributions and concurrent and year-lagged associations with participants' alcohol consumption and consequences. Most of the full-IP variance was reproduced from simulated shorter versions of the IP (ICCs ≥ 0.80). The full IP and IP-5 yielded similar score distributions, concurrent associations with drinking (r = 0.22 to 0.52), and year-lagged associations with drinking. The IP-5 retains most of the information about social network drinking from the full IP. The shorter instrument may be useful in clinical and research settings that require frequent measure administration, yielding greater temporal resolution for monitoring social network drinking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Security Risks in IP Telephony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Rezac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with VoIP communication security and various techniques of VoIP attacks. We divided these threats in several categories according to their specific behaviour and their impact on the affected system. We also tried to find effective methods to prevent or mitigate these attacks. We focused our work on Spam over Internet Telephony (SPIT as a real threat for the future. We have developed both a tool generating SPIT attacks and AntiSPIT tool defending communication systems against SPIT attacks. AntiSPIT represents an effective protection based on statistical blacklist and works without participation of the called party which is a significant advantage.

  18. Security risks in IP telephony

    OpenAIRE

    Řezáč, Filip; Vozňák, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with VoIP communication security and various techniques of VoIP attacks. We divided these threats in several categories according to their specific behaviour and their impact on the affected system. We also tried to find effective methods to prevent or mitigate these attacks. We focused our work on Spam over Internet Telephony (SPIT) as a real threat for the future. We have developed both a tool generating SPIT attacks and AntiSPIT tool defending communication systems against...

  19. Mobility management in mobile IP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medidi, Sirisha; Golshani, Forouzan

    2002-07-01

    There is an emerging interest in integrating mobile wireless communication with the Internet based on the Ipv6 technology. Many issues introduced by the mobility of users arise when such an integration is attempted. This paper addresses the problem of mobility management, i.e., that of tracking the current IP addresses of mobile terminals and sustaining active IP connections as mobiles move. The paper presents some architectural and mobility management options for integrating wireless access to the Internet. We then present performance results for Mobile IPv4, route optimization and Mobile IPv6.

  20. PENGARUH PENGGUNAAN MODEL COOPERATIVE LEARNING TIPE GROUP INVESTIGATION (GI TERHADAP HASIL BELAJAR IPS TERPADU KELAS VIII SEMESTER GENAP SMPYPI 1 BANDAR MATARAM LAMPUNG TENGAH T.P 2015/2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desi Fatmawati Maryatun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Metode cooperative learning tipe group investigation merupakan model pembelajaran kooperatif yang dapat melibatkan peserta didik secara aktif dalam kegiatan pembelajaran mulai dari merencanakan topik-topik yang akan dipelajari, bagaimana melaksanakan investigasinya, hingga melakukan presentasi kelompok dan evaluasi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui adanya pengaruh penggunaan model pembelajaran cooperative learning tipe Group Investigation terhadap hasil belajar IPS Terpadu peserta didik kelas VIII semester genap SMP YPI 1 Bandar Mataram  Lampung Tengah tahun pelajaran 2015/2016. Hipotesis yang penulis ajukan adalah “Ada pengaruh yang positif pada model pembelajaran cooperative learning tipe Group Investigation terhadap hasil belajar IPS Terpadu peserta didik kelas VIII semester genap SMP YPI 1 Bandar Mataram  Lampung Tengah tahun pelajaran 2015/2016. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas VIII SMP YPI 1 Bandar Mataram Lampung Tengah Tahun Pelajaran 2015/2016 yaitu berjumlah 48 orang siswa dan diantaranya terdiri dari 2 kelas. Dan yang menjadi sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah kelas VIIIa dan VIIIb. Kelas VIIIa sebagai kelas eksperimen dan kelas VIIIb sebagai kelas control, sampel diambil menggunakan teknik purposive sampling, Eksperimen dilaksanakan pada siswa kelas VIIIa Semester Genap SMP YPI 1 Bandar Mataram Lampung Tengah Tahun Pelajaran 2015/2016 yang berjumlah 24 peserta didik. Data penelitian ini dikumpulkan dengan menggunakan  metode observasi, wawancara, dokumentasi, dan tes. Sedangkan untuk mengetahui tingkat validitas dan reliabilitas penulis menggunakan rumus K-R 20. Kemudian untuk menguji/membuktikan hipotesis digunakan rumus Regresi Linier Sederhana yaitu  Ŷ = a + bx. Nilai Ŷ = 73,33+ 0,5 X yang dilanjutkan dengan rumus thitung > ttabel.pada daftar signifikan 5% yaitu 4 > 1,72  dan pada taraf signifikan 1% yaitu 4 > 2,52. Dengan demikian hipotesisnya diterima karena ada pengaruh yang positif

  1. The wavy Mutation Maps to the Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate 3-Kinase 2 (IP3K2) Gene of Drosophila and Interacts with IP3R to Affect Wing Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Derek M; Maroja, Luana S; Cottrill, Sarah; Bomkamp, Brent E; Westervelt, Kathleen A; Deitcher, David L

    2015-11-27

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) regulates a host of biological processes from egg activation to cell death. When IP3-specific receptors (IP3Rs) bind to IP3, they release calcium from the ER into the cytoplasm, triggering a variety of cell type- and developmental stage-specific responses. Alternatively, inositol polyphosphate kinases can phosphorylate IP3; this limits IP3R activation by reducing IP3 levels, and also generates new signaling molecules altogether. These divergent pathways draw from the same IP3 pool yet cause very different cellular responses. Therefore, controlling the relative rates of IP3R activation vs. phosphorylation of IP3 is essential for proper cell functioning. Establishing a model system that sensitively reports the net output of IP3 signaling is crucial for identifying the controlling genes. Here we report that mutant alleles of wavy (wy), a classic locus of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, map to IP3 3-kinase 2 (IP3K2), a member of the inositol polyphosphate kinase gene family. Mutations in wy disrupt wing structure in a highly specific pattern. RNAi experiments using GAL4 and GAL80(ts) indicated that IP3K2 function is required in the wing discs of early pupae for normal wing development. Gradations in the severity of the wy phenotype provide high-resolution readouts of IP3K2 function and of overall IP3 signaling, giving this system strong potential as a model for further study of the IP3 signaling network. In proof of concept, a dominant modifier screen revealed that mutations in IP3R strongly suppress the wy phenotype, suggesting that the wy phenotype results from reduced IP4 levels, and/or excessive IP3R signaling. Copyright © 2016 Dean et al.

  2. The wavy Mutation Maps to the Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate 3-Kinase 2 (IP3K2 Gene of Drosophila and Interacts with IP3R to Affect Wing Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek M. Dean

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3 regulates a host of biological processes from egg activation to cell death. When IP3-specific receptors (IP3Rs bind to IP3, they release calcium from the ER into the cytoplasm, triggering a variety of cell type- and developmental stage-specific responses. Alternatively, inositol polyphosphate kinases can phosphorylate IP3; this limits IP3R activation by reducing IP3 levels, and also generates new signaling molecules altogether. These divergent pathways draw from the same IP3 pool yet cause very different cellular responses. Therefore, controlling the relative rates of IP3R activation vs. phosphorylation of IP3 is essential for proper cell functioning. Establishing a model system that sensitively reports the net output of IP3 signaling is crucial for identifying the controlling genes. Here we report that mutant alleles of wavy (wy, a classic locus of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, map to IP3 3-kinase 2 (IP3K2, a member of the inositol polyphosphate kinase gene family. Mutations in wy disrupt wing structure in a highly specific pattern. RNAi experiments using GAL4 and GAL80ts indicated that IP3K2 function is required in the wing discs of early pupae for normal wing development. Gradations in the severity of the wy phenotype provide high-resolution readouts of IP3K2 function and of overall IP3 signaling, giving this system strong potential as a model for further study of the IP3 signaling network. In proof of concept, a dominant modifier screen revealed that mutations in IP3R strongly suppress the wy phenotype, suggesting that the wy phenotype results from reduced IP4 levels, and/or excessive IP3R signaling.

  3. Introduction to IP address management

    CERN Document Server

    Rooney, Tim

    2010-01-01

    "The book begins with a basic overview of IP networking, followed by chapters describing each of the three core IPAM technologies: IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, DHCP, and DNS. The next three chapters describe IPAM management techniques and practice, followed by chapters on IPv4-IPv6 co-existence, security and the IPAM business case"--

  4. Continuously Connected With Mobile IP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Cisco Systems developed Cisco Mobile Networks, making IP devices mobile. With this innovation, a Cisco router and its connected IP devices can roam across network boundaries and connection types. Because a mobile user is able to keep the same IP address while roaming, a live IP connection can be maintained without interruption. Glenn Research Center jointly tested the technology with Cisco, and is working to use it on low-earth-orbiting research craft. With Cisco's Mobile Networks functionality now available in Cisco IOS Software release 12.2(4)T, the commercial advantages and benefits are numerous. The technology can be applied to public safety, military/homeland security, emergency management services, railroad and shipping systems, and the automotive industry. It will allow ambulances, police, firemen, and the U.S. Coast Guard to stay connected to their networks while on the move. In the wireless battlefield, the technology will provide rapid infrastructure deployment for U.S. national defense. Airline, train, and cruise passengers utilizing Cisco Mobile Networks can fly all around the world with a continuous Internet connection. Cisco IOS(R) Software is a registered trademark of Cisco Systems.

  5. ChIP and ChIP-Related Techniques: Expanding the Fields of Application and Improving ChIP Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visa, Neus; Jordán-Pla, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    Protein-DNA interactions in vivo can be detected and quantified by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). ChIP has been instrumental for the advancement of epigenetics and has set the groundwork for the development of a number of ChIP-related techniques that have provided valuable information about the organization and function of genomes. Here, we provide an introduction to ChIP and discuss the applications of ChIP in different research areas. We also review some of the strategies that have been devised to improve ChIP performance.

  6. IPs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    the Philippines in June 2001, adapted from Bengwayan M. A, Intellectual and Cultural Property Rights of. Indigenous and ... indigenous subsistence economies, and the health, language and cultural resources. Their .... enjoy their own culture, to practice their own religion, to use their own language, to establish their own ...

  7. Internetworking with TCP/IP

    CERN Document Server

    Comer, Douglas E

    2014-01-01

    An internationally best-selling, conceptual introduction to the TCP/IP protocols and Internetworking, this book interweaves a clear discussion of fundamentals and scientific principles with details and examples drawn from the latest technologies. Leading author Douglas Comer covers layering and packet formats for all the Internet protocols, includingTCP, IPv4, IPv6, DHCP, and DNS. In addition, the text explains new trends in Internet systems, including packet classification, Software Defined Networking (SDN), and mesh protocols used in The Internet of Things. The text is appropriate for individuals interested in learning more about TCP/IP protocols, Internet architecture, and current networking technologies, as well as engineers who build network systems. It is suitable for junior to graduate-level courses in Computer Networks, Data Networks, Network Protocols, and Internetworking.

  8. OSI and TCP/IP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Lynwood P.

    1994-01-01

    The Open Systems Interconnection Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (OSI TCP/IP) and the Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) are compared and described in terms of Federal internetworking. The organization and functions of the Federal Internetworking Requirements Panel (FIRP) are discussed and the panel's conclusions and recommendations with respect to the standards and implementation of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) are presented.

  9. Chemoenzymatic asymmetric total syntheses of antitumor agents (3R,9R,10R)- and (3S,9R,10R)-Panaxytriol and (R)- and (S)-Falcarinol from Panax ginseng using an enantioconvergent enzyme-triggered cascade reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayer, S.F.; Steinreiber, A.; Orru, R.V.A.; Faber, K.A.

    2002-01-01

    Total asymmetric synthesis of two components of Panax ginseng showing antitumor activity, i.e., (3R,9R,10R)- and (3S,9R,10R)-Panaxytriol and of both enantiomers of Falcarinol was accomplished. Due to the fact that the synthetic strategy was based on enantioconvergent biotransformations, the

  10. The Reliability Analysis for Corporative IP-Telephony System with Functional Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Alexandrovich

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to issues of reliability modeling for fault tolerant corporative IP-telephony system. Two reliability models are presented based on the minimal paths and minimal cuts technique. Two reliability models are proposed based on the link connection concept. IP-telephony corporative system fault tolerance research is conducted with the aid of proposed reliability models.

  11. VoIP in a Campus Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Internet Protocol (IP) Telephony, or voice-over IP (VoIP), has proved to be a wise decision for many organizations. This technology crosses the boundaries of public and private networks, enterprise and residential markets, voice and data technologies, as well as local and long-distance services. The convergence of voice and data into a single,…

  12. Complete activation scheme for IP design protection

    OpenAIRE

    Brice Colombier; Ugo Mureddu; Marek Laban; Oto Petura; Lilian Bossuet; Viktor Fischer

    2017-01-01

    International audience; —Intellectual Property (IP) illegal copying is a major threat in today's integrated circuits industry which is massively based on a design-and-reuse paradigm. In order to fight this threat, a designer must track how many times an IP has been instantiated. Moreover, illegal copies of an IP must be unusable. We propose a hardware/software scheme which allows a designer to remotely activate an IP with minimal area overhead. The software modifies the IP efficiently and can...

  13. Mobile-ip Aeronautical Network Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Tran, Diepchi T.

    2001-01-01

    NASA is interested in applying mobile Internet protocol (mobile-ip) technologies to its space and aeronautics programs. In particular, mobile-ip will play a major role in the Advanced Aeronautic Transportation Technology (AATT), the Weather Information Communication (WINCOMM), and the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) aeronautics programs. This report presents the results of a simulation study of mobile-ip for an aeronautical network. The study was performed to determine the performance of the transmission control protocol (TCP) in a mobile-ip environment and to gain an understanding of how long delays, handoffs, and noisy channels affect mobile-ip performance.

  14. Challenges Regarding IP Core Functional Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie D.; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    For many years, intellectual property (IP) cores have been incorporated into field programmable gate array (FPGA) and application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design flows. However, the usage of large complex IP cores were limited within products that required a high level of reliability. This is no longer the case. IP core insertion has become mainstream including their use in highly reliable products. Due to limited visibility and control, challenges exist when using IP cores and subsequently compromise product reliability. We discuss challenges and suggest potential solutions to critical application IP insertion.

  15. Epigenetic modification of miR-10a regulates renal damage by targeting CREB1 in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Qun; Zheng, Guihong; Zhu, Aihua; Cao, Li; Lu, Jun; Wu, Dongmei; Zhang, ZiFeng; Fan, Shaohua; Sun, Chunhui; Hu, Bin; Zheng, Yuanlin

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that microRNA-mediated gene expression modulation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but the novel miRNAs involved in type 2 diabetes and its functional regulatory mechanisms still need to be determined. In this study, we assessed the role of miR-10a in extracellular matrix accumulation in the kidney of diabetic mellitus induced by combining administration of chronic high fat diet (HFD) and low dosage of streptozotocin (STZ, 35 mg/kg). Here, we found that HFD/STZ administration decreased the level of microRNA (miR-10a) expression in ICR strain mice. Overexpression of miR-10a alleviated the increased ratio of urine albumin-to-creatinine (ACR) ratio of HFD/STZ mice. In contrast, knockdown of miR-10a increased the ratio of kidney ACR in naïve mice. Furthermore, cAMP response element binding protein 1 (CREB1) was validated as a target of miR-10a in vitro and in vivo. CREB1 and its downstream fibronectin (FN, extracellular matrix) were increased in HFD/STZ-treated mice, which was reversed by kidney miR-10a overexpression. The content of CREB1 and FN was increased by miR-10a knockdown in kidney of naïve mice. Furthermore, histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) was revealed to be increased in kidney of HFD/STZ mice, accompanied with the augmentation of ACR ratio and FN level. Knockdown of HDAC3 with siRNA significantly caused the increase of miR-10a, resulting in the decrease in CREB1 and FN expression in kidney of HFD/STZ mice. Contrarily, HDAC3 overexpression mediated by lentivirus decreased miR-10a content, and enhanced ACR value, CREB1 and FN formation in naïve mice. Collectively, these results elucidate that HDAC3/miR-10a/CREB1 serves as a new mechanism underlying kidney injury, providing potential therapeutic targets in type 2 diabetes. - Highlights: • Diabetes induces the decrease of miR-10a level in the kidney. • MiR-10a overexpression improves kidney damage of diabetes. • MiR-10a targeting CREB1/FN

  16. TCP/IP Network Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, Craig

    2002-01-01

    This complete guide to setting up and running a TCP/IP network is essential for network administrators, and invaluable for users of home systems that access the Internet. The book starts with the fundamentals -- what protocols do and how they work, how addresses and routing are used to move data through the network, how to set up your network connection -- and then covers, in detail, everything you need to know to exchange information via the Internet. Included are discussions on advanced routing protocols (RIPv2, OSPF, and BGP) and the gated software package that implements them, a tutorial

  17. NVThermIP vs TOD: matching the target acquisition range criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, P.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Currently, three major approaches exist to predict Target Acquisition (TA) performance with thermal imagers: i) the TOD laboratory method and model, ii) the NVThermIP model and iii) the MTDP lab method and TRM3 model. In this study, TOD measurements, TOD predictions and NVThermIP predictions are

  18. The Spacelab IPS Star Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessling, Francis C., III

    The cost of doing business in space is very high. If errors occur while in orbit the costs grow and desired scientific data may be corrupted or even lost. The Spacelab Instrument Pointing System (IPS) Star Simulator is a unique test bed that allows star trackers to interface with simulated stars in a laboratory before going into orbit. This hardware-in-the loop testing of equipment on earth increases the probability of success while in space. The IPS Star Simulator provides three fields of view 2.55 x 2.55 degrees each for input into star trackers. The fields of view are produced on three separate monitors. Each monitor has 4096 x 4096 addressable points and can display 50 stars (pixels) maximum at a given time. The pixel refresh rate is 1000 Hz. The spectral output is approximately 550 nm. The available relative visual magnitude range is 2 to 8 visual magnitudes. The star size is less than 100 arc seconds. The minimum star movement is less than 5 arc seconds and the relative position accuracy is approximately 40 arc seconds. The purpose of this paper is to describe the LPS Star Simulator design and to provide an operational scenario so others may gain from the approach and possible use of the system.

  19. Implementasi Sistem IP PBX menggunakan Briker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI ARYANTA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol adalah komunikasi suara jarak jauh yang digunakan melalui jaringan IP. Pada penelitian ini dirancang sistem IP PBX dengan menggunakan teknologi berbasis VoIP. IP PBX adalah perangkat switching komunikasi telepon dan data berbasis teknologi Internet Protocol (IP yang mengendalikan ekstension telepon analog maupun ekstension IP Phone. Software VirtualBox digunakan dengan tujuan agar lebih memudahkan dalam sistem pengoperasian Linux yang dimana program untuk membuat IP PBX adalah menggunakan Briker yang bekerja pada Operating System Linux 2.6. Setelah proses penginstalan Briker pada Virtualbox dilakukan implementasi jaringan IP PBX. Setelah mengimplementasikan jaringan IP PBX sesuai dengan topologi, kemudian melakukan pengujian success call rate dan analisis Quality of Service (QoS. Pengukuran QoS menggunakan parameter jitter, delay, dan packet loss yang dihasilkan dalam sistem IP PBX ini. Nilai jitter sesama user Briker (baik pada smartphone maupun komputer mempunyai rata-rata berada pada nilai 16,77 ms. Sedangkan nilai packetloss yang didapat pada saat terdapat pada saat user 1 sebagai pemanggil telepon adalah 0%. Sedangkan persentase packet loss pada saat user 1 sebagai penerima telepon adalah 0,01%. Nilai delay pada saat berkomunikasi antar user berada pada 11,75 ms. Secara keseluruhan nilai yang didapatkan melalui penelitian ini, dimana hasil pengujian parameter-parameter QOS sesuai dengan standar yang telah direkomendasikan oleh ITU dan didapatkan nilai QoS dengan hasil “baik”. Kata Kunci : Briker, VoIP, QoS, IP PBX, Smartphone. Abstract VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol is a long-distance voice communications over IP networks are used. In this study, IP PBX systems designed using VoIP -based technologies. IP PBX is a telephone switching device and data communication technology-based Internet Protocol (IP which controls the analog phone extensions and IP Phone extensions. VirtualBox software is

  20. Vaccines and IP Rights: A Multifaceted Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durell, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Just as there are many forms of vaccines and components to vaccines-particular compositions, delivery systems, components, and distribution networks-there are a variety of intellectual property (IP) protections applicable for vaccines. IP rights such as patent, copyright, trademarks, plant breeders' rights, and trade secrets may all be applicable to vaccines. Thus, discussion of IP rights and vaccines should not begin and end with the application of one IP right to a vaccine. The discussion should engage considerations of multiple IP rights applicable to a vaccine and how these can be utilized in an integrated manner in a strategy aimed at supporting the development and distribution of the vaccine. Such an approach to IP rights to vaccines allows for the integrated rights to be considered in light of the justifications for protecting vaccines with IP rights, as well as the issues relating to specific IP rights for vaccines, such as compulsory license regimes, available humanitarian purpose IP credits, etc. To view vaccines as the subject of multiple IP protections involves a refocusing, but the outcome can provide significant benefits for vaccine development and distribution.

  1. Applying a gaming approach to IP strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasnier, Arnaud; Vandamme, Luc

    2010-02-01

    Adopting an appropriate IP strategy is an important but complex area, particularly in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology sectors, in which aspects such as regulatory submissions, high competitive activity, and public health and safety information requirements limit the amount of information that can be protected effectively through secrecy. As a result, and considering the existing time limits for patent protection, decisions on how to approach IP in these sectors must be made with knowledge of the options and consequences of IP positioning. Because of the specialized nature of IP, it is necessary to impart knowledge regarding the options and impact of IP to decision-makers, whether at the level of inventors, marketers or strategic business managers. This feature review provides some insight on IP strategy, with a focus on the use of a new 'gaming' approach for transferring the skills and understanding needed to make informed IP-related decisions; the game Patentopolis is discussed as an example of such an approach. Patentopolis involves interactive activities with IP-related business decisions, including the exploitation and enforcement of IP rights, and can be used to gain knowledge on the impact of adopting different IP strategies.

  2. Accessory subunit KChIP2 modulates the cardiac L-type calcium current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten B; Wang, Chaojian; Ozgen, Nazira

    2009-01-01

    to the plasma membrane. We propose a model in which KChIP2 impedes the N-terminal inhibitory module of Ca(V)1.2, resulting in increased I(Ca,L). In the context of recent reports that KChIP2 modulates multiple K(V) and Na(V) currents, these results suggest that KChIP2 is a multimodal regulator of cardiac ionic...

  3. Evaluation and Investigation of the Delay in VoIP Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Janata

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused mainly on the delay problems, which considerably influence the final quality of connections in VoIP (Voice over IP networks. The paper provides a detailed exploration of the nature and mechanisms of the delay. The main purpose of the investigation was an attempt to formulate a mathematical model of delay in the VoIP network and its subsequent analysis by laboratory data.

  4. ChIP-PIT: Enhancing the Analysis of ChIP-Seq Data Using Convex-Relaxed Pair-Wise Interaction Tensor Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Guo, Wei-Li; Deng, Su-Ping; Huang, De-Shuang

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, thanks to the efforts of individual scientists and research consortiums, a huge amount of chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) experimental data have been accumulated. Instead of investigating them independently, several recent studies have convincingly demonstrated that a wealth of scientific insights can be gained by integrative analysis of these ChIP-seq data. However, when used for the purpose of integrative analysis, a serious drawback of current ChIP-seq technique is that it is still expensive and time-consuming to generate ChIP-seq datasets of high standard. Most researchers are therefore unable to obtain complete ChIP-seq data for several TFs in a wide variety of cell lines, which considerably limits the understanding of transcriptional regulation pattern. In this paper, we propose a novel method called ChIP-PIT to overcome the aforementioned limitation. In ChIP-PIT, ChIP-seq data corresponding to a diverse collection of cell types, TFs and genes are fused together using the three-mode pair-wise interaction tensor (PIT) model, and the prediction of unperformed ChIP-seq experimental results is formulated as a tensor completion problem. Computationally, we propose efficient first-order method based on extensions of coordinate descent method to learn the optimal solution of ChIP-PIT, which makes it particularly suitable for the analysis of massive scale ChIP-seq data. Experimental evaluation the ENCODE data illustrate the usefulness of the proposed model.

  5. Analysis of Handoff Mechanisms in Mobile IP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraj, Maria Nadine Simonel; Issac, Biju; Haldar, Manas Kumar

    2011-06-01

    One of the most important challenges in mobile Internet Protocol (IP) is to provide service for a mobile node to maintain its connectivity to network when it moves from one domain to another. IP is responsible for routing packets across network. The first major version of IP is the Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4). It is one of the dominant protocols relevant to wireless network. Later a newer version of IP called the IPv6 was proposed. Mobile IPv6 is mainly introduced for the purpose of mobility. Mobility management enables network to locate roaming nodes in order to deliver packets and maintain connections with them when moving into new domains. Handoff occurs when a mobile node moves from one network to another. It is a key factor of mobility because a mobile node can trigger several handoffs during a session. This paper briefly explains on mobile IP and its handoff issues, along with the drawbacks of mobile IP.

  6. Performance of VoIP on HSDPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Bang; Pedersen, Klaus I.; Kolding, Troels E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides packet scheduler design and performance simulations for running VoIP services over high-speed downlink packet access (HSDPA) in WCDMA. The main challenge of supporting VoIP service on HSDPA is the tight delay requirement combined with the small VoIP packet size. A packet...... scheduler design incorporating VoIP packet aggregation and user multiplexing is proposed and the VoIP capacity is studied for a macro-cellular environment. Results are obtained for different delay budgets and packet scheduling settings, using either blind round robin or a slightly modified version...... of proportional fair scheduling. For proportional fair scheduling with code-multiplexing of 4-users, the downlink VoIP cell capacity on HSDPA is found to be in the range 72-104 users depending on whether the delay budget for the Node-B scheduling and user reception equals 80 ms or 150 ms, respectively....

  7. Security of IP Telephony in Ecuador: Online Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Estrada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Telephony is a global service and thus telephone networks have been a coveted target for criminals. Now that voice can be transported over IP and that multiple services are integrated in a convergent model through Internet, there are more incentives to attack and more attackers. Moreover, the development of open source telephone applications has encouraged the massive use of IP telephony, but not an increased awareness about embedded security risks. Due to the current and intensive adoption of IP telephony systems in Ecuador, we conducted an exploration based on public information to obtain statistics about telephone systems connected to Internet in Ecuador. Additionally, using a deliberately vulnerable IP telephony system, we collected more data to do a preliminary analysis of threats to such systems. We found that hundreds of telephone systems were publicly available on the Internet and using outdated versions of Asterisk-based applications. We also found thousands of malicious interactions on the IP telephony system we deployed on the Internet.

  8. Universal Space IP Transparent Proxy Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Communications applications are strategically moving toward Internet Protocol-based architectures and technologies. Despite IP's huge potential, (e.g. cost...

  9. Universal Space IP Transparent Proxy, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Communications applications are strategically moving toward Internet Protocol-based architectures and technologies. Despite IP's huge potential, (e.g. cost...

  10. ChIP-PaM: an algorithm to identify protein-DNA interaction using ChIP-Seq data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pounds Stanley

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ChIP-Seq is a powerful tool for identifying the interaction between genomic regulators and their bound DNAs, especially for locating transcription factor binding sites. However, high cost and high rate of false discovery of transcription factor binding sites identified from ChIP-Seq data significantly limit its application. Results Here we report a new algorithm, ChIP-PaM, for identifying transcription factor target regions in ChIP-Seq datasets. This algorithm makes full use of a protein-DNA binding pattern by capitalizing on three lines of evidence: 1 the tag count modelling at the peak position, 2 pattern matching of a specific tag count distribution, and 3 motif searching along the genome. A novel data-based two-step eFDR procedure is proposed to integrate the three lines of evidence to determine significantly enriched regions. Our algorithm requires no technical controls and efficiently discriminates falsely enriched regions from regions enriched by true transcription factor (TF binding on the basis of ChIP-Seq data only. An analysis of real genomic data is presented to demonstrate our method. Conclusions In a comparison with other existing methods, we found that our algorithm provides more accurate binding site discovery while maintaining comparable statistical power.

  11. A Reactive and Cycle-True IP Emulator for MPSoC Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahadevan, Shankar; Angiolini, Federico; Sparsø, Jens

    2008-01-01

    The design of MultiProcessor Systems-on-Chip (MPSoC) emphasizes intellectual-property (IP)-based communication-centric approaches. Therefore, for the optimization of the MPSoC interconnect, the designer must develop traffic models that realistically capture the application behavior as executing...... on the IP core. In this paper, we introduce a Reactive IP Emulator (RIPE) that enables an effective emulation of the IP-core behavior in multiple environments, including bit and cycle-true simulation. The RIPE is built as a multithreaded abstract instruction-set processor, and it can generate reactive...

  12. Epigenetic modification of miR-10a regulates renal damage by targeting CREB1 in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Qun; Zheng, Guihong; Zhu, Aihua; Cao, Li; Lu, Jun; Wu, Dongmei; Zhang, ZiFeng; Fan, Shaohua; Sun, Chunhui; Hu, Bin; Zheng, Yuanlin

    2016-09-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that microRNA-mediated gene expression modulation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but the novel miRNAs involved in type 2 diabetes and its functional regulatory mechanisms still need to be determined. In this study, we assessed the role of miR-10a in extracellular matrix accumulation in the kidney of diabetic mellitus induced by combining administration of chronic high fat diet (HFD) and low dosage of streptozotocin (STZ, 35mg/kg). Here, we found that HFD/STZ administration decreased the level of microRNA (miR-10a) expression in ICR strain mice. Overexpression of miR-10a alleviated the increased ratio of urine albumin-to-creatinine (ACR) ratio of HFD/STZ mice. In contrast, knockdown of miR-10a increased the ratio of kidney ACR in naïve mice. Furthermore, cAMP response element binding protein 1 (CREB1) was validated as a target of miR-10a in vitro and in vivo. CREB1 and its downstream fibronectin (FN, extracellular matrix) were increased in HFD/STZ-treated mice, which was reversed by kidney miR-10a overexpression. The content of CREB1 and FN was increased by miR-10a knockdown in kidney of naïve mice. Furthermore, histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) was revealed to be increased in kidney of HFD/STZ mice, accompanied with the augmentation of ACR ratio and FN level. Knockdown of HDAC3 with siRNA significantly caused the increase of miR-10a, resulting in the decrease in CREB1 and FN expression in kidney of HFD/STZ mice. Contrarily, HDAC3 overexpression mediated by lentivirus decreased miR-10a content, and enhanced ACR value, CREB1 and FN formation in naïve mice. Collectively, these results elucidate that HDAC3/miR-10a/CREB1 serves as a new mechanism underlying kidney injury, providing potential therapeutic targets in type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Comparing genome-wide chromatin profiles using ChIP-chip or ChIP-seq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johannes, F.; Wardenaar, R.; Colome-Tatche, M.; Mousson, F.; de Graaf, P.; Mokry, M.; Guryev, V.; Timmers, H.T.; Cuppen, E.; Jansen, R.

    2010-01-01

    MOTIVATION: ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq technologies provide genome-wide measurements of various types of chromatin marks at an unprecedented resolution. With ChIP samples collected from different tissue types and/or individuals, we can now begin to characterize stochastic or systematic changes in

  14. Comparing genome-wide chromatin profiles using ChIP-chip or ChIP-seq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johannes, Frank; Wardenaar, Rene; Colomé Tatché, Maria; Mousson, Florence; de Graaf, Petra; Mokry, Michal; Guryev, Victor; Timmers, H. Th. Marc; Cuppen, Edwin; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Bateman, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq technologies provide genomewide measurements of various types of chromatin marks at an unprecedented resolution. With ChIP samples collected from different tissue types and/ or individuals, we can now begin to characterize stochastic or systematic changes in

  15. Localitzador Gràfic de Direccions IP 'IpLocInspector'

    OpenAIRE

    Ordóñez Chapado, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    En aquest treball s'ha desenvolupat una aplicació capaç de localitzar adreces IP. En este trabajo se ha desarrollado una aplicación capaz de localizar direcciones IP. In this work an application was developed capable of locating IP addresses.

  16. Relationship between Interplanetary (IP) Parameters and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... In the present study, we investigate the possible relationship of IP parameters of solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field with ground-based geomagnetic indices. To carry out the study, we take all the IP shock events listed by Proton Monitor onboard Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) during ...

  17. Approaches for Resolving Dynamic IP Addressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Schubert; Hui, Siu Cheung; Yip, See Wai; He, Yulan

    1997-01-01

    A problem with dynamic Internet protocol (IP) addressing arises when the Internet connection is through an Internet provider since the IP address is allocated only at connection time. This article examines a number of online and offline methods for resolving the problem. Suggests dynamic domain name system (DNS) and directory service look-up are…

  18. Relationship between Interplanetary (IP) Parameters and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An active Sun spews out concentrated particle and field energy into interplanetary space (IP), and manifestations of these have been studied by many researchers (to mention a few,. Cargill 2000; Lepping et al. 1990; Gopalswamy et al. 2004; Bothmer & Schwenn. 1998). Propagation of these emissions through IP space and ...

  19. VoIP to the Rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is everywhere. The technology lets users make and receive phone calls over the Internet, transporting voice traffic alongside data traffic such as instant messages (IMs) and e-mail. While the number of consumer customers using VoIP increases every week, the technology is finding its way into K-12 education as…

  20. Mobile IP: state of the art report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karagiannis, Georgios; Heijenk, Geert

    Due to roaming, a mobile device may change its network attachment each time it moves to a new link. This might cause a disruption for the Internet data packets that have to reach the mobile node. Mobile IP is a protocol, developed by the Mobile IP Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) working

  1. 75 FR 13235 - IP-Enabled Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 63 [WC Docket No. 04-36; FCC 09-40] IP-Enabled Services AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission ACTION: Final rule; announcement of effective date... Internet Protocol (VoIP) service the discontinuance obligations that apply to domestic non-dominant...

  2. Meningkatkan Prestasi Belajar Siswa Kelas VIII.F SMP Negeri 33 Surabaya Pada Mata Pelajaran IPS Materi Pranata Sosial Dengan Model Pembelajaran Snowball Throwing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudjianingsih Mudjianingsih

    2017-01-01

                          Asks activities in social studies is an important part in carrying out the study, which asks activities serve to gather information from students, to confirm what was already known, and to bring attention to the aspect of the unknown. Based on observations in the classroom conditions VIII F SMP Negeri 33 Surabaya Surabaya are less enthusiastic in asking questions the need for action using the appropriate learning models, one model of learning that can improve student learning outcomes is learning models Snowball Throwing. In this research there are four research purposes, the fourth such purposes include: 1 To determine the application of learning models Snowball Throwing, 2 To determine activity students 3 To determine student learning outcomes, and 3 To know the constraints and solutions in applying learning models Snowball Throwing.                     This study was a classroom action research (PTK with a qualitative approach in the classroom VIII F SMP Negeri 33 Surabaya Surabaya, which amounted to 32 students. In the application of Snowball Throwing consisting of two cycles, each cycle consisting of the planning stage, the stage of action, observation and reflection stages. Data collection techniques interest asked in this study using observation sheet interest to ask, and for student learning outcomes using the test cycle I and II. Data analysis using data reduction, observation data, and drawing conclusions. The results of this study show that: 1 Application of Learning Model Throwing Snowball carried out with 2 cycles, with each cycle consisting of the planning phase, the implementation phase, observation and reflection phase, 2 Complete test results of students in the first cycle was 68.42% , to test cycle II completeness increased to 100%, completeness criteria in this second cycle in the category Very Good, 3 constraints experienced researchers, among others: the seriousness of the students

  3. Myricetin stimulates the absorption of the pro-carcinogen PhIP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, M.E.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Alink, G.M.; Groten, J.P.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the flavonoid myricetin on the transport of the pro-carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) through differentiated Caco-2 monolayers, a model for the intestinal epithelium, is described. Myricetin causes an increase of the transport of PhIP from the apical to

  4. Localization and socialization: Experimental insights into the functional architecture of IP3 receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diambra, Luis; Marchant, Jonathan S.

    2009-09-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-evoked Ca2+ signals display great spatiotemporal malleability. This malleability depends on diversity in both the cellular organization and in situ functionality of IP3 receptors (IP3Rs) that regulate Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Recent experimental data imply that these considerations are not independent, such that—as with other ion channels—the local organization of IP3Rs impacts their functionality, and reciprocally IP3R activity impacts their organization within native ER membranes. Here, we (i) review experimental data that lead to our understanding of the "functional architecture" of IP3Rs within the ER, (ii) propose an updated terminology to span the organizational hierarchy of IP3Rs observed in intact cells, and (iii) speculate on the physiological significance of IP3R socialization in Ca2+ dynamics, and consequently the emerging need for modeling studies to move beyond gridded, planar, and static simulations of IP3R clustering even over short experimental timescales.

  5. Split degenerate states and stable p+ip phases from holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Zhang-Yu; Zeng, Hui [Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming (China); Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Pan, Qiyuan [Hunan Normal Univ., Key Lab. of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, and Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Dept. of Physics, Changsha (China); Zeng, Hua-Bi [Yangzhou University, College of Physics Science and Technology, Yangzhou, Jiangsu (China); National Central University, Department of Physics, Chungli (China)

    2017-02-15

    In this paper, we investigate the p+ip superfluid phases in the complex vector field holographic p-wave model. We find that in the probe limit, the p+ip phase and the p-wave phase are equally stable, hence the p and ip orders can be mixed with an arbitrary ratio to form more general p+λip phases, which are also equally stable with the p-wave and p+ip phases. As a result, the system possesses a degenerate thermal state in the superfluid region. We further study the case on considering the back-reaction on the metric, and we find that the degenerate ground states will be separated into p-wave and p+ip phases, and the p-wave phase is more stable. Finally, due to the different critical temperature of the zeroth order phase transitions from p-wave and p+ip phases to the normal phase, there is a temperature region where the p+ip phase exists but the p-wave phase does not. In this region we find the stable holographic p+ip phase for the first time. (orig.)

  6. Securing VoIP keeping your VoIP network safe

    CERN Document Server

    (Bud) Bates, Regis J Jr

    2015-01-01

    Securing VoIP: Keeping Your VoIP Network Safe will show you how to take the initiative to prevent hackers from recording and exploiting your company's secrets. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and case studies, technology guru Bud Bates discusses the business realities that necessitate VoIP system security and the threats to VoIP over both wire and wireless networks. He also provides essential guidance on how to conduct system security audits and how to integrate your existing IT security plan with your VoIP system and security plans, helping you prevent

  7. Space Network IP Services (SNIS): An Architecture for Supporting Low Earth Orbiting IP Satellite Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, David J.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Space Network (SN) supports a variety of missions using the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), which includes ground stations in White Sands, New Mexico and Guam. A Space Network IP Services (SNIS) architecture is being developed to support future users with requirements for end-to-end Internet Protocol (IP) communications. This architecture will support all IP protocols, including Mobile IP, over TDRSS Single Access, Multiple Access, and Demand Access Radio Frequency (RF) links. This paper will describe this architecture and how it can enable Low Earth Orbiting IP satellite missions.

  8. Using the Social Enterprise Intervention (SEI) and Individual Placement and Support (IPS) models to improve employment and clinical outcomes of homeless youth with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kristin M

    2013-09-01

    Prior research reveals high unemployment rates among homeless youth. The literature offers many examples of using evidence-informed and evidence-based supported employment models with vulnerable populations to assist them in obtaining and maintaining employment and concurrently addressing mental health challenges. However, there are few examples to date of these models with homeless youth with mental illness. The purpose of this article was thus to describe a methodology for establishing a university-agency research partnership to design, implement, evaluate, and replicate evidence-informed and evidence-based interventions with homeless youth with mental illness to enhance their employment, mental health, and functional outcomes. Data from two studies are used to illustrate the relationship between vocational skill-building/employment and mental health among homeless youth. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of conducting community-based participatory employment and clinical intervention research. The author highlights the opportunities and tensions associated with this approach.

  9. Using the Social Enterprise Intervention (SEI) and Individual Placement and Support (IPS) models to improve employment and clinical outcomes of homeless youth with mental illness1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kristin M.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research reveals high unemployment rates among homeless youth. The literature offers many examples of using evidence-informed and evidence-based supported employment models with vulnerable populations to assist them in obtaining and maintaining employment and concurrently addressing mental health challenges. However, there are few examples to date of these models with homeless youth with mental illness. The purpose of this article was thus to describe a methodology for establishing a university-agency research partnership to design, implement, evaluate, and replicate evidence-informed and evidence-based interventions with homeless youth with mental illness to enhance their employment, mental health, and functional outcomes. Data from two studies are used to illustrate the relationship between vocational skill-building/employment and mental health among homeless youth. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of conducting community-based participatory employment and clinical intervention research. The author highlights the opportunities and tensions associated with this approach. PMID:24294127

  10. Pengaruh Model Pembelajaran Berbasis Masalah Terhadap Kemampuan Berfikir Kritis, Motivasi Belajar, Dan Hasil Belajar IPS Siswa Kelas VII SMPN 1 Aikmel

    OpenAIRE

    Muspita, Zalia; Lasmawan, Wayan; Sariyasa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of simultaneous model of problem-based learning on critical thinking skills, motivation and learning outcomes of social studies students of the sevent grade at Junior high school number 1 Aikmel - East Lombok. This study is a quasi-experimental. Data were collected with the critical thinking skills tests, questionnaires, and tests student learning outcomes. Overall the data and hypothesis testing is done using Manova analysis. Based on the...

  11. Automated Integration of Dedicated Hardwired IP Cores in Heterogeneous MPSoCs Designed with ESPAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed Deprettere

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology and techniques for automated integration of dedicated hardwired (HW IP cores into heterogeneous multiprocessor systems. We propose an IP core integration approach based on an HW module generation that consists of a wrapper around a predefined IP core. This approach has been implemented in a tool called ESPAM for automated multiprocessor system design, programming, and implementation. In order to keep high performance of the integrated IP cores, the structure of the IP core wrapper is devised in a way that adequately represents and efficiently implements the main characteristics of the formal model of computation, namely, Kahn process networks, we use as an underlying programming model in ESPAM. We present details about the structure of the HW module, the supported types of IP cores, and the minimum interfaces these IP cores have to provide in order to allow automated integration in heterogeneous multiprocessor systems generated by ESPAM. The ESPAM design flow, the multiprocessor platforms we consider, and the underlying programming (KPN model are introduced as well. Furthermore, we present the efficiency of our approach by applying our methodology and ESPAM tool to automatically generate, implement, and program heterogeneous multiprocessor systems that integrate dedicated IP cores and execute real-life applications.

  12. Automated Integration of Dedicated Hardwired IP Cores in Heterogeneous MPSoCs Designed with ESPAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolov Hristo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a methodology and techniques for automated integration of dedicated hardwired (HW IP cores into heterogeneous multiprocessor systems. We propose an IP core integration approach based on an HW module generation that consists of a wrapper around a predefined IP core. This approach has been implemented in a tool called ESPAM for automated multiprocessor system design, programming, and implementation. In order to keep high performance of the integrated IP cores, the structure of the IP core wrapper is devised in a way that adequately represents and efficiently implements the main characteristics of the formal model of computation, namely, Kahn process networks, we use as an underlying programming model in ESPAM. We present details about the structure of the HW module, the supported types of IP cores, and the minimum interfaces these IP cores have to provide in order to allow automated integration in heterogeneous multiprocessor systems generated by ESPAM. The ESPAM design flow, the multiprocessor platforms we consider, and the underlying programming (KPN model are introduced as well. Furthermore, we present the efficiency of our approach by applying our methodology and ESPAM tool to automatically generate, implement, and program heterogeneous multiprocessor systems that integrate dedicated IP cores and execute real-life applications.

  13. Inositol phosphates: Does IP(4) run a protection racket?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, R

    2001-03-06

    The phosphorylation of IP(3) by IP(3) 3-kinase leads to a number of physiological events, most of which are poorly understood. Recent findings about a hitherto unsuspected action of the IP(3) 3-kinase product, IP(4), suggest that the evolution of IP(3) 3-kinase may have even more far-reaching consequences than we thought.

  14. Modeling of drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction by using human iPS cell-derived enterocyte-like cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negoro, Ryosuke; Takayama, Kazuo; Nagamoto, Yasuhito; Sakurai, Fuminori; Tachibana, Masashi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Many drugs have potential to induce the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes, particularly cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), in small intestinal enterocytes. Therefore, a model that can accurately evaluate drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction is urgently needed. In this study, we overlaid Matrigel on the human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived enterocyte-like cells (hiPS-ELCs) to generate the mature hiPS-ELCs that could be applied to drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction test. By overlaying Matrigel in the maturation process of enterocyte-like cells, the gene expression levels of intestinal markers (VILLIN, sucrase-isomaltase, intestine-specific homeobox, caudal type homeobox 2, and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein) were enhanced suggesting that the enterocyte-like cells were maturated by Matrigel overlay. The percentage of VILLIN-positive cells in the hiPS-ELCs found to be approximately 55.6%. To examine the CYP3A4 induction potential, the hiPS-ELCs were treated with various drugs. Treatment with dexamethasone, phenobarbital, rifampicin, or 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 resulted in 5.8-fold, 13.4-fold, 9.8-fold, or 95.0-fold induction of CYP3A4 expression relative to that in the untreated controls, respectively. These results suggest that our hiPS-ELCs would be a useful model for CYP3A4 induction test. - Highlights: • The hiPS-ELCs were matured by Matrigel overlay. • The hiPS-ELCs expressed intestinal nuclear receptors, such as PXR, GR and VDR. • The hiPS-ELC is a useful model for the drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction test.

  15. Modeling of drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction by using human iPS cell-derived enterocyte-like cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negoro, Ryosuke [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Takayama, Kazuo [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); The Keihanshin Consortium for Fostering the Next Generation of Global Leaders in Research (K-CONNEX), Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8302 (Japan); Laboratory of Hepatocyte Regulation, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Nagamoto, Yasuhito [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Laboratory of Hepatocyte Regulation, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Sakurai, Fuminori [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Laboratory of Regulatory Sciences for Oligonucleotide Therapeutics, Clinical Drug Development Project, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tachibana, Masashi [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: mizuguch@phs.osaka-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Laboratory of Hepatocyte Regulation, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Osaka 567-0085 (Japan); Global Center for Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Many drugs have potential to induce the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes, particularly cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), in small intestinal enterocytes. Therefore, a model that can accurately evaluate drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction is urgently needed. In this study, we overlaid Matrigel on the human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived enterocyte-like cells (hiPS-ELCs) to generate the mature hiPS-ELCs that could be applied to drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction test. By overlaying Matrigel in the maturation process of enterocyte-like cells, the gene expression levels of intestinal markers (VILLIN, sucrase-isomaltase, intestine-specific homeobox, caudal type homeobox 2, and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein) were enhanced suggesting that the enterocyte-like cells were maturated by Matrigel overlay. The percentage of VILLIN-positive cells in the hiPS-ELCs found to be approximately 55.6%. To examine the CYP3A4 induction potential, the hiPS-ELCs were treated with various drugs. Treatment with dexamethasone, phenobarbital, rifampicin, or 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 resulted in 5.8-fold, 13.4-fold, 9.8-fold, or 95.0-fold induction of CYP3A4 expression relative to that in the untreated controls, respectively. These results suggest that our hiPS-ELCs would be a useful model for CYP3A4 induction test. - Highlights: • The hiPS-ELCs were matured by Matrigel overlay. • The hiPS-ELCs expressed intestinal nuclear receptors, such as PXR, GR and VDR. • The hiPS-ELC is a useful model for the drug-mediated CYP3A4 induction test.

  16. IP Address Management Principles and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rooney, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    This book will be the first covering the subject of IP address management (IPAM). The practice of IPAM includes the application of network management disciplines to IP address space and associated network services, namely DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) and DNS (Domain Name System). The consequence of inaccurately configuring DHCP is that end users may not be able to obtain IP addresses to access the network. Without proper DNS configuration, usability of the network will greatly suffer as the name-to-address lookup process may fail. Imagine having to navigate to a website or send a

  17. COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF AGING AND IL-6 ON THE HEPATIC INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE IN TWO MODELS OF SYSTEMIC INJURY: SCALD INJURY VERSUS I.P. LPS ADMINISTRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Christian R.; Nomellini, Vanessa; Baila, Horea; Oshima, Kiyoko; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.

    2011-01-01

    Regardless of age, a marked elevation in circulating IL-6 levels correlates with increased mortality after injury or an inflammatory challenge. We previously reported that aged IL-6 knockout mice given LPS have improved survival and reduced inflammatory response than LPS-treated aged wild type (WT) mice. Herein, we analyzed the effects of aging and IL-6 on the hepatic inflammatory response in two models of systemic injury: dorsal scald (burn) injury versus intraperitoneal LPS administration. At 24 h after burn injury, circulating alanine aminotransferase and hepatic neutrophil accumulation were comparable regardless of age or IL-6 deficiency. However, at this same time point, these indicators of liver damage, in addition to hepatic levels of KC, a neutrophil chemoattractant, were increased in aged WT mice given LPS relative to young WT mice given LPS. The hepatic injury was drastically reduced in aged IL-6 knockout mice given LPS as compared with LPS-exposed aged WT mice. Our results suggest that the nature of the insult will determine the degree of remote injury in aged animals. In addition, the role of IL-6 as a contributing factor of tissue injury may be insult specific. PMID:18636046

  18. Biobjective VoIP Service Management in Cloud Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge M. Cortés-Mendoza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP allows communication of voice and/or data over the internet in less expensive and reliable manner than traditional ISDN systems. This solution typically allows flexible interconnection between organization and companies on any domains. Cloud VoIP solutions can offer even cheaper and scalable service when virtualized telephone infrastructure is used in the most efficient way. Scheduling and load balancing algorithms are fundamental parts of this approach. Unfortunately, VoIP scheduling techniques do not take into account uncertainty in dynamic and unpredictable cloud environments. In this paper, we formulate the problem of scheduling of VoIP services in distributed cloud environments and propose a new model for biobjective optimization. We consider the special case of the on-line nonclairvoyant dynamic bin-packing problem and discuss solutions for provider cost and quality of service optimization. We propose twenty call allocation strategies and evaluate their performance by comprehensive simulation analysis on real workload considering six months of the MIXvoip company service.

  19. Intellectual Property and Strategic Agreements (IP/SA) | FNLCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    What does IP/SA handle? IP/SA handles all invention issues including patents and copyrights. All employee inventionreports are filed through the IP/SA office for all activities under the OTS contract.Additionally,&nbs

  20. Congested Link Inference Algorithms in Dynamic Routing IP Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance descending of current congested link inference algorithms is obviously in dynamic routing IP network, such as the most classical algorithm CLINK. To overcome this problem, based on the assumptions of Markov property and time homogeneity, we build a kind of Variable Structure Discrete Dynamic Bayesian (VSDDB network simplified model of dynamic routing IP network. Under the simplified VSDDB model, based on the Bayesian Maximum A Posteriori (BMAP and Rest Bayesian Network Model (RBNM, we proposed an Improved CLINK (ICLINK algorithm. Considering the concurrent phenomenon of multiple link congestion usually happens, we also proposed algorithm CLILRS (Congested Link Inference algorithm based on Lagrangian Relaxation Subgradient to infer the set of congested links. We validated our results by the experiments of analogy, simulation, and actual Internet.

  1. VoIP technology comes of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Cabling specialist Connectix examines the growing potential for healthcare sector use of VoIP technology and highlights the importance of correct cabling infrastructure as a carrier of both voice and high-speed data traffic.

  2. Registration of two confection sunflower germplasm Lines, HA-R10 and HA-R11, Resistant to sunflower rust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm lines, HA-R10 (Reg. No.xxx, PI670043) and HA-R11 (Reg. No.xxx, PI670044) were developed by the USDA-ARS Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit in collaboration with the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station and released December, 20...

  3. ChIP-re-ChIP: Co-occupancy Analysis by Sequential Chromatin Immunoprecipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beischlag, Timothy V; Prefontaine, Gratien G; Hankinson, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) exploits the specific interactions between DNA and DNA-associated proteins. It can be used to examine a wide range of experimental parameters. A number of proteins bound at the same genomic location can identify a multi-protein chromatin complex where several proteins work together to regulate gene transcription or chromatin configuration. In many instances, this can be achieved using sequential ChIP; or simply, ChIP-re-ChIP. Whether it is for the examination of specific transcriptional or epigenetic regulators, or for the identification of cistromes, the ability to perform a sequential ChIP adds a higher level of power and definition to these analyses. In this chapter, we describe a simple and reliable method for the sequential ChIP assay.

  4. MOBE-ChIP: Probing Cell Type-Specific Binding Through Large-Scale Chromatin Immunoprecipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shenqi; Lau, On Sun

    2018-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, the initiation and maintenance of specific cell types often require the activity of cell type-specific transcriptional regulators. Understanding their roles in gene regulation is crucial but probing their DNA targets in vivo, especially in a genome-wide manner, remains a technical challenge with their limited expression. To improve the sensitivity of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) for detecting the cell type-specific signals, we have developed the Maximized Objects for Better Enrichment (MOBE)-ChIP, where ChIP is performed at a substantially larger experimental scale and under low background conditions. Here, we describe the procedure in the study of transcription factors in the model plant Arabidopsis. However, with some modifications, the technique should also be implemented in other systems. Besides cell type-specific studies, MOBE-ChIP can also be used as a general strategy to improve ChIP signals.

  5. Data exploration, quality control and statistical analysis of ChIP-exo/nexus experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Rene; Chung, Dongjun; Grass, Jeffrey; Landick, Robert; Keles, Sündüz

    2017-09-06

    ChIP-exo/nexus experiments rely on innovative modifications of the commonly used ChIP-seq protocol for high resolution mapping of transcription factor binding sites. Although many aspects of the ChIP-exo data analysis are similar to those of ChIP-seq, these high throughput experiments pose a number of unique quality control and analysis challenges. We develop a novel statistical quality control pipeline and accompanying R/Bioconductor package, ChIPexoQual, to enable exploration and analysis of ChIP-exo and related experiments. ChIPexoQual evaluates a number of key issues including strand imbalance, library complexity, and signal enrichment of data. Assessment of these features are facilitated through diagnostic plots and summary statistics computed over regions of the genome with varying levels of coverage. We evaluated our QC pipeline with both large collections of public ChIP-exo/nexus data and multiple, new ChIP-exo datasets from Escherichia coli. ChIPexoQual analysis of these datasets resulted in guidelines for using these QC metrics across a wide range of sequencing depths and provided further insights for modelling ChIP-exo data. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. IPS Space Weather Research: Korea-Japan-UCSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-27

    measure the selected radio sources around the sky at 327 MHz which is same frequency for use in Japan during last 30 years to derive solar wind velocities...sources around the sky at 327 MHz which is same frequency for use in Japan during last 30 years to derive solar wind velocities and densities. UCSD...and densities. UCSD have developed IPS 3-D analysis model which determine the heliographic 3- D structure based on the data from Solar Terrestrial

  7. Legal Protection on IP Cores for System-on-Chip Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Takahiko

    The current semiconductor industry has shifted from vertical integrated model to horizontal specialization model in term of integrated circuit manufacturing. In this circumstance, IP cores as solutions for System-on-Chip (SoC) have become increasingly important for semiconductor business. This paper examines to what extent IP cores of SoC effectively can be protected by current intellectual property system including integrated circuit layout design law, patent law, design law, copyright law and unfair competition prevention act.

  8. Outbreak of Ips nitidus and Ips shangrila in northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakuš, R.; Kalinová, Blanka; Hoskovec, Michal; Knížek, M.; Schlyter, F.; Sun, J.-H.; Zhang, Q. H.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 89, - (2011), s. 111-117 ISSN 1436-1566 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 860 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Ips shangrila * Ips nitidus * pheromones * GCxGC-TOFMS Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  9. GMI-IPS: Python Processing Software for Aircraft Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon, M. R.; Strode, S. A.; Steenrod, S. D.; Prather, M. J.

    2018-01-01

    NASA's Atmospheric Tomography Mission (ATom) seeks to understand the impact of anthropogenic air pollution on gases in the Earth's atmosphere. Four flight campaigns are being deployed on a seasonal basis to establish a continuous global-scale data set intended to improve the representation of chemically reactive gases in global atmospheric chemistry models. The Global Modeling Initiative (GMI), is creating chemical transport simulations on a global scale for each of the ATom flight campaigns. To meet the computational demands required to translate the GMI simulation data to grids associated with the flights from the ATom campaigns, the GMI ICARTT Processing Software (GMI-IPS) has been developed and is providing key functionality for data processing and analysis in this ongoing effort. The GMI-IPS is written in Python and provides computational kernels for data interpolation and visualization tasks on GMI simulation data. A key feature of the GMI-IPS, is its ability to read ICARTT files, a text-based file format for airborne instrument data, and extract the required flight information that defines regional and temporal grid parameters associated with an ATom flight. Perhaps most importantly, the GMI-IPS creates ICARTT files containing GMI simulated data, which are used in collaboration with ATom instrument teams and other modeling groups. The initial main task of the GMI-IPS is to interpolate GMI model data to the finer temporal resolution (1-10 seconds) of a given flight. The model data includes basic fields such as temperature and pressure, but the main focus of this effort is to provide species concentrations of chemical gases for ATom flights. The software, which uses parallel computation techniques for data intensive tasks, linearly interpolates each of the model fields to the time resolution of the flight. The temporally interpolated data is then saved to disk, and is used to create additional derived quantities. In order to translate the GMI model data to the

  10. A survey of IP over ATM architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.; Tsang, R.; Brandt, J.; Hutchins, J.

    1997-07-01

    Over the past decade, the Internet has burgeoned into a worldwide information highway consisting of approximately 5 million hosts on over 45,000 interconnected networks. This unprecedented growth, together with the introduction of multimedia workstations, has spurred the development of innovative applications that require high speed, low latency, and real-time transport. Today`s Internet can neither scale in its bandwidth nor guarantee the Quality of Services (QoS) necessary to meet these performance requirements. Many network researchers propose to use the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) technology as the underlying infrastructure for the next generation of workgroup, campus, and enterprise IP networks. Since ATM is significantly different from today`s legacy network technologies, efficient implementation of IP over ATM is especially challenging. This tutorial paper covers several existing proposals that integrate IP over ATM.

  11. Bone marrow miR-10a overexpression is associated with genetic events but not affects clinical outcome in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting-Juan; Guo, Hong; Zhou, Jing-Dong; Li, Xi-Xi; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Ji-Chun; Wen, Xiang-Mei; Yao, Xin-Yu; Lin, Jiang; Qian, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Accumulating studies have linked the disruptions of microRNA-10 (miR-10) to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with NPM1 mutation. However, miR-10 expression and its clinical implication in AML remain poorly defined. Although a recent report showed high serum level of miR-10a was associated with adverse prognosis in AML, herein, we found bone marrow (BM) miR-10 overexpression was not a prognostic biomarker in AML. BM miR-10 expression was examined by real-time quantitative PCR in BM mononuclear cells in 115 de novo AML patients and 45 controls. BM miR-10 (miR-10a/b) expression was significantly up-regulated in AML patients, and was positively correlated with each other. Overexpression of miR-10a was associated with lower percentage of BM blasts, whereas miR-10b overexpression tended to correlate with higher percentage of BM blasts. Importantly, miR-10a overexpression was significantly associated with FAB-M3/t(15;17) subtypes and NPM1 mutation, meanwhile, overexpression of miR-10b was correlated with NPM1 and DNMT3A mutations. However, miR-10a/b overexpression was not associated with complete remission rate, and did not have an impact on both leukemia free survival and overall survival time in non-M3 AML patients without NPM1 mutation. BM miR-10 overexpression is associated with genetic events but not affects clinical outcome in AML. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Secure IP mobility management for VANET

    CERN Document Server

    Taha, Sanaa

    2013-01-01

    This brief presents the challenges and solutions for VANETs' security and privacy problems occurring in mobility management protocols including Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6), Proxy MIPv6 (PMIPv6), and Network Mobility (NEMO). The authors give an overview of the concept of the vehicular IP-address configurations as the prerequisite step to achieve mobility management for VANETs, and review the current security and privacy schemes applied in the three mobility management protocols. Throughout the brief, the authors propose new schemes and protocols to increase the security of IP addresses within VANETs in

  13. Analysis list: Atf7ip [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Atf7ip Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Atf7...ip.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Atf7ip.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosc...iencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Atf7ip.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Atf7ip.Plu

  14. ChIP-nexus: a novel ChIP-exo protocol for improved detection of in vivo transcription factor binding footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiye; Johnston, Jeff; Zeitlinger, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how eukaryotic enhancers are bound and regulated by specific combinations of transcription factors is still a major challenge. To better map transcription factor binding genome-wide at nucleotide resolution in vivo, we have developed a robust ChIP-exo protocol called ChIP experiments with nucleotide resolution through exonuclease, unique barcode and single ligation (ChIP-nexus), which utilizes an efficient DNA self-circularization step during library preparation. Application of ChIP-nexus to four proteins—human TBP and Drosophila NFkB, Twist and Max— demonstrates that it outperforms existing ChIP protocols in resolution and specificity, pinpoints relevant binding sites within enhancers containing multiple binding motifs and allows the analysis of in vivo binding specificities. Notably, we show that Max frequently interacts with DNA sequences next to its motif, and that this binding pattern correlates with local DNA sequence features such as DNA shape. ChIP-nexus will be broadly applicable to studying in vivo transcription factor binding specificity and its relationship to cis-regulatory changes in humans and model organisms. PMID:25751057

  15. M1 ipRGCs Influence Visual Function through Retrograde Signaling in the Retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigge, Cameron L; Yeh, Po-Ting; Liou, Nan-Fu; Lee, Chi-Chan; You, Shih-Feng; Liu, Lei-Lei; McNeill, David S; Chew, Kylie S; Hattar, Samer; Chen, Shih-Kuo; Zhang, Dao-Qi

    2016-07-06

    Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs, with five subtypes named M1-M5) are a unique subclass of RGCs with axons that project directly to many brain nuclei involved in non-image-forming functions such as circadian photoentrainment and the pupillary light reflex. Recent evidence suggests that melanopsin-based signals also influence image-forming visual function, including light adaptation, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. Intriguingly, a small population of M1 ipRGCs have intraretinal axon collaterals that project toward the outer retina. Using genetic mouse models, we provide three lines of evidence showing that these axon collaterals make connections with upstream dopaminergic amacrine cells (DACs): (1) ipRGC signaling to DACs is blocked by tetrodotoxin both in vitro and in vivo, indicating that ipRGC-to-DAC transmission requires voltage-gated Na(+) channels; (2) this transmission is partly dependent on N-type Ca(2+) channels, which are possibly expressed in the axon collateral terminals of ipRGCs; and (3) fluorescence microscopy reveals that ipRGC axon collaterals make putative presynaptic contact with DACs. We further demonstrate that elimination of M1 ipRGCs attenuates light adaptation, as evidenced by an impaired electroretinogram b-wave from cones, whereas a dopamine receptor agonist can potentiate the cone-driven b-wave of retinas lacking M1 ipRGCs. Together, the results strongly suggest that ipRGCs transmit luminance signals retrogradely to the outer retina through the dopaminergic system and in turn influence retinal light adaptation. Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) comprise a third class of retinal photoreceptors that are known to mediate physiological responses such as circadian photoentrainment. However, investigation into whether and how ipRGCs contribute to vision has just begun. Here, we provide convergent anatomical and physiological evidence that

  16. Dab2IP GTPase activating protein regulates dendrite development and synapse number in cerebellum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhong Qiao

    Full Text Available DOC-2/DAB-2 interacting protein (Dab2IP is a GTPase activating protein that binds to Disabled-1, a cytosolic adapter protein involved in Reelin signaling and brain development. Dab2IP regulates PI3K-AKT signaling and is associated with metastatic prostate cancer, abdominal aortic aneurysms and coronary heart disease. To date, the physiological function of Dab2IP in the nervous system, where it is highly expressed, is relatively unknown. In this study, we generated a mouse model with a targeted disruption of Dab2IP using a retrovirus gene trap strategy. Unlike reeler mice, Dab2IP knock-down mice did not exhibit severe ataxia or cerebellar hypoplasia. However, Dab2IP deficiency produced a number of cerebellar abnormalities such as a delay in the development of Purkinje cell (PC dendrites, a decrease in the parallel fiber synaptic marker VGluT1, and an increase in the climbing fiber synaptic marker VGluT2. These findings demonstrate for the first time that Dab2IP plays an important role in dendrite development and regulates the number of synapses in the cerebellum.

  17. Fast rerouting schemes for protected mobile IP over MPLS networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chih-Chao; Chang, Sheng-Yi; Chen, Huan; Chen, Kim-Joan

    2005-10-01

    Fast rerouting is a critical traffic engineering operation in the MPLS networks. To implement the Mobile IP service over the MPLS network, one can collaborate with the fast rerouting operation to enhance the availability and survivability. MPLS can protect critical LSP tunnel between Home Agent (HA) and Foreign Agent (FA) using the fast rerouting scheme. In this paper, we propose a simple but efficient algorithm to address the triangle routing problem for the Mobile IP over the MPLS networks. We consider this routing issue as a link weighting and capacity assignment (LW-CA) problem. The derived solution is used to plan the fast restoration mechanism to protect the link or node failure. In this paper, we first model the LW-CA problem as a mixed integer optimization problem. Our goal is to minimize the call blocking probability on the most congested working truck for the mobile IP connections. Many existing network topologies are used to evaluate the performance of our scheme. Results show that our proposed scheme can obtain the best performance in terms of the smallest blocking probability compared to other schemes.

  18. VoIP Accessibility: A Usability Study of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) Systems and A Survey of VoIP Users with Vision Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, Jaclyn; Reuschel, William

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Accessibility of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) systems was tested with a hands-on usability study and an online survey of VoIP users who are visually impaired. The survey examined the importance of common VoIP features, and both methods assessed difficulty in using those features. Methods: The usability test included four paid…

  19. Pulse to pulse beam trajectory determination at the IP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koska, W.; Wagner, S.

    1988-01-01

    It has long been known that a precise measurement of the SLC beam trajectory through the IP region is vital both from a machine and a detector point of view. One of the primary techniques used to maximize luminosity is the measurement of the deflection angle of one beam produced by the electromagnetic interaction with the other beam. In order to implement this procedure a pair of precision Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) were installed within the Final Triplet of quadrapoles on each side of the IP. Before the IP BPMs could be used to measure beam-beam deflection, a series of measurements were made of the coefficients which relate the setting of an orbit correction magnet to the position of the beam at a particular BPM (R 12 s). The purpose was to expose any problems such as misconnected cables, etc., by comparing the measured R 12 s with theoretical predictions from the model of the Final Focus region. A technique developed that uses position measurements in the long BPMs to determine a three parameter fit to the beam trajectory at the IP. The three parameters in the fit are the beam position, the incoming angle and the deflection angle. The result was very successful and allows the observation of beam-beam deflection even under marginal conditions. The purpose of this memo is to clear up the technical points and to demonstrate that the simplicity of the fit should allow the implementation of this procedure at the micro level, where it could provide trajectory information in real time which would go a long way toward making it useful as a fast feedback tool and in addition allow easy real time access to beam position data by the Mark II

  20. ChIP-chip versus ChIP-seq: Lessons for experimental design and data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by microarray hybridization (ChIP-chip) or high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) allows genome-wide discovery of protein-DNA interactions such as transcription factor bindings and histone modifications. Previous reports only compared a small number of profiles, and little has been done to compare histone modification profiles generated by the two technologies or to assess the impact of input DNA libraries in ChIP-seq analysis. Here, we performed a systematic analysis of a modENCODE dataset consisting of 31 pairs of ChIP-chip/ChIP-seq profiles of the coactivator CBP, RNA polymerase II (RNA PolII), and six histone modifications across four developmental stages of Drosophila melanogaster. Results Both technologies produce highly reproducible profiles within each platform, ChIP-seq generally produces profiles with a better signal-to-noise ratio, and allows detection of more peaks and narrower peaks. The set of peaks identified by the two technologies can be significantly different, but the extent to which they differ varies depending on the factor and the analysis algorithm. Importantly, we found that there is a significant variation among multiple sequencing profiles of input DNA libraries and that this variation most likely arises from both differences in experimental condition and sequencing depth. We further show that using an inappropriate input DNA profile can impact the average signal profiles around genomic features and peak calling results, highlighting the importance of having high quality input DNA data for normalization in ChIP-seq analysis. Conclusions Our findings highlight the biases present in each of the platforms, show the variability that can arise from both technology and analysis methods, and emphasize the importance of obtaining high quality and deeply sequenced input DNA libraries for ChIP-seq analysis. PMID:21356108

  1. TCP/IP Implementations and Vendors Guide,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    postings , Mark Sherman...UDP services to the application programs TELNET, FTP, IMAGEN and others. The applications are integrated inwo the generic device, pathname...8217 . + ’. ’, " . . " .’ .- . - .- - - -- .. .- . . . . ’ - . . + ’ - .’ . . . , . ..++ - . -. ". , .-’ . , , - - . . . -+ ’- - - - , , - - , . . .. ... , - . % F 2.8. Imagen 2.8.1. Imprint-10 PRODUCT NAME: IMPRINT-10 TCP/IP Ethernet Printer DESCRIPTION: 4. The IMPRINT-10 is

  2. IP-I0 BASED IMMUNOLOGICAL MONITORING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an immunological method and, more particularly, a method for measuring cell-mediated immune reactivity (CMI) in mammals based on the production of IP-10.The invention further discloses an assay and a kit for measuring CMI to an antigen using whole blood or other s...

  3. Teaching Network Security with IP Darkspace Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zseby, Tanja; Iglesias Vázquez, Félix; King, Alistair; Claffy, K. C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a network security laboratory project for teaching network traffic anomaly detection methods to electrical engineering students. The project design follows a research-oriented teaching principle, enabling students to make their own discoveries in real network traffic, using data captured from a large IP darkspace monitor…

  4. Advanced IP-MCMC-PF design ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iglesias Garcia, Fernando; Bocquel, Melanie; Driessen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes techniques to improve the properties of Sequential Markov Chain Monte Carlo (SMCMC) methods in the context of multi-target tracking. In particular, we extend the Interacting Population-based MCMC Particle Filter (IP-MCMC-PF) with three different methods: delayed rejection,

  5. IP-I0 BASED IMMUNOLOGICAL MONITORING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an immunological method and, more particularly, a method for measuring cell-mediated immune reactivity (CMI) in mammals based on the production of IP-10.The invention further discloses an assay and a kit for measuring CMI to an antigen using whole blood or other...

  6. EQuIP-ped for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Molly

    2015-01-01

    The Educators Evaluating the Quality of Instructional Products (EQuIP) Rubric for science is a new tool for science educators that provides criteria by which to examine the alignment and overall quality of lessons and units with respect to the "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS"). The rubric criteria are divided into…

  7. PERBANDINGAN KINERJA IP SEC DAN SSL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessyanto Boedi P

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ipsec (IP Security and SSL (Secure Socket Layer is the most widely used techniques to secure data communications over the Internet. Both of these techniques has advantages and disadvantages of each. The purpose of this study is to present an analysis of the two techniques above in terms of security and performance.

  8. Wireless IP and building the mobile Internet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dixit, Sudhir; Prasad, Ramjee

    2003-01-01

    ..., as well as the shortage of technical material in a single place in the field of wireless IP and closely related technologies that form the critical success factors. Therefore, we decided to invite the experts who are truly active in the field: the equipment manufacturers, mobile operators, and those working in research laboratories and unive...

  9. How To: Be VoIP-Savvy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branzburg, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    Cablevision, Comcast, Verizon, and many other high-speed broadband Internet providers are now also offering telephone services through "Voice over Internet Protocol" (VoIP). This technology sends ordinary telephone calls over the Internet rather than over telephone lines. While impractical without the use of a broadband Internet connection, with…

  10. Is VoIP Worth It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2008-01-01

    School districts have by and large had great results implementing VoIP, which has become the conduit for delivering expanded functionality, achieving greater internal control, and gaining freedom from onerous monthly phone bills. But demonstrating a financial return on what is a substantial investment can be an elusive effort. The goal of…

  11. Spojení s dynamickou IP adresou

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Papík, Martin; Hodboď, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2013), s. 60-61 ISSN 1211-0906 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-02149S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : dynamical IP adress * dynamic DNS * web services Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  12. Presence in the IP Multimedia Subsystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Lin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With an ever increasing penetration of Internet Protocol (IP technologies, the wireless industry is evolving the mobile core network towards all-IP network. The IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS is a standardised Next Generation Network (NGN architectural framework defined by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP to bridge the gap between circuit-switched and packet-switched networks and consolidate both sides into on single all-IP network for all services. In this paper, we provide an insight into the limitation of the presence service, one of the fundamental building blocks of the IMS. Our prototype-based study is unique of its kind and helps identifying the factors which limit the scalability of the current version of the presence service (3GPP TS 23.141 version 7.2.0 Release 7 [1], which will in turn dramatically limit the performance of advanced IMS services. We argue that the client-server paradigm behind the current IMS architecture does not suite the requirements of the IMS system, which defies the very purpose of its introduction. We finally elaborate on possible avenues for addressing this problem.

  13. Working with mental health problems: clients' experiences of IPS, vocational rehabilitation and employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletsi, Marsha; Niersman, Astrid; van Busschbach, Jooske T; Catty, Jocelyn; Becker, Thomas; Burns, Tom; Fioritti, Angelo; Kalkan, Rana; Lauber, Christoph; Rössler, Wulf; Tomov, Toma; Wiersma, Durk

    2009-11-01

    Although the effectiveness of individual placement and support (IPS) has been well established, little is known about clients' perceptions of the model compared to usual vocational rehabilitation, nor about their experiences of searching for and returning to work with this kind of support. This qualitative study aimed to explore clients' views of the difficulties of obtaining and maintaining employment, their experiences of the support received from their IPS or Vocational Service workers and the perceived impact of work on clients' lives. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 48 people with psychotic disorders participating in a six-centre international randomised controlled trial of IPS compared to usual vocational rehabilitation. To assess their experiences of the services and the perceived effects of working, two IPS and two Vocational Service clients at each centre who had found work during the study period were interviewed, along with two IPS and two Vocational Service clients at each centre who had not. IPS clients reported having received more help seeking and maintaining employment, whereas Vocational Service clients reported having received more help in finding sheltered employment or placements. Clients who had worked associated this with financial stability, improved social lives, increased self-esteem, integration into society and amelioration of their symptoms, as well as reduced feelings of boredom and isolation, but also reported increased levels of stress. IPS clients as well as Vocational Service ones reported not receiving enough follow-up support, despite this being proposed as a key feature of the model. Findings from the in-depth interviews reflect differences in service models that have also been tested quantitatively but further work in disaggregating the IPS model and assessing the impact of each component would be valuable.

  14. Using VoIP to compete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werbach, Kevin

    2005-09-01

    Internet telephony, or VoIP, is rapidly replacing the conventional kind. This year, for the first time, U.S. companies bought more new Internet-phone connections than standard lines. The major driver behind this change is cost. But VoIP isn't just a new technology for making old-fashioned calls cheaper, says consultant Kevin Werbach. It is fundamentally changing how companies use voice communications. What makes VoIP so powerful is that it turns voice into digital data packets that can be stored, copied, combined with other data, and distributed to virtually any device that connects to the Internet. And it makes it simple to provide all the functionality of a corporate phone-call features, directories, security-to anyone anywhere there's broadband access. That fosters new kinds of businesses such as virtual call centers, where widely dispersed agents work at all hours from their homes. The most successful early adopters, says Werbach, will focus more on achieving business objectives than on saving money. They will also consider how to push VoIP capabilities out to the extended organization, making use of everyone as a resource. Deployment may be incremental, but companies should be thinking about where VoIP could take them. Executives should ask what they could do if, on demand, they could bring all their employees, customers, suppliers, and partners together in a virtual room, with shared access to every modern communications and computing channel. They should take a fresh look at their business processes to find points at which richer and more customizable communications could eliminate bottlenecks and enhance quality. The important dividing line won't be between those who deploy Vol P and those who don't, or even between early adopters and laggards. It will be between those who see Vol P as just a new way to do the same old things and those who use itto rethink their entire businesses.

  15. Measuring the impostor phenomenon: a comparison of Clance's IP Scale and Harvey's I-P Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, S W; Kertay, L; Adamson, L B; Holland, C L; Clance, P R

    1993-02-01

    Many of the discrepancies reported to date in empirical investigations of the impostor phenomenon (IP) may be due in part to (a) the use of different methods for identifying individuals suffering from this syndrome (impostors), (b) the common use of a median split procedure to classify subjects and (c) the fact that subjects in many studies were drawn from impostor-prone samples. In this study, we compared the scores of independently identified impostors and nonimpostors on two instruments designed to measure the IP: Harvey's I-P Scale and Clance's IP Scale. The results suggest that Clance's scale may be the more sensitive and reliable instrument. Cutoff score suggestions for both instruments are offered.

  16. iTAR: a web server for identifying target genes of transcription factors using ChIP-seq or ChIP-chip data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chia-Chun; Andrews, Erik H; Chen, Min-Hsuan; Wang, Wan-Yu; Chen, Jeremy J W; Gerstein, Mark; Liu, Chun-Chi; Cheng, Chao

    2016-08-12

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) or microarray hybridization (ChIP-chip) has been widely used to determine the genomic occupation of transcription factors (TFs). We have previously developed a probabilistic method, called TIP (Target Identification from Profiles), to identify TF target genes using ChIP-seq/ChIP-chip data. To achieve high specificity, TIP applies a conservative method to estimate significance of target genes, with the trade-off being a relatively low sensitivity of target gene identification compared to other methods. Additionally, TIP's output does not render binding-peak locations or intensity, information highly useful for visualization and general experimental biological use, while the variability of ChIP-seq/ChIP-chip file formats has made input into TIP more difficult than desired. To improve upon these facets, here we present are fined TIP with key extensions. First, it implements a Gaussian mixture model for p-value estimation, increasing target gene identification sensitivity and more accurately capturing the shape of TF binding profile distributions. Second, it enables the incorporation of TF binding-peak data by identifying their locations in significant target gene promoter regions and quantifies their strengths. Finally, for full ease of implementation we have incorporated it into a web server ( http://syslab3.nchu.edu.tw/iTAR/ ) that enables flexibility of input file format, can be used across multiple species and genome assembly versions, and is freely available for public use. The web server additionally performs GO enrichment analysis for the identified target genes to reveal the potential function of the corresponding TF. The iTAR web server provides a user-friendly interface and supports target gene identification in seven species, ranging from yeast to human. To facilitate investigating the quality of ChIP-seq/ChIP-chip data, the web server generates the chart of the

  17. Adjusting the IP $\\beta$ Functions in RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Wittmer, W; Pilat, F; Ptitsyn, V; Van Zeijts, J

    2004-01-01

    The beta functions at the IP can be adjusted without perturbation of other optics functions via several approaches. In this paper we describe a scheme based on a vector knob, which assigns fixed values to the different tuning quadrupoles and scales them by a common multiplier. The values for the knob vector were calculated for a lattice without any errors using MADX. Previous studies for the LHC [1] have shown that this approach can meet the design goals. A specific feature of the RHIC lattice is the nested power supply system. To cope with the resulting problems a detailed response matrix analysis has been carried out and different sets of knobs were calculated and compared. The knobs were tested at RHIC during the 2004 run and preliminary results are discussed. Simultaneously a new approach to measure the beam sizes of both colliding beams at the IP, based on the tunability provided by the knobs, was developed and tested.

  18. Automatic Classification of Attacks on IP Telephony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Safarik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes an algorithm for automatic analysis of attack data in IP telephony network with a neural network. Data for the analysis is gathered from variable monitoring application running in the network. These monitoring systems are a typical part of nowadays network. Information from them is usually used after attack. It is possible to use an automatic classification of IP telephony attacks for nearly real-time classification and counter attack or mitigation of potential attacks. The classification use proposed neural network, and the article covers design of a neural network and its practical implementation. It contains also methods for neural network learning and data gathering functions from honeypot application.

  19. IP Telephony Applicability in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Palacios

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper carries out a research related to the applicability of VoIP over Cloud Computing to guarantee service stability and elasticity of the organizations. In this paper, Elastix is used as an open source software that allows the management and control of a Private Branch Exchange (PBX; and for developing, it is used the services given Amazon Web Services due to their leadership and experience in cloud computing providing security, scalability, backup service and feasibility for the users.

  20. Intellectual Property and Strategic Agreements (IP/SA) | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    IP/SA handles all invention issues including patents and copyrights. All employee inventionreports are filed through the IP/SA office for all activities under the OTS contract.Additionally,request for assignment ofcopyri

  1. IP-based storage of image information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xianglin; Xie, Changsheng; Liu, Zhaobin

    2001-09-01

    With the fast growth of data in multispectral image processing, the traditional storage architecture was challenged. It is currently being replaced by Storage Area Networks (SAN), which makes storage devices externalized from servers. A SAN is a separate network for storage, isolated from the messaging network and optimized for the movement of data between servers and storage devices. Nowadays, most of current SAN use Fibre Channel to move data between servers and storage devices (FC-SAN), but because of the drawbacks of the FC-SAN: for interoperability, lack of skilled professional and management tools, high implementation cost and so on, the development and application of FC-SAN was obstructed. In this paper, we introduce an IP-based Storage Area Networks architecture, which has the good qualities of FC- SAN but overcomes the shortcoming of it. The principle is: use IP technology to move data between servers and storage devices, build a SAN with the IP-based network devices (not the FC-based network device), and through the switch, SAN is attached to the LAN(Local Area Network) through multiple access. Especially, these storage devices are acted as commercial NAS devices and PC.

  2. Voice over IP in Wireless Heterogeneous Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fathi, Hanane; Chakraborty, Shyam; Prasad, Ramjee

    The convergence of different types of traffic has preceded the convergence of systems and services in a wireless heterogeneous network. Voice and data traffic are usually treated separate in both 2G and 2.5G wireless networks. With advances in packet switching technology and especially with the d...... and to the discruption caused by the user mobility during the session. Voice over IP in Wireless Hetetrogeneous Networks thus investigates and proposes cross-layer techniques for realizing time-efficient control mechanisms for VoIP: signaling, mobility and security.......The convergence of different types of traffic has preceded the convergence of systems and services in a wireless heterogeneous network. Voice and data traffic are usually treated separate in both 2G and 2.5G wireless networks. With advances in packet switching technology and especially...... with the deployment of wireless heterogeneous systems, both speech and data traffic are carrried over wireless links by the same IP-based packet-switched infrastructure. However, this combination faces some challenges due to the inherent properties of the wireless network. The requirements for good quality Vo...

  3. Pre-equilibrium Longitudinal Flow in the IP-Glasma Framework for Pb+Pb Collisions at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Scott; Shen, Chun; Fillion-Gourdeau, François; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we debut a new implementation of IP-Glasma and quantify the pre-equilibrium longitudinal flow in the IP-Glasma framework. The saturation physics based IP-Glasma model naturally provides a non-zero initial longitudinal flow through its pre-equilibrium Yang-Mills evolution. A hybrid IP-Glasma+MUSIC+UrQMD frame-work is employed to test this new implementation against experimental data and to make further predictions about hadronic flow observables in Pb+Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV. Finally, the non-zero pre-equilibrium longitudinal flow of the IP-Glasma model is quantified, and its origin is briefly discussed.

  4. IP- -: A Reduced Internet Protocol for Optical Packet Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Masataka; Fujikawa, Kenji

    IP- - is proposed as an Internet Protocol suitable for optical packet networking. As optical routers require much faster control than electric ones and lack of optical buffers other than those by fiber delay lines requires fixed time control, Internet Protocols must be at least as simple as IPv4 and much simpler than IPv6. IP- - also addresses issues of IP address space exhaustion and IP routing table explosion.

  5. Pipeline for the Analysis of ChIP-seq Data and New Motif Ranking Procedure

    KAUST Repository

    Ashoor, Haitham

    2011-06-01

    This thesis presents a computational methodology for ab-initio identification of transcription factor binding sites based on ChIP-seq data. This method consists of three main steps, namely ChIP-seq data processing, motif discovery and models selection. A novel method for ranking the models of motifs identified in this process is proposed. This method combines multiple factors in order to rank the provided candidate motifs. It combines the model coverage of the ChIP-seq fragments that contain motifs from which that model is built, the suitable background data made up of shuffled ChIP-seq fragments, and the p-value that resulted from evaluating the model on actual and background data. Two ChIP-seq datasets retrieved from ENCODE project are used to evaluate and demonstrate the ability of the method to predict correct TFBSs with high precision. The first dataset relates to neuron-restrictive silencer factor, NRSF, while the second one corresponds to growth-associated binding protein, GABP. The pipeline system shows high precision prediction for both datasets, as in both cases the top ranked motif closely resembles the known motifs for the respective transcription factors.

  6. Dynamic Mobile IP routers in ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kock, B.A.; Schmidt, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a concept combining mobile IP and ad hoc routing to create a robust mobile network. In this network all nodes are mobile and globally and locally reachable under the same IP address. Essential for implementing this network are the dynamic mobile IP routers. They act as gateways

  7. Mobile location services over the next generation IP core network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thongthammachart, Saowanee; Olesen, Henning

    2003-01-01

    network is changing from circuit-switched to packet-switched technology and evolving to an IP core network based on IPv6. The IP core network will allow all IP devices to be connected seamlessly. Due to the movement detection mechanism of Mobile IPv6, mobile terminals will periodically update...

  8. Impact of genome assembly status on ChIP-Seq and ChIP-PET data mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachs Laurent

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ChIP-Seq and ChIP-PET can potentially be used with any genome for genome wide profiling of protein-DNA interaction sites. Unfortunately, it is probable that most genome assemblies will never reach the quality of the human genome assembly. Therefore, it remains to be determined whether ChIP-Seq and ChIP-PET are practicable with genome sequences other than a few (e.g. human and mouse. Findings Here, we used in silico simulations to assess the impact of completeness or fragmentation of genome assemblies on ChIP-Seq and ChIP-PET data mapping. Conclusions Most currently published genome assemblies are suitable for mapping the short sequence tags produced by ChIP-Seq or ChIP-PET.

  9. 77 FR 33227 - Assessment Questionnaire-IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2011-0069] Assessment Questionnaire--IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT) AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate...), Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Sector Outreach and Programs Division (SOPD), previously named...

  10. 76 FR 81955 - Assessment Questionnaire-IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2011-0069] Assessment Questionnaire--IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT) AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate...), Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Sector Specific Agency Executive Management Office (SSA EMO...

  11. FPGA IMPLEMENTATION OF IP PROTECTION THROUGH VISUAL INFORMATION HIDING

    OpenAIRE

    ABHISHEK BASU,; DEBAPRIYA BASU ROY,; DEEP BANERJEE,; ARCHAN SENGUPTA,; ANIKET SAHA,; TIRTHA SANKAR DAS,; S.K. SARKAR

    2011-01-01

    IP based design is one of the most potential techniques to promote the SoC design promptly into market. To assist the process it is advantageous to have IP exchanged in different forms. Though, sharing IP blocks in today’s aggressive market poses significant security risks. Proving that a given IP is derived from a patented method or technique is in general a conscientiously time-consuming task, often requiring reverse-engineering and forensic investigation of IP. These techniques are so mult...

  12. Impact of artefact removal on ChIP quality metrics in ChIP-seq and ChIP-exo data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Samuel Carroll

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of ChIP-seq multiplexing technologies and the subsequent increase in ChIP-seq throughput, the development of working standards for the quality assessment of ChIP-seq studies has received significant attention. The ENCODE consortium’s large scale analysis of transcription factor binding and epigenetic marks as well as concordant work on ChIP-seq by other laboratories has established a new generation of ChIP-seq quality control measures. The use of these metrics alongside common processing steps has however not been evaluated. In this study, we investigate the effects of blacklisting and removal of duplicated reads on established metrics of ChIP-seq quality and show that the interpretation of these metrics is highly dependent on the ChIP-seq preprocessing steps applied. Further to this we perform the first investigation of the use of these metrics for ChIP-exo data and make recommendations for the adaptation of the NSC statistic to allow for the assessment of ChIP-exo efficiency.

  13. Impact of artifact removal on ChIP quality metrics in ChIP-seq and ChIP-exo data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Thomas S.; Liang, Ziwei; Salama, Rafik; Stark, Rory; de Santiago, Ines

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of ChIP-seq multiplexing technologies and the subsequent increase in ChIP-seq throughput, the development of working standards for the quality assessment of ChIP-seq studies has received significant attention. The ENCODE consortium's large scale analysis of transcription factor binding and epigenetic marks as well as concordant work on ChIP-seq by other laboratories has established a new generation of ChIP-seq quality control measures. The use of these metrics alongside common processing steps has however not been evaluated. In this study, we investigate the effects of blacklisting and removal of duplicated reads on established metrics of ChIP-seq quality and show that the interpretation of these metrics is highly dependent on the ChIP-seq preprocessing steps applied. Further to this we perform the first investigation of the use of these metrics for ChIP-exo data and make recommendations for the adaptation of the NSC statistic to allow for the assessment of ChIP-exo efficiency. PMID:24782889

  14. A Review on Hot-IP Finding Methods and Its Application in Early DDoS Target Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Dau Hoang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available On the high-speed connections of the Internet or computer networks, the IP (Internet Protocol packet traffic passing through the network is extremely high, and that makes it difficult for network monitoring and attack detection applications. This paper reviews methods to find the high-occurrence-frequency elements in the data stream and applies the most efficient methods to find Hot-IPs that are high-frequency IP addresses of IP packets passing through the network. Fast finding of Hot-IPs in the IP packet stream can be effectively used in early detection of DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service attack targets and spreading sources of network worms. Research results show that the Count-Min method gives the best overall performance for Hot-IP detection thanks to its low computational complexity, low space requirement and fast processing speed. We also propose an early detection model of DDoS attack targets based on Hot-IP finding, which can be deployed on the target network routers.

  15. Cell Reprogramming, IPS Limitations, and Overcoming Strategies in Dental Bioengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaskon Ibarretxe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The procurement of induced pluripotent stem cells, or IPS cells, from adult differentiated animal cells has the potential to revolutionize future medicine, where reprogrammed IPS cells may be used to repair disease-affected tissues on demand. The potential of IPS cell technology is tremendous, but it will be essential to improve the methodologies for IPS cell generation and to precisely evaluate each clone and subclone of IPS cells for their safety and efficacy. Additionally, the current state of knowledge on IPS cells advises that research on their regenerative properties is carried out in appropriate tissue and organ systems that permit a safe assessment of the long-term behavior of these reprogrammed cells. In the present paper, we discuss the mechanisms of cell reprogramming, current technical limitations of IPS cells for their use in human tissue engineering, and possibilities to overcome them in the particular case of dental regeneration.

  16. Shared protection mechanisms in IP-over-WDM networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yinghua; Assi, Chadi M.; Dixit, Sudhir; Ali, Mohamed A.

    2001-10-01

    Emerging optical technologies with the rapid growth of the data traffic has made IP over WDM as next generation network infrastructure. Given the wide range of services envisioned for future IP networks, network survivability is a crucial concern. There are many research activities on how to provide resilience in IP over WDM networks, but most of them focus on either optical layer survivability or IP layer survivability. In this paper, we present an integrated protection scheme to protect IP over WDM network. Mainly, we investigate the impact of shared protection mechanisms in IP over WDM networks. The purpose of the shared protection is to improve the network utilization while assuring the reliability attributes that commit to the users' applications. We study shared protection schemes' applications in different network layers, such as optical layer protection, and IP over WDM two-layer protections. Finally, performance evaluations based on simulations are presented.

  17. ejIP: A TCP/IP Stack for Embedded Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin

    2011-01-01

    To enable Java on resource constraint embedded devices, the whole system should be implemented in a single programming language to avoid overheads on language boundaries. However, most of the functionality that is dedicated to the operating system layer is usually written in C. In this paper we...... present the design and implementation of a network stack written entirely in Java. This implementation serves as an example how to implement system functions in a safe language and gives evidence that Java can be used for operating system related functionality. The described TCP/IP stack ejIP has already...... been successfully used in industrial projects on pure Java embedded systems....

  18. Applied Multiprotocol Routing in IP Telephony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Voznak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the project was to create a multi-protocol system using SIP, H.323 and MGCP standards, which would ensure routing to various types of VoIP networks. The priority was to provide multi-protocol support to SIP and H.323 signalling and the support of the routing using the ENUM standard which has recently passed from the trial phase into full operation in the Czech Republic. The document describes the system's architecture and the components used. It also briefly describes ENUM.

  19. Performance Study of Objective Speech Quality Measurement for Modern Wireless-VoIP Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago H. Falk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless-VoIP communications introduce perceptual degradations that are not present with traditional VoIP communications. This paper investigates the effects of such degradations on the performance of three state-of-the-art standard objective quality measurement algorithms—PESQ, P.563, and an “extended” E-model. The comparative study suggests that measurement performance is significantly affected by acoustic background noise type and level as well as speech codec and packet loss concealment strategy. On our data, PESQ attains superior overall performance and P.563 and E-model attain comparable performance figures.

  20. Performance Study of Objective Speech Quality Measurement for Modern Wireless-VoIP Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Wai-Yip

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless-VoIP communications introduce perceptual degradations that are not present with traditional VoIP communications. This paper investigates the effects of such degradations on the performance of three state-of-the-art standard objective quality measurement algorithms—PESQ, P.563, and an "extended" E-model. The comparative study suggests that measurement performance is significantly affected by acoustic background noise type and level as well as speech codec and packet loss concealment strategy. On our data, PESQ attains superior overall performance and P.563 and E-model attain comparable performance figures.

  1. BUDAYA BANYUMAS SEBAGAI SUMBER BELAJAR IPS DI KABUPATEN BANYUMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Hidayat

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Banyumas culture can be used as a source of learning for junior high students in the region Banyumas. In addition to contributing significantly to the maintenance and preservation of local culture as an integral part of national culture, learning the IPS will be more meaningful for students. Banyumas have the kinds of art, unique cultural traditions, and historical sites with very high philosophical and educational value.The types of art, tradition and history as a component or element of Banyumas Culture which is prominent and important to be appointed are: History of Banyumas, Tradition of Banyumas, Arts and Heritage of Banyumas . Various alternative learning strategies can be chosen and applied social studies teacher in utilizing Banyumas Culture as a source of learning, one of them is, by applying contextual lear-ning model. It is possible to still refer to the applicable curriculum, namely KTSP.   Key words: culture, banyumas, IPS, SMP  

  2. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) of plant transcription factors followed by sequencing (ChIP-SEQ) or hybridization to whole genome arrays (ChIP-CHIP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaufmann, K.; Muiño, J.M.; Østerås, M.; Farinelli, L.; Krajewski, P.; Angenent, G.C.

    2010-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a powerful technique to study interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and DNA in vivo. For genome-wide de novo discovery of TF-binding sites, the DNA that is obtained in ChIP experiments needs to be processed for sequence identification. The sequences

  3. Pathogens of the spruce bark beetles Ips typographus and Ips duplicatus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holuša, J.; Weiser, J.; Žižka, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 4 (2009), s. 567-573 ISSN 1895-104X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Microsporidia * Gregarina * Ips typographus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.915, year: 2009

  4. Sequential ChIP Protocol for Profiling Bivalent Epigenetic Modifications (ReChIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desvoyes, Bénédicte; Sequeira-Mendes, Joana; Vergara, Zaida; Madeira, Sofia; Gutierrez, Crisanto

    2018-01-01

    Identification of chromatin modifications, e.g., histone acetylation and methylation, among others, is widely carried out by using a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) strategy. The information obtained with these procedures is useful to gain an overall picture of modifications present in all cells of the population under study. It also serves as a basis to figure out the mechanisms of chromatin organization and gene regulation at the population level. However, the ultimate goal is to understand gene regulation at the level of single chromatin fibers. This requires the identification of chromatin modifications that occur at a given genomic location and within the same chromatin fiber. This is achieved by following a sequential ChIP strategy using two antibodies to distinguish different chromatin modifications. Here, we describe a sequential ChIP protocol (Re-ChIP), paying special attention to the controls needed and the required steps to obtain meaningful and reproducible results. The protocol is developed for young Arabidopsis seedlings but could be adapted to other plant materials.

  5. ATM interface design issues for IP traffic over ATM/ADSL access networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Jonathan E.; Pampolini, Matteo

    1999-01-01

    The combination of ATM and ADSL is fast becoming an attractive alternative for Internet access for home and small business. ADSL modems allow the use of the existing copper plant at speeds much higher than those afforded by traditional modem technologies. The use of ATM both enables the long-sought goal of an ATM end-to-end network, and allows, through the use of QOS guarantees, efficient use of the limited upstream bandwidth of ADSL. Although the client- server model, which typified classical Internet traffic and newer multimedia IP services, fits well an asymmetric network model, performance can be greatly impacted unless the interactions between ADSL, ATM, and Internet protocols are well understood an taken into account in the design of ATM interfaces. In this paper we investigate the potential limitations on performance in IP/ATM/ADSL networks and explain how, in our ATM interface designs, we have ameliorated these problems and optimized the use of IP services over such networks. We discuss the importance of 'traffic shaping', heretofore afforded little importance for IP traffic, and the impact of latency and asymmetric bandwidth of ADSL, on both traditional and multimedia IP services, in our implementations.

  6. Research of future network with multi-layer IP address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoling; Long, Zhaohua; Wei, Ziqiang

    2018-04-01

    The shortage of IP addresses and the scalability of routing systems [1] are challenges for the Internet. The idea of dividing existing IP addresses between identities and locations is one of the important research directions. This paper proposed a new decimal network architecture based on IPv9 [11], and decimal network IP address from E.164 principle of traditional telecommunication network, the IP address level, which helps to achieve separation and identification and location of IP address, IP address form a multilayer network structure, routing scalability problem in remission at the same time, to solve the problem of IPv4 address depletion. On the basis of IPv9, a new decimal network architecture is proposed, and the IP address of the decimal network draws on the E.164 principle of the traditional telecommunication network, and the IP addresses are hierarchically divided, which helps to realize the identification and location separation of IP addresses, the formation of multi-layer IP address network structure, while easing the scalability of the routing system to find a way out of IPv4 address exhausted. In addition to modifying DNS [10] simply and adding the function of digital domain, a DDNS [12] is formed. At the same time, a gateway device is added, that is, IPV9 gateway. The original backbone network and user network are unchanged.

  7. 3-D spectral IP imaging: Non-invasive characterization of contaminant plumes. Annual progress report, September 15, 1996--September 14, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frye, K.M.; Lesmes, D.P.; Morgan, F.D.; Rodi, W.; Shi, W.; Sturrock, J.

    1997-12-01

    'The objective of this project is to develop the scientific basis for characterizing contaminant plumes in the earth''s subsurface using field measurements of induced polarization (IP) effects. The first-year accomplishments are (1) laboratory experiments on fluid-saturated sandstones quantifying the dependence of spectral IP responses on solution chemistry and rock micro-geometry; (2) library research on the current understanding of electromagnetic coupling effects on IP data acquired in the field: and (3) development of prototype forward modeling and inversion algorithms for interpreting IP data in terms of 3-D models of complex resistivity.'

  8. 3-D spectral Induced Polarization (IP) imaging: Non-invasive characterization of contaminant plumes. Annual progress report, September 15, 1996 - September 14, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frye, K.M.; Lesmes, D.P.; Morgan, F.D.; Rodi, W.; Shi, W.; Sturrock, J.

    1997-01-01

    'The objective of this project is to develop the scientific basis for characterizing contaminant plumes in the earth''s subsurface using field measurements of induced polarization (IP) effects. The first-year accomplishments are (1) laboratory experiments on fluid-saturated sandstones quantifying the dependence of spectral IP responses on solution chemistry and rock micro-geometry; (2) library research on the current understanding of electromagnetic coupling effects on IP data acquired in the field: and (3) development of prototype forward modeling and inversion algorithms for interpreting IP data in terms of 3-D models of complex resistivity.'

  9. Dietary Chemoprevention of PhIP Induced Carcinogenesis in Male Fischer 344 Rats with Tomato and Broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canene-Adams, Kirstie; Sfanos, Karen S.; Liang, Chung-Tiang; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Nelson, William G.; Brayton, Cory; De Marzo, Angelo M.

    2013-01-01

    The heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-B]pyridine (PhIP), found in meats cooked at high temperatures, has been implicated in epidemiological and rodent studies for causing breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. A previous animal study using a xenograft model has shown that whole tomato and broccoli, when eaten in combination, exhibit a marked effect on tumor reduction compared to when eaten alone. Our aim was to determine if PhIP-induced carcinogenesis can be prevented by dietary consumption of whole tomato + broccoli powders. Male Fischer 344 rats (n = 45) were randomized into the following treatment groups: control (AIN93G diet), PhIP (200 ppm in AIN93G diet for the first 20 weeks of the study), or tomato + broccoli + PhIP (mixed in AIN93G diet at 10% each and fed with PhIP for 20 weeks, and then without PhIP for 32 weeks). Study animals were monitored for 52 weeks and were euthanized as necessary based on a set of criteria for health status and tumor burden. Although there appeared to be some hepatic and intestinal toxicity due to the combination of PhIP and tomato + broccoli, these rodents had improved survival and reduced incidence and/or severity of PhIP-induced neoplastic lesions compared to the PhIP-alone treated group. Rats eating tomato + broccoli exhibited a marked decrease in the number and size of cribiform prostatic intraepitheilial neoplasia/carcinoma in situ (cribiform PIN/CIS) lesions and in the incidence of invasive intestinal adenocarcinomas and skin carcinomas. Although the apparent toxic effects of combined PhIP and tomato + broccoli need additional study, the results of this study support the hypothesis that a diet rich in tomato and broccoli can reduce or prevent dietary carcinogen-induced cancers. PMID:24312188

  10. Sustained signalling by PTH modulates IP3 accumulation and IP3 receptors through cyclic AMP junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Abha; Tovey, Stephen C.; Taylor, Colin W.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates adenylyl cyclase through type 1 PTH receptors (PTH1R) and potentiates the Ca2+ signals evoked by carbachol, which stimulates formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). We confirmed that in HEK cells expressing PTH1R, acute stimulation with PTH(1-34) potentiated carbachol-evoked Ca2+ release. This was mediated by locally delivered cyclic AMP (cAMP), but unaffected by inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA), exchange proteins activated by cAMP, cAMP phosphodiesterases (PDEs) or substantial inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. Sustained stimulation with PTH(1-34) causes internalization of PTH1R–adenylyl cyclase signalling complexes, but the consequences for delivery of cAMP to IP3R within cAMP signalling junctions are unknown. Here, we show that sustained stimulation with PTH(1-34) or with PTH analogues that do not evoke receptor internalization reduced the potentiated Ca2+ signals and attenuated carbachol-evoked increases in cytosolic IP3. Similar results were obtained after sustained stimulation with NKH477 to directly activate adenylyl cyclase, or with the membrane-permeant analogue of cAMP, 8-Br-cAMP. These responses were independent of PKA and unaffected by substantial inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. During prolonged stimulation with PTH(1-34), hyperactive cAMP signalling junctions, within which cAMP is delivered directly and at saturating concentrations to its targets, mediate sensitization of IP3R and a more slowly developing inhibition of IP3 accumulation. PMID:25431134

  11. KAJIAN INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEMCELL (iPS (HARAPAN DAN TANTANGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masagus Zainuri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractInduced Pluripotent Stemcell (iPS are adult cells which the genetic information in the nucleus of those cells being reprogrammed (reprogram by inserting exogenous pluripotential genes. The exogenous gene transduction is using vectors, such as lentivirus, retrovirus, or adenovirus, which suppressed the gene expression of the original cells, so they will express the transduced exogenous gene. Viral vectors are then used to reprogramming and producing iPS clones that are pluripotent. iPS derived from adult cells of patient with certain diseases will be used as a tool to study the mechanisms of those specific diseases and the effects of selected drugs against the diseases. Several previous studies have shown that iPS clones developed from specific genetic disease have its original genotype and retain the character of the response to the drug that similar as the original adult cells. Opportunities for the utilization of autologous iPS cell therapy in the future is wide open as expected iPS transplant will not be rejected when transplanted back to the patient. Behind all its potential, iPS production is still facing some problems to be applicable clinically. The use of viruses as vectors may cause problems due to virus gene sequences may be integrated into the genome of the DNA donor cell, thereby causing mutations of the iPS clones. Several subsequent studies have succeeded in replacing the use of viruses as vectors, but the level of efficiency obtained is still very low. Another problem that arises is that epigenetic changes may occur in iPS cultures. Many advanced research related to iPS may be developed in Indonesia and is necessary to improve the production efficiency of iPS and solve iPS clones epigenetic changes problems in the future.Keywords: iPS, pluripotency, transduction, transfection.AbstrakInduced Pluripotent Stemcell (iPS adalah sel somatic dewasa yang informasi genetika dalam inti selnyadiprogram ulang (reprogram dengan cara

  12. Chemo-enzymatic asymmetric total syntheses of antitumor afents (3R,9R,10R)- and (3S,9R,10R)-panaxytriol and (R)- and (S)-falcarinol from panes ginseng using an enantioconvergent enzyme-triggered cascade reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayer, S.F.; Steinreiber, A.; Orru, R.V.A.; Faber, K.

    2002-01-01

    Total asymmetric synthesis of two components of Panax ginseng showing antitumor activity, i.e., (3R,9R,10R)- and (3S,9R,10R)-Panaxytriol and of both enantiomers of Falcarinol was accomplished. Due to the fact that the synthetic strategy was based on enantioconvergent biotransformations, the

  13. Telemetry and Communication IP Video Player

    Science.gov (United States)

    OFarrell, Zachary L.

    2011-01-01

    Aegis Video Player is the name of the video over IP system for the Telemetry and Communications group of the Launch Services Program. Aegis' purpose is to display video streamed over a network connection to be viewed during launches. To accomplish this task, a VLC ActiveX plug-in was used in C# to provide the basic capabilities of video streaming. The program was then customized to be used during launches. The VLC plug-in can be configured programmatically to display a single stream, but for this project multiple streams needed to be accessed. To accomplish this, an easy to use, informative menu system was added to the program to enable users to quickly switch between videos. Other features were added to make the player more useful, such as watching multiple videos and watching a video in full screen.

  14. 3-D spectral IP imaging: Non-invasive characterization of contaminant plumes. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesmes, D.; Morgan, F.D.; Rodi, W.

    1998-01-01

    'The overall objective of this project is to develop the scientific basis for characterizing contaminant plumes in the earth''s subsurface using field measurements of induced polarization (IP) effects. Three specific objectives towards this end are: (1) understanding IP at the laboratory level through measurements of complex resistivity as a function of frequency in rock and soil samples with varying pore geometries, pore fluid conductivities and saturations, and contaminant chemistries and concentrations; (2) developing effective data acquisition techniques for measuring the critical IP responses (time domain or frequency domain) in the field; (3) developing modeling and inversion algorithms that permit the interpretation of field IP data in terms of subsurface geology and contaminant plume properties. The authors laboratory experiments to date are described in Appendices A and B, which consist of two papers submitted to the annual SAGEEP conference (Frye et al., 1998; Sturrock et al., 1998). The experiments involved measurements of complex resistivity vs. frequency on a suite of brine saturated sandstone samples. In one set of experiments, the fluid chemistry (pH, ionic strength, and cation type) was varied. In a second set of experiments, the microgeometry of the rock matrix was varied. The experiments showed that spectral IP responses are sensitive to subtle variations in both the solution chemistry and rock microgeometry. The results demonstrate that spectral IP responses have the potential of being sensitive indicators of in-situ chemistry and microgeometry, the latter of which may be related to the hydraulic properties. Data Acquisition The authors have been looking in some detail at the effects of electromagnetic coupling and how to practically deal with it. In this area, the results to date are summarized in Vandiver (1998). The progress in the development of modeling and inversion algorithms for IP is described in Appendix C, a paper submitted to the

  15. Machinability of IPS Empress 2 framework ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C; Weigl, P

    2000-01-01

    Using ceramic materials for an automatic production of ceramic dentures by CAD/CAM is a challenge, because many technological, medical, and optical demands must be considered. The IPS Empress 2 framework ceramic meets most of them. This study shows the possibilities for machining this ceramic with economical parameters. The long life-time requirement for ceramic dentures requires a ductile machined surface to avoid the well-known subsurface damages of brittle materials caused by machining. Slow and rapid damage propagation begins at break outs and cracks, and limits life-time significantly. Therefore, ductile machined surfaces are an important demand for machine dental ceramics. The machining tests were performed with various parameters such as tool grain size and feed speed. Denture ceramics were machined by jig grinding on a 5-axis CNC milling machine (Maho HGF 500) with a high-speed spindle up to 120,000 rpm. The results of the wear test indicate low tool wear. With one tool, you can machine eight occlusal surfaces including roughing and finishing. One occlusal surface takes about 60 min machining time. Recommended parameters for roughing are middle diamond grain size (D107), cutting speed v(c) = 4.7 m/s, feed speed v(ft) = 1000 mm/min, depth of cut a(e) = 0.06 mm, width of contact a(p) = 0.8 mm, and for finishing ultra fine diamond grain size (D46), cutting speed v(c) = 4.7 m/s, feed speed v(ft) = 100 mm/min, depth of cut a(e) = 0.02 mm, width of contact a(p) = 0.8 mm. The results of the machining tests give a reference for using IPS Empress(R) 2 framework ceramic in CAD/CAM systems. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  16. Adaptation technology between IP layer and optical layer in optical Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yuefeng; Li, Hua; Sun, Yongmei

    2001-10-01

    Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical network provides a platform with high bandwidth capacity and is supposed to be the backbone infrastructure supporting the next-generation high-speed multi-service networks (ATM, IP, etc.). In the foreseeable future, IP will be the predominant data traffic, to make fully use of the bandwidth of the WDM optical network, many attentions have been focused on IP over WDM, which has been proposed as the most promising technology for new kind of network, so-called Optical Internet. According to OSI model, IP is in the 3rd layer (network layer) and optical network is in the 1st layer (physical layer), so the key issue is what adaptation technology should be used in the 2nd layer (data link layer). In this paper, firstly, we analyze and compare the current adaptation technologies used in backbone network nowadays. Secondly, aiming at the drawbacks of above technologies, we present a novel adaptation protocol (DONA) between IP layer and optical layer in Optical Internet and describe it in details. Thirdly, the gigabit transmission adapter (GTA) we accomplished based on the novel protocol is described. Finally, we set up an experiment platform to apply and verify the DONA and GTA, the results and conclusions of the experiment are given.

  17. n Vitro Immunomodulatory Effect of R10 Fraction of Garlic on Viability and Production of TNF-? in CD8+ T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ghazanfari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: -cells, especially CD8+ T lymphocytes are the most important cells in anti-tumor response. Previously R10 fraction of garlic extract was reported as an immuno-modulator which induced an effective cellular immunity and Th1 responses. In this study the in vitro immunomodulatory effect of R10 on CD8+ T cells viability and production of TNF-? were evaluated. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, using monoclonal antibodies attached to magnetic beads with isolating columns by magnetic bead method, CD8+ T cells from spleen cells of Balb/C mice were isolated. R10 fraction based on molecular weight was prepared using Ultra filtration. MTT assay was used to evaluate cell viability. TNF-? level was meas-ured in the supernatant of culture of CD8+ T cells by ELISA. Obtained data was compared and analyzed using Nonparametric Test and Keraskel & Wanny's Test tests.. Results: The findings indicate that all dilutions of R10 fraction increased cell viability of CD8+ T cells in comparison with the negative control group and in the presence of ConA with dilution of 1:50 of R10 fraction significantly increased cell viability of CD8+ T Cells com-pared to ConA alone. Secretion of TNF-? significantly increased by all dilutions of R10 frac-tion. Conclusion: These findings suggest that R10 fraction of garlic can be used as an Immuno-modulator drug candidate for induction of cellular Immunity in tumor therapy. Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 20 (4:273-279

  18. Lessons Learned in the Design and Use of IP1 / IP2 Flexible Packaging - 13621

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Mike; Reeves, Wendall; Smart, Bill

    2013-01-01

    For many years in the USA, Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLW), contaminated soils and construction debris, have been transported, interim stored, and disposed of, using IP1 / IP2 metal containers. The performance of these containers has been more than adequate, with few safety occurrences. The containers are used under the regulatory oversight of the US Department of Transportation (DOT), 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). In the late 90's the introduction of flexible packaging for the transport, storage, and disposal of low level contaminated soils and construction debris was introduced. The development of flexible packaging came out of a need for a more cost effective package, for the large volumes of waste generated by the decommissioning of many of the US Department of Energy (DOE) legacy sites across the US. Flexible packaging had to be designed to handle a wide array of waste streams, including soil, gravel, construction debris, and fine particulate dust migration. The design also had to meet all of the IP1 requirements under 49CFR 173.410, and be robust enough to pass the IP2 testing 49 CFR 173.465 required for many LLW shipments. Tens of thousands of flexible packages have been safely deployed and used across the US nuclear industry as well as for hazardous non-radioactive applications, with no recorded release of radioactive materials. To ensure that flexible packages are designed properly, the manufacturer must use lessons learned over the years, and the tests performed to provide evidence that these packages are suitable for transporting low level radioactive wastes. The design and testing of flexible packaging for LLW, VLLW and other hazardous waste streams must be as strict and stringent as the design and testing of metal containers. The design should take into consideration the materials being loaded into the package, and should incorporate the right materials, and manufacturing methods, to provide a quality, safe product. Flexible packaging can be

  19. PTEN counteracts FBXL2 to promote IP3R3- and Ca2+-mediated apoptosis limiting tumour growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchay, Shafi; Giorgi, Carlotta; Simoneschi, Daniele; Pagan, Julia; Missiroli, Sonia; Saraf, Anita; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P; Collazo-Lorduy, Ana; Castillo-Martin, Mireia; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Sebti, Said M; Pinton, Paolo; Pagano, Michele

    2017-06-22

    In response to environmental cues that promote IP3 (inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate) generation, IP3 receptors (IP3Rs) located on the endoplasmic reticulum allow the 'quasisynaptical' feeding of calcium to the mitochondria to promote oxidative phosphorylation. However, persistent Ca 2+ release results in mitochondrial Ca 2+ overload and consequent apoptosis. Among the three mammalian IP3Rs, IP3R3 appears to be the major player in Ca 2+ -dependent apoptosis. Here we show that the F-box protein FBXL2 (the receptor subunit of one of 69 human SCF (SKP1, CUL1, F-box protein) ubiquitin ligase complexes) binds IP3R3 and targets it for ubiquitin-, p97- and proteasome-mediated degradation to limit Ca 2+ influx into mitochondria. FBXL2-knockdown cells and FBXL2-insensitive IP3R3 mutant knock-in clones display increased cytosolic Ca 2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum and sensitization to Ca 2+ -dependent apoptotic stimuli. The phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) gene is frequently mutated or lost in human tumours and syndromes that predispose individuals to cancer. We found that PTEN competes with FBXL2 for IP3R3 binding, and the FBXL2-dependent degradation of IP3R3 is accelerated in Pten -/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts and PTEN-null cancer cells. Reconstitution of PTEN-null cells with either wild-type PTEN or a catalytically dead mutant stabilizes IP3R3 and induces persistent Ca 2+ mobilization and apoptosis. IP3R3 and PTEN protein levels directly correlate in human prostate cancer. Both in cell culture and xenograft models, a non-degradable IP3R3 mutant sensitizes tumour cells with low or no PTEN expression to photodynamic therapy, which is based on the ability of photosensitizer drugs to cause Ca 2+ -dependent cytotoxicity after irradiation with visible light. Similarly, disruption of FBXL2 localization with GGTi-2418, a geranylgeranyl transferase inhibitor, sensitizes xenotransplanted tumours to photodynamic therapy. In summary, we identify a novel molecular

  20. Considerations on VoIP Throughput in 802.11 Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POTORAC, A. D.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Voice data packets have to arrive at the destination in time, with a defined cadence and with low and constant delay in order to allow the real time voice reconstruction. From this point of view, transmitting voice over IP networks is the most sensitive category of applications, especially when wireless medium is involved. The paper discusses the possibilities of transmitting the maximum number of simultaneous voice streams over 802.11 wireless networks considering the main factors which impact with VoIP throughput, in a basic scenario. Starting from a proposed communication model, the number of simultaneous possible VoIP sessions is calculated, taking into consideration the contribution of the protocol overheads, the security overheads, the PHY level timings and the CODEC proprieties. Numerical results are generated and compared.

  1. Dynamic Optimization for IPS2 Resource Allocation Based on Improved Fuzzy Multiple Linear Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maokuan Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study mainly focuses on resource allocation optimization for industrial product-service systems (IPS2. The development of IPS2 leads to sustainable economy by introducing cooperative mechanisms apart from commodity transaction. The randomness and fluctuation of service requests from customers lead to the volatility of IPS2 resource utilization ratio. Three basic rules for resource allocation optimization are put forward to improve system operation efficiency and cut unnecessary costs. An approach based on fuzzy multiple linear regression (FMLR is developed, which integrates the strength and concision of multiple linear regression in data fitting and factor analysis and the merit of fuzzy theory in dealing with uncertain or vague problems, which helps reduce those costs caused by unnecessary resource transfer. The iteration mechanism is introduced in the FMLR algorithm to improve forecasting accuracy. A case study of human resource allocation optimization in construction machinery industry is implemented to test and verify the proposed model.

  2. Computational Methods for ChIP-seq Data Analysis and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ashoor, Haitham

    2017-04-25

    integrates several experimental data including ChIP-seq data for TF binding sites. Finally, I present an extensive computational comparison of different ab-initio motif identification methods based on TF ChIP-seq data. The comparison included 10 different methods over 159 different TF datasets. Recommendations of this comparison indicate that the usage of simple methods outperforms the usage of high order models.

  3. Whole Genome Chromatin IP-Sequencing (ChIP-Seq) in Skeletal Muscle Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Karl Kamhei; Peng, Xianlu Laura; Sun, Hao; Wang, Huating

    2017-01-01

    Transcriptional control of gene expression in skeletal muscle cell is involved in different processes ranging from muscle formation to regeneration. The identification of an increasing number of transcription factors, co-factors, and histone modifications has been greatly advanced by methods that allow studies of genome-wide chromatin-protein interactions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation with massively parallel DNA sequencing, or ChIP-seq, is a powerful tool for identifying binding sites of TFs/co-factors and histone modifications. The major steps of this technique involve immunoprecipitation of fragmented chromatin, followed by high-throughput sequencing to identify the protein bound regions genome-wide. Here, in this protocol, we will illustrate how the entire ChIP-seq is performed using global H3K27ac profiling in myoblast cells as an example.

  4. Optimal design of an IP/MPLS over DWDM network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Canale

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Different approaches for deploying resilient optical networks of low cost constitute a traditional group of NP-Hard problems that have been widely studied. Most of them are based on the construction of low cost networks that fulfill connectivity constraints. However, recent trends to virtualize optical networks over the legacy fiber infrastructure, modified the nature of network design problems and turned inappropriate many of these models and algorithms. In this paper we study a design problem arising from the deployment of an IP/MPLS network over an existing DWDM infrastructure. Besides cost and resiliency, this problem integrates traffic and capacity constraints. We present: an integer programming formulation for the problem, theoretical results, and describe how several metaheuristics were applied in order to find good quality solutions, for a real application case of a telecommunications company.

  5. Secure Protocol and IP Core for Configuration of Networking Hardware IPs in the Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Urbina

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the incorporation and constant evolution of communication networks in the electricity sector have given rise to the so-called Smart Grid, which is why it is necessary to have devices that are capable of managing new communication protocols, guaranteeing the strict requirements of processing required by the electricity sector. In this context, intelligent electronic devices (IEDs with network architectures are currently available to meet the communication, real-time processing and interoperability requirements of the Smart Grid. The new generation IEDs include an Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA, to support specialized networking switching architectures for the electric sector, as the IEEE 1588-aware High-availability Seamless Redundancy/Parallel Redundancy Protocol (HSR/PRP. Another advantage to using an FPGA is the ability to update or reconfigure the design to support new requirements that are being raised to the standards (IEC 61850. The update of the architecture implemented in the FPGA can be done remotely, but it is necessary to establish a cyber security mechanism since the communication link generates vulnerability in the case the attacker gains physical access to the network. The research presented in this paper proposes a secure protocol and Intellectual Property (IP core for configuring and monitoring the networking IPs implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA. The FPGA based implementation proposed overcomes this issue using a light Layer-2 protocol fully implemented on hardware and protected by strong cryptographic algorithms (AES-GCM, defined in the IEC 61850-90-5 standard. The proposed secure protocol and IP core are applicable in any field where remote configuration over Ethernet is required for IP cores in FPGAs. In this paper, the proposal is validated in communications hardware for Smart Grids.

  6. Working with mental health problems : clients' experiences of IPS, vocational rehabilitation and employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koletsi, Marsha; Niersman, Astrid; van Busschbach, Jooske T.; Catty, Jocelyn; Becker, Thomas; Burns, Tom; Fioritti, Angelo; Kalkan, Rana; Lauber, Christoph; Roessler, Wulf; Tomov, Toma; Wiersma, Durk

    2009-01-01

    Background Although the effectiveness of individual placement and support (IPS) has been well established, little is known about clients' perceptions of the model compared to usual vocational rehabilitation, nor about their experiences of searching for and returning to work with this kind of

  7. Telefonía IP (ToIP): principios fundamentales, arquitectura y aspecto regulatorio en el Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Narváez García, William Fernando; Ugalde Peña, Pablo Esteban

    2006-01-01

    En este documento, hemos tratado de explicar el funcionamiento de la telefonía IP dentro de poco, comenzamos hablando con una introducción al tema al comentar sobre la actual tendencia a la conocida como patrón ALL-IP. Luego hemos visto conveniente hacer un comentario acerca de la evolución de las telecomunicaciones desde sus primeros pasos con Guillermo Marconi hasta nuestros días con la ToIP. De modo que existe un concepto claro de lo que la ToIP significa, en primer lugar se explica ...

  8. PENGEMBANGAN PERANGKAT PEMBELAJARAN IPS DENGAN PENDEKATAN INQUIRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisna Handayani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan  penelitian adalah menghasilkan perangkat pembelajaran IPS dengan Pendekatan Inquiry. Penelitian pengembangan ini menggunakan langkah-langkah Borg and Gall yang terdiri dari tiga tahapan utama yaitu pendahuluan, pengembangan dan validasi. Data yang diperoleh adalah hasil belajar, aktivitas diskusi dan respon peserta didik. Data dianalisis menggunakan analisis deskriptif dan uji t. Penggunaan pendekatan inquiry sebagai salah satau strategi pembelajaran IPS dapat dilakukan dengan mempersiapkan terlebih dahulu perangkat pembelajarannya. Hasil pengembangan divalidasi oleh pakar, diujicobakan pada kelas terbatas dan selanjutnya dilakukan ujicoba pada kelas eksperimen yang dibandingkan hasilnya dengan kelas kontrol. Perangkat pembelajaran tergolong efektif untuk meningkatkan hasil belajar peserta didik di kelas VII SMP Negeri 2 Jepara, terbukti dari adanya peningkatan yang nyata terbukti dari hasil uji paired sampel t-test dengan nilai signifikansi 0,000 <0,05, dan terjadi peningkatan yang tinggi (gain > 0,7, serta hasil belajar yang dicapai berbeda secara signifikan dengan kelompok kontrol. Di samping hasil belajar, pembelajaran yang dilakukan juga berdampak pada proses belajar yang membawa tingginya aktivitas peserta didik dalam memberikan gagasan, kerjasama, inisiatif, keaktifan dan kedisiplinan. The purpose of this research is creating Social Lesson Material with Inquiry Approach.This developing of the research is used of  the steps of Borg and Gall. They are Introducing, developing and evaluating. Learning materials are developed and validity by expert. Datas are gooten by study result, discussion activity and students, respone. Analizing datas are used descriptive analize and t- try out. The use of inquiry approach as one of learning strategy on Social Lesson Material can be done by preparing those. The result of  developing are being validity by expert,  try out on limited group and experiment group ad compare with control group

  9. Opportunities for IP  in Communications Beyond 3G

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Toftegaard; Jacobsen, Rune H.

    2005-01-01

    Future communication will be based on TCP/IP as common network and transport layers to provide global connectivity to users and applications. IP is used to provide ubiquitous access across different access networks and exploits the benefits of a common connectivity layer while reducing the cost o...

  10. IP-10 release assays in the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhwald, Morten; Aabye, Martine G; Ravn, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art tests for infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis - the IFN-γ release assays - rely on accurate measurement of the cytokine IFN-γ. Many other potential biomarkers are expressed in concert with IFN-γ, and IP-10 in particular has shown promising results. IP-10...

  11. In Silico Pooling of ChIP-seq Control Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guannan; Srinivasan, Rajini; Lopez-Anido, Camila; Hung, Holly A.; Svaren, John; Keleş, Sündüz

    2014-01-01

    As next generation sequencing technologies are becoming more economical, large-scale ChIP-seq studies are enabling the investigation of the roles of transcription factor binding and epigenome on phenotypic variation. Studying such variation requires individual level ChIP-seq experiments. Standard designs for ChIP-seq experiments employ a paired control per ChIP-seq sample. Genomic coverage for control experiments is often sacrificed to increase the resources for ChIP samples. However, the quality of ChIP-enriched regions identifiable from a ChIP-seq experiment depends on the quality and the coverage of the control experiments. Insufficient coverage leads to loss of power in detecting enrichment. We investigate the effect of in silico pooling of control samples within multiple biological replicates, multiple treatment conditions, and multiple cell lines and tissues across multiple datasets with varying levels of genomic coverage. Our computational studies suggest guidelines for performing in silico pooling of control experiments. Using vast amounts of ENCODE data, we show that pairwise correlations between control samples originating from multiple biological replicates, treatments, and cell lines/tissues can be grouped into two classes representing whether or not in silico pooling leads to power gain in detecting enrichment between the ChIP and the control samples. Our findings have important implications for multiplexing samples. PMID:25380244

  12. In silico pooling of ChIP-seq control experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guannan Sun

    Full Text Available As next generation sequencing technologies are becoming more economical, large-scale ChIP-seq studies are enabling the investigation of the roles of transcription factor binding and epigenome on phenotypic variation. Studying such variation requires individual level ChIP-seq experiments. Standard designs for ChIP-seq experiments employ a paired control per ChIP-seq sample. Genomic coverage for control experiments is often sacrificed to increase the resources for ChIP samples. However, the quality of ChIP-enriched regions identifiable from a ChIP-seq experiment depends on the quality and the coverage of the control experiments. Insufficient coverage leads to loss of power in detecting enrichment. We investigate the effect of in silico pooling of control samples within multiple biological replicates, multiple treatment conditions, and multiple cell lines and tissues across multiple datasets with varying levels of genomic coverage. Our computational studies suggest guidelines for performing in silico pooling of control experiments. Using vast amounts of ENCODE data, we show that pairwise correlations between control samples originating from multiple biological replicates, treatments, and cell lines/tissues can be grouped into two classes representing whether or not in silico pooling leads to power gain in detecting enrichment between the ChIP and the control samples. Our findings have important implications for multiplexing samples.

  13. Special rights for the development of Indigenous Peoples (IPS) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous Peoples (IPs) have been subjected to a series of humiliation, discrimination and in some cases dis-membership of a state. This is germane, but not peculiar, to the developing states with special reference to Africa. Globalization and efforts to link human, cultural and social rights to the IPs remain blurred and ...

  14. IFN-γ and IP-10 in tracheal aspirates from premature infants: relationship with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghai, Zubair H; Saslow, Judy G; Mody, Kartik; Eydelman, Riva; Bhat, Vishwanath; Stahl, Gary; Pyon, Kee; Bhandari, Vineet

    2013-01-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interferon-inducible protein of 10 kDa (IP-10) are potent inflammatory mediators and contribute to acute lung injury in adults. Recently, a potential role for IFN-γ and IP-10 in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) has been reported in animal models. To study the association between IFN-γ and IP-10 in tracheal aspirate (TA) and the development of BPD in premature infants. TA samples collected within 48 hr after birth from 79 mechanically ventilated premature neonates [gestational age (GA) IP-10 was determined using a commercially available ELISA kit. Total protein in TA was measured by Bradford assay to correct for sampling related dilution. BPD was defined as the need of supplemental oxygen at 36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA). Twenty infants (GA 26.4 ± 1.9w, BW 860 ± 201 g) survived without BPD at 36 weeks PMA and 59 infants (GA 25.5 ± 1.5w, BW 751 ± 163 g) died before 36 weeks PMA or developed BPD. The mean IFN-γ level was higher in infants who died or developed BPD (9.7 ± 2.8 vs. 3.1 ± 1.1 pg/ml, P = 0.03). Similarly, the mean IP-10 level was higher in infants who died or developed BPD (63.4 ± 17.5 pg/ml) compared to those who survived without BPD (18.5 ± 7.5 pg/ml, P = 0.02). Higher IFN-γ and IP-10 levels in TA samples are associated with the development of BPD or death in premature infants. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Probabilistic Route Selection Algorithm for IP Traceback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Hong-Bin; Jung, Jae-Il

    DoS(Denial of Service) or DDoS(Distributed DoS) attack is a major threaten and the most difficult problem to solve among many attacks. Moreover, it is very difficult to find a real origin of attackers because DoS/DDoS attacker uses spoofed IP addresses. To solve this problem, we propose a probabilistic route selection traceback algorithm, namely PRST, to trace the attacker's real origin. This algorithm uses two types of packets such as an agent packet and a reply agent packet. The agent packet is in use to find the attacker's real origin and the reply agent packet is in use to notify to a victim that the agent packet is reached the edge router of the attacker. After attacks occur, the victim generates the agent packet and sends it to a victim's edge router. The attacker's edge router received the agent packet generates the reply agent packet and send it to the victim. The agent packet and the reply agent packet is forwarded refer to probabilistic packet forwarding table (PPFT) by routers. The PRST algorithm runs on the distributed routers and PPFT is stored and managed by routers. We validate PRST algorithm by using mathematical approach based on Poisson distribution.

  16. Collaboration in Science and Innovation: IP Considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belenkaya, N.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: In today’s highly competitive market, organizations gain competitive advantage by collaborating on innovations. However, in general, before a successful partnership can start, organizations will have to negotiate ownership and access to the intellectual property produced as a result of the joint effort. While some collaborative projects are not created to pursue commercial gains, outputs of collaboration may have commercial application. Experience shows that the framework for the collaboration should be determined through an agreement that describes the project and the future ownership, management and exploitation of the intellectual property. The attractiveness of a collaborative project is increased if such framework can be negotiated timely. It is important that the partners agree on the allocation of ownership, transfer, and access to intellectual property before the project starts. This is done to reduce uncertainties and to protect the rights of the partners. Partners should agree not only on the owners of the future intellectual property but also on the ways for subsequent commercial exploitation of the results of the collaboration. A timely negotiated and successfully finalized framework for IP ownership and management plays a key role in protecting partner investments and ensuring the successful exploitation of the results of the collaboration. (author

  17. Audio CAPTCHA for SIP-Based VoIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soupionis, Yannis; Tountas, George; Gritzalis, Dimitris

    Voice over IP (VoIP) introduces new ways of communication, while utilizing existing data networks to provide inexpensive voice communications worldwide as a promising alternative to the traditional PSTN telephony. SPam over Internet Telephony (SPIT) is one potential source of future annoyance in VoIP. A common way to launch a SPIT attack is the use of an automated procedure (bot), which generates calls and produces audio advertisements. In this paper, our goal is to design appropriate CAPTCHA to fight such bots. We focus on and develop audio CAPTCHA, as the audio format is more suitable for VoIP environments and we implement it in a SIP-based VoIP environment. Furthermore, we suggest and evaluate the specific attributes that audio CAPTCHA should incorporate in order to be effective, and test it against an open source bot implementation.

  18. COPAR: A ChIP-Seq Optimal Peak Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Binhua; Wang, Xihan; Jin, Victor X

    2017-01-01

    Sequencing data quality and peak alignment efficiency of ChIP-sequencing profiles are directly related to the reliability and reproducibility of NGS experiments. Till now, there is no tool specifically designed for optimal peak alignment estimation and quality-related genomic feature extraction for ChIP-sequencing profiles. We developed open-sourced COPAR, a user-friendly package, to statistically investigate, quantify, and visualize the optimal peak alignment and inherent genomic features using ChIP-seq data from NGS experiments. It provides a versatile perspective for biologists to perform quality-check for high-throughput experiments and optimize their experiment design. The package COPAR can process mapped ChIP-seq read file in BED format and output statistically sound results for multiple high-throughput experiments. Together with three public ChIP-seq data sets verified with the developed package, we have deposited COPAR on GitHub under a GNU GPL license.

  19. Defining bacterial regulons using ChIP-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kevin S; Park, Dan M; Beauchene, Nicole A; Kiley, Patricia J

    2015-09-15

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) is a powerful method that identifies protein-DNA binding sites in vivo. Recent studies have illustrated the value of ChIP-seq in studying transcription factor binding in various bacterial species under a variety of growth conditions. These results show that in addition to identifying binding sites, correlation of ChIP-seq data with expression data can reveal important information about bacterial regulons and regulatory networks. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge about ChIP-seq methodology in bacteria, from sample preparation to raw data analysis. We also describe visualization and various bioinformatic analyses of processed ChIP-seq data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Defining Bacterial Regulons Using ChIP-seq Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kevin S.; Park, Dan M.; Beauchene, Nicole A.; Kiley, Patricia J.

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) is a powerful method that identifies protein-DNA binding sites in vivo. Recent studies have illustrated the value of ChIP-seq in studying transcription factor binding in various bacterial species under a variety of growth conditions. These results show that in addition to identifying binding sites, correlation of ChIP-seq data with expression data can reveal important information about bacterial regulons and regulatory networks. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge about ChIP-seq methodology in bacteria, from sample preparation to raw data analysis. We also describe visualization and various bioinformatic analyses of processed ChIP-seq data. PMID:26032817

  1. Computational methodology for ChIP-seq analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyunjin; Liu, Tao; Duan, Xikun; Zhang, Yong; Liu, X. Shirley

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq) is a powerful technology to identify the genome-wide locations of DNA binding proteins such as transcription factors or modified histones. As more and more experimental laboratories are adopting ChIP-seq to unravel the transcriptional and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms, computational analyses of ChIP-seq also become increasingly comprehensive and sophisticated. In this article, we review current computational methodology for ChIP-seq analysis, recommend useful algorithms and workflows, and introduce quality control measures at different analytical steps. We also discuss how ChIP-seq could be integrated with other types of genomic assays, such as gene expression profiling and genome-wide association studies, to provide a more comprehensive view of gene regulatory mechanisms in important physiological and pathological processes. PMID:25741452

  2. Electric conductivity for laboratory and field monitoring of induced partial saturation (IPS) in sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemiroodsari, Hadi

    implemented in the prepared specimen to validate the numerical simulation model and explore the use of conductivity probes to detect the transport of chemical solution, estimate degree of saturation achieved due to injection of chemical solution, and evaluate final zone of partial saturation. The conductivity probe and the simulation results agreed well. To study the effect of IPS on liquefaction response of the sand specimen, IPS was implemented in a large (2-story high) sand specimen prepared in the laminar box of NEES Buffalo and then the specimen was subjected to harmonic shaking. Electric conductivity probes were used in the specimen treatment by controlling the duration and spacing of injection of the chemical solution, in monitoring the transport of chemical solution, in the estimation of zone of partial saturation achieved, and in the estimation of degree of saturation achieved due to implementation of IPS. The conductivity probes indicated partial saturation of the specimen. The shaking tests results confirmed the partial saturation state of the sand specimen. In addition, to the laboratory works, electric conductivity probes were used in field implementation of IPS in a pilot test at the Wildlife Liquefaction Array (WLA) of NEES UCSB site. The conductivity probes in the field test helped decide the optimum injection pressure, the injection tube spacing, and the degree of saturation that could be achieved in the field. The various laboratory and field tests confirmed that electric conductivity and the probes devised and used can be invaluable in the implementation of IPS, by providing information regarding transport of the chemical solution, the spacing of injection tubes, duration of injection, and the zone and degree of partial saturation caused by IPS.

  3. SignalSpider: Probabilistic pattern discovery on multiple normalized ChIP-Seq signal profiles

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Kachun

    2014-09-05

    Motivation: Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-Seq) measures the genome-wide occupancy of transcription factors in vivo. Different combinations of DNA-binding protein occupancies may result in a gene being expressed in different tissues or at different developmental stages. To fully understand the functions of genes, it is essential to develop probabilistic models on multiple ChIP-Seq profiles to decipher the combinatorial regulatory mechanisms by multiple transcription factors. Results: In this work, we describe a probabilistic model (SignalSpider) to decipher the combinatorial binding events of multiple transcription factors. Comparing with similar existing methods, we found SignalSpider performs better in clustering promoter and enhancer regions. Notably, SignalSpider can learn higher-order combinatorial patterns from multiple ChIP-Seq profiles. We have applied SignalSpider on the normalized ChIP-Seq profiles from the ENCODE consortium and learned model instances. We observed different higher-order enrichment and depletion patterns across sets of proteins. Those clustering patterns are supported by Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment, evolutionary conservation and chromatin interaction enrichment, offering biological insights for further focused studies. We also proposed a specific enrichment map visualization method to reveal the genome-wide transcription factor combinatorial patterns from the models built, which extend our existing fine-scale knowledge on gene regulation to a genome-wide level. Availability and implementation: The matrix-algebra-optimized executables and source codes are available at the authors\\' websites: http://www.cs.toronto.edu/∼wkc/SignalSpider. Contact: Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  4. IP-10 is a potential biomarker of cystic fibrosis acute pulmonary exacerbations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M Solomon

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is characterized by acute pulmonary exacerbations (APE. The CF nasal airway exhibits a similar ion transport defect as the lung, and colonization, infection, and inflammation within the nasal passages are common among CF patients. Nasal lavage fluid (NLF is a minimally invasive means to collect upper airway samples.We collected NLF at the onset and resolution of CF APE and compared a 27-plex cytokine profile to stable CF outpatients and normal controls. We also tested IP-10 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF of CF patients. Well-differentiated murine sinonasal monolayers were exposed to bacterial stimulus, and IP-10 levels were measured to test epithelial secretion.Subjects hospitalized for APE had elevated IP-10 (2582 pg/mL [95% CL of mean: 818,8165], N=13 which significantly decreased (647 pg/mL [357,1174], P<0.05, N =13 following antimicrobial therapy. Stable CF outpatients exhibited intermediately elevated levels (680 pg/mL [281,1644], N=13 that were less than CF inpatients upon admission (P=0.056 but not significantly different than normal controls (342 pg/mL [110,1061]; P=0.3, N=10. IP-10 was significantly increased in CF BALF (2673 pg/mL [1306,5458], N=10 compared to healthy post-lung transplant patients (8.4 pg/mL [0.03,2172], N=5, P<0.001. IP-10 levels from well-differentiated CF murine nasal epithelial monolayers exposed to Pseudomonas PAO-1 bacteria-free prep or LPS (100 nM apically for 24 hours were significantly elevated (1159 ± 147, P<0.001 for PAO-1; 1373 ± 191, P<0.001 for LPS vs. 305 ± 68 for vehicle controls. Human sino-nasal epithelial cells derived from CF patients had a similar response to LPS (34% increase, P<0.05, N=6.IP-10 is elevated in the nasal lavage of CF patients with APE and responds to antimicrobial therapy. IP-10 is induced by airway epithelia following stimulation with bacterial pathogens in a murine model. Additional research regarding IP-10 as a potential biomarker is

  5. Functional-logic simulation of IP-blocks dose functional failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav M. Barbashov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The technique of functional-logical simulation of System-on-Chip (SoC total dose radiation failures is presented based on fuzzy logic sets theory. An analysis of the capabilities of this approach for IP-blocks radiation behavior is carried out along with the analysis of operating modes under irradiation influence on IP-blocks radiation behavior. The following elements of this technique application for simulation of dose radiation failures of various types of IP-units are studied: logical elements, memory units and cells, processors. Examples of criterial membership functions and operability functions construction are given for these IP-units and for various critical parameters characterizing their failures. It is shown that when modeling total dose failures it is necessary to take into account the influence of the functional mode on the model parameters. The technique proposed allows improving the reliability of the SoC radiation hardness estimation, also for the purpose of solving the problems of information security of electronic devices.

  6. HPeak: an HMM-based algorithm for defining read-enriched regions in ChIP-Seq data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Christopher A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-DNA interaction constitutes a basic mechanism for the genetic regulation of target gene expression. Deciphering this mechanism has been a daunting task due to the difficulty in characterizing protein-bound DNA on a large scale. A powerful technique has recently emerged that couples chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP with next-generation sequencing, (ChIP-Seq. This technique provides a direct survey of the cistrom of transcription factors and other chromatin-associated proteins. In order to realize the full potential of this technique, increasingly sophisticated statistical algorithms have been developed to analyze the massive amount of data generated by this method. Results Here we introduce HPeak, a Hidden Markov model (HMM-based Peak-finding algorithm for analyzing ChIP-Seq data to identify protein-interacting genomic regions. In contrast to the majority of available ChIP-Seq analysis software packages, HPeak is a model-based approach allowing for rigorous statistical inference. This approach enables HPeak to accurately infer genomic regions enriched with sequence reads by assuming realistic probability distributions, in conjunction with a novel weighting scheme on the sequencing read coverage. Conclusions Using biologically relevant data collections, we found that HPeak showed a higher prevalence of the expected transcription factor binding motifs in ChIP-enriched sequences relative to the control sequences when compared to other currently available ChIP-Seq analysis approaches. Additionally, in comparison to the ChIP-chip assay, ChIP-Seq provides higher resolution along with improved sensitivity and specificity of binding site detection. Additional file and the HPeak program are freely available at http://www.sph.umich.edu/csg/qin/HPeak.

  7. Loss of miR-10a activates Lpo and collaborates with activated Wnt signaling in inducing intestinal Neoplasia in female mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadthagen Gomez, Gustavo; Tehler, Disa Elisabet; Høyland-Kroghsbo, Nina Molin

    2013-01-01

    miRNAs are small regulatory RNAs that, due to their considerable potential to target a wide range of mRNAs, are implicated in essentially all biological process, including cancer. miR-10a is particularly interesting considering its conserved location in the Hox cluster of developmental regulators...

  8. 78 FR 8090 - Misuse of Internet Protocol (IP) Captioned Telephone Service; Telecommunications Relay Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ...] Misuse of Internet Protocol (IP) Captioned Telephone Service; Telecommunications Relay Services and... Captioned Telephone Service (IP CTS); require each IP CTS provider, in order to be eligible for compensation... service to new IP CTS users, to register each new IP CTS user, and as part of the registration process, to...

  9. 78 FR 8032 - Misuse of Internet Protocol (IP) Captioned Telephone Service; Telecommunications Relay Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ...] Misuse of Internet Protocol (IP) Captioned Telephone Service; Telecommunications Relay Services and... to or use of, Internet Protocol Captioned Telephone Service (IP CTS); requiring each IP CTS provider, as a precondition to providing service to new IP CTS users, to register each new IP CTS user, to...

  10. Reviewing ChIPS, The Chandra Imaging and Plotting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.; Burke, D. J.; Evans, I. N.; Evans, J. D.; McLaughlin, W.

    2015-09-01

    The Chandra Imaging and Plotting System (ChIPS) is a 2D plotting system designed to allow users to easily create, manipulate, and produce publication quality visualizations. ChIPS has a simple but very powerful interactive interface that allows users to dynamically modify the contents and layout of their plots quickly and efficiently, with the results of any changes being immediately visible. ChIPS allows users to construct their plots fully interactively, and then save the final plot commands as a Python script. This bypasses the need to iteratively edit and rerun the script when developing the plot. Features such as undo and redo commands allow users to easily step backwards and forwards through previous commands, while the ability so save ChIPS sessions in a platform-independent state file allows the session to be restored at any time, even on another machine. Because ChIPS offers a Python interface, users can analyze their data using the broad array of modules offered in Python, and visualize the information in ChIPS at the same time. In this paper we explore the design decisions behind the development of ChIPS and some of the lessons learned along the way.

  11. Software for rapid time dependent ChIP-sequencing analysis (TDCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myschyshyn, Mike; Farren-Dai, Marco; Chuang, Tien-Jui; Vocadlo, David

    2017-11-25

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) and associated methods are widely used to define the genome wide distribution of chromatin associated proteins, post-translational epigenetic marks, and modifications found on DNA bases. An area of emerging interest is to study time dependent changes in the distribution of such proteins and marks by using serial ChIP-seq experiments performed in a time resolved manner. Despite such time resolved studies becoming increasingly common, software to facilitate analysis of such data in a robust automated manner is limited. We have designed software called Time-Dependent ChIP-Sequencing Analyser (TDCA), which is the first program to automate analysis of time-dependent ChIP-seq data by fitting to sigmoidal curves. We provide users with guidance for experimental design of TDCA for modeling of time course (TC) ChIP-seq data using two simulated data sets. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this fitting strategy is widely applicable by showing that automated analysis of three previously published TC data sets accurately recapitulates key findings reported in these studies. Using each of these data sets, we highlight how biologically relevant findings can be readily obtained by exploiting TDCA to yield intuitive parameters that describe behavior at either a single locus or sets of loci. TDCA enables customizable analysis of user input aligned DNA sequencing data, coupled with graphical outputs in the form of publication-ready figures that describe behavior at either individual loci or sets of loci sharing common traits defined by the user. TDCA accepts sequencing data as standard binary alignment map (BAM) files and loci of interest in browser extensible data (BED) file format. TDCA accurately models the number of sequencing reads, or coverage, at loci from TC ChIP-seq studies or conceptually related TC sequencing experiments. TC experiments are reduced to intuitive parametric values that facilitate biologically

  12. An IP-10 (CXCL10)-Derived Peptide Inhibits Angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates-Binder, Cecelia C.; Rodgers, Margaret; Jaynes, Jesse; Wells, Alan; Bodnar, Richard J.; Turner, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis plays a critical role in processes such as organ development, wound healing, and tumor growth. It requires well-orchestrated integration of soluble and matrix factors and timely recognition of such signals to regulate this process. Previous work has shown that newly forming vessels express the chemokine receptor CXC receptor 3 (CXCR3) and, activation by its ligand IP-10 (CXCL10), both inhibits development of new vasculature and causes regression of newly formed vessels. To identify and develop new therapeutic agents to limit or reverse pathological angiogenesis, we identified a 21 amino acid fragment of IP-10, spanning the α-helical domain residues 77–98, that mimic the actions of the whole IP-10 molecule on endothelial cells. Treatment of the endothelial cells with the 22 amino acid fragment referred to as IP-10p significantly inhibited VEGF-induced endothelial motility and tube formation in vitro, properties critical for angiogenesis. Using a Matrigel plug assay in vivo, we demonstrate that IP-10p both prevented vessel formation and induced involution of nascent vessels. CXCR3 neutralizing antibody was able to block the inhibitory effects of the IP-10p, demonstrating specificity of the peptide. Inhibition of endothelial function by IP-10p was similar to that described for IP-10, secondary to CXCR3-mediated increase in cAMP production, activation of PKA inhibiting cell migration, and inhibition of VEGF-mediated m-calpain activation. IP-10p provides a novel therapeutic agent that inhibits endothelial cell function thus, allowing for the modulation of angiogenesis. PMID:22815829

  13. UTN VoIP test bed (Voice over Internet Protocol)

    OpenAIRE

    Clérigo, Patricia; Mercado, Gustavo; Lima, Armando; Gosetto, Gerardo

    2009-01-01

    La tecnología Voice over IP permite transmitir paquetes de voz usando los protocolos de Internet. Esto es el basamento de la convergencia de video, voz y datos en una sola red y bajo el mismo protocolo; metodología que promete confiabilidad, accesibilidad y por sobre todo bajos costos. La UTN VoIP es un servicio de Telefonía que usa los protocolos VoIP de Internet y es montado sobre la Red Universitaria Tecnológica II. Cuando esté implementada conectará todas las Facultades Regionales y la Un...

  14. On the Cryptographic Features of a VoIP Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Alvanos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Security issues of typical Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP applications are studied in this paper; in particular, the open source Linphone application is being used as a case study. An experimental analysis indicates that protecting signalling data with the TLS protocol, which unfortunately is not always the default option, is needed to alleviate several security concerns. Moreover, towards improving security, it is shown that a VoIP application may operate over a virtual private network without significantly degrading the overall performance. The conclusions of this study provide useful insights to the usage of any VoIP application.

  15. A Novel Smart Meter Controlling System with Dynamic IP Addresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manembu, Pinrolinvic; Welang, Brammy; Kalua Lapu, Aditya

    2017-01-01

    Smart meters are the electronic devices for measuring energy consumption in real time. Usually, static public IP addresses are allocated to realize the point-to-point (P2P) communication and remote controlling for smart metering systems. This, however, restricts the wide deployment of smart meters......, due to the deficiency of public IP resources. This paper proposes a novel subscription-based communication architecture for the support of dynamic IP addresses and group controlling of smart meters. The paper evaluates the proposed architecture by comparing the traditional P2P architecture......, and validate its effectiveness to interact with smart meters....

  16. Non-viral generation of marmoset monkey iPS cells by a six-factor-in-one-vector approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Debowski

    Full Text Available Groundbreaking studies showed that differentiated somatic cells of mouse and human origin could be reverted to a stable pluripotent state by the ectopic expression of only four proteins. The resulting pluripotent cells, called induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells, could be an alternative to embryonic stem cells, which are under continuous ethical debate. Hence, iPS cell-derived functional cells such as neurons may become the key for an effective treatment of currently incurable degenerative diseases. However, besides the requirement of efficacy testing of the therapy also its long-term safety needs to be carefully evaluated in settings mirroring the clinical situation in an optimal way. In this context, we chose the long-lived common marmoset monkey (Callithrix jacchus as a non-human primate species to generate iPS cells. The marmoset monkey is frequently used in biomedical research and is gaining more and more preclinical relevance due to the increasing number of disease models. Here, we describe, to our knowledge, the first-time generation of marmoset monkey iPS cells from postnatal skin fibroblasts by non-viral means. We used the transposon-based, fully reversible piggyback system. We cloned the marmoset monkey reprogramming factors and established robust and reproducible reprogramming protocols with a six-factor-in-one-construct approach. We generated six individual iPS cell lines and characterized them in comparison with marmoset monkey embryonic stem cells. The generated iPS cells are morphologically indistinguishable from marmoset ES cells. The iPS cells are fully reprogrammed as demonstrated by differentiation assays, pluripotency marker expression and transcriptome analysis. They are stable for numerous passages (more than 80 and exhibit euploidy. In summary, we have established efficient non-viral reprogramming protocols for the derivation of stable marmoset monkey iPS cells, which can be used to develop and test cell replacement

  17. A Real-time Spectrum Handoff Algorithm for VoIP based Cognitive Radio Networks: Design and Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Tamal; Saha Misra, Iti

    2016-03-01

    Secondary Users (SUs) in a Cognitive Radio Network (CRN) face unpredictable interruptions in transmission due to the random arrival of Primary Users (PUs), leading to spectrum handoff or dropping instances. An efficient spectrum handoff algorithm, thus, becomes one of the indispensable components in CRN, especially for real-time communication like Voice over IP (VoIP). In this regard, this paper investigates the effects of spectrum handoff on the Quality of Service (QoS) for VoIP traffic in CRN, and proposes a real-time spectrum handoff algorithm in two phases. The first phase (VAST-VoIP based Adaptive Sensing and Transmission) adaptively varies the channel sensing and transmission durations to perform intelligent dropping decisions. The second phase (ProReact-Proactive and Reactive Handoff) deploys efficient channel selection mechanisms during spectrum handoff for resuming communication. Extensive performance analysis in analytical and simulation models confirms a decrease in spectrum handoff delay for VoIP SUs by more than 40% and 60%, compared to existing proactive and reactive algorithms, respectively and ensures a minimum 10% reduction in call-dropping probability with respect to the previous works in this domain. The effective SU transmission duration is also maximized under the proposed algorithm, thereby making it suitable for successful VoIP communication.

  18. Elevated IP-10 and IL-6 from bronchoalveolar lavage cells are biomarkers of non-cavitary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, A; Condos, R; Huie, M L; Dawson, R; Dheda, K; Bateman, E; Rom, W N; Weiden, M D

    2013-07-01

    Active TB disease can destroy lung parenchyma leading to cavities. Immune responses that predispose or protect individuals from lung damage during TB are poorly defined. To sample lung immune cells and assay bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell cytokine production. Enrolled subjects (n = 73) had bilateral infiltrates and underwent BAL. All had sputum culture demonstrating Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 22/73 (30%) had cavities on their chest radiograph. Those with cavities at presentation had a higher percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in BAL as well as lower inducible protein (IP) 10 (P IP-10 was negatively associated with BAL PMN. IP-10 and IL-6 expression above median reduces the odds of cavities by 79% and 78% in logistic regression models. IP-10 and IL-6 clustered with interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in a principal component analysis, while IL-4 clustered with PMN. Increasing IP-10 and IL-6 production by BAL cells is associated with non-cavitary TB in patients who present with radiographically advanced TB. IP-10 and IL-6 may reflect an effective T-helper 1 immune control pathway for TB, attenuating tuberculous lung destruction.

  19. The Triform algorithm: improved sensitivity and specificity in ChIP-Seq peak finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornacker Karl

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-Seq is the most frequently used method to identify the binding sites of transcription factors. Active binding sites can be seen as peaks in enrichment profiles when the sequencing reads are mapped to a reference genome. However, the profiles are normally noisy, making it challenging to identify all significantly enriched regions in a reliable way and with an acceptable false discovery rate. Results We present the Triform algorithm, an improved approach to automatic peak finding in ChIP-Seq enrichment profiles for transcription factors. The method uses model-free statistics to identify peak-like distributions of sequencing reads, taking advantage of improved peak definition in combination with known characteristics of ChIP-Seq data. Conclusions Triform outperforms several existing methods in the identification of representative peak profiles in curated benchmark data sets. We also show that Triform in many cases is able to identify peaks that are more consistent with biological function, compared with other methods. Finally, we show that Triform can be used to generate novel information on transcription factor binding in repeat regions, which represents a particular challenge in many ChIP-Seq experiments. The Triform algorithm has been implemented in R, and is available via http://tare.medisin.ntnu.no/triform.

  20. Differential peak calling of ChIP-seq signals with replicates with THOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allhoff, Manuel; Seré, Kristin; F Pires, Juliana; Zenke, Martin; G Costa, Ivan

    2016-11-16

    The study of changes in protein-DNA interactions measured by ChIP-seq on dynamic systems, such as cell differentiation, response to treatments or the comparison of healthy and diseased individuals, is still an open challenge. There are few computational methods comparing changes in ChIP-seq signals with replicates. Moreover, none of these previous approaches addresses ChIP-seq specific experimental artefacts arising from studies with biological replicates. We propose THOR, a Hidden Markov Model based approach, to detect differential peaks between pairs of biological conditions with replicates. THOR provides all pre- and post-processing steps required in ChIP-seq analyses. Moreover, we propose a novel normalization approach based on housekeeping genes to deal with cases where replicates have distinct signal-to-noise ratios. To evaluate differential peak calling methods, we delineate a methodology using both biological and simulated data. This includes an evaluation procedure that associates differential peaks with changes in gene expression as well as histone modifications close to these peaks. We evaluate THOR and seven competing methods on data sets with distinct characteristics from in vitro studies with technical replicates to clinical studies of cancer patients. Our evaluation analysis comprises of 13 comparisons between pairs of biological conditions. We show that THOR performs best in all scenarios. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Denoising genome-wide histone ChIP-seq with convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Pang Wei; Pierson, Emma; Kundaje, Anshul

    2017-07-15

    Chromatin immune-precipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) experiments are commonly used to obtain genome-wide profiles of histone modifications associated with different types of functional genomic elements. However, the quality of histone ChIP-seq data is affected by many experimental parameters such as the amount of input DNA, antibody specificity, ChIP enrichment and sequencing depth. Making accurate inferences from chromatin profiling experiments that involve diverse experimental parameters is challenging. We introduce a convolutional denoising algorithm, Coda, that uses convolutional neural networks to learn a mapping from suboptimal to high-quality histone ChIP-seq data. This overcomes various sources of noise and variability, substantially enhancing and recovering signal when applied to low-quality chromatin profiling datasets across individuals, cell types and species. Our method has the potential to improve data quality at reduced costs. More broadly, this approach-using a high-dimensional discriminative model to encode a generative noise process-is generally applicable to other biological domains where it is easy to generate noisy data but difficult to analytically characterize the noise or underlying data distribution. https://github.com/kundajelab/coda . akundaje@stanford.edu.

  2. CATCHprofiles: Clustering and Alignment Tool for ChIP Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. G. Nielsen, Fiona; Galschiøt Markus, Kasper; Møllegaard Friborg, Rune

    2012-01-01

    IP-profiling data and detect potentially meaningful patterns, the areas of enrichment must be aligned and clustered, which is an algorithmically and computationally challenging task. We have developed CATCHprofiles, a novel tool for exhaustive pattern detection in ChIP profiling data. CATCHprofiles is built upon...... a computationally efficient implementation for the exhaustive alignment and hierarchical clustering of ChIP profiling data. The tool features a graphical interface for examination and browsing of the clustering results. CATCHprofiles requires no prior knowledge about functional sites, detects known binding patterns...... it an invaluable tool for explorative research based on ChIP profiling data. CATCHprofiles and the CATCH algorithm run on all platforms and is available for free through the CATCH website: http://catch.cmbi.ru.nl/. User support is available by subscribing to the mailing list catch-users@bioinformatics.org....

  3. How to Combine ChIP with qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asp, Patrik

    2018-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) coupled with quantitative PCR (qPCR) has in the last 15 years become a basic mainstream tool in genomic research. Numerous commercially available ChIP kits, qPCR kits, and real-time PCR systems allow for quick and easy analysis of virtually anything chromatin-related as long as there is an available antibody. However, the highly accurate quantitative dimension added by using qPCR to analyze ChIP samples significantly raises the bar in terms of experimental accuracy, appropriate controls, data analysis, and data presentation. This chapter will address these potential pitfalls by providing protocols and procedures that address the difficulties inherent in ChIP-qPCR assays.

  4. Engineering of radioimmunoassay (RIA) IP10.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Nurcahyadi

    2010-01-01

    Engineering of Radioimmunoassay (RIA) IP10.1 is an innovative by PRPN - BATAN in 2010. Innovations made to the device IP10.1 RIA is the sample changer system, sample changer system on the device RIA IP10.1 applied 2 linear axis system (X, Z) with AC servo motor. In the RIA IP10.1 also use 5 pieces of the detector, so the enumeration process 50 (Fifty) sample is expected to be faster. Like its predecessor, The whole enumeration, data collection procedures and mechanisms operating within this system is entirely controlled by a PC via an electronic module. Electronics module consists of a high voltage module, amplifier and signal processor module, the module enumerators, low-voltage module, the module driver motor controller and a USB interface. The data acquisition and communication system using a USB port with the computer. (author)

  5. Efficient Integration of Pipelined IP Blocks into Automatically Compiled Datapaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Koch

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Compilers for reconfigurable computers aim to generate problem-specific optimized datapaths for kernels extracted from an input language. In many cases, however, judicious use of preexisting manually optimized IP blocks within these datapaths could improve the compute performance even further. The integration of IP blocks into the compiled datapaths poses a different set of problems than stitching together IPs to form a system-on-chip; though, instead of the loose coupling using standard busses employed by SoCs, the one between datapath and IP block must be much tighter. To this end, we propose a concise language that can be efficiently synthesized using a template-based approach for automatically generating lightweight data and control interfaces at the datapath level.

  6. Efficient Integration of Pipelined IP Blocks into Automatically Compiled Datapaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Compilers for reconfigurable computers aim to generate problem-specific optimized datapaths for kernels extracted from an input language. In many cases, however, judicious use of preexisting manually optimized IP blocks within these datapaths could improve the compute performance even further. The integration of IP blocks into the compiled datapaths poses a different set of problems than stitching together IPs to form a system-on-chip; though, instead of the loose coupling using standard busses employed by SoCs, the one between datapath and IP block must be much tighter. To this end, we propose a concise language that can be efficiently synthesized using a template-based approach for automatically generating lightweight data and control interfaces at the datapath level.

  7. The psisub(IPS)-LAS relation for extragalactic radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banhatti, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    Metre-wavelength interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations give the overall angular sizes psi of scintillating compact structures in radio sources. From 326.5-MHz IPS data for a sample of faint (Ooty) radio sources, log psi versus log (largest angular size) is seen, on average, to have a slope 0.2, significantly less than one. A similar trend is seen from 81.5-MHz IPS data for a sample of strong, powerful (3CR) double sources, although the slope is 0.4 and the mean psi about four times larger. The difference in slopes is due mainly to the large spread in the redshifts of the 3CR sources compared to the expected narrow range for the Ooty sources, while the difference in mean psi values is due to the different methods of determining psi for the two samples, the different frequencies used for the IPS observations and the different mean LAS values. (author)

  8. Quantitative analysis of macro-ARG using IP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Eiichi; Kawai, Kenji; Furuta, Yoshitake

    1997-01-01

    Recent progress in imaging plate (IP) system allow us to analyze autoradiographic images quantitatively. In the 'whole-body autoradiography', a method clarify the distribution of radioisotope or labeled compounds in the tissues and organs in a freeze-dried whole-body section of small animals such as rats and mice, the sections are pressed against a IP for exposure and the IP is scanned by Bio-Imaging Analyzer (Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd) and a digital autoradiographic image is given. Quantitative data concerning the activity in different tissues can be obtained using an isotope scale as a reference source. Fading effect, application of IP system for distribution of receptor binding ARG, analysis of radio-spots on TLC and radioactive concentration in liquid such as blood are also discussed. (author)

  9. Two IP Protection Schemes for Multi-FPGA Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspar, Lubos; Fischer, Viktor; Guneysu, Tim; Cherif, Zouha

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This paper proposes two novel protection schemes for multi-FPGA systems providing high security of IP designs licensed by IP vendors to system integrators and installed remotely in a hostile environment. In the first scheme, these useful properties are achieved by storing two different configuration keys inside an FPGA, while in the second scheme, they are obtained using a hardware white-box cipher for creating a trusted environment. Thanks to the proposed principles, ...

  10. IP3 stimulates CA++ efflux from fusogenic carrot protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincon, M.; Boss, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    Polyphosphoinositide breakdown plays an important role in signal transduction in animal cells (Berridge and Irvine, 1984, Nature, 312:315). Upon stimulation, phospholipase C hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP 3 ) and diacylglycerol both of which act as cellular second messengers. IP 3 mobilizes Ca ++ from internal stores, hence the cytosolic free Ca ++ concentration increases and those physiological activities regulated by Ca ++ are stimulated. To test if plant cells also responded to IP 3 , Ca ++ efflux studies were done with fusogenic carrot protoplasts released in EGTA. The protoplasts were preloaded with 45 Ca ++ placed in a Ca ++ -free medium, and efflux determined as 45 Ca ++ loss from the protoplasts. IP 3 (10-20μM) caused enhanced 45 Ca ++ efflux and the response was sustained for at least 15 min. In plants, as in animals, the observed IP 3 -enhanced 45 Ca ++ efflux suggested that IP 3 released Ca ++ from internal stores, and the increased free cytosolic Ca ++ activated Ca ++ pumping mechanisms which restored the Ca ++ concentration in the cytosol to the normal level

  11. Resident Corneal Cells Communicate with Neutrophils Leading to the Production of IP-10 during the Primary Inflammatory Response to HSV-1 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molesworth-Kenyon, S. J.; Popham, N.; Milam, A.; Oakes, J. E.; Lausch, R. N.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we show that murine and human neutrophils are capable of secreting IP-10 in response to communication from the HSV-1 infected cornea and that they do so in a time frame associated with the recruitment of CD8+ T cells and CXCR3-expressing cells. Cellular markers were used to establish that neutrophil influx corresponded in time to peak IP-10 production, and cellular depletion confirmed neutrophils to be a significant source of IP-10 during HSV-1 corneal infection in mice. A novel ex vivo model for human corneal tissue infection with HSV-1 was used to confirm that cells resident in the cornea are also capable of stimulating neutrophils to secrete IP-10. Our results support the hypothesis that neutrophils play a key role in T-cell recruitment and control of viral replication during HSV-1 corneal infection through the production of the T-cell recruiting chemokine IP-10. PMID:22518343

  12. DIVERSITY in binding, regulation, and evolution revealed from high-throughput ChIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sneha; Biswas, Anushua; Narlikar, Leelavati

    2018-04-23

    Genome-wide in vivo protein-DNA interactions are routinely mapped using high-throughput chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). ChIP-reported regions are typically investigated for enriched sequence-motifs, which are likely to model the DNA-binding specificity of the profiled protein and/or of co-occurring proteins. However, simple enrichment analyses can miss insights into the binding-activity of the protein. Note that ChIP reports regions making direct contact with the protein as well as those binding through intermediaries. For example, consider a ChIP experiment targeting protein X, which binds DNA at its cognate sites, but simultaneously interacts with four other proteins. Each of these proteins also binds to its own specific cognate sites along distant parts of the genome, a scenario consistent with the current view of transcriptional hubs and chromatin loops. Since ChIP will pull down all X-associated regions, the final reported data will be a union of five distinct sets of regions, each containing binding sites of one of the five proteins, respectively. Characterizing all five different motifs and the corresponding sets is important to interpret the ChIP experiment and ultimately, the role of X in regulation. We present diversity which attempts exactly this: it partitions the data so that each partition can be characterized with its own de novo motif. Diversity uses a Bayesian approach to identify the optimal number of motifs and the associated partitions, which together explain the entire dataset. This is in contrast to standard motif finders, which report motifs individually enriched in the data, but do not necessarily explain all reported regions. We show that the different motifs and associated regions identified by diversity give insights into the various complexes that may be forming along the chromatin, something that has so far not been attempted from ChIP data. Webserver at http://diversity.ncl.res.in/; standalone (Mac OS X/Linux) from https

  13. Calcium and IP3 dynamics in cardiac myocytes: Experimental and computational perspectives and approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix eHohendanner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcium plays a crucial role in excitation-contraction coupling (ECC, but it is also a pivotal second messenger activating Ca2+-dependent transcription factors in a process termed excitation-transcription coupling (ETC. Evidence accumulated over the past decade indicates a pivotal role of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R-mediated Ca2+ release in the regulation of cytosolic and nuclear Ca2+ signals. IP3 is generated by stimulation of plasma membrane receptors that couple to phospholipase C (PLC, liberating IP3 from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2. An intriguing aspect of IP3 signaling is the presence of the entire PIP2-PLC-IP3 signaling cascade as well as the presence of IP3Rs at the inner and outer membranes of the nuclear envelope (NE which functions as a Ca2+ store. The observation that the nucleus is surrounded by its own putative Ca2+ store raises the possibility that nuclear IP3-dependent Ca2+ release plays a critical role in ETC. This provides a potential mechanism of regulation that acts locally and autonomously from the global cytosolic Ca2+ signal underlying ECC. Moreover, there is evidence that: (i the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR and NE are a single contiguous Ca2+ store; (ii the nuclear pore complex is the major gateway for Ca2+ and macromolecules to pass between the cytosol and the nucleoplasm; (iii the inner membrane of the NE hosts key Ca2+ handling proteins including the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX/GM1 complex, ryanodine receptors (RyRs, nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate receptors (NAADPRs, Na+/K+ ATPase and Na+/H+ exchanger. Thus, it appears that the nucleus represents a Ca2+ signaling domain equipped with its own ion channels and transporters that allow for complex local Ca2+ signals. Many experimental and modeling approaches have been used for the study of intracellular Ca2+ signaling but the key to understanding of the dual role of Ca2+ mediating ECC and ECT lays in quantitative differences of

  14. dPeak: High Resolution Identification of Transcription Factor Binding Sites from PET and SET ChIP-Seq Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Dongjun; Park, Dan; Myers, Kevin; Grass, Jeffrey; Kiley, Patricia; Landick, Robert; Keleş, Sündüz

    2013-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high throughput sequencing (ChIP-Seq) has been successfully used for genome-wide profiling of transcription factor binding sites, histone modifications, and nucleosome occupancy in many model organisms and humans. Because the compact genomes of prokaryotes harbor many binding sites separated by only few base pairs, applications of ChIP-Seq in this domain have not reached their full potential. Applications in prokaryotic genomes are further hampered by the fact that well studied data analysis methods for ChIP-Seq do not result in a resolution required for deciphering the locations of nearby binding events. We generated single-end tag (SET) and paired-end tag (PET) ChIP-Seq data for factor in Escherichia coli (E. coli). Direct comparison of these datasets revealed that although PET assay enables higher resolution identification of binding events, standard ChIP-Seq analysis methods are not equipped to utilize PET-specific features of the data. To address this problem, we developed dPeak as a high resolution binding site identification (deconvolution) algorithm. dPeak implements a probabilistic model that accurately describes ChIP-Seq data generation process for both the SET and PET assays. For SET data, dPeak outperforms or performs comparably to the state-of-the-art high-resolution ChIP-Seq peak deconvolution algorithms such as PICS, GPS, and GEM. When coupled with PET data, dPeak significantly outperforms SET-based analysis with any of the current state-of-the-art methods. Experimental validations of a subset of dPeak predictions from PET ChIP-Seq data indicate that dPeak can estimate locations of binding events with as high as to resolution. Applications of dPeak to ChIP-Seq data in E. coli under aerobic and anaerobic conditions reveal closely located promoters that are differentially occupied and further illustrate the importance of high resolution analysis of ChIP-Seq data. PMID:24146601

  15. Nuclear accumulation of an uncapped RNA produced by Drosha cleavage of a transcript encoding miR-10b and HOXD4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sze Lynn Calista Phua

    Full Text Available Patterning of the animal embryo's antero-posterior (AP axis is dependent on spatially and temporally regulated Hox gene expression. The murine Hoxd4 gene has been proposed to harbour two promoters, an upstream promoter P2, and a downstream promoter P1, that lie 5.2 and 1.1 kilobase pairs (kb upstream of the coding region respectively. The evolutionarily conserved microRNA-10b (miR-10b gene lies in the Hoxd4 genomic locus in the intron separating the non-coding exons 4 and 5 of the P2 transcript and directly adjacent to the proposed P1 promoter. Hoxd4 transcription is regulated by a 3' neural enhancer that harbours a retinoic acid response element (RARE. Here, we show that the expression profiles of Hoxd4 and miR-10b transcripts during neural differentiation of mouse embryonal carcinoma (EC P19 cells are co-ordinately regulated, suggesting that both Hoxd4 and miR-10b expression is governed by the neural enhancer. Our observation that P1 transcripts are uncapped, together with the mapping of their 5' ends, strongly suggests that they are generated by Drosha cleavage of P2 transcripts rather than by transcriptional initiation. This is supported by the colocalization of P1 and P2 transcripts to the same posterior expression domain in the mouse embryo. These uncapped P1 transcripts do not appear to possess an Internal Ribosomal Entry Site (IRES, but accumulate within multiple punctate bodies within the nucleus suggesting that they play a functional role. Finally, similar uncapped Drosha-cleaved P1-like transcripts originating from the paralogous Hoxb4/miR-10a locus were also identified. We propose that these transcripts may belong to a novel class of regulatory RNAs.

  16. MHD-IPS analysis of relationship among solar wind density, temperature, and flow speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Keiji; Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Fujiki, Ken'ichi

    2016-08-01

    The solar wind properties near the Sun are a decisive factor of properties in the rest of heliosphere. As such, determining realistic plasma density and temperature near the Sun is very important in models for solar wind, specifically magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models. We had developed a tomographic analysis to reconstruct three-dimensional solar wind structures that satisfy line-of-sight-integrated solar wind speed derived from the interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observation data and nonlinear MHD equations simultaneously. In this study, we report a new type of our IPS-MHD tomography that seeks three-dimensional MHD solution of solar wind, matching additionally near-Earth and/or Ulysses in situ measurement data for each Carrington rotation period. In this new method, parameterized relation functions of plasma density and temperature at 50 Rs are optimized through an iterative forward model minimizing discrepancy with the in situ measurements. Satisfying three constraints, the derived 50 Rs maps of plasma quantities provide realistic observation-based information on the state of solar wind near the Sun that cannot be well determined otherwise. The optimized plasma quantities exhibit long-term variations over the solar cycles 21 to 24. The differences in plasma quantities derived from the optimized and original IPS-MHD tomography exhibit correlations with the source-surface magnetic field strength, which can in future give new quantitative constrains and requirements to models of coronal heating and acceleration.

  17. An empirical Bayes test for allelic-imbalance detection in ChIP-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Keles, Sündüz

    2017-11-03

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) has enabled discovery of genomic regions enriched with biological signals such as transcription factor binding and histone modifications. Allelic-imbalance (ALI) detection is a complementary analysis of ChIP-seq data for associating biological signals with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). It has been successfully used in elucidating functional roles of non-coding SNPs. Commonly used statistical approaches for ALI detection are often based on binomial testing and mixture models, both of which rely on strong assumptions on the distribution of the unobserved allelic probability, and have significant practical shortcomings. We propose Non-Parametric Binomial (NPBin) test for ALI detection and for modeling Binomial data in general. NPBin models the density of the unobserved allelic probability non-parametrically, and estimates its empirical null distribution via curve fitting. We demonstrate the advantages of NPBin in terms of interpretability of the estimated density and the accuracy in ALI detection using simulations and analysis of several ChIP-seq data sets. We also illustrate the generality of our modeling framework beyond ALI detection by an application to a baseball batting average prediction problem. This article has supplementary material available at Biostatistics online. The code and the sample input data have been also deposited to github https://github.com/QiZhangStat/ALIdetection. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Calcium Domains around Single and Clustered IP3 Receptors and Their Modulation by Buffers

    OpenAIRE

    Rüdiger, S.; Nagaiah, Ch.; Warnecke, G.; Shuai, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    We study Ca2+ release through single and clustered IP3 receptor channels on the ER membrane under presence of buffer proteins. Our computational scheme couples reaction-diffusion equations and a Markovian channel model and allows our investigating the effects of buffer proteins on local calcium concentrations and channel gating. We find transient and stationary elevations of calcium concentrations around active channels and show how they determine release amplitude. Transient calcium domains ...

  19. BEC-BCS crossover in a (p+ip)-wave pairing Hamiltonian coupled to bosonic molecular pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, Clare; Isaac, Phillip S.; Links, Jon; Zhao, Shao-You

    2011-01-01

    We analyse a (p+ip)-wave pairing BCS Hamiltonian, coupled to a single bosonic degree of freedom representing a molecular condensate, and investigate the nature of the BEC-BCS crossover for this system. For a suitable restriction on the coupling parameters, we show that the model is integrable and we derive the exact solution by the algebraic Bethe ansatz. In this manner we also obtain explicit formulae for correlation functions and compute these for several cases. We find that the crossover between the BEC state and the strong pairing p+ip phase is smooth for this model, with no intermediate quantum phase transition.

  20. Design and implementation of a VoIP broadcasting service over embedded systems in a heterogeneous network environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Jenq-Shiou; Lin, Wei-Hsiang; Hsieh, Wen-Bin; Lo, Chien-Chih

    2014-01-01

    As the digitization is integrated into daily life, media including video and audio are heavily transferred over the Internet nowadays. Voice-over-Internet Protocol (VoIP), the most popular and mature technology, becomes the focus attracting many researches and investments. However, most of the existing studies focused on a one-to-one communication model in a homogeneous network, instead of one-to-many broadcasting model among diverse embedded devices in a heterogeneous network. In this paper, we present the implementation of a VoIP broadcasting service on the open source-Linphone-in a heterogeneous network environment, including WiFi, 3G, and LAN networks. The proposed system featuring VoIP broadcasting over heterogeneous networks can be integrated with heterogeneous agile devices, such as embedded devices or mobile phones. VoIP broadcasting over heterogeneous networks can be integrated into modern smartphones or other embedded devices; thus when users run in a traditional AM/FM signal unreachable area, they still can receive the broadcast voice through the IP network. Also, comprehensive evaluations are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed implementation.

  1. Induced polarization (IP) imaging for the improved characterization of clay-rich landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistl, Jakob; Flores-Orozco, Adrián; Ottowitz, David; Gautier, Stéphanie; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Landslides pose a significant socio-economical natural hazard, in particular those developed in clay-rich environments due to their suddenness, volumes and propagations. Typically induced by meteorological phenomena (i.e. strong precipitations) the understanding of water circulation in clayey landslides is critical for an adequate hydromechanical modeling and the development of accurate early warning systems. In recent years, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) has been widely applied to characterize the structure of landslides and monitoring of hydrogeological changes, aiming at an improved understanding of the water flow patterns. However, clay-rich sediments limit the applicability of ERT due the low contrast in the electrical signatures of clay minerals and saturated soil. Taking into account the strong induced polarization (IP) response in the presence of clay minerals, we propose the application of the IP imaging method to improve the delineation of structures and heterogeneities controlling water flow circulation in clayey landslides. To better evaluate the IP method at different geological conditions, here we discuss IP imaging results for data collected at two different landslides located in France (La Valette in the South East Alps, and Lodève located in the southern border of the Massif Central Massif) as well as two sites in Austria. These sites were selected due to the extensive non-geophysical information available and the ERT monitoring data measured over several years. IP measurements have been collected in both time- and frequency-domain to further assess the advantages of the different techniques in particular towards the quantification of hydrogeological parameters, such as dominating grain size and hydraulic conductivity. Imaging results demonstrate an improved lithological characterization, permitting the delineation of the sliding plane as well as a better discrimination of clay lenses with enhanced resolution. Nevertheless the clay

  2. Voice Quality Estimation in Combined Radio-VoIP Networks for Dispatching Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Vodrazka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The voice quality modelling assessment and planning field is deeply and widely theoretically and practically mastered for common voice communication systems, especially for the public fixed and mobile telephone networks including Next Generation Networks (NGN - internet protocol based networks. This article seeks to contribute voice quality modelling assessment and planning for dispatching communication systems based on Internet Protocol (IP and private radio networks. The network plan, correction in E-model calculation and default values for the model are presented and discussed.

  3. Immunopotentiator from Pantoea agglomerans 1 (IP-PA1) Promotes Murine Hair Growth and Human Dermal Papilla Cell Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakame, Koji; Okawa, Hiroshi; Komatsu, Ken-Ich; Nakata, Akifumi; Sato, Keisuke; Ingawa, Hiroyuki; Kohchi, Chie; Nishizawa, Takashi; Soma, Gen-Ichiro

    2016-07-01

    The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-like compound derived from Pantoea agglomerans (immunopotentiator from Pantoea agglomerans 1 (IP-PA1)) has been used not only as dietary supplement or cosmetic for humans, but also by Japanese veterinarians as an anti-tumor, anti-allergy, "keep a fine coat of fur" and hair growth-promoting functional food for dogs and cats. In the present study, we focused on the hair growth-promoting effects of IP-PA1 on a hair-shaved animal model and its mechanism of action. We also investigated its potential on gene expression after stimulating human dermal papilla cells with IP-PA1. The hair on the back of a C3H/HeN mouse was shaved and IP-PA1 was orally administered or applied to the skin. The status of hair growth was observed and recorded for 14 days. Skin was collected and histological tissue examination was performed with respect to hair growth status using hematoxylin and eosin staining. After IP-PA1 administration (2 and 10 μg/ml) to human dermal papilla cell culture system for 24 h, fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA expression were measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. IP-PA1, when given orally, showed a tendency to promote hair growth in mice. In addition, skin application also significantly promoted hair growth, while histopathological examinations further demonstrated hair elongation from dermal papilla cells. In the human dermal papilla cell culture system, significant FGF-7 and VEGF mRNA expressions were observed (p<0.05). An underlying mechanism of gene expression by which IP-PA1 promotes hair growth was suggested to be different from that of medicine and traditional hair tonics, such as minoxidil and adenosine. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  4. Proposal of Secure VoIP System Using Attribute Certificate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Mook; Jeong, Young-Ae; Hong, Seong-Sik

    VoIP is a service that changes the analogue audio signal into a digital signal and then transfers the audio information to the users after configuring it as a packet; and it has an advantage of lower price than the existing voice call service and better extensibility. However, VoIP service has a system structure that, compared to the existing PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network), has poor call quality and is vulnerable in the security aspect. To make up these problems, TLS service was introduced to enhance the security. In practical system, however, since QoS problem occurs, it is necessary to develop the VoIP security system that can satisfy QoS at the same time in the security aspect. In this paper, a user authentication VoIP system that can provide a service according to the security and the user through providing a differential service according to the approach of the users by adding AA server at the step of configuring the existing VoIP session is suggested. It was found that the proposed system of this study provides a quicker QoS than the TLS-added system at a similar level of security. Also, it is able to provide a variety of additional services by the different users.

  5. Bandwidth Impacts of Localizing Peer-to-Peer IP Video Traffic in Access and Aggregation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerpez Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the burgeoning impact of peer-to-peer (P2P traffic IP video traffic. High-quality IPTV or Internet TV has high-bandwidth requirements, and P2P IP video could severely strain broadband networks. A model for the popularity of video titles is given, showing that some titles are very popular and will often be available locally; making localized P2P attractive for video titles. The bandwidth impacts of localizing P2P video to try and keep traffic within a broadband access network area or within a broadband access aggregation network area are examined. Results indicate that such highly localized P2P video can greatly lower core bandwidth usage.

  6. Bandwidth Impacts of Localizing Peer-to-Peer IP Video Traffic in Access and Aggregation Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Kerpez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the burgeoning impact of peer-to-peer (P2P traffic IP video traffic. High-quality IPTV or Internet TV has high-bandwidth requirements, and P2P IP video could severely strain broadband networks. A model for the popularity of video titles is given, showing that some titles are very popular and will often be available locally; making localized P2P attractive for video titles. The bandwidth impacts of localizing P2P video to try and keep traffic within a broadband access network area or within a broadband access aggregation network area are examined. Results indicate that such highly localized P2P video can greatly lower core bandwidth usage.

  7. RSAT::Plants: Motif Discovery in ChIP-Seq Peaks of Plant Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Mondragon, Jaime A; Rioualen, Claire; Contreras-Moreira, Bruno; van Helden, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    In this protocol, we explain how to run ab initio motif discovery in order to gather putative transcription factor binding motifs (TFBMs) from sets of genomic regions returned by ChIP-seq experiments. The protocol starts from a set of peak coordinates (genomic regions) which can be either downloaded from ChIP-seq databases, or produced by a peak-calling software tool. We provide a concise description of the successive steps to discover motifs, cluster the motifs returned by different motif discovery algorithms, and compare them with reference motif databases. The protocol is documented with detailed notes explaining the rationale underlying the choice of options. The interpretation of the results is illustrated with an example from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana.

  8. Optimizing Low Speed VoIP Network for Rural Next Generation Network (R-NGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoanes Bandung

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we propose an optimization method based-on E-Model for designing an efficient low speed VoIP network for Rural Next Generation Network (R-NGN. We are choosing 128 kbps and 256 kbps bandwidth as the typical community link to be used in the designing of R-NGN infrastructure. The method is based on selection of some VoIP network parameters such as voice coder, communication protocol, packet loss level, network utilization and resource allocation. We draw analytic approach for achieving rating value (R of E-model that represent level of quality of service. In this approach, we focus on delay and packet loss calculation to find the rating value. We state the rating value = 70 as minimum level of quality of service for each call, equivalent to 3.6 of Mean Opinion Score (MOS. In our experiments, either G.723.1 5.3 kbps or G.729 is chosen for maximizing the number of VoIP calls, it depends on link utilization and level of packet loss.

  9. Firewall for Dynamic IP Address in Mobile IPv6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ying; Bao, Feng; Zhou, Jianying

    Mobile communication is becoming the mainstream with the rapid growth of mobile devices penetrating our daily life. More and more mobile devices such as mobile phones, personal digital assistants, notebooks etc, are capable of Internet access. Mobile devices frequently change their communication IP addresses in mobile IPv6 network following its current attached domain. This raises a big challenge for building firewall for mobile devices. The conventional firewalls are primarily based on IPv4 networks where the security criteria are specified only to the fixed IP addresses or subnets, which apparently do not apply to mobile IPv6. In this paper we propose three solutions for mobile IPv6 firewall. Our approaches make the firewall adaptive to dynamic IP addresses in mobile IPv6 network. They have different expense and weight corresponding to different degree of universality. The paper focuses the study more from practical aspect.

  10. Implementasi Server VoIP Berbasis SIP Pada LAN Nirkabel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shoffa Al Arofat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP merupakan teknologi yang memungkinkan percakapan suara jarak jauh melalui protokol internet. Dalam telekomunikasi, diperlukan teknologi pensinyalan yang berguna untuk membangun, mengawasi, dan melepas hubungan antara dua titik. Salah satu teknologi pensinyalan yang banyak digunakan untuk VoIP adalah Session Initiation Protocol, dengan implementasinya yang berupa perangkat lunak Open SIP Server. Selain pensinyalan, ada beberapa parameter yang perlu diperhatikan dalam implementasi VoIP, yaitu Mean Opinion Score (MOS, network impairment, dan bandwidth. Pengujian dilakukan terhadap enam codec, yaitu G.722, PCMA, PCMU, Speex, GSM, dan BV16. Berdasarkan hasil analisis dapat diambil kesimpulan bahwa codec yang menggunakan bandwidth paling rendah adalah Speex (27,12 kbps; Rata-rata delay yang dihasilkan oleh sipdroid lebih baik daripada jitsi.

  11. Capturing value from IP in a global environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcacer, Juan; Beukel, Karin; Cassiman, Bruno

    Executive Summary The authors argue that challenges to capturing value from know-how and reputation through the use of different IP tools will be an increasingly important matter of strategy for global enterprises. This has important implications for management practice. Global enterprises...... will need to combine different institutional, market and non-market mechanisms. The precise combination of tools will depend on the local and regional institutional and market conditions. Abstract: This paper documents the strong growth in tools used by firms to protect their intellectual property (IP......), develop their know-how, and build and maintain their reputation globally during the last decades. We focus on three tools: patents, trademarks, and industrial designs. We find that, although most IP applications come from a few countries (the United States, European Union, Japan, China, and South Korea...

  12. MOCCS: Clarifying DNA-binding motif ambiguity using ChIP-Seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Haruka; Iwasaki, Wataru

    2016-08-01

    As a key mechanism of gene regulation, transcription factors (TFs) bind to DNA by recognizing specific short sequence patterns that are called DNA-binding motifs. A single TF can accept ambiguity within its DNA-binding motifs, which comprise both canonical (typical) and non-canonical motifs. Clarification of such DNA-binding motif ambiguity is crucial for revealing gene regulatory networks and evaluating mutations in cis-regulatory elements. Although chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) now provides abundant data on the genomic sequences to which a given TF binds, existing motif discovery methods are unable to directly answer whether a given TF can bind to a specific DNA-binding motif. Here, we report a method for clarifying the DNA-binding motif ambiguity, MOCCS. Given ChIP-Seq data of any TF, MOCCS comprehensively analyzes and describes every k-mer to which that TF binds. Analysis of simulated datasets revealed that MOCCS is applicable to various ChIP-Seq datasets, requiring only a few minutes per dataset. Application to the ENCODE ChIP-Seq datasets proved that MOCCS directly evaluates whether a given TF binds to each DNA-binding motif, even if known position weight matrix models do not provide sufficient information on DNA-binding motif ambiguity. Furthermore, users are not required to provide numerous parameters or background genomic sequence models that are typically unavailable. MOCCS is implemented in Perl and R and is freely available via https://github.com/yuifu/moccs. By complementing existing motif-discovery software, MOCCS will contribute to the basic understanding of how the genome controls diverse cellular processes via DNA-protein interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. AREM: Aligning Short Reads from ChIP-Sequencing by Expectation Maximization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newkirk, Daniel; Biesinger, Jacob; Chon, Alvin; Yokomori, Kyoko; Xie, Xiaohui

    High-throughput sequencing coupled to chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-Seq) is widely used in characterizing genome-wide binding patterns of transcription factors, cofactors, chromatin modifiers, and other DNA binding proteins. A key step in ChIP-Seq data analysis is to map short reads from high-throughput sequencing to a reference genome and identify peak regions enriched with short reads. Although several methods have been proposed for ChIP-Seq analysis, most existing methods only consider reads that can be uniquely placed in the reference genome, and therefore have low power for detecting peaks located within repeat sequences. Here we introduce a probabilistic approach for ChIP-Seq data analysis which utilizes all reads, providing a truly genome-wide view of binding patterns. Reads are modeled using a mixture model corresponding to K enriched regions and a null genomic background. We use maximum likelihood to estimate the locations of the enriched regions, and implement an expectation-maximization (E-M) algorithm, called AREM (aligning reads by expectation maximization), to update the alignment probabilities of each read to different genomic locations. We apply the algorithm to identify genome-wide binding events of two proteins: Rad21, a component of cohesin and a key factor involved in chromatid cohesion, and Srebp-1, a transcription factor important for lipid/cholesterol homeostasis. Using AREM, we were able to identify 19,935 Rad21 peaks and 1,748 Srebp-1 peaks in the mouse genome with high confidence, including 1,517 (7.6%) Rad21 peaks and 227 (13%) Srebp-1 peaks that were missed using only uniquely mapped reads. The open source implementation of our algorithm is available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/arem

  14. CATCHprofiles: Clustering and Alignment Tool for ChIP Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. G. Nielsen, Fiona; Galschiøt Markus, Kasper; Møllegaard Friborg, Rune

    2012-01-01

    a computationally efficient implementation for the exhaustive alignment and hierarchical clustering of ChIP profiling data. The tool features a graphical interface for examination and browsing of the clustering results. CATCHprofiles requires no prior knowledge about functional sites, detects known binding patterns...... it an invaluable tool for explorative research based on ChIP profiling data. CATCHprofiles and the CATCH algorithm run on all platforms and is available for free through the CATCH website: http://catch.cmbi.ru.nl/. User support is available by subscribing to the mailing list catch-users@bioinformatics.org....

  15. Application Filters for TCP/IP Industrial Automation Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Aguinaldo B.; Kobayashi, Tiago H.; Medeiros, João Paulo S.; Brito, Agostinho M.; Motta Pires, Paulo S.

    The use of firewalls is a common approach usually meant to secure Automation Technology (AT) from Information Technology (TI) networks. This work proposes a filtering system for TCP/IP-based automation networks in which only certain kind of industrial traffic is permitted. All network traffic which does not conform with a proper industrial protocol pattern or with specific rules for its actions is supposed to be abnormal and must be blocked. As a case study, we developed a seventh layer firewall application with the ability of blocking spurious traffic, using an IP packet queueing engine and a regular expression library.

  16. Interconnecting Smart Objects with IP The Next Internet

    CERN Document Server

    Vasseur, Jean-Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Smart object technology, sometimes called the Internet of Things, is having a profound impact on our day-to-day lives. Interconnecting Smart Objects with IP is the first book that takes a holistic approach to the revolutionary area of IP-based smart objects. Smart objects are the intersection of networked embedded systems, wireless sensor networks, ubiquitous and pervasive computing, mobile telephony and telemetry, and mobile computer networking. This book consists of three parts, Part I focuses on the architecture of smart objects networking, Part II covers the hardware, software, and protoco

  17. Understanding Innovative Potential (IP) in an ICT Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rai, Sudhanshu

    Abstract; in this paper I discuss innovative potential at a firm level using information system literature and broadening my review to R&D literature as well. This review enables me to develop a theoretical frame of what researchers have indicated to be innovative potential or capacity at the fir...... to consider IP as a long term investment not only in human capital but in the way the human capital is allowed to engage with new ideas. I suggest IP can be build using institutional logics that enable openness and collegiality....

  18. Understanding Innovative Potential (IP) in an ICT Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rai, Sudhanshu

    Abstract; in this paper I discuss innovative potential at a firm level using information system literature and broadening my review to R&D literature as well. This review enables me to develop a theoretical frame of what researchers have indicated to be innovative potential or capacity at the firm...... to consider IP as a long term investment not only in human capital but in the way the human capital is allowed to engage with new ideas. I suggest IP can be build using institutional logics that enable openness and collegiality....

  19. Which IP Strategies Do Young Highly Innovative Firms Choose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veugelers, Reinhilde; Schneider, Cédric

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the strategies of young highly innovative companies to appropriate the returns from their innovations. Upon controlling for other firm and industry characteristics, we show that firms combining a young age and small scale with a high R&D intensive profile are mor...... likely to use intellectual property (IP), specifically combining formal and informal appropriation mechanisms. They are especially more likely to choose secrecy in combination with formal IP. This holds primarily when they introduce more radical innovations new to the market....

  20. Optimization of mobile IPv6-based handovers to support VoIP services in wireless heterogeneous networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fathi, Hanane; Chakraborty, Shyam; Prasad, Ramjee

    2007-01-01

    The support of the voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) services in next-generation wireless systems requires the coupling of mobility with quality of service. The mobile node can experience disruptions or even intermittent disconnections of an ongoing real-time session due to handovers. The durat......The support of the voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) services in next-generation wireless systems requires the coupling of mobility with quality of service. The mobile node can experience disruptions or even intermittent disconnections of an ongoing real-time session due to handovers...... at layer 3. Using analytical models, the authors evaluate MIPv4, MIPv6, fast MIPv6 (FMIPv6), and hierarchical MIPv6 (HMIPv6) and compare their performances in terms of handover delay for VoIP services. To optimize the handover delay, the authors propose to use the adaptive retransmission timer described...

  1. ABCG2/BCRP decreases the transfer of a food-born chemical carcinogen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in perfused term human placenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myllynen, Paeivi; Kummu, Maria; Kangas, Tiina; Ilves, Mika; Immonen, Elina; Rysae, Jaana; Pirilae, Rauna; Lastumaeki, Anni; Vaehaekangas, Kirsi H.

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the role of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters in fetal exposure to carcinogens using 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) a known substrate for ABC transporters as a model compound. In perfusion of human term placenta, transfer of 14 C-PhIP (2 μM) through the placenta resulted in fetal-to-maternal concentration ratio (FM ratio) of 0.72 ± 0.09 at 6 h. The specific ABCG2 inhibitor KO143 increased the transfer of 14 C-PhIP from maternal to fetal circulation (FM ratio 0.90 ± 0.08 at 6 h, p 14 C-PhIP (R = - 0.81, p 14 C-PhIP in perfused human placenta. Also, PhIP may modify ABC transporter expression in choriocarinoma cells

  2. Inorganic SnIP-Type Double Helices in Main-Group Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Maximilian; Weihrich, Richard; Nilges, Tom

    2017-05-05

    Inspired by the synthesis of the first atomic-scale double-helix semiconductor SnIP, this study deals with the question of whether more atomistic, inorganic double-helix compounds are accessible. With the aid of quantum chemical calculations, we have identified 31 candidates by a homoatomic substitution in MXPn, varying the Group 14 M-element from Si to Pb, the Group 17 X-element from F to I and replacing the pnictide (Pn) phosphorus by arsenic. The double-helical structure of SnIP has been used as the starting model for all candidates and the electronic structure and vibrational spectra were determined within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). Varying the outer MX or the inner Pn helix led to the conclusion that iodide- and bromide-containing MXPn compounds show similar structures to SnIP. Here, the calculations indicate interesting effects for electronic band-gap tuning. For the highly polarized fluorides, a segregation of the helices to more complex MX substructures is predicted. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Integrative Analysis of Histone ChIP-seq and RNA-seq Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Hans-Ulrich; Schäfer, Martin

    2016-07-01

    The R package epigenomix has been designed to detect differentially transcribed gene isoforms that, in addition, exhibit altered histone modifications at their respective genomic loci. The package provides methods to map histone ChIP-seq profiles to isoforms and estimate their transcript abundances from RNA-seq data. Based on the differences observed between case and control samples in the RNA-seq and ChIP-seq data, a correlation measure is calculated for each isoform. The distribution of this correlation measure is further investigated by a Bayesian mixture model to (i) reveal the relationship between the studied histone modification and transcriptional activity, and (ii) detect specific isoforms with differences in both transcription values and histone modifications. The method is designed for experiments with a few or no replicates, and is superior to separate analyses of both data types in that setting. This unit illustrates the integrative analysis of ChIP-seq and RNA-seq data with epigenomix. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. The solar wind at solar maximum: comparisons of EISCAT IPS and in situ observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Breen

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The solar maximum solar wind is highly structured in latitude, longitude and in time. Coronal measurements show a very high degree of variability, with large variations that are less apparent within in situ spacecraft measurements. Interplanetary scintillation (IPS observations from EISCAT, covering distances from 20 to 100 solar radii (RS, are an ideal source of information on the inner solar wind and can be used, therefore, to cast light on its evolution with distance from the Sun. Earlier comparisons of in situ and IPS measurements under solar minimum conditions showed good large-scale agreement, particularly in the fast wind. In this study we attempt a quantitative comparison of measurements made over solar maximum by EISCAT (20–100 RS and the Wind and Ulysses spacecraft (at 215 RS and 300–1000 RS, respectively. The intervals studied were August–September 1999, May 2000, September 2000 and May 2001, the last-named being the period of the second Ulysses fast latitude scan. Both ballistic and – when possible – MHD/ballistic hybrid models were used to relate the data sets, and we compare the results obtained from these two mapping methods. The results of this study suggest that solar wind velocities measured in situ were less variable than those estimated from IPS measurements closer to the Sun, with the greatest divergence between IPS velocities and in situ measurements occurring in regions where steep longitudinal velocity gradients were seen in situ. We suggest that the interaction between streams of solar wind with different velocities leads to "smoothing" of solar wind velocities between 30–60 RS and 1 AU, and that this process continues at greater distances from the Sun.Key words. Interplanetary physics (solar wind plasma; sources of the solar wind; instruments and techniques

  5. Zerone: a ChIP-seq discretizer for multiple replicates with built-in quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuscó, Pol; Filion, Guillaume J

    2016-10-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) is the standard method to investigate chromatin protein composition. As the number of community-available ChIP-seq profiles increases, it becomes more common to use data from different sources, which makes joint analysis challenging. Issues such as lack of reproducibility, heterogeneous quality and conflicts between replicates become evident when comparing datasets, especially when they are produced by different laboratories. Here, we present Zerone, a ChIP-seq discretizer with built-in quality control. Zerone is powered by a Hidden Markov Model with zero-inflated negative multinomial emissions, which allows it to merge several replicates into a single discretized profile. To identify low quality or irreproducible data, we trained a Support Vector Machine and integrated it as part of the discretization process. The result is a classifier reaching 95% accuracy in detecting low quality profiles. We also introduce a graphical representation to compare discretization quality and we show that Zerone achieves outstanding accuracy. Finally, on current hardware, Zerone discretizes a ChIP-seq experiment on mammalian genomes in about 5 min using less than 700 MB of memory. Zerone is available as a command line tool and as an R package. The C source code and R scripts can be downloaded from https://github.com/nanakiksc/zerone The information to reproduce the benchmark and the figures is stored in a public Docker image that can be downloaded from https://hub.docker.com/r/nanakiksc/zerone/ : guillaume.filion@gmail.com Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  6. IP-10-mediated T cell homing promotes cerebral inflammation over splenic immunity to malaria infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Q Nie

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum malaria causes 660 million clinical cases with over 2 million deaths each year. Acquired host immunity limits the clinical impact of malaria infection and provides protection against parasite replication. Experimental evidence indicates that cell-mediated immune responses also result in detrimental inflammation and contribute to severe disease induction. In both humans and mice, the spleen is a crucial organ involved in blood stage malaria clearance, while organ-specific disease appears to be associated with sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes in vascular beds and subsequent recruitment of inflammatory leukocytes. Using a rodent model of cerebral malaria, we have previously found that the majority of T lymphocytes in intravascular infiltrates of cerebral malaria-affected mice express the chemokine receptor CXCR3. Here we investigated the effect of IP-10 blockade in the development of experimental cerebral malaria and the induction of splenic anti-parasite immunity. We found that specific neutralization of IP-10 over the course of infection and genetic deletion of this chemokine in knockout mice reduces cerebral intravascular inflammation and is sufficient to protect P. berghei ANKA-infected mice from fatality. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that lack of IP-10 during infection significantly reduces peripheral parasitemia. The increased resistance to infection observed in the absence of IP-10-mediated cell trafficking was associated with retention and subsequent expansion of parasite-specific T cells in spleens of infected animals, which appears to be advantageous for the control of parasite burden. Thus, our results demonstrate that modulating homing of cellular immune responses to malaria is critical for reaching a balance between protective immunity and immunopathogenesis.

  7. IP-10-mediated T cell homing promotes cerebral inflammation over splenic immunity to malaria infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Catherine Q; Bernard, Nicholas J; Norman, M Ursula; Amante, Fiona H; Lundie, Rachel J; Crabb, Brendan S; Heath, William R; Engwerda, Christian R; Hickey, Michael J; Schofield, Louis; Hansen, Diana S

    2009-04-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria causes 660 million clinical cases with over 2 million deaths each year. Acquired host immunity limits the clinical impact of malaria infection and provides protection against parasite replication. Experimental evidence indicates that cell-mediated immune responses also result in detrimental inflammation and contribute to severe disease induction. In both humans and mice, the spleen is a crucial organ involved in blood stage malaria clearance, while organ-specific disease appears to be associated with sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes in vascular beds and subsequent recruitment of inflammatory leukocytes. Using a rodent model of cerebral malaria, we have previously found that the majority of T lymphocytes in intravascular infiltrates of cerebral malaria-affected mice express the chemokine receptor CXCR3. Here we investigated the effect of IP-10 blockade in the development of experimental cerebral malaria and the induction of splenic anti-parasite immunity. We found that specific neutralization of IP-10 over the course of infection and genetic deletion of this chemokine in knockout mice reduces cerebral intravascular inflammation and is sufficient to protect P. berghei ANKA-infected mice from fatality. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that lack of IP-10 during infection significantly reduces peripheral parasitemia. The increased resistance to infection observed in the absence of IP-10-mediated cell trafficking was associated with retention and subsequent expansion of parasite-specific T cells in spleens of infected animals, which appears to be advantageous for the control of parasite burden. Thus, our results demonstrate that modulating homing of cellular immune responses to malaria is critical for reaching a balance between protective immunity and immunopathogenesis.

  8. HMCan: A method for detecting chromatin modifications in cancer samples using ChIP-seq data

    KAUST Repository

    Ashoor, Haitham

    2013-09-09

    Motivation: Cancer cells are often characterized by epigenetic changes, which include aberrant histone modifications. In particular, local or regional epigenetic silencing is a common mechanism in cancer for silencing expression of tumor suppressor genes. Though several tools have been created to enable detection of histone marks in ChIP-seq data from normal samples, it is unclear whether these tools can be efficiently applied to ChIP-seq data generated from cancer samples. Indeed, cancer genomes are often characterized by frequent copy number alterations: gains and losses of large regions of chromosomal material. Copy number alterations may create a substantial statistical bias in the evaluation of histone mark signal enrichment and result in underdetection of the signal in the regions of loss and overdetection of the signal in the regions of gain. Results: We present HMCan (Histone modifications in cancer), a tool specially designed to analyze histone modification ChIP-seq data produced from cancer genomes. HMCan corrects for the GC-content and copy number bias and then applies Hidden Markov Models to detect the signal from the corrected data. On simulated data, HMCan outperformed several commonly used tools developed to analyze histone modification data produced from genomes without copy number alterations. HMCan also showed superior results on a ChIP-seq dataset generated for the repressive histone mark H3K27me3 in a bladder cancer cell line. HMCan predictions matched well with experimental data (qPCR validated regions) and included, for example, the previously detected H3K27me3 mark in the promoter of the DLEC1 gene, missed by other tools we tested. The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  9. Load characterization and anomaly detection for voice over IP traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R.H. Mandjes (Michel); I. Saniee; A. Stolyar

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe consider the problem of traffic anomaly detection in IP networks. Traffic anomalies typically arise when there is focused overload or when a network element fails and it is desired to infer these purely from the measured traffic. We derive new general formulae for the variance of the

  10. Advanced Signaling Support for IP-based Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Röhricht, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This work develops a set of advanced signaling concepts for IP-based networks. It proposes a design for secure and authentic signaling and provides QoS signaling support for mobile users. Furthermore, this work develops methods which allow for scalable QoS signaling by realizing QoS-based group communication mechanisms and through aggregation of resource reservations.

  11. Capturing value from Intellectual Property (IP) in a global environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcácer, Juan; Beukel, Karin; Cassiman, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Globalization should provide firms with an opportunity to leverage their know-how and reputation across countries to create value. However, it remains challenging for them to actually capture that value using traditional Intellectual Property (IP) tools. In this paper, we document the strong grow...

  12. Establishing an IPS/UNCCP Information System | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Establishing an IPS/UNCCP Information System. Between 1952 and 1964, the United Nations Conciliation Commission for Palestine (UNCCP) kept records identifying, locating and valuating properties owned by Palestinian refugees in what had become Israeli territory in 1948. Copies of the records, stored by UNCCP on ...

  13. TCP/IP communication between two USRP-E110

    OpenAIRE

    Sanabria-Russo, Luis

    2012-01-01

    This short report intends to provide an overview of the procedure and statistics of establishing a TCP/IP link between two USRP-E110. The testings are performed using an example GNURadio code and the networking protocol stack provided by the Linux operating system embedded in the USRP-E110.

  14. IP over optical multicasting for large-scale video delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yaohui; Hu, Weisheng; Sun, Weiqiang; Guo, Wei

    2007-11-01

    In the IPTV systems, multicasting will play a crucial role in the delivery of high-quality video services, which can significantly improve bandwidth efficiency. However, the scalability and the signal quality of current IPTV can barely compete with the existing broadcast digital TV systems since it is difficult to implement large-scale multicasting with end-to-end guaranteed quality of service (QoS) in packet-switched IP network. China 3TNet project aimed to build a high performance broadband trial network to support large-scale concurrent streaming media and interactive multimedia services. The innovative idea of 3TNet is that an automatic switched optical networks (ASON) with the capability of dynamic point-to-multipoint (P2MP) connections replaces the conventional IP multicasting network in the transport core, while the edge remains an IP multicasting network. In this paper, we will introduce the network architecture and discuss challenges in such IP over Optical multicasting for video delivery.

  15. Pine Engraver, Ips pini, in the Western United States (FIDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra J. Kegley; R. Ladd Livingston; Kenneth E. Gibson

    1997-01-01

    The pine engraver, Ips pini (Say), is one of the most common and widely distributed bark beetles in North America. It occurs from southern Appalachia north to Maine and Quebec, westward across the northern United States and Canada, into the interior of Alaska, throughout the Pacific Coast States and the Rocky Mountain region, to northern Mexico. In the western United...

  16. TTI ARO Opportunity Fund: IPS | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This funding will allow the Think Tank Initiative grantee, the Institute of Policy Studies of Sri Lanka (IPS), to undertake quality, policy-oriented labour migration research. The research will focus on some of the issues identified by the National Human Resources and Employment Policy for Sri Lanka.

  17. Voice over IP phone calls from your smartphone

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    All CERN users do have a Lync account (see here) and can use Instant Messaging, presence and other features. In addition, if your number is activated on Lync IP Phone(1) system then you can make standard phone calls from your computer (Windows/Mac).   Recently, we upgraded the infrastructure to Lync 2013. One of the major features is the possibility to make Voice over IP phone calls from a smartphone using your CERN standard phone number (not mobile!). Install Lync 2013 on iPhone/iPad, Android or Windows Phone, connect to WiFi network and make phone calls as if you were in your office. There will be no roaming charges because you will be using WiFi to connect to CERN phone system(2). Register here to the presentation on Tuesday 29 April at 11 a.m. in the Technical Training Center and see the most exciting features of Lync 2013.   Looking forward to seeing you! The Lync team (1) How to register on Lync IP Phone system: http://information-technology.web.cern.ch/book/lync-ip-phone-serv...

  18. Changepoint Detection Techniques for VoIP Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandjes, M.; Żuraniewski, P.; Biersack, E.; Callegari, C.; Matijasevic, M.

    2013-01-01

    The control of communication networks critically relies on procedures capable of detecting unanticipated load changes. In this chapter we present an overview of such techniques, in a setting in which each connection consumes roughly the same amount of bandwidth (with VoIP as a leading example). For

  19. Changepoint detection techniques for VoIP traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandjes, M.; Zuraniewski, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    The control of communication networks critically relies on procedures capable of detecting unanticipated load changes. In this chapter we present an overview of such techniques, in a setting in which each connection consumes roughly the same amount of bandwidth (with VoIP as a leading example). For

  20. Empirical assessment of VoIP overload detection tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Żuraniewski, P.; Mandjes, M.; Mellia, M.

    2010-01-01

    The control of communication networks critically relies on procedures capable of detecting unanticipated load changes. In this paper we explore such techniques, in a setting in which each connection consumes roughly the same amount of bandwidth (with VoIP as a leading example). We focus on

  1. TTI ARO Opportunity Fund: IPS | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This funding will allow the Think Tank Initiative grantee, the Institute of Policy Studies of Sri Lanka (IPS), to undertake quality, policy-oriented labour migration research. The research will focus on some of the issues identified by the National Human Resources and Employment Policy for Sri Lanka.

  2. IP-Based TV Technologies, Services and Multidisciplinary Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.M. Bonastre; M.J. Montpetit; P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractThe move to Internet Protocol (IP)-based content delivery services has challenged the television industry by allowing high-quality television content to be delivered using the Internet, wired and wireless, private and public. The new convergence paradigm is already playing out its

  3. Crosslayer Survivability in Overlay-IP-WDM Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacharintanakul, Peera

    2010-01-01

    As the Internet moves towards a three-layer architecture consisting of overlay networks on top of the IP network layer on top of WDM-based physical networks, incorporating the interaction between and among network layers is crucial for efficient and effective implementation of survivability. This dissertation has four major foci as follows:…

  4. Sister broods in the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Davídková, Markéta; Doležal, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 405, DEC 01 (2017), s. 13-21 ISSN 0378-1127 Grant - others:Lesy ČR(CZ) 08/2009-2015 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : re-emergence * sister broods * Ips typographus Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 3.064, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378112717309507

  5. Programmable genetic algorithm IP core for sensing and surveillance applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkoori, Srinivas; Fernando, Pradeep; Sankaran, Hariharan; Stoica, Adrian; Keymeulen, Didier; Zebulum, Ricardo

    2009-05-01

    Real-time evolvable systems are possible with a hardware implementation of Genetic Algorithms (GA). We report the design of an IP core that implements a general purpose GA engine which has been successfully synthesized and verified on a Xilinx Virtex II Pro FPGA Device (XC2VP30). The placed and routed IP core has an area utilization of only 13% and clock speed of 50MHz. The GA core can be customized in terms of the population size, number of generations, cross-over and mutation rates, and the random number generator seed. The GA engine can be tailored to a given application by interfacing with the application specific fitness evaluation module as well as the required storage memory (to store the current and new populations). The core is soft in nature i.e., a gate-level netlist is provided which can be readily integrated with the user's system. The GA IP core can be readily used in FPGA based platforms for space and military applications (for e.g., surveillance, target tracking). The main advantages of the IP core are its programmability, small footprint, and low power consumption. Examples of concept systems in sensing and surveillance domains will be presented.

  6. VoIP makes voice heard--functionality is up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Phil; Wakelam, Mathew

    2008-05-01

    Phil Wade, sales and marketing director, and Mathew Wakelam, VoIP product manager, at alarm and communication specialist Static Systems Group, discuss wireless VoLP's potential in healthcare establishments and examine how, in particular, the technology can be successfully integrated with nurse call systems.

  7. Aspects of the epidemiology of intestinal parasitosis (IP) in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intestinal parasitoses (IP) have been demonstrated to pose a major public health problem in the tropics. It is hypothesized that children are continually exposed to re- infection despite interventions. We conducted this hospital-based study to investigate knowledge, practices and perceptions among mothers of ...

  8. Red Wine Consumption is inversely associated with 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-DNA Adduct Levels in Prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Bock, Cathryn H.; Nock, Nora L.; Rundle, Andrew; Jankowski, Michelle; Levin, Albert M.; Beebe-Dimmer, Jennifer; Savera, Adnan T.; Takahashi, Satoru; Shirai, Tomoyuki; Tang, Deliang

    2011-01-01

    In humans, genetic variation and dietary factors may alter the biologic effects of exposure to 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), one of the major heterocyclic amines generated from cooking meats at high temperatures that has carcinogenic potential through the formation of DNA adducts. Previously, we reported grilled red meat consumption associated with PhIP-DNA adduct levels in human prostate. In the present study, we expanded our investigation to estimate the associations between beverage consumption and PhIP-DNA adduct levels in prostate for 391 prostate cancer cases. Of the 15 beverages analyzed, red wine consumption had the strongest association with PhIP-DNA adduct levels showing an inverse correlation in both tumor (p=0.006) and non-tumor (p=0.002) prostate cells. Red wine consumption differed significantly between African-American and white cases, but PhIP-DNA adduct levels in prostate did not vary by race. In African Americans compared with whites, however, associations between red wine consumption and PhIP-DNA adduct levels were not as strong as associations with specific (e.g., SULT1A1 and UGT1A10 genotypes) and non-specific (e.g., African ancestry) genetic variation. In a multivariable model, the covariate for red wine consumption explained a comparable percentage (13-16%) of the variation in PhIP-DNA adduct levels in prostate across the two racial groups, but the aforementioned genetic factors explained 33% of the PhIP-DNA adduct variation in African-American cases, while only 19% of the PhIPDNA adduct variation in whites. We conclude that red wine consumption may counteract biologic effects of PhIP exposure in human prostate, but genetic factors may play an even larger role, particularly in African Americans. PMID:21846795

  9. Detection of a rare BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase fusion protein in H929 multiple myeloma cells using immunoprecipitation (IP)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkopf, Susanne B; Yuan, Min; Pihan, German A; Asara, John M

    2012-10-02

    Hypothesis directed proteomics offers higher throughput over global analyses. We show that immunoprecipitation (IP)-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in H929 multiple myeloma (MM) cancer cells led to the discovery of a rare and unexpected BCR-ABL fusion, informing a therapeutic intervention using imatinib (Gleevec). BCR-ABL is the driving mutation in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and is uncommon to other cancers. Three different IP-MS experiments central to cell signaling pathways were sufficient to discover a BCR-ABL fusion in H929 cells: phosphotyrosine (pY) peptide IP, p85 regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) IP, and the GRB2 adaptor IP. The pY peptides inform tyrosine kinase activity, p85 IP informs the activating adaptors and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) involved in AKT activation and GRB2 IP identifies RTKs and adaptors leading to ERK activation. Integration of the bait-prey data from the three separate experiments identified the BCR-ABL protein complex, which was confirmed by biochemistry, cytogenetic methods, and DNA sequencing revealed the e14a2 fusion transcript. The tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 and the GAB2 adaptor protein, important for MAPK signaling, were common to all three IP-MS experiments. The comparative treatment of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) drugs revealed only imatinib, the standard of care in CML, was inhibitory to BCR-ABL leading to down-regulation of pERK and pS6K and inhibiting cell proliferation. These data suggest a model for directed proteomics from patient tumor samples for selecting the appropriate TKI drug(s) based on IP and LC-MS/MS. The data also suggest that MM patients, in addition to CML patients, may benefit from BCR-ABL diagnostic screening.

  10. Zirconia silicate modified with phytic acid (IP6) and its effect on uranyl sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escalante G, D. C.

    2016-01-01

    the liquid scintillation technique, and this technique allowed corroborating the quantification of uranium at the surface. Surface acidity constants at the solid/liquid interface for both systems were obtained by modeling the acid-base titration curves with FiTEQL 4.0 software, where the chemical species and complexes formed on the mineral surface were identified. The results show that the ZrSiO 4 /NaClO 4 system has a maximum percentage of 98.8% sorption at ph 7, whereas with the proposed system ZrSiO 4 /IP6 it was 99.2% from a ph of 3, from an initial concentration of uranium of 1 x 10 -3 M. (Author)

  11. CtIP Mutations Cause Seckel and Jawad Syndromes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Qvist

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Seckel syndrome is a recessively inherited dwarfism disorder characterized by microcephaly and a unique head profile. Genetically, it constitutes a heterogeneous condition, with several loci mapped (SCKL1-5 but only three disease genes identified: the ATR, CENPJ, and CEP152 genes that control cellular responses to DNA damage. We previously mapped a Seckel syndrome locus to chromosome 18p11.31-q11.2 (SCKL2. Here, we report two mutations in the CtIP (RBBP8 gene within this locus that result in expression of C-terminally truncated forms of CtIP. We propose that these mutations are the molecular cause of the disease observed in the previously described SCKL2 family and in an additional unrelated family diagnosed with a similar form of congenital microcephaly termed Jawad syndrome. While an exonic frameshift mutation was found in the Jawad family, the SCKL2 family carries a splicing mutation that yields a dominant-negative form of CtIP. Further characterization of cell lines derived from the SCKL2 family revealed defective DNA damage induced formation of single-stranded DNA, a critical co-factor for ATR activation. Accordingly, SCKL2 cells present a lowered apoptopic threshold and hypersensitivity to DNA damage. Notably, over-expression of a comparable truncated CtIP variant in non-Seckel cells recapitulates SCKL2 cellular phenotypes in a dose-dependent manner. This work thus identifies CtIP as a disease gene for Seckel and Jawad syndromes and defines a new type of genetic disease mechanism in which a dominant negative mutation yields a recessively inherited disorder.

  12. Unjuk Kerja IP PBX Asterisk dan FreeSWITCH pada Topologi Bertingkat di Jaringan Kampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Setiawan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Internet Protocol-based Private Branch Exchange (IP PBX diperlukan untuk menghubungkan panggilan antar perangkat komunikasi Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP di sebuah jaringan lokal (LAN. Dengan adanya IP PBX, layanan VoIP dapat disediakan di atas jaringan data/IP yang sudah tergelar. Penelitian ini kami lakukan untuk mengetahui unjuk kerja VoIP pada dua IP PBX yang menggunakan perangkat lunak server Asterisk dan FreeSWITCH. Kami merancang sebuah arsitektur jaringan eksperimen yang diadaptasi dari topologi bertingkat pada jaringan kampus (CAN di lokasi penelitian dengan hierarki perangkat yang terdiri dari core switch, distribution switch, dan access switch. Kedua IP PBX ditempatkan pada hierarki yang berbeda pada topologi jaringan tersebut agar dapat diketahui pengaruhnya terhadap unjuk kerja VoIP. Konsep eksperimen ini diharapkan dapat menjadi salah satu dasar untuk mendesain arsitektur IP PBX secara terpusat dan tersebar pada jaringan kampus. Unjuk kerja VoIP kami ukur dengan parameter-parameter Quality of Service (QoS dan Quality of Experience (QoE. Selain itu, kami juga mengukur konsumsi prosesor dan memori yang dipakai oleh perangkat lunak server VoIP pada saat komunikasi terjadi. Pengukuran dilakukan dengan skenario phone-to-phone pada jaringan eksperimen yang terhubung ke jaringan kampus aktif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penempatan IP PBX di hierarki yang berbeda pada topologi jaringan berpengaruh terhadap unjuk kerja VoIP khususnya pada IP PBX Asterisk. Ketika dibandingkan, unjuk kerja IP PBX FreeSWITCH dalam hal QoS dan QoE sedikit lebih baik daripada Asterisk pada rerata latensi/delay, jitter, Mean Opinion Score (MOS, dan konsumsi memori yaitu 41,012 ms, 0,060 ms, 5, dan 1 % untuk IP PBX 1 serta 41,016 ms, 0,066 ms, 5, dan 0,5 % untuk IP PBX 2

  13. The ROI of VoIP: Everybody Says VoIP Saves Big Bucks. But Does It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    Advocates of Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) say it saves money on long distance calls by sending them over the Internet, improves communication by eliminating the Private Branch Exchange (PBX), and offers a host of neat features such as call forwarding, e-mail accessible voicemail, and more. When it comes to measuring the dollars-and-cents…

  14. Regulation of Reentrainment Function Is Dependent on a Certain Minimal Number of Intact Functional ipRGCs in rd Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxue Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the effect of partial ablation of melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells (mcRGCs on nonimage-forming (NIF visual functions in rd mice lacking rods. Methods. The rd mice were intravitreally injected with different doses (100 ng/μl, 200 ng/μl, and 400 ng/μl of immunotoxin melanopsin-SAP. And then, the density of ipRGCs was examined. After establishing the animal models with different degrees of ipRGC damage, a wheel-running system was used to evaluate their reentrainment response. Results. Intravitreal injection of melanopsin-SAP led to partial ablation of ipRGCs in a dose-dependent manner. The survival rates of ipRGCs in the 100 ng/μl, 200 ng/μl, and 400 ng/μl groups were 74.14% ± 4.15%, 39.25% ± 2.29%, and 38.38% ± 3.74%, respectively. The wheel-running experiments showed that more severe ipRGC loss was associated with a longer time needed for reentrainment. When the light/dark cycle was delayed by 8 h, the rd mice in the PBS control group took 4.67 ± 0.79 days to complete the synchronization with the shifted cycle, while those in the 100 ng/μl and 200 ng/μl groups required 7.90 ± 0.55 days and 11.00 ± 0.79 days to complete the synchronization with the new light/dark cycle, respectively. Conclusion. Our study indicates that the regulation of some NIF visual functions is dependent on a certain minimal number of intact functional ipRGCs.

  15. An in vitro and in silico study on the flavonoid-mediated modulation of the transport of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) through Caco-2 monolayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, M.E.; Freidig, A.P.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Alink, G.M.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Groten, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    The present study describes the effect of different flavonoids on the absorption of the pro-carcinogen PhIP through Caco-2 monolayers and the development of an in silico model describing this process taking into account passive diffusion and active transport of PhIP. Various flavonoids stimulated

  16. Aplicación del modelo polinomial en la evaluación de la uniformidad de riego del aspersor autocompensado Nelson R10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny del Rocío Rodríguez-Jarama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los métodos de evaluación de la uniformidad de riego estiman las condiciones hidráulicas de funcionamiento del sistema de riego y su influencia en la aplicación de láminas de agua, con base en las necesidades hídricas de un cultivo. El modelo de evaluación utilizado en la presente investigación fue el polinomial. El ensayo evaluó el funcionamiento del sistema de riego con 4 presiones de operación distintas, medidas a la salida de la válvula del módulo de riego, y por cada presión de operación se tomaron 16 datos de caudales, en 5 módulos de riego instalado con el aspersor autocompensado Nelson R10. Como resultado se obtuvo el coeficiente de uniformidad, el coeficiente de distribución, el área adecuadamente irrigada y el factor de adecuación del riego. Uno de los principales resultados fue la no existencia de diferencia significativa entre las presiones mientras esta se mantengan en el rango de autocompensación; por otro lado, en el coeficiente de distribución sí existen diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos, a pesar de que todos dan valores mayores al 90%, en contraste con los porcentajes del área relativa adecuadamente regada, que no superan el 50% en ninguno de los tratamientos. Con lo anterior se pudo validar y verificar que el aspersor Nelson R10 autocompensado, una vez instalado en campo, cumple con las características técnicas de operación expuestas en el catálogo del fabricante, sin embargo, sí se debe manejar y controlar la lámina de riego aplicada.

  17. Predicting Persistent Back Symptoms by Psychosocial Risk Factors: Validity Criteria for the ÖMPSQ and the HKF-R 10 in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Riewe

    Full Text Available 10% of all individuals in Germany develop persistent symptoms due to nonspecific back pain (NSBP causing up to 90% of direct and indirect expenses for health care systems. Evidence indicates a strong relationship between chronic nonspecific back pain and psychosocial risk factors. The Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire (ÖMPSQ and the German Heidelberger Kurzfragebogen Rückenschmerz (HKF-R 10 are deemed valid in prediction of persistent pain, functional loss or amount of sick leave. This study provides and discusses validity criteria for these questionnaires using ROC-curve analyses. Quality measurements included sensitivity and specificity, likelihood-ratio related test-efficiencies and clinical utility in regard to predictive values.265 patients recruited from primary and secondary care units completed both questionnaires during the same timeframe. From the total, 133 patients returned a 6-month follow-up questionnaire to assess the validity criteria for outcomes of pain, function and sick leave.Based on heterogeneous cut-offs for the ÖMPSQ, sensitivity and specificity were moderate for outcome of pain (72%/75%. Very high sensitivity was observed for function (97%/57% and high specificity for sick leave (63%/85%. The latter also applied to the HKF-R 10 (pain 50%/84%. Proportions between sensitivity and specificity were unbalanced except for the ÖMPSQ outcome of pain. Likelihood-ratios and positive predictive values ranged from low to moderate.Although the ÖMPSQ may be considered useful in identification of long-term functional loss or pain, over- and underestimation of patients at risk of chronic noncspecific back pain led to limited test-efficiencies and clinical utility for both questionnaires. Further studies are required to quantify the predictive validity of both questionnaires in Germany.

  18. Satellite communication on pipeline supervision using TCP-IP Protocol; Comunicacao via satelite na supervisao de dutos usando o protocolo TCP-IP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Agliberto Pessoa da [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Brunette, Sergio Henrique de Moraes

    2003-07-01

    Bit transparent type or X-25 protocols have been used in VSAT satellite communication by PETROBRAS pipeline Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System (SCADA) as access protocol. Both solutions have inconveniences. By the first one, difficulties exist for analysis and diagnosis of connection flaws, and therefore, for a ready identification by the system management stations of abnormality location. On the other hand, the usage of the X-25 brings an additional over-head in the communication since this is not an available option in most of the equipment that compose the SCADA. The access to VSAT through Ethernet, in the opposite, makes available all networks management tools of the TCP/IP platform and it allows a direct connection to the field devices, since the main models of the several makers of Programmable Controllers and Remote Terminal Units have Ethernet port. An additional earnings is the possibility of standardization that this solution allows. This paper describes a series of communication tests between two Programmable Controllers communicating through the satellite, using a protocol over Ethernet/TCP/IP. (author)

  19. Capturing value from IP in a global environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcacer, Juan; Beukel, Karin; Cassiman, Bruno

    in the near future due to the complexity of crafting new treaties across countries. We discuss how multinational firms are dealing with the challenges of capturing value from their know-how and reputation in the existing global IP system, and review mechanisms, both market and non-market, that have been...... section. Global companies will need to organize cross-functional value capture teams focused on appropriating value from their know-how and reputation by combining different institutional, market, and non-market tools, depending on the institutional and business environment in a particular region.......This paper documents the strong growth in tools used by firms to protect their intellectual property (IP), develop their know-how, and build and maintain their reputation globally. We focus on three tools that have become increasingly important in the last several decades: patents, trademarks...

  20. The development of ISO freight containers as IP-2 packagings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janicki, M.C.; Vaughan, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Design specifications were developed for ISO freight containers to meet the requirements of the transport regulations in the 1985 Edition of IAEA SS6, and to maximize the technical and commercial benefits offered to consignors by this type of container for the transport and handling of bulk LSA/SCO materials. A range of IP-2 ISO freight containers have been designed and built to these specifications and are in use in the UK. This paper discusses the regulatory considerations which had to be reviewed and interpreted in developing freight containers as Industrial Package Type 2 (IP-2) packagings and the development of performance standards to meet the regulatory requirements. Outline details of the packages developed are indicated together with examples of handling equipment developed to facilitate loading and unloading. (J.P.N.)

  1. ChIPS - Chandra's Interactive, Publication-Ready Plotting Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joseph; Burke, D.; Evans, I.; Evans, J.; Fruscione, A.; Germain, G.; McDowell, J.; McLaughlin, W.; Milaszewski, R.

    2009-09-01

    The Chandra Interactive Plotting System, ChIPS, is a powerful component of the CIAO data analysis system that enables users to visualize their data and construct high-quality, publication-ready plots interactively. The user can control almost every aspect of the plot layout and the properties of individual plot components such as tick positions or symbol styles. ChIPS offers a rich interactive environment to help users design and fine tune their plots. Key features of ChIPS include the ability to explore alternative presentations of their data by interactively adjusting plot parameters or plot component properties, or correct mistakes via the included undo/redo functionality, without having to redo the visualizations from the beginning. Through a Python or S-Lang interface, ChIPS provides a set of high-level user routines which hides the details of the underlying environment from the new user. At the same time, the scripting environment affords experienced users the ability to manipulate data or extend existing functionality. New to CIAO 4.2, all users will benefit from being able to interactively develop plots and then save the steps to create the final product as a script. This can then be used to recreate the visualization with additional data sets. Also new in CIAO 4.2 is the ability to integrate plot data with basic imaging. Users can combine their images (in world coordinates) with plot elements such as overlay contours, grids, or annotations to produce high-quality publication-ready output in the formats expected by the major journals.

  2. Implementation of Cloud Computing into VoIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floriana GEREA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article defines Cloud Computing and highlights key concepts, the benefits of using virtualization, its weaknesses and ways of combining it with classical VoIP technologies applied to large scale businesses. The analysis takes into consideration management strategies and resources for better customer orientation and risk management all for sustaining the Service Level Agreement (SLA. An important issue in cloud computing can be security and for this reason there are several security solution presented.

  3. A Learning-Based Approach for IP Geolocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Brian; Barford, Paul; Sommers, Joel; Nowak, Robert

    The ability to pinpoint the geographic location of IP hosts is compelling for applications such as on-line advertising and network attack diagnosis. While prior methods can accurately identify the location of hosts in some regions of the Internet, they produce erroneous results when the delay or topology measurement on which they are based is limited. The hypothesis of our work is that the accuracy of IP geolocation can be improved through the creation of a flexible analytic framework that accommodates different types of geolocation information. In this paper, we describe a new framework for IP geolocation that reduces to a machine-learning classification problem. Our methodology considers a set of lightweight measurements from a set of known monitors to a target, and then classifies the location of that target based on the most probable geographic region given probability densities learned from a training set. For this study, we employ a Naive Bayes framework that has low computational complexity and enables additional environmental information to be easily added to enhance the classification process. To demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of our approach, we test IP geolocation on over 16,000 routers given ping measurements from 78 monitors with known geographic placement. Our results show that the simple application of our method improves geolocation accuracy for over 96% of the nodes identified in our data set, with on average accuracy 70 miles closer to the true geographic location versus prior constraint-based geolocation. These results highlight the promise of our method and indicate how future expansion of the classifier can lead to further improvements in geolocation accuracy.

  4. A Multimedia over IP Integrated System for Military Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Alessandro Cignoni, Carlo Roatta *Istituto per le Telecomunicazioni e l’Elettronica “Giancarlo Vallauri” Telecommunications Department Viale Italia n°72...for a real battlefield scenario. Cignoni, A.; Garroppo, R.G.; Martucci, A.; Roatta , C. (2006) A Multimedia over IP Integrated System for Military...October 2003. Rome, 18-19 April 2005 RTO-IST-054 Paper 14 Alessandro CIGNONI, Rosario G. GARROPPO, Alessandro MARTUCCI, Carlo ROATTA A Multimedia

  5. Telemetry Transmission over Internet Protocol (TMoIP) Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Gigabit Interface Converter (GBIC)/Small Form-factor Pluggable ( SFP ) connector interfaces be included in TMoIP equipment that implements fiber optic...Description Protocol: a format for describing streaming media parameters. SEQ NUMBER Sequence Number (field name reference) SFP Small Form-factor...Ethernet over twisted pair at 1000 Mbit/sec 802.3ab Optional Notes: a. To provide user flexibility, it is recommended that support for GBIC/ SFP

  6. Intelligent Advanced Communications IP Telephony Feasibility for the U.S. Navy (DVD)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binns, Todd D; Naas, Bill

    2007-01-01

    ...: 2 DVD-ROMs; 4 3/4 in.; 2.68 GB. ABSTRACT: The purpose of this research paper is to research technologies and solutions supporting the communications infrastructure necessary to implement an integrated VoIP (IP telephony...

  7. On the implementation of IP protection using biometrics based information hiding and firewall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Abhishek; Nandy, Kingshuk; Banerjee, Avishek; Giri, Supratick; Sarkar, Souvik; Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2016-02-01

    System-on-chip-based design style creates a revolution in very large scale integration industry with design efficiency, operating speed and development time. To support this process, reuse and exchange of components are essential in electronic form called intellectual property (IP). This, however, increases the possibility of encroachment of IP of the design. So copyright protection of IP against piracy is the most important concern for IP vendors. The existing solutions for IP protection are still not secure enough with flexibility, cost, etc. This paper proposes an information-hiding-based solution for IP protection by embedding a biometric copyright information and firewall inside an IP in the form of a finite state machine with unique configuration. The scheme first introduces biometric signature-based copyright as ownership proof. Second, firewall interrupts the normal functionality of IP at the end of the user time period. The experimental outcomes of field-programmable-gate-array implementation illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  8. Measuring Sister Chromatid Cohesion Protein Genome Occupancy in Drosophila melanogaster by ChIP-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsett, Dale; Misulovin, Ziva

    2017-01-01

    This chapter presents methods to conduct and analyze genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation of the cohesin complex and the Nipped-B cohesin loading factor in Drosophila cells using high-throughput DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq). Procedures for isolation of chromatin, immunoprecipitation, and construction of sequencing libraries for the Ion Torrent Proton high throughput sequencer are detailed, and computational methods to calculate occupancy as input-normalized fold-enrichment are described. The results obtained by ChIP-seq are compared to those obtained by ChIP-chip (genomic ChIP using tiling microarrays), and the effects of sequencing depth on the accuracy are analyzed. ChIP-seq provides similar sensitivity and reproducibility as ChIP-chip, and identifies the same broad regions of occupancy. The locations of enrichment peaks, however, can differ between ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq, and low sequencing depth can splinter broad regions of occupancy into distinct peaks.

  9. VoIP Capacity Evaluation in IEEE 802.11e WLAN Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Trad, Abdelbasset; Munir, Farukh; Turletti, Thierry; Afifi, Hossam

    2006-01-01

    In this report, we present an analytical model for VoIP capacity in IEEE 802.11e WLAN. We illustrate performance results relative to typical codec rates of G.711 PCM (64 kbit/s), G.729 (8 kbit/s) and G.723 (6.3 kbit/s). G.729 and G.723 allow a greater capacity than G.711 which is constrained by throughput. This greater capacity is at the expense of small quality degradation due to the delay increase since G.729 and G.723 codecs are more delay sensitive than G.711. In our study we analyse the ...

  10. Neural network classifier of attacks in IP telephony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarik, Jakub; Voznak, Miroslav; Mehic, Miralem; Partila, Pavol; Mikulec, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Various types of monitoring mechanism allow us to detect and monitor behavior of attackers in VoIP networks. Analysis of detected malicious traffic is crucial for further investigation and hardening the network. This analysis is typically based on statistical methods and the article brings a solution based on neural network. The proposed algorithm is used as a classifier of attacks in a distributed monitoring network of independent honeypot probes. Information about attacks on these honeypots is collected on a centralized server and then classified. This classification is based on different mechanisms. One of them is based on the multilayer perceptron neural network. The article describes inner structure of used neural network and also information about implementation of this network. The learning set for this neural network is based on real attack data collected from IP telephony honeypot called Dionaea. We prepare the learning set from real attack data after collecting, cleaning and aggregation of this information. After proper learning is the neural network capable to classify 6 types of most commonly used VoIP attacks. Using neural network classifier brings more accurate attack classification in a distributed system of honeypots. With this approach is possible to detect malicious behavior in a different part of networks, which are logically or geographically divided and use the information from one network to harden security in other networks. Centralized server for distributed set of nodes serves not only as a collector and classifier of attack data, but also as a mechanism for generating a precaution steps against attacks.

  11. IP-based narrow-band videophone system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengbing; Zhu, Dongmei; Xue, Liang; Zhu, Guangxi

    2005-02-01

    Architecture of an IP-based narrow-band videophone system is proposed in this paper for convenient videophone calls between any two computers even if being placed in two different LANs within network agents. The bandwidth need of each call is less than 256 kbps. The system consists of two kinds of entities: Videophone Terminals (VPT) and a Video Call Server (VCS). A VPT is actually a microcomputer program, composed of 4 primary parts, an audio codec, a video codec, a media deliverer/receiver and a call controller. The basic functions of the VCS include videophone number generation and management, access admission and address resolution. The VCS with a public IP address plays an important role in the system especially when a video call has to penetrate through network agents. Each VPT in the system gets its own external transport address from the VCS through registration process. A calling VPT would receive the external transport address of the called VPT from the VCS through address resolution. The proposed system works and is helpful to accelerate the realization of people's videophone dream over IP networks.

  12. In-Pile Section(IPS) Inner Assembly Manufacturing Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Shim, Bong Sik; Lee, Chung Yong

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this report is to present the manufacturing, assembling and testing process of IPS Inner Assembly used in Fuel Test Loop(FTL) pre-operation test. The majority of the manufactured components are test fuels, inner assembly structures and subsidiary tools that is needed during the assembly process. In addition, Mock-up test for the welding and brazing is included at this stage. Lower structure, such as test fuels, fuel carrier legs are assembled and following structures, such as fuel carrier stem in the middle structure, top flange in the top structure are assembled together each other. To Verify the Reactor Coolant Pressure Boundary(RCPB) function in IPS Inner Assembly helium leak test and hydraulic test is performed with its acceptance criteria. According to the ASME III code Authorized Nuclear Inspector(ANI) is required during the hydraulic test. As-built measurement and insulation resistance test are performed to the structures and instrumentations after the test process. All requirements are satisfied and the IPS Inner Assembly was loaded in HANARO IR-1 hole in September 25, 2009

  13. Watermarking strategies for IP protection of micro-processor cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrilla, L.; Castillo, E.; Meyer-Bäse, U.; García, A.; González, D.; Todorovich, E.; Boemo, E.; Lloris, A.

    2010-04-01

    Reuse-based design has emerged as one of the most important methodologies for integrated circuit design, with reusable Intellectual Property (IP) cores enabling the optimization of company resources due to reduced development time and costs. This is of special interest in the Field-Programmable Logic (FPL) domain, which mainly relies on automatic synthesis tools. However, this design methodology has brought to light the intellectual property protection (IPP) of those modules, with most forms of protection in the EDA industry being difficult to translate to this domain. However, IP core watermarking has emerged as a tool for IP core protection. Although watermarks may be inserted at different levels of the design flow, watermarking Hardware Description Language (HDL) descriptions has been proved to be a robust and secure option. In this paper, a new framework for the protection of μP cores is presented. The protection scheme is derived from the IPP@HDL procedure and it has been adapted to the singularities of μP cores, overcoming the problems for the digital signature extraction in such systems. Additionally, the feature of hardware activation has been introduced, allowing the distribution of μP cores in a "demo" mode and a later activation that can be easily performed by the customer executing a simple program. Application examples show that the additional hardware introduced for protection and/or activation has no effect over the performance, and showing an assumable area increase.

  14. The Verb Always Leaves IP in V2 Clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Bonnie D.; Vikner, Sten

    2007-01-01

    The verb second (V2) phenomenon, as it is found in the Germanic languages, has been the focus of much attention within recent syntactic research. In most of the literature on V2, it is assumed that the verb in all V2 clauses has moved to a head position outside IP, e.g. Cº. In Schwartz & Vikner...... (1989) we claimed that all V2 clauses were CPs, and we referred to this analysis as the 'traditional' analysis. In this paper we shall call it the 'V2 outside IP' analysis, and by using this term we want to convey that although in what follows we will adhere to the view that the verb moves to Cº, any...... analysis in which the verb moves into an Xº which is the sister of IP may be compatible with what we say here. Various alternatives to this analysis have been explored in the literature, and here we will address two in particular: One alternative is that there is an asymmetry between subject...

  15. Direct reduction of N-acetoxy-PhIP by tea polyphenols: a possible mechanism for chemoprevention against PhIP-DNA adduct formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Dongxin; Thompson, Patricia A.; Teitel, Candee; Chen Junshi; Kadlubar, Fred F.

    2003-01-01

    The chemopreventive effect of tea against 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-DNA adduct formation and its mechanism were studied. Rats were exposed to freshly prepared aqueous extracts of green tea (3% (w/v)) as the sole source of drinking water for 10 days prior to administration with a single dose of PhIP (10 mg/kg body weight) by oral gavage. PhIP-DNA adducts in the liver, colon, heart, and lung were measured using the 32 P-postlabelling technique. Rats pre-treated with tea and given PhIP 20 h before sacrifice had significantly reduced levels of PhIP-DNA adducts as compared with controls given PhIP alone. The possible mechanism of protective effect of tea on PhIP-DNA adduct formation was then examined in vitro. It was found that an aqueous extract of green and black tea, mixtures of green and black tea polyphenols, as well as purified polyphenols could strongly inhibit the DNA binding of N-acetoxy-PhIP, a putative ultimate carcinogen of PhIP formed in vivo via metabolic activation. Among these, epigallocatechin gallate was exceptionally potent. HPLC analyses of these incubation mixtures containing N-acetoxy-PhIP and the tea polyphenols each revealed the production of the parent amine, PhIP, indicating the involvement of a redox mechanism. In view of the presence of relatively high levels of tea polyphenols in rat and human plasma after ingestion of tea, this study suggests that direct reduction of the ultimate carcinogen N-acetoxy-PhIP by tea polyphenols is likely to be involved in the mechanism of chemoprotection of tea against this carcinogen

  16. Single-tube linear DNA amplification (LinDA) for robust ChIP-seq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shankaranarayanan, P.; Mendoza-Parra, M.A.; Walia, M.; Wang, L.; Li, N.; Trindade, L.M.; Gronemeyer, H.

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide profiling of transcription factors based on massive parallel sequencing of immunoprecipitated chromatin (ChIP-seq) requires nanogram amounts of DNA. Here we describe a high-fidelity, single-tube linear DNA amplification method (LinDA) for ChIP-seq and reChIP-seq with picogram DNA amounts

  17. 47 CFR 64.606 - VRS and IP Relay provider and TRS program certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false VRS and IP Relay provider and TRS program... Services and Related Customer Premises Equipment for Persons With Disabilities § 64.606 VRS and IP Relay... including notification in the Federal Register. (2) VRS and IP Relay provider. Any entity desiring to...

  18. Native Chromatin Immunoprecipitation-Sequencing (ChIP-Seq) from Low Cell Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribarska, Teodora; Gilfillan, Gregor D

    2018-01-01

    ChIP-seq is the current method of choice for genome-wide protein location analysis. Here, we present a native (non-cross-linked) ChIP procedure suitable for histone proteins, coupled with an efficient library preparation technique for subsequent next-generation sequencing. The method enables ChIP-seq starting with 50,000 or more cells.

  19. The Absence of Interferon-β Promotor Stimulator-1 (IPS-1) Predisposes to Bronchiolitis and Asthma-like Pathology in Response to Pneumoviral Infection in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jennifer; Lynch, Jason P; Loh, Zhixuan; Zhang, Vivian; Werder, Rhiannon B; Spann, Kirsten; Phipps, Simon

    2017-05-24

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-bronchiolitis is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality and a risk factor for subsequent asthma. We showed previously that toll-like receptor (TLR)7 in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) is critical for protection against bronchiolitis and asthma in mice infected with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), the mouse homolog of RSV. This lack of redundancy was unexpected as interferon-β promotor stimulator-1 (IPS-1) signalling, downstream of RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) and not TLR7 activation, contributes to host defence in hRSV-inoculated adult mice. To further clarify the role of IPS-1 signalling, we inoculated IPS-1 -/- and WT mice with PVM in early-life, and again in later-life, to model the association between bronchiolitis and asthma. IPS-1 deficiency predisposed to severe PVM bronchiolitis, characterised by neutrophilic inflammation and necroptotic airway epithelial cell death, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and IL-33 release, and downstream type-2 inflammation. Secondary infection induced an eosinophilic asthma-like pathophysiology in IPS-1 -/- but not WT mice. Mechanistically, we identified that IPS-1 is necessary for pDC recruitment, IFN-α production and viral control. Our findings suggest that TLR7 and RLR signalling work collaboratively to optimally control the host response to pneumovirus infection thereby protecting against viral bronchiolitis and subsequent asthma.

  20. 1-800-CALL-H.E.P. -- Experiences on a voice-over-IP test bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, W.

    2000-01-01

    Highly interactive Internet applications such as Voice-over-IP are extremely sensitive to network performance. Even on high performance research networks, many cases will require the use of differentiated services to achieve high (toll) quality conversations. In this talk the authors will describe a test bed over the Energy Sciences network (ESnet) between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Sandia National Laboratory (Sandia). In particular the characteristics of Voice-over-IP calls between LBNL and SLAC will be reviewed and the effect of low, moderate and high congestion on the link will be quantified. The use of Per Hop Behavior (PHB) in IP headers with Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) in routers and the benefit they provide will be explained. A model of flows and performance will be presented and new techniques to predict the quality of calls are under development and will be reviewed. Comparisons with telephone reliability will be discussed and the feasibility of wide spread deployment of VoIP in HEP will be considered

  1. Optimization of mobile IPv6-based handovers to support VoIP services in wireless heterogeneous networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fathi, Hanane; Chakraborty, Shyam; Prasad, Ramjee

    2007-01-01

    The support of the voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) services in next-generation wireless systems requires the coupling of mobility with quality of service. The mobile node can experience disruptions or even intermittent disconnections of an ongoing real-time session due to handovers. The durat......The support of the voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) services in next-generation wireless systems requires the coupling of mobility with quality of service. The mobile node can experience disruptions or even intermittent disconnections of an ongoing real-time session due to handovers....... The duration of such interruptions is called disruption time or handover delay and can heavily affect user satisfaction. Therefore, this delay needs to be minimized to provide good-quality VoIP services. In this paper, the focus is on the network layer mobility, specifically on dates for providing mobility...... at layer 3. Using analytical models, the authors evaluate MIPv4, MIPv6, fast MIPv6 (FMIPv6), and hierarchical MIPv6 (HMIPv6) and compare their performances in terms of handover delay for VoIP services. To optimize the handover delay, the authors propose to use the adaptive retransmission timer described...

  2. An algorithmic perspective of de novo cis-regulatory motif finding based on ChIP-seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingqiang; Yang, Jinyu; Li, Yang; McDermaid, Adam; Ma, Qin

    2017-03-08

    Transcription factors are proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences and play important roles in controlling the expression levels of their target genes. Hence, prediction of transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) provides a solid foundation for inferring gene regulatory mechanisms and building regulatory networks for a genome. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) technology can generate large-scale experimental data for such protein-DNA interactions, providing an unprecedented opportunity to identify TFBSs (a.k.a. cis-regulatory motifs). The bottleneck, however, is the lack of robust mathematical models, as well as efficient computational methods for TFBS prediction to make effective use of massive ChIP-seq data sets in the public domain. The purpose of this study is to review existing motif-finding methods for ChIP-seq data from an algorithmic perspective and provide new computational insight into this field. The state-of-the-art methods were shown through summarizing eight representative motif-finding algorithms along with corresponding challenges, and introducing some important relative functions according to specific biological demands, including discriminative motif finding and cofactor motifs analysis. Finally, potential directions and plans for ChIP-seq-based motif-finding tools were showcased in support of future algorithm development. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Anti-cancer stemness and anti-invasive activity of bitter taste receptors, TAS2R8 and TAS2R10, in human neuroblastoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoona Seo

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma (NB originates from immature neuronal cells and currently has a poor clinical outcome. NB cells possess cancer stem cells (CSCs characteristics that facilitate the initiation of a tumor, as well as its metastasis. Human bitter taste receptors, referred to as TAS2Rs, are one of five types of basic taste receptors and they belong to a family of G-protein coupled receptors. The recent finding that taste receptors are expressed in non-gustatory tissues suggest that they mediate additional functions distinct from taste perception. While it is generally admitted that the recognition of bitter tastes may be associated with a self-defense system to prevent the ingestion of poisonous food compounds, this recognition may also serve as a disease-related function in the human body. In particular, the anti-cancer stemness and invasion effects of TAS2Rs on NB cells remain poorly understood. In the present study, endogenous expression of TAS2R8 and TAS2R10 in SK-N-BE(2C and SH-SY5Y cells was examined. In addition, higher levels of TAS2R8 and TAS2R10 expression were investigated in more differentiated SY5Y cells. Both TAS2Rs were up-regulated following the induction of neuronal cell differentiation by retinoic acid. In addition, ectopic transfection of the two TAS2Rs induced neurite elongation in the BE(2C cells, and down-regulated CSCs markers (including DLK1, CD133, Notch1, and Sox2, and suppressed self-renewal characteristics. In particular, TAS2RS inhibited tumorigenicity. Furthermore, when TAS2Rs was over-expressed, cell migration, cell invasion, and matrix metalloproteinases activity were inhibited. Expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, a well-known regulator of tumor metastasis, as well as its downstream targets, vascular endothelial growth factor and glucose transporter-1, were also suppressed by TAS2Rs. Taken together, these novel findings suggest that TAS2Rs targets CSCs by suppressing cancer stemness characteristics and NB

  4. Finite Element Analysis of IPS –Empress II Ceramic Bridge Reinforced by Zirconia Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahyar Geramy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of trenched zirconia bar on the von Mises stress distribution of IPS –Empress II core ceramics.Material and Methods: The three-dimensional model including a three-unit bridge from the second premolar to the second molar was designed. The model was reinforced with zirconia bar (ZB, zirconia bar with vertical trench (VZB, and zirconia bar with horizontal trench (HZB (cross sections of these bars were circular. The model without zirconia bar was designed as the control. The bridges were loaded by 200 N and 500 N on the occlusal surface at the middle of the pontic component, and Von-Mises stresses were evaluated along a defined path.Result: In the connector area, VonMises stress in MPa were approximately identical in the specimens with ZB (at molar connector (MC: 4.75, and at premolar connector (PC: 6.40 and without ZB (MC: 5.50, PC: 6.68, and considerable differences were not recognized. Whereas, Von-Mises stress (MPa in the specimens with horizontal trenched Zirconia bar (HZB (MC: 3.91, PC: 2.44 and Vertical trenched Zirconia bar (VZB (MC: 2.53, PC: 2.56 was decreased considerably.Conclusion: Embeded trenched zirconia bar could reinforce IPS-Empress II at the connector area which is a main failure region in all ceramic fixed partial dentures.

  5. Investigation of Viral and Host Chromatin by ChIP-PCR or ChIP-Seq Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Thomas; Theiss, Juliane M; Fischer, Nicole; Grundhoff, Adam

    2016-02-08

    Complex regulation of viral transcription patterns and DNA replication levels is a feature of many DNA viruses. This is especially true for those viruses which establish latent or persistent infections (e.g., herpesviruses, papillomaviruses, polyomaviruses, or adenovirus), as long-term persistence often requires adaptation of gene expression programs and/or replication levels to the cellular milieu. A key factor in the control of such processes is the establishment of a specific chromatin state on promoters or replication origins, which in turn will determine whether or not the underlying DNA is accessible for other factors that mediate downstream processes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a powerful technique to investigate viral chromatin, in particular to study binding patterns of modified histones, transcription factors or other DNA-/chromatin-binding proteins that regulate the viral lifecycle. Here, we provide protocols that are suitable for performing ChIP-PCR and ChIP-Seq studies on chromatin of large and small viral genomes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Apiaceous Vegetable Consumption Decreases PhIP-Induced DNA Adducts and Increases Methylated PhIP Metabolites in the Urine Metabolome in Rats123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Kyeom; Gallaher, Daniel D; Chen, Chi; Yao, Dan; Trudo, Sabrina P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Heterocyclic aromatic amines, such as 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), are carcinogenic compounds produced during heating of protein-containing foods. Apiaceous vegetables inhibit PhIP-activating enzymes, whereas cruciferous vegetables induce both PhIP-activating and -detoxifying enzymes. Objective: We investigated the effects of these vegetables, either alone or combined, on PhIP metabolism and colonic DNA adduct formation in rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats were fed cruciferous vegetables (21%, wt:wt), apiaceous vegetables (21%, wt:wt), or a combination of both vegetables (10.5% wt:wt of each). Negative and positive control groups were fed an AIN-93G diet. After 6 d, all groups received an intraperitoneal injection of PhIP (10 mg · kg body weight−1) except for the negative control group, which received only vehicle. Urine was collected for 24 h after the injection for LC–tandem mass spectrometry metabolomic analyses. On day 7, rats were killed and tissues processed. Results: Compared with the positive control, cruciferous vegetables increased the activity of hepatic PhIP-activating enzymes [39.5% and 45.1% for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 (P = 0.0006) and CYP1A2 (P vegetables did not inhibit PhIP-activating enzymes, yet reduced colonic PhIP-DNA adducts by 20.4% (P = 0.0496). Metabolomic analyses indicated that apiaceous vegetables increased the relative abundance of urinary methylated PhIP metabolites. The sum of these methylated metabolites inversely correlated with colonic PhIP-DNA adducts (r = −0.43, P = 0.01). We detected a novel methylated urinary PhIP metabolite and demonstrated that methylated metabolites are produced in the human liver S9 fraction. Conclusions: Apiaceous vegetables did not inhibit the activity of PhIP-activating enzymes in rats, suggesting that the reduction in PhIP-DNA adducts may involve other pathways. Further investigation of the importance of PhIP methylation in carcinogen metabolism is warranted

  7. Apiaceous vegetable consumption decreases PhIP-induced DNA adducts and increases methylated PhIP metabolites in the urine metabolome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Kyeom; Gallaher, Daniel D; Chen, Chi; Yao, Dan; Trudo, Sabrina P

    2015-03-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines, such as 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), are carcinogenic compounds produced during heating of protein-containing foods. Apiaceous vegetables inhibit PhIP-activating enzymes, whereas cruciferous vegetables induce both PhIP-activating and -detoxifying enzymes. We investigated the effects of these vegetables, either alone or combined, on PhIP metabolism and colonic DNA adduct formation in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed cruciferous vegetables (21%, wt:wt), apiaceous vegetables (21%, wt:wt), or a combination of both vegetables (10.5% wt:wt of each). Negative and positive control groups were fed an AIN-93G diet. After 6 d, all groups received an intraperitoneal injection of PhIP (10 mg · kg body weight(-1)) except for the negative control group, which received only vehicle. Urine was collected for 24 h after the injection for LC-tandem mass spectrometry metabolomic analyses. On day 7, rats were killed and tissues processed. Compared with the positive control, cruciferous vegetables increased the activity of hepatic PhIP-activating enzymes [39.5% and 45.1% for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 (P = 0.0006) and CYP1A2 (P vegetables did not inhibit PhIP-activating enzymes, yet reduced colonic PhIP-DNA adducts by 20.4% (P = 0.0496). Metabolomic analyses indicated that apiaceous vegetables increased the relative abundance of urinary methylated PhIP metabolites. The sum of these methylated metabolites inversely correlated with colonic PhIP-DNA adducts (r = -0.43, P = 0.01). We detected a novel methylated urinary PhIP metabolite and demonstrated that methylated metabolites are produced in the human liver S9 fraction. Apiaceous vegetables did not inhibit the activity of PhIP-activating enzymes in rats, suggesting that the reduction in PhIP-DNA adducts may involve other pathways. Further investigation of the importance of PhIP methylation in carcinogen metabolism is warranted, given the inverse correlation of methylated PhIP

  8. Decoding ChIP-seq with a double-binding signal refines binding peaks to single-nucleotides and predicts cooperative interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Antonio L.C.; Abeel, Thomas; Peterson, Matthew; Azizi, Elham; Lyubetskaya, Anna; Carvalho, Luís

    2014-01-01

    The comprehension of protein and DNA binding in vivo is essential to understand gene regulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) provides a global map of the regulatory binding network. Most ChIP-seq analysis tools focus on identifying binding regions from coverage enrichment. However, less work has been performed to infer the physical and regulatory details inside the enriched regions. This research extends a previous blind-deconvolution approach to develop a post-peak–calling algorithm that improves binding site resolution and predicts cooperative interactions. At the core of our new method is a physically motivated model that characterizes the binding signal as an extreme value distribution. This model suggests a mathematical framework to study physical properties of DNA shearing from the ChIP-seq coverage. The model explains the ChIP-seq coverage with two signals: The first considers DNA fragments with only a single binding event, whereas the second considers fragments with two binding events (a double-binding signal). The model incorporates motif discovery and is able to detect multiple sites in an enriched region with single-nucleotide resolution, high sensitivity, and high specificity. Our method improves peak caller sensitivity, from less than 45% up to 94%, at a false positive rate ChIP-seq analysis: the identification of cooperative interaction. Predictions of known cooperative binding sites show a 0.85 area under an ROC curve. PMID:25024162

  9. Web-based IP telephony penetration system evaluating level of protection from attacks and threats

    OpenAIRE

    Vozňák, Miroslav; Řezáč, Filip

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with detection of threats in IP telephony, the authors developed a penetration testing system that is able to check up the level of protection from security threats in IP telephony. SIP is being widely used in building VoIP networks. Unlike the traditional telephone networks VoIP networks does not have a closed communication which makes communication medium vulnerable to all kinds of attacks from the in truders. The SIP server is a key component of VoIP infrastr...

  10. Massive stars dying alone: Extremely remote environments of SN2009ip and SN2010jp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan

    2014-10-01

    We propose an imaging study of the astonishingly remote environments of two recent supernovae (SNe): SN2009ip and SN2010jp. Both were unusual Type IIn explosions that crashed into dense circumstellar material (CSM) ejected by the star shortly before explosion. The favored progenitors of these SNe are very massive luminous blue variable (LBV) stars. In fact, SN2009ip presents an extraordinay case where the LBV-like progenitor was actually detected directly in archival HST data, and where we obtained spectra and photometry for numerous pre-SN eruptions. No other SN has this treasure trove of detailed information about the progenitor (not even SN1987A). SN2010jp represents a possible collapsar-powered event, since it showed evidence of a fast bipolar jet in spectra and a low 56Ni mass; this would be an analog of the black-hole forming explosions that cause gamma ray bursts, but where the relativistic jet is damped by a residual H envelope on the star. In both cases, the only viable models for these SNe involve extremely massive (initial masses of 40-100 Msun) progenitor stars. This seems at odds with their extremely remote environments in the far outskirts of their host galaxies, with no detected evidence for an underlying massive star population in ground-based data (nor in the single shallow WFPC2/F606W image of SN2009ip). Here we propose deep UV HST images to search for any mid/late O-type stars nearby, deep red images to detect any red supergiants, and an H-alpha image to search for any evidence of ongoing star formation in the vicinity. These observations will place important and demanding constraints on the initial masses and ages of these progenitors.

  11. Using the ACR/NEMA standard with TCP/IP and Ethernet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimiak, William J.; Williams, Rodney C.

    1991-07-01

    There is a need for a consolidated picture archival and communications system (PACS) in hospitals. At the Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest University (BGSM), the authors are enhancing the ACR/NEMA Version 2 protocol using UNIX sockets and TCP/IP to greatly improve connectivity. Initially, nuclear medicine studies using gamma cameras are to be sent to PACS. The ACR/NEMA Version 2 protocol provides the functionality of the upper three layers of the open system interconnection (OSI) model in this implementation. The images, imaging equipment information, and patient information are then sent in ACR/NEMA format to a software socket. From there it is handed to the TCP/IP protocol, which provides the transport and network service. TCP/IP, in turn, uses the services of IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet) to complete the connectivity. The advantage of this implementation is threefold: (1) Only one I/O port is consumed by numerous nuclear medicine cameras, instead of a physical port for each camera. (2) Standard protocols are used which maximize interoperability with ACR/NEMA compliant PACSs. (3) The use of sockets allows a migration path to the transport and networking services of OSIs TP4 and connectionless network service as well as the high-performance protocol being considered by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the International Standards Organization (ISO) -- the Xpress Transfer Protocol (XTP). The use of sockets also gives access to ANSI's Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) as well as other high-speed network standards.

  12. Multi-layer service function chaining scheduling based on auxiliary graph in IP over optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yixuan; Li, Hui; Liu, Yuze; Ji, Yuefeng

    2017-10-01

    Software Defined Optical Network (SDON) can be considered as extension of Software Defined Network (SDN) in optical networks. SDON offers a unified control plane and makes optical network an intelligent transport network with dynamic flexibility and service adaptability. For this reason, a comprehensive optical transmission service, able to achieve service differentiation all the way down to the optical transport layer, can be provided to service function chaining (SFC). IP over optical network, as a promising networking architecture to interconnect data centers, is the most widely used scenarios of SFC. In this paper, we offer a flexible and dynamic resource allocation method for diverse SFC service requests in the IP over optical network. To do so, we firstly propose the concept of optical service function (OSF) and a multi-layer SFC model. OSF represents the comprehensive optical transmission service (e.g., multicast, low latency, quality of service, etc.), which can be achieved in multi-layer SFC model. OSF can also be considered as a special SF. Secondly, we design a resource allocation algorithm, which we call OSF-oriented optical service scheduling algorithm. It is able to address multi-layer SFC optical service scheduling and provide comprehensive optical transmission service, while meeting multiple optical transmission requirements (e.g., bandwidth, latency, availability). Moreover, the algorithm exploits the concept of Auxiliary Graph. Finally, we compare our algorithm with the Baseline algorithm in simulation. And simulation results show that our algorithm achieves superior performance than Baseline algorithm in low traffic load condition.

  13. Field-scale electrical geophysics over an olive oil mill waste deposition site: Evaluating the information content of resistivity versus induced polarization (IP) images for delineating the spatial extent of organic contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Robinson, Judith; Soupios, Pantelis; Slater, Lee

    2016-12-01

    We performed 2D resistivity and IP measurements over a known olive oil mill waste plume at a site in western Crete, Greece. The objectives of the survey were: (1) to determine whether IP is more diagnostic in delineating the spatial extent of the plume relative to resistivity measurements alone; (2) to evaluate whether the additional information content obtained from IP is worth the effort given longer data acquisition times and higher measurement errors that inevitably characterize field IP data acquisition. Complex conductivity inversion of the field IP dataset revealed that the organic plume is characterized as a region of high electrical conductivity (real part of complex conductivity) consistent with the conceptual model for the electrical structure of a biodegraded LNAPL contaminant plume. The plume is also characterized by a region of high polarizability (imaginary part of complex conductivity) that is more localized to the known plume location (based on conventional monitoring) relative to the high conductivity region in the electrical conductivity image. This observation is attributed to the fact that electrical conductivity is more strongly controlled by hydrogeological and geological characteristics of the site that mask the response from the biodegraded plume. This result encourages the use of field IP to improve the spatial delineation of organic contamination in the subsurface. However, more laborious field procedures are required to acquire reliable field IP data and the inversion of field IP data remains more challenging than resistivity data alone.

  14. VoIP attacks detection engine based on neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarik, Jakub; Slachta, Jiri

    2015-05-01

    The security is crucial for any system nowadays, especially communications. One of the most successful protocols in the field of communication over IP networks is Session Initiation Protocol. It is an open-source project used by different kinds of applications, both open-source and proprietary. High penetration and text-based principle made SIP number one target in IP telephony infrastructure, so security of SIP server is essential. To keep up with hackers and to detect potential malicious attacks, security administrator needs to monitor and evaluate SIP traffic in the network. But monitoring and following evaluation could easily overwhelm the security administrator in networks, typically in networks with a number of SIP servers, users and logically or geographically separated networks. The proposed solution lies in automatic attack detection systems. The article covers detection of VoIP attacks through a distributed network of nodes. Then the gathered data analyze aggregation server with artificial neural network. Artificial neural network means multilayer perceptron network trained with a set of collected attacks. Attack data could also be preprocessed and verified with a self-organizing map. The source data is detected by distributed network of detection nodes. Each node contains a honeypot application and traffic monitoring mechanism. Aggregation of data from each node creates an input for neural networks. The automatic classification on a centralized server with low false positive detection reduce the cost of attack detection resources. The detection system uses modular design for easy deployment in final infrastructure. The centralized server collects and process detected traffic. It also maintains all detection nodes.

  15. Implementation of mobile ip smooth handoff in wireless networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayastha, M.; Chowdhry, B.S.; Memon, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes implementation of mobile IP services in two separate wireless LANs based on IEEE 802.11b standards, located in two distant buildings of a university campus. The purpose of the project was to achieve smooth hand-off when a mobile node moves between the two LANs. During our experimentation we have identified some of the limitation of IEEE 802.11b that affects mobile 1P smooth hand off. We have also proposed an algorithm to solve this problem when the mobility is within a limited number of separate wireless LANs. (author)

  16. Protocolos de nivel de Transporte en TCP/IP

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Vázquez, Pablo

    2002-01-01

    Versión actualizada de la publicada en "Prácticas de redes". Francisco Ortiz Zamora (coord.). ECU. ISBN 84-8454-186-X Los objetivos de la práctica 3 de la asignatura Redes es profundizar en el funcionamiento de los protocolos de transporte en la arquitectura de red TCP/IP. En particular, se pretende conocer las aracterísticas del nivel de transporte, así como el formato de las estructuras de datos que circulan en este nivel tanto con el protocolo TCP como con el UDP.

  17. IP, ethernet and MPLS networks resource and fault management

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, André

    2013-01-01

    This book summarizes the key Quality of Service technologies deployed in telecommunications networks: Ethernet, IP, and MPLS. The QoS of the network is made up of two parts: fault and resource management. Network operation quality is among the functions to be fulfilled in order to offer QoS to the end user. It is characterized by four parameters: packet loss, delay, jitter or the variation of delay over time, and availability. Resource management employs mechanisms that enable the first three parameters to be guaranteed or optimized. Fault management aims to ensure continuity of service.

  18. IP lookup with low memory requirement and fast update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Michael Stübert

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents an IP address lookup algorithm with low memory requirement and fast updates. The scheme, which is denoted prefix-tree, uses a combination of a trie and a tree search, which is efficient in memory usage because the tree contains exactly one node for each prefix in the routing...... table. The time complexity for update operations is low for the prefix-tree. The lookup operation for the basic binary prefix-tree may require that a high number of nodes be traversed. The paper presents improvements to decrease lookup time, including shortcut tables and multi-bit trees. The prefix...

  19. IPS – An Information Production System for Precision Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Friedrich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To optimize the process of base fertilisation in the context of Precision Farming, IT support for the corresponding service processes was developed as part of a research project. Applying the methods of service engineering, a software system that supports an efficient and transparent service provision was developed in the IPS project (Information Production System for Precision Farming. The paper shows the methodological approach of the project, the potential for innovation of the developed software system and discusses the results. Thereby, the findings presented in this paper can be regarded as an exemplary application of service engineering which may also be advantageous for similar service-orientated agricultural sectors.

  20. Regulation of Cell Proliferation and Migration by miR-203 via GAS41/miR-10b Axis in Human Glioblastoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjaya Pal

    Full Text Available Glioma amplified sequence 41(GAS41 is a potent transcription factor that play a crucial role in cell proliferation and survival. In glioblastoma, the expression of GAS41 at both transcriptional and post transcriptional level needs to be tightly maintained in response to cellular signals. Micro RNAs (miRNA are small non coding RNA that act as important regulators for modulating the expression of various target genes. Studies have shown that several miRNAs play role in the post-transcriptional regulation of GAS41. Here we identified GAS41 as a novel target for endogenous miR-203 and demonstrate an inverse correlation of miR-203 expression with GAS41 in glioma cell lines (HNGC2 and U87. Over expression of miR-203 negatively regulates GAS41 expression in U87 and HNGC2 cell lines. Moreover, miR-203 restrained miR-10b action by suppressing GAS41. GAS41 is essential for repressing p53 in tumor suppressor pathway during cell proliferation. Enforced expression of GAS41 produced contradictory effect on miR-203 but was able to enhance p53 tumor suppressor pathway associated protein. It was also found that miR-203 maintains the stability of p53 as knock down of p53 expression using siRNA resulted in down regulation of pri-miR and mature miR-203 expression. Conversely reconstitution of miR-203 expression induced apoptosis and inhibited migratory property of glioma cells. Taken together, we show that miR-203 is a key negative regulator of GAS41 and acts as tumor suppressor microRNA in glioma.

  1. Fish the ChIPs: a pipeline for automated genomic annotation of ChIP-Seq data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minucci Saverio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-throughput sequencing is generating massive amounts of data at a pace that largely exceeds the throughput of data analysis routines. Here we introduce Fish the ChIPs (FC, a computational pipeline aimed at a broad public of users and designed to perform complete ChIP-Seq data analysis of an unlimited number of samples, thus increasing throughput, reproducibility and saving time. Results Starting from short read sequences, FC performs the following steps: 1 quality controls, 2 alignment to a reference genome, 3 peak calling, 4 genomic annotation, 5 generation of raw signal tracks for visualization on the UCSC and IGV genome browsers. FC exploits some of the fastest and most effective tools today available. Installation on a Mac platform requires very basic computational skills while configuration and usage are supported by a user-friendly graphic user interface. Alternatively, FC can be compiled from the source code on any Unix machine and then run with the possibility of customizing each single parameter through a simple configuration text file that can be generated using a dedicated user-friendly web-form. Considering the execution time, FC can be run on a desktop machine, even though the use of a computer cluster is recommended for analyses of large batches of data. FC is perfectly suited to work with data coming from Illumina Solexa Genome Analyzers or ABI SOLiD and its usage can potentially be extended to any sequencing platform. Conclusions Compared to existing tools, FC has two main advantages that make it suitable for a broad range of users. First of all, it can be installed and run by wet biologists on a Mac machine. Besides it can handle an unlimited number of samples, being convenient for large analyses. In this context, computational biologists can increase reproducibility of their ChIP-Seq data analyses while saving time for downstream analyses. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Gavin Huttley, George

  2. Performance Evaluation of IP Based Multimedia Services in UMTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riri Fitri SARI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents our work in the performance evaluation of UMTS network based on simulation. Enhanced UMTS Radio Access Network Extensions for NS-2 (EURANE developed by SEACORN has brought us to the higher phase of UMTS simulation in third generation wireless telecommunication system. Wireless 3G is designed to be able to deliver various kind of multimedia package through an IP network for the purpose of easier interconnection with fixed network with various existing multimedia services. Multimedia services with their bandwidth consumption characteristics are able to be sent through a UMTS network with the existence of High Speed Data Packet Access (HSPDA in Release 5. Quality of Service (QoS is a major concern in multimedia services. This paper shows the performance analysis of a number of multimedia services and their QoS using HSDPA in UMTS. The experiments were based on EURANE extension for NS-2. From the simulation conducted, we found that Unacknowledged Mode (UM in Radio Link Control (RLC will perform better for QoS class number 1 (VoIP and 2 (Video Streaming, while Acknowledged Mode (AM mode are more suitable for QoS class number 3 (web server and 4 (FTP.

  3. Dual-Homing Protection in IP-Over-WDM Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianping; Vokkarane, Vinod M.; Jothi, Raja; Qi, Xiangtong; Raghavachari, Balaji; Jue, Jason P.

    2005-10-01

    A fault-tolerant scheme, called dual homing, is generally used in IP-based access networks to increase the availability of the networks. In a dual-homing architecture, a host is connected to two different access routers; therefore, it is unlikely that the host will be denied access to the network as the result of an access line break, a defective power supply in the access router, or congestion of the access router. This dual-homing architecture in the access network imposes the overhead to provide protection in the core network. Scaling the next-generation IP-over-wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) Internet, and being able to support a growing number of such dual-homing connections, as well as protection, demands a scalable mechanism to contain this overhead for protection in the WDM networks. This paper studies the coordinated protection design to reduce the protection cost in the WDM core network, given a dual-homing infrastructure in the access network. The protection problem is considered for both static and dynamic traffic. Several solutions are proposed, and the performances of the solutions are compared. We also prove that one of the proposed algorithms gives a solution that, in the worst case, is at most 4/3 times the cost of the optimal solution.

  4. Classifier fusion for VoIP attacks classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarik, Jakub; Rezac, Filip

    2017-05-01

    SIP is one of the most successful protocols in the field of IP telephony communication. It establishes and manages VoIP calls. As the number of SIP implementation rises, we can expect a higher number of attacks on the communication system in the near future. This work aims at malicious SIP traffic classification. A number of various machine learning algorithms have been developed for attack classification. The paper presents a comparison of current research and the use of classifier fusion method leading to a potential decrease in classification error rate. Use of classifier combination makes a more robust solution without difficulties that may affect single algorithms. Different voting schemes, combination rules, and classifiers are discussed to improve the overall performance. All classifiers have been trained on real malicious traffic. The concept of traffic monitoring depends on the network of honeypot nodes. These honeypots run in several networks spread in different locations. Separation of honeypots allows us to gain an independent and trustworthy attack information.

  5. Enabling IP Header Compression in COTS Routers via Frame Relay on a Simplex Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Sam P.; Pang, Jackson; Clare, Loren P.; Cheng, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is moving toward a networkcentric communications architecture and, in particular, is building toward use of Internet Protocol (IP) in space. The use of IP is motivated by its ubiquitous application in many communications networks and in available commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technology. The Constellation Program intends to fit two or more voice (over IP) channels on both the forward link to, and the return link from, the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) during all mission phases. Efficient bandwidth utilization of the links is key for voice applications. In Voice over IP (VoIP), the IP packets are limited to small sizes to keep voice latency at a minimum. The common voice codec used in VoIP is G.729. This new algorithm produces voice audio at 8 kbps and in packets of 10-milliseconds duration. Constellation has designed the VoIP communications stack to use the combination of IP/UDP/RTP protocols where IP carries a 20-byte header, UDP (User Datagram Protocol) carries an 8-byte header, and RTP (Real Time Transport Protocol) carries a 12-byte header. The protocol headers total 40 bytes and are equal in length to a 40-byte G.729 payload, doubling the VoIP latency. Since much of the IP/UDP/RTP header information does not change from IP packet to IP packet, IP/UDP/RTP header compression can avoid transmission of much redundant data as well as reduce VoIP latency. The benefits of IP header compression are more pronounced at low data rate links such as the forward and return links during CEV launch. IP/UDP/RTP header compression codecs are well supported by many COTS routers. A common interface to the COTS routers is through frame relay. However, enabling IP header compression over frame relay, according to industry standard (Frame Relay IP Header Compression Agreement FRF.20), requires a duplex link and negotiations between the compressor router and the decompressor router. In Constellation, each forward to and return link from the CEV in space is treated

  6. Optimizing ChIP-seq peak detectors using visual labels and supervised machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Toby Dylan; Goerner-Potvin, Patricia; Morin, Andreanne; Shao, Xiaojian; Pastinen, Tomi; Bourque, Guillaume

    2017-02-15

    Many peak detection algorithms have been proposed for ChIP-seq data analysis, but it is not obvious which algorithm and what parameters are optimal for any given dataset. In contrast, regions with and without obvious peaks can be easily labeled by visual inspection of aligned read counts in a genome browser. We propose a supervised machine learning approach for ChIP-seq data analysis, using labels that encode qualitative judgments about which genomic regions contain or do not contain peaks. The main idea is to manually label a small subset of the genome, and then learn a model that makes consistent peak predictions on the rest of the genome. We created 7 new histone mark datasets with 12 826 visually determined labels, and analyzed 3 existing transcription factor datasets. We observed that default peak detection parameters yield high false positive rates, which can be reduced by learning parameters using a relatively small training set of labeled data from the same experiment type. We also observed that labels from different people are highly consistent. Overall, these data indicate that our supervised labeling method is useful for quantitatively training and testing peak detection algorithms. Labeled histone mark data http://cbio.ensmp.fr/~thocking/chip-seq-chunk-db/ , R package to compute the label error of predicted peaks https://github.com/tdhock/PeakError. toby.hocking@mail.mcgill.ca or guil.bourque@mcgill.ca. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Calcium Domains around Single and Clustered IP3 Receptors and Their Modulation by Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüdiger, S.; Nagaiah, Ch.; Warnecke, G.; Shuai, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We study Ca2+ release through single and clustered IP3 receptor channels on the ER membrane under presence of buffer proteins. Our computational scheme couples reaction-diffusion equations and a Markovian channel model and allows our investigating the effects of buffer proteins on local calcium concentrations and channel gating. We find transient and stationary elevations of calcium concentrations around active channels and show how they determine release amplitude. Transient calcium domains occur after closing of isolated channels and constitute an important part of the channel's feedback. They cause repeated openings (bursts) and mediate increased release due to Ca2+ buffering by immobile proteins. Stationary domains occur during prolonged activity of clustered channels, where the spatial proximity of IP3Rs produces a distinct [Ca2+] scale (0.5–10 μM), which is smaller than channel pore concentrations (>100 μM) but larger than transient levels. While immobile buffer affects transient levels only, mobile buffers in general reduce both transient and stationary domains, giving rise to Ca2+ evacuation and biphasic modulation of release amplitude. Our findings explain recent experiments in oocytes and provide a general framework for the understanding of calcium signals. PMID:20655827

  8. End-to-end integrated service provision and protection scheme in IP over WDM networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yonghua; Lin, Rujian

    2005-02-01

    Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching (GMPLS), which is developed to support common control of packet, TDM, wavelength, and fiber services, is the key enabler of the new network model. The survivability of IP over WDM networks gains importance as network traffic keeps growing. In this paper, we propose an integrated provisioning scheme to dynamically allocate Label Switched Paths (LSPs) in IP over WDM networks. This scheme takes advantage of information sharing between layers (e.g., link state information, bandwidth usage, and protection capability) to eliminate redundancies and inefficiencies in the traditional layer-independent service provisioning. The integration of information is facilitated by GMPLS signaling. The proposed scheme also uses GMPLS capabilities to provide end-to-end survivability against network failures. The ability to provision across all network layers ensures efficient bandwidth usage. We propose two integrated routing algorithms: availability-based integrated routing algorithm and joint availability-based integrated routing algorithm. The simulation is made to evaluate the performance of our proposed integrated provisioning mechanism. As a result, network performance can be optimized over all layers. This could lead to significant cost savings for service providers.

  9. Calcium domains around single and clustered IP3 receptors and their modulation by buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüdiger, S; Nagaiah, Ch; Warnecke, G; Shuai, J W

    2010-07-07

    We study Ca(2+) release through single and clustered IP(3) receptor channels on the ER membrane under presence of buffer proteins. Our computational scheme couples reaction-diffusion equations and a Markovian channel model and allows our investigating the effects of buffer proteins on local calcium concentrations and channel gating. We find transient and stationary elevations of calcium concentrations around active channels and show how they determine release amplitude. Transient calcium domains occur after closing of isolated channels and constitute an important part of the channel's feedback. They cause repeated openings (bursts) and mediate increased release due to Ca(2+) buffering by immobile proteins. Stationary domains occur during prolonged activity of clustered channels, where the spatial proximity of IP(3)Rs produces a distinct [Ca(2+)] scale (0.5-10 microM), which is smaller than channel pore concentrations (>100 microM) but larger than transient levels. While immobile buffer affects transient levels only, mobile buffers in general reduce both transient and stationary domains, giving rise to Ca(2+) evacuation and biphasic modulation of release amplitude. Our findings explain recent experiments in oocytes and provide a general framework for the understanding of calcium signals. Copyright 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. WSMD: weakly-supervised motif discovery in transcription factor ChIP-seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Zhu, Lin; Huang, De-Shuang

    2017-06-12

    Although discriminative motif discovery (DMD) methods are promising for eliciting motifs from high-throughput experimental data, due to consideration of computational expense, most of existing DMD methods have to choose approximate schemes that greatly restrict the search space, leading to significant loss of predictive accuracy. In this paper, we propose Weakly-Supervised Motif Discovery (WSMD) to discover motifs from ChIP-seq datasets. In contrast to the learning strategies adopted by previous DMD methods, WSMD allows a "global" optimization scheme of the motif parameters in continuous space, thereby reducing the information loss of model representation and improving the quality of resultant motifs. Meanwhile, by exploiting the connection between DMD framework and existing weakly supervised learning (WSL) technologies, we also present highly scalable learning strategies for the proposed method. The experimental results on both real ChIP-seq datasets and synthetic datasets show that WSMD substantially outperforms former DMD methods (including DREME, HOMER, XXmotif, motifRG and DECOD) in terms of predictive accuracy, while also achieving a competitive computational speed.

  11. Design of IP Camera Access Control Protocol by Utilizing Hierarchical Group Key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Kang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Unlike CCTV, security video surveillance devices, which we have generally known about, IP cameras which are connected to a network either with or without wire, provide monitoring services through a built-in web-server. Due to the fact that IP cameras can use a network such as the Internet, multiple IP cameras can be installed at a long distance and each IP camera can utilize the function of a web server individually. Even though IP cameras have this kind of advantage, it has difficulties in access control management and weakness in user certification, too. Particularly, because the market of IP cameras did not begin to be realized a long while ago, systems which are systematized from the perspective of security have not been built up yet. Additionally, it contains severe weaknesses in terms of access authority to the IP camera web server, certification of users, and certification of IP cameras which are newly installed within a network, etc. This research grouped IP cameras hierarchically to manage them systematically, and provided access control and data confidentiality between groups by utilizing group keys. In addition, IP cameras and users are certified by using PKI-based certification, and weak points of security such as confidentiality and integrity, etc., are improved by encrypting passwords. Thus, this research presents specific protocols of the entire process and proved through experiments that this method can be actually applied.

  12. Uncertain translation, uncertain benefit and uncertain risk: ethical challenges facing first-in-human trials of induced pluripotent stem (ips) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Ronald K F; Kerridge, Ian H

    2013-02-01

    The discovery of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in 2006 was heralded as a major breakthrough in stem cell research. Since then, progress in iPS cell technology has paved the way towards clinical application, particularly cell replacement therapy, which has refueled debate on the ethics of stem cell research. However, much of the discourse has focused on questions of moral status and potentiality, overlooking the ethical issues which are introduced by the clinical testing of iPS cell replacement therapy. First-in-human trials, in particular, raise a number of ethical concerns including informed consent, subject recruitment and harm minimisation as well as the inherent uncertainty and risks which are involved in testing medical procedures on humans for the first time. These issues, while a feature of any human research, become more complex in the case of iPS cell therapy, given the seriousness of the potential risks, the unreliability of available animal models, the vulnerability of the target patient group, and the high stakes of such an intensely public area of science. Our paper will present a detailed case study of iPS cell replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease to highlight these broader ethical and epistemological concerns. If we accept that iPS cell technology is fraught with challenges which go far beyond merely refuting the potentiality of the stem cell line, we conclude that iPS cell research should not replace, but proceed alongside embryonic and adult somatic stem cell research to promote cross-fertilisation of knowledge and better clinical outcomes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. 3-D reconstructions of the early-November 2004 CDAW geomagnetic storms: analysis of Ooty IPS speed and density data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Bisi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Interplanetary scintillation (IPS remote-sensing observations provide a view of the solar wind covering a wide range of heliographic latitudes and heliocentric distances from the Sun between ~0.1 AU and 3.0 AU. Such observations are used to study the development of solar coronal transients and the solar wind while propagating out through interplanetary space. They can also be used to measure the inner-heliospheric response to the passage of coronal mass ejections (CMEs and co-rotating heliospheric structures. IPS observations can, in general, provide a speed estimate of the heliospheric material crossing the observing line of site; some radio antennas/arrays can also provide a radio scintillation level. We use a three-dimensional (3-D reconstruction technique which obtains perspective views from outward-flowing solar wind and co-rotating structure as observed from Earth by iteratively fitting a kinematic solar wind model to these data. Using this 3-D modelling technique, we are able to reconstruct the velocity and density of CMEs as they travel through interplanetary space. For the time-dependent model used here with IPS data taken from the Ootacamund (Ooty Radio Telescope (ORT in India, the digital resolution of the tomography is 10° by 10° in both latitude and longitude with a half-day time cadence. Typically however, the resolutions range from 10° to 20° in latitude and longitude, with a half- to one-day time cadence for IPS data dependant upon how much data are used as input to the tomography. We compare reconstructed structures during early-November 2004 with in-situ measurements from the Wind spacecraft orbiting the Sun-Earth L1-Point to validate the 3-D tomographic reconstruction results and comment on how these improve upon prior reconstructions.

  14. Mixed-signal methodology guide advanced methodology for AMS IP and SOC design, verification and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jess; Mar, Monte F; Nizic, Mladen; Bailey, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This Book, The Mixed-Signal Methodology Guide: Advanced Methodology For Ams Ip And Soc Design, Verification, And Implementation Provides A Broad Overview Of The Design, Verification And Implementation Methodologies Required For Today's Mixed-Signal Designs. The Book Covers Mixed-Signal Design Trends And Challenges, Abstraction Of Analog Using Behavioral Models, Assertion-Based Metric-Driven Verification Methodology Applied On Analog And Mixed-Signal And Verification Of Low Power Intent In Mixed-Signal Design. It Also Describes Methodology For Physical Implementation In Context Of Concurrent Mixed-Signal Design And For Handling Advanced Node Physical Effects. The Book Contains Many Practical Examples Of Models And Techniques. The Authors Believe It Should Serve As A Reference To Many Analog, Digital And Mixed-Signal Designers, Verification, Physical Implementation Engineers And Managers In Their Pursuit Of Information For A Better Methodology Required To Address The Challenges Of Modern Mixed-Signal Design.

  15. Contracts and Behavioral Patterns for SoS: The EU IP DANSE approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Arnold

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some of the results of the first year of DANSE, one of the first EU IP projects dedicated to SoS. Concretely, we offer a tool chain that allows to specify SoS and SoS requirements at high level, and analyse them using powerful toolsets coming from the formal verification area. At the high level, we use UPDM, the system model provided by the british army as well as a new type of contract based on behavioral patterns. At low level, we rely on a powerful simulation toolset combined with recent advances from the area of statistical model checking. The approach has been applied to a case study developed at EADS Innovation Works.

  16. Pengaruh Pembelajaran IPS Berbasis Proyek Terhadap Persepsi Konsumsi Berkarakter Mahasiswa S1 Pendidikan IPS Universitas Negeri Malang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khofifatu Rohmah Adi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of the project-based learning social studies consumer perceptions of student character. Consumer perception of the character of this research is focused on the consumption of environmentally sound because it was found that the students are less concerned about the environment, especially the cleanliness class. This type of research including quasi experimental, aimed at assessing the effect of an action learning on students' perceptions before and after treatment. Subjects were students of 2015 batch S1 IPS which follows the introductory economics course. The instrument used to measure the consumption of environmentally sound perception using a questionnaire with Likert scale. Based on the homogeneity test the cognitive abilities of students conclusion has a homogeneous character and definitive experimental group and the control is done randomly. This study analyzed SPSS 22.0 for Windows using independent sample T-test. Results of the analysis showed that there were significant differences between the control and experimental class class. Therefore, it can be concluded that the application of project-based learning IPS effect on consumer perceptions of character. In project-based learning allows students trying to construct their own knowledge and actively involved in seeking information so it is expected that students are able to connect theory gained with the existing reality in the environment. Keywords: Project Based Learning, Perception Character consumption   http://dx.doi.org/10.17977/um022v1i12016p065

  17. 77 FR 43538 - Misuse of Internet Protocol (IP) Relay Service; Telecommunications Relay Services and Speech-to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ...] Misuse of Internet Protocol (IP) Relay Service; Telecommunications Relay Services and Speech-to-Speech...-Protocol (IP) Relay providers from handling non- emergency calls made by new IP Relay registrants as guest... action is intended to eliminate abuse that has resulted from unauthorized users having access to IP Relay...

  18. Enabling new e-health business models by converging IP-based and non-IP-based home networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, F.T.H. den; Tijmes, M.R.; Cramer, E.R.; Noorbergen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Current efforts in extending the Internet are focused on achieving full support of services and user-centric content from sectors such as energy management, education, and e-health. Until recently, these sectors typically developed their own communication infrastructure and systems, leading to point

  19. Fully automated high-throughput chromatin immunoprecipitation for ChIP-seq: identifying ChIP-quality p300 monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasper, William C; Marinov, Georgi K; Pauli-Behn, Florencia; Scott, Max T; Newberry, Kimberly; DeSalvo, Gilberto; Ou, Susan; Myers, Richard M; Vielmetter, Jost; Wold, Barbara J

    2014-06-12

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) is the major contemporary method for mapping in vivo protein-DNA interactions in the genome. It identifies sites of transcription factor, cofactor and RNA polymerase occupancy, as well as the distribution of histone marks. Consortia such as the ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements (ENCODE) have produced large datasets using manual protocols. However, future measurements of hundreds of additional factors in many cell types and physiological states call for higher throughput and consistency afforded by automation. Such automation advances, when provided by multiuser facilities, could also improve the quality and efficiency of individual small-scale projects. The immunoprecipitation process has become rate-limiting, and is a source of substantial variability when performed manually. Here we report a fully automated robotic ChIP (R-ChIP) pipeline that allows up to 96 reactions. A second bottleneck is the dearth of renewable ChIP-validated immune reagents, which do not yet exist for most mammalian transcription factors. We used R-ChIP to screen new mouse monoclonal antibodies raised against p300, a histone acetylase, well-known as a marker of active enhancers, for which ChIP-competent monoclonal reagents have been lacking. We identified, validated for ChIP-seq, and made publicly available a monoclonal reagent called ENCITp300-1.

  20. Evaluation of the sea ice proxy IP25 against observational and diatom proxy data in the SW Labrador Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weckstrom, Kaarina; Masse, Guillaume; Collins, Lewis G.

    2013-01-01

    The recent rapid decline in Arctic sea ice cover has increased the need to improve the accuracy of the sea ice component in climate models and to provide detailed long-term sea ice concentration records, which are only available via proxy data. Recently, the highly branched isoprenoid IP25......, identified in marine sediments underlying seasonal sea ice, has emerged as a potential sea ice specific proxy for past sea ice cover. We tested the reliability of this biomarker as a sea ice proxy against observational sea ice data (sea ice concentrations from the global HadISST1 database) and against a more....... When assessed against observational sea ice data, IP25 appears to be a more sensitive indicator of sea ice variability in this setting compared to sea ice diatoms and proved to be a robust and reliable proxy for reconstructing low-frequency variability in past sea ice concentrations. The PIP25 index...

  1. ChIP-Seq: A Powerful Tool for Studying Protein-DNA Interactions in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xifeng; Bhadauria, Vijai; Ma, Bojun

    2018-01-01

    DNA-binding proteins, including transcription factors, epigenetic and chromatin modifiers, control gene expressions in plants. To pinpoint the binding sits of DNA-binding proteins in genome is crucial for decoding gene regulatory networks. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by high-throughput DNA sequencing (ChIP-Seq) is a widely used approach to identify the DNA regions bound by a specific protein in vivo. The information generated from ChIP-Seq has tremendously advanced our understanding on the mechanism of transcription factors, cofactors and histone modifications in regulating gene expression. In this review, we reviewed the recent research advance of ChIP-Seq in plants, including description of the ChIP-Seq workflow and its various applications in plants, and in addition, provided perspective of the potential advances of ChIP-Seq.

  2. Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Integrated Program (CMST-IP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Integrated Program seeks to deliver needed technologies, timely and cost-effectively, to the Office of Waste Management (EM-30), the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40), and the Office of Facility Transition and Management (EM-60). The scope of characterizations monitoring, and sensor technology needs that are required by those organizations encompass: (1) initial location and characterization of wastes and waste environments - prior to treatment; (2) monitoring of waste retrieval, remediation and treatment processes; (3) characterization of the co-position of final waste treatment forms to evaluate the performance of waste treatments processes; and (4) site closure and compliance monitoring. Wherever possible, the CMST-IP fosters technology transfer and commercialization of technologies that it sponsors

  3. Objective Assessment of IP Video Calls with Asterisk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Kapicak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an objective assessment of IP video calls transmission over GSM and UMTS networks. Video transmission is affected by many factors in mobile network. Among these factors belong packet loss, latency and transmission rate of the mobile network. Network properties were simulated by Simena network simulator. Our team have developed a unique technique for finding defects in video appearing in video calls. This technique is built on modified Asterisk SW PBX with enabled video recording and playback functions. Transmitted video files are compared with original video file by means of size of transmitted video file and in-video-defects. We are using MSU VQMT software for finding in video defects; more precisely we are using VQM method for comparing two video sources.

  4. Effective IP protection method of mask data using OASIS format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Kuninori; Endo, Masakazu; Kato, Kokoro

    2005-06-01

    We have been developing intellectual properties (IP) protection software using OASIS format. In the Photomask Technology 2004 we presented that by taking advantage of repetition presentation of OASIS, it becomes possible to express arrayed patterns without any generation of new cells, which also brings less overhead and further compaction of the result file. As a result, we could rebuild the hierarchy without cell generation and reduce the output file size. In this paper, additionally we have applied a unique compression function CBLOCK defined in OASIS format. CBLOCK can compress any part of OASIS file. The experimental results show that there are no redundant cells generated and the file size has become approximately 20 times smaller than conventional methods.

  5. Food for thought: IP protection for nutraceuticals and functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Serge

    2008-06-01

    Functional foods and nutraceuticals are one of the fastest growing segments of the food industry. The market is driven by an aging population, rising health care costs, advances in food production technology and a growing understanding within the customer population of the link between diet and health. Functional foods and nutraceutical products represent an excellent growth opportunity for the Canadian agri-food industry but, to stay competitive, companies must take appropriate actions to develop, preserve and protect their intellectual property rights. This article presents an overview of the different intellectual property (IP) rights which may be applicable to functional foods and nutraceuticals and provides stakeholders with a number of strategies on how to maximize their protection.

  6. Spectroscopy of the red star in IP Peg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.S.; Jones, D.H.P.; Friend, M.T.; Smith, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    CCD spectroscopy of the cataclysmic variable IP Pegasi during decline from outburst shows narrow chromospheric emission lines from the irradiated face of the red star. The He I (7065 A) emission line is used to produce a partial radial velocity curve, with K He =293.2±3.3 km s -1 . A reanalysis of previous Na I doublet (8190 A) absorption line data produces a considerably larger semi-amplitude, K abs , than previously published. However, this is larger than the true semi-amplitude, K 2 , because irradiation from the disc ionizes the NaI on the inner face of the red star and decreases the strength of the NaI doublet on that face. A computer simulation of the secondary radial velocity curve, including this ionization effect, is used to estimate the true semi-amplitude of the secondary motion. This gives K 2 =298±8 km s -1 . (author)

  7. ChIP-seq Identification of Weakly Conserved Heart Enhancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blow, Matthew J.; McCulley, David J.; Li, Zirong; Zhang, Tao; Akiyama, Jennifer A.; Holt, Amy; Plajzer-Frick, Ingrid; Shoukry, Malak; Wright, Crystal; Chen, Feng; Afzal, Veena; Bristow, James; Ren, Bing; Black, Brian L.; Rubin, Edward M.; Visel, Axel; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2010-07-01

    Accurate control of tissue-specific gene expression plays a pivotal role in heart development, but few cardiac transcriptional enhancers have thus far been identified. Extreme non-coding sequence conservation successfully predicts enhancers active in many tissues, but fails to identify substantial numbers of heart enhancers. Here we used ChIP-seq with the enhancer-associated protein p300 from mouse embryonic day 11.5 heart tissue to identify over three thousand candidate heart enhancers genome-wide. Compared to other tissues studied at this time-point, most candidate heart enhancers are less deeply conserved in vertebrate evolution. Nevertheless, the testing of 130 candidate regions in a transgenic mouse assay revealed that most of them reproducibly function as enhancers active in the heart, irrespective of their degree of evolutionary constraint. These results provide evidence for a large population of poorly conserved heart enhancers and suggest that the evolutionary constraint of embryonic enhancers can vary depending on tissue type.

  8. The Worldwide Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) Stations (WIPSS) Network in support of Space-Weather Science and Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi, Mario Mark; Americo Gonzalez-Esparza, J.; Jackson, Bernard; Aguilar-Rodriguez, Ernesto; Tokumaru, Munetoshi; Chashei, Igor; Tyul'bashev, Sergey; Manoharan, Periasamy; Fallows, Richard; Chang, Oyuki; Yu, Hsiu-Shan; Fujiki, Ken'ichi; Shishov, Vladimir; Barnes, David

    2017-04-01

    The phenomenon of space weather - analogous to terrestrial weather which describes the changing low-altitude atmospheric conditions on Earth - is essentially a description of the changes in the plasma environment at and near the Earth. Some key parameters for space-weather purposes driving space weather at the Earth include velocity, density, magnetic field, high-energy particles, and radiation coming into and within the near-Earth space environment. Interplanetary scintillation (IPS) can be used to provide a global measure of velocity and density as well as indications of changes in the plasma and magnetic-field rotations along each observational line of sight. If the observations are formally inverted into a three-dimensional (3-D) tomographic reconstruction (such as using the University of California, San Diego - UCSD - kinematic model and reconstruction technique), then source-surface magnetic fields can also be propagated out to the Earth (and beyond) as well as in-situ data also being incorporated into the reconstruction. Currently, this has been done using IPS data only from the Institute for Space-Earth Environmental (ISEE) and has been scientifically since the 1990s, and in a forecast mode since around 2000. There is now a defined (and updated) IPS Common Data Format (IPSCDFv1.1) which is being implemented by the majority of the IPS community (this also feeds into the UCSD tomography). The Worldwide IPS Stations (WIPSS) Network aims to bring together, using IPSCDFv1.1, the worldwide real-time capable IPS observatories with well-developed and tested analyses techniques being unified across all single-site systems (such as MEXART, Pushchino, and Ooty) and cross-calibrated to the multi-site ISEE system (as well as learning from the scientific-based systems such as EISCAT, LOFAR, and the MWA), into the UCSD 3-D tomography to improve the accuracy, spatial and temporal data coverage, and both the spatial and temporal resolution for improved space-weather science

  9. Linking international trademark databases to inform IP research and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrie, P.

    2016-07-01

    Researchers and policy makers are concerned with many international issues regarding trademarks, such as trademark squatting, cluttering, and dilution. Trademark application data can provide an evidence base to inform government policy regarding these issues, and can also produce quantitative insights into economic trends and brand dynamics. Currently, national trademark databases can provide insight into economic and brand dynamics at the national level, but gaining such insight at an international level is more difficult due to a lack of internationally linked trademark data. We are in the process of building a harmonised international trademark database (the “Patstat of trademarks”), in which equivalent trademarks have been identified across national offices. We have developed a pilot database that incorporates 6.4 million U.S., 1.3 million Australian, and 0.5 million New Zealand trademark applications, spanning over 100 years. The database will be extended to incorporate trademark data from other participating intellectual property (IP) offices as they join the project. Confirmed partners include the United Kingdom, WIPO, and OHIM. We will continue to expand the scope of the project, and intend to include many more IP offices from around the world. In addition to building the pilot database, we have developed a linking algorithm that identifies equivalent trademarks (TMs) across the three jurisdictions. The algorithm can currently be applied to all applications that contain TM text; i.e. around 96% of all applications. In its current state, the algorithm successfully identifies ~ 97% of equivalent TMs that are known to be linked a priori, as they have shared international registration number through the Madrid protocol. When complete, the internationally linked trademark database will be a valuable resource for researchers and policy-makers in fields such as econometrics, intellectual property rights, and brand policy. (Author)

  10. Identifying differential transcription factor binding in ChIP-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dai-Ying; Bittencourt, Danielle; Stallcup, Michael R; Siegmund, Kimberly D

    2015-01-01

    ChIP seq is a widely used assay to measure genome-wide protein binding. The decrease in costs associated with sequencing has led to a rise in the number of studies that investigate protein binding across treatment conditions or cell lines. In addition to the identification of binding sites, new studies evaluate the variation in protein binding between conditions. A number of approaches to study differential transcription factor binding have recently been developed. Several of these methods build upon established methods from RNA-seq to quantify differences in read counts. We compare how these new approaches perform on different data sets from the ENCODE project to illustrate the impact of data processing pipelines under different study designs. The performance of normalization methods for differential ChIP-seq depends strongly on the variation in total amount of protein bound between conditions, with total read count outperforming effective library size, or variants thereof, when a large variation in binding was studied. Use of input subtraction to correct for non-specific binding showed a relatively modest impact on the number of differential peaks found and the fold change accuracy to biological validation, however a larger impact might be expected for samples with more extreme copy number variations between them. Still, it did identify a small subset of novel differential regions while excluding some differential peaks in regions with high background signal. These results highlight proper scaling for between-sample data normalization as critical for differential transcription factor binding analysis and suggest bioinformaticians need to know about the variation in level of total protein binding between conditions to select the best analysis method. At the same time, validation using fold-change estimates from qRT-PCR suggests there is still room for further method improvement.

  11. IP móvil protocolo TCP/IP para redes móviles pruebas de funcionamiento y conectividad con windows NT

    OpenAIRE

    Donoso Meisel, Yezid Enrique; Rendon Gallón, Álvaro; Acosta, Diego Andrés

    2000-01-01

    Hasta el momento la versión actual de TCP/IP, proporciona unos mecanismo para soportar los enrutamientos y ubicaciones de hosts por medio de direcciones IP estáticas; es decir para que un equipo sea encontrado en la red (Internet) debe tener siempre su dirección IP. Ahora, cuando se requiere que equipos se conecten a otra redes es necesario reconfigurar su dirección a una nueva del estilo de la nueva red donde se encuentra conectado. Nuevas tendencias están tratando de mejorar y adecuar a las...

  12. SCNP: A protocol for automatic, decentralized and scalable IP network configuration

    OpenAIRE

    Delaet, Thomas; Joosen, Wouter

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents SCNP, a self-configuring network protocol. Home networks conceptually are a hybrid form of ad-hoc networks and typical enterprise networks. No currently existing protocol can solve the problem of network configuration for home networks. SCNP bridges the gap between a protocol assigning IP addresses and managing routing information while guaranteeing IP address uniqueness. To realize the IP address uniqueness guarantee, we developed a conflict resolution algorithm. ...

  13. Aplikasi Untuk Menentukan IP Address Dan Subnetmask Host Pada Suatu Jaringan

    OpenAIRE

    Mubarak, Ahmad; Wahid, Fathul

    2006-01-01

    Salah satu protokol pendukung komunikasi jaringan adalah TCP/IP, protokol ini diberikan pada setiap komputer yang terhubung pada suatu jaringan agar bisa dikenali dalam jaringan tersebut. Dalah hal ini setiap komputer diberikan alamat logika (IP address). Penelitian ini membahas aplikasi untuk menentukan alamat IP dan subnetmask host pada jaringan Perusahaan dengan metode subnetting. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk membangun software aplikasi yang memberikan kemudahan pada user dalam menentuka...

  14. Dynamic Optimization for IPS2 Resource Allocation Based on Improved Fuzzy Multiple Linear Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Maokuan Zheng; Xinguo Ming; Guoming Li

    2017-01-01

    The study mainly focuses on resource allocation optimization for industrial product-service systems (IPS2). The development of IPS2 leads to sustainable economy by introducing cooperative mechanisms apart from commodity transaction. The randomness and fluctuation of service requests from customers lead to the volatility of IPS2 resource utilization ratio. Three basic rules for resource allocation optimization are put forward to improve system operation efficiency and cut unnecessary costs. An...

  15. Impact of VoIP and QoS on Open and Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, P. C.; Jasola, Sanjay; Sharma, Ramesh C.

    2006-01-01

    Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is becoming a reality in many organizations. The potential for mobility in voice over wi-fi networks will derive demand for the technology. Wireless VoIP is poised to rival VoIP as an alternative telephony tool. Internet has been used to transport data in the form of packet. In the past, Internet did not support…

  16. Chromatin preparation and ChIP from Drosophila brain and discs tissues

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Constance Richter, Katarzyna Oktaba, Juerg Mueller & Juergen A. Knoblich ### Abstract Chromatin preparation and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) protocol as described in Oktaba et al., 2008, Dev Cell, 15, 877-89. The protocol includes description of chromatin preparation from larval tissues, ChIP and quantitative analysis of ChIP material. ### Procedure **1. First “fast” dissection**: Dissect for 20 minutes third instar larvae in ice-cold PBS and remove gut an...

  17. Proposta de metodologia para avaliação de redes de voz sobre IP

    OpenAIRE

    Vandersilvio da Silva

    2006-01-01

    A redução de custo com telefonia através do uso de voz sobre IP tem disparado a busca de soluções que transformem redes IP originalmente dedicadas a transporte de dados em redes para transporte de voz. Esta dissertação tem por objetivo apresentar uma metodologia para sistematizar a avaliação de redes para o tráfego de voz sobre IP de acordo com as possibilidades disponíveis no cenário a ser avaliado. Inicialmente é dada uma visão geral de voz sobre IP, apresentando os protocolos utilizados, o...

  18. ELISA-based assay for IP-10 detection from filter paper samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drabe, Camilla Heldbjerg; Blauenfeldt, Thomas; Ruhwald, Morten

    2014-01-01

    IP-10 is a small pro-inflammatory chemokine secreted primarily from monocytes and fibroblasts. Alterations in IP-10 levels have been associated with inflammatory conditions including viral and bacterial infections, immune dysfunction, and tumor development. IP-10 is increasingly recognized as a b...... as a biomarker that predicts severity of various diseases and can be used in the immunodiagnostics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and cytomegalovirus infection. Here, we describe an ELISA-based method to detect IP-10 from dried blood and plasma spot samples....

  19. The Regulatory Challenges and Opportunities of IP Telephony: Perspective on Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Md Khaled Shukran

    2011-01-01

    IP telephony is a transmission of voice and data over Packet Switched IP Networks and it has become a key issue in the telecommunication industry worldwide because of its higher efficiency and cheapest call rate. Hence, most of the countries in the world set up their telecommunication platform on IP based network as a fast revenue generating sources. Though Malaysia is on the way forward on IP based platform but the growth is not reached at satisfactory level due to the absence of effective r...

  20. Energy star compliant voice over internet protocol (VoIP) telecommunications network including energy star compliant VoIP devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouchri, Farrokh Mohammadzadeh

    2012-11-06

    A Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) communications system, a method of managing a communications network in such a system and a program product therefore. The system/network includes an ENERGY STAR (E-star) aware softswitch and E-star compliant communications devices at system endpoints. The E-star aware softswitch allows E-star compliant communications devices to enter and remain in power saving mode. The E-star aware softswitch spools messages and forwards only selected messages (e.g., calls) to the devices in power saving mode. When the E-star compliant communications devices exit power saving mode, the E-star aware softswitch forwards spooled messages.

  1. ChIP-enriched in silico targets (ChEST), a ChIP-on-chip approach applied to analyzing skeletal muscle genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junion, Guillaume; Jagla, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Mapping the cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) to which bind myogenic transcription factors is an -obligatory step towards understanding gene regulatory networks governing muscle development and function. This can be achieved in silico or by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) approaches. We have developed a ChIP-enriched in silico targets (ChEST) strategy designed for mapping the CRMs by combining in silico and ChIP methods. ChEST involves a software-assisted prediction of transcription factor (TF) - specific CRMs, which are spotted to produce a computed genomic CRM microarray. In parallel, the in vivo pool of targets of a given TF is isolated by ChIP and used as a probe for hybridization with the array generated. Here we describe ChEST strategy applied to identify direct targets of Myogenic Enhancer Factor, Dmef2 in Drosophila embryos.

  2. Zirconia silicate modified with phytic acid (IP6) and its effect on uranyl sorption; Silicato de circonio modificado con acido fitico (IP6) y su efecto en la sorcion de uranilo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escalante G, D. C.

    2016-07-01

    ions on the surface of ZrSiO{sub 4}. Sorption isotherms and kinetics were prepared by the liquid scintillation technique, and this technique allowed corroborating the quantification of uranium at the surface. Surface acidity constants at the solid/liquid interface for both systems were obtained by modeling the acid-base titration curves with FiTEQL 4.0 software, where the chemical species and complexes formed on the mineral surface were identified. The results show that the ZrSiO{sub 4}/NaClO{sub 4} system has a maximum percentage of 98.8% sorption at ph 7, whereas with the proposed system ZrSiO{sub 4}/IP6 it was 99.2% from a ph of 3, from an initial concentration of uranium of 1 x 10{sup -3} M. (Author)

  3. Multiplexing of ChIP-Seq Samples in an Optimized Experimental Condition Has Minimal Impact on Peak Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thadeous J Kacmarczyk

    Full Text Available Multiplexing samples in sequencing experiments is a common approach to maximize information yield while minimizing cost. In most cases the number of samples that are multiplexed is determined by financial consideration or experimental convenience, with limited understanding on the effects on the experimental results. Here we set to examine the impact of multiplexing ChIP-seq experiments on the ability to identify a specific epigenetic modification. We performed peak detection analyses to determine the effects of multiplexing. These include false discovery rates, size, position and statistical significance of peak detection, and changes in gene annotation. We found that, for histone marker H3K4me3, one can multiplex up to 8 samples (7 IP + 1 input at ~21 million single-end reads each and still detect over 90% of all peaks found when using a full lane for sample (~181 million reads. Furthermore, there are no variations introduced by indexing or lane batch effects and importantly there is no significant reduction in the number of genes with neighboring H3K4me3 peaks. We conclude that, for a well characterized antibody and, therefore, model IP condition, multiplexing 8 samples per lane is sufficient to capture most of the biological signal.

  4. Stress measurement by neutron diffraction method. Standard method using angular dispersion method and trial of using neutron IP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Toshihiko; Takago, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    This paper outlined a stress measurement method using neutrons, and introduced the application examples to stress measurement for metal-based composite materials. In the angular dispersion type measurement using a steady-state reactor type neutron source, the white beams taken out from a nuclear reactor are monochromatized (wavelength λ is a constant value) with a single crystal monochromator and utilized. As an example of measurement, there was the case as follows: the stress of a sintered material which has been put to practical use as valve seat part for automobiles was measured by the neutron method, and the deformation behavior during load was studied. This study performed neutron diffraction measurement using a residual stress analyzer (RESA: Diffractometer for Residual Stress Analysis) installed at JAEA's experimental reactor JRR-3. As a result, it was found that the stress state of the sintered composite material of Fe-Cr and TiN can be predicted with a micromechanics model. A neutron diffraction ring can be obtained using a neutron image plate (IP), where fine powder of gadolinium (Gd) was incorporated into IP for X-rays, and it can be used as an IP reader in the same way as the case of X-rays. A report has been introduced on the examination results of the highly accurate stress measurement by applying the cos α method devised for X-ray stress measurement to neutron diffraction ring. (A.O.)

  5. From reads to regions: a Bioconductor workflow to detect differential binding in ChIP-seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun, Aaron T L; Smyth, Gordon K

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation with massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq) is widely used to identify the genomic binding sites for protein of interest. Most conventional approaches to ChIP-seq data analysis involve the detection of the absolute presence (or absence) of a binding site. However, an alternative strategy is to identify changes in the binding intensity between two biological conditions, i.e., differential binding (DB). This may yield more relevant results than conventional analyses, as changes in binding can be associated with the biological difference being investigated. The aim of this article is to facilitate the implementation of DB analyses, by comprehensively describing a computational workflow for the detection of DB regions from ChIP-seq data. The workflow is based primarily on R software packages from the open-source Bioconductor project and covers all steps of the analysis pipeline, from alignment of read sequences to interpretation and visualization of putative DB regions. In particular, detection of DB regions will be conducted using the counts for sliding windows from the csaw package, with statistical modelling performed using methods in the edgeR package. Analyses will be demonstrated on real histone mark and transcription factor data sets. This will provide readers with practical usage examples that can be applied in their own studies.

  6. Evaluation of experimental design and computational parameter choices affecting analyses of ChIP-seq and RNA-seq data in undomesticated poplar trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lijun; Missirian, Victor; Zinkgraf, Matthew; Groover, Andrew; Filkov, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    One of the great advantages of next generation sequencing is the ability to generate large genomic datasets for virtually all species, including non-model organisms. It should be possible, in turn, to apply advanced computational approaches to these datasets to develop models of biological processes. In a practical sense, working with non-model organisms presents unique challenges. In this paper we discuss some of these challenges for ChIP-seq and RNA-seq experiments using the undomesticated tree species of the genus Populus. We describe specific challenges associated with experimental design in Populus, including selection of optimal genotypes for different technical approaches and development of antibodies against Populus transcription factors. Execution of the experimental design included the generation and analysis of Chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) data for RNA polymerase II and transcription factors involved in wood formation. We discuss criteria for analyzing the resulting datasets, determination of appropriate control sequencing libraries, evaluation of sequencing coverage needs, and optimization of parameters. We also describe the evaluation of ChIP-seq data from Populus, and discuss the comparison between ChIP-seq and RNA-seq data and biological interpretations of these comparisons. These and other "lessons learned" highlight the challenges but also the potential insights to be gained from extending next generation sequencing-supported network analyses to undomesticated non-model species.

  7. INDUCTION OF DNA ADDUCTS, TUMORS, AND KI-RAS ONCOGENE MUTATIONS IN STRAIN A/J MOUSE LUNG BY IP. ADMINISTRATION OF DIBENZ[A,H]ANTHRACENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Induction of DNA adducts, tumors, and Ki-ras oncogene mutations in strain AlJ mouse lung by ip. administration of dibenz[a,h]anthracene Previous studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (P AH) induced lung tumors in the strain NJ mouse model system have demonstrated qua...

  8. Evaluation of experimental design and computational parameter choices affecting analyses of ChIP-seq and RNA-seq data in undomesticated poplar trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the great advantages of next generation sequencing is the ability to generate large genomic datasets for virtually all species, including non-model organisms. It should be possible, in turn, to apply advanced computational approaches to these datasets to develop models of biological processes. In a practical sense, working with non-model organisms presents unique challenges. In this paper we discuss some of these challenges for ChIP-seq and RNA-seq experiments using the undomesticated tree species of the genus Populus. Results We describe specific challenges associated with experimental design in Populus, including selection of optimal genotypes for different technical approaches and development of antibodies against Populus transcription factors. Execution of the experimental design included the generation and analysis of Chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) data for RNA polymerase II and transcription factors involved in wood formation. We discuss criteria for analyzing the resulting datasets, determination of appropriate control sequencing libraries, evaluation of sequencing coverage needs, and optimization of parameters. We also describe the evaluation of ChIP-seq data from Populus, and discuss the comparison between ChIP-seq and RNA-seq data and biological interpretations of these comparisons. Conclusions These and other "lessons learned" highlight the challenges but also the potential insights to be gained from extending next generation sequencing-supported network analyses to undomesticated non-model species. PMID:25081589

  9. Secretion of biologically active interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10) by Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villatoro-Hernandez, Julio; Loera-Arias, Maria J; Gamez-Escobedo, Anali; Franco-Molina, Moises; Gomez-Gutierrez, Jorge G; Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Gutierrez-Puente, Yolanda; Saucedo-Cardenas, Odila; Valdes-Flores, Jesus; Montes-de-Oca-Luna, Roberto

    2008-07-28

    Chemokines are a large group of chemotactic cytokines that regulate and direct migration of leukocytes, activate inflammatory responses, and are involved in many other functions including regulation of tumor development. Interferon-gamma inducible-protein-10 (IP-10) is a member of the C-X-C subfamily of the chemokine family of cytokines. IP-10 specifically chemoattracts activated T lymphocytes, monocytes, and NK cells. IP-10 has been described also as a modulator of other antitumor cytokines. These properties make IP-10 a novel therapeutic molecule for the treatment of chronic and infectious diseases. Currently there are no suitable live biological systems to produce and secrete IP-10. Lactococcus lactis has been well-characterized over the years as a safe microorganism to produce heterologous proteins and to be used as a safe, live vaccine to deliver antigens and cytokines of interest. Here we report a recombinant strain of L. lactis genetically modified to produce and secrete biologically active IP-10. The IP-10 coding region was isolated from human cDNA and cloned into an L. lactis expression plasmid under the regulation of the pNis promoter. By fusion to the usp45 secretion signal, IP-10 was addressed out of the cell. Western blot analysis demonstrated that recombinant strains of L. lactis secrete IP-10 into the culture medium. Neither degradation nor incomplete forms of IP-10 were detected in the cell or supernatant fractions of L. lactis. In addition, we demonstrated that the NICE (nisin-controlled gene expression) system was able to express IP-10 "de novo" even two hours after nisin removal. This human IP-10 protein secreted by L. lactis was biological active as demonstrated by Chemotaxis assay over human CD3+T lymphocytes. Expression and secretion of mature IP-10 was efficiently achieved by L. lactis forming an effective system to produce IP-10. This recombinant IP-10 is biologically active as demonstrated by its ability to chemoattract human CD3+ T

  10. Secretion of biologically active interferon-gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10 by Lactococcus lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saucedo-Cardenas Odila

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemokines are a large group of chemotactic cytokines that regulate and direct migration of leukocytes, activate inflammatory responses, and are involved in many other functions including regulation of tumor development. Interferon-gamma inducible-protein-10 (IP-10 is a member of the C-X-C subfamily of the chemokine family of cytokines. IP-10 specifically chemoattracts activated T lymphocytes, monocytes, and NK cells. IP-10 has been described also as a modulator of other antitumor cytokines. These properties make IP-10 a novel therapeutic molecule for the treatment of chronic and infectious diseases. Currently there are no suitable live biological systems to produce and secrete IP-10. Lactococcus lactis has been well-characterized over the years as a safe microorganism to produce heterologous proteins and to be used as a safe, live vaccine to deliver antigens and cytokines of interest. Here we report a recombinant strain of L. lactis genetically modified to produce and secrete biologically active IP-10. Results The IP-10 coding region was isolated from human cDNA and cloned into an L. lactis expression plasmid under the regulation of the pNis promoter. By fusion to the usp45 secretion signal, IP-10 was addressed out of the cell. Western blot analysis demonstrated that recombinant strains of L. lactis secrete IP-10 into the culture medium. Neither degradation nor incomplete forms of IP-10 were detected in the cell or supernatant fractions of L. lactis. In addition, we demonstrated that the NICE (nisin-controlled gene expression system was able to express IP-10 "de novo" even two hours after nisin removal. This human IP-10 protein secreted by L. lactis was biological active as demonstrated by Chemotaxis assay over human CD3+T lymphocytes. Conclusion Expression and secretion of mature IP-10 was efficiently achieved by L. lactis forming an effective system to produce IP-10. This recombinant IP-10 is biologically active as

  11. Extraction Of Electronic Evidence From VoIP: Identification & Analysis Of Digital Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Irwin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP is increasing in popularity as a cost effective and efficient means of making telephone calls via the Internet. However, VoIP may also be an attractive method of communication to criminals as their true identity may be hidden and voice and video communications are encrypted as they are deployed across the Internet. This produces in a new set of challenges for forensic analysts compared with traditional wire-tapping of the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN infrastructure, which is not applicable to VoIP. Therefore, other methods of recovering electronic evidence from VoIP are required.  This research investigates the analysis and recovery of digitised human, which persists in computer memory after a VoIP call.This paper proposes a proof of concept how remnants of digitised human speech from a VoIP call may be identified within a forensic memory capture based on how the human voice is detected via a microphone and encoded to a digital format using the sound card of your personal computer. This digital format is unencrypted whist processed in Random Access Memory (RAM before it is passed to the VoIP application for encryption and  transmission over the Internet. Similarly, an incoming encrypted VoIP call is decrypted by the VoIP application and passes through RAM unencrypted in order to be played via the speaker output.A series of controlled tests were undertaken whereby RAM captures were analysed for remnants of digital speech after a VoIP audio call with known conversation. The identification and analysis of digital speech from RAM attempts to construct an automatic process for the identification and subsequent reconstruction of the audio content of a VoIP call.

  12. The ChIP-Seq tools and web server: a resource for analyzing ChIP-seq and other types of genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosini, Giovanna; Dreos, René; Kumar, Sunil; Bucher, Philipp

    2016-11-18

    ChIP-seq and related high-throughput chromatin profilig assays generate ever increasing volumes of highly valuable biological data. To make sense out of it, biologists need versatile, efficient and user-friendly tools for access, visualization and itegrative analysis of such data. Here we present the ChIP-Seq command line tools and web server, implementing basic algorithms for ChIP-seq data analysis starting with a read alignment file. The tools are optimized for memory-efficiency and speed thus allowing for processing of large data volumes on inexpensive hardware. The web interface provides access to a large database of public data. The ChIP-Seq tools have a modular and interoperable design in that the output from one application can serve as input to another one. Complex and innovative tasks can thus be achieved by running several tools in a cascade. The various ChIP-Seq command line tools and web services either complement or compare favorably to related bioinformatics resources in terms of computational efficiency, ease of access to public data and interoperability with other web-based tools. The ChIP-Seq server is accessible at http://ccg.vital-it.ch/chipseq/ .

  13. IMPLEMENTASI PROTOKOL TCP/IP UNTUK PENGENDALIAN KOMPUTER JARAK JAUH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Adipranata

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This day, computer networking has become important necessity for data exchange between computers. And along with the growing of number of computer in a network, the difficulty for managing that network also increased. Because of that reality, in this paper will be build application for remote controlling computer using TCP/IP protocol. This application build using Delphi 5.0 programming language and dWinsock 2.75, component interface for Windows Socket API which is created especially for Delphi language, and separate to two sub applications, namely server application, which run on computer to be controlled and the secondly is client application, run on controller computer. In this application, data text or binary will be send, so two pair components will be used : TTextServer - TTextClient and TBinaryServer- TBinaryClient. The functions which implemented in this applications are : lock and unlock computer, reboot, shutdown, execute remote program, send message, capture screen and view remote programs. Test is doing on internal network and internet network, and the result of that test for internal network, all of functions can be activated perfectly without significant delay (less than 1 second. But for internet network, there is delay, which the number variable depend on data traffic at that moment. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Sekarang ini jaringan komputer sudah menjadi suatu kebutuhan yang sangat penting untuk mempermudah pertukaran data antar komputer. Dan seiring dengan makin berkembangnya jumlah komputer pada suatu jaringan, maka makin bertambah pula tingkat kesulitan untuk mengelola jaringan tersebut. Oleh sebab itu pada penelitian ini akan dibuat aplikasi untuk mengendalikan komputer secara jarak jauh dengan menggunakan protokol TCP/IP. Aplikasi ini dibuat dengan menggunakan bahasa pemrograman Delphi 5.0 dan dWinsock 2.75 yang merupakan komponen antar muka Windows Socket API yang dikhususkan untuk bahasa pemrograman Delphi, dan terdiri

  14. EPOS IP - Data, Data Products, Services and Software (DDSS Master Table)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalek, Jan; Atakan, Kuvvet

    2017-04-01

    The "European Plate Observing System - Implementation Phase" (EPOS IP, 2014-2019) project is about building a pan-European infrastructure for accessing solid Earth science data. This ambitious plan started in 2002 already with a Conception Phase and continued by an EPOS PP (Preparatory Phase, 2010-2014) where about 20 partners joined the project. The current EPOS IP project includes 47 partners plus 6 associate partners from 25 countries from all over Europe and several international organizations (ORFEUS, EMSC, EUREF). However, the community contributing to the EPOS integration plan is larger than the official partnership of EPOS IP project, because more countries are represented by the international organizations and because within each country there are several research institutions involved. The list of Data, Data Products, Services and Software (DDSS) provided by individual institutions, consortia or organizations which will become part of the EPOS system are currently collected in document called DDSS Master Table. There are 10 work packages (WP8-WP17) creating the Thematic Core Services (TCS) always grouped by a specific topic: Seismology, Near Fault Observatories, GNSS Data and Products, Volcano Observations, Satellite Data, Geomagnetic Observations, Anthropogenic Hazards, Geological Information and Modelling, Multi-scale laboratories and Geo-Energy Test Beds for Low Carbon Energy. Each of this group declared a list of DDSS elements which are about to be implemented. Currently there are about 455 DDSS elements in the DDSS Master Table. These DDSS elements are of different maturity and about 122 are declared by TCS groups to be ready for implementation which means that the data are well described with metadata, following the standards specific for their domain and, in the best case, with some services allowing their access already. The DDSS elements differ by its complexity as well. The DDSS Master Table serves as an overview of the DDSS elements and

  15. Accounting for immunoprecipitation efficiencies in the statistical analysis of ChIP-seq data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, Yanchun; Vinciotti, Veronica; Wit, Ernst; 't Hoen, Peter A C

    2013-01-01

    Background: ImmunoPrecipitation (IP) efficiencies may vary largely between different antibodies and between repeated experiments with the same antibody. These differences have a large impact on the quality of ChIP-seq data: a more efficient experiment will necessarily lead to a higher signal to

  16. Highly expressed loci are vulnerable to misleading ChIP localization of multiple unrelated proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teytelman, L.; Thurtle, D.M.; Rine, J.; van Oudenaarden, A.

    2013-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is the gold-standard technique for localizing nuclear proteins in the genome. We used ChIP, in combination with deep sequencing (Seq), to study the genome-wide distribution of the Silent information regulator (Sir) complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We analyzed

  17. Host-tree monoterpenes and biosynthesis of aggregation pheromones in the bark beetle ips paraconfusus

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the 1970-80s, vapors of the common conifer tree monoterpenes, myrcene and a-pinene, were shown to serve as precursors of ipsenol, ipsdienol and cis-verbenol, aggregation pheromone components of Ips paraconfusus. A paradigm developed that Ips bark beetles utilize pre-formed monoterpene precursors ...

  18. Increasing supported VoIP flows in WMNs through link-based aggregation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, T

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available . This paper introduces VoIP over WMNs and uses a link based packet aggregation scheme to improve VoIP performance in IEEE 802.11 based WMNs operating under distributed coordinate function (DCF). Simulation results show that the proposed aggregation scheme...

  19. High intercontinental migration rates and population admixture in the sapstain fungus Ophiostoma ips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xudong Zhou; Treena I. Burgess; Z. Wilhelm De Beer; Francois Lieutier; Annie Yart; Kier Klepzig; Angus Carnegie; Julio Mena Portales; Brenda D. Wingfield; Michael J. Wingfield

    2006-01-01

    Ophiostoma ips is a common fungal associate of various conifer-infesting bark beetles in their native ranges and has been introduced into non-native pine plantations in the Southern Hemisphere. In this study, we used 10 microsatellite markers to investigate the population biology of O. ips in native (Cuba, France, Morocco and USA) and non-native (...

  20. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) Protocol for Low-abundance Embryonic Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehimi, Rizwan; Bartusel, Michaela; Solinas, Francesca; Altmüller, Janine; Rada-Iglesias, Alvaro

    2017-08-29

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a widely-used technique for mapping the localization of post-translationally modified histones, histone variants, transcription factors, or chromatin-modifying enzymes at a given locus or on a genome-wide scale. The combination of ChIP assays with next-generation sequencing (i.e., ChIP-Seq) is a powerful approach to globally uncover gene regulatory networks and to improve the functional annotation of genomes, especially of non-coding regulatory sequences. ChIP protocols normally require large amounts of cellular material, thus precluding the applicability of this method to investigating rare cell types or small tissue biopsies. In order to make the ChIP assay compatible with the amount of biological material that can typically be obtained in vivo during early vertebrate embryogenesis, we describe here a simplified ChIP protocol in which the number of steps required to complete the assay were reduced to minimize sample loss. This ChIP protocol has been successfully used to investigate different histone modifications in various embryonic chicken and adult mouse tissues using low to medium cell numbers (5 x 10 4 - 5 x 10 5 cells). Importantly, this protocol is compatible with ChIP-seq technology using standard library preparation methods, thus providing global epigenomic maps in highly relevant embryonic tissues.

  1. Prognostic value of CtIP/RBBP8 expression in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soria-Bretones, Isabel; Sáez, Carmen; Ruíz-Borrego, Manuel; Japón, Miguel A; Huertas, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    CtIP/RBBP8 is a multifunctional protein involved in transcription, DNA replication, DNA repair by homologous recombination and the G1 and G2 checkpoints. Its multiple roles are controlled by its interaction with several specific factors, including the tumor suppressor proteins BRCA1 and retinoblastoma. Both its functions and interactors point to a putative oncogenic potential of CtIP/RBBP8 loss. However, CtIP/RBBP8 relevance in breast tumor appearance, development, and prognosis has yet to be established. We performed a retrospective analysis of CtIP/RBBP8 and RB1 levels by immunohistochemistry using 384 paraffin-embedded breast cancer biopsies obtained during tumor removal surgery. We have observed that low or no expression of CtIP/RBBP8 correlates with high-grade breast cancer and with nodal metastasis. Reduction on CtIP/RBBP8 is most common in hormone receptor (HR)-negative, HER2-positive, and basal-like tumors. We observed lower levels of RB1 on those tumors with reduced CtIP/RBBP8 levels. On luminal tumors, decreased but not absence of CtIP/RBBP8 levels correlate with increased disease-free survival when treated with a combination of hormone, radio, and chemo therapies

  2. A Design of SDN Based IP Mobility Management Considering Inter-Domain Handovers and Its Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misumi Hata

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To use IP services continually while users are moving with their mobile devices, IP mobility management that enables them to keep IP communication is necessary. Although Mobile IP is a popular method to manage IP mobility, Mobile IP has a problem that there is a possibility of a mobile node (MN communicating over a redundant route. Then, Software Defined Network (SDN based IP mobility management has emerged to solve this problem. Most of these solutions focus on intra-domain handovers and routing. However, since wireless network environment has spread, mobile devices move across domains during communication. To deal with this, we need to look upon inter-domain handovers and routing. In this paper, we propose a SDN based IP mobility management scheme considering situation of mobile devices moving across domains. This proposed scheme focuses on inter-domain handovers and introduces efficient functions of management information sharing and inter-domain routing. Experimental results show the desired effects of the proposed scheme: optimizing communication route and keeping the management information exchange traffic low.

  3. Reducing handover latency in future IP-based wireless networks: Fast Proxy Mobile IPv6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijenk, Geert; Bargh, Mortaza S.; Laganier, Julien; Prasad, Anand R.

    2008-01-01

    Current IP-level mobility protocols have difficulties meeting the stringent handover delay requirements of future wireless networks. At the same time they do not give sufficient control to the network to control the handover process. This paper presents an extension to Proxy Mobile IP, which is the

  4. VoIP interconnection ; between Internet, Cable, Mobile and Fixed Worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deventer, M.O. van; Keesmaat, I.

    2005-01-01

    Four worlds on their own that hardly interconnect; All use SIP, but differently - Internet world - Mobile world - Cable world - Fixed world - At most, only basic voice service will interoperate between those worlds In recent years, VoIP/multimedia services (VoIP: Voice over Internet Protocol) have

  5. A survey of Attacks on VoIP networks and Countermeasures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the various threats, vulnerabilities and attacks on VoIP networks as well as countermeasures for mitigation will be examined. Finally, the direction for future research work on robust solutions for attack mitigation will be highlighted. Keywords: VoIP; Security; Threat; Vulnerability; Attack vector; Countermeasures ...

  6. On Tuning the Knobs of Distribution-Based Methods for Detecting VoIP Covert Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    for use, because of the high bandwidth provided by the channels. However, Huang et al. [16] present a VoIP covert channel using steganography that...approximation theory. In Proc. of 49th IEEE FOCS, 2008. [16] Y F Huang, S Tang, and J Yuan. Steganography in inactive frames of VoIP streams encoded by

  7. Prognostic value of CtIP/RBBP8 expression in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria-Bretones, Isabel; Sáez, Carmen; Ruíz-Borrego, Manuel; Japón, Miguel A; Huertas, Pablo

    2013-12-01

    CtIP/RBBP8 is a multifunctional protein involved in transcription, DNA replication, DNA repair by homologous recombination and the G1 and G2 checkpoints. Its multiple roles are controlled by its interaction with several specific factors, including the tumor suppressor proteins BRCA1 and retinoblastoma. Both its functions and interactors point to a putative oncogenic potential of CtIP/RBBP8 loss. However, CtIP/RBBP8 relevance in breast tumor appearance, development, and prognosis has yet to be established. We performed a retrospective analysis of CtIP/RBBP8 and RB1 levels by immunohistochemistry using 384 paraffin-embedded breast cancer biopsies obtained during tumor removal surgery. We have observed that low or no expression of CtIP/RBBP8 correlates with high-grade breast cancer and with nodal metastasis. Reduction on CtIP/RBBP8 is most common in hormone receptor (HR)-negative, HER2-positive, and basal-like tumors. We observed lower levels of RB1 on those tumors with reduced CtIP/RBBP8 levels. On luminal tumors, decreased but not absence of CtIP/RBBP8 levels correlate with increased disease-free survival when treated with a combination of hormone, radio, and chemo therapies. © 2013 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. DNA end resection requires constitutive sumoylation of CtIP by CBX4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria-Bretones, Isabel; Cepeda-García, Cristina; Checa-Rodriguez, Cintia; Heyer, Vincent; Reina-San-Martin, Bernardo; Soutoglou, Evi; Huertas, Pablo

    2017-07-24

    DNA breaks are complex DNA lesions that can be repaired by two alternative mechanisms: non-homologous end-joining and homologous recombination. The decision between them depends on the activation of the DNA resection machinery, which blocks non-homologous end-joining and stimulates recombination. On the other hand, post-translational modifications play a critical role in DNA repair. We have found that the SUMO E3 ligase CBX4 controls resection through the key factor CtIP. Indeed, CBX4 depletion impairs CtIP constitutive sumoylation and DNA end processing. Importantly, mutating lysine 896 in CtIP recapitulates the CBX4-depletion phenotype, blocks homologous recombination and increases genomic instability. Artificial fusion of CtIP and SUMO suppresses the effects of both the non-sumoylatable CtIP mutant and CBX4 depletion. Mechanistically, CtIP sumoylation is essential for its recruitment to damaged DNA. In summary, sumoylation of CtIP at lysine 896 defines a subpopulation of the protein that is involved in DNA resection and recombination.The choice between non-homologous end-joining and homologous recombination to repair a DNA double-strand break depends on activation of the end resection machinery. Here the authors show that SUMO E3 ligase CBX4 sumoylates subpopulation of CtIP to regulate recruitment to breaks and resection.

  9. The battle between standards: TCP/IP vs OSI victory through path dependency or by quality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maathuis, Ivo; Smit, Willem A.; Egyedi, T.M.; Krechmer, K.; Jakobs, K.

    2003-01-01

    Between the end of the 1970s and 1994 a fierce competition existed between two possible standards, TCP/IP and OSI, to solve the problem of interoperability of computer networks. Around 1994 it became evident that TCP/IP and not OSI had become the dominant standard. We specifically deal with the

  10. Internetiside VoIP sobib ka ettevõtteile / Valdur Laid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laid, Valdur, 1969-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 8. juuni lk. 19. Kommunikatsiooni liikumisest internetti ehk IP-võrku ning selle võimalustest ettevõtjaile. Vt. samas: Väikefirmade IP-lahendus jõuab aasta lõpus massturule

  11. IPS observation system for the Miyun 50 m radio telescope and its commissioning observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xinying; Zhang Xizhen; Zhang Hongbo; Kong Deqing; Qu Huipeng

    2012-01-01

    Ground-based observation of Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) is an important approach for monitoring solar wind. A ground-based IPS observation system has been newly implemented on a 50 m radio telescope at Miyun station, managed by the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This observation system has been constructed for the purpose of observing solar wind speed and the associated scintillation index by using the normalized cross-spectrum of a simultaneous dual-frequency IPS measurement. The system consists of a universal dual-frequency front-end and a dual-channel multi-function back-end specially designed for IPS. After careful calibration and testing, IPS observations on source 3C 273B and 3C 279 have been successfully carried out. The preliminary observation results show that this newly-developed observation system is capable of performing IPS observation. The system's sensitivity for IPS observation can reach over 0.3 Jy in terms of an IPS polarization correlator with 4 MHz bandwidth and 2 s integration time. (research papers)

  12. CHANCE: comprehensive software for quality control and validation of ChIP-seq data.

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Jun; Diaz, A; Nellore, A; Song, JS

    2012-01-01

    ChIP-seq is a powerful method for obtaining genome-wide maps of protein-DNA interactions and epigenetic modifications. CHANCE (CHip-seq ANalytics and Confidence Estimation) is a standalone package for ChIP-seq quality control and protocol optimization. Our

  13. Validation of IPS Single-Station Analysis (SSA) Using MEXART Routines in Multi-Station Spectra. Comparison with Cross Correlation Function (CCF) Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi, M. M.; Chang, O.; Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; Fallows, R. A.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.

    2017-12-01

    The phenomenon of Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) occurs from the scattering of radio waves coming from compact radio sources that cross electron density fluctuations in the interplanetary medium. By analyzing these fluctuations in the measurements of flux intensity of galactic (compact) radio sources in a radio telescope, it is possible to infer some properties of structures in the solar wind. Studies based on observations of IPS have provided valuable information on the physics of the internal heliosphere for over 50 years. There are two techniques that provide IPS results: 1) Single-Station Analysis (SSA), where a theoretical model is fitted to the observed spectrum; and 2) Cross-Correlation Function (CCF), where two antennas separated by a few hundred kilometers simultaneously and independently observe the same radio source. In order to combine and complement solar wind speed determinations, it is important to validate the results of these two IPS techniques. In this work we analyze events from previously studied observations from MERLIN (Multi-Element Radio-Linked Interferometer Network) using the CCF methodology. The SSA model fit is applied to these observations and compared with the previous results to validate the two techniques. The objective is to know the behavior of the parameters in cases studied by CCFs that can be implemented in the SSA model. This work studies the capability of SSA model fit to describe complex events in the interplanetary environment and seeks to improve the adjustment of parameters from individual spectra to the theoretical model. The validation of these two methodologies is important to be able to combine data in real time from different radio telescopes which is necessary for the success of the Worldwide Interplanetary Scintillation Stations (WIPSS) Network to monitor solar wind structures using IPS data.

  14. Melatonin-Induced Protective Effects on Cardiomyocytes Against Reperfusion Injury Partly Through Modulation of IP3R and SERCA2a Via Activation of ERK1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunying Hu

    Full Text Available Resumo Background: Melatonin is a neuroendocrine hormone synthesized primarily by the pineal gland that is indicated to effectively prevent myocardial reperfusion injury. It is unclear whether melatonin protects cardiac function from reperfusion injury by modulating intracellular calcium homeostasis. Objective: Demonstrate that melatonin protect against myocardial reperfusion injury through modulating IP3R and SERCA2a to maintain calcium homeostasis via activation of ERK1 in cardiomyocytes. Methods: In vitro experiments were performed using H9C2 cells undergoing simulative hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R induction. Expression level of ERK1, IP3R and SERCA2a were assessed by Western Blots. Cardiomyocytes apoptosis was detected by TUNEL. Phalloidin-staining was used to assess alteration of actin filament organization of cardiomyocytes. Fura-2 /AM was used to measure intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Performing in vivo experiments, myocardial expression of IP3R and SERCA2a were detected by immunofluorescence staining using myocardial ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R model in rats. Results: In vitro results showed that melatonin induces ERK1 activation in cardiomyocytes against H/R which was inhibited by PD98059 (ERK1 inhibitor. The results showed melatonin inhibit apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and improve actin filament organization in cardiomyocytes against H/R, because both could be reversed by PD98059. Melatonin was showed to reduce calcium overload, further to inhibit IP3R expression and promote SERCA2a expression via ERK1 pathway in cardiomyocytes against H/R. Melatonin induced lower IP3R and higher SERCA2a expression in myocardium that were reversed by PD98059. Conclusion: melatonin-induced cardioprotection against reperfusion injury is at least partly through modulation of IP3R and SERCA2a to maintain intracellular calcium homeostasis via activation of ERK1.

  15. Removing Ambiguities of IP Telephony Traffic Using Protocol Scrubbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazara I. A. Barry

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Network intrusion detection systems (NIDSs face the serious challenge of attacks such as insertion and evasion attacks that are caused by ambiguous network traffic. Such ambiguity comes as a result of the nature of network traffic which includes protocol implementation variations and errors alongside legitimate network traffic. Moreover, attackers can intentionally introduce further ambiguities in the traffic. Consequently, NIDSs need to be aware of these ambiguities when detection is performed and make sure to differentiate between true attacks and protocol implementation variations or errors; otherwise, detection accuracy can be affected negatively. In this paper we present the design and implementation of tools that are called protocol scrubbers whose main functionality is to remove ambiguities from network traffic before it is presented to the NIDS. The proposed protocol scrubbers are designed for session initiation and data transfer protocols in IP telephony systems. They guarantee that the traffic presented to NIDSs is unambiguous by eliminating ambiguous behaviors of protocols using well-designed protocol state machines, and walking through packet headers of protocols to make sure packets will be interpreted in the desired way by the NIDS. The experimental results shown in this paper demonstrate the good quality and applicability of the introduced scrubbers.

  16. MD#1182: Calibration of diamond particle detectors in IP6

    CERN Document Server

    Valette, Matthieu; Lindstrom, Bjorn Hans Filip; Wiesner, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    In case of an asynchronous beam dump with a fully filled LHC machine it is expected that all standard ionisation chamber Beam Loss Monitors (IC BLM) around the LHC dumping region in IP6 will be saturated. Diamond Beam Loss Monitors (dBLM) were therefore installed next to the movable dump protection absorber (TCDQ) downstream of the extraction kickers. These detectors allow resolving losses at a nanosecond timescale and with an dynamic range of several orders of magnitude; thus, allowing to know the number of nominal bunches impacting the TCDQ. After a first series of calibrations using asynchronous beam dump tests, an experiment was conducted during MD#1182 to demonstrate the possibility of resolving a nominal bunch hitting the TCDQ. The impact parameter of the bunches on the TCDQ was first scanned using probe bunches with lower intensity then tests were done with nominal bunches (1.1e11 p/bunch) at injection energy. High energy calibration of the losses was also attempted unsuccessfully. Due to different beh...

  17. Tiled architecture of a CNN-mostly IP system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaanenburg, Lambert; Malki, Suleyman

    2009-05-01

    Multi-core architectures have been popularized with the advent of the IBM CELL. On a finer grain the problems in scheduling multi-cores have already existed in the tiled architectures, such as the EPIC and Da Vinci. It is not easy to evaluate the performance of a schedule on such architecture as historical data are not available. One solution is to compile algorithms for which an optimal schedule is known by analysis. A typical example is an algorithm that is already defined in terms of many collaborating simple nodes, such as a Cellular Neural Network (CNN). A simple node with a local register stack together with a 'rotating wheel' internal communication mechanism has been proposed. Though the basic CNN allows for a tiled implementation of a tiled algorithm on a tiled structure, a practical CNN system will have to disturb this regularity by the additional need for arithmetical and logical operations. Arithmetic operations are needed for instance to accommodate for low-level image processing, while logical operations are needed to fork and merge different data streams without use of the external memory. It is found that the 'rotating wheel' internal communication mechanism still handles such mechanisms without the need for global control. Overall the CNN system provides for a practical network size as implemented on a FPGA, can be easily used as embedded IP and provides a clear benchmark for a multi-core compiler.

  18. Advances in IP Micromobility Management Using a Mobility-Aware Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Georgiades

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Several micromobility schemes have been proposed to augment Mobile IP and provide a faster and smoother handoff than what is achievable by Mobile IP alone, the majority of which can be categorized into either “network prefix-based” or “host-specific forwarding” mobility management protocols, depending on the routing method used. This letter proposes a mobility-aware routing protocol (MARP which makes use of both of these routing methods using dynamic IP address allocation. Its performance is evaluated and compared against hierarchical Mobile IP (HMIP and Cellular IP based on handoff performance, end-to-end delivery delay, and scalability. The results demonstrate that MARP is a more robust, flexible, and scalable micromobility protocol, minimizes session disruption, and offers improvements in handoff performance.

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of p-iodo-phentermine (IP) as a brain perfusion imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizuka, H.; Elmaleh, D.R.; Brownell, G.L.; Strauss, H.W.

    1985-01-01

    rho-( 123 I and 131 I) iodo α,α-dimethylphenethylamine (rho-iodophentermine, IP) as the α-methylated analogue of iodoamphetamine has been prepared. It is hoped that this methyl substitution will increase the lipophilicity of the agent, enhance resistance to metabolism by monoamine oxidase, and will result in increased initial uptake and slower washout from the brain as compared to N-isopropyl-rho-( 123 I) iodoamphetamine. IP was prepared by diazotization of rho-aminophentermine followed by decomposition of the diazonium salt with KI. Radioiodinated IP was prepared either by the solid-phase isotopic exchange reaction or by decomposition of the piperidinotriazene derivative with a radiochemical yield of 40-60%. Biodistribution of 131 I-IP in rats showed brain uptake in the range of 1.7% dose g -1 at 5, 30 and 60 min. Imaging studies with 123 I-IP in dogs showed high brain extraction and slow washout of activity. (author)

  20. Evaluating the perceived voice quality on VoIP network using interpolated FIR filter algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal Singh, Harjit; Singh, Sarabjeet; Sarin, R. K.; Singh, Jasvir

    2012-10-01

    Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is a popular communication service nowadays. VoIP reduces the cost of call transmission by passing voice and video packets through the available bandwidth for data packets through Internet protocol. The quality of the VoIP signal is degraded due to the various network impairments. The proposed scheme, interpolated finite impulse response, is implemented as post-processor after decoding the signal in VoIP system. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated for various network conditions. The results of the proposed scheme are measured with the objective measurement methods for signal quality evaluation. The performance of the proposed system is compared with the existing techniques for quality improvement in VoIP system. The results show much improvement in speech quality with the proposed scheme in comparison to other similar schemes.