WorldWideScience

Sample records for model installation steps

  1. Indoor modeling of the wind pressure in solar installations with flat and step-like frames for HCPV modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumyantsev, Valery D.; Ashcheulov, Yury V.; Chekalin, Alexander V.; Chumakov, Yury S.; Shvarts, Maxim Z.; Timofeev, Vladimir V.

    2014-09-01

    As a rule, the HCPV modules are mounted on solar trackers in a form of a flat panel. Wind pressure is one of the key factors limiting the operation capabilities of such type solar installations. At the PV Lab of the Ioffe Institute, the sun-trackers with step-like frame for modules have been proposed and developed, which have a potential for significant reduction of wind pressure. Such a reduction is realized in a wide range of the frame tilt angles the most typical for day-light operation of solar installations. In the present work, theoretical consideration and indoor experiments with mechanical models of installation frames have been carried out. A wind tunnel has been used as an experimental instrument for quantitative comparison in conventional units of expected wind loads on module frames of different designs.

  2. Automatic Functional Step-up System in High-Voltage Installation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈方泉; 严一白; 宋进; 林财兴

    2004-01-01

    This article describes automatic functional step-up systems in high-voltage installation, with emphases on functional process of step-up and step-down, two-circuit control and elimination of tip burr voltage.

  3. Step by step. How to install CopperCore, how to publish and run a UoL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Through these four documents the full installation process of CopperCore is described in detailed. Step by step, and full supported with screenshots, it's shown how to install Cc, how to publish a UoL with Cc and Clicc, how to run a UoL and to exit of Cc and Clicc

  4. Step by step. How to install CopperCore, how to publish and run a UoL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Through these four documents the full installation process of CopperCore is described in detailed. Step by step, and full supported with screenshots, it's shown how to install Cc, how to publish a UoL with Cc and Clicc, how to run a UoL and to exit of Cc and Clicc

  5. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling Installation and Decommissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, Mark J

    2012-01-01

    Offshore wind energy is one of the most promising and fastest growing alternative energy sources in the world. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling provides a methodological framework to assess installation and decommissioning costs, and using examples from the European experience, provides a broad review of existing processes and systems used in the offshore wind industry. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling provides a step-by-step guide to modeling costs over four sections. These sections cover: ·Background and introductory material, ·Installation processes and vessel requirements, ·Installation cost estimation, and ·Decommissioning methods and cost estimation.  This self-contained and detailed treatment of the key principles in offshore wind development is supported throughout by visual aids and data tables. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling is a key resource for anyone interested in the offshore wind industry, particularly those interested in the technical and economic aspects of installation and decom...

  6. Step by step: Revisiting step tolling in the bottleneck model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindsey, C.R.; Berg, van den V.A.C.; Verhoef, E.T.

    2010-01-01

    In most dynamic traffic congestion models, congestion tolls must vary continuously over time to achieve the full optimum. This is also the case in Vickrey's (1969) 'bottleneck model'. To date, the closest approximations of this ideal in practice have so-called 'step tolls', in which the toll takes o

  7. On the Modelling of Pile Installation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis introduces two different types of physical model tests to investigate the stress and density change in the soil during installation of a jacked pile as well as two numerical modelling approaches to model the same process in a finite element code capable of large deformations.

  8. The grouting handbook a step-by-step guide for foundation design and machinery installation

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Donald M

    2013-01-01

    Minimize loss of revenue and the downtime of critical assets by avoiding foundation cracking, poor bonds, and initial alignment changes. After their successful introduction as a maintenance material, machinery grouts are now being used for equipment placement in new construction. While certainly suitable for both markets and applications, a successful installation depends on proper grout selection, application, foundation preparation, and forming methods. Therefore, guidelines on their uses and limitations are needed for engineers and maintenance personnel. Based on 45 years of field experi

  9. MICROCOSM - INSTALLATION OF THE LHC MODEL

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This week, installation of a 6m long section of the LHC starts in Microcosm. This full-scale model is the first part of a new exhibition highlighting the technological challenges and the exciting physics of the LHC era. Many people at CERN have helped with the preparations for the model and the Microcosm team would like to thank all those involved. An inauguration for the press will take place at the start of the next school term.

  10. Analog Fixed Maximum Power Point Control for a PWM Step-downConverter for Water Pumping Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltran, H.; Perez, E.; Chen, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a Fixed Maximum Power Point analog control used in a step-down Pulse Width Modulated power converter. The DC/DC converter drives a DC motor used in small water pumping installations, without any electric storage device. The power supply is provided by PV panels working around...

  11. Building Models of Installations to Recommend Applications in IoT Software Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomlein, Matus; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2016-01-01

    integration into the platforms is a challenge. In this paper, we propose to use semantic reasoning to select and configure applications in software ecosystems. Our prototype builds a model of the installation and the user goals through several steps. It processes application descriptions created...

  12. Physical modeling of stepped spillways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepped spillways applied to embankment dams are becoming popular for addressing the rehabilitation of aging watershed dams, especially those situated in the urban landscape. Stepped spillways are typically placed over the existing embankment, which provides for minimal disturbance to the original ...

  13. A model problem for sound radiation by an installed jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Petrônio A. S.; Cavalieri, André V. G.; Jordan, Peter

    2017-03-01

    A model for sound generation by a jet in the vicinity of a flat plate, mimicking an exhaust jet installed near an aircraft wing, is presented. An earlier model (Cavalieri et al. J. Sound Vib. 333 (2014) 6516-6531) is further simplified by considering that the sound source is an axially-extended, cylindrical wavepacket concentrated on the jet lipline, and that this source is scattered by the trailing edge of a semi-infinite flat plate; the model is shown to match earlier results and considerably simplifies the analysis. It is used to evaluate how the parameters of the problem influence sound radiation by subsonic jets. We show that the axisymmetric mode of the source is the most acoustically efficient, similarly to what is seen for free jets; but unlike the latter problem, the sound scattered by the trailing edge is only weakly dependent on the details of the wavepacket envelope and on the two-point coherence of the source, the wavepacket phase speed being the salient feature for installed jet noise. We then use the model to evaluate how geometrical parameters of jet-plate configurations modify the radiated sound. The acoustic radiation is particularly sensitive to the jet-plate distance due to the exponential radial decay of near-field disturbances; the relative axial position of jet and trailing edge is shown to play a comparably minor role. Finally, changes in the angle of attack of the plate and in the sweep angle of the trailing edge considerably modify the radiated sound, leading to significant reductions of the acoustic intensity in some directions. The various properties of installed jet noise are further explored by appealing to the wavenumber transform of the tailored Green's function used to compute the scattered field; insight is thus provided on how jet-wing configurations might be designed so as to reduce installation noise.

  14. A model for two-step ageing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K T Kashyap; C Ramachandra; B Chatterji; S Lele

    2000-10-01

    In commercial practice, two-step ageing is commonly used in Al–Zn–Mg alloys to produce a fine dispersion of ′ precipitates to accentuate the mechanical properties and resistance to stress corrosion cracking. While this is true in Al–Zn–Mg alloys, two-step ageing leads to inferior properties in Al–Mg–Si alloys. This controversial behaviour in different alloys can be explained by Pashley’s Kinetic model. Pashley’s model addresses the stability of clusters after two-step ageing. In the development of the model, the surface energy term between cluster and matrix is taken into account while the coherency strains between the cluster and matrix are not considered. In the present work, a model is developed which takes into account the coherency strains between cluster and matrix and defines a new stability criterion, inclusive of strain energy term. Experiments were done on AA 7010 aluminium alloy by carrying out a two-step ageing treatment and the results fit the new stability criterion. Thus it is found that the new model for two-step ageing is verified in the case of Al–Zn–Mg alloy.

  15. STEP - Product Model Data Sharing and Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroszynski, Uri

    1998-01-01

    - Product Data Representation and Exchange", featuring at present some 30 released parts, and growing continuously. Many of the parts are Application Protocols (AP). This article presents an overview of STEP, based upon years of involvement in three ESPRIT projects, which contributed to the development......During the last fifteen years, a very large effort to standardize the product models employed in product design, manufacturing and other life-cycle phases has been undertaken. This effort has the acronym STEP, and resulted in the International Standard ISO-10303 "Industrial Automation Systems...

  16. Building Models of Installations to Recommend Applications in IoT Software Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomlein, Matus; Grønbæk, Kaj

    Internet of Things devices are driven by applications. To stimulate innovation on their platforms, manufacturers of embedded products are creating software ecosystems that enable third-parties develop applications for their devices. Since such applications are developed externally, their seamless...... integration into the platforms is a challenge. In this paper, we propose to use semantic reasoning to select and configure applications in software ecosystems. Our prototype builds a model of the installation and the user goals through several steps. It processes application descriptions created...

  17. Framework for Modelling Multiple Input Complex Aggregations for Interactive Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padfield, Nicolas; Andreasen, Troels

    2012-01-01

    We describe a generalized framework as a method and design tool for creating interactive installations with a demand for exploratory meaning creation, not limited to the design stage, but extending into the stage where the installation meets participants and audience. The proposed solution is bas...

  18. Bridging interpersonal installation art with tangible business modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Robb

    2012-01-01

    This position paper introduces an exploration of what deploying physical artefacts to enliven discussions about business innovation has in common with building room sized mechanical installations to provoke social interaction....

  19. Integrated dynamic landscape analysis and modeling system (IDLAMS) : installation manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z.; Majerus, K. A.; Sundell, R. C.; Sydelko, P. J.; Vogt, M. C.

    1999-02-24

    The Integrated Dynamic Landscape Analysis and Modeling System (IDLAMS) is a prototype, integrated land management technology developed through a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the US Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL). Dr. Ronald C. Sundell, Ms. Pamela J. Sydelko, and Ms. Kimberly A. Majerus were the principal investigators (PIs) for this project. Dr. Zhian Li was the primary software developer. Dr. Jeffrey M. Keisler, Mr. Christopher M. Klaus, and Mr. Michael C. Vogt developed the decision analysis component of this project. It was developed with funding support from the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), a land/environmental stewardship research program with participation from the US Department of Defense (DoD), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). IDLAMS predicts land conditions (e.g., vegetation, wildlife habitats, and erosion status) by simulating changes in military land ecosystems for given training intensities and land management practices. It can be used by military land managers to help predict the future ecological condition for a given land use based on land management scenarios of various levels of training intensity. It also can be used as a tool to help land managers compare different land management practices and further determine a set of land management activities and prescriptions that best suit the needs of a specific military installation.

  20. New Multi-step Worm Attack Model

    CERN Document Server

    Robiah, Y; Shahrin, S; Faizal, M A; Zaki, M Mohd; Marliza, R

    2010-01-01

    The traditional worms such as Blaster, Code Red, Slammer and Sasser, are still infecting vulnerable machines on the internet. They will remain as significant threats due to their fast spreading nature on the internet. Various traditional worms attack pattern has been analyzed from various logs at different OSI layers such as victim logs, attacker logs and IDS alert log. These worms attack pattern can be abstracted to form worms' attack model which describes the process of worms' infection. For the purpose of this paper, only Blaster variants were used during the experiment. This paper proposes a multi-step worm attack model which can be extended into research areas in alert correlation and computer forensic investigation.

  1. Holistic simulation of geotechnical installation processes numerical and physical modelling

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The book provides suitable methods for the simulations of boundary value problems of geotechnical installation processes with reliable prediction for the deformation behavior of structures in static or dynamic interaction with the soil. It summarizes the basic research of a research group from scientists dealing with constitutive relations of soils and their implementations as well as contact element formulations in FE-codes. Numerical and physical experiments are presented providing benchmarks for future developments in this field. Boundary value problems have been formulated and solved with the developed tools in order to show the effectivity of the methods. Parametric studies of geotechnical installation processes in order to identify the governing parameters for the optimization of the process are given in such a way that the findings can be recommended to practice for further use. For many design engineers in practice the assessment of the serviceability of nearby structures due to geotechnical installat...

  2. NUMERICAL SIMULATION FOR THE STEPPED SPILLWAY OVERFLOW WITH TURBULENCE MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Stepped spillways have increasingly become a very important measure for flood discharge and energy dissipation. Therefore, the velocity, pressure and other characteristics of the flow on the stepped spillway should be known clearly. But so far the study for the stepped spillway overflow is only based on the model test. In this paper, the stepped spillway overflow was simulated by the Reynolds stress turbulence model. The simulation results were analyzed and compared with measured data, which shows they are satisfactory.

  3. Installing Omeka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Reeve

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Omeka.net is a useful service for Omeka beginners, but there are a few reasons why you might want to install your own copy of Omeka. Reasons include: * Upgrades. By installing Omeka yourself, you can use the latest versions of Omeka as soon as they’re released, without having to wait for Omeka.net to upgrade their system. * Plugins and themes. You can install any plugin or theme you want, without being restricted to those provided by Omeka.net. * Customizations. You can buy a custom domain name, and customize your code to achieve your desired functionality. * Control. You have control over your own backups, and you can update the server yourself so that its security is always up-to-date. * Price. There are many low-cost Virtual Private Servers (VPSs now, some of which cost only $5 per month. * Storage. Many shared hosting providers now offer unlimited storage. This is useful if you have a large media library. In this tutorial, we’ll be entering a few commands on the command line. This tutorial assumes no prior knowledge of the command line, but if you want a concise primer, consult the Programming Historian introduction to BASH. There are other ways of installing Omeka, of course, some using exclusively GUI tools. Some hosting providers even offer “one-click installs” via their control panels. Many of those methods, however, will install older versions of Omeka which are then harder to upgrade and maintain. The method outlined below may not be the easiest way to install Omeka, but it will give you some good practice with using the command line, which is a skill that will be useful if you want to manually upgrade your install, or manually install other web frameworks. (For example, this installation method is very similar to WordPress’s “Five-Minute Install”. There are four steps to this process, and it should take about an hour.

  4. Six-step reasoning model for robot-soccer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The decision-making system of robot-soccer is a kind of knowledge system. A Six-step Reasoning Model is established by formalizing its expert knowledge and decision-making process. Furthermore, many other models can be considered as mutation and evolution of the Six-step Reasoning Model.

  5. Escalation scenarios initiated by gas explosions on offshore installations. Probabilistic cause and consequence modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eknes, Monika Loeland

    1996-12-31

    This Dr. ing. thesis deals with escalation scenarios initiated by gas explosions on offshore installations. Gas explosions is one of the major hazards to such installations. The objectives were to estimate the probability of ignition and frequency of gas explosions for gas leaks on top sides of offshore installations, and to estimate the response and resistance of components that could result in escalation if they failed. Main fields considered cover risk analysis methodology, gas explosions, simplified escalation models, evaluation of structural consequences, case studies, and guidelines. 107 refs., 33 figs., 33 tabs.

  6. Two-step variable selection in quantile regression models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAN Yali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a two-step variable selection procedure for high dimensional quantile regressions,in which the dimension of the covariates, pn is much larger than the sample size n. In the first step, we perform l1 penalty, and we demonstrate that the first step penalized estimator with the LASSO penalty can reduce the model from an ultra-high dimensional to a model whose size has the same order as that of the true model, and the selected model can cover the true model. The second step excludes the remained irrelevant covariates by applying the adaptive LASSO penalty to the reduced model obtained from the first step. Under some regularity conditions, we show that our procedure enjoys the model selection consistency. We conduct a simulation study and a real data analysis to evaluate the finite sample performance of the proposed approach.

  7. Integrated Modelling - the next steps (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. V.

    2010-12-01

    Integrated modelling (IM) has made considerable advances over the past decade but it has not yet been taken up as an operational tool in the way that its proponents had hoped. The reasons why will be discussed in Session U17. This talk will propose topics for a research and development programme and suggest an institutional structure which, together, could overcome the present obstacles. Their combined aim would be first to make IM into an operational tool useable by competent public authorities and commercial companies and, in time, to see it evolve into the modelling equivalent of Google Maps, something accessible and useable by anyone with a PC or an iphone and an internet connection. In a recent study, a number of government agencies, water authorities and utilities applied integrated modelling to operational problems. While the project demonstrated that IM could be used in an operational setting and had benefit, it also highlighted the advances that would be required for its widespread uptake. These were: greatly improving the ease with which models could be a) made linkable, b) linked and c) run; developing a methodology for applying integrated modelling; developing practical options for calibrating and validating linked models; addressing the science issues that arise when models are linked; extending the range of modelling concepts that can be linked; enabling interface standards to pass uncertainty information; making the interface standards platform independent; extending the range of platforms to include those for high performance computing; developing the concept of modelling components as web services; separating simulation code from the model’s GUI, so that all the results from the linked models can be viewed through a single GUI; developing scenario management systems so that that there is an audit trail of the version of each model and dataset used in each linked model run. In addition to the above, there is a need to build a set of integrated

  8. Formalising the Continuous/Discrete Modeling Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Su

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Formally capturing the transition from a continuous model to a discrete model is investigated using model based refinement techniques. A very simple model for stopping (eg. of a train is developed in both the continuous and discrete domains. The difference between the two is quantified using generic results from ODE theory, and these estimates can be compared with the exact solutions. Such results do not fit well into a conventional model based refinement framework; however they can be accommodated into a model based retrenchment. The retrenchment is described, and the way it can interface to refinement development on both the continuous and discrete sides is outlined. The approach is compared to what can be achieved using hybrid systems techniques.

  9. Formalising the Continuous/Discrete Modeling Step

    CERN Document Server

    Banach, Richard; Su, Wen; Huang, Runlei; 10.4204/EPTCS.55.8

    2011-01-01

    Formally capturing the transition from a continuous model to a discrete model is investigated using model based refinement techniques. A very simple model for stopping (eg. of a train) is developed in both the continuous and discrete domains. The difference between the two is quantified using generic results from ODE theory, and these estimates can be compared with the exact solutions. Such results do not fit well into a conventional model based refinement framework; however they can be accommodated into a model based retrenchment. The retrenchment is described, and the way it can interface to refinement development on both the continuous and discrete sides is outlined. The approach is compared to what can be achieved using hybrid systems techniques.

  10. CEM-Consumer Exposure Model Download and Install Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    CEM contains a combination of models and default parameters which are used to estimate inhalation, dermal, and oral exposures to consumer products and articles for a wide variety of product and article use categories.

  11. MODELING ATMOSPHERIC RELEASES OF TRITIUM FROM NUCLEAR INSTALLATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okula, K

    2007-01-17

    Tritium source term analysis and the subsequent dispersion and consequence analyses supporting the safety documentation of Department of Energy nuclear facilities are especially sensitive to the applied software analysis methodology, input data and user assumptions. Three sequential areas in tritium accident analysis are examined in this study to illustrate where the analyst should exercise caution. Included are: (1) the development of a tritium oxide source term; (2) use of a full tritium dispersion model based on site-specific information to determine an appropriate deposition scaling factor for use in more simplified, broader modeling, and (3) derivation of a special tritium compound (STC) dose conversion factor for consequence analysis, consistent with the nature of the originating source material. It is recommended that unless supporting, defensible evidence is available to the contrary, the tritium release analyses should assume tritium oxide as the species released (or chemically transformed under accident's environment). Important exceptions include STC situations and laboratory-scale releases of hydrogen gas. In the modeling of the environmental transport, a full phenomenology model suggests that a deposition velocity of 0.5 cm/s is an appropriate value for environmental features of the Savannah River Site. This value is bounding for certain situations but non-conservative compared to the full model in others. Care should be exercised in choosing other factors such as the exposure time and the resuspension factor.

  12. Steps towards improvement of Latvian geoid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janpaule, Inese; Balodis, Janis

    2013-04-01

    The high precision geoid model is essential for the normal height determination when the GNSS positioning methods are used. In Latvia for more than 10 years gravimetric geoid model LV'98 is broadely used by surveyors and scientists. The computation of this model was performed using GRAVSOFT software using gravimetric measurements, digitised gravimetric data and satellite altimetry data over Baltic sea, the estimated accuracy of LV'98 geoid model is 6-8cm. (J. Kaminskis, 2010) However, the accuracy of Latvian geoid model should be improved. In order to aacomplish this task, the evaluation of several methods and test computations have been made. KTH method was developed at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm. This method utilizes the least-squares modification of the Stokes integral for the biased, unbiased, and optimum stochastic solutions. The modified Bruns-Stokes integral combines the regional terrestrial gravity data with a global geopotential model (GGM) (R. Kiamehr, 2006). DFHRS (Digital Finite-Element Height Reference Surface) method has been developed at the Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Geomatics (R. Jäger, 1999). In the DFHRS concept the area is divided into smaller finite elements - meshes. The height reference surface N in each mesh is calculated by a polynomial in term of (x,y) coordinates. Each group of meshes form a patch, which are related to a set of individual parameters, which are introduced by the datum parametrizations. As an input data the European Gravimetric Geoid Model 1997 (EGG97) and 102 GNSS/levelling points were used. In order to improve the Latvian geoid model quality and accuracy the development of mobile digital zenith telescope for determination of vertical deflections with 0.1" expected accuracy is commenced at University of Latvia, Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation. The project was started in 2010, the goal of it is to design a portable, cheap and robust instrument, using industrially

  13. Electrical installation calculations basic

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for basic electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practice. A step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3Fo

  14. Electrical installation calculations advanced

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for advanced electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practiceA step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3For apprentices and electrical installatio

  15. New Multi-step Worm Attack Model

    OpenAIRE

    Robiah, Y.; Rahayu, S. Siti; Shahrin , S.; M. FAIZAL A.; Zaki, M. Mohd; Marliza, R.

    2010-01-01

    The traditional worms such as Blaster, Code Red, Slammer and Sasser, are still infecting vulnerable machines on the internet. They will remain as significant threats due to their fast spreading nature on the internet. Various traditional worms attack pattern has been analyzed from various logs at different OSI layers such as victim logs, attacker logs and IDS alert log. These worms attack pattern can be abstracted to form worms' attack model which describes the process of worms' infection. Fo...

  16. A step-by-step procedure for pH model construction in aquatic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Hofmann

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We present, by means of a simple example, a comprehensive step-by-step procedure to consistently derive a pH model of aquatic systems. As pH modeling is inherently complex, we make every step of the model generation process explicit, thus ensuring conceptual, mathematical, and chemical correctness. Summed quantities, such as total inorganic carbon and total alkalinity, and the influences of modeled processes on them are consistently derived. The model is subsequently reformulated until numerically and computationally simple dynamical solutions, like a variation of the operator splitting approach (OSA and the direct substitution approach (DSA, are obtained. As several solution methods are pointed out, connections between previous pH modelling approaches are established. The final reformulation of the system according to the DSA allows for quantification of the influences of kinetic processes on the rate of change of proton concentration in models containing multiple biogeochemical processes. These influences are calculated including the effect of re-equilibration of the system due to a set of acid-base reactions in local equilibrium. This possibility of quantifying influences of modeled processes on the pH makes the end-product of the described model generation procedure a powerful tool for understanding the internal pH dynamics of aquatic systems.

  17. Inverter Modeling For Accurate Energy Predictions Of Tracking HCPV Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, J.; Jensen, S.; McDonald, Mark

    2010-10-01

    High efficiency high concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) solar plants of megawatt scale are now operational, and opportunities for expanded adoption are plentiful. However, effective bidding for sites requires reliable prediction of energy production. HCPV module nameplate power is rated for specific test conditions; however, instantaneous HCPV power varies due to site specific irradiance and operating temperature, and is degraded by soiling, protective stowing, shading, and electrical connectivity. These factors interact with the selection of equipment typically supplied by third parties, e.g., wire gauge and inverters. We describe a time sequence model accurately accounting for these effects that predicts annual energy production, with specific reference to the impact of the inverter on energy output and interactions between system-level design decisions and the inverter. We will also show two examples, based on an actual field design, of inverter efficiency calculations and the interaction between string arrangements and inverter selection.

  18. Light liquid: a holographic 'lake' installed on the roof of an architect's model townscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, A.

    2013-02-01

    There has been considerable speculation about the use of holography in architecture and interior design over the past 20 years, with some spectacular examples having been realised. A number of installed works are referenced which use interior and exterior structures and spaces. Scale is considered as well as the possibility of architectural works existing within an artificial (model) environment. The visual, conceptual and critical values such an installation provokes are interrogated, with particular reference to 'Light Liquid, a holographic 'lake' installed within the 2011 Miniment[s] exhibition at Nottingham Trent University, UK. Aspects of miniature public art interventions, and whether they can have a critical validity within a contrived and artificial environment, are examined.

  19. Short-term time step convergence in a climate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hui; Rasch, Philip J; Taylor, Mark A; Jablonowski, Christiane

    2015-03-01

    This paper evaluates the numerical convergence of very short (1 h) simulations carried out with a spectral-element (SE) configuration of the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). While the horizontal grid spacing is fixed at approximately 110 km, the process-coupling time step is varied between 1800 and 1 s to reveal the convergence rate with respect to the temporal resolution. Special attention is paid to the behavior of the parameterized subgrid-scale physics. First, a dynamical core test with reduced dynamics time steps is presented. The results demonstrate that the experimental setup is able to correctly assess the convergence rate of the discrete solutions to the adiabatic equations of atmospheric motion. Second, results from full-physics CAM5 simulations with reduced physics and dynamics time steps are discussed. It is shown that the convergence rate is 0.4-considerably slower than the expected rate of 1.0. Sensitivity experiments indicate that, among the various subgrid-scale physical parameterizations, the stratiform cloud schemes are associated with the largest time-stepping errors, and are the primary cause of slow time step convergence. While the details of our findings are model specific, the general test procedure is applicable to any atmospheric general circulation model. The need for more accurate numerical treatments of physical parameterizations, especially the representation of stratiform clouds, is likely common in many models. The suggested test technique can help quantify the time-stepping errors and identify the related model sensitivities.

  20. Mathematical Modelling and Simulation of Fouling of Nigerian Crude Oil Equipment Installations

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulsalami S. KOVO

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research work was to develop Mathematical Model to Predict the Fouling of Nigeria Oil Equipment Installation. The term fouling can defined as the deposition of unwanted material on heat transfer equipment, which results in an increase in thermal resistance to heat transfer and subsequent loss of equipment thermal efficiency. The modelling equation formulated was based on the principle of fouling process being in unsteady state condition. That is, the rate of deposition is not ...

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF INSTALLATION OF SELF-CONTAINED HEATING BASED ON SOLAR THERMAL COLLECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Kartashev, Alexander; Safonov, Evgeniy; Kartasheva, Marina

    2011-01-01

    The mathematical model describing the operation of the installation of selfcontained heating and hot water supply based on solar thermal collector with the system of accumulation of heat energy, monitoring and control of thermal conditions of building is developed. Modeling of operation of the installation in different conditions is realized.

  2. Stepped spillway optimization through numerical and physical modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Sarkardeh, Morteza Marosi, Raza Roshan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The spillway is among the most important structures of a dam. It is importance for the spillway to be designed properly and passes flood flow safely with more energy dissipation. The zone which ogee spillway crest and stepped chute profile are joined with each other is important in design view. In the present study, a physical model as well as a numerical model was employed on a case study of stepped spillway to modify the transitional zone and improve flow pattern over the spillway. Many alternatives were examined and optimized. Finally, the performance of the selected alternative was checked for different flow conditions, air entrainment and energy dissipation. To simulate the turbulence phenomenon, RNG model and for free surface VOF model was selected in the numerical model. Results of the numerical and physical models were compared and good agreement concluded in flow conditions and energy dissipation.

  3. Efficient vector hysteresis modeling using rotationally coupled step functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adly, A.A., E-mail: adlyamr@gmail.com; Abd-El-Hafiz, S.K., E-mail: sabdelhafiz@gmail.com

    2012-05-01

    Vector hysteresis models are usually used as sub-modules of field computation software tools. When dealing with a massive field computation problem, computational efficiency and practicality of such models become crucial. In this paper, generalization of a recently proposed computationally efficient vector hysteresis model based upon interacting step functions is presented. More specifically, the model is generalized to cover vector hysteresis modeling of both isotropic and anisotropic magnetic media. Model configuration details as well as experimental testing and simulation results are given in the paper.

  4. MIG version 0.0 model interface guidelines: Rules to accelerate installation of numerical models into any compliant parent code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, R.M.; Wong, M.K.

    1996-08-01

    A set of model interface guidelines, called MIG, is presented as a means by which any compliant numerical material model can be rapidly installed into any parent code without having to modify the model subroutines. Here, {open_quotes}model{close_quotes} usually means a material model such as one that computes stress as a function of strain, though the term may be extended to any numerical operation. {open_quotes}Parent code{close_quotes} means a hydrocode, finite element code, etc. which uses the model and enforces, say, the fundamental laws of motion and thermodynamics. MIG requires the model developer (who creates the model package) to specify model needs in a standardized but flexible way. MIG includes a dictionary of technical terms that allows developers and parent code architects to share a common vocabulary when specifying field variables. For portability, database management is the responsibility of the parent code. Input/output occurs via structured calling arguments. As much model information as possible (such as the lists of required inputs, as well as lists of precharacterized material data and special needs) is supplied by the model developer in an ASCII text file. Every MIG-compliant model also has three required subroutines to check data, to request extra field variables, and to perform model physics. To date, the MIG scheme has proven flexible in beta installations of a simple yield model, plus a more complicated viscodamage yield model, three electromechanical models, and a complicated anisotropic microcrack constitutive model. The MIG yield model has been successfully installed using identical subroutines in three vectorized parent codes and one parallel C++ code, all predicting comparable results. By maintaining one model for many codes, MIG facilitates code-to-code comparisons and reduces duplication of effort, thereby reducing the cost of installing and sharing models in diverse new codes.

  5. Modified pendulum model for mean step length estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Rafael C; Alvarez, Diego; López, Antonio M; Alvarez, Juan C

    2007-01-01

    Step length estimation is an important issue in areas such as gait analysis, sport training or pedestrian localization. It has been shown that the mean step length can be computed by means of a triaxial accelerometer placed near the center of gravity of the human body. Estimations based on the inverted pendulum model are prone to underestimate the step length, and must be corrected by calibration. In this paper we present a modified pendulum model in which all the parameters correspond to anthropometric data of the individual. The method has been tested with a set of volunteers, both males and females. Experimental results show that this method provides an unbiased estimation of the actual displacement with a standard deviation lower than 2.1%.

  6. The Creative Music Strategy: A Seven-Step Instructional Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nathalie G.; Bell, Cindy L.; Pogonowski, Lenore

    2011-01-01

    The creative music strategy is a dynamic and flexible seven-step model for guiding general music students through the music concepts of improvisation and composition, followed by critical reflection. These are musical behaviors that cultivate the development of our students' deeper conceptual understandings and music independence by helping them…

  7. Step-indexed Kripke models over recursive worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Reus, Bernhard; Schwinghammer, Jan

    2011-01-01

    worlds that are recursively defined in a category of metric spaces. In this paper, we broaden the scope of this technique from the original domain-theoretic setting to an elementary, operational one based on step indexing. The resulting method is widely applicable and leads to simple, succinct models...

  8. Problem Resolution through Electronic Mail: A Five-Step Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandgenett, Neal; Grandgenett, Don

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the use of electronic mail within the general resolution and management of administrative problems and emphasizes the need for careful attention to problem definition and clarity of language. Presents a research-based five-step model for the effective use of electronic mail based on experiences at the University of Nebraska at Omaha.…

  9. Stutter-Step Models of Performance in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Stephen L.; Leenman, Theodore S.; Todd, Jennifer J.; Kentucky; Weeden, Kim A.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate a stutter-step model of academic performance in high school, this article adopts a unique measure of the beliefs of 12,591 high school sophomores from the Education Longitudinal Study, 2002-2006. Verbatim responses to questions on occupational plans are coded to capture specific job titles, the listing of multiple jobs, and the listing…

  10. Semiclassical two-step model for strong-field ionization

    CERN Document Server

    Shvetsov-Shilovski, N I; Madsen, L B; Räsänen, E; Lemell, C; Burgdörfer, J; Arbó, D G; Tőkési, K

    2016-01-01

    We present a semiclassical two-step model for strong-field ionization that accounts for path interferences of tunnel-ionized electrons in the ionic potential beyond perturbation theory. Within the framework of a classical trajectory Monte-Carlo representation of the phase-space dynamics, the model employs the semiclassical approximation to the phase of the full quantum propagator in the exit channel. By comparison with the exact numerical solution of the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation for strong-field ionization of hydrogen, we show that for suitable choices of the momentum distribution after the first tunneling step, the model yields good quantitative agreement with the full quantum simulation. The two-dimensional photoelectron momentum distributions, the energy spectra, and the angular distributions are found to be in good agreement with the corresponding quantum results. Specifically, the model quantitatively reproduces the fan-like interference patterns in the low-energy part of the two-dimensional...

  11. Modeling the stepping mechanism in negative lightning leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iudin, Dmitry; Syssoev, Artem; Davydenko, Stanislav; Rakov, Vladimir

    2017-04-01

    It is well-known that the negative leaders develop in a step manner using a mechanism of the so-called space leaders in contrary to positive ones, which propagate continuously. Despite this fact has been known for about a hundred years till now no one had developed any plausible model explaining this asymmetry. In this study we suggest a model of the stepped development of the negative lightning leader which for the first time allows carrying out the numerical simulation of its evolution. The model is based on the probability approach and description of temporal evolution of the discharge channels. One of the key features of our model is accounting for the presence of so called space streamers/leaders which play a fundamental role in the formation of negative leader's steps. Their appearance becomes possible due to the accounting of potential influence of the space charge injected into the discharge gap by the streamer corona. The model takes into account an asymmetry of properties of negative and positive streamers which is based on well-known from numerous laboratory measurements fact that positive streamers need about twice weaker electric field to appear and propagate as compared to negative ones. An extinction of the conducting channel as a possible way of its evolution is also taken into account. This allows us to describe the leader channel's sheath formation. To verify the morphology and characteristics of the model discharge, we use the results of the high-speed video observations of natural negative stepped leaders. We can conclude that the key properties of the model and natural negative leaders are very similar.

  12. Performance of a Voltage Step-Up/Step-Down Transformerless DC/DC Converter: Analytical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suskis, P.; Rankis, I.

    2012-01-01

    The authors present an analytical model for a voltage step-up/step-down DC/DC converter without transformers. The proposed topology is a combination of classic buck and boost converters in one single circuit but with differing operational principles. The converter is developed for a wind power autonomous supply system equipped with a hydrogen electrolytic tank and a fuel cell for energy stabilization. The main power source of the hydrogen-based autonomous supply system is energized by a synchronous generator operating on permanent magnets and equipped with a diode bridge. The input voltage of the converter in this case varies in the range 0-700 V, while its output DC voltage must be 540 V according to the demand of other parts of the system. To maintain the rated voltage, a special electrical load regulation is introduced. The calculations of the converter, the generator (equipped with a diode bridge) as element of the power system supply joint, and the load replaced by resistance are verified with PSIM software.

  13. Design of Installing Check Dam Using RAMMS Model in Seorak National Park of South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, K.; Tak, W.; JUN, B. H.; Lee, H. J.; KIM, S. D.

    2016-12-01

    Design of Installing Check Dam Using RAMMS Model in Seorak National Park of South Korea Kye-Won Jun*, Won-Jun Tak*, Byong-Hee Jun**, Ho-Jin Lee***, Soung-Doug Kim* *Graduate School of Disaster Prevention, Kangwon National University, 346 Joogang-ro, Samcheok-si, Gangwon-do, Korea **School of Fire and Disaster Protection, Kangwon National University, 346 Joogang-ro, Samcheok-si, Gangwon-do, Korea ***School of Civil Engineering, Chungbuk National University, 1 Chungdae-ro, Seowon-gu, Cheongju, Korea Abstract As more than 64% of the land in South Korea is mountainous area, so many regions in South Korea are exposed to the danger of landslide and debris flow. So it is important to understand the behavior of debris flow in mountainous terrains, the various methods and models are being presented and developed based on the mathematical concept. The purpose of this study is to investigate the regions that experienced the debris flow due to typhoon called Ewiniar and to perform numerical modeling to design and layout of the Check dam for reducing the damage by the debris flow. For the performance of numerical modeling, on-site measurement of the research area was conducted including: topographic investigation, research on bridges in the downstream, and precision LiDAR 3D scanning for composed basic data of numerical modeling. The numerical simulation of this study was performed using RAMMS (Rapid Mass Movements Simulation) model for the analysis of the debris flow. This model applied to the conditions of the Check dam which was installed in the upstream, midstream, and downstream. Considering the reduction effect of debris flow, the expansion of debris flow, and the influence on the bridges in the downstream, proper location of the Check dam was designated. The result of present numerical model showed that when the Check dam was installed in the downstream section, 50 m above the bridge, the reduction effect of the debris flow was higher compared to when the Check dam were

  14. An integrated biomechanical modeling approach to the ergonomic evaluation of drywall installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lu; Buchholz, Bryan; Punnett, Laura; Kriebel, David

    2016-03-01

    Three different methodologies: work sampling, computer simulation and biomechanical modeling, were integrated to study the physical demands of drywall installation. PATH (Posture, Activity, Tools, and Handling), a work-sampling based method, was used to quantify the percent of time that the drywall installers were conducting different activities with different body segment (trunk, arm, and leg) postures. Utilizing Monte-Carlo simulation to convert the categorical PATH data into continuous variables as inputs for the biomechanical models, the required muscle contraction forces and joint reaction forces at the low back (L4/L5) and shoulder (glenohumeral and sternoclavicular joints) were estimated for a typical eight-hour workday. To demonstrate the robustness of this modeling approach, a sensitivity analysis was conducted to examine the impact of some quantitative assumptions that have been made to facilitate the modeling approach. The results indicated that the modeling approach seemed to be the most sensitive to both the distribution of work cycles for a typical eight-hour workday and the distribution and values of Euler angles that are used to determine the "shoulder rhythm." Other assumptions including the distribution of trunk postures did not appear to have a significant impact on the model outputs. It was concluded that the integrated approach might provide an applicable examination of physical loads during the non-routine construction work, especially for those operations/tasks that have certain patterns/sequences for the workers to follow.

  15. A proposed health model: a step before model confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauff, J F

    1992-01-01

    Health marketers have devoted extensive conceptual and empirical effort toward explaining and predicting individuals' health-related decisions. This paper proposes a health behavior model by combining the health belief model and the theory of planned behavior model. Recent modifications of the Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) model are discussed and an extension is introduced to better explain goal pursuit. These revisions (Bagozzi and Warshaw 1990) are incorporated in the proposed model.

  16. Modeling of the buccal and lingual bone walls of fresh extraction sites following implant installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Mauricio G; Wennström, Jan L; Lindhe, Jan

    2006-12-01

    To determine whether the reduction of the alveolar ridge that occurs following tooth extraction and implant placement is influenced by the size of the hard tissue walls of the socket. Six beagle dogs were used. The third premolar and first molar in both quadrants of the mandible were used. Mucoperiostal flaps were elevated and the distal roots were removed. Implants were installed in the fresh extraction socket in one side of the mandible. The flaps were replaced to allow a semi-submerged healing. The procedure was repeated in the contra later side of the mandible after 2 months. The animals were sacrificed 1 month after the final implant installation. The mandibles were dissected, and each implant site was removed and processed for ground sectioning. Marked hard tissue alterations occurred during healing following tooth extraction and implant installation in the socket. The marginal gap that was present between the implant and the walls of the socket at implantation disappeared as a result of bone fill and resorption of the bone crest. The modeling in the marginal defect region was accompanied by marked attenuation of the dimensions of both the delicate buccal and the wider lingual bone wall. Bone loss at molar sites was more pronounced than at the premolar locations. Implant placement failed to preserve the hard tissue dimension of the ridge following tooth extraction. The buccal as well as the lingual bone walls were resorbed. At the buccal aspect, this resulted in some marginal loss of osseointegration.

  17. Model-based risk analysis of coupled process steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerberg, Karin; Broberg-Hansen, Ernst; Sejergaard, Lars; Nilsson, Bernt

    2013-09-01

    A section of a biopharmaceutical manufacturing process involving the enzymatic coupling of a polymer to a therapeutic protein was characterized with regards to the process parameter sensitivity and design space. To minimize the formation of unwanted by-products in the enzymatic reaction, the substrate was added in small amounts and unreacted protein was separated using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and recycled to the reactor. The quality of the final recovered product was thus a result of the conditions in both the reactor and the SEC, and a design space had to be established for both processes together. This was achieved by developing mechanistic models of the reaction and SEC steps, establishing the causal links between process conditions and product quality. Model analysis was used to complement the qualitative risk assessment, and design space and critical process parameters were identified. The simulation results gave an experimental plan focusing on the "worst-case regions" in terms of product quality and yield. In this way, the experiments could be used to verify both the suggested process and the model results. This work demonstrates the necessary steps of model-assisted process analysis, from model development through experimental verification.

  18. 78 FR 76772 - Special Conditions: Airbus Model A350-900 Airplanes; Permanently Installed Rechargeable Lithium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ...; Permanently Installed Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries and Battery Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation... feature associated with permanently installed rechargeable lithium-ion batteries and battery systems... maximum diversion time. Existing airworthiness regulations did not anticipate the use of...

  19. Semiclassical two-step model for strong-field ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvetsov-Shilovski, N. I.; Lein, M.; Madsen, L. B.; Räsänen, E.; Lemell, C.; Burgdörfer, J.; Arbó, D. G.; Tőkési, K.

    2016-07-01

    We present a semiclassical two-step model for strong-field ionization that accounts for path interferences of tunnel-ionized electrons in the ionic potential beyond perturbation theory. Within the framework of a classical trajectory Monte Carlo representation of the phase-space dynamics, the model employs the semiclassical approximation to the phase of the full quantum propagator in the exit channel. By comparison with the exact numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for strong-field ionization of hydrogen, we show that for suitable choices of the momentum distribution after the first tunneling step, the model yields good quantitative agreement with the full quantum simulation. The two-dimensional photoelectron momentum distributions, the energy spectra, and the angular distributions are found to be in good agreement with the corresponding quantum results. Specifically, the model quantitatively reproduces the fanlike interference patterns in the low-energy part of the two-dimensional momentum distributions, as well as the modulations in the photoelectron angular distributions.

  20. Asynchronous adaptive time step in quantitative cellular automata modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Yan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The behaviors of cells in metazoans are context dependent, thus large-scale multi-cellular modeling is often necessary, for which cellular automata are natural candidates. Two related issues are involved in cellular automata based multi-cellular modeling: how to introduce differential equation based quantitative computing to precisely describe cellular activity, and upon it, how to solve the heavy time consumption issue in simulation. Results Based on a modified, language based cellular automata system we extended that allows ordinary differential equations in models, we introduce a method implementing asynchronous adaptive time step in simulation that can considerably improve efficiency yet without a significant sacrifice of accuracy. An average speedup rate of 4–5 is achieved in the given example. Conclusions Strategies for reducing time consumption in simulation are indispensable for large-scale, quantitative multi-cellular models, because even a small 100 × 100 × 100 tissue slab contains one million cells. Distributed and adaptive time step is a practical solution in cellular automata environment.

  1. Specific Aspects Regarding Coupled Numerical Modeling of Inverter and Load Equipments in an Induction Heating Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu MICH-VANCEA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The most propitious projection of inductiveelectrothermic installation requires a deep study ofcoupled electrothermic and circuits problems; thereforethe present paper follows the same line. Research inspecific literature have emphasized that induction heatinghas a much higher efficiency if the supply of the charge(inductor – piece is done at frequencies other thatindustrial one. [1]. Due to material alter depending ontemperature and, implicitly, the variation of the electricalparameters of the heating installation it is necessary totackle the projection of these inductive electrothermicinstallation projected through coupled numericalmodeling of the inverter circuit and of the heatingthrough induction process. The paper presents thenumerical modeling of the continuous current –alternating current conversion bridge (inverter withelements of static switch – over, the type of commandsignal (PWM of elements of static switch of power, thenumerical modeling of the heating throughelectromagnetic induction process and aspects ofcorrelation regarding the functioning/ working of theinstallation depending on the parameters of the load. Theparameters get modified due to material alter dependingon temperature during the heating process.

  2. Methods to construct a step-by-step beginner’s guide to decision analytic cost-effectiveness modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenberg, Tamlyn; Hulme, Claire; Edlin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background Although guidance on good research practice in health economic modeling is widely available, there is still a need for a simpler instructive resource which could guide a beginner modeler alongside modeling for the first time. Aim To develop a beginner’s guide to be used as a handheld guide contemporaneous to the model development process. Methods A systematic review of best practice guidelines was used to construct a framework of steps undertaken during the model development process. Focused methods review supplemented this framework. Consensus was obtained among a group of model developers to review and finalize the content of the preliminary beginner’s guide. The final beginner’s guide was used to develop cost-effectiveness models. Results Thirty-two best practice guidelines were data extracted, synthesized, and critically evaluated to identify steps for model development, which formed a framework for the beginner’s guide. Within five phases of model development, eight broad submethods were identified and 19 methodological reviews were conducted to develop the content of the draft beginner’s guide. Two rounds of consensus agreement were undertaken to reach agreement on the final beginner’s guide. To assess fitness for purpose (ease of use and completeness), models were developed independently and by the researcher using the beginner’s guide. Conclusion A combination of systematic review, methods reviews, consensus agreement, and validation was used to construct a step-by-step beginner’s guide for developing decision analytical cost-effectiveness models. The final beginner’s guide is a step-by-step resource to accompany the model development process from understanding the problem to be modeled, model conceptualization, model implementation, and model checking through to reporting of the model results. PMID:27785080

  3. Diagnostic and Prognostic Models for Generator Step-Up Transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivek Agarwal; Nancy J. Lybeck; Binh T. Pham

    2014-09-01

    In 2014, the online monitoring (OLM) of active components project under the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) focused on diagnostic and prognostic capabilities for generator step-up transformers. INL worked with subject matter experts from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to augment and revise the GSU fault signatures previously implemented in the Electric Power Research Institute’s (EPRI’s) Fleet-Wide Prognostic and Health Management (FW-PHM) Suite software. Two prognostic models were identified and implemented for GSUs in the FW-PHM Suite software. INL and EPRI demonstrated the use of prognostic capabilities for GSUs. The complete set of fault signatures developed for GSUs in the Asset Fault Signature Database of the FW-PHM Suite for GSUs is presented in this report. Two prognostic models are described for paper insulation: the Chendong model for degree of polymerization, and an IEEE model that uses a loading profile to calculates life consumption based on hot spot winding temperatures. Both models are life consumption models, which are examples of type II prognostic models. Use of the models in the FW-PHM Suite was successfully demonstrated at the 2014 August Utility Working Group Meeting, Idaho Falls, Idaho, to representatives from different utilities, EPRI, and the Halden Research Project.

  4. 40 CFR 60.4236 - What is the deadline for importing or installing stationary SI ICE produced in the previous model...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... installing stationary SI ICE produced in the previous model year? 60.4236 Section 60.4236 Protection of... installing stationary SI ICE produced in the previous model year? (a) After July 1, 2010, owners and operators may not install stationary SI ICE with a maximum engine power of less than 500 HP that do not...

  5. Methods to construct a step-by-step beginner’s guide to decision analytic cost-effectiveness modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rautenberg T

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tamlyn Rautenberg,1 Claire Hulme,2 Richard Edlin,3 1Health Economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division (HEARD, University of Kwazulu Natal, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa; 2Leeds Institute of Health Sciences (LIHS, Academic Unit of Health Economics (AUHE, University of Leeds, West Yorkshire, United Kingdom; 3Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand Background: Although guidance on good research practice in health economic modeling is widely available, there is still a need for a simpler instructive resource which could guide a beginner modeler alongside modeling for the first time. Aim: To develop a beginner’s guide to be used as a handheld guide contemporaneous to the model development process. Methods: A systematic review of best practice guidelines was used to construct a framework of steps undertaken during the model development process. Focused methods review supplemented this framework. Consensus was obtained among a group of model developers to review and finalize the content of the preliminary beginner’s guide. The final beginner’s guide was used to develop cost-effectiveness models. Results: Thirty-two best practice guidelines were data extracted, synthesized, and critically evaluated to identify steps for model development, which formed a framework for the beginner’s guide. Within five phases of model development, eight broad submethods were identified and 19 methodological reviews were conducted to develop the content of the draft beginner’s guide. Two rounds of consensus agreement were undertaken to reach agreement on the final beginner’s guide. To assess fitness for purpose (ease of use and completeness, models were developed independently and by the researcher using the beginner’s guide. Conclusion: A combination of systematic review, methods reviews, consensus agreement, and validation was used to construct a step-by-step beginner’s guide for developing decision analytical

  6. Mathematical Modelling and Simulation of Fouling of Nigerian Crude Oil Equipment Installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulsalami S. KOVO

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research work was to develop Mathematical Model to Predict the Fouling of Nigeria Oil Equipment Installation. The term fouling can defined as the deposition of unwanted material on heat transfer equipment, which results in an increase in thermal resistance to heat transfer and subsequent loss of equipment thermal efficiency. The modelling equation formulated was based on the principle of fouling process being in unsteady state condition. That is, the rate of deposition is not equal to the rate of removal. In other words, there is an accumulation. The final mathematical model developed representing the fouling of Nigeria Oil equipment was obtained as:... The correlation between the experimental and simulated result obtained using Average Absolute Deviation (A.A.D was between 0.0131 - 0.0201. The fluid temperature of 43°C and 63°C and wire temperature 200°C, 250°C and 300°C were the operating conditions for the investigation and prediction. The model was simulated using VISUAL BASIC 6.0 to predict the fouling behaviour. The results obtained showed that refinery Naptha fouls very heavily and this fouling decreases with increasing fluid and wire temperature. Fouling was very severe for wire temperature 200°C and fluid temperature 46°C. The main mechanism of fouling for refinery Naptha was chemical polymerization.

  7. 78 FR 50317 - Special Conditions: Cessna Aircraft Company, Model J182T; Diesel Cycle Engine Installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... approved under Type Certificate No. 3A13, is an aluminum, four place, single engine airplane with a... considered universally applicable to all types of possible diesel engines and diesel engine installations. However, after reviewing the Cessna installation, the SMA engine type, the SMA engine requirements,...

  8. Step-by-Step Model for the Study of the Apriori Algorithm for Predictive Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Grigore ROŞCA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper was to develop an educational oriented application based on the Data Mining Apriori Algorithm which facilitates both the research and the study of data mining by graduate students. The application could be used to discover interesting patterns in the corpus of data and to measure the impact on the speed of execution as a function of problem constraints (value of support and confidence variables or size of the transactional data-base. The paper presents a brief overview of the Apriori Algorithm, aspects about the implementation of the algorithm using a step-by-step process, a discussion of the education-oriented user interface and the process of data mining of a test transactional data base. The impact of some constraints on the speed of the algorithm is also experimentally measured without a systematic review of different approaches to increase execution speed. Possible applications of the implementation, as well as its limits, are briefly reviewed.

  9. Modeling the Dynamics of Micro- and Macroparticles in a Combined Gas-Discharge Installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astashinskii, V. V.; Bogach, M. I.; Burachevskii, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    We present a model of the dynamics of micro- and macroparticles in a combined gas-discharge installation that accounts for the processes of metal explosion (heating of a metal in its solid state, melting, heating of the liquid metal, intense evaporation, ionization in metal vapor), a magnetohydrodynamic description of plasma acceleration (on the basis of the mass, momentum, and energy conservation laws neglecting the plasma viscosity and thermal conductivity), and a description of the processes of energy transfer from a high-velocity stream to accelerated particles. It has been established that the process of melting terminates in 1.3 ns after the start of the discharge and that the evaporation terminates in 480 ns. The stage of cooling starts in 21 μs. The average density of the plasma upon completion of the evaporation process can be estimated to be 1.7·10-5 g/cm3, with the pressure being of the order of 1.5·104 Pa and the total time of discharge, of about 250 μs.

  10. The rainbow as interactive art: modeling the Elaisson Beauty installation at SFMOMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassen, Kenneth; Zhu, Jiang

    2008-12-01

    The rainbow has had an important role in religion, art, and science. Recently, artists have attempted to create indoor rainbow displays as interactive exhibitions of art, but based, nonetheless, on the principles of the scattering behavior of raindrops and the experience of experiment. Motivated by recently viewing the Beauty, 1993, installation at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (SFMOMA), we describe here a modeling program to explain the diversity of rainbow phenomena one can see visually in the gallery. The most significant impression gleaned in the museum is the acute spatial dependence of rainbow form on the viewing position in the presence of a local divergent light source (i.e., a floodlamp), in stark contrast to the unchangeable natural rainbow produced by an unimaginably distant Sun. This represents a case of the local (divergent) versus solar (parallel) light ray source distinction in atmospheric optical displays, which is one of a handful of anthropogenic versus natural situations responsible for optics displays that have been so far described. Through geometrical optics and Airy's theory simulations we show a rich relationship between the locally produced rainbow phenomena and the chamber equipment geometry and viewing position.

  11. Nuclear installations in the baltic sea region and the stake holders cooperation: a crucial step towards energy security, environmental sustainability and political stability in the region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakaria, M.; Mandere, N.; Olsson, L. [Lund Univ., Centre for Sustainability Studies (LUCSUS) (Sweden)

    2006-07-01

    Radiation hazards are trans-boundary. The prevention of accidents must be managed locally. But the awareness, preparedness, and the responsibilities in the case of emergencies must be managed at the local and regional level, and must rely on close interaction between the local and regional levels. The Baltic Sea Region contains over 40 nuclear reactors contributing to energy security, but also posing a potential threat to human, environmental, and political security. The aim of this paper is to integrate the four fields of security: health, environment, energy, and political by analysing awareness, preparedness responsibility and decision making related to nuclear installations. With increasing political, economical, cultural and physical (in term of energy infrastructure) integration, the region needs to take a comprehensive approach to create adequate structure for managing risks and thereby promote security. (authors)

  12. Low-resolution density maps from atomic models: how stepping "back" can be a step "forward".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, D M; Kumar, A; Folk, J T; Smith, T J; Baker, T S

    1999-01-01

    Atomic-resolution structures have had a tremendous impact on modern biological science. Much useful information also has been gleaned by merging and correlating atomic-resolution structural details with lower-resolution (15-40 A), three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions computed from images recorded with cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryoTEM) procedures. One way to merge these structures involves reducing the resolution of an atomic model to a level comparable to a cryoTEM reconstruction. A low-resolution density map can be derived from an atomic-resolution structure by retrieving a set of atomic coordinates editing the coordinate file, computing structure factors from the model coordinates, and computing the inverse Fourier transform of the structure factors. This method is a useful tool for structural studies primarily in combination with 3D cryoTEM reconstructions. It has been used to assess the quality of 3D reconstructions, to determine corrections for the phase-contrast transfer function of the transmission electron microscope, to calibrate the dimensions and handedness of 3D reconstructions, to produce difference maps, to model features in macromolecules or macromolecular complexes, and to generate models to initiate model-based determination of particle orientation and origin parameters for 3D reconstruction.

  13. A model of the immune-compatibility using the install problem in computer science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Felipe

    2014-05-01

    We simulate the immune compatibility using the Install Problem: The idea is to define a Boolean variable for each antibody. This variable is true if the antibody must be in the immune system. The Install Problem refers to the incompatibility that some programs may have with an specific operative system making it impossible to be installed. The analysis was implemented using SMT-solvers, specifically Z3, and the code was wrote using the commands "DependsOn", "Conflict" and "Compatibility_check", making it possible to check the antibody compatibility. The programming languages used to build up the code were Z3-Python and Z3-SMT-Lib. The results can be used in systems biology and in the analysis of immunological therapies. As future line of research it could be developed a more complex algorithm to verify the immunological compatibility.

  14. Inference Based on Simple Step Statistics for the Location Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    function. Let TN,k(9) - Zak(’)Vi(e). Then TNk is called the k-step statistic. Noether (1973) studied the 1-step statistic with particular emphasis on...opposed to the sign statistic. These latter two comparisons were first discussed by Noether (1973) in a somewhat different setting. Notice that the...obtained by Noether (1973). If k - 3, we seek the (C + 1)’st and (2N - bI - b2 - C)’th ordered Walsh averages in D The algorithm of Section 3 modified to

  15. Accurate and stable time stepping in ice sheet modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Gong; von Sydow, Lina

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we introduce adaptive time step control for simulation of evolution of ice sheets. The discretization error in the approximations is estimated using "Milne's device" by comparing the result from two different methods in a predictor-corrector pair. Using a predictor-corrector pair the expensive part of the procedure, the solution of the velocity and pressure equations, is performed only once per time step and an estimate of the local error is easily obtained. The stability of the numerical solution is maintained and the accuracy is controlled by keeping the local error below a given threshold using PI-control. Depending on the threshold, the time step $\\Delta t$ is bound by stability requirements or accuracy requirements. Our method takes a shorter $\\Delta t$ than an implicit method but with less work in each time step and the solver is simpler. The method is analyzed theoretically with respect to stability and applied to the simulation of a 2D ice slab and a 3D circular ice sheet. %The automatic...

  16. Accurate and stable time stepping in ice sheet modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gong; Lötstedt, Per; von Sydow, Lina

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we introduce adaptive time step control for simulation of the evolution of ice sheets. The discretization error in the approximations is estimated using "Milne's device" by comparing the result from two different methods in a predictor-corrector pair. Using a predictor-corrector pair the expensive part of the procedure, the solution of the velocity and pressure equations, is performed only once per time step and an estimate of the local error is easily obtained. The stability of the numerical solution is maintained and the accuracy is controlled by keeping the local error below a given threshold using PI-control. Depending on the threshold, the time step Δt is bound by stability requirements or accuracy requirements. Our method takes a shorter Δt than an implicit method but with less work in each time step and the solver is simpler. The method is analyzed theoretically with respect to stability and applied to the simulation of a 2D ice slab and a 3D circular ice sheet. The stability bounds in the experiments are explained by and agree well with the theoretical results.

  17. An Optimization Model for Fiber-Optic Cable Installation Aboard Naval Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    of the most impressive components of Site B’s cable installation process was their real time tracking system. When a cable arrives at the shipyard...This is important because fiber-optic cables can be run in the same wireways or trays as heavier power cable (Cables Plus USA). 2. Specification Value

  18. Transport Simulation Model Calibration with Two-Step Cluster Analysis Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenina Nadezda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The calibration results of transport simulation model depend on selected parameters and their values. The aim of the present paper is to calibrate a transport simulation model by a two-step cluster analysis procedure to improve the reliability of simulation model results. Two global parameters have been considered: headway and simulation step. Normal, uniform and exponential headway generation models have been selected for headway. Application of two-step cluster analysis procedure to the calibration procedure has allowed reducing time needed for simulation step and headway generation model value selection.

  19. Optimum repair-level analysis (ORLA) and life cycle cost (LCC) models for the base and installation security system (BISS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    York, A.A.; Chipchak, J.S.

    1979-03-01

    Models for Optimum Repair-Level Analysis (ORLA) and Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis for Base and Installation Security System (BISS) equipment are described. The ORLA model determines the costs of alternative maintenance approaches for selection of the most economic maintenance approach. The LCC model determines the total cost to the Government for the development, acquisition, initial logistics support, and recurring support of a system over the projected inventory usage period. A unique feature of these models is the marriage of ORLA and ICC which enables LCC to utilize completely the most economic ORLA decision costs. This significantly reduces the overall LCC effort.

  20. Installation Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    Despite its large and growing popularity – to say nothing of its near-ubiquity in the world’s art scenes and international exhibitions of contemporary art –installation art remains a form whose artistic vocabulary and conceptual basis have rarely been subjected to thorough critical examination....... In Installation Art: Between Image and Stage, Anne Ring Petersen aims to change that. She begins by exploring how installation art developed into an interdisciplinary genre in the 1960s, and how its intertwining of the visual and the performative has acted as a catalyst for the generation of new artistic...... phenomena. It investigates how it became one of today’s most widely used art forms, increasingly expanding into consumer, popular and urban cultures, where installation’s often spectacular appearance ensures that it meets contemporary demands for sense-provoking and immersive cultural experiences. The main...

  1. Installation Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    Despite its large and growing popularity – to say nothing of its near-ubiquity in the world’s art scenes and international exhibitions of contemporary art –installation art remains a form whose artistic vocabulary and conceptual basis have rarely been subjected to thorough critical examination....... In Installation Art: Between Image and Stage, Anne Ring Petersen aims to change that. She begins by exploring how installation art developed into an interdisciplinary genre in the 1960s, and how its intertwining of the visual and the performative has acted as a catalyst for the generation of new artistic...... phenomena. It investigates how it became one of today’s most widely used art forms, increasingly expanding into consumer, popular and urban cultures, where installation’s often spectacular appearance ensures that it meets contemporary demands for sense-provoking and immersive cultural experiences. The main...

  2. ADDING A NEW STEP WITH SPATIAL AUTOCORRELATION TO IMPROVE THE FOUR-STEP TRAVEL DEMAND MODEL WITH FEEDBACK FOR A DEVELOPING CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong FENG, Ph.D Candidate

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It is expected that improvement of transport networks could give rise to the change of spatial distributions of population-related factors and car ownership, which are expected to further influence travel demand. To properly reflect such an interdependence mechanism, an aggregate multinomial logit (A-MNL model was firstly applied to represent the spatial distributions of these exogenous variables of the travel demand model by reflecting the influence of transport networks. Next, the spatial autocorrelation analysis is introduced into the log-transformed A-MNL model (called SPA-MNL model. Thereafter, the SPA-MNL model is integrated into the four-step travel demand model with feedback (called 4-STEP model. As a result, an integrated travel demand model is newly developed and named as the SPA-STEP model. Using person trip data collected in Beijing, the performance of the SPA-STEP model is empirically compared with the 4-STEP model. It was proven that the SPA-STEP model is superior to the 4-STEP model in accuracy; most of the estimated parameters showed statistical differences in values. Moreover, though the results of the simulations to the same set of assumed scenarios by the 4-STEP model and the SPA-STEP model consistently suggested the same sustainable path for the future development of Beijing, it was found that the environmental sustainability and the traffic congestion for these scenarios were generally overestimated by the 4-STEP model compared with the corresponding analyses by the SPA-STEP model. Such differences were clearly generated by the introduction of the new modeling step with spatial autocorrelation.

  3. TMS field modelling-status and next steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thielscher, Axel

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, an increasing number of studies used geometrically accurate head models and finite element (FEM) or finite difference methods (FDM) to estimate the electric field induced by non-invasive neurostimulation techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) or transcranial......, field estimates based on accurate head models have already proven highly useful for a better understanding of the biophysics of non-invasive brain stimulation. The improved software tools now allow for systematic tests of the links between the estimated fields and the physiological effects in multi...... weak current stimulation (tCS; e.g., Datta et al., 2010; Thielscher et al., 2011). A general outcome was that the field estimates based on these more realistic models differ substantially from the results obtained with simpler head models. This suggests that the former models are indeed needed...

  4. Ehrenfest's theorem and the validity of the two-step model for strong-field ionization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shvetsov-Shilovskiy, Nikolay; Dimitrovski, Darko; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    By comparison with the solution of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation we explore the validity of the two-step semiclassical model for strong-field ionization in elliptically polarized laser pulses. We find that the discrepancy between the two-step model and the quantum theory correlates...

  5. Modeling of oil mist and oil vapor concentration in the shale shaker area on offshore drilling installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bråtveit, Magne; Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Lie, Stein Atle; Moen, Bente E

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to develop regression models to predict concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor in the workplace atmosphere in the shale shaker area of offshore drilling installations. Collection of monitoring reports of oil mist and oil vapor in the mud handling areas of offshore drilling installations was done during visits to eight oil companies and five drilling contractors. A questionnaire was sent to the rig owners requesting information about technical design of the shaker area. Linear mixed-effects models were developed using concentration of oil mist or oil vapor measured by stationary sampling as dependent variables, drilling installation as random effect, and potential determinants related to process technical parameters and technical design of the shale shaker area as fixed effects. The dataset comprised stationary measurements of oil mist (n = 464) and oil vapor (n = 462) from the period 1998 to 2004. The arithmetic mean concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor were 3.89 mg/m(3) and 39.7 mg/m(3), respectively. The air concentration models including significant determinants such as viscosity of base oil, mud temperature, well section, type of rig, localization of shaker, mechanical air supply, air grids in outer wall, air curtain in front of shakers, and season explained 35% and 17% of the total variance in oil vapor and oil mist, respectively. The developed models could be used to indicate what impact differences in technical design and changes in process parameters have on air concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor. Thus, the models will be helpful in planning control measures to reduce the potential for occupational exposure.

  6. A single-step genomic model with direct estimation of marker effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Goddard, M E; Reinhardt, F; Reents, R

    2014-09-01

    Compared with the currently widely used multi-step genomic models for genomic evaluation, single-step genomic models can provide more accurate genomic evaluation by jointly analyzing phenotypes and genotypes of all animals and can properly correct for the effect of genomic preselection on genetic evaluations. The objectives of this study were to introduce a single-step genomic model, allowing a direct estimation of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effects, and to develop efficient computing algorithms for solving equations of the single-step SNP model. We proposed an alternative to the current single-step genomic model based on the genomic relationship matrix by including an additional step for estimating the effects of SNP markers. Our single-step SNP model allowed flexible modeling of SNP effects in terms of the number and variance of SNP markers. Moreover, our single-step SNP model included a residual polygenic effect with trait-specific variance for reducing inflation in genomic prediction. A kernel calculation of the SNP model involved repeated multiplications of the inverse of the pedigree relationship matrix of genotyped animals with a vector, for which numerical methods such as preconditioned conjugate gradients can be used. For estimating SNP effects, a special updating algorithm was proposed to separate residual polygenic effects from the SNP effects. We extended our single-step SNP model to general multiple-trait cases. By taking advantage of a block-diagonal (co)variance matrix of SNP effects, we showed how to estimate multivariate SNP effects in an efficient way. A general prediction formula was derived for candidates without phenotypes, which can be used for frequent, interim genomic evaluations without running the whole genomic evaluation process. We discussed various issues related to implementation of the single-step SNP model in Holstein populations with an across-country genomic reference population.

  7. Numerical modelling of processes that occur in the selective waste disassembly installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherecheş, T.; Lixandru, P.; Dragnea, D.; Cherecheş, D. M.

    2017-08-01

    This paper is the result of the attempts of quantitative approach of some of the processes that are occurring in the selective fragmentation with high voltage pulses installation. It has been formulated a methodology which customizes the general methods for the issue of transient electric field in mixed environments. The electromagnetic processes inside the fragmentation installation, the initiation and formation of the discharge channels, the thermodynamic and mechanical effects in the process vessel are complex, transient and very quick. One of the underlying principles of the fragmentation process consists in the differentiated reaction of materials in an electric field. Generally in the process vessel there can be found together three types of materials: dielectrics, metal, electrolytes. The conductivity of dielectric materials is virtually zero. Metallic materials conduct very well through electronic conductivity. Electrolytes have a more modest conductivity since they conduct through electrochemical processes. The electrical current, in this case, is the movement of ions having sizes and the masses different from the electrons. Here, the electric current includes displacements of ions and molecules, collisions and chemical reactions. Part of the electrical field’s energy is absorbed by the electrolyte in the form of mechanical and chemical energy.

  8. 3D Projection Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim; Johansen, Stine Liv; Bach Mikkelsen, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional projection installations are particular kinds of augmented spaces in which a digital 3-D model is projected onto a physical three-dimensional object, thereby fusing the digital content and the physical object. Based on interaction design research and media studies, this article...... contributes to the understanding of the distinctive characteristics of such a new medium, and identifies three strategies for designing 3-D projection installations: establishing space; interplay between the digital and the physical; and transformation of materiality. The principal empirical case, From...... Fingerplan to Loop City, is a 3-D projection installation presenting the history and future of city planning for the Copenhagen area in Denmark. The installation was presented as part of the 12th Architecture Biennale in Venice in 2010....

  9. The Two-Step Student Teaching Model: Training for Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, Donna

    This model of student teaching preparation was developed in collaboration with public schools to focus on systematic experience in teaching and training for accountability in the classroom. In the two-semester plan, students begin with teacher orientation and planning days, serve as teacher aides, attend various methods courses, teach several…

  10. Solute transport modeling using morphological parameters of step-pool reaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    JiméNez, Mario A.; Wohl, Ellen

    2013-03-01

    Step-pool systems have been widely studied during the past few years, resulting in enhanced knowledge of mechanisms for sediment transport, energy dissipation and patterns of self-organization. We use rhodamine tracer data collected in nine step-pool reaches during high, intermediate and low flows to explore scaling of solute transport processes. Using the scaling patterns found, we propose an extension of the Aggregated Dead Zone (ADZ) approach for solute transport modeling based on the morphological features of step-pool units and their corresponding inherent variability within a stream reach. In addition to discharge, the reach-average bankfull width, mean step height, and the ratio of pool length to step-to-step length can be used as explanatory variables for the dispersion process within the studied reaches. These variables appeared to be sufficient for estimating ADZ model parameters and simulating solute transport in predictive mode for applications in reaches lacking tracer data.

  11. JIMM: the next step for mission-level models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gump, Jamieson; Kurker, Robert G.; Nalepka, Joseph P.

    2001-09-01

    The (Simulation Based Acquisition) SBA process is one in which the planning, design, and test of a weapon system or other product is done through the more effective use of modeling and simulation, information technology, and process improvement. This process results in a product that is produced faster, cheaper, and more reliably than its predecessors. Because the SBA process requires realistic and detailed simulation conditions, it was necessary to develop a simulation tool that would provide a simulation environment acceptable for doing SBA analysis. The Joint Integrated Mission Model (JIMM) was created to help define and meet the analysis, test and evaluation, and training requirements of a Department of Defense program utilizing SBA. Through its generic nature of representing simulation entities, its data analysis capability, and its robust configuration management process, JIMM can be used to support a wide range of simulation applications as both a constructive and a virtual simulation tool. JIMM is a Mission Level Model (MLM). A MLM is capable of evaluating the effectiveness and survivability of a composite force of air and space systems executing operational objectives in a specific scenario against an integrated air and space defense system. Because MLMs are useful for assessing a system's performance in a realistic, integrated, threat environment, they are key to implementing the SBA process. JIMM is a merger of the capabilities of one legacy model, the Suppressor MLM, into another, the Simulated Warfare Environment Generator (SWEG) MLM. By creating a more capable MLM, JIMM will not only be a tool to support the SBA initiative, but could also provide the framework for the next generation of MLMs.

  12. Noise generated by model step lap core configurations of grain oriented electrical steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snell, David [Cogent Power Ltd., Development and Market Research, Orb Electrical Steels, Corporation Road, Newport, South Wales NP19 OXT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Dave.snell@cogent-power.com

    2008-10-15

    Although it is important to reduce the power loss associated with transformer cores by use of electrical steel of the optimum grade, it is equally important to minimise the noise generated by the core. This paper discusses the effect of variations in the number of steps (3, 5, and 7) and the step overlap (2, 4, and 6 mm) on noise associated with model step lap cores of conventional, high permeability and ball unit domain refined high permeability grain oriented electrical steel. A-weighted sound pressure level noise measurements (LAeq) were made at various locations of the core over the frequency range 25-16,000 Hz. For all step lap cores investigated, the noise generated was dependent on the induction level, and on the number of steps and step overlap employed. The use of 3 step lap cores and step overlaps of 2 mm should be avoided, if low noise is to be achieved. There was very little difference between the noise emitted by the 5 and 7 step lap cores. Similar noise levels were noted for 27M0H material in the non-domain refined (NDR) and ball unit domain refined condition for a 5 step lap core with 6 mm step overlap.

  13. Modelling a New Product Model on the Basis of an Existing STEP Application Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.-R. Hoehn

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last years a great range of computer aided tools has been generated to support the development process of various products. The goal of a continuous data flow, needed for high efficiency, requires powerful standards for the data exchange. At the FZG (Gear Research Centre of the Technical University of Munich there was a need for a common gear data format for data exchange between gear calculation programs. The STEP standard ISO 10303 was developed for this type of purpose, but a suitable definition of gear data was still missing, even in the Application Protocol AP 214, developed for the design process in the automotive industry. The creation of a new STEP Application Protocol or the extension of existing protocol would be a very time consumpting normative process. So a new method was introduced by FZG. Some very general definitions of an Application Protocol (here AP 214 were used to determine rules for an exact specification of the required kind of data. In this case a product model for gear units was defined based on elements of the AP 214. Therefore no change of the Application Protocol is necessary. Meanwhile the product model for gear units has been published as a VDMA paper and successfully introduced for data exchange within the German gear industry associated with FVA (German Research Organisation for Gears and Transmissions. This method can also be adopted for other applications not yet sufficiently defined by STEP

  14. Building self-consistent, short-term earthquake probability (STEP models: improved strategies and calibration procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiano Monelli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We present here two self-consistent implementations of a short-term earthquake probability (STEP model that produces daily seismicity forecasts for the area of the Italian national seismic network. Both implementations combine a time-varying and a time-invariant contribution, for which we assume that the instrumental Italian earthquake catalog provides the best information. For the time-invariant contribution, the catalog is declustered using the clustering technique of the STEP model; the smoothed seismicity model is generated from the declustered catalog. The time-varying contribution is what distinguishes the two implementations: 1 for one implementation (STEP-LG, the original model parameterization and estimation is used; 2 for the other (STEP-NG, the mean abundance method is used to estimate aftershock productivity. In the STEP-NG implementation, earthquakes with magnitude up to ML= 6.2 are expected to be less productive compared to the STEP-LG implementation, whereas larger earthquakes are expected to be more productive. We have retrospectively tested the performance of these two implementations and applied likelihood tests to evaluate their consistencies with observed earthquakes. Both of these implementations were consistent with the observed earthquake data in space: STEP-NG performed better than STEP-LG in terms of forecast rates. More generally, we found that testing earthquake forecasts issued at regular intervals does not test the full power of clustering models, and future experiments should allow for more frequent forecasts starting at the times of triggering events.

  15. Model Development for Power System Analysis with a Substantial Wind Energy Capacity Installed in the Nordic grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Ola; Perdana, Abram; Chen, Peiyuan

    2011-01-01

    in the model. By cooperation within the Nordic countries the existing knowledge has been spread, new knowledge has been created and the results have been transferred to utilities. Over 35 journal or conference publications and five PhD-theses have been presented. Two more PhD theses are on the way next during......The worldwide development of wind power installations now includes planning and construction of large-scale wind farms ranging in magnitudes of 1000 MW and more. As part of the planning and design of such systems, it is well established that the transient and dynamic stability of the electrical...... power system needs to be studied. Modelling work of the electrical behaviour of wind turbines and wind farms as well as model validation by measurements have been important parts of this project work. The models have been used to study dynamic phenomena during normal operation and fault occasions...

  16. Toward an Engineering Model for the Aerodynamic Forces Acting on Wind Turbine Blades in Quasisteady Standstill and Blade Installation Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunaa, Mac; Heinz, Joachim; Skrzypiński, Witold

    2016-09-01

    The crossflow principle is one of the key elements used in engineering models for prediction of the aerodynamic loads on wind turbine blades in standstill or blade installation situations, where the flow direction relative to the wind turbine blade has a component in the direction of the blade span direction. In the present work, the performance of the crossflow principle is assessed on the DTU 10MW reference blade using extensive 3D CFD calculations. Analysis of the computational results shows that there is only a relatively narrow region in which the crossflow principle describes the aerodynamic loading well. In some conditions the deviation of the predicted loadings can be quite significant, having a large influence on for instance the integral aerodynamic moments around the blade centre of mass; which is very important for single blade installation applications. The main features of these deviations, however, have a systematic behaviour on all force components, which in this paper is employed to formulate the first version of an engineering correction method to the crossflow principle applicable for wind turbine blades. The new correction model improves the agreement with CFD results for the key aerodynamic loads in crossflow situations. The general validity of this model for other blade shapes should be investigated in subsequent works.

  17. Modeling printed circuit board curvature in relation to manufacturing process steps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuerink, G.A.; Slomp, M.; Wits, Wessel Willems; Legtenberg, R.; Legtenberg, R.; Kappel, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical method to predict deformations of Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) in relation to their manufacturing process steps. Classical Lamination Theory (CLT) is used as a basis. The model tracks internal stresses and includes the results of subsequent production steps, such a

  18. Modeling of the dynamic comportment of pots installations; Modelisation du comportement dynamique d'un eclateur a gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cauterman, M. [Supelec, DRE/LSS, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Tarafi, R.; Zeddam, A. [France Telecom, R and D DTD/SFE, Technopole ANTICIPA, 22 - Lannion (France); Favennec, J.F. [Laboratoire d' Electronique et Systemes de Telecommunications, LEST, FRECNRS 2269, UFR Sciences et Techniques, 29 - Brest (France); Cauterman, M.; Favennec, J.F. [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Brest, ENIB, Technopole Brest Iroise, 29 - Brest (France)

    2001-10-01

    POTS installation protection against overvoltages generated by the lightning is a necessity for every operator. France Telecom employ so various protective devices among which gas surge arresters. Naturally the study of these devices can not be done without experiments in real size. However a modelling of gas surge arresters would allow a better specification of their characteristics. The aim of this study is to have a good representation of the voltage in the borders of the gas surge arrester, and a good restoration of the current answer. We propose a modelization of the surge arrester, as well as its implanting under Simulink (Matlab). New obtained model gives good results as in voltage as by current. He is totally confirmed compared with experimental measurements obtain during a campaign of triggered lightning at Sr Privat d'Allier by France Telecom. (authors)

  19. Application of Multi-Step Parameter Estimation Method Based on Optimization Algorithm in Sacramento Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sacramento model is widely utilized in hydrological forecast, of which the accuracy and performance are primarily determined by the model parameters, indicating the key role of parameter estimation. This paper presents a multi-step parameter estimation method, which divides the parameter estimation of Sacramento model into three steps and realizes optimization step by step. We firstly use the immune clonal selection algorithm (ICSA to solve the non-liner objective function of parameter estimation, and compare the parameter calibration result of ideal artificial data with Shuffled Complex Evolution (SCE-UA, Parallel Genetic Algorithm (PGA, and Serial Master-slaver Swarms Shuffling Evolution Algorithm Based on Particle Swarms Optimization (SMSE-PSO. The comparison result shows that ICSA has the best convergence, efficiency and precision. Then we apply ICSA to the parameter estimation of single-step and multi-step Sacramento model and simulate 32 floods based on application examples of Dongyang and Tantou river basins for validation. It is clearly shown that the results of multi-step method based on ICSA show higher accuracy and 100% qualified rate, indicating its higher precision and reliability, which has great potential to improve Sacramento model and hydrological forecast.

  20. Step Flow Model of Radial Growth and Shape Evolution of Semiconductor Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonov, S. N.; Hervieu, Yu. Yu.

    2016-12-01

    A model of radial growth of vertically aligned nanowires (NW) via formation and propagation of monoatomic steps at nanowire sidewalls is developed. The model allows to describe self-consistently the step dynamics and the axial growth of the NW. It is shown that formation of NWs with an abrupt change of wire diameter and a non-tapered section at the top might be explained by the bunching of sidewall steps due to the presence of a strong sink for adatoms at the NW top. The Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier for the attachment of adatoms to the descending step favors the step bunching at the beginning of the radial growth and promotes the decay of the bunch at a later time of the NW growth.

  1. Two-dimensional modeling of stepped planing hulls with open and pressurized air cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin I. Matveev

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A method of hydrodynamic discrete sources is applied for two-dimensional modeling of stepped planing surfaces. The water surface deformations, wetted hull lengths, and pressure distribution are calculated at given hull attitude and Froude number. Pressurized air cavities that improve hydrodynamic performance can also be modeled with the current method. Presented results include validation examples, parametric calculations of a single-step hull, effect of trim tabs, and performance of an infinite series of periodic stepped surfaces. It is shown that transverse steps can lead to higher lift-drag ratio, although at reduced lift capability, in comparison with a stepless hull. Performance of a multi-step configuration is sensitive to the wave pattern between hulls, which depends on Froude number and relative hull spacing.

  2. Capping off installation

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Installation of the cathode strip chambers for the muon system on the CMS positive endcap has been completed. Technicians install one of the last muon system cathode strip chambers on the CMS positive endcap. Like successfully putting together the pieces of a giant puzzle, installation of the muon system cathode strip chambers on one of the CMS endcaps has been completed. Total installation of the cathode strip chambers (CSC) is now 91 percent complete; only one ring of chambers needs to be mounted on the remaining endcap to finish installation of the entire system. To guarantee a good fit for the 468 total endcap muon system CSCs, physicists and engineers from the collaboration spent about 10 years carefully planning the design. The endcap muon system's cables, boxes, pipes and other parts were designed and integrated using a 3D computerized model. 'It took a long time to do all the computer modelling, but in the long run it saved us an enormous amount of time because it meant that everything fit together,...

  3. Single-step chemistry model and transport coefficient model for hydrogen combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ChangJian; WEN Jennifer; LU ShouXiang; GUO Jin

    2012-01-01

    To satisfy the needs of large-scale hydrogen combustion and explosion simulation,a method is presented to establish single-step chemistry model and transport model for fuel-air mixture.If the reaction formula for hydrogen-air mixture is H2+0.5O2→H2O,the reaction rate model is ω =1.13×1015[H2][O2]exp(-46.37T0/T) mol (cm3 s)-1,and the transport coefficient model is μ=K/Cp=pD=7.0×10-5T 0.7 g (cm s)-1.By using current models and the reference model to simulate steady Zeldovich-von Neumann-Doering (ZND) wave and free-propagating laminar flame,it is found that the results are well agreeable.Additionally,deflagration-to-detonation transition in an obstructed channel was also simulated.The numerical results are also well consistent with the experimental results.These provide a reasonable proof for current method and new models.

  4. Modelling of Vortex-Induced Loading on a Single-Blade Installation Setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypiński, Witold; Gaunaa, Mac; Heinz, Joachim

    2016-09-01

    Vortex-induced integral loading fluctuations on a single suspended blade at various inflow angles were modeled in the presents work by means of stochastic modelling methods. The reference time series were obtained by 3D DES CFD computations carried out on the DTU 10MW reference wind turbine blade. In the reference time series, the flapwise force component, Fx, showed both higher absolute values and variation than the chordwise force component, Fz, for every inflow angle considered. For this reason, the present paper focused on modelling of the Fx and not the Fz whereas Fz would be modelled using exactly the same procedure. The reference time series were significantly different, depending on the inflow angle. This made the modelling of all the time series with a single and relatively simple engineering model challenging. In order to find model parameters, optimizations were carried out, based on the root-mean-square error between the Single-Sided Amplitude Spectra of the reference and modelled time series. In order to model well defined frequency peaks present at certain inflow angles, optimized sine functions were superposed on the stochastically modelled time series. The results showed that the modelling accuracy varied depending on the inflow angle. None the less, the modelled and reference time series showed a satisfactory general agreement in terms of their visual and frequency characteristics. This indicated that the proposed method is suitable to model loading fluctuations on suspended blades.

  5. Enriching step-based product information models to support product life-cycle activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigecili, Mehmet Ilteris

    The representation and management of product information in its life-cycle requires standardized data exchange protocols. Standard for Exchange of Product Model Data (STEP) is such a standard that has been used widely by the industries. Even though STEP-based product models are well defined and syntactically correct, populating product data according to these models is not easy because they are too big and disorganized. Data exchange specifications (DEXs) and templates provide re-organized information models required in data exchange of specific activities for various businesses. DEXs show us it would be possible to organize STEP-based product models in order to support different engineering activities at various stages of product life-cycle. In this study, STEP-based models are enriched and organized to support two engineering activities: materials information declaration and tolerance analysis. Due to new environmental regulations, the substance and materials information in products have to be screened closely by manufacturing industries. This requires a fast, unambiguous and complete product information exchange between the members of a supply chain. Tolerance analysis activity, on the other hand, is used to verify the functional requirements of an assembly considering the worst case (i.e., maximum and minimum) conditions for the part/assembly dimensions. Another issue with STEP-based product models is that the semantics of product data are represented implicitly. Hence, it is difficult to interpret the semantics of data for different product life-cycle phases for various application domains. OntoSTEP, developed at NIST, provides semantically enriched product models in OWL. In this thesis, we would like to present how to interpret the GD & T specifications in STEP for tolerance analysis by utilizing OntoSTEP.

  6. Toward an engineering model for the aerodynamic forces acting on wind turbine blades in quasisteady standstill and blade installation situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunaa, Mac; Heinz, Joachim Christian; Skrzypinski, Witold Robert

    2016-01-01

    The crossflow principle is one of the key elements used in engineering models for prediction of the aerodynamic loads on wind turbine blades in standstill or blade installation situations, where the flow direction relative to the wind turbine blade has a component in the direction of the blade span...... direction. In the present work, the performance of the crossflow principle is assessed on the DTU 10MW reference blade using extensive 3D CFD calculations. Analysis of the computational results shows that there is only a relatively narrow region in which the crossflow principle describes the aerodynamic...... for the key aerodynamic loads in crossflow situations. The general validity of this model for other blade shapes should be investigated in subsequent works....

  7. STEPS: efficient simulation of stochastic reaction–diffusion models in realistic morphologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hepburn Iain

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Models of cellular molecular systems are built from components such as biochemical reactions (including interactions between ligands and membrane-bound proteins, conformational changes and active and passive transport. A discrete, stochastic description of the kinetics is often essential to capture the behavior of the system accurately. Where spatial effects play a prominent role the complex morphology of cells may have to be represented, along with aspects such as chemical localization and diffusion. This high level of detail makes efficiency a particularly important consideration for software that is designed to simulate such systems. Results We describe STEPS, a stochastic reaction–diffusion simulator developed with an emphasis on simulating biochemical signaling pathways accurately and efficiently. STEPS supports all the above-mentioned features, and well-validated support for SBML allows many existing biochemical models to be imported reliably. Complex boundaries can be represented accurately in externally generated 3D tetrahedral meshes imported by STEPS. The powerful Python interface facilitates model construction and simulation control. STEPS implements the composition and rejection method, a variation of the Gillespie SSA, supporting diffusion between tetrahedral elements within an efficient search and update engine. Additional support for well-mixed conditions and for deterministic model solution is implemented. Solver accuracy is confirmed with an original and extensive validation set consisting of isolated reaction, diffusion and reaction–diffusion systems. Accuracy imposes upper and lower limits on tetrahedron sizes, which are described in detail. By comparing to Smoldyn, we show how the voxel-based approach in STEPS is often faster than particle-based methods, with increasing advantage in larger systems, and by comparing to MesoRD we show the efficiency of the STEPS implementation. Conclusion STEPS simulates

  8. Next Step for STEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Claire [CTSI; Bremner, Brenda [CTSI

    2013-08-09

    The Siletz Tribal Energy Program (STEP), housed in the Tribe’s Planning Department, will hire a data entry coordinator to collect, enter, analyze and store all the current and future energy efficiency and renewable energy data pertaining to administrative structures the tribe owns and operates and for homes in which tribal members live. The proposed data entry coordinator will conduct an energy options analysis in collaboration with the rest of the Siletz Tribal Energy Program and Planning Department staff. An energy options analysis will result in a thorough understanding of tribal energy resources and consumption, if energy efficiency and conservation measures being implemented are having the desired effect, analysis of tribal energy loads (current and future energy consumption), and evaluation of local and commercial energy supply options. A literature search will also be conducted. In order to educate additional tribal members about renewable energy, we will send four tribal members to be trained to install and maintain solar panels, solar hot water heaters, wind turbines and/or micro-hydro.

  9. Next Step for STEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Claire [CTSI; Bremner, Brenda [CTSI

    2013-08-09

    The Siletz Tribal Energy Program (STEP), housed in the Tribe’s Planning Department, will hire a data entry coordinator to collect, enter, analyze and store all the current and future energy efficiency and renewable energy data pertaining to administrative structures the tribe owns and operates and for homes in which tribal members live. The proposed data entry coordinator will conduct an energy options analysis in collaboration with the rest of the Siletz Tribal Energy Program and Planning Department staff. An energy options analysis will result in a thorough understanding of tribal energy resources and consumption, if energy efficiency and conservation measures being implemented are having the desired effect, analysis of tribal energy loads (current and future energy consumption), and evaluation of local and commercial energy supply options. A literature search will also be conducted. In order to educate additional tribal members about renewable energy, we will send four tribal members to be trained to install and maintain solar panels, solar hot water heaters, wind turbines and/or micro-hydro.

  10. STEPS: modeling and simulating complex reaction-diffusion systems with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Wils

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe how the use of the Python language improved the user interface of the program STEPS. STEPS is a simulation platform for modeling and stochastic simulation of coupled reaction-diffusion systems with complex 3-dimensional boundary conditions. Setting up such models is a complicated process that consists of many phases. Initial versions of STEPS relied on a static input format that did not cleanly separate these phases, limiting modelers in how they could control the simulation and becoming increasingly complex as new features and new simulation algorithms were added. We solved all of these problems by tightly integrating STEPS with Python, using SWIG to expose our existing simulation code.

  11. Technical-parameter calculation model for underground low-power electrical lines and indoor installations used in telecommunications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Bastidas Mora

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of electrical distribution theory for 60Hz-lines operating at low voltage, particularly underground lines and residential indoor installations. Such distribution lines’ behaviour is observed as a function of frequency to consider any advantages regarding the potential use of power transmission lines (PTL for transmitting telecommunication signals. A method for computing the secondary parameters is proposed which has been based on the primary parameters, namely inductance, capacitance, conductance and resistance. The secondary parameters so obtained were characteristic impedance, propagation constant (together with its real value and the attenuation constant. Conductor configurations, insulation materials and gauges commonly used in Colombia were verified for such low-voltage lines. A mathematical model is proposed as a theoretical tool for analysing and predicting characteristic impedance pattern and the attenuations which occur at high frequencies, thereby complementing our group’s previous work. Conclusions are drawn, together with a perspective regarding future work and applications.

  12. Comparison of Model Reliabilities from Single-Step and Bivariate Blending Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskinen, Matti; Mäntysaari, Esa; Lidauer, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    Model based reliabilities in genetic evaluation are compared between three methods: animal model BLUP, single-step BLUP, and bivariate blending after genomic BLUP. The original bivariate blending is revised in this work to better account animal models. The study data is extracted from the product......Model based reliabilities in genetic evaluation are compared between three methods: animal model BLUP, single-step BLUP, and bivariate blending after genomic BLUP. The original bivariate blending is revised in this work to better account animal models. The study data is extracted from...... the production trait evaluation of Nordic Red dairy cattle. Genotyped bulls with daughters are used as training animals, and genotyped bulls and producing cows as candidate animals. For simplicity, size of the data is chosen so that the full inverses of the mixed model equation coefficient matrices can...... be calculated. Model reliabilities by the single-step and the bivariate blending methods were higher than by animal model due to genomic information. Compared to the single-step method, the bivariate blending method reliability estimates were, in general, lower. Computationally bivariate blending method was...

  13. A Model for Determining Modular Heat Recovery Incinerator Feasibility on Air Force Installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    electrostatic precipitators downstream of spray 34 dryers or dry sorbent injectors to enhance particulate control (22:13-14). Low RQ0 Combustion. Fuels...of the model. Since this questionnaire was developed through a literature review, a research technique such as the Delphi technique could help to

  14. Self-administered treatment in stepped-care models of depression treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, Forrest R; Hanson, Ashley; Welsh, Douglas

    2003-03-01

    Stepped behavioral health care models have begun to receive increased attention. Self-administered treatments deserve consideration as an element in these models for some disorders and for some consumers. Features suggesting inclusion include low cost, wide availability, and evidence-based status. We present a stepped-care model for depression inclusive of a self-administered treatment component. We also discuss cautions such as depression severity and consumer preference. Evaluation of the efficacy and cost effectiveness of this approach to depression treatment is necessary. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 59: 341-349, 2003.

  15. Integrated Climate Change and Threatened Bird Population Modeling to Mitigate Operations Risks on Florida Military Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The integrated modeling and management framework developed in this study can be generalized to other coastal facilities and environmental... Nourishment , Exclosures, and Predator Management) have benefits worthy of investigation. In the following section we introduce the location of study , bird...m SLR as well as the No Action and Beach Nourishment scenarios. For this measure, cells throughout the study site with a habitat suitability equal

  16. One-Step Dynamic Classifier Ensemble Model for Customer Value Segmentation with Missing Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific customer value segmentation (CVS is the base of efficient customer relationship management, and customer credit scoring, fraud detection, and churn prediction all belong to CVS. In real CVS, the customer data usually include lots of missing values, which may affect the performance of CVS model greatly. This study proposes a one-step dynamic classifier ensemble model for missing values (ODCEM model. On the one hand, ODCEM integrates the preprocess of missing values and the classification modeling into one step; on the other hand, it utilizes multiple classifiers ensemble technology in constructing the classification models. The empirical results in credit scoring dataset “German” from UCI and the real customer churn prediction dataset “China churn” show that the ODCEM outperforms four commonly used “two-step” models and the ensemble based model LMF and can provide better decision support for market managers.

  17. Modeling energy production of solar thermal systems and wind turbines for installation at corn ethanol plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrke, Elizabeth

    Nearly every aspect of human existence relies on energy in some way. Most of this energy is currently derived from fossil fuel resources. Increasing energy demands coupled with environmental and national security concerns have facilitated the move towards renewable energy sources. Biofuels like corn ethanol are one of the ways the U.S. has significantly reduced petroleum consumption. However, the large energy requirement of corn ethanol limits the net benefit of the fuel. Using renewable energy sources to produce ethanol can greatly improve its economic and environmental benefits. The main purpose of this study was to model the useful energy received from a solar thermal array and a wind turbine at various locations to determine the feasibility of applying these technologies at ethanol plants around the country. The model calculates thermal energy received from a solar collector array and electricity generated by a wind turbine utilizing various input data to characterize the equipment. Project cost and energy rate inputs are used to evaluate the profitability of the solar array or wind turbine. The current state of the wind and solar markets were examined to give an accurate representation of the economics of each industry. Eighteen ethanol plant locations were evaluated for the viability of a solar thermal array and/or wind turbine. All ethanol plant locations have long payback periods for solar thermal arrays, but high natural gas prices significantly reduce this timeframe. Government incentives will be necessary for the economic feasibility of solar thermal arrays. Wind turbines can be very profitable for ethanol plants in the Midwest due to large wind resources. The profitability of wind power is sensitive to regional energy prices. However, government incentives for wind power do not significantly change the economic feasibility of a wind turbine. This model can be used by current or future ethanol facilities to investigate or begin the planning process for a

  18. Neuromorphic control of stepping pattern generation: a dynamic model with analog circuit implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhijun; Cameron, Katherine; Lewinger, William; Webb, Barbara; Murray, Alan

    2012-03-01

    Animals such as stick insects can adaptively walk on complex terrains by dynamically adjusting their stepping motion patterns. Inspired by the coupled Matsuoka and resonate-and-fire neuron models, we present a nonlinear oscillation model as the neuromorphic central pattern generator (CPG) for rhythmic stepping pattern generation. This dynamic model can also be used to actuate the motoneurons on a leg joint with adjustable driving frequencies and duty cycles by changing a few of the model parameters while operating such that different stepping patterns can be generated. A novel mixed-signal integrated circuit design of this dynamic model is subsequently implemented, which, although simplified, shares the equivalent output performance in terms of the adjustable frequency and duty cycle. Three identical CPG models being used to drive three joints can make an arthropod leg of three degrees of freedom. With appropriate initial circuit parameter settings, and thus suitable phase lags among joints, the leg is expected to walk on a complex terrain with adaptive steps. The adaptation is associated with the circuit parameters mediated both by the higher level nervous system and the lower level sensory signals. The model is realized using a 0.3- complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process and the results are reported.

  19. Modeling early in situ wetting of a compacted bentonite buffer installed in low permeable crystalline bedrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessirier, B.; Frampton, A.; Fransson, Å.; Jarsjö, J.

    2016-08-01

    The repository concept for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Sweden and Finland is planned to be constructed in sparsely fractured crystalline bedrock and with an engineered bentonite buffer to embed the waste canisters. An important stage in such a deep repository is the postclosure phase following the deposition and the backfilling operations when the initially unsaturated buffer material gets hydrated by the groundwater delivered by the natural bedrock. We use numerical simulations to interpret observations on buffer wetting gathered during an in situ campaign, the Bentonite Rock Interaction Experiment, in which unsaturated bentonite columns were introduced into deposition holes in the floor of a 417 m deep tunnel at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. Our objectives are to assess the performance of state-of-the-art flow models in reproducing the buffer wetting process and to investigate to which extent dependable predictions of buffer wetting times and saturation patterns can be made based on information collected prior to buffer insertion. This would be important for preventing insertion into unsuitable bedrock environments. Field data and modeling results indicate the development of a de-saturated zone in the rock and show that in most cases, the presence or absence of fractures and flow heterogeneity are more important factors for correct wetting predictions than the total inflow. For instance, for an equal open-hole inflow value, homogeneous inflow yields much more rapid buffer wetting than cases where fractures are represented explicitly thus creating heterogeneous inflow distributions.

  20. Statistical model for assessing the risk of hail damage to any ground installation. Technical report, June 1978-March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, M; Armstrong, P R

    1979-09-01

    This report describes a statistical model which has been developed to determine the risk of damage by large hail to any ground installation (such as a solar flat plate collector). The model is based on data for the number of haildays per year, hailstone size distribution, and storm severity (expressed in number of hailstones per square meter per storm). Other than parameters derived from the raw meteorological data available, the parameters of the model are the number of years of surface exposure and the exposure area size. The end result is the probability of a hailstone of a given size striking a given surface area in a given number of years. The maximum probable hailstone size is used as a convenient index of hail risk. The data upon which to base a prediction model are sparse at this time, covering few geographic locations; much of the information available is deficient in sampling consistency and/or sample size. For this reason, this report fully documents the derivation and use of the model for future applications, when more and better data are collected. The FORTRAN source code to calculate the risk model digitally is included in APPENDIX D. This model improves on previous work in: (1) the use of more thorough statistical procedures and a more rigorous accounting of storm severity; (2) a more thorough investigation into the two probability density distributions commonly used (Poisson and negative binomial) to describe hailday frequencies, and (3) an attempt to define more rigorously the distribution of hailstone sizes. A sensitivity analysis was performed and conclusions are drawn from the results.

  1. Economic Competitiveness of U.S. Utility-Scale Photovoltaics Systems in 2015: Regional Cost Modeling of Installed Cost ($/W) and LCOE ($/kWh)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Ran; James, Ted L.; Chung, Donald; Gagne, Douglas; Lopez, Anthony; Dobos, Aron

    2015-06-14

    Utility-scale photovoltaics (PV) system growth is largely driven by the economic metrics of total installed costs and levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), which differ by region. This study details regional cost factors, including environment (wind speed and snow loads), labor costs, material costs, sales taxes, and permitting costs using a new system-level bottom-up cost modeling approach. We use this model to identify regional all-in PV installed costs for fixed-tilt and one-axis tracker systems in the United States with consideration of union and non-union labor costs in 2015. LCOEs using those regional installed costs are then modeled and spatially presented. Finally, we assess the cost reduction opportunities of increasing module conversion efficiencies on PV system costs in order to indicate the possible economic impacts of module technology advancements and help future research and development (R&D) effects in the context of U.S. SunShot targets.

  2. Monte Carlo modeling of proton therapy installations: a global experimental method to validate secondary neutron dose calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, J; Martinetti, F; Sayah, R; Lacoste, V; Donadille, L; Trompier, F; Nauraye, C; De Marzi, L; Vabre, I; Delacroix, S; Hérault, J; Clairand, I

    2014-06-07

    Monte Carlo calculations are increasingly used to assess stray radiation dose to healthy organs of proton therapy patients and estimate the risk of secondary cancer. Among the secondary particles, neutrons are of primary concern due to their high relative biological effectiveness. The validation of Monte Carlo simulations for out-of-field neutron doses remains however a major challenge to the community. Therefore this work focused on developing a global experimental approach to test the reliability of the MCNPX models of two proton therapy installations operating at 75 and 178 MeV for ocular and intracranial tumor treatments, respectively. The method consists of comparing Monte Carlo calculations against experimental measurements of: (a) neutron spectrometry inside the treatment room, (b) neutron ambient dose equivalent at several points within the treatment room, (c) secondary organ-specific neutron doses inside the Rando-Alderson anthropomorphic phantom. Results have proven that Monte Carlo models correctly reproduce secondary neutrons within the two proton therapy treatment rooms. Sensitive differences between experimental measurements and simulations were nonetheless observed especially with the highest beam energy. The study demonstrated the need for improved measurement tools, especially at the high neutron energy range, and more accurate physical models and cross sections within the Monte Carlo code to correctly assess secondary neutron doses in proton therapy applications.

  3. Monte Carlo modeling of proton therapy installations: a global experimental method to validate secondary neutron dose calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, J.; Martinetti, F.; Sayah, R.; Lacoste, V.; Donadille, L.; Trompier, F.; Nauraye, C.; De Marzi, L.; Vabre, I.; Delacroix, S.; Hérault, J.; Clairand, I.

    2014-06-01

    Monte Carlo calculations are increasingly used to assess stray radiation dose to healthy organs of proton therapy patients and estimate the risk of secondary cancer. Among the secondary particles, neutrons are of primary concern due to their high relative biological effectiveness. The validation of Monte Carlo simulations for out-of-field neutron doses remains however a major challenge to the community. Therefore this work focused on developing a global experimental approach to test the reliability of the MCNPX models of two proton therapy installations operating at 75 and 178 MeV for ocular and intracranial tumor treatments, respectively. The method consists of comparing Monte Carlo calculations against experimental measurements of: (a) neutron spectrometry inside the treatment room, (b) neutron ambient dose equivalent at several points within the treatment room, (c) secondary organ-specific neutron doses inside the Rando-Alderson anthropomorphic phantom. Results have proven that Monte Carlo models correctly reproduce secondary neutrons within the two proton therapy treatment rooms. Sensitive differences between experimental measurements and simulations were nonetheless observed especially with the highest beam energy. The study demonstrated the need for improved measurement tools, especially at the high neutron energy range, and more accurate physical models and cross sections within the Monte Carlo code to correctly assess secondary neutron doses in proton therapy applications.

  4. Island-dynamics model for mound formation: effect of a step-edge barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papac, Joe; Margetis, Dionisios; Gibou, Frederic; Ratsch, Christian

    2014-08-01

    We formulate and implement a generalized island-dynamics model of epitaxial growth based on the level-set technique to include the effect of an additional energy barrier for the attachment and detachment of atoms at step edges. For this purpose, we invoke a mixed, Robin-type, boundary condition for the flux of adsorbed atoms (adatoms) at each step edge. In addition, we provide an analytic expression for the requisite equilibrium adatom concentration at the island boundary. The only inputs are atomistic kinetic rates. We present a numerical scheme for solving the adatom diffusion equation with such a mixed boundary condition. Our simulation results demonstrate that mounds form when the step-edge barrier is included, and that these mounds steepen as the step-edge barrier increases.

  5. Women's steps of change and entry into drug abuse treatment. A multidimensional stages of change model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, V B; Melchior, L A; Panter, A T; Slaughter, R; Huba, G J

    2000-04-01

    The Transtheoretical, or Stages of Change Model, has been applied to the investigation of help-seeking related to a number of addictive behaviors. Overall, the model has shown to be very important in understanding the process of help-seeking. However, substance abuse rarely exists in isolation from other health, mental health, and social problems. The present work extends the original Stages of Change Model by proposing "Steps of Change" as they relate to entry into substance abuse treatment programs for women. Readiness to make life changes in four domains-domestic violence, HIV sexual risk behavior, substance abuse, and mental health-is examined in relation to entry into four substance abuse treatment modalities (12-step, detoxification, outpatient, and residential). The Steps of Change Model hypothesizes that help-seeking behavior of substance-abusing women may reflect a hierarchy of readiness based on the immediacy, or time urgency, of their treatment issues. For example, women in battering relationships may be ready to make changes to reduce their exposure to violence before admitting readiness to seek substance abuse treatment. The Steps of Change Model was examined in a sample of 451 women contacted through a substance abuse treatment-readiness program in Los Angeles, California. A series of logistic regression analyses predict entry into four separate treatment modalities that vary. Results suggest a multidimensional Stages of Change Model that may extend to other populations and to other types of help-seeking behaviors.

  6. Optimisation of a thermal storage installation in Wollerau. Appendix 1; Optimisation par simulation calee de l'installation de stockage Wollerau. Annexe 1: modele de simulation pour l'installation de Wollerau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahud, D.

    2003-07-01

    This appendix to a final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy describes the dynamic simulation models and parameters developed at the University of Applied Science of Southern Switzerland that were used for the simulation of the heating and cooling system of an industrial building in Wollerau, Switzerland. The models used to simulate the principal components of the system are described. The quantities calculated by the system and the simulation parameters used for the reference system are discussed and the energy-balance simulated is presented.

  7. Continuum Limit of a Mesoscopic Model with Elasticity of Step Motion on Vicinal Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Liu, Jian-Guo; Lu, Jianfeng

    2016-12-01

    This work considers the rigorous derivation of continuum models of step motion starting from a mesoscopic Burton-Cabrera-Frank-type model following the Xiang's work (Xiang in SIAM J Appl Math 63(1):241-258, 2002). We prove that as the lattice parameter goes to zero, for a finite time interval, a modified discrete model converges to the strong solution of the limiting PDE with first-order convergence rate.

  8. One-Step Dynamic Classifier Ensemble Model for Customer Value Segmentation with Missing Values

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Xiao; Bing Zhu; Geer Teng; Changzheng He; Dunhu Liu

    2014-01-01

    Scientific customer value segmentation (CVS) is the base of efficient customer relationship management, and customer credit scoring, fraud detection, and churn prediction all belong to CVS. In real CVS, the customer data usually include lots of missing values, which may affect the performance of CVS model greatly. This study proposes a one-step dynamic classifier ensemble model for missing values (ODCEM) model. On the one hand, ODCEM integrates the preprocess of missing values and the classif...

  9. Development of a three dimensional circulation model based on fractional step method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abualtayef, Mazen; Kuroiwa, Masamitsu; Seif, Ahmed Khaled; Matsubara, Yuhei; Aly, Ahmed M.; Sayed, Ahmed A.; Sambe, Alioune Nar

    2010-03-01

    A numerical model was developed for simulating a three-dimensional multilayer hydrodynamic and thermodynamic model in domains with irregular bottom topography. The model was designed for examining the interactions between flow and topography. The model was based on the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and was solved using the fractional step method, which combines the finite difference method in the horizontal plane and the finite element method in the vertical plane. The numerical techniques were described and the model test and application were presented. For the model application to the northern part of Ariake Sea, the hydrodynamic.

  10. A reduced-complexity model for sediment transport and step-pool morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletti, Matteo; Molnar, Peter; Hassan, Marwan A.; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    A new particle-based reduced-complexity model to simulate sediment transport and channel morphology in steep streams in presented. The model CAST (Cellular Automaton Sediment Transport) contains phenomenological parameterizations, deterministic or stochastic, of sediment supply, bed load transport, and particle entrainment and deposition in a cellular-automaton space with uniform grain size. The model reproduces a realistic bed morphology and typical fluctuations in transport rates observed in steep channels. Particle hop distances, from entrainment to deposition, are well fitted by exponential distributions, in agreement with field data. The effect of stochasticity in both the entrainment and the input rate is shown. A stochastic parameterization of the entrainment is essential to create and maintain a realistic channel morphology, while the intermittent transport of grains in CAST shreds the input signal and its stochastic variability. A jamming routine has been added to CAST to simulate the grain-grain and grain-bed interactions that lead to particle jamming and step formation in a step-pool stream. The results show that jamming is effective in generating steps in unsteady conditions. Steps are created during high-flow periods and they survive during low flows only in sediment-starved conditions, in agreement with the jammed-state hypothesis of Church and Zimmermann (2007). Reduced-complexity models like CAST give new insights into the dynamics of complex phenomena such as sediment transport and bedform stability and are a useful complement to fully physically based models to test research hypotheses.

  11. Evaluating Bank Profitability in Ghana: A five step Du-Pont Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baah Aye Kusi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigate bank profitability in Ghana using periods before, during and after the globe financial crises with the five step du-pont model for the first time.We adapt the variable of the five step du-pont model to explain bank profitability with a panel data of twenty-five banks in Ghana from 2006 to 2012. To ensure meaningful generalization robust errors fixed and random effects models are used.Our empirical results suggests that bank operating activities (operating profit margin, bank efficiency (asset turnover, bank leverage (asset to equity and financing cost (interest burden  were positive and significant determinants of bank profitability (ROE during the period of study implying that bank in Ghana can boost return to equity holders through the above mentioned variables. We further report that the five step du-pont model better explains the total variation (94% in bank profitability in Ghana as compared to earlier findings suggesting that bank specific variables are keen in explaining ROE in banks in Ghana.We cited no empirical study that has employed five step du-pont model making our study unique and different from earlier studies as we assert that bank specific variables are core to explaining bank profitability.                

  12. Single-step stereolithography of complex anatomical models for optical flow measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zélicourt, Diane; Pekkan, Kerem; Kitajima, Hiroumi; Frakes, David; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2005-02-01

    Transparent stereolithographic rapid prototyping (RP) technology has already demonstrated in literature to be a practical model construction tool for optical flow measurements such as digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV), laser doppler velocimetry (LDV), and flow visualization. Here, we employ recently available transparent RP resins and eliminate time-consuming casting and chemical curing steps from the traditional approach. This note details our methodology with relevant material properties and highlights its advantages. Stereolithographic model printing with our procedure is now a direct single-step process, enabling faster geometric replication of complex computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models for exact experimental validation studies. This methodology is specifically applied to the in vitro flow modeling of patient-specific total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) morphologies. The effect of RP machining grooves, surface quality, and hydrodynamic performance measurements as compared with the smooth glass models are also quantified.

  13. Integrated modeling of high poloidal beta scenario for a next-step reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenaghan, J.; Garofalo, A. M.; Meneghini, O.; Smith, S. P.

    2015-11-01

    In order to fill the scientific and technological gaps between ITER and a nuclear fusion power plant DEMO, a next-step integrated nuclear test facility is critical. A high poloidal beta tokamak regime investigated in recent DIII-D experiments is a promising candidate for steady state operation in such a next-step device because the large bootstrap current fraction (~ 80 %) reduces the demands on the external current drive. Despite the large values of q95 ~10, the normalized fusion performance observed in the experiments meet the target for an economically attractive fusion power plant such as ARIES-ACT2. In this work, we will project the performance for a conducting and superconducting coil next-step steady state reactor using theory-based 0-D modeling and full 1.5D transport modeling. Work supported by U.S. DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  14. Analogue modelling of the effect of topographic steps in the development of strike-slip faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás, Ricardo; Duarte, João C.; Rosas, Filipe M.; Schellart, Wouter; Strak, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Strike-slip faults often cut across regions of overthickened crust, such as oceanic plateaus or islands. These morphological steps likely cause a local variation in the stress field that controls the geometry of these systems. Such variation in the stress field will likely play a role in strain localization and associated seismicity. This is of particular importance since wrench systems can produce very high magnitude earthquakes. However, such systems have been generally overlooked and are still poorly understood. In this work we will present a set of analogue models that were designed with the objective of understanding how a step in the morphology affects the development of a strike-slip fault system. The models consist of a sand-cake with two areas with different thicknesses connected by a gentle ramp perpendicular to a dextral strike-slip basal fault. The sand-cake lies above two basal plates to which the dextral relative motion was imposed using a stepping-motor. Our results show that a Riedel fault system develops across the two flat areas. However, a very asymmetric fault pattern develops across the morphological step. A deltoid constrictional bulge develops in the thinner part of the model, which progressively acquires a sigmoidal shape with increasing offset. In the thicker part of the domain, the deformation is mostly accommodated by Riedel faults and the one closer to the step acquires a relatively lower angle. Associated to this Riedel fault a collapse area develops and amplifies with increasing offset. For high topographic steps, the propagation of the main fault across the step area only occurs in the final stages of the experiments, contrary to what happens when the step is small or inexistent. These results strongly suggest a major impact of the variation of topography on the development of strike-slip fault systems. The step in the morphology causes variations in the potential energy that changes the local stress field (mainly the vertical

  15. Data sensitivity in a hybrid STEP/Coulomb model for aftershock forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steacy, S.; Jimenez Lloret, A.; Gerstenberger, M.

    2014-12-01

    Operational earthquake forecasting is rapidly becoming a 'hot topic' as civil protection authorities seek quantitative information on likely near future earthquake distributions during seismic crises. At present, most of the models in public domain are statistical and use information about past and present seismicity as well as b-value and Omori's law to forecast future rates. A limited number of researchers, however, are developing hybrid models which add spatial constraints from Coulomb stress modeling to existing statistical approaches. Steacy et al. (2013), for instance, recently tested a model that combines Coulomb stress patterns with the STEP (short-term earthquake probability) approach against seismicity observed during the 2010-2012 Canterbury earthquake sequence. They found that the new model performed at least as well as, and often better than, STEP when tested against retrospective data but that STEP was generally better in pseudo-prospective tests that involved data actually available within the first 10 days of each event of interest. They suggested that the major reason for this discrepancy was uncertainty in the slip models and, in particular, in the geometries of the faults involved in each complex major event. Here we test this hypothesis by developing a number of retrospective forecasts for the Landers earthquake using hypothetical slip distributions developed by Steacy et al. (2004) to investigate the sensitivity of Coulomb stress models to fault geometry and earthquake slip, and we also examine how the choice of receiver plane geometry affects the results. We find that the results are strongly sensitive to the slip models and moderately sensitive to the choice of receiver orientation. We further find that comparison of the stress fields (resulting from the slip models) with the location of events in the learning period provides advance information on whether or not a particular hybrid model will perform better than STEP.

  16. Comparing uncertainty resulting from two-step and global regression procedures applied to microbial growth models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, K G; Marks, B P

    2007-12-01

    Two different microbial modeling procedures were compared and validated against independent data for Listeria monocytogenes growth. The most generally used method is two consecutive regressions: growth parameters are estimated from a primary regression of microbial counts, and a secondary regression relates the growth parameters to experimental conditions. A global regression is an alternative method in which the primary and secondary models are combined, giving a direct relationship between experimental factors and microbial counts. The Gompertz equation was the primary model, and a response surface model was the secondary model. Independent data from meat and poultry products were used to validate the modeling procedures. The global regression yielded the lower standard errors of calibration, 0.95 log CFU/ml for aerobic and 1.21 log CFU/ml for anaerobic conditions. The two-step procedure yielded errors of 1.35 log CFU/ml for aerobic and 1.62 log CFU/ ml for anaerobic conditions. For food products, the global regression was more robust than the two-step procedure for 65% of the cases studied. The robustness index for the global regression ranged from 0.27 (performed better than expected) to 2.60. For the two-step method, the robustness index ranged from 0.42 to 3.88. The predictions were overestimated (fail safe) in more than 50% of the cases using the global regression and in more than 70% of the cases using the two-step regression. Overall, the global regression performed better than the two-step procedure for this specific application.

  17. Student Responses to a Context- and Inquiry-Based Three-Step Teaching Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walan, Susanne; Rundgren, Shu-Nu Chang

    2015-01-01

    Research has indicated that both context- and inquiry-based approaches could increase student interest in learning sciences. This case study aims to present a context- and inquiry-based combined teaching approach, using a three-step teaching model developed by the PROFILES project, and investigates Swedish students' responses to the activity. A…

  18. Student Responses to a Context- and Inquiry-Based Three-Step Teaching Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walan, Susanne; Rundgren, Shu-Nu Chang

    2015-01-01

    Research has indicated that both context- and inquiry-based approaches could increase student interest in learning sciences. This case study aims to present a context- and inquiry-based combined teaching approach, using a three-step teaching model developed by the PROFILES project, and investigates Swedish students' responses to the activity. A…

  19. Participatory ergonomics applied in installation work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.M. de; Vink, P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper evaluates a step-by-step participatory approach to better work, applied in reducing the musculoskeletal workload in installation work. To arrive at a reduction in workload, a steering group led the project through the following steps: Introduction: defining the goal and informing all 7000

  20. Displacement pile installation effects in sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijer-Lundberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Installation effects govern the post-installation behaviour of displacement piles in sand. These effects are currently not completely understood. Suitable experimental techniques to model these installation effects include field, laboratory and experimental models. In the current thesis a small-scal

  1. Simulation step size analysis of a whole-cell computational model of bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Raphael; Castro, Maria Clicia S.; Silva, Fabrício Alves B.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding how complex phenotypes arise from individual molecules and their interactions is a major challenge in biology and, to meet this challenge, computational approaches are increasingly employed. As an example, a recent paper [1] proposed a whole-cell model Mycoplasma genitalium including all cell components and their interactions. 28 modules representing several cell functions were modeled independently, and then integrated into a single computational model. One assumption considered in the whole-cell model of M.Genitalium is that all 28 modules can be modeled independently given the 1 second step size used in simulations. This is a major assumption, since it simplifies the modeling of several cell functions and makes the modeling of the system as a whole feasible. In this paper we investigate the dependency of experimental results on that assumption. We have simulated the M.Genitalium cell cycle using several simulation time step sizes and compared the results to the ones obtained with the system using 1 second simulation time step.

  2. A permeation theory for single-file ion channels: One- and two-step models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter Hugo

    2011-04-01

    How many steps are required to model permeation through ion channels? This question is investigated by comparing one- and two-step models of permeation with experiment and MD simulation for the first time. In recent MD simulations, the observed permeation mechanism was identified as resembling a Hodgkin and Keynes knock-on mechanism with one voltage-dependent rate-determining step [Jensen et al., PNAS 107, 5833 (2010)]. These previously published simulation data are fitted to a one-step knock-on model that successfully explains the highly non-Ohmic current-voltage curve observed in the simulation. However, these predictions (and the simulations upon which they are based) are not representative of real channel behavior, which is typically Ohmic at low voltages. A two-step association/dissociation (A/D) model is then compared with experiment for the first time. This two-parameter model is shown to be remarkably consistent with previously published permeation experiments through the MaxiK potassium channel over a wide range of concentrations and positive voltages. The A/D model also provides a first-order explanation of permeation through the Shaker potassium channel, but it does not explain the asymmetry observed experimentally. To address this, a new asymmetric variant of the A/D model is developed using the present theoretical framework. It includes a third parameter that represents the value of the "permeation coordinate" (fractional electric potential energy) corresponding to the triply occupied state n of the channel. This asymmetric A/D model is fitted to published permeation data through the Shaker potassium channel at physiological concentrations, and it successfully predicts qualitative changes in the negative current-voltage data (including a transition to super-Ohmic behavior) based solely on a fit to positive-voltage data (that appear linear). The A/D model appears to be qualitatively consistent with a large group of published MD simulations, but no

  3. Modelling a solar-assisted air-conditioning system installed in CIESOL building using an artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosiek, S.; Batlles, F.J. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); CIESOL, Joint Centre University of Almeria-CIEMAT, 04120 Almeria (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    This paper proposes Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to model a solar-assisted air-conditioning system installed in the Solar Energy Research Center (CIESOL). This system consists mainly of the single-effect LiBr-H{sub 2}0 absorption chiller fed by water provided from either solar collectors or hot water storage tanks. The present work describes the total solar cooling systems based on absorption chiller and provided only with solar collectors. The experimental data were collected during the cooling period of 2008. ANN was used with the main goal of predicting the efficiency of the chiller and global system using the lowest number of input variables. The configuration 7-8-4 (7 inputs, 8 hidden and 4 output neurons) was found to be the optimal topology. The results demonstrate the accuracy ANN's predictions with a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of less than 1.9% and practically null deviation, which can be considered very satisfactory. (author)

  4. An Examination of Higher-Order Treatments of Boundary Conditions in Split-Step Fourier Parabolic Equation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    HIGHER-ORDER TREATMENTS OF BOUNDARY CONDITIONS IN SPLIT-STEP FOURIER PARABOLIC EQUATION MODELS by Savas Erdim June 2015 Thesis Advisor...CONDITIONS IN SPLIT-STEP FOURIER PARABOLIC EQUATION MODELS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Savas Erdim 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES... Parabolic equation models solved using the split-step Fourier (SSF) algorithm, such as the Monterey Miami Parabolic Equation model, are commonly used

  5. Physical modelling and scale effects of air-water flows on stepped spillways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANSON Hubert; GONZALEZ Carlos A.

    2005-01-01

    During the last three decades, the introduction of new construction materials (e.g. RCC (Roller Compacted Concrete),strengthened gabions) has increased the interest for stepped channels and spillways. However stepped chute hydraulics is not simple, because of different flow regimes and importantly because of very-strong interactions between entrained air and turbulence. In this study, new air-water flow measurements were conducted in two large-size stepped chute facilities with two step heights in each facility to study experimental distortion caused by scale effects and the soundness of result extrapolation to prototypes. Experimental data included distributions of air concentration, air-water flow velocity, bubble frequency, bubble chord length and air-water flow turbulence intensity. For a Froude similitude, the results implied that scale effects were observed in both facilities, although the geometric scaling ratio was only Lr=2 in each case. The selection of the criterion for scale effects is a critical issue. For example, major differences (i.e. scale effects) were observed in terms of bubble chord sizes and turbulence levels although little scale effects were seen in terms of void fraction and velocity distributions. Overall the findings emphasize that physical modelling of stepped chutes based upon a Froude similitude is more sensitive to scale effects than classical smooth-invert chute studies, and this is consistent with basic dimensional analysis developed herein.

  6. Modeling solute transport in distribution networks with variable demand and time step sizes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyton, Chad E.; Bilisoly, Roger Lee; Buchberger, Steven G. (University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH); McKenna, Sean Andrew; Yarrington, Lane

    2004-06-01

    The effect of variable demands at short time scales on the transport of a solute through a water distribution network has not previously been studied. We simulate flow and transport in a small water distribution network using EPANET to explore the effect of variable demand on solute transport across a range of hydraulic time step scales from 1 minute to 2 hours. We show that variable demands at short time scales can have the following effects: smoothing of a pulse of tracer injected into a distribution network and increasing the variability of both the transport pathway and transport timing through the network. Variable demands are simulated for these different time step sizes using a previously developed Poisson rectangular pulse (PRP) demand generator that considers demand at a node to be a combination of exponentially distributed arrival times with log-normally distributed intensities and durations. Solute is introduced at a tank and at three different network nodes and concentrations are modeled through the system using the Lagrangian transport scheme within EPANET. The transport equations within EPANET assume perfect mixing of the solute within a parcel of water and therefore physical dispersion cannot occur. However, variation in demands along the solute transport path contribute to both removal and distortion of the injected pulse. The model performance measures examined are the distribution of the Reynolds number, the variation in the center of mass of the solute across time, and the transport path and timing of the solute through the network. Variation in all three performance measures is greatest at the shortest time step sizes. As the scale of the time step increases, the variability in these performance measures decreases. The largest time steps produce results that are inconsistent with the results produced by the smaller time steps.

  7. Initial Steps Toward a Hydrologic "Watershed" Model for the Ablation Zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M. G.; Smith, L. C.; Rennermalm, A. K.; Pitcher, L. H.; Overstreet, B. T.; Chu, V. W.; Ryan, J.; Yang, K.

    2015-12-01

    Surface meltwater production on the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is a well-documented phenomenon but we lack understanding of the physical mechanisms that control the production, transport, and fate of the meltwater. To address this, we present initial steps toward the development of a novel hydrologic model for supraglacial streamflow on the GrIS. Ice ablation and surface meteorology were measured during a 6-day field campaign in a 112 km2 ablation zone of southwest Greenland. We modeled ablation using SnowModel, an energy balance snow- and ice-ablation model. The required model inputs included standard surface meteorology and a digital elevation model (DEM), and the model outputs include all components of the energy balance and surface meltwater production for each grid cell in the ice-sheet watershed. Our next steps toward developing a complete hydrologic model for supraglacial streamflow in the ablation zone of the GrIS include the application of the meltwater-routing model HydroFlow to compare with in-situ measurements of supraglacial river discharge.

  8. Analytical model of LDMOS with a double step buried oxide layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Song; Duan, Baoxing; Cao, Zhen; Guo, Haijun; Yang, Yintang

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a two-dimensional analytical model is established for the Buried Oxide Double Step Silicon On Insulator structure proposed by the authors. Based on the two-dimensional Poisson equation, the analytic expressions of the surface electric field and potential distributions for the device are achieved. In the BODS (Buried Oxide Double Step Silicon On Insulator) structure, the buried oxide layer thickness changes stepwise along the drift region, and the positive charge in the drift region can be accumulated at the corner of the step. These accumulated charge function as the space charge in the depleted drift region. At the same time, the electric field in the oxide layer also varies with the different drift region thickness. These variations especially the accumulated charge will modulate the surface electric field distribution through the electric field modulation effects, which makes the surface electric field distribution more uniform. As a result, the breakdown voltage of the device is improved by 30% compared with the conventional SOI structure. To verify the accuracy of the analytical model, the device simulation software ISE TCAD is utilized, the analytical values are in good agreement with the simulation results by the simulation software. That means the established two-dimensional analytical model for BODS structure is valid, and it also illustrates the breakdown voltage enhancement by the electric field modulation effect sufficiently. The established analytical models will provide the physical and mathematical basis for further analysis of the new power devices with the patterned buried oxide layer.

  9. Preparatory steps for a robust dynamic model for organically bound tritium dynamics in agricultural crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melintescu, A.; Galeriu, D. [' Horia Hulubei' National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Diabate, S.; Strack, S. [Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    The processes involved in tritium transfer in crops are complex and regulated by many feedback mechanisms. A full mechanistic model is difficult to develop due to the complexity of the processes involved in tritium transfer and environmental conditions. First, a review of existing models (ORYZA2000, CROPTRIT and WOFOST) presenting their features and limits, is made. Secondly, the preparatory steps for a robust model are discussed, considering the role of dry matter and photosynthesis contribution to the OBT (Organically Bound Tritium) dynamics in crops.

  10. How to Use the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM To Estimate Different Dyadic Patterns in MPLUS: A Step-by-Step Tutorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzpatrick, Josée

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyadic data analysis with distinguishable dyads assesses the variance, not only between dyads, but also within the dyad when members are distinguishable on a known variable. In past research, the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM has been the statistical model of choice in order to take into account this interdependence. Although this method has received considerable interest in the past decade, to our knowledge, no specific guide or tutorial exists to describe how to test an APIM model. In order to close this gap, this article will provide researchers with a step-by-step tutorial for assessing the most recent advancements of the APIM with the use of structural equation modeling (SEM. The present tutorial will also utilize the statistical program MPLUS.

  11. An Improved Split-Step Wavelet Transform Method for Anomalous Radio Wave Propagation Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Iqbal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anomalous tropospheric propagation caused by ducting phenomenon is a major problem in wireless communication. Thus, it is important to study the behavior of radio wave propagation in tropospheric ducts. The Parabolic Wave Equation (PWE method is considered most reliable to model anomalous radio wave propagation. In this work, an improved Split Step Wavelet transform Method (SSWM is presented to solve PWE for the modeling of tropospheric propagation over finite and infinite conductive surfaces. A large number of numerical experiments are carried out to validate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Developed algorithm is compared with previously published techniques; Wavelet Galerkin Method (WGM and Split-Step Fourier transform Method (SSFM. A very good agreement is found between SSWM and published techniques. It is also observed that the proposed algorithm is about 18 times faster than WGM and provide more details of propagation effects as compared to SSFM.

  12. Tank tests of two models of flying-boat hulls to determine the effect of ventilating the step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, John R

    1937-01-01

    The results of tests made in the N.A.C.A. tank on two models of flying-boat hulls to determine the effect of ventilating the step are given graphically. The step of N.A.C.A. model 11-C was ventilated in several different ways and it was found that the resistance of the normal form is not appreciably affected by artificial ventilation in any of the forms tried. Further tests made with the depth of the step of model 11-C reduced likewise show no appreciable effect on the resistance from ventilation of the step. Tests were made on a model of the hull of the Navy P3M-1 flying-boat hull both with and without ventilation of the step. It was found that the discontinuity which is obtained in the resistance curves of this model is eliminated by ventilating the step.

  13. Dynamics of flatter wind pump installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. С. Крижановський

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Wind pump installation is considered, in which as quality wind engine is used flatter wind engine with vertically located wing blade. For research of dynamics of installation its mathematical model is constructed. Determined is the law of movement of wing blade at a connected load and main characteristics of wind pump installation

  14. Frequency-Speed Control Model Identification of Ultrasonic Motor Using Step Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Jingzhuo; Zhang Caixia

    2015-01-01

    Control model of ultrasonic motor is the foundation for high control performance .The frequency of driv-ing voltage is commonly used as control variable in the speed control system of ultrasonic motor .Speed control model with the input frequency can significantly improve speed control performance .Step response of rotating speed is tested .Then ,the transfer function model is identified through characteristic point method .Considering time-varying characteristics of the model parameters ,the variables are fitted with frequency and speed as the inde-pendent variables ,and the variable model of ultrasonic motor system is obtained ,with consideration of the nonlin-earity of ultrasonic motor system .The proposed model can be used in the design and analysis of the speed control system in ultrasonic motor .

  15. Development of a three dimensional circulation model based on fractional step method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen Abualtayef

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A numerical model was developed for simulating a three-dimensional multilayer hydrodynamic and thermodynamic model in domains with irregular bottom topography. The model was designed for examining the interactions between flow and topography. The model was based on the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and was solved using the fractional step method, which combines the finite difference method in the horizontal plane and the finite element method in the vertical plane. The numerical techniques were described and the model test and application were presented. For the model application to the northern part of Ariake Sea, the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic results were predicted. The numerically predicted amplitudes and phase angles were well consistent with the field observations.

  16. A multiple time stepping algorithm for efficient multiscale modeling of platelets flowing in blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Na; Deng, Yuefan; Bluestein, Danny

    2015-03-01

    We developed a multiple time-stepping (MTS) algorithm for multiscale modeling of the dynamics of platelets flowing in viscous blood plasma. This MTS algorithm improves considerably the computational efficiency without significant loss of accuracy. This study of the dynamic properties of flowing platelets employs a combination of the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) and the coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) methods to describe the dynamic microstructures of deformable platelets in response to extracellular flow-induced stresses. The disparate spatial scales between the two methods are handled by a hybrid force field interface. However, the disparity in temporal scales between the DPD and CGMD that requires time stepping at microseconds and nanoseconds respectively, represents a computational challenge that may become prohibitive. Classical MTS algorithms manage to improve computing efficiency by multi-stepping within DPD or CGMD for up to one order of magnitude of scale differential. In order to handle 3-4 orders of magnitude disparity in the temporal scales between DPD and CGMD, we introduce a new MTS scheme hybridizing DPD and CGMD by utilizing four different time stepping sizes. We advance the fluid system at the largest time step, the fluid-platelet interface at a middle timestep size, and the nonbonded and bonded potentials of the platelet structural system at two smallest timestep sizes. Additionally, we introduce parameters to study the relationship of accuracy versus computational complexities. The numerical experiments demonstrated 3000x reduction in computing time over standard MTS methods for solving the multiscale model. This MTS algorithm establishes a computationally feasible approach for solving a particle-based system at multiple scales for performing efficient multiscale simulations.

  17. FIRST STEPS TOWARDS AN INTEGRATED CITYGML-BASED 3D MODEL OF VIENNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Agugiaro

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports about the experiences done so far, it describes the test area and the available data sources, it shows and exemplifies the data integration issues, the strategies developed to solve them in order to obtain the integrated 3D city model. The first results as well as some comments about their quality and limitations are presented, together with the discussion regarding the next steps and some planned improvements.

  18. A stepped leader model for lightning including charge distribution in branched channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Wei; Zhang, Li [School of Electrical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Li, Qingmin, E-mail: lqmeee@ncepu.edu.cn [Beijing Key Lab of HV and EMC, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); State Key Lab of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2014-09-14

    The stepped leader process in negative cloud-to-ground lightning plays a vital role in lightning protection analysis. As lightning discharge usually presents significant branched or tortuous channels, the charge distribution along the branched channels and the stochastic feature of stepped leader propagation were investigated in this paper. The charge density along the leader channel and the charge in the leader tip for each lightning branch were approximated by introducing branch correlation coefficients. In combination with geometric characteristics of natural lightning discharge, a stochastic stepped leader propagation model was presented based on the fractal theory. By comparing simulation results with the statistics of natural lightning discharges, it was found that the fractal dimension of lightning trajectory in simulation was in the range of that observed in nature and the calculation results of electric field at ground level were in good agreement with the measurements of a negative flash, which shows the validity of this proposed model. Furthermore, a new equation to estimate the lightning striking distance to flat ground was suggested based on the present model. The striking distance obtained by this new equation is smaller than the value estimated by previous equations, which indicates that the traditional equations may somewhat overestimate the attractive effect of the ground.

  19. From representing to modelling knowledge: Proposing a two-step training for excellence in concept mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana G. Aguiar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Training users in the concept mapping technique is critical for ensuring a high-quality concept map in terms of graphical structure and content accuracy. However, assessing excellence in concept mapping through structural and content features is a complex task. This paper proposes a two-step sequential training in concept mapping. The first step requires the fulfilment of low-order cognitive objectives (remember, understand and apply to facilitate novices’ development into good Cmappers by honing their knowledge representation skills. The second step requires the fulfilment of high-order cognitive objectives (analyse, evaluate and create to grow good Cmappers into excellent ones through the development of knowledge modelling skills. Based on Bloom’s revised taxonomy and cognitive load theory, this paper presents theoretical accounts to (1 identify the criteria distinguishing good and excellent concept maps, (2 inform instructional tasks for concept map elaboration and (3 propose a prototype for training users on concept mapping combining online and face-to-face activities. The proposed training application and the institutional certification are the next steps for the mature use of concept maps for educational as well as business purposes.

  20. Validation for global solar wind prediction using Ulysses comparison: Multiple coronal and heliospheric models installed at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, L. K.; MacNeice, P. J.; Mays, M. L.; Taktakishvili, A.; Odstrcil, D.; Jackson, B.; Yu, H.-S.; Riley, P.; Sokolov, I. V.

    2016-08-01

    The prediction of the background global solar wind is a necessary part of space weather forecasting. Several coronal and heliospheric models have been installed and/or recently upgraded at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC), including the Wang-Sheely-Arge (WSA)-Enlil model, MHD-Around-a-Sphere (MAS)-Enlil model, Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF), and heliospheric tomography using interplanetary scintillation data. Ulysses recorded the last fast latitudinal scan from southern to northern poles in 2007. By comparing the modeling results with Ulysses observations over seven Carrington rotations, we have extended our third-party validation from the previous near-Earth solar wind to middle to high latitudes, in the same late declining phase of solar cycle 23. Besides visual comparison, we have quantitatively assessed the models' capabilities in reproducing the time series, statistics, and latitudinal variations of solar wind parameters for a specific range of model parameter settings, inputs, and grid configurations available at CCMC. The WSA-Enlil model results vary with three different magnetogram inputs. The MAS-Enlil model captures the solar wind parameters well, despite its underestimation of the speed at middle to high latitudes. The new version of SWMF misses many solar wind variations probably because it uses lower grid resolution than other models. The interplanetary scintillation-tomography cannot capture the latitudinal variations of solar wind well yet. Because the model performance varies with parameter settings which are optimized for different epochs or flow states, the performance metric study provided here can serve as a template that researchers can use to validate the models for the time periods and conditions of interest to them.

  1. SVM with Quadratic Polynomial Kernel Function Based Nonlinear Model One-step-ahead Predictive Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟伟民; 何国龙; 皮道映; 孙优贤

    2005-01-01

    A support vector machine (SVM) with quadratic polynomial kernel function based nonlinear model one-step-ahead predictive controller is presented. The SVM based predictive model is established with black-box identification method. By solving a cubic equation in the feature space, an explicit predictive control law is obtained through the predictive control mechanism. The effect of controller is demonstrated on a recognized benchmark problem and on the control of continuous-stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Simulation results show that SVM with quadratic polynomial kernel function based predictive controller can be well applied to nonlinear systems, with good performance in following reference trajectory as well as in disturbance-rejection.

  2. 76 FR 41142 - Special Conditions; Cessna Aircraft Company Model M680 Airplane; Lithium-ion Battery Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... explosion. The severity of thermal runaway due to overcharging increases with increased battery capacity due... extremely remote. The Lithium-battery installation must preclude explosion in the event of those failures... effect on structure or essential systems caused by the maximum amount of heat the battery can...

  3. Solid-state three-step model for high-harmonic generation from periodic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Ikemachi, Takuya; Sato, Takeshi; Yumoto, Junji; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto; Ishikawa, Kenichi L

    2016-01-01

    We study high-harmonic generation (HHG) from solids driven by intense laser pulses using the time-dependent Schrodinger equation for a one-dimensional model periodic crystal. Based on the simulation results, we propose a simple model that can quantitatively explain many aspects of solid- state HHG, some of which have been experimentally observed. Incorporating interband tunneling, intraband acceleration, and recombination with the valence-band hole, our model can be viewed as a solid-state counterpart of the familiar three-step model highly successful for gas-phase HHG and provides a unified basis to understand HHG from gaseous media and solid-state materials. The solid-state three-step model describes how, by repeating intraband acceleration and interband tunneling, electrons climb up across multiple conduction bands. The key parameter in predicting the HHG spectrum structure from the band-climbing process is the peak-to-valley (or valley-to-peak) full amplitude of the pulse vector potential $A(t)$. When the...

  4. First Steps Towards AN Integrated Citygml-Based 3d Model of Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agugiaro, G.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents and discusses the results regarding the initial steps (selection, analysis, preparation and eventual integration of a number of datasets) for the creation of an integrated, semantic, three-dimensional, and CityGML-based virtual model of the city of Vienna. CityGML is an international standard conceived specifically as information and data model for semantic city models at urban and territorial scale. It is being adopted by more and more cities all over the world. The work described in this paper is embedded within the European Marie-Curie ITN project "Ci-nergy, Smart cities with sustainable energy systems", which aims, among the rest, at developing urban decision making and operational optimisation software tools to minimise non-renewable energy use in cities. Given the scope and scale of the project, it is therefore vital to set up a common, unique and spatio-semantically coherent urban model to be used as information hub for all applications being developed. This paper reports about the experiences done so far, it describes the test area and the available data sources, it shows and exemplifies the data integration issues, the strategies developed to solve them in order to obtain the integrated 3D city model. The first results as well as some comments about their quality and limitations are presented, together with the discussion regarding the next steps and some planned improvements.

  5. Experimental investigation of initial steps of helix propagation in model peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goch, Grazyna; Maciejczyk, Maciej; Oleszczuk, Marta; Stachowiak, Damian; Malicka, Joanna; Bierzyński, Andrzej

    2003-06-10

    It is not certain whether the helix propagation parameters s(n)() (i.e., the equilibrium constants between (n - 1)- and n-residue long alpha-helices) determined from numerous studies of rather long model peptides are applicable for description of the initial steps of the helix formation during the protein folding process. From fluorescence, NMR, and calorimetric studies of a series of model peptides, containing the La(3+)-binding sequence nucleating the helix (Siedlecka, M., Goch, G., Ejchart, A., Sticht, H., and Bierzynski, A. (1999) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 903-908), we have determined, at 25 degrees C, the average values of the enthalpy DeltaH(n)() and of the helix growth parameters s(n)() describing the first four steps of helix propagation in polyalanine. The absolute values of the C-cap parameters, describing the contribution of the C-terminal residues to the helix free energy, have also been estimated for alanine (1.2 +/- 0.5) and NH(2) group (1.6 +/- 0.7). The initial four steps of the helix growth in polyalanine can be described by a common propagation parameter s = 1.54 +/- 0.04. The enthalpy DeltaH(n)() is also constant and equals -980 +/- 100 cal mol(-)(1).

  6. Identification, regression and validation of an image processing degradation model to assess the effects of aeromechanical turbulence due to installation aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccoli, M.; Usai, A.; Tafuto, A.; Albertoni, A.; Togna, F.

    2016-10-01

    The propagation environment around airborne platforms may significantly degrade the performance of Electro-Optical (EO) self-protection systems installed onboard. To ensure the sufficient level of protection, it is necessary to understand that are the best sensors/effectors installation positions to guarantee that the aeromechanical turbulence, generated by the engine exhausts and the rotor downwash, does not interfere with the imaging systems normal operations. Since the radiation-propagation-in-turbulence is a hardly predictable process, it was proposed a high-level approach in which, instead of studying the medium under turbulence, the turbulence effects on the imaging systems processing are assessed by means of an equivalent statistical model representation, allowing a definition of a Turbulence index to classify different level of turbulence intensities. Hence, a general measurement methodology for the degradation of the imaging systems performance in turbulence conditions was developed. The analysis of the performance degradation started by evaluating the effects of turbulences with a given index on the image processing chain (i.e., thresholding, blob analysis). The processing in turbulence (PIT) index is then derived by combining the effects of the given turbulence on the different image processing primitive functions. By evaluating the corresponding PIT index for a sufficient number of testing directions, it is possible to map the performance degradation around the aircraft installation for a generic imaging system, and to identify the best installation position for sensors/effectors composing the EO self-protection suite.

  7. A 2-D process-based model for suspended sediment dynamics: a first step towards ecological modeling

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In estuaries most of the sediment load is carried in suspension. Sediment dynamics differ depending on sediment supply and hydrodynamic forcing conditions that vary over space and over time. Suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is one of the most important contributors to turbidity, which influences habitat conditions and ecological functions of the system. A robust sediment model is the first step towards a chain of model including contaminants and phytoplankton dy...

  8. Quantitative modeling of the molecular steps underlying shut-off of rhodopsin activity in rod phototransduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Timothy W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine the predictions of alternative models for the stochastic shut-off of activated rhodopsin (R*) and their implications for the interpretation of experimentally recorded single-photon responses (SPRs) in mammalian rods. Theory We analyze the transitions that an activated R* molecule undergoes as a result of successive phosphorylation steps and arrestin binding. We consider certain simplifying cases for the relative magnitudes of the reaction rate constants and derive the probability distributions for the time to arrestin binding. In addition to the conventional model in which R* catalytic activity declines in a graded manner with successive phosphorylations, we analyze two cases in which the activity is assumed to occur not via multiple small steps upon each phosphorylation but via a single large step. We refer to these latter two cases as the binary R* shut-off and three-state R* shut-off models. Methods We simulate R*’s stochastic reactions numerically for the three models. In the simplifying cases for the ratio of rate constants in the binary and three-state models, we show that the probability distribution of the time to arrestin binding is accurately predicted. To simulate SPRs, we then integrate the differential equations for the downstream reactions using a standard model of the rod outer segment that includes longitudinal diffusion of cGMP and Ca2+. Results Our simulations of SPRs in the conventional model of graded shut-off of R* conform closely to the simulations in a recent study. However, the gain factor required to account for the observed mean SPR amplitude is higher than can be accounted for from biochemical experiments. In addition, a substantial minority of the simulated SPRs exhibit features that have not been reported in published experiments. Our simulations of SPRs using the model of binary R* shut-off appear to conform closely to experimental results for wild type (WT) mouse rods, and the required gain factor conforms to

  9. Thermal modeling of step-out targets at the Soda Lake geothermal field, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingwall, Ryan Kenneth

    Temperature data at the Soda Lake geothermal field in the southeastern Carson Sink, Nevada, highlight an intense thermal anomaly. The geothermal field produces roughly 11 MWe from two power producing facilities which are rated to 23 MWe. The low output is attributed to the inability to locate and produce sufficient volumes of fluid at adequate temperature. Additionally, the current producing area has experienced declining production temperatures over its 40 year history. Two step-out targets adjacent to the main field have been identified that have the potential to increase production and extend the life of the field. Though shallow temperatures in the two subsidiary areas are significantly less than those found within the main anomaly, measurements in deeper wells (>1,000 m) show that temperatures viable for utilization are present. High-pass filtering of the available complete Bouguer gravity data indicates that geothermal flow is present within the shallow sediments of the two subsidiary areas. Significant faulting is observed in the seismic data in both of the subsidiary areas. These structures are highlighted in the seismic similarity attribute calculated as part of this study. One possible conceptual model for the geothermal system(s) at the step-out targets indicated upflow along these faults from depth. In order to test this hypothesis, three-dimensional computer models were constructed in order to observe the temperatures that would result from geothermal flow along the observed fault planes. Results indicate that the observed faults are viable hosts for the geothermal system(s) in the step-out areas. Subsequently, these faults are proposed as targets for future exploration focus and step-out drilling.

  10. Sensitivity of The High-resolution Wam Model With Respect To Time Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasemets, K.; Soomere, T.

    The northern part of the Baltic Proper and its subbasins (Bothnian Sea, the Gulf of Finland, Moonsund) serve as a challenge for wave modellers. In difference from the southern and the eastern parts of the Baltic Sea, their coasts are highly irregular and contain many peculiarities with the characteristic horizontal scale of the order of a few kilometres. For example, the northern coast of the Gulf of Finland is extremely ragged and contains a huge number of small islands. Its southern coast is more or less regular but has up to 50m high cliff that is frequently covered by high forests. The area also contains numerous banks that have water depth a couple of meters and that may essentially modify wave properties near the banks owing to topographical effects. This feature suggests that a high-resolution wave model should be applied for the region in question, with a horizontal resolution of an order of 1 km or even less. According to the Courant-Friedrich-Lewy criterion, the integration time step for such models must be of the order of a few tens of seconds. A high-resolution WAM model turns out to be fairly sensitive with respect to the particular choice of the time step. In our experiments, a medium-resolution model for the whole Baltic Sea was used, with the horizontal resolution 3 miles (3' along latitudes and 6' along longitudes) and the angular resolution 12 directions. The model was run with steady wind blowing 20 m/s from different directions and with two time steps (1 and 3 minutes). For most of the wind directions, the rms. difference of significant wave heights calculated with differ- ent time steps did not exceed 10 cm and typically was of the order of a few per cents. The difference arose within a few tens of minutes and generally did not increase in further computations. However, in the case of the north wind, the difference increased nearly monotonously and reached 25-35 cm (10-15%) within three hours of integra- tion whereas mean of significant wave

  11. Installation effects of long-duct pylon-mounted nacelles on a twin-jet transport model with swept supercritical wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E. E., Jr.; Pendergraft, O. C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The installation interference effects of an underwing-mounted, long duct, turbofan nacelle were evaluated in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel with two different pylon shapes installed on a twin engine transport model having a supercritical wing swept 30 deg. Wing, pylon, and nacelle pressures and overall model force data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.70 to 0.83 and nominal angles of attack from -2 deg to 4 deg at an average unit Reynolds number of 11.9 x 1,000,000 per meter. The results show that adding the long duct nacelles to the supercritical wing, in the near sonic flow field, changed the magnitude and direction of flow velocities over the entire span, significantly reduced cruise lift, and caused large interference drag on the nacelle afterbody.

  12. Analytical model of LDMOS with a single step buried oxide layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Song; Duan, Baoxing; Cao, Zhen; Guo, Haijun; Yang, Yintang

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a two-dimensional analytical model is established for the Single-Step Buried Oxide SOI structure proposed by the authors. Based on the two-dimensional Poisson equation, the analytic expression of the surface electric field and potential distributions for the device is achieved. In the SBOSOI (Single-Step Buried Oxide Silicon On Insulator) structure, the buried oxide layer thickness changes stepwise along the drift region, and the electric field in the oxide layer also varies with the different buried oxide layer thickness. These variations will modulate the surface electric field distribution through the electric field modulation effects, which makes the surface electric field distribution more uniform. As a result, the breakdown voltage of the device is improved by 60% compared with the conventional SOI structure. To verify the accuracy of the analytical model, the device simulation software ISE TCAD is utilized, the analytical values are in good agreement with the simulation results by the simulation software. The results verified the established two-dimensional analytical model for SBOSOI structure is valid, and it also illustrates the breakdown voltage enhancement by the electric field modulation effect sufficiently. The established analytical models will provide the physical and mathematical basis for further analysis of the new power devices with the patterned buried oxide layer.

  13. Modelling the impacts of an invasive species across landscapes: a step-wise approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Ward

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We estimate the extent of ecological impacts of the invasive Asian paper wasp across different landscapes in New Zealand. We used: (i a baseline distribution layer (modelled via MaxEnt; (ii Asian paper wasp nest density (from >460 field plots, related to their preferences for specific land cover categories; and (iii and their foraging intensity (rates of foraging success, and the time available to forage on a seasonal basis. Using geographic information systems this information is combined and modelled across different landscapes in New Zealand in a step-wise selection process. The highest densities of Asian paper wasps were in herbaceous saline vegetation, followed closely by built-up areas, and then scrub and shrubland. Nest densities of 34 per ha, and occupancy rates of 0.27 were recorded for herbaceous saline vegetation habitats. However, the extent of impacts of the Asian paper wasp remains relatively restricted because of narrow climate tolerances and spatial restriction of preferred habitats. A step-wise process based on geographic information systems and species distribution models, in combination with factors such as distribution, density, and predation, create a useful tool that allows the extent of impacts of invasive species to be assessed across large spatial scales. These models will be useful for conservation managers as they provide easy visual interpretation of results, and can help prioritise where direct conservation action or control of the invader are required.

  14. Modelling the impacts of an invasive species across landscapes: a step-wise approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Darren; Morgan, Fraser

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the extent of ecological impacts of the invasive Asian paper wasp across different landscapes in New Zealand. We used: (i) a baseline distribution layer (modelled via MaxEnt); (ii) Asian paper wasp nest density (from >460 field plots, related to their preferences for specific land cover categories); and (iii) and their foraging intensity (rates of foraging success, and the time available to forage on a seasonal basis). Using geographic information systems this information is combined and modelled across different landscapes in New Zealand in a step-wise selection process. The highest densities of Asian paper wasps were in herbaceous saline vegetation, followed closely by built-up areas, and then scrub and shrubland. Nest densities of 34 per ha, and occupancy rates of 0.27 were recorded for herbaceous saline vegetation habitats. However, the extent of impacts of the Asian paper wasp remains relatively restricted because of narrow climate tolerances and spatial restriction of preferred habitats. A step-wise process based on geographic information systems and species distribution models, in combination with factors such as distribution, density, and predation, create a useful tool that allows the extent of impacts of invasive species to be assessed across large spatial scales. These models will be useful for conservation managers as they provide easy visual interpretation of results, and can help prioritise where direct conservation action or control of the invader are required.

  15. Optimization of Installation, Operation and Maintenance at Offshore Wind Projects in the U.S.: Review and Modeling of Existing and Emerging Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldock, Nick [Garrad Hassan & Partners Ltd, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Sevilla, Fernando [Garrad Hassan & Partners Ltd, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Redfern, Robin [Garrad Hassan & Partners Ltd, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Storey, Alexis [Garrad Hassan & Partners Ltd, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Kempenaar, Anton [Garrad Hassan & Partners Ltd, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Elkinton, Chris [Garrad Hassan America, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-12-19

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a grant to GL Garrad Hassan (GL GH) to investigate the logistics, opportunities, and costs associated with existing and emerging installation and operation and maintenance (O&M) activities at offshore wind projects as part of the DOE’s program to reduce barriers facing offshore wind project development in the United States (U.S.). This report (the Report) forms part of Subtopic 5.3 “Optimized Installation, Operation and Maintenance Strategies Study” which in turn is part of the “Removing Market Barriers in U.S. Offshore Wind” set of projects for the DOE. The purpose of Subtopic 5.3 is to aid and facilitate informed decision-making regarding installation and O&M during the development, installation, and operation of offshore wind projects in order to increase efficiency and reduce the levelized cost of energy (LCoE). Given the large area of U.S. territorial waters, the generally higher mean wind speeds offshore, and the proximity to the coast of many large U.S. cities, offshore wind power has the potential to become a significant contributor of energy to U.S. markets. However, for the U.S. to ensure that the development of offshore wind energy projects is carried out in an efficient and cost-effective manner, it is important to be cognizant of the current and emerging practices in both the domestic and international offshore wind energy industries. The U.S. can harness the experience gained globally and combine this with the skills and assets of an already sizeable onshore wind industry, as well as the resources of a mature offshore oil and gas industry, to develop a strong offshore wind sector. The work detailed in this report is aimed at assisting with that learning curve, particularly in terms of offshore specific installation and O&M activities. This Report and the Installation and O&M LCoE Analysis Tool, which were developed together by GL GH as part of this study, allow readers to identify, model

  16. A stepped-care model of post-disaster child and adolescent mental health service provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett M. McDermott

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: From a global perspective, natural disasters are common events. Published research highlights that a significant minority of exposed children and adolescents develop disaster-related mental health syndromes and associated functional impairment. Consistent with the considerable unmet need of children and adolescents with regard to psychopathology, there is strong evidence that many children and adolescents with post-disaster mental health presentations are not receiving adequate interventions. Objective: To critique existing child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS models of care and the capacity of such models to deal with any post-disaster surge in clinical demand. Further, to detail an innovative service response; a child and adolescent stepped-care service provision model. Method: A narrative review of traditional CAMHS is presented. Important elements of a disaster response – individual versus community recovery, public health approaches, capacity for promotion and prevention and service reach are discussed and compared with the CAMHS approach. Results: Difficulties with traditional models of care are highlighted across all levels of intervention; from the ability to provide preventative initiatives to the capacity to provide intense specialised posttraumatic stress disorder interventions. In response, our over-arching stepped-care model is advocated. The general response is discussed and details of the three tiers of the model are provided: Tier 1 communication strategy, Tier 2 parent effectiveness and teacher training, and Tier 3 screening linked to trauma-focused cognitive behavioural therapy. Conclusion: In this paper, we argue that traditional CAMHS are not an appropriate model of care to meet the clinical needs of this group in the post-disaster setting. We conclude with suggestions how improved post-disaster child and adolescent mental health outcomes can be achieved by applying an innovative service approach.

  17. A Two-Step Model for Gamma-Ray Bursts Associated with Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, K S

    1999-01-01

    We here propose a two-step model for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) associated with supernovae. In the first step, the core collapse of a star with mass $\\ge 19M_\\odot$ leads to a massive neutron star and a normal supernova, and subsequently hypercritical accretion of the neutron star from the supernova ejecta may give rise to a jet through neutrino annihilation along the stellar rotation axis. However, because of too much surrounding matter, this jet rapidly enters a nonrelativistic phase and evolves to a large bubble. In the second step, the neutron star promptly implodes to a rapidly rotating black hole surrounded by a torus when the mass of the star increases to the maximum mass and meanwhile its rotation frequency increases to the upper limit due to the accreted angular momentum. The gravitational binding energy of the torus may be dissipated by a magnetized relativistic wind, which may then be absorbed by the supernova ejecta, thus producing an energetic hypernova. The rotational energy of the black hole may b...

  18. A double-step truncation procedure for large-scale shell-model calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Coraggio, L; Itaco, N

    2016-01-01

    We present a procedure that is helpful to reduce the computational complexity of large-scale shell-model calculations, by preserving as much as possible the role of the rejected degrees of freedom in an effective approach. Our truncation is driven first by the analysis of the effective single-particle energies of the original large-scale shell-model hamiltonian, so to locate the relevant degrees of freedom to describe a class of isotopes or isotones, namely the single-particle orbitals that will constitute a new truncated model space. The second step is to perform an unitary transformation of the original hamiltonian from its model space into the truncated one. This transformation generates a new shell-model hamiltonian, defined in a smaller model space, that retains effectively the role of the excluded single-particle orbitals. As an application of this procedure, we have chosen a realistic shell-model hamiltonian defined in a large model space, set up by seven and five proton and neutron single-particle orb...

  19. Centrifuge modeling of one-step outflow tests for unsaturated parameter estimations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nakajima

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Centrifuge modeling of one-step outflow tests were carried out using a 2-m radius geotechnical centrifuge, and the cumulative outflow and transient pore pressure were measured during the tests at multiple gravity levels. Based on the scaling law of centrifuge modeling, the measurements generally showed reasonable agreement with prototype data calculated from forward simulations with input parameters determined from standard laboratory tests. The parameter optimizations were examined for three different combinations of input data sets using the test measurements. Within the gravity level examined in this study up to 40 g, the optimized unsaturated parameters compared well when accurate pore pressure measurements were included along with cumulative outflow as input data. The centrifuge modeling technique with its capability to implement variety of instrumentations under well controlled initial and boundary conditions, shortens testing time and can provide significant information for the parameter estimation procedure.

  20. Centrifuge modeling of one-step outflow tests for unsaturated parameter estimations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nakajima

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Centrifuge modeling of one-step outflow tests were carried out using a 2-m radius geotechnical centrifuge, and the cumulative outflow and transient pore water pressure were measured during the tests at multiple gravity levels. Based on the scaling laws of centrifuge modeling, the measurements generally showed reasonable agreement with prototype data calculated from forward simulations with input parameters determined from standard laboratory tests. The parameter optimizations were examined for three different combinations of input data sets using the test measurements. Within the gravity level examined in this study up to 40g, the optimized unsaturated parameters compared well when accurate pore water pressure measurements were included along with cumulative outflow as input data. With its capability to implement variety of instrumentations under well controlled initial and boundary conditions and to shorten testing time, the centrifuge modeling technique is attractive as an alternative experimental method that provides more freedom to set inverse problem conditions for the parameter estimation.

  1. A mechanical model for the role of the neck linker during kinesin stepping and gating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, HaiYan; He, ChenJuan

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, considering the different elastic properties in the attached head and the free head, we propose a physical model, in which the free head undergoes a diffusive search in an entropic spring potential formed by undocking the neck linker, and there are asymmetric conformational changes in the attached head formed by docking the neck linker to support the load force and bias the diffusive search to the forward direction. By performing the thermodynamic analysis, we obtain the free energy difference between forward and backward binding sites. And using the Fokker-Planck equation with two absorbing boundaries, we obtain the dependence of the ratio of forward to backward steps on the backward force. Also, within the Michaelis-Menten model, we investigate the dependence of the velocity-load relationship on the effective length of the junction between the two heads. The results show that our model can provide a physical understanding for the processive movement of kinesin.

  2. A simple one-step chemistry model for partially premixed hydrocarbon combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Tarrazo, Eduardo [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial, Madrid (Spain); Sanchez, Antonio L. [Area de Mecanica de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Leganes 28911 (Spain); Linan, Amable [ETSI Aeronauticos, Pl. Cardenal Cisneros 3, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Williams, Forman A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0411 (United States)

    2006-10-15

    This work explores the applicability of one-step irreversible Arrhenius kinetics with unity reaction order to the numerical description of partially premixed hydrocarbon combustion. Computations of planar premixed flames are used in the selection of the three model parameters: the heat of reaction q, the activation temperature T{sub a}, and the preexponential factor B. It is seen that changes in q with equivalence ratio f need to be introduced in fuel-rich combustion to describe the effect of partial fuel oxidation on the amount of heat released, leading to a universal linear variation q(f) for f>1 for all hydrocarbons. The model also employs a variable activation temperature T{sub a}(f) to mimic changes in the underlying chemistry in rich and very lean flames. The resulting chemistry description is able to reproduce propagation velocities of diluted and undiluted flames accurately over the whole flammability limit. Furthermore, computations of methane-air counterflow diffusion flames are used to test the proposed chemistry under nonpremixed conditions. The model not only predicts the critical strain rate at extinction accurately but also gives near-extinction flames with oxygen leakage, thereby overcoming known predictive limitations of one-step Arrhenius kinetics. (author)

  3. Detecting Location Shifts during Model Selection by Step-Indicator Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Castle

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To capture location shifts in the context of model selection, we propose selecting significant step indicators from a saturating set added to the union of all of the candidate variables. The null retention frequency and approximate non-centrality of a selection test are derived using a ‘split-half’ analysis, the simplest specialization of a multiple-path block-search algorithm. Monte Carlo simulations, extended to sequential reduction, confirm the accuracy of nominal significance levels under the null and show retentions when location shifts occur, improving the non-null retention frequency compared to the corresponding impulse-indicator saturation (IIS-based method and the lasso.

  4. Instability Criterion of One-Dimensional Detonation Wave with Three-Step Chain Branching Reaction Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Hong-Hui; JIANG Zong-Lin

    2011-01-01

    @@ One-dimensional detonation waves are simulated with the three-step chain branching reaction model, and the instability criterion is studied.The ratio of the induction zone length and the reaction zone length may be used to decide the instability, and the detonation becomes unstable with the high ratio.However, the ratio is not invariable with different heat release values.The critical ratio, corresponding to the transition from the stable detonation to the unstable detonation, has a negative correlation with the heat release.An empirical relation of the Chapman-Jouguet Mach number and the length ratio is proposed as the instability criterion.

  5. Ultrasonic inspection of rocket fuel model using laminated transducer and multi-channel step pulser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihara, T.; Hamajima, T.; Tashiro, H.; Sato, A.

    2013-01-01

    For the ultrasonic inspection for the packing of solid fuel in a rocket booster, an industrial inspection is difficult. Because the signal to noise ratio in ultrasonic inspection of rocket fuel become worse due to the large attenuation even using lower frequency ultrasound. For the improvement of this problem, we tried to applied the two techniques in ultrasonic inspection, one was the step function pulser system with the super wideband frequency properties and the other was the laminated element transducer. By combining these two techniques, we developed the new ultrasonic measurement system and demonstrated the advantages in ultrasonic inspection of rocket fuel model specimen.

  6. Installing fonts in LaTeX a user's experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, Ferdy

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a user's experience with installing fonts for use in LaTeX. It will be shown that it is not hard to make a standard Type 1 font work, if you use modern font installation software for LaTeX. All the steps necessary to install the example fonts will be shown. The example fonts used

  7. Installing fonts in LaTeX a user's experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, F.T.Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a user's experience with installing fonts for use in LaTeX. It will be shown that it is not hard to make a standard Type 1 font work, if you use modern font installation software for LaTeX. All the steps necessary to install the example fonts will be shown. The example fonts used

  8. A one-step-ahead pseudo-DIC for comparison of Bayesian state-space models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, R B; McKechnie, S

    2014-12-01

    In the context of state-space modeling, conventional usage of the deviance information criterion (DIC) evaluates the ability of the model to predict an observation at time t given the underlying state at time t. Motivated by the failure of conventional DIC to clearly choose between competing multivariate nonlinear Bayesian state-space models for coho salmon population dynamics, and the computational challenge of alternatives, this work proposes a one-step-ahead DIC, DICp, where prediction is conditional on the state at the previous time point. Simulations revealed that DICp worked well for choosing between state-space models with different process or observation equations. In contrast, conventional DIC could be grossly misleading, with a strong preference for the wrong model. This can be explained by its failure to account for inflated estimates of process error arising from the model mis-specification. DICp is not based on a true conditional likelihood, but is shown to have interpretation as a pseudo-DIC in which the compensatory behavior of the inflated process errors is eliminated. It can be easily calculated using the DIC monitors within popular BUGS software when the process and observation equations are conjugate. The improved performance of DICp is demonstrated by application to the multi-stage modeling of coho salmon abundance in Lobster Creek, Oregon. © 2014, The International Biometric Society.

  9. Coupling hydrodynamic and wave models: first step and sensitivity experiments in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, Emanuela; Oddo, Paolo; Drudi, Massimiliano; Pinardi, Nadia; Korres, Gerasimos; Grandi, Alessandro

    2017-07-01

    This work describes the first step towards a fully coupled modelling system composed of an ocean circulation and a wind wave model. Sensitivity experiments are presented for the Mediterranean Sea where the hydrodynamic model NEMO is coupled with the third-generation wave model WaveWatchIII (WW3). Both models are implemented at 1/16° horizontal resolution and are forced by ECMWF 1/4° horizontal resolution atmospheric fields. The models are two-way coupled at hourly intervals exchanging the following fields: sea surface currents and temperature are transferred from NEMO to WW3 by modifying the mean momentum transfer of waves and the wind speed stability parameter, respectively. The neutral drag coefficient computed by WW3 is then passed to NEMO, which computes the surface stress. Five-year (2009-2013) numerical experiments were carried out in both uncoupled and coupled mode. In order to validate the modelling system, numerical results were compared with coastal and drifting buoys and remote sensing data. The results show that the coupling of currents with waves improves the representation of the wave spectrum. However, the wave-induced drag coefficient shows only minor improvements in NEMO circulation fields, such as temperature, salinity, and currents.

  10. Coupling hydrodynamic and wave models: first step and sensitivity experiments in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, Emanuela; Oddo, Paolo; Drudi, Massimiliano; Pinardi, Nadia; Korres, Gerasimos; Grandi, Alessandro

    2017-10-01

    This work describes the first step towards a fully coupled modelling system composed of an ocean circulation and a wind wave model. Sensitivity experiments are presented for the Mediterranean Sea where the hydrodynamic model NEMO is coupled with the third-generation wave model WaveWatchIII (WW3). Both models are implemented at 1/16° horizontal resolution and are forced by ECMWF 1/4° horizontal resolution atmospheric fields. The models are two-way coupled at hourly intervals exchanging the following fields: sea surface currents and temperature are transferred from NEMO to WW3 by modifying the mean momentum transfer of waves and the wind speed stability parameter, respectively. The neutral drag coefficient computed by WW3 is then passed to NEMO, which computes the surface stress. Five-year (2009-2013) numerical experiments were carried out in both uncoupled and coupled mode. In order to validate the modelling system, numerical results were compared with coastal and drifting buoys and remote sensing data. The results show that the coupling of currents with waves improves the representation of the wave spectrum. However, the wave-induced drag coefficient shows only minor improvements in NEMO circulation fields, such as temperature, salinity, and currents.

  11. A Semi-Empirical Two Step Carbon Corrosion Reaction Model in PEM Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Alan; Colbow, Vesna; Harvey, David; Rogers, Erin; Wessel, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    The cathode CL of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was exposed to high potentials, 1.0 to 1.4 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), that are typically encountered during start up/shut down operation. While both platinum dissolution and carbon corrosion occurred, the carbon corrosion effects were isolated and modeled. The presented model separates the carbon corrosion process into two reaction steps; (1) oxidation of the carbon surface to carbon-oxygen groups, and (2) further corrosion of the oxidized surface to carbon dioxide/monoxide. To oxidize and corrode the cathode catalyst carbon support, the CL was subjected to an accelerated stress test cycled the potential from 0.6 VRHE to an upper potential limit (UPL) ranging from 0.9 to 1.4 VRHE at varying dwell times. The reaction rate constants and specific capacitances of carbon and platinum were fitted by evaluating the double layer capacitance (Cdl) trends. Carbon surface oxidation increased the Cdl due to increased specific capacitance for carbon surfaces with carbon-oxygen groups, while the second corrosion reaction decreased the Cdl due to loss of the overall carbon surface area. The first oxidation step differed between carbon types, while both reaction rate constants were found to have a dependency on UPL, temperature, and gas relative humidity.

  12. Modeling of Step-up Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems for Control Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gonzalez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents modeling approaches for step-up grid-connected photovoltaic systems intended to provide analytical tools for control design. The first approach is based on a voltage source representation of the bulk capacitor interacting with the grid-connected inverter, which is a common model for large DC buses and closed-loop inverters. The second approach considers the inverter of a double-stage PV system as a Norton equivalent, which is widely accepted for open-loop inverters. In addition, the paper considers both ideal and realistic models for the DC/DC converter that interacts with the PV module, providing four mathematical models to cover a wide range of applications. The models are expressed in state space representation to simplify its use in analysis and control design, and also to be easily implemented in simulation software, e.g., Matlab. The PV system was analyzed to demonstrate the non-minimum phase condition for all the models, which is an important aspect to select the control technique. Moreover, the system observability and controllability were studied to define design criteria. Finally, the analytical results are illustrated by means of detailed simulations, and the paper results are validated in an experimental test bench.

  13. A Step Forward to Closing the Loop between Static and Dynamic Reservoir Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cancelliere M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current trend for history matching is to find multiple calibrated models instead of a single set of model parameters that match the historical data. The advantage of several current workflows involving assisted history matching techniques, particularly those based on heuristic optimizers or direct search, is that they lead to a number of calibrated models that partially address the problem of the non-uniqueness of the solutions. The importance of achieving multiple solutions is that calibrated models can be used for a true quantification of the uncertainty affecting the production forecasts, which represent the basis for technical and economic risk analysis. In this paper, the importance of incorporating the geological uncertainties in a reservoir study is demonstrated. A workflow, which includes the analysis of the uncertainty associated with the facies distribution for a fluvial depositional environment in the calibration of the numerical dynamic models and, consequently, in the production forecast, is presented. The first step in the workflow was to generate a set of facies realizations starting from different conceptual models. After facies modeling, the petrophysical properties were assigned to the simulation domains. Then, each facies realization was calibrated separately by varying permeability and porosity fields. Data assimilation techniques were used to calibrate the models in a reasonable span of time. Results showed that even the adoption of a conceptual model for facies distribution clearly representative of the reservoir internal geometry might not guarantee reliable results in terms of production forecast. Furthermore, results also showed that realizations which seem fully acceptable after calibration were not representative of the true reservoir internal configuration and provided wrong production forecasts; conversely, realizations which did not show a good fit of the production data could reliably predict the reservoir

  14. Installing and Scaling out Ubuntu Enterprise Cloud in Virtual Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantić, Zoran; Ali Babar, Muhammad

    This document contains the supplemental material to the book “Guidelines for Building a Private Cloud Infrastructure”. This document provides guidance on how to install Ubuntu Enterprise Cloud in virtual environment, and afterwards how to scale out when needed. The purpose of this supplemental book...... is to provide a practical, step-by-step, detailed guide on how to dimension and install the machines and network. Some initial steps of configuring the cloud are also covered. The installation is performed in a virtual environment based on Windows 7 and VMware Workstation 7. The cloud installation is performed...

  15. Modelling spatiotemporal olfactory data in two steps: from binary to Hodgkin-Huxley neurones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quenet, Brigitte; Dubois, Rémi; Sirapian, Sevan; Dreyfus, Gérard; Horn, David

    2002-01-01

    Network models of synchronously updated McCulloch-Pitts neurones exhibit complex spatiotemporal patterns that are similar to activities of biological neurones in phase with a periodic local field potential, such as those observed experimentally by Wehr and Laurent (1996, Nature 384, 162-166) in the locust olfactory pathway. Modelling biological neural nets with networks of simple formal units makes the dynamics of the model analytically tractable. It is thus possible to determine the constraints that must be satisfied by its connection matrix in order to make its neurones exhibit a given sequence of activity (see, for instance, Quenet et al., 2001, Neurocomputing 38-40, 831-836). In the present paper, we address the following question: how can one construct a formal network of Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) type neurones that reproduces experimentally observed neuronal codes? A two-step strategy is suggested in the present paper: first, a simple network of binary units is designed, whose activity reproduces the binary experimental codes; second, this model is used as a guide to design a network of more realistic formal HH neurones. We show that such a strategy is indeed fruitful: it allowed us to design a model that reproduces the Wehr-Laurent olfactory codes, and to investigate the robustness of these codes to synaptic noise.

  16. Installation effects of wing-mounted turbofan nacelle-pylons on a 1/17-scale, twin-engine, low-wing transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergraft, Odis C., Jr.; Ingraldi, Anthony M.; Re, Richard J.; Kariya, Timmy T.

    1992-01-01

    A twin-engine, low-wing transport model, with a supercritical wing of aspect ratio 10.8 designed for a cruise Mach number of 0.77 and a lift coefficient of 0.55, was tested in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. The purpose of this test was to compare the wing-nacelle interference effects of flow-through nacelles simulating superfan engines (very high bypass ratio (BPR is approx. = 18) turbofan engines) with the wing-nacelle interference effects of current-technology turbofans (BPR is approx. = 6). Forces and moments on the complete model were measured with a strain-gage balance, and extensive external static-pressure measurements (383 orifice locations) were made on the wing, nacelles, and pylons of the model. Data were taken at Mach numbers from 0.50 to 0.80 and at model angles of attack from -4 deg to 8 deg. Test results indicate that flow-through nacelles with a very high bypass ratio can be installed on a low-wing transport model with a lower installation drag penalty than for a conventional turbofan nacelle at a design cruise Mach number of 0.77 and lift coefficient of 0.55.

  17. LHC installation planning

    CERN Document Server

    Weisz, S

    2005-01-01

    installation of the general services, the installation of the cryogenic line (QRL), the installation of the machine elements and the hardware commissioning. While the installation of the general services is now almost finished (see presentation by Katy Foraz and Serge Grillot), several problems and delays with the QRL made it unavoidable to revise the installation strategy and to schedule a number tasks in parallel. A new compressed installation planning has been issued, that fulfils the strategic objectives and allows starting new activities with minimal delays in sectors 7-8 and 8-1. However, the shortcuts that are introduced increase the level of risk that we will have to face and the coordination of such a large and complex variety of simultaneous activities makes the project even more challenging. The document will describe how the input from the different equipment groups is taken into account by the master schedule planning team with respect to equipment availability and production as well as logistics...

  18. Development of a multi-step leukemogenesis model of MLL-rearranged leukemia using humanized mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiko Moriya

    Full Text Available Mixed-lineage-leukemia (MLL fusion oncogenes are intimately involved in acute leukemia and secondary therapy-related acute leukemia. To understand MLL-rearranged leukemia, several murine models for this disease have been established. However, the mouse leukemia derived from mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs may not be fully comparable with human leukemia. Here we developed a humanized mouse model for human leukemia by transplanting human cord blood-derived HSCs transduced with an MLL-AF10 oncogene into a supra-immunodeficient mouse strain, NOD/Shi-scid, IL-2Rγ(-/- (NOG mice. Injection of the MLL-AF10-transduced HSCs into the liver of NOG mice enhanced multilineage hematopoiesis, but did not induce leukemia. Because active mutations in ras genes are often found in MLL-related leukemia, we next transduced the gene for a constitutively active form of K-ras along with the MLL-AF10 oncogene. Eight weeks after transplantation, all the recipient mice had developed acute monoblastic leukemia (the M5 phenotype in French-American-British classification. We thus successfully established a human MLL-rearranged leukemia that was derived in vivo from human HSCs. In addition, since the enforced expression of the mutant K-ras alone was insufficient to induce leukemia, the present model may also be a useful experimental platform for the multi-step leukemogenesis model of human leukemia.

  19. Specification of a STEP Based Reference Model for Exchange of Robotics Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haenisch, Jochen; Kroszynski, Uri; Ludwig, Arnold

    ESPRIT Project 6457: "Interoperability of Standards for Robotics in CIME" (InterRob) belongs to the Subprogram "Computer Integrated Manufacturing and Engineering" of ESPRIT, the European Specific Programme for Research and Development in Information Technology supported by the European Commision....... InterRob aims to develop an integrated solution to precision manufacturing by combining product data and database technologies with robotic off-line programming and simulation. Benefits arise from the use of high level simulation tools and developing standards for the exchange of product model data...... combining geometric, dynamic, process and robot specific data.The growing need for accurate information about manufacturing data (models of robots and other mechanisms) in diverse industrial applications has initiated ESPRIT Project 6457: InterRob. Besides the topics associated with standards for industrial...

  20. A Three Step B2B Sales Model Based on Satisfaction Judgments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe

    2015-01-01

    . The insights produces can be applied for selling companies to craft close collaborative customer relationships in a systematic a d efficient way. The process of building customer relationships will be guided through actions that yields higher satisfaction judgments leading to loyal customers and finally......This paper aims to provide a coherent, detailed and integrative understanding of the mental processes (i.e. dimensions) that industrial buyers apply when forming satisfaction judgments in adjacent to new task buying situations. A qualitative inductive research strategy is utilized in this study...... companies’ perspective. The buying center members applied satisfaction dimension when forming satisfaction judgments. Moreover, the focus and importance of the identified satisfaction dimensions fluctuated pending on the phase of the buying process. Based on the findings a three step sales model is proposed...

  1. Competitive inhibition reaction mechanisms for the two-step model of protein aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whidden, Mark; Ho, Allison; Ivanova, Magdalena I; Schnell, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    We propose three new reaction mechanisms for competitive inhibition of protein aggregation for the two-step model of protein aggregation. The first mechanism is characterized by the inhibition of native protein, the second is characterized by the inhibition of aggregation-prone protein and the third mechanism is characterized by the mixed inhibition of native and aggregation-prone proteins. Rate equations are derived for these mechanisms, and a method is described for plotting kinetic results to distinguish these three types of inhibitors. The derived rate equations provide a simple way of estimating the inhibition constant of native or aggregation-prone protein inhibitors in protein aggregation. The new approach is used to estimate the inhibition constants of different peptide inhibitors of insulin aggregation.

  2. Electrical installations and regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J F

    1966-01-01

    Electrical Installations and Regulations focuses on the regulations that apply to electrical installations and the reasons for them. Topics covered range from electrical science to alternating and direct current supplies, as well as equipment for providing protection against excess current. Cables, wiring systems, and final subcircuits are also considered, along with earthing, discharge lighting, and testing and inspection.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of electrical installation work, traits of a good electrician, and the regulations governing installations. The r

  3. A 2-D process-based model for suspended sediment dynamics: A first step towards ecological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achete, F. M.; van der Wegen, M.; Roelvink, D.; Jaffe, B.

    2015-01-01

    In estuaries suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is one of the most important contributors to turbidity, which influences habitat conditions and ecological functions of the system. Sediment dynamics differs depending on sediment supply and hydrodynamic forcing conditions that vary over space and over time. A robust sediment transport model is a first step in developing a chain of models enabling simulations of contaminants, phytoplankton and habitat conditions. This works aims to determine turbidity levels in the complex-geometry delta of the San Francisco estuary using a process-based approach (Delft3D Flexible Mesh software). Our approach includes a detailed calibration against measured SSC levels, a sensitivity analysis on model parameters and the determination of a yearly sediment budget as well as an assessment of model results in terms of turbidity levels for a single year, water year (WY) 2011. Model results show that our process-based approach is a valuable tool in assessing sediment dynamics and their related ecological parameters over a range of spatial and temporal scales. The model may act as the base model for a chain of ecological models assessing the impact of climate change and management scenarios. Here we present a modeling approach that, with limited data, produces reliable predictions and can be useful for estuaries without a large amount of processes data.

  4. A 2-D process-based model for suspended sediment dynamics: a first step towards ecological modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Achete

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In estuaries most of the sediment load is carried in suspension. Sediment dynamics differ depending on sediment supply and hydrodynamic forcing conditions that vary over space and over time. Suspended sediment concentration (SSC is one of the most important contributors to turbidity, which influences habitat conditions and ecological functions of the system. A robust sediment model is the first step towards a chain of model including contaminants and phytoplankton dynamics and habitat modeling. This works aims to determine turbidity levels in the complex-geometry Delta of San Francisco Estuary using a process-based approach (D-Flow Flexible Mesh software. Our approach includes a detailed calibration against measured SSC levels, a sensitivity analysis on model parameters, the determination of a yearly sediment budget as well as an assessment of model results in terms of turbidity levels for a single year (Water Year 2011. Model results shows that our process-based approach is a valuable tool in assessing sediment dynamics and their related ecological parameters over a range of spatial and temporal scales. The current model may act as the base model for a chain of ecological models and climate scenario forecasting.

  5. A step towards considering the spatial heterogeneity of urban key features in urban hydrology flood modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leandro, J.; Schumann, A.; Pfister, A.

    2016-04-01

    Some of the major challenges in modelling rainfall-runoff in urbanised areas are the complex interaction between the sewer system and the overland surface, and the spatial heterogeneity of the urban key features. The former requires the sewer network and the system of surface flow paths to be solved simultaneously. The latter is still an unresolved issue because the heterogeneity of runoff formation requires high detailed information and includes a large variety of feature specific rainfall-runoff dynamics. This paper discloses a methodology for considering the variability of building types and the spatial heterogeneity of land surfaces. The former is achieved by developing a specific conceptual rainfall-runoff model and the latter by defining a fully distributed approach for infiltration processes in urban areas with limited storage capacity dependent on OpenStreetMaps (OSM). The model complexity is increased stepwise by adding components to an existing 2D overland flow model. The different steps are defined as modelling levels. The methodology is applied in a German case study. Results highlight that: (a) spatial heterogeneity of urban features has a medium to high impact on the estimated overland flood-depths, (b) the addition of multiple urban features have a higher cumulative effect due to the dynamic effects simulated by the model, (c) connecting the runoff from buildings to the sewer contributes to the non-linear effects observed on the overland flood-depths, and (d) OSM data is useful in identifying pounding areas (for which infiltration plays a decisive role) and permeable natural surface flow paths (which delay the flood propagation).

  6. An Iterative Ensemble Kalman Filter with One-Step-Ahead Smoothing for State-Parameters Estimation of Contaminant Transport Models

    KAUST Repository

    Gharamti, M. E.

    2015-05-11

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a popular method for state-parameters estimation of subsurface flow and transport models based on field measurements. The common filtering procedure is to directly update the state and parameters as one single vector, which is known as the Joint-EnKF. In this study, we follow the one-step-ahead smoothing formulation of the filtering problem, to derive a new joint-based EnKF which involves a smoothing step of the state between two successive analysis steps. The new state-parameters estimation scheme is derived in a consistent Bayesian filtering framework and results in separate update steps for the state and the parameters. This new algorithm bears strong resemblance with the Dual-EnKF, but unlike the latter which first propagates the state with the model then updates it with the new observation, the proposed scheme starts by an update step, followed by a model integration step. We exploit this new formulation of the joint filtering problem and propose an efficient model-integration-free iterative procedure on the update step of the parameters only for further improved performances. Numerical experiments are conducted with a two-dimensional synthetic subsurface transport model simulating the migration of a contaminant plume in a heterogenous aquifer domain. Contaminant concentration data are assimilated to estimate both the contaminant state and the hydraulic conductivity field. Assimilation runs are performed under imperfect modeling conditions and various observational scenarios. Simulation results suggest that the proposed scheme efficiently recovers both the contaminant state and the aquifer conductivity, providing more accurate estimates than the standard Joint and Dual EnKFs in all tested scenarios. Iterating on the update step of the new scheme further enhances the proposed filter’s behavior. In term of computational cost, the new Joint-EnKF is almost equivalent to that of the Dual-EnKF, but requires twice more model

  7. A stochastic step model of replicative senescence explains ROS production rate in ageing cell populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor Lawless

    Full Text Available Increases in cellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS concentration with age have been observed repeatedly in mammalian tissues. Concomitant increases in the proportion of replicatively senescent cells in ageing mammalian tissues have also been observed. Populations of mitotic human fibroblasts cultured in vitro, undergoing transition from proliferation competence to replicative senescence are useful models of ageing human tissues. Similar exponential increases in ROS with age have been observed in this model system. Tracking individual cells in dividing populations is difficult, and so the vast majority of observations have been cross-sectional, at the population level, rather than longitudinal observations of individual cells.One possible explanation for these observations is an exponential increase in ROS in individual fibroblasts with time (e.g. resulting from a vicious cycle between cellular ROS and damage. However, we demonstrate an alternative, simple hypothesis, equally consistent with these observations which does not depend on any gradual increase in ROS concentration: the Stochastic Step Model of Replicative Senescence (SSMRS. We also demonstrate that, consistent with the SSMRS, neither proliferation-competent human fibroblasts of any age, nor populations of hTERT overexpressing human fibroblasts passaged beyond the Hayflick limit, display high ROS concentrations. We conclude that longitudinal studies of single cells and their lineages are now required for testing hypotheses about roles and mechanisms of ROS increase during replicative senescence.

  8. Alcoholics Anonymous and twelve-step recovery: a model based on social and cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanter, Marc

    2014-01-01

    In the course of achieving abstinence from alcohol, longstanding members of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) typically experience a change in their addiction-related attitudes and behaviors. These changes are reflective of physiologically grounded mechanisms which can be investigated within the disciplines of social and cognitive neuroscience. This article is designed to examine recent findings associated with these disciplines that may shed light on the mechanisms underlying this change. Literature review and hypothesis development. Pertinent aspects of the neural impact of drugs of abuse are summarized. After this, research regarding specific brain sites, elucidated primarily by imaging techniques, is reviewed relative to the following: Mirroring and mentalizing are described in relation to experimentally modeled studies on empathy and mutuality, which may parallel the experiences of social interaction and influence on AA members. Integration and retrieval of memories acquired in a setting like AA are described, and are related to studies on storytelling, models of self-schema development, and value formation. A model for ascription to a Higher Power is presented. The phenomena associated with AA reflect greater complexity than the empirical studies on which this article is based, and certainly require further elucidation. Despite this substantial limitation in currently available findings, there is heuristic value in considering the relationship between the brain-based and clinical phenomena described here. There are opportunities for the study of neuroscientific correlates of Twelve-Step-based recovery, and these can potentially enhance our understanding of related clinical phenomena. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  9. An Analysis of Step, Jt, and Pdf Format Translation Between Constraint-based Cad Systems with a Benchmark Model

    OpenAIRE

    McKenzie-Veal, Dillon

    2012-01-01

    This research was conducted to provide greater depth into the ability of STEP AP 203 Edition 2, JT, and 3D PDF to translate and preserve information while using a benchmark model. The benchmark model was designed based on four industry models and created natively in the five industry leading 3D CAD programs. The native CAD program models were translated using STEP, JT, and 3D PDF. Several criteria were analyzed along the paths of translation from one disparate CAD program to another. Along wi...

  10. Palliative care for patients with Parkinson’s disease: an interdisciplinary review and next step model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su KG

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Kimmy G Su,1 Julie H Carter,1 Keiran K Tuck,2 Tony Borcich,3 Linda A Bryans,4 Lisa L Mann,1 Jennifer L Wilhelm,5 Erik K Fromme6 1Department of Neurology, Oregon Health & Science University, 2The Oregon Clinic-Neurology, 3Parkinson’s Resources of Oregon, 4Northwest Clinic for Voice and Swallowing, Oregon Health and Science University, 5Rehabilitation Services, Oregon Health & Science University, 6Palliative Care Section, OHSU Knight Cancer Institute, Portland, OR, USA Abstract: Late stage Parkinson’s and Parkinson-plus patients have increased needs beyond motor symptom management that cannot be fully addressed in a typical neurology clinic visit. Complicating matters are the concurrent increasing emotional and physical demands on caregivers, which, if addressed, further stretch clinic time constraints. The complex and extensive patient and caregiver needs warrant a dedicated clinic to provide the necessary interdisciplinary care. In contrast to a typical model where the neurology clinician refers the patient to various ancillary treatment groups resulting in multiple separate clinic visits, the interdisciplinary model supports direct communication between the different disciplines during the clinic visit, allowing for a more coordinated response that takes into account multiple perspectives. Such an interdisciplinary model has been utilized in neurologic disorders with complex end-stage disease needs, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with notable improvement in quality of life and survival. The Oregon Health & Science University Parkinson Center and Movement Disorders Clinic has developed an interdisciplinary clinic called Next Step composed of neurology clinicians, a physical therapist, a speech pathologist, a social worker, and a nursing coordinator. The clinic focuses on palliative care issues, including complex late stage motor symptoms, nonmotor symptoms, and quality of life goals of both the patient and caregiver(s. This article

  11. Simulation model for assessing the efficiency of a combined power installation based on a geothermal heat pump and a vacuum solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaysman, Ya I.; Surkov, AA; Surkova, Yu I.; Kychkin, AV

    2017-06-01

    The article is devoted to the use of renewable energy sources and the assessment of the feasibility of their use in the climatic conditions of the Western Urals. A simulation model that calculates the efficiency of a combined power installations (CPI) was (RES) developed. The CPI consists of the geothermal heat pump (GHP) and the vacuum solar collector (VCS) and is based on the research model. This model allows solving a wide range of problems in the field of energy and resource efficiency, and can be applied to other objects using RES. Based on the research recommendations for optimizing the management and the application of CPI were given. The optimization system will give a positive effect in the energy and resource consumption of low-rise residential buildings projects.

  12. Inhibitor of the tyrosine phosphatase STEP reverses cognitive deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Xu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available STEP (STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase is a neuron-specific phosphatase that regulates N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR trafficking, as well as ERK1/2, p38, Fyn, and Pyk2 activity. STEP is overactive in several neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD. The increase in STEP activity likely disrupts synaptic function and contributes to the cognitive deficits in AD. AD mice lacking STEP have restored levels of glutamate receptors on synaptosomal membranes and improved cognitive function, results that suggest STEP as a novel therapeutic target for AD. Here we describe the first large-scale effort to identify and characterize small-molecule STEP inhibitors. We identified the benzopentathiepin 8-(trifluoromethyl-1,2,3,4,5-benzopentathiepin-6-amine hydrochloride (known as TC-2153 as an inhibitor of STEP with an IC50 of 24.6 nM. TC-2153 represents a novel class of PTP inhibitors based upon a cyclic polysulfide pharmacophore that forms a reversible covalent bond with the catalytic cysteine in STEP. In cell-based secondary assays, TC-2153 increased tyrosine phosphorylation of STEP substrates ERK1/2, Pyk2, and GluN2B, and exhibited no toxicity in cortical cultures. Validation and specificity experiments performed in wild-type (WT and STEP knockout (KO cortical cells and in vivo in WT and STEP KO mice suggest specificity of inhibitors towards STEP compared to highly homologous tyrosine phosphatases. Furthermore, TC-2153 improved cognitive function in several cognitive tasks in 6- and 12-mo-old triple transgenic AD (3xTg-AD mice, with no change in beta amyloid and phospho-tau levels.

  13. REVERSE ENGINEERING IN MODELING OF AIRCRAFT PROPELLER BLADE - FIRST STEP TO PRODUCT OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yasir Anwar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Propeller aircrafts have had many ups and downs throughout their use in the aviation history. Due to the current economic recession and price hikes in fuels, propeller aircrafts may yet again be a choice for aerial transport and has thus re-emerged as an active area for research. On modern propeller aircrafts old aluminum propellers are being replaced with fiber reinforced composite propellers. However, owing to their reliability, strength, and integrity, aluminum propellers are still used in military aircrafts. One of the challenges that engineers of these aircraft-type have had to deal with is the non-availability of engineering drawings of these propellers. It is practically impossible to carry out any study, research or modification on such propellers in the absence of correct CAD data. This article proposes a methodology wherein a CAD model of a C-130 aircraft propeller blade can be constructed using reverse engineering techniques. Such a model would help in future aerodynamic as well as structural analyses which includes investigation on structural integrity and the fluid dynamics characteristics of propeller blades. Different steps involved in this process are discussed; starting from laser scanning to obtain the cloud of points data and subsequently generating a CAD model in a commercial CAD software. The model is then imported into an analysis software where quality surface meshes are generated using tetrahedral elements. The purpose is to prepare a meshed model for future computational analysis including CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics and FE (Finite Element analysis. ABSTRAK: Pesawat bebaling mempunyai tempoh pasang surutnya sepanjang penggunaanya dalam sejarah penerbangan. Kini disebabkan oleh kemelesetan ekonomi dan kenaikan harga minyak, pesawat bebaling mungkin akan merupakan pengangkutan udara pilihan dan seterusnya muncul semula sebagai ruangan aktif penyelidikan. Pada pesawat bebaling moden, bebaling aluminium yang

  14. Efficient estimation of time-mean states of ocean models using 4D-Var and implicit time-stepping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwisscha van Scheltinga, A.D.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    We propose an efficient method for estimating a time-mean state of an ocean model subject to given observations using implicit time-stepping. The new method uses (i) an implicit implementation of the 4D-Var method to fit the model trajectory to the observations, and (ii) a preprocessor which applies

  15. The Use of an Eight-Step Instructional Model to Train School Staff in Partner-Augmented Input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senner, Jill E.; Baud, Matthew R.

    2017-01-01

    An eight-step instruction model was used to train a self-contained classroom teacher, speech-language pathologist, and two instructional assistants in partner-augmented input, a modeling strategy for teaching augmentative and alternative communication use. With the exception of a 2-hr training session, instruction primarily was conducted during…

  16. Social Recovery Model: An 8-Year Investigation of Adolescent 12-step Group Involvement following Inpatient Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John F.; Brown, Sandra A.; Abrantes, Ana; Kahler, Christopher; Myers, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite widespread use of 12-step treatment approaches and referrals to Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) by youth providers, little is known about the significance of these organizations in youth addiction recovery. Furthermore, existing evidence is based mostly on short-term follow-up and is limited methodologically. Methods Adolescent inpatients (N = 160; M age = 16, 40% female) were followed at 6-months, and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 years post-treatment. Time-lagged, generalized estimating equations (GEE) modeled treatment outcome in relation to AA/NA attendance controlling for static and time-varying covariates. Robust regression (LOWESS) explored dose-response thresholds of AA/NA attendance on outcome. Results AA/NA attendance was common and intensive early post-treatment, but declined sharply and steadily over the 8-year period. Patients with greater addiction severity and those who believed they could not use substances in moderation were more likely to attend. Despite declining attendance, the effects related to AA/NA remained significant and consistent. Greater early participation was associated with better long-term outcomes. Conclusions Even though many youth discontinue AA/NA over time, attendees appear to benefit, and more severely substance-involved youth attend most. Successful early post-treatment engagement of youth in abstinence-supportive social contexts, such as AA/NA, may have long-term implications for alcohol and drug involvement into young adulthood. PMID:18557829

  17. Multi-Step Usage of in Vivo Models During Rational Drug Design and Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles H. Williams

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we propose a systematic development method for rational drug design while reviewing paradigms in industry, emerging techniques and technologies in the field. Although the process of drug development today has been accelerated by emergence of computational methodologies, it is a herculean challenge requiring exorbitant resources; and often fails to yield clinically viable results. The current paradigm of target based drug design is often misguided and tends to yield compounds that have poor absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, toxicology (ADMET properties. Therefore, an in vivo organism based approach allowing for a multidisciplinary inquiry into potent and selective molecules is an excellent place to begin rational drug design. We will review how organisms like the zebrafish and Caenorhabditis elegans can not only be starting points, but can be used at various steps of the drug development process from target identification to pre-clinical trial models. This systems biology based approach paired with the power of computational biology; genetics and developmental biology provide a methodological framework to avoid the pitfalls of traditional target based drug design.

  18. Multi-step usage of in vivo models during rational drug design and discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charles H; Hong, Charles C

    2011-01-01

    In this article we propose a systematic development method for rational drug design while reviewing paradigms in industry, emerging techniques and technologies in the field. Although the process of drug development today has been accelerated by emergence of computational methodologies, it is a herculean challenge requiring exorbitant resources; and often fails to yield clinically viable results. The current paradigm of target based drug design is often misguided and tends to yield compounds that have poor absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, toxicology (ADMET) properties. Therefore, an in vivo organism based approach allowing for a multidisciplinary inquiry into potent and selective molecules is an excellent place to begin rational drug design. We will review how organisms like the zebrafish and Caenorhabditis elegans can not only be starting points, but can be used at various steps of the drug development process from target identification to pre-clinical trial models. This systems biology based approach paired with the power of computational biology; genetics and developmental biology provide a methodological framework to avoid the pitfalls of traditional target based drug design.

  19. Improving pain care through implementation of the Stepped Care Model at a multisite community health center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daren R; Zlateva, Ianita; Coman, Emil N; Khatri, Khushbu; Tian, Terrence; Kerns, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Treating pain in primary care is challenging. Primary care providers (PCPs) receive limited training in pain care and express low confidence in their knowledge and ability to manage pain effectively. Models to improve pain outcomes have been developed, but not formally implemented in safety net practices where pain is particularly common. This study evaluated the impact of implementing the Stepped Care Model for Pain Management (SCM-PM) at a large, multisite Federally Qualified Health Center. Methods The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services framework guided the implementation of the SCM-PM. The multicomponent intervention included: education on pain care, new protocols for pain assessment and management, implementation of an opioid management dashboard, telehealth consultations, and enhanced onsite specialty resources. Participants included 25 PCPs and their patients with chronic pain (3,357 preintervention and 4,385 postintervention) cared for at Community Health Center, Inc. Data were collected from the electronic health record and supplemented by chart reviews. Surveys were administered to PCPs to assess knowledge, attitudes, and confidence. Results Providers’ pain knowledge scores increased to an average of 11% from baseline; self-rated confidence in ability to manage pain also increased. Use of opioid treatment agreements and urine drug screens increased significantly by 27.3% and 22.6%, respectively. Significant improvements were also noted in documentation of pain, pain treatment, and pain follow-up. Referrals to behavioral health providers for patients with pain increased by 5.96% (P=0.009). There was no significant change in opioid prescribing. Conclusion Implementation of the SCM-PM resulted in clinically significant improvements in several quality of pain care outcomes. These findings, if sustained, may translate into improved patient outcomes. PMID:27881926

  20. Multi-step polynomial regression method to model and forecast malaria incidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrajit Chatterjee

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the most severe problems faced by the world even today. Understanding the causative factors such as age, sex, social factors, environmental variability etc. as well as underlying transmission dynamics of the disease is important for epidemiological research on malaria and its eradication. Thus, development of suitable modeling approach and methodology, based on the available data on the incidence of the disease and other related factors is of utmost importance. In this study, we developed a simple non-linear regression methodology in modeling and forecasting malaria incidence in Chennai city, India, and predicted future disease incidence with high confidence level. We considered three types of data to develop the regression methodology: a longer time series data of Slide Positivity Rates (SPR of malaria; a smaller time series data (deaths due to Plasmodium vivax of one year; and spatial data (zonal distribution of P. vivax deaths for the city along with the climatic factors, population and previous incidence of the disease. We performed variable selection by simple correlation study, identification of the initial relationship between variables through non-linear curve fitting and used multi-step methods for induction of variables in the non-linear regression analysis along with applied Gauss-Markov models, and ANOVA for testing the prediction, validity and constructing the confidence intervals. The results execute the applicability of our method for different types of data, the autoregressive nature of forecasting, and show high prediction power for both SPR and P. vivax deaths, where the one-lag SPR values plays an influential role and proves useful for better prediction. Different climatic factors are identified as playing crucial role on shaping the disease curve. Further, disease incidence at zonal level and the effect of causative factors on different zonal clusters indicate the pattern of malaria prevalence in the city

  1. Biggest semiconductor installed

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Scientists and technicians at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, commonly known by its French acronym CERN (Centre Europen pour la Recherche Nuclaire), have completed the installation of the largest semiconductor silicon detector.

  2. BEAM PIPE IS INSTALLED

    CERN Multimedia

    The installation of the central section of the beam pipe into the heart of the  CMS was completed by 23 April. All the beam pipe elements have been successfully vacuum-tested and the bakeout started.  

  3. ECAL BARREL INSTALLED

    CERN Multimedia

    An important milestone was reached with the installation and test of the 36th ECAL Barrel Supermodule, completed July 27th.  The quality is exceptional: all but 28 of the 61200 channels are functional.    

  4. Thermosyphon Cooler Hybrid System for Water Savings in an Energy-Efficient HPC Data Center: Modeling and Installation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Thomas; Liu, Zan; Sickinger, David; Regimbal, Kevin; Martinez, David

    2017-02-01

    water on Sandia's site. In addition to describing the installation of the TSC and its integration into the ESIF, this paper focuses on the full heat rejection system simulation program used for hourly analysis of the energy and water consumption of the complete system under varying operating scenarios. A follow-up paper will detail the test results. The evaluation of the TSC's performance at NREL will also determine a path forward at Sandia for possible deployment in a large-scale system not only for data center use but also possibly site wide.

  5. Installation af opvaskemaskine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, J.; Skibstrup Eriksen, S.; Nielsen, F.

    Denne SBI-anvisning er et led i en serie om modernisering af installationerne i den ældre boligmasse. Den henvender sig til både beboere, husejere, VVS-installatører og andre interesserede. Anvisningen indeholder almene afsnit om valg og placering af opvaskemaskine, sagsforløb ved installation......, forhold til myndigheder, priser, finansieringsmuligheder m.m. Anvisningen indeholder endvidere tekniske afsnit om vandinstallation, afløb og elinstallation i forbindelse med installation af opvaskemaskine....

  6. Installing the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    THE art of installation is an art about concept," explains Qing Qing Chen. The artist wants her audience to look at the development of aesthetics from a pluralistic angle on life. Unlike the expressive format of "art in the frame," the art of installation belongs to the category of "non-framed art." The choice of materials used is as important to expression as the creator’s ideas. Whereas only certain materials can be

  7. Complex biopower installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirshu M.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available It is presented the technological scheme of complex biopower installation for manufacture of the electric power, hot water and gas at use as raw material of manure, birds dung and firm organic waste products. The suggested technical solution provides practically 100 % use of energy of burnt gas due to the introduced feedback between power station and a bioreactor. Recommendations for the best use of installation in Republics Moldova are developed as well.

  8. Improving Genetic Evaluation of Litter Size Using a Single-step Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiangyu; Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Ostersen, Tage

    A recently developed single-step method allows genetic evaluation based on information from phenotypes, pedigree and markers simultaneously. This paper compared reliabilities of predicted breeding values obtained from single-step method and the traditional pedigree-based method for two litter size...... traits, total number of piglets born (TNB), and litter size at five days after birth (Ls 5) in Danish Landrace and Yorkshire pigs. The results showed that the single-step method combining phenotypic and genotypic information provided more accurate predictions than the pedigree-based method, not only...

  9. One-dimensional model of interacting-step fluctuations on vicinal surfaces: Analytical formulas and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrone, Paul N.; Einstein, T. L.; Margetis, Dionisios

    2010-12-01

    We study analytically and numerically a one-dimensional model of interacting line defects (steps) fluctuating on a vicinal crystal. Our goal is to formulate and validate analytical techniques for approximately solving systems of coupled nonlinear stochastic differential equations (SDEs) governing fluctuations in surface motion. In our analytical approach, the starting point is the Burton-Cabrera-Frank (BCF) model by which step motion is driven by diffusion of adsorbed atoms on terraces and atom attachment-detachment at steps. The step energy accounts for entropic and nearest-neighbor elastic-dipole interactions. By including Gaussian white noise to the equations of motion for terrace widths, we formulate large systems of SDEs under different choices of diffusion coefficients for the noise. We simplify this description via (i) perturbation theory and linearization of the step interactions and, alternatively, (ii) a mean-field (MF) approximation whereby widths of adjacent terraces are replaced by a self-consistent field but nonlinearities in step interactions are retained. We derive simplified formulas for the time-dependent terrace-width distribution (TWD) and its steady-state limit. Our MF analytical predictions for the TWD compare favorably with kinetic Monte Carlo simulations under the addition of a suitably conservative white noise in the BCF equations.

  10. BIOMAP A Daily Time Step, Mechanistic Model for the Study of Ecosystem Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, J. R.; Neilson, R. P.; Drapek, R. J.; Pitts, B. S.

    2010-12-01

    BIOMAP simulates competition between two Plant Functional Types (PFT) at any given point in the conterminous U.S. using a time series of daily temperature (mean, minimum, maximum), precipitation, humidity, light and nutrients, with PFT-specific rooting within a multi-layer soil. The model employs a 2-layer canopy biophysics, Farquhar photosynthesis, the Beer-Lambert Law for light attenuation and a mechanistic soil hydrology. In essence, BIOMAP is a re-built version of the biogeochemistry model, BIOME-BGC, into the form of the MAPSS biogeography model. Specific enhancements are: 1) the 2-layer canopy biophysics of Dolman (1993); 2) the unique MAPSS-based hydrology, which incorporates canopy evaporation, snow dynamics, infiltration and saturated and unsaturated percolation with ‘fast’ flow and base flow and a ‘tunable aquifer’ capacity, a metaphor of D’Arcy’s Law; and, 3) a unique MAPSS-based stomatal conductance algorithm, which simultaneously incorporates vapor pressure and soil water potential constraints, based on physiological information and many other improvements. Over small domains the PFTs can be parameterized as individual species to investigate fundamental vs. potential niche theory; while, at more coarse scales the PFTs can be rendered as more general functional groups. Since all of the model processes are intrinsically leaf to plot scale (physiology to PFT competition), it essentially has no ‘intrinsic’ scale and can be implemented on a grid of any size, taking on the characteristics defined by the homogeneous climate of each grid cell. Currently, the model is implemented on the VEMAP 1/2 degree, daily grid over the conterminous U.S. Although both the thermal and water-limited ecotones are dynamic, following climate variability, the PFT distributions remain fixed. Thus, the model is currently being fitted with a ‘reproduction niche’ to allow full dynamic operation as a Dynamic General Vegetation Model (DGVM). While global simulations

  11. The multimedia models for the evaluation of exposure bond to the atmospheric emissions of classified installations; Les modeles multimedia pour l'evaluation des expositions liees aux emissions atmospheriques des installations classees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnard, R

    2001-12-15

    Risk assessment and environmental impacts studies are realized to preserve the public health. Today one of the most used approach is the use of an atmospheric dispersion model to assess the risks. The data are then injected in a calculation software of exposure bond to polluted soils, to evaluate the risks of non direct exposure. This report details and evaluates the models corresponding to the need: the methodology for assessing Health Risks associated with multiple pathways of exposure to combustor, human health risk assessment proto col for hazardous waste combustion facilities, EUSES, CALTOX, MEPAS, MEND-TOX, RESRAD, MMSOILS, FRAMES-HWIR, PC-GEMS and TRIM. (A.L.B.)

  12. 78 FR 26280 - Special Conditions: Embraer, S.A., Model EMB-550 Airplane; Side-Facing Seats; Installation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... owner operations. The aircraft has a conventional configuration with low wing and T-tail empennage. The...: Jayson Claar, FAA, Airframe and Cabin Safety Branch, ANM-115, Transport Airplane Directorate, Aircraft.... applied for a type certificate for their new Model EMB-550 airplane. The Model EMB-550 airplane is...

  13. Modelling of dead carbon fraction in speleothems: a step towards reliable speleothem 14C-chronologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechleitner, Franziska A.; Jamieson, Robert A.; McIntyre, Cameron; Baldini, Lisa M.; Baldini, James U. L.; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2015-04-01

    Over the past two decades, speleothems have become one of the most versatile and promising archives for the study of past continental climate. Very precise absolute dating is often possible using the U-Th method, resulting in paleoclimate records of exceptional resolution and accuracy. However, not all speleothems are amenable to this dating method for a variety of reasons (e.g. low U concentrations, high detrital Th etc). This has lead researchers to exclude many otherwise suitable speleothems and cave sites from further investigation. 14C-dating of speleothems has so far not been applicable, due to the 'dead carbon' problem. As drip water percolates through the karst, dissolving CaCO3, a variable amount of 14C-dead carbon is added to the solution. This results in a temporally variable and site-specific reservoir effect, ultimately undermining the development of speleothem 14C -chronologies. However, a number of recent studies have shown a clear link between karst hydrology and associated proxies (e.g., Mg/Ca and δ13C) and this 'dead carbon fraction' (DCF). We take advantage of this relationship to model DCF and its changes using Mg/Ca, δ13C and 14C data from published speleothem records. Using one record for calibration purposes, we build a transfer function for the DCF in relation to δ13C and Mg/Ca, which we then apply to other 14C records. Initial model results are promising; we are able to reconstruct general long-term average DCF within uncertainties of the calculated DCF from the U-Th chronology. Large shifts in DCF related to hydrology are also often detected. In a second step, we apply the model to a speleothem from southern Poland, which so far could not be dated, due to very low U-concentrations. To construct a 14C chronology, the stalagmite was sampled at 5 mm intervals. CaCO3 powders were graphitized and measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (MICADAS) at ETH Zurich. Additional high-resolution (0.1 mm/sample) 14C measurements were performed on

  14. Reduced Numerical Model for Methane Hydrate Formation under Conditions of Variable Salinity. Time-Stepping Variants and Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Peszynska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a reduced computational model of methane hydrate formation in variable salinity conditions, and give details on the discretization and phase equilibria implementation. We describe three time-stepping variants: Implicit, Semi-implicit, and Sequential, and we compare the accuracy and efficiency of these variants depending on the spatial and temporal discretization parameters. We also study the sensitivity of the model to the simulation parameters and in particular to the reduced phase equilibria model.

  15. Improving pain care through implementation of the Stepped Care Model at a multisite community health center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson DR

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Daren R Anderson,1 Ianita Zlateva,1 Emil N Coman,2 Khushbu Khatri,1 Terrence Tian,1 Robert D Kerns3 1Weitzman Institute, Community Health Center, Inc., Middletown, 2UCONN Health Disparities Institute, University of Connecticut, Farmington, 3VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, CT, USA Purpose: Treating pain in primary care is challenging. Primary care providers (PCPs receive limited training in pain care and express low confidence in their knowledge and ability to manage pain effectively. Models to improve pain outcomes have been developed, but not formally implemented in safety net practices where pain is particularly common. This study evaluated the impact of implementing the Stepped Care Model for Pain Management (SCM-PM at a large, multisite Federally Qualified Health Center. Methods: The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services framework guided the implementation of the SCM-PM. The multicomponent intervention included: education on pain care, new protocols for pain assessment and management, implementation of an opioid management dashboard, telehealth consultations, and enhanced onsite specialty resources. Participants included 25 PCPs and their patients with chronic pain (3,357 preintervention and 4,385 postintervention cared for at Community Health Center, Inc. Data were collected from the electronic health record and supplemented by chart reviews. Surveys were administered to PCPs to assess knowledge, attitudes, and confidence. Results: Providers’ pain knowledge scores increased to an average of 11% from baseline; self-rated confidence in ability to manage pain also increased. Use of opioid treatment agreements and urine drug screens increased significantly by 27.3% and 22.6%, respectively. Significant improvements were also noted in documentation of pain, pain treatment, and pain follow-up. Referrals to behavioral health providers for patients with pain increased by 5.96% (P=0.009. There was no

  16. A regulatory model for conformity evaluation in natural gas building installations; Um modelo regulatorio para avaliacao da conformidade das instalacoes prediais de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fossa, Alberto Jose; Santos, Edmilson Moutinho dos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    2008-07-01

    The challenge of the Brazilian growth needs to consider necessarily the energy arrangements, and natural gas has relevant participation in this matter. The possibility of its end use that make possible an effective adequacy of our energy matrix must be supported by modern concepts of quality and conformity. In this particular, the program of 'Tecnologia Industrial Basica' (TIB), including concepts and application of conformity evaluation processes, is considered basic for the construction of a consistent gas market. This paper present the Brazilian reality related to TIB aspects and elements, from which it constructs a technician and regulatory building gas installations model proposal for a conformity evaluation program in the country. (author)

  17. An experimental investigation of thrust vectoring two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles installed in a twin-engine fighter model at high angles of attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Francis J.; Mason, Mary L.; Leavitt, Laurence D.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine thrust vectoring capability of subscale 2-D convergent-divergent exhaust nozzles installed on a twin engine general research fighter model. Pitch thrust vectoring was accomplished by downward rotation of nozzle upper and lower flaps. The effects of nozzle sidewall cutback were studied for both unvectored and pitch vectored nozzles. A single cutback sidewall was employed for yaw thrust vectoring. This investigation was conducted at Mach numbers ranging from 0 to 1.20 and at angles of attack from -2 to 35 deg. High pressure air was used to simulate jet exhaust and provide values of nozzle pressure ratio up to 9.

  18. Installing Ubuntu Enterprise Cloud in a Physical Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantić, Zoran; Ali Babar, Muhammad

    This document contains the supplemental material to “Guidelines for Building a Private Cloud Infrastructure.” This supplemental material provides guidance on how to install Ubuntu Enterprise Cloud in a physical environment. The purpose of this document is to provide a practical, step......-by-step, detailed guide on how to pre-configure and install the machines and network. For more detailed description of the steps, a reader is advised to refer to another supplemental book named “Installing and Scaling out Ubuntu Enterprise Cloud in Virtual Environment.” There are a few more details, accompanied...... with screenshots. The material included in this supplemental document is based on the installation that was performed in a physical environment based on HP ProLiant DL380 G4 servers, 100 Mbit/s witches, and a firewall/router that isolated the whole solution. The cloud installation was performed using the (for...

  19. Adhere, Degrade, and Move: The Three-Step Model of Invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Lance A

    2016-06-01

    Experimental work during the period 1975-1986 revealed the crucial importance of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in tumor cell invasion and metastasis, and culminated in the three-step hypothesis of invasion. The first step is tumor cell attachment to the ECM. The second step is proteolytic degradation of the ECM, led by advancing protruding actin-rich pseudopods. The third step is migration of the tumor cell body through the remodeled matrix. This mechanistic scheme is widely accepted and continues to generate insights related to the large number of molecules, inside and outside invading cells, which all play a role in each of the three steps. Understanding the interaction of the tumor cells with the ECM has never been more clinically important. The ECM is not just a passive mechanical scaffold. Instead, the ECM is an active participant in neoplastic and physiologic invasion, and acts as an information highway, an immune sanctuary, and a storage depot supporting tumor growth and drug resistance. Cancer Res; 76(11); 3115-7. ©2016 AACRSee related article by Liotta, Cancer Res 1986;46:1-7Visit the Cancer Research 75(th) Anniversary timeline.

  20. Efficient Time-Step Coupling For Hybrid Continuum/Molecular Modelling of Unsteady Micro-Scale Gas Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockerby, Duncan A.; Duque-Daza, Carlos A.; Borg, Matthew K.; Reese, Jason M.

    2012-05-01

    In this paper we describe a numerical method for the efficient time-accurate coupling of hybrid continuum/molecular micro gas flow solvers. Hybrid approaches are commonly used when non-equilibrium effects in the flow field are spatially localized; in these regions a more accurate, but typically more expensive, solution procedure is adopted. Although this can greatly increase efficiency in steady flows, in unsteady flows the evolution of the solution as a whole is restricted by the maximum time step allowed by the molecular-based/kinetic model; numerically speaking, this is a stiff problem. In the method presented in this paper we exploit time-scale separation, when it exists, to partially decouple the temporal evolution of the two parts of the hybrid model. This affords major computational savings. The method is a modified/extended version of the seamless heterogeneous multiscale method (SHMM). Our approach allows multiple micro steps (molecular steps) before coupling with the macro (continuum) solver: we call this a multi-step SHMM. This maintains the main advantages of SHMM (computational speed-up and flexible application) while improving on accuracy and greatly reducing the number of continuum computations and instances of coupling required. The improved accuracy of the multi-step SHMM is demonstrated for two canonical one-dimensional transient flows (oscillatory Poiseuille and oscillatory Couette flow) and for rarefied-gas oscillatory Poiseuille flow.

  1. Direct construction of predictive models for describing growth Salmonella enteritidis in liquid eggs – a one-step approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to develop a new approach using a one-step approach to directly construct predictive models for describing the growth of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) in liquid egg white (LEW) and egg yolk (LEY). A five-strain cocktail of SE, induced to resist rifampicin at 100 mg/L, ...

  2. Cross sections and modelling results for TGF- and positron spectrum produced by a negative stepped lightning leader

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhn, C.; Ebert, U.

    2012-01-01

    We model the energy resolved angular distribution of TGFs and of positrons produced by a negative lightning leader stepping upwards in a thundercloud. First we present our new results for doubly differential cross sections for Bremsstrahlung and pair production based on the triply differential cross

  3. Bi-Bayesian Combined Model for Two-Step Prediction of Dynamic Turning Movement Proportions at Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengpeng Jiao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Short-term prediction of dynamic turning movement proportions at intersections is very important for intelligent transportation systems, but it is impossible to detect turning flows directly through current traffic surveillance devices. Existing prediction models have proved to be rather accurate in general, but not precise enough during every time interval, and can only obtain the one-step prediction. This paper first presents a Bayesian combined model to forecast the entering and exiting flows at intersections, by integrating a nonlinear regression, a moving average, and an autoregressive model. Based on the forecasted traffic flows, this paper further develops an accurate backpropagation neural network model and an efficient Kalman filtering model to predict the dynamic turning movement proportions. Using Bayesian method with both historical information and currently prediction results for error adjustment, this paper finally integrates both the above two prediction models and proposes a Bi-Bayesian combined framework to achieve both one-step and two-step predictions. A case study is implemented based on practical survey data, which are collected at an intersection in Beijing city, including both historical and current data. The reported prediction results indicate that the Bi-Bayesian combined model is rather accurate and stable for on-line applications.

  4. Python Introduction and Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This first lesson in our section on dealing with Online Sources is designed to get you and your computer set up to start programming. We will focus on installing the relevant software – all free and reputable – and finally we will help you to get your toes wet with some simple programming that provides immediate results. In this opening module you will install the Python programming language, the Beautiful Soup HTML/XML parser, and a text editor. Screencaps provided here come from Komodo Edit, but you can use any text editor capable of working with Python. Here’s a list of other options: Python Editors. Once everything is installed, you will write your first programs, “Hello World” in Python and HTML.

  5. Modelling and dynamic simulation of processes with 'MATLAB'. An application of a natural gas installation in a power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Bustamante, J.A.; Sala, J.M.; Flores, I. [Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Industriales de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao (Bizkaia) (Spain); Lopez-Gonzalez, L.M. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria Industrial, Universidad de La Rioja, C/ Luis de Ulloa, 20. E 26004 Logrono (La Rioja) (Spain); Miguez, J.L. [Universidad de Vigo, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, C/Lagoas-Marcosende, s/n 36200 Vigo (Pontevedra) (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    In this paper, it is proposed to incorporate the analysis of the dynamic performance of the process into the design and engineering stage of projects as a means of analysing and resolving this type of problem. The following contributions are made with this objective in mind:(a)The barriers in the way of dynamic analysis are identified. (b)Software tools which make dynamic analysis accessible during the design and engineering phase of the project are proposed. To achieve this goal, modelling and mathematical simulation are used, with the following features: circle strict modelling of mass, momentum and energy conservation equations as well as state equations, and circle utilisation of the 'Matlab-Simulink' package as the base-software tool. (c)The procedure and tool proposed for dynamic analysis during the design phase should enable these studies to be carried out at a reasonable cost and time for regular industrial projects, and not just for large research projects or nuclear power plants. To complete this paper, we apply our method to a natural gas installation in a power plant. The model is applied to study the transients of a natural gas supply line to a steam-electric power plant. The results of the model have been validated with the actual data on the boiler trip obtained from the distributed control system of a steam-electric power plant. (author)

  6. A study of aerodynamic heating distributions on a tip-fin controller installed on a Space Shuttle Orbiter model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittliff, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    The aerodynamic heating of a tip-fin controller mounted on a Space Shuttle Orbiter model was studied experimentally in the Calspan Advanced Technology Center 96 inch Hypersonic Shock Tunnel. A 0.0175 scale model was tested at Mach numbers from 10 to 17.5 at angles of attack typical of a shuttle entry. The study was conducted in two phases. In phase 1 testing a thermographic phosphor technique was used to qualitatively determine the areas of high heat-transfer rates. Based on the results of this phase, the model was instrumented with 40 thin-film resistance thermometers to obtain quantitative measurements of the aerodynamic heating. The results of the phase 2 testing indicate that the highest heating rates, which occur on the leading edge of the tip-fin controller, are very sensitive to angle of attack for alpha or = 30 deg. The shock wave from the leading edge of the orbiter wing impinges on the leading edge of the tip-fin controller resulting in peak values of h/h(Ref) in the range from 1.5 to 2.0. Away from the leading edge, the heat-transfer rates never exceed h/h(Ref) = 0.25 when the control surface, is not deflected. With the control surface deflected 20 deg, the heat-transfer rates had a maximum value of h/h(Ref) = 0.3. The heating rates are quite nonuniform over the outboard surface and are sensitive to angle of attack.

  7. Assesment of advanced step models for steady state Monte Carlo burnup calculations in application to prismatic HTGR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kępisty Grzegorz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we compare the methodology of different time-step models in the context of Monte Carlo burnup calculations for nuclear reactors. We discuss the differences between staircase step model, slope model, bridge scheme and stochastic implicit Euler method proposed in literature. We focus on the spatial stability of depletion procedure and put additional emphasis on the problem of normalization of neutron source strength. Considered methodology has been implemented in our continuous energy Monte Carlo burnup code (MCB5. The burnup simulations have been performed using the simplified high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR system with and without modeling of control rod withdrawal. Useful conclusions have been formulated on the basis of results.

  8. Electrical installation technology

    CERN Document Server

    Neidle, Michael

    1982-01-01

    Electrical Installation Technology, Third Edition covers the wide range of subjects that come under the headings of electrical science, installations, and regulations. The book discusses electromagnetism; inductance; static electricity; d.c. circuits; voltage drop and current rating; distribution; and wiring techniques. The text also describes o.c. motors and generators; a.c. motors, transformers; power-factor improvement; earthing and earth-leakage protection; testing; illumination; and the general principles of temperature and heat. Communication systems and equipment; electronics; and site

  9. Electrical installations technology

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J F

    1968-01-01

    Electrical Installations Technology covers the syllabus of the City and Guilds of London Institute course No. 51, the "Electricians B Certificate”. This book is composed of 15 chapters that deal with basic electrical science and electrical installations. The introductory chapters discuss the fundamentals and basic electrical principles, including the concept of mechanics, heat, magnetic fields, electric currents, power, and energy. These chapters also explore the atomic theory of electric current and the electric circuit, conductors, and insulators. The subsequent chapter focuses on the chemis

  10. A Two-Step Model for Assessing Relative Interest in E-Books Compared to Print

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Librarians often wish to know whether readers in a particular discipline favor e-books or print books. Because print circulation and e-book usage statistics are not directly comparable, it can be hard to determine the relative interest of readers in the two types of books. This study demonstrates a two-step method by which librarians can assess…

  11. Multi-step Attack Modelling and Simulation (MsAMS) Framework based on Mobile Ambients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes Leal Franqueira, V.; Lopes, R H C; van Eck, Pascal

    Attackers take advantage of any security breach to penetrate an organisation perimeter and exploit hosts as stepping stones to reach valuable assets, deeper in the network. The exploitation of hosts is possible not only when vulnerabilities in commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software components are

  12. Multi-step Attack Modelling and Simulation (MsAMS) Framework based on Mobile Ambients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes Leal Franqueira, V.; Lopes, R H C; Eck, van P.A.T.

    2008-01-01

    Attackers take advantage of any security breach to penetrate an organisation perimeter and exploit hosts as stepping stones to reach valuable assets, deeper in the network. The exploitation of hosts is possible not only when vulnerabilities in commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software components ar

  13. Use of Human Modeling Simulation Software in the Task Analysis of the Environmental Control and Life Support System Component Installation Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Virtual reality and simulation applications are becoming widespread in human task analysis. These programs have many benefits for the Human Factors Engineering field. Not only do creating and using virtual environments for human engineering analyses save money and time, this approach also promotes user experimentation and provides increased quality of analyses. This paper explains the human engineering task analysis performed on the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) space station rack and its Distillation Assembly (DA) subsystem using EAI's human modeling simulation software, Jack. When installed on the International Space Station (ISS), ECLSS will provide the life and environment support needed to adequately sustain crew life. The DA is an Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU) that provides means of wastewater (primarily urine from flight crew and experimental animals) reclamation. Jack was used to create a model of the weightless environment of the ISS Node 3, where the ECLSS is housed. Computer aided drawings of the ECLSS rack and DA system were also brought into the environment. Anthropometric models of a 95th percentile male and 5th percentile female were used to examine the human interfaces encountered during various ECLSS and DA tasks. The results of the task analyses were used in suggesting modifications to hardware and crew task procedures to improve accessibility, conserve crew time, and add convenience for the crew. This paper will address some of those suggested modifications and the method of presenting final analyses for requirements verification.

  14. Improving Energy Security for Air Force Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schill, David

    Like civilian infrastructure, Air Force installations are dependent on electrical energy for daily operations. Energy shortages translate to decreased productivity, higher costs, and increased health risks. But for the United States military, energy shortages have the potential to become national security risks. Over ninety-five percent of the electrical energy used by the Air Force is supplied by the domestic grid, which is susceptible to shortages and disruptions. Many Air Force operations require a continuous source of energy, and while the Air Force has historically established redundant supplies of electrical energy, these back-ups are designed for short-term outages and may not provide sufficient supply for a longer, sustained power outage. Furthermore, it is the goal of the Department of Defense to produce or procure 25 percent of its facility energy from renewable sources by fiscal year 2025. In a government budget environment where decision makers are required to provide more capability with less money, it is becoming increasingly important for informed decisions regarding which energy supply options bear the most benefit for an installation. The analysis begins by exploring the field of energy supply options available to an Air Force installation. The supply options are assessed according to their ability to provide continuous and reliable energy, their applicability to unique requirements of Air Force installations, and their costs. Various methods of calculating energy usage by an installation are also addressed. The next step of this research develops a methodology and tool which assesses how an installation responds to various power outage scenarios. Lastly, various energy supply options are applied to the tool, and the results are reported in terms of cost and loss of installation capability. This approach will allow installation commanders and energy managers the ability to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of various energy investment options.

  15. Application of a four-step HMX kinetic model to an impact-induced fraction ignition problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, William L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gunderson, Jake A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dickson, Peter M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    There has been a long history of interest in the decomposition kinetics of HMX and HMX-based formulations due to the widespread use of this explosive in high performance systems. The kinetics allow us to predict, or attempt to predict, the behavior of the explosive when subjected to thermal hazard scenarios that lead to ignition via impact, spark, friction or external heat. The latter, commonly referred to as 'cook off', has been widely studied and contemporary kinetic and transport models accurately predict time and location of ignition for simple geometries. However, there has been relatively little attention given to the problem of localized ignition that results from the first three ignition sources of impact, spark and friction. The use of a zero-order single-rate expression describing the exothermic decomposition of explosives dates to the early work of Frank-Kamanetskii in the late 1930s and continued through the 60's and 70's. This expression provides very general qualitative insight, but cannot provide accurate spatial or timing details of slow cook off ignition. In the 70s, Catalano, et al., noted that single step kinetics would not accurately predict time to ignition in the one-dimensional time to explosion apparatus (ODTX). In the early 80s, Tarver and McGuire published their well-known three step kinetic expression that included an endothermic decomposition step. This scheme significantly improved the accuracy of ignition time prediction for the ODTX. However, the Tarver/McGuire model could not produce the internal temperature profiles observed in the small-scale radial experiments nor could it accurately predict the location of ignition. Those factors are suspected to significantly affect the post-ignition behavior and better models were needed. Brill, et al. noted that the enthalpy change due to the beta-delta crystal phase transition was similar to the assumed endothermic decomposition step in the Tarver/McGuire model. Henson, et

  16. Determination of the mass transfer limiting step of dye adsorption onto commercial adsorbent by using mathematical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Pricila; Borba, Carlos Eduardo; Módenes, Aparecido Nivaldo; Espinoza-Quiñones, Fernando R; de Oliveira, Silvia Priscila Dias; Kroumov, Alexander Dimitrov

    2014-01-01

    Reactive blue 5G dye removal in a fixed-bed column packed with Dowex Optipore SD-2 adsorbent was modelled. Three mathematical models were tested in order to determine the limiting step of the mass transfer of the dye adsorption process onto the adsorbent. The mass transfer resistance was considered to be a criterion for the determination of the difference between models. The models contained information about the external, internal, or surface adsorption limiting step. In the model development procedure, two hypotheses were applied to describe the internal mass transfer resistance. First, the mass transfer coefficient constant was considered. Second, the mass transfer coefficient was considered as a function of the dye concentration in the adsorbent. The experimental breakthrough curves were obtained for different particle diameters of the adsorbent, flow rates, and feed dye concentrations in order to evaluate the predictive power of the models. The values of the mass transfer parameters of the mathematical models were estimated by using the downhill simplex optimization method. The results showed that the model that considered internal resistance with a variable mass transfer coefficient was more flexible than the other ones and this model described the dynamics of the adsorption process of the dye in the fixed-bed column better. Hence, this model can be used for optimization and column design purposes for the investigated systems and similar ones.

  17. A stochastical event-based continuous time step rainfall generator based on Poisson rectangular pulse and microcanonical random cascade models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohle, Ina; Niebisch, Michael; Zha, Tingting; Schümberg, Sabine; Müller, Hannes; Maurer, Thomas; Hinz, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Rainfall variability within a storm is of major importance for fast hydrological processes, e.g. surface runoff, erosion and solute dissipation from surface soils. To investigate and simulate the impacts of within-storm variabilities on these processes, long time series of rainfall with high resolution are required. Yet, observed precipitation records of hourly or higher resolution are in most cases available only for a small number of stations and only for a few years. To obtain long time series of alternating rainfall events and interstorm periods while conserving the statistics of observed rainfall events, the Poisson model can be used. Multiplicative microcanonical random cascades have been widely applied to disaggregate rainfall time series from coarse to fine temporal resolution. We present a new coupling approach of the Poisson rectangular pulse model and the multiplicative microcanonical random cascade model that preserves the characteristics of rainfall events as well as inter-storm periods. In the first step, a Poisson rectangular pulse model is applied to generate discrete rainfall events (duration and mean intensity) and inter-storm periods (duration). The rainfall events are subsequently disaggregated to high-resolution time series (user-specified, e.g. 10 min resolution) by a multiplicative microcanonical random cascade model. One of the challenges of coupling these models is to parameterize the cascade model for the event durations generated by the Poisson model. In fact, the cascade model is best suited to downscale rainfall data with constant time step such as daily precipitation data. Without starting from a fixed time step duration (e.g. daily), the disaggregation of events requires some modifications of the multiplicative microcanonical random cascade model proposed by Olsson (1998): Firstly, the parameterization of the cascade model for events of different durations requires continuous functions for the probabilities of the multiplicative

  18. Repulsive interactions induced by specific adsorption: Anomalous step diffusivity and inadequacy of nearest-neighbor Ising model. (part I experimental)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shakran, Mohammad; Kibler, Ludwig A.; Jacob, Timo; Ibach, Harald; Beltramo, Guillermo L.; Giesen, Margret

    2016-09-01

    This is Part I of two closely related papers, where we show that the specific adsorption of anions leads to a failure of the nearest-neighbor Ising model to describe island perimeter curvatures on Au(100) electrodes in dilute KBr, HCl and H2SO4 electrolytes and the therewith derived step diffusivity vs. step orientation. This result has major consequences for theoretical studies aiming at the understanding of growth, diffusion and degradation phenomena. Part I focuses on the experimental data. As shown theoretically in detail in Part II (doi:10.1016/j.susc.2016.03.022), a set of nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor interaction energies (ɛNN, ɛNNN) can uniquely be derived from the diffusivity of steps along and . We find strong repulsive next-nearest neighbor (NNN) interaction in KBr and HCl, whereas NNN interaction is negligibly for H2SO4. The NNN repulsive interaction energy ɛNNN therefore correlates positively with the Gibbs adsorption energy of the anions. We find furthermore that ɛNNN increases with increasing Br- and Cl- coverage. The results for ɛNN and ɛNNN are quantitatively consistent with the coverage dependence of the step line tension. We thereby establish a sound experimental base for theoretical studies on the energetics of steps in the presence of specific adsorption.

  19. An influence of the stepping motor control and friction models on precise positioning of the complex mechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konowrocki, Robert; Szolc, Tomasz; Pochanke, Andrzej; Pręgowska, Agnieszka

    2016-03-01

    This paper aims to investigate, both experimentally and theoretically, the electromechanical dynamic interaction between a driving stepping motor and a driven laboratory belt-transporter system. A test-rig imitates the operation of a robotic device in the form of a working tool-carrier under translational motion. The object under consideration is equipped with measurement systems, which enable the registration of electrical and mechanical quantities. Analytical considerations are performed by means of a circuit model of the electric motor and a discrete, non-linear model of the mechanical system. Various scenarios of the working tool-carrier motion and positioning by the belt-transporter are measured and simulated; in all cases the electric current control of the driving motor has been applied. The main goal of this study is to investigate the influence of the stepping motor control parameters along with various mechanical friction models on the precise positioning of a laboratory robotic device.

  20. A stepwise model for simulation-based curriculum development for clinical skills, a modification of the six-step approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Nehal N; Satava, Richard M; Alnassar, Sami A; Kern, David E

    2016-01-01

    Despite the rapid growth in the use of simulation in health professions education, courses vary considerably in quality. Many do not integrate efficiently into an overall school/program curriculum or conform to academic accreditation requirements. Moreover, some of the guidelines for simulation design are specialty specific. We designed a model that integrates best practices for effective simulation-based training and a modification of Kern et al.'s 6-step approach for curriculum development. We invited international simulation and health professions education experts to complete a questionnaire evaluating the model. We reviewed comments and suggested modifications from respondents and reached consensus on a revised version of the model. We recruited 17 simulation and education experts. They expressed a consensus on the seven proposed curricular steps: problem identification and general needs assessment, targeted needs assessment, goals and objectives, educational strategies, individual assessment/feedback, program evaluation, and implementation. We received several suggestions for descriptors that applied the steps to simulation, leading to some revisions in the model. We have developed a model that integrates principles of curriculum development and simulation design that is applicable across specialties. Its use could lead to high-quality simulation courses that integrate efficiently into an overall curriculum.

  1. Design tool for hydronic building installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soethout, L. [TNO Building and Construction Research, Delft (Netherlands); Aerts, J. [ISSO, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Plokker, W. [VABI Association for Automation in Building and Installation Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2005-07-01

    Design flaws and faulty commissioning can create imbalances in heat transfer and distribution in buildings. The design of the hydronic side of HVAC installations in buildings is in practice often limited to only the full load situation. However, installations most frequently operate in part load situations. This paper discussed a method of designing hydronic circuits for heating which considered full load and part load scenarios. The model was then validated by a simulation tool. Both the tool and the method were based on a modular approach, starting with the heat demands required by the various functions and locations in the building. Common design problems were reviewed, and an overview of the process in designing, commissioning and using a hydronic system was presented. A modular design method for a hydronic system was presented, which enabled users to design the system so that all user modules can be controlled in a decoupled manner, guaranteeing the required full load. The software tool consisted of several parts: a main application for the user interface; and a central project database and information retrieval system. An analysis module monitored design behavior. A library of modules was available within the program, as well as a graphical interface. Based on the outcome of calculation results, users can make changes in design and then restart the evaluation. It was anticipated that the tool will be coupled to a building simulation tool which will allow for the calculation of the dynamic demands of a building and provide realistic part-load information. The algorithm for solving the non linear equations of pressure versus flow was discussed. Equations were solved on 2 levels, and the solving process consisted of several repeated steps. The analysis module consisted of an expert system containing several rules describing the desired behavior of hydronic systems. It was noted that the rules were derived from, and compliant with compliance standards. 11 refs

  2. Modeling of a stair-climbing wheelchair mechanism with high single-step capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Murray J; Ishimatsu, Takakazu

    2003-09-01

    In the field of providing mobility for the elderly and disabled, the aspect of dealing with stairs continues largely unresolved. This paper focuses on presenting the development of a stair-climbing wheelchair mechanism with high single-step capability. The mechanism is based on front and rear wheel clusters connected to the base (chair) via powered linkages so as to permit both autonomous stair ascent and descent in the forward direction, and high single-step functionality for such as direct entry to and from a van. Primary considerations were inherent stability, provision of a mechanism that is physically no larger than a standard powered wheelchair, aesthetics, and being based on readily available low-cost components.

  3. Derivation and application of time step model in solidification process simulation

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The heat transfer during the casting solidification process includes the heat radiation of the high temperature casting and the mold, the heat convection between the casting and the mold, and the heat conduction inside the casting and from the casting to the mold. In this paper, a formula of time step in simulation of solidification is derived, considering the heat radiation, convection and conduction based on the conservation of energy. The different heat transfer conditions between the conv...

  4. One-dimensional model of interacting-step fluctuations on vicinal surfaces: Analytical formulas and kinetic Monte-Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrone, Paul; Einstein, T. L.; Margetis, Dionisios

    2011-03-01

    We study a 1+1D, stochastic, Burton-Cabrera-Frank (BCF) model of interacting steps fluctuating on a vicinal crystal. The step energy accounts for entropic and nearest-neighbor elastic-dipole interactions. Our goal is to formulate and validate a self-consistent mean-field (MF) formalism to approximately solve the system of coupled, nonlinear stochastic differential equations (SDEs) governing fluctuations in surface motion. We derive formulas for the time-dependent terrace width distribution (TWD) and its steady-state limit. By comparison with kinetic Monte-Carlo simulations, we show that our MF formalism improves upon models in which step interactions are linearized. We also indicate how fitting parameters of our steady state MF TWD may be used to determine the mass transport regime and step interaction energy of certain experimental systems. PP and TLE supported by NSF MRSEC under Grant DMR 05-20471 at U. of Maryland; DM supported by NSF under Grant DMS 08-47587.

  5. 24 CFR 3285.2 - Manufacturer installation instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacturer installation... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS General § 3285.2 Manufacturer installation instructions. (a) Instructions required. A manufacturer must provide with each new...

  6. A Quantum Logic Gate Representation of Quantum Measurement Reversing and Unifying the Two Steps of von Neumann's Model

    CERN Document Server

    Castagnoli, G C

    1999-01-01

    In former work, quantum computation has been shown to be a problem solving process essentially affected by both the reversible dynamics leading to the state before measurement, and the logical-mathematical constraints introduced by quantum measurement (in particular, the constraint that there is only one measurement outcome). This dual influence, originated by independent initial and final conditions, justifies the quantum computation speed-up and is not representable inside dynamics, namely as a one-way propagation. In this work, we reformulate von Neumann's model of quantum measurement at the light of above findings. We embed it in a broader representation based on the quantum logic gate formalism and capable of describing the interplay between dynamical and non-dynamical constraints. The two steps of the original model, namely (1) dynamically reaching a complete entanglement between pointer and quantum object and (2) enforcing the one-outcome-constraint, are unified and reversed. By representing step (2) r...

  7. Topological study of the late steps of the artemisinin decomposition process: modeling the outcome of the experimentally obtained products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moles, Pamela; Oliva, Mónica; Safont, Vicent S

    2011-01-20

    By using 6,7,8-trioxabicyclo[3.2.2]nonane as the artemisinin model and dihydrated Fe(OH)(2) as the heme model, we report a theoretical study of the late steps of the artemisinin decomposition process. The study offers two viewpoints: first, the energetic and geometric parameters are obtained and analyzed, and hence, different reaction paths have been studied. The second point of view uses the electron localization function (ELF) and the atoms in molecules (AIM) methodology, to conduct a complete topological study of such steps. The MO analysis together with the spin density description has also been used. The obtained results agree nicely with the experimental data, and a new mechanistic proposal that explains the experimentally determined outcome of deoxiartemisinin has been postulated.

  8. A two-step model for Langerhans cell migration to skin-draining LN

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Although the role of Langerhans cells (LC) in skin immune responses is still a matter of debate, it is known that LC require the chemokine receptor CCR7 for migrating to skin-draining LN. A report in the current issue of the European Journal of Immunology unfolds some of the intricacies of LC migration, showing that LC need CXCR4, but not CCR7, for their migration from the epidermis to the dermis. Thus, LC migration to skin-draining LN occurs in two distinct phases: a first step from the epid...

  9. Derivation of a quantitative minimal model from a detailed elementary-step mechanism supported by mathematical coupling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, O. S.; Kammerer, J.; Gorecki, J.; Lebiedz, D.

    2005-12-01

    Accurate experimental data increasingly allow the development of detailed elementary-step mechanisms for complex chemical and biochemical reaction systems. Model reduction techniques are widely applied to obtain representations in lower-dimensional phase space which are more suitable for mathematical analysis, efficient numerical simulation, and model-based control tasks. Here, we exploit a recently implemented numerical algorithm for error-controlled computation of the minimum dimension required for a still accurate reduced mechanism based on automatic time scale decomposition and relaxation of fast modes. We determine species contributions to the active (slow) dynamical modes of the reaction system and exploit this information in combination with quasi-steady-state and partial-equilibrium approximations for explicit model reduction of a novel detailed chemical mechanism for the Ru-catalyzed light-sensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. The existence of a minimum dimension of seven is demonstrated to be mandatory for the reduced model to show good quantitative consistency with the full model in numerical simulations. We derive such a maximally reduced seven-variable model from the detailed elementary-step mechanism and demonstrate that it reproduces quantitatively accurately the dynamical features of the full model within a given accuracy tolerance.

  10. Multiple-step model-experiment matching allows precise definition of dynamical leg parameters in human running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, C; Grimmer, S; Seyfarth, A; Maus, H-M

    2012-09-21

    The spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP) model is a well established model for describing bouncy gaits like human running. The notion of spring-like leg behavior has led many researchers to compute the corresponding parameters, predominantly stiffness, in various experimental setups and in various ways. However, different methods yield different results, making the comparison between studies difficult. Further, a model simulation with experimentally obtained leg parameters typically results in comparatively large differences between model and experimental center of mass trajectories. Here, we pursue the opposite approach which is calculating model parameters that allow reproduction of an experimental sequence of steps. In addition, to capture energy fluctuations, an extension of the SLIP (ESLIP) is required and presented. The excellent match of the models with the experiment validates the description of human running by the SLIP with the obtained parameters which we hence call dynamical leg parameters.

  11. Entropy and Digital Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Ballard

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines entropy as a process which introduces ideas of distributed materiality to digital installation. Beginning from an analysis of entropy as both force and probability measure within information theory and it’s extension in Ruldof Arnheim’s text ‘Entropy and Art” it develops an argument for the positive rather thannegative forces of entropy. The paper centres on a discussion of two recent works by New Zealand artists Ronnie van Hout (“On the Run”, Wellington City Gallery, NZ, 2004 and Alex Monteith (“Invisible Cities”, Physics Room Contemporary Art Space, Christchurch, NZ, 2004. Ballard suggests that entropy, rather than being a hindrance to understanding or a random chaotic force, discloses a necessary and material politics of noise present in digital installation.

  12. Leadership for Sustainable Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    way into the lexicon of the Army and installation management ( Warnock , 2009). Accordingly, the Undersecretary of the Army is the Senior...business approach, the Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated...needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information . Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection

  13. Installing the ALICE detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The huge iron yoke in the cavern at Point 2 in the LHC tunnel is prepared for the installation of the ALICE experiment. The yoke is being reused from the previous L3 experiment that was located at the same point during the LEP project from 1989 to 2000. ALICE will be inserted piece by piece into the cradle where it will be used to study collisions between two beams of lead ions.

  14. First ALICE detectors installed!

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Detectors to track down penetrating muon particles are the first to be placed in their final position in the ALICE cavern. The Alice muon spectrometer: in the foreground the trigger chamber is positioned in front of the muon wall, with the dipole magnet in the background. After the impressive transport of its dipole magnet, ALICE has begun to fill the spectrometer with detectors. In mid-July, the ALICE muon spectrometer team achieved important milestones with the installation of the trigger and the tracking chambers of the muon spectrometer. They are the first detectors to be installed in their final position in the cavern. All of the eight half planes of the RPCs (resistive plate chambers) have been installed in their final position behind the muon filter. The role of the trigger detector is to select events containing a muon pair coming, for instance, from the decay of J/ or Y resonances. The selection is made on the transverse momentum of the two individual muons. The internal parts of the RPCs, made o...

  15. The treatment of climate science in Integrated Assessment Modelling: integration of climate step function response in an energy system integrated assessment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessens, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) are used as crucial inputs to policy-making on climate change. These models simulate aspect of the economy and climate system to deliver future projections and to explore the impact of mitigation and adaptation policies. The IAMs' climate representation is extremely important as it can have great influence on future political action. The step-function-response is a simple climate model recently developed by the UK Met Office and is an alternate method of estimating the climate response to an emission trajectory directly from global climate model step simulations. Good et al., (2013) have formulated a method of reconstructing general circulation models (GCMs) climate response to emission trajectories through an idealized experiment. This method is called the "step-response approach" after and is based on an idealized abrupt CO2 step experiment results. TIAM-UCL is a technology-rich model that belongs to the family of, partial-equilibrium, bottom-up models, developed at University College London to represent a wide spectrum of energy systems in 16 regions of the globe (Anandarajah et al. 2011). The model uses optimisation functions to obtain cost-efficient solutions, in meeting an exogenously defined set of energy-service demands, given certain technological and environmental constraints. Furthermore, it employs linear programming techniques making the step function representation of the climate change response adapted to the model mathematical formulation. For the first time, we have introduced the "step-response approach" method developed at the UK Met Office in an IAM, the TIAM-UCL energy system, and we investigate the main consequences of this modification on the results of the model in term of climate and energy system responses. The main advantage of this approach (apart from the low computational cost it entails) is that its results are directly traceable to the GCM involved and closely connected to well-known methods of

  16. CosmoMC Installation and Running Guidelines

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ming-Hua

    2014-01-01

    CosmoMC is a Fortran 95 Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo (MCMC) engine to explore the cosmological parameter space, plus a Python suite for plotting and presenting results (see http://cosmologist.info/cosmomc/). This document describes the installation of the CosmoMC on a Linux system (Ubuntu 14.04.1 LTS 64-bit version). It is written for those who want to use it in their scientific research but without much training on Linux and the program. Besides a step-by-step installation guide, we also give a brief introduction of how to run the program on both a desktop and a cluster. We share our way to generate the plots that are commonly used in the references of cosmology. For more information, one can refer to the CosmoCoffee forum (http://cosmocoffee.info/viewforum.php?f=11) or contact the authors of this document. Questions and comments would be much appreciated.

  17. Accuracy of navigation-guided socket drilling before implant installation compared to the conventional free-hand method in a synthetic edentulous lower jaw model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Jürgen; Westendorff, Carsten; Gomez-Roman, German; Reinert, Siegmar

    2005-10-01

    In this study, the three-dimensional (3D) accuracy of navigation-guided (NG) socket drilling before implant installation was compared to the conventional free-hand (CF) method in a synthetic edentulous lower jaw model. The drillings were performed by two surgeons with different years of working experience. The inter-individual outcome was assessed. NG drillings were performed using an optical computerized tomography (CT)-based navigation system. CF drillings were performed using a surgical template. The coordinates of the drilled sockets were determined on the basis of CT scans. A total of n=224 drillings was evaluated. Inter-individual differences in terms of the surgeons' years of work experience were without statistical significance. The mean deviation of the CF drilled sockets (n=112) on the vestibulo-oral and mesio-distal direction was 11.2+/-5.6 degrees (range: 4.1-25.3 degrees ). With respect to the NG drilled sockets (n=112), the mean deviation was 4.2+/-1.8 degrees (range: 2.3-11.5). The mean distance to the mandibular canal was 1.1+/-0.6 mm (range: 0.1-2.3 mm) for CF-drilled sockets and 0.7+/-0.5 mm (range: 0.1-1.8 mm) for NG drilled sockets. The differences between the two methods were highly significant (P<0.01). A potential benefit from image-data-based navigation in implant surgery is discussed against the background of cost-effectiveness.

  18. First steps in computational systems biology: A practical session in metabolic modeling and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Palomares, Armando; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Medina, Miguel Ángel

    2009-05-01

    A comprehensive understanding of biological functions requires new systemic perspectives, such as those provided by systems biology. Systems biology approaches are hypothesis-driven and involve iterative rounds of model building, prediction, experimentation, model refinement, and development. Developments in computer science are allowing for ever faster numerical simulations of mathematical models. Mathematical modeling plays an essential role in new systems biology approaches. As a complex, integrated system, metabolism is a suitable topic of study for systems biology approaches. However, up until recently, this topic has not been properly covered in biochemistry courses. This communication reports the development and implementation of a practical lesson plan on metabolic modeling and simulation.

  19. Models for microtubule cargo transport coupling the Langevin equation to stochastic stepping motor dynamics: Caring about fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzat, Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    One-dimensional models coupling a Langevin equation for the cargo position to stochastic stepping dynamics for the motors constitute a relevant framework for analyzing multiple-motor microtubule transport. In this work we explore the consistence of these models focusing on the effects of the thermal noise. We study how to define consistent stepping and detachment rates for the motors as functions of the local forces acting on them in such a way that the cargo velocity and run-time match previously specified functions of the external load, which are set on the base of experimental results. We show that due to the influence of the thermal fluctuations this is not a trivial problem, even for the single-motor case. As a solution, we propose a motor stepping dynamics which considers memory on the motor force. This model leads to better results for single-motor transport than the approaches previously considered in the literature. Moreover, it gives a much better prediction for the stall force of the two-motor case, highly compatible with the experimental findings. We also analyze the fast fluctuations of the cargo position and the influence of the viscosity, comparing the proposed model to the standard one, and we show how the differences on the single-motor dynamics propagate to the multiple motor situations. Finally, we find that the one-dimensional character of the models impede an appropriate description of the fast fluctuations of the cargo position at small loads. We show how this problem can be solved by considering two-dimensional models.

  20. Derivation and application of time step model in solidification process simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The heat transfer during the casting solidification process includes the heat radiation of the high temperature casting and the mold, the heat convection between the casting and the mold, and the heat conduction inside the casting and from the casting to the mold. In this paper, a formula of time step in simulation of solidification is derived, considering the heat radiation, convection and conduction based on the conservation of energy. The different heat transfer conditions between the conventional sand casting and the permanent mold casting are taken into account in this formula. The characteristics of heat transfer in the interior and surface of the casting are also considered. The numerical experiments show that this formula can avoid computational dispersion, and improve the computational efficiency by about 20% in the simulation of solidification process.

  1. Derivation and application of time step model in solidification process simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONG Wen-bang

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The heat transfer during the casting solidification process includes the heat radiation of the high temperature casting and the mold, the heat convection between the casting and the mold, and the heat conduction inside the casting and from the casting to the mold. In this paper, a formula of time step in simulation of solidification is derived, considering the heat radiation, convection and conduction based on the conservation of energy. The different heat transfer conditions between the conventional sand casting and the permanent mold casting are taken into account in this formula. The characteristics of heat transfer in the interior and surface of the casting are also considered. The numerical experiments show that this formula can avoid computational dispersion, and improve the computational efficiency by about 20% in the simulation of solidification process.

  2. The first step of evidence based model: formulation of answerable clinical questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Delgado-Noguera

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to help health professionals about the importance and usefulness of the Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM as a method for making clinical decisions in the practice of medicine. This article focuses on the first step of EBM’s method: ¿How a structured clinical question facilitates the access in the biomedical literature databases such as PubMed and the Cochrane Library? The use of structured questions is useful to save time and helps in retrieving relevant references from scientific literature to answer the question of intervention or treatment. The structured question consists of four components: Patient, Intervention, Comparison, and Outcomes. The structured query terms and the combination thereof is one of the elements of the search strategy, which is also useful for ellaborating the state of the art or a theoretical framework for a research project.

  3. Two-Step Acceleration Model of Cosmic Rays at Middle-Aged SNR

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Recent gamma-ray observations of middle-aged supernova remnants revealed a mysterious broken power-law spectrum. Using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulations, we show that the interaction between a supernova blast wave and interstellar clouds formed by thermal instability generates multiple reflected shocks. The typical Mach numbers of the reflected shocks are shown to be M ~ 2 depending on the density contrast between the diffuse intercloud gas and clouds. These secondary shocks can further energize cosmic-ray particles originally accelerated at the blast-wave shock. This "two-step" acceleration scenario reproduces the observed gamma-ray spectrum and predicts the high-energy spectral index ranging approximately from 3 to 4.

  4. A One-Step-Ahead Smoothing-Based Joint Ensemble Kalman Filter for State-Parameter Estimation of Hydrological Models

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad

    2015-11-26

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) recursively integrates field data into simulation models to obtain a better characterization of the model’s state and parameters. These are generally estimated following a state-parameters joint augmentation strategy. In this study, we introduce a new smoothing-based joint EnKF scheme, in which we introduce a one-step-ahead smoothing of the state before updating the parameters. Numerical experiments are performed with a two-dimensional synthetic subsurface contaminant transport model. The improved performance of the proposed joint EnKF scheme compared to the standard joint EnKF compensates for the modest increase in the computational cost.

  5. Modeling the Step-like Response in the Upper Limbs of Hemiplegic Subjects for Evaluation of Spasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Takanori; Uchida, Ryusei

    The purpose of this study is to develop a new modeling technique for quantitative evaluation of spasticity in the upper limbs of hemiplegic patients. Each subject lay on a bed, and his forearm was supported with a jig to measure the elbow joint angle. The subject was instructed to relax and not to resist the step-like load which was applied to extend the elbow joint. The elbow joint angle and electromyogram (EMG) of the biceps muscle, triceps muscle and brachioradialis muscle were measured. First, the step-like response was approximated with a proposed mathematical model based on musculoskeletal and physiological characteristics by the least square method. The proposed model involved an elastic component depending on both muscle activities and elbow joint angle. The responses were approximated well with the proposed model. Next, the torque generated by the elastic component was estimated. The normalized elastic torque was approximated with a dumped sinusoid by the least square method. The reciprocal of the time constant and the natural frequency of the normalized elastic torque were calculated and they varied depending on the grades of the modified Ashworth scale of the subjects. It was suggested that the proposed modeling technique would provide a good quantitative index of spasticity as shown in the relationship between the reciprocal of the time constant and the natural frequency.

  6. Modeling of the steam hydrolysis in a two-step process for hydrogen production by solar concentrated energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Hernández, Julio; Romero-Paredes, Hernando; Pacheco-Reyes, Alejandro

    2017-06-01

    In this paper the simulation of the steam hydrolysis for hydrogen production through the decomposition of cerium oxide is presented. The thermochemical cycle for hydrogen production consists of the endothermic reduction of CeO2 to lower-valence cerium oxide, at high temperature, where concentrated solar energy is used as a source of heat; and of the subsequent steam hydrolysis of the resulting cerium oxide to produce hydrogen. The modeling of endothermic reduction step was presented at the Solar Paces 2015. This work shows the modeling of the exothermic step; the hydrolysis of the cerium oxide (III) to form H2 and the corresponding initial cerium oxide made at lower temperature inside the solar reactor. For this model, three sections of the pipe where the reaction occurs were considered; the steam water inlet, the porous medium and the hydrogen outlet produced. The mathematical model describes the fluid mechanics; mass and energy transfer occurring therein inside the tungsten pipe. Thermochemical process model was simulated in CFD. The results show a temperature distribution in the solar reaction pipe and allow obtaining the fluid dynamics and the heat transfer within the pipe. This work is part of the project "Solar Fuels and Industrial Processes" from the Mexican Center for Innovation in Solar Energy (CEMIE-Sol).

  7. A proposed adaptive step size perturbation and observation maximum power point tracking algorithm based on photovoltaic system modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu

    Solar energy becomes one of the major alternative renewable energy options for its huge abundance and accessibility. Due to the intermittent nature, the high demand of Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) techniques exists when a Photovoltaic (PV) system is used to extract energy from the sunlight. This thesis proposed an advanced Perturbation and Observation (P&O) algorithm aiming for relatively practical circumstances. Firstly, a practical PV system model is studied with determining the series and shunt resistances which are neglected in some research. Moreover, in this proposed algorithm, the duty ratio of a boost DC-DC converter is the object of the perturbation deploying input impedance conversion to achieve working voltage adjustment. Based on the control strategy, the adaptive duty ratio step size P&O algorithm is proposed with major modifications made for sharp insolation change as well as low insolation scenarios. Matlab/Simulink simulation for PV model, boost converter control strategy and various MPPT process is conducted step by step. The proposed adaptive P&O algorithm is validated by the simulation results and detail analysis of sharp insolation changes, low insolation condition and continuous insolation variation.

  8. Effect of Time Step Size and Turbulence Model on the Open Water Hydrodynamic Performance Prediction of Contra-Rotating Propellers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhan-zhi; XIONG Ying

    2013-01-01

    A growing interest has been devoted to the contra-rotating propellers (CRPs) due to their high propulsive efficiency,torque balance,low fuel consumption,low cavitations,low noise performance and low hull vibration.Compared with the single-screw system,it is more difficult for the open water performance prediction because forward and aft propellers interact with each other and generate a more complicated flow field around the CRPs system.The current work focuses on the open water performance prediction of contra-rotating propellers by RANS and sliding mesh method considering the effect of computational time step size and turbulence model.The validation study has been performed on two sets of contra-rotating propellers developed by David W Taylor Naval Ship R & D center.Compared with the experimental data,it shows that RANS with sliding mesh method and SST k-ω turbulence model has a good precision in the open water performance prediction of contra-rotating propellers,and small time step size can improve the level of accuracy for CRPs with the same blade number of forward and aft propellers,while a relatively large time step size is a better choice for CRPs with different blade numbers.

  9. How to Create a 3D Model from Scanned Data in 5 Easy Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a cost effective way to generate copies of damaged parts for demonstrations. Integrating scanned data of a damaged area into an existing model may be challenging. However, using the relatively inexpensive Nettfab software (from one can generate a "watertight" model that is easy to print.

  10. Mechanical model of the recovery reaction from stumbling: effect of step length on trunk control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forner-Cordero, A.; Koopman, H.F.J.M.; Helm, van der F.C.T.

    2014-01-01

    Falling after a gait perturbation is a major problem for elderly people. The goal of this paper is to model some mechanical limitations of the recovery strategies performed after a trip or stumble, such as elevating or lowering strategies. A biomechanical model of the recovery was used to interpret

  11. Steps Towards a Method for the Formal Modeling of Dynamic Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.

    1991-01-01

    Fragments of a method to formally specify object-oriented models of a universe of discourse are presented. The task of finding such models is divided into three subtasks, object classification, event specification, and the specification of the life cycle of an object. Each of these subtasks is

  12. Step-Wise Evolution of Mental Models of Electric Circuits: A "Learning-Aloud" Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, John J.; Steinberg, Melvin S.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an approach to teaching complex models in science that uses a model construction cycle of generation, evaluation, and modification. Reports on a case study of a student in a tutoring experiment in the study of electric circuits. Focuses on the role of analogies, discrepant events, and the student's moments of surprise as motivators of…

  13. First Steps in Computational Systems Biology: A Practical Session in Metabolic Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Palomares, Armando; Sanchez-Jimenez, Francisca; Medina, Miguel Angel

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of biological functions requires new systemic perspectives, such as those provided by systems biology. Systems biology approaches are hypothesis-driven and involve iterative rounds of model building, prediction, experimentation, model refinement, and development. Developments in computer science are allowing for ever…

  14. Steps to a formal analysis of the cognitive-energetic model of stress and human performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C.M. Molenaar; M.W. van der Molen

    1986-01-01

    A. F. Sanders's cognitive-energetic model of stress and human performance attempts to bridge linear stage and capacity models of information processing. It is argued that the identifiability of effects of variations of some subset of component processes can only be properly evaluated through an appr

  15. Decommissioning of offshore installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeen, Sigrun; Iversen, Per Erik; Stokke, Reidunn; Nielsen, Frantz; Henriksen, Thor; Natvig, Henning; Dretvik, Oeystein; Martinsen, Finn; Bakke, Gunnstein

    2010-07-01

    New legislation on the handling and storage of radioactive substances came into force 1 January 2011. This version of the report is updated to reflect this new regulation and will therefore in some chapters differ from the Norwegian version (see NEI-NO--1660). The Ministry of the Environment commissioned the Climate and Pollution Agency to examine the environmental impacts associated with the decommissioning of offshore installations (demolition and recycling). This has involved an assessment of the volumes and types of waste material and of decommissioning capacity in Norway now and in the future. This report also presents proposals for measures and instruments to address environmental and other concerns that arise in connection with the decommissioning of offshore installations. At present, Norway has four decommissioning facilities for offshore installations, three of which are currently involved in decommissioning projects. Waste treatment plants of this kind are required to hold permits under the Pollution Control Act. The permit system allows the pollution control authority to tailor the requirements in a specific permit by evaluating conditions and limits for releases of pollutants on a case-to-case basis, and the Act also provides for requirements to be tightened up in line with the development of best available techniques (BAT). The environmental risks posed by decommissioning facilities are much the same as those from process industries and other waste treatment plants that are regulated by means of individual permits. Strict requirements are intended to ensure that environmental and health concerns are taken into account. The review of the four Norwegian decommissioning facilities in connection with this report shows that the degree to which requirements need to be tightened up varies from one facility to another. The permit for the Vats yard is newest and contains the strictest conditions. The Climate and Pollution Agency recommends a number of measures

  16. Short time step continuous rainfall modeling and simulation of extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callau Poduje, A. C.; Haberlandt, U.

    2017-09-01

    The design, planning, operation and overall assessment of urban drainage systems require long and continuous rain series in a high temporal resolution. Unfortunately, the availability of this data is usually short. Nevertheless a precipitation model could be used to tackle this shortcoming; therefore it is in the aim of this study to present a stochastic point precipitation model to reproduce average rainfall event properties along with extreme values. For this purpose a model is proposed to generate long synthetic series of rainfall for a temporal resolution of 5 min. It is based on an alternating renewal framework and events are characterized by variables describing durations, amounts and peaks. A group of 24 stations located in the north of Germany is used to set up and test the model. The adequate modeling of joint behaviour of rainfall amount and duration is found to be essential for reproducing the observed properties, especially for the extreme events. Copulas are advantageous tools for modeling these variables jointly; however caution must be taken in the selection of the proper copula. The inclusion of seasonality and small events is as well tested and found to be useful. The model is directly validated by generating long synthetic time series and comparing them with observed ones. An indirect validation is as well performed based on a fictional urban hydrological system. The proposed model is capable of reproducing seasonal behaviour and main characteristics of the rainfall events including extremes along with urban flooding and overflow behaviour. Overall the performance of the model is acceptable compared to the design practice. The proposed model is simple to interpret, fast to implement and to transfer to other regions, whilst showing acceptable results.

  17. Samus Toroid Installation Fixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stredde, H.; /Fermilab

    1990-06-27

    The SAMUS (Small Angle Muon System) toroids have been designed and fabricated in the USSR and delivered to D0 ready for installation into the D0 detector. These toroids will be installed into the aperture of the EF's (End Toroids). The aperture in the EF's is 72-inch vertically and 66-inch horizontally. The Samus toroid is 70-inch vertically by 64-inch horizontally by 66-inch long and weighs approximately 38 tons. The Samus toroid has a 20-inch by 20-inch aperture in the center and it is through this aperture that the lift fixture must fit. The toroid must be 'threaded' through the EF aperture. Further, the Samus toroid coils are wound about the vertical portion of the aperture and thus limit the area where a lift fixture can make contact and not damage the coils. The fixture is designed to lift along a surface adjacent to the coils, but with clearance to the coil and with contact to the upper steel block of the toroid. The lift and installation will be done with the 50 ton crane at DO. The fixture was tested by lifting the Samus Toroid 2-inch off the floor and holding the weight for 10 minutes. Deflection was as predicted by the design calculations. Enclosed are sketches of the fixture and it relation to both Toroids (Samus and EF), along with hand calculations and an Finite Element Analysis. The PEA work was done by Kay Weber of the Accelerator Engineering Department.

  18. Mineral mining installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plevak, L.; Weirich, W.

    1982-04-20

    A longwall mineral mining installation has a longwall conveyor and a plurality of roof support units positioned side-by-side at the goaf side of the conveyor. The hydraulic appliances of the roof support units, such as their hydraulic props, hydraulic advance rams and hydraulic control valves, are supplied with pressurized hydraulic fluid from hydraulic supply lines which run along the goaf side of the conveyor. A plurality of flat, platelike intermediate members are provided at the goaf side of the conveyor. These intermediate members are formed with internal ducts for feeding the hydraulic fluid from the supply lines to the hydraulic appliances of the roof support units.

  19. Human airway organoid engineering as a step toward lung regeneration and disease modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qi; Choi, Kyoung Moo; Sicard, Delphine; Tschumperlin, Daniel J

    2017-01-01

    Organoids represent both a potentially powerful tool for the study cell-cell interactions within tissue-like environments, and a platform for tissue regenerative approaches. The development of lung tissue-like organoids from human adult-derived cells has not previously been reported. Here we combined human adult primary bronchial epithelial cells, lung fibroblasts, and lung microvascular endothelial cells in supportive 3D culture conditions to generate airway organoids. We demonstrate that randomly-seeded mixed cell populations undergo rapid condensation and self-organization into discrete epithelial and endothelial structures that are mechanically robust and stable during long term culture. After condensation airway organoids generate invasive multicellular tubular structures that recapitulate limited aspects of branching morphogenesis, and require actomyosin-mediated force generation and YAP/TAZ activation. Despite the proximal source of primary epithelium used in the airway organoids, discrete areas of both proximal and distal epithelial markers were observed over time in culture, demonstrating remarkable epithelial plasticity within the context of organoid cultures. Airway organoids also exhibited complex multicellular responses to a prototypical fibrogenic stimulus (TGF-β1) in culture, and limited capacity to undergo continued maturation and engraftment after ectopic implantation under the murine kidney capsule. These results demonstrate that the airway organoid system developed here represents a novel tool for the study of disease-relevant cell-cell interactions, and establishes this platform as a first step toward cell-based therapy for chronic lung diseases based on de novo engineering of implantable airway tissues.

  20. Applying the manifold theory to Milky Way models: First steps on morphology and kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoja T.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We present recent results obtained by applying invariant manifold techniques to analytical models of the Milky Way. It has been shown that invariant manifolds can reproduce successfully the spiral arms and rings in external barred galaxies. Here, for the first time, we apply this theory to Milky Way models. We select five different models from the literature and, using the parameters chosen by the authors of the papers, and three different cases, namely Case 1, where only the COBE/DIRBE bar is included in the potential; Case 2, when the COBE/DIRBE and the Long bar are aligned, and Case 3, when the COBE/DIRBE bar and the Long bar are misaligned. We compute in each case and for each model the orbits trapped by the manifolds. In general, the global morphology of the manifolds can account for the 3-kpc arms and for the Galactic Molecular Ring.

  1. Integration into Big Data: First Steps to Support Reuse of Comprehensive Toxicity Model Modules (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data surrounding the needs of human disease and toxicity modeling are largely siloed limiting the ability to extend and reuse modules across knowledge domains. Using an infrastructure that supports integration across knowledge domains (animal toxicology, high-throughput screening...

  2. Propagation of Uncertainty in Bayesian Kernel Models - Application to Multiple-Step Ahead Forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinonero, Joaquin; Girard, Agathe; Larsen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    The object of Bayesian modelling is predictive distribution, which, in a forecasting scenario, enables evaluation of forecasted values and their uncertainties. We focus on reliably estimating the predictive mean and variance of forecasted values using Bayesian kernel based models such as the Gaus....... The capability of the method is demonstrated for forecasting of time-series and compared to approximate methods.......The object of Bayesian modelling is predictive distribution, which, in a forecasting scenario, enables evaluation of forecasted values and their uncertainties. We focus on reliably estimating the predictive mean and variance of forecasted values using Bayesian kernel based models...... such as the Gaussian process and the relevance vector machine. We derive novel analytic expressions for the predictive mean and variance for Gaussian kernel shapes under the assumption of a Gaussian input distribution in the static case, and of a recursive Gaussian predictive density in iterative forecasting...

  3. CFD modeling of a headbox with injecting dilution water in a central step diffusion tube☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yang; Jinsong Zeng; Kefu Chen; Yucheng Feng

    2016-01-01

    For engineering applications of water dilution controlling system, the fluid dynamics of a mixed flow was studied with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and self-designed experimental set-up. In order to exam-ine the predictability of CFD model for the headbox in industrial scale, two pulp suspensions before mixing were treated as homogeneous flows separately. Standard k-εturbulence models with the mass diffusion in turbulent flows-species transport approach were applied in the simulations. A numerical simulation of this headbox model was analyzed with semi-implicit method for pressure linked equations scheme with pressure–velocity coupling. Results show that the model can predict hydrodynamic characteristics of headbox with injecting dilu-tion water in a central diffusion tube, and the distribution of water content at the outlet of the slice lip is ideally normal at different speeds.

  4. Integration into Big Data: First Steps to Support Reuse of Comprehensive Toxicity Model Modules (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data surrounding the needs of human disease and toxicity modeling are largely siloed limiting the ability to extend and reuse modules across knowledge domains. Using an infrastructure that supports integration across knowledge domains (animal toxicology, high-throughput screening...

  5. Road traffic impact on urban water quality: a step towards integrated traffic, air and stormwater modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah Shorshani, Masoud; Bonhomme, Céline; Petrucci, Guido; André, Michel; Seigneur, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Methods for simulating air pollution due to road traffic and the associated effects on stormwater runoff quality in an urban environment are examined with particular emphasis on the integration of the various simulation models into a consistent modelling chain. To that end, the models for traffic, pollutant emissions, atmospheric dispersion and deposition, and stormwater contamination are reviewed. The present study focuses on the implementation of a modelling chain for an actual urban case study, which is the contamination of water runoff by cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in the Grigny urban catchment near Paris, France. First, traffic emissions are calculated with traffic inputs using the COPERT4 methodology. Next, the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants is simulated with the Polyphemus line source model and pollutant deposition fluxes in different subcatchment areas are calculated. Finally, the SWMM water quantity and quality model is used to estimate the concentrations of pollutants in stormwater runoff. The simulation results are compared to mass flow rates and concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn measured at the catchment outlet. The contribution of local traffic to stormwater contamination is estimated to be significant for Pb and, to a lesser extent, for Zn and Cd; however, Pb is most likely overestimated due to outdated emissions factors. The results demonstrate the importance of treating distributed traffic emissions from major roadways explicitly since the impact of these sources on concentrations in the catchment outlet is underestimated when those traffic emissions are spatially averaged over the catchment area.

  6. "A Great First Step into Research": Stepping Into Research Is an Effective and Sustainable Model for Research Training in Clinical Settings: A Report of 6-Year Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Katherine E; Shields, Nora; Whiteside, Mary; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2016-01-01

    Cultivating a dynamic research culture is critical to growing the allied health professions. The Stepping into Research training program was developed in 2008 using small group training and mentoring to train allied health clinicians at a large health service in basic research skills. This paper describes the outcomes 6 years after its implementation, including translation of the program to a second health service. This mixed-methods observational evaluation included (1) quantitative data on research outputs (publications, conference presentations- and enrolment in further research training) and (2) qualitative analysis of the experiences of the first cohort of participants following translation of the program to a second site, with comparison to a previous evaluation conducted at the first site. Of the 55 participants enrolled in the program over 6 years, 49 completed the basic program resulting in 22 academic publications, 21 conference presentations, and 5 PhD enrolments. Qualitative data suggest the first cohort of participants and mentors at both sites experienced similar benefits and challenges. The Stepping into Research program has led to tangible research outcomes, has been sustained over 6 years, and been translated to a second health service. Questions remain about the impact of the program on clinical outcomes and research culture.

  7. CNGS Reflector installed

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    A major component that will help target the CNGS neutrino beam for its 732km journey through the earth's crust, from CERN to the Gran Sasso laboratory in Italy, has been installed in its final position. The transport of the huge magnetic horn reflector through the CNGS access gallery. A team from CNGS and TS/IC, and the contractors DBS, transported the magnetic horn reflector on 5th December, in a carefully conducted operation that took just under two hours. The reflector is 7m long, 1.6m in diameter and 1.6 tonnes in weight. With only a matter of centimetres to spare on either side, the reflector was transported through the CNGS access gallery, before being installed in the experiment's target chamber. The larger of two magnetic horns, the reflector will help refocus sprays of high energy pions and kaons emitted after a 0.5MW stream of protons from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) strikes nucleons in a graphite target. The horns are toroidal magnetic lenses and work with high pulsed currents: 150 kA f...

  8. A two-phase model of plantar tissue: a step toward prediction of diabetic foot ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciumè, G; Boso, D P; Gray, W G; Cobelli, C; Schrefler, B A

    2014-11-01

    A new computational model, based on the thermodynamically constrained averaging theory, has been recently proposed to predict tumor initiation and proliferation. A similar mathematical approach is proposed here as an aid in diabetic ulcer prevention. The common aspects at the continuum level are the macroscopic balance equations governing the flow of the fluid phase, diffusion of chemical species, tissue mechanics, and some of the constitutive equations. The soft plantar tissue is modeled as a two-phase system: a solid phase consisting of the tissue cells and their extracellular matrix, and a fluid one (interstitial fluid and dissolved chemical species). The solid phase may become necrotic depending on the stress level and on the oxygen availability in the tissue. Actually, in diabetic patients, peripheral vascular disease impacts tissue necrosis; this is considered in the model via the introduction of an effective diffusion coefficient that governs transport of nutrients within the microvasculature. The governing equations of the mathematical model are discretized in space by the finite element method and in time domain using the θ-Wilson Method. While the full mathematical model is developed in this paper, the example is limited to the simulation of several gait cycles of a healthy foot.

  9. Modeling Hand-Over-Hand and Inchworm Steps in Myosin VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Amanda; Lowe, Ian; Tehver, Riina

    Myosin VI is a molecular motor protein that moves along actin filaments to transport cargo within a cell. There is much experimental evidence that the myosin VI dimer moves ``hand-over-hand'' along actin; however, recent experiments suggest that the protein can also move via an ``inchworm'' mechanism. We created a mechanochemical kinetic model to predict myosin VI's behavior under different ATP, ADP, and force conditions, taking these alternative mechanisms into account. Our model's calculations agree well with experimental results and can also be used to predict myosin VI's behavior outside experimentally tested regimes, such as under forward force. We also predict an optimized motor function for the protein around physiological (-2 pN) load and anchoring under -3 pN load. By using our model to predict myosin VI's response to environmental change, we can gain insight into the behavior of a protein that can be difficult to observe experimentally.

  10. Adsorption and Step Elution of Urokinase Using, Affinity Chromatography -Comparison of Data with Rate Model Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MohammadRezaAboudzadehRovais; JiawenZhu; BinWu

    2004-01-01

    A non-equilibrium chromatographic rate model was employed to simulate the affinity chromatography of urokinase. The chromatography process was developed to a yield of high purity product of urokinase from crude materials. The affinity gel used in the process was prepared by an epichlorohydrin-activation method using epichlorohydrin activated Sepharose 4B as a matrix and p-aminobenzamidine as a ligand. The chromatographic process were numerically simulated and analyzed with the aid of VERSE-LC computer simulator. Considering the basic principles, rate model with the back mixing in column inlet was utilized in simulating and studying the effect of the column inlet pattern on other parameters. Comparison of the simulation results with the experimental data showed that the rate model can be used to describe the affinity chromatography of urokinase in a fixed bed column with satisfactory accuracy.

  11. Model Study of the Influence of Ambient Temperature and Installation Types on Surface Temperature Measurement by Using a Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Jun

    2016-07-01

    Surface temperature is an important parameter in clinical diagnosis, equipment state control, and environmental monitoring fields. The Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) temperature sensor possesses numerous significant advantages over conventional electrical sensors, thus it is an ideal choice to achieve high-accuracy surface temperature measurements. However, the effects of the ambient temperature and installation types on the measurement of surface temperature are often overlooked. A theoretical analysis is implemented and a thermal transfer model of a surface FBG sensor is established. The theoretical and simulated analysis shows that both substrate strain and the temperature difference between the fiber core and hot surface are the most important factors which affect measurement accuracy. A surface-type temperature standard setup is proposed to study the measurement error of the FBG temperature sensor. Experimental results show that there are two effects influencing measurement results. One is the "gradient effect". This results in a positive linear error with increasing surface temperature. Another is the "substrate effect". This results in a negative non-linear error with increasing surface temperature. The measurement error of the FBG sensor with single-ended fixation are determined by the gradient effect and is a linear error. It is not influenced by substrate expansion. Thus, it can be compensated easily. The measurement errors of the FBG sensor with double-ended fixation are determined by the two effects and the substrate effect is dominant. The measurement error change trend of the FBG sensor with fully-adhered fixation is similar to that with double-ended fixation. The adhesive layer can reduce the two effects and measurement error. The fully-adhered fixation has lower error, however, it is easily affected by substrate strain. Due to its linear error and strain-resistant characteristics, the single-ended fixation will play an important role in the FBG sensor

  12. Success rate evaluation of clinical governance implementation in teaching hospitals in Kerman (Iran) based on nine steps of Karsh's model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vali, Leila; Mastaneh, Zahra; Mouseli, Ali; Kardanmoghadam, Vida; Kamali, Sodabeh

    2017-07-01

    One of the ways to improve the quality of services in the health system is through clinical governance. This method aims to create a framework for clinical services providers to be accountable in return for continuing improvement of quality and maintaining standards of services. To evaluate the success rate of clinical governance implementation in Kerman teaching hospitals based on 9 steps of Karsh's Model. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 on 94 people including chief executive officers (CEOs), nursing managers, clinical governance managers and experts, head nurses and nurses. The required data were collected through a researcher-made questionnaire containing 38 questions with three-point Likert Scale (good, moderate, and weak). The Karsh's Model consists of nine steps including top management commitment to change, accountability for change, creating a structured approach for change, training, pilot implementation, communication, feedback, simulation, and end-user participation. Data analysis using descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test was done by SPSS software version 16. About 81.9 % of respondents were female and 74.5 have a Bachelor of Nursing (BN) degree. In general, the status of clinical governance implementation in studied hospitals based on 9 steps of the model was 44 % (moderate). A significant relationship was observed among accountability and organizational position (p=0.0012) and field of study (p=0.000). Also, there were significant relationships between structure-based approach and organizational position (p=0.007), communication and demographic characteristics (p=0.000), and end-user participation with organizational position (p=0.03). Clinical governance should be implemented by correct needs assessment and participation of all stakeholders, to ensure its enforcement in practice, and to enhance the quality of services.

  13. A step function model to evaluate the real monetary value of man-sievert with real GDP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Seong H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, 19 Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: shna@kins.re.kr; Kim, Sun G. [School of Business, Daejeon University, Yong Woon-dong, Dong-gu, Daejeon 300-716 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sunkim@dju.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    For use in a cost-benefit analysis to establish optimum levels of radiation protection in Korea under the ALARA principle, we introduce a discrete step function model to evaluate man-sievert monetary value in the real economic value. The model formula, which is unique and country-specific, is composed of real GDP, the nominal risk coefficient for cancer and hereditary effects, the aversion factor against radiation exposure, and average life expectancy. Unlike previous researches on alpha-value assessment, we show different alpha values in the real term, differentiated with respect to the range of individual doses, which would be more realistic and informative for application to the radiation protection practices. GDP deflators of economy can reflect the society's situations. Finally, we suggest that the Korean model can be generalized simply to other countries without normalizing any country-specific factors.

  14. A multiobjective interval programming model for wind-hydrothermal power system dispatching using 2-step optimization algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kun; Jihong, Qu

    2014-01-01

    Wind-hydrothermal power system dispatching has received intensive attention in recent years because it can help develop various reasonable plans to schedule the power generation efficiency. But future data such as wind power output and power load would not be accurately predicted and the nonlinear nature involved in the complex multiobjective scheduling model; therefore, to achieve accurate solution to such complex problem is a very difficult task. This paper presents an interval programming model with 2-step optimization algorithm to solve multiobjective dispatching. Initially, we represented the future data into interval numbers and simplified the object function to a linear programming problem to search the feasible and preliminary solutions to construct the Pareto set. Then the simulated annealing method was used to search the optimal solution of initial model. Thorough experimental results suggest that the proposed method performed reasonably well in terms of both operating efficiency and precision.

  15. A Multiobjective Interval Programming Model for Wind-Hydrothermal Power System Dispatching Using 2-Step Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind-hydrothermal power system dispatching has received intensive attention in recent years because it can help develop various reasonable plans to schedule the power generation efficiency. But future data such as wind power output and power load would not be accurately predicted and the nonlinear nature involved in the complex multiobjective scheduling model; therefore, to achieve accurate solution to such complex problem is a very difficult task. This paper presents an interval programming model with 2-step optimization algorithm to solve multiobjective dispatching. Initially, we represented the future data into interval numbers and simplified the object function to a linear programming problem to search the feasible and preliminary solutions to construct the Pareto set. Then the simulated annealing method was used to search the optimal solution of initial model. Thorough experimental results suggest that the proposed method performed reasonably well in terms of both operating efficiency and precision.

  16. On the Role of Chemical Kinetics Modeling in the LES of Premixed Bluff Body and Backward-Facing Step Combustors

    KAUST Repository

    Chakroun, Nadim W.

    2017-01-05

    Recirculating flows in the wake of a bluff body, behind a sudden expansion or down-stream of a swirler, are pivotal for anchoring a flame and expanding the stability range. The size and structure of these recirculation zones and the accurate prediction of the length of these zones is a very important characteristic that computational simulations should have. Large eddy simulation (LES) techniques with an appropriate combustion model and reaction mechanism afford a balance between computational complexity and predictive accuracy. In this study, propane/air mixtures were simulated in a bluff-body stabilized combustor based on the Volvo test case and also in a backward-facing step combustor. The main goal is to investigate the role of the chemical mechanism and the accuracy of estimating the extinction strain rate on the prediction of important ow features such as recirculation zones. Two 2-step mechanisms were employed, one which gave reasonable extinction strain rates and another modi ed 2-step mechanism where it grossly over-predicted the values. This modified mechanism under-predicted recirculation zone lengths compared to the original mechanism and had worse agreement with experiments in both geometries. While the recirculation zone lengths predicted by both reduced mechanisms in the step combustor scale linearly with the extinction strain rate, the scaling curves do not match experimental results as none of the simpli ed mechanisms produce extinction strain rates that are consistent with those predicted by the comprehensive mechanisms. We conclude that it is very important that a chemical mechanism is able to correctly predict extinction strain rates if it is to be used in CFD simulations.

  17. Applying the manifold theory to Milky Way models : First steps on morphology and kinematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero-Gomez, M.; Athanassoula, E.; Antoja Castelltort, Teresa; Figueras, F.; Reylé, C.; Robin, A.; Schultheis, M.

    We present recent results obtained by applying invariant manifold techniques to analytical models of the Milky Way. It has been shown that invariant manifolds can reproduce successfully the spiral arms and rings in external barred galaxies. Here, for the first time, we apply this theory to Milky Way

  18. Accessing key steps of human tumor progression in vivo by using an avian embryo model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Martin; Javerzat, Sophie; Gilges, Delphine; Meyre, Aurélie; de Lafarge, Benjamin; Eichmann, Anne; Bikfalvi, Andreas

    2005-02-01

    Experimental in vivo tumor models are essential for comprehending the dynamic process of human cancer progression, identifying therapeutic targets, and evaluating antitumor drugs. However, current rodent models are limited by high costs, long experimental duration, variability, restricted accessibility to the tumor, and major ethical concerns. To avoid these shortcomings, we investigated whether tumor growth on the chick chorio-allantoic membrane after human glioblastoma cell grafting would replicate characteristics of the human disease. Avascular tumors consistently formed within 2 days, then progressed through vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-dependent angiogenesis, associated with hemorrhage, necrosis, and peritumoral edema. Blocking of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and platelet-derived growth factor receptor signaling pathways by using small-molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors abrogated tumor development. Gene regulation during the angiogenic switch was analyzed by oligonucleotide microarrays. Defined sample selection for gene profiling permitted identification of regulated genes whose functions are associated mainly with tumor vascularization and growth. Furthermore, expression of known tumor progression genes identified in the screen (IL-6 and cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61) as well as potential regulators (lumican and F-box-only 6) follow similar patterns in patient glioma. The model reliably simulates key features of human glioma growth in a few days and thus could considerably increase the speed and efficacy of research on human tumor progression and preclinical drug screening. angiogenesis | animal model alternatives | glioblastoma

  19. The next step in coastal numerical models: spectral/hp element methods?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskilsson, Claes; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Sherwin, Spencer J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we outline the application of spectral/hp element methods for modelling nonlinear and dispersive waves. We present one- and two-dimensional test cases for the shallow water equations and Boussinesqtype equations – including highly dispersive Boussinesq-type equations....

  20. Fatty acid membrane assembly on coacervate microdroplets as a step towards a hybrid protocell model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dora Tang, T.-Y.; Rohaida Che Hak, C.; Thompson, Alexander J.; Kuimova, Marina K.; Williams, D. S.; Perriman, Adam W.; Mann, Stephen

    2014-06-01

    Mechanisms of prebiotic compartmentalization are central to providing insights into how protocellular systems emerged on the early Earth. Protocell models are based predominantly on the membrane self-assembly of fatty-acid vesicles, although membrane-free scenarios that involve liquid-liquid microphase separation (coacervation) have also been considered. Here we integrate these alternative models of prebiotic compartmentalization and develop a hybrid protocell model based on the spontaneous self-assembly of a continuous fatty-acid membrane at the surface of preformed coacervate microdroplets prepared from cationic peptides/polyelectrolytes and adenosine triphosphate or oligo/polyribonucleotides. We show that the coacervate-supported membrane is multilamellar, and mediates the selective uptake or exclusion of small and large molecules. The coacervate interior can be disassembled without loss of membrane integrity, and fusion and growth of the hybrid protocells can be induced under conditions of high ionic strength. Our results highlight how notions of membrane-mediated compartmentalization, chemical enrichment and internalized structuration can be integrated in protocell models via simple chemical and physical processes.

  1. Modeling heat and mass transfer in the heat treatment step of yerba maté processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Peralta

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to estimate the leaf and twig temperature and moisture content of yerba maté branches (Ilex paraguariensis Saint Hilaire during heat treatment, carried out in a rotary kiln dryer. These variables had to be estimated (modeling the heat and mass transfer due to the difficulty of experimental measurement in the dryer. For modeling, the equipment was divided into two zones: the flame or heat treatment zone and the drying zone. The model developed fit well with the experimental data when water loss took place only in leaves. In the first zone, leaf temperature increased until it reached 135°C and then it slowly decreased to 88°C at the exit, despite the gas temperature, which varied in this zone from 460°C to 120°C. Twig temperature increased in the two zones from its inlet temperature (25°C up to 75°C. A model error of about 3% was estimated based on theoretical and experimental data on leaf moisture content.

  2. Assisted Imitation: First Steps in the Seed Model of Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukow-Goldring, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I present the theoretical and empirical grounding for the SEED ("situated", culturally "embodied", "emergent", "distributed") model of early language development. A fundamental prerequisite to the emergence of language behavior/communication is a hands-on, active understanding of everyday events (, and ). At the heart of this…

  3. Applying the Self-Determination Theory to Japanese Special Education Contexts: A Four-Step Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtake, Yoshihisa; Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    The authors describe what preparations they undertook before introducing self-determination theory and its corresponding teaching model to the Japanese special education system for students with intellectual disabilities. The Japanese special education services are designed to nurture students to be individuals who are independent, know and…

  4. A Theory of Interest Rate Stepping : Inflation Targeting in a Dynamic Menu Cost Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Schaling, E.; Verhagen, W.H.

    1999-01-01

    Abstract: A stylised fact of monetary policy making is that central banks do not immediately respond to new information but rather seem to prefer to wait until sufficient ‘evidence’ to warrant a change has accumulated. However, theoretical models of inflation targeting imply that an optimising

  5. The STEP model: Characterizing simultaneous time effects on practice for flight simulator performance among middle-aged and older pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Quinn; Taylor, Joy; Noda, Art; Yesavage, Jerome; Lazzeroni, Laura C

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the possible effects of the number of practice sessions (practice) and time between practice sessions (interval) among middle-aged and older adults in real-world tasks has important implications for skill maintenance. Prior training and cognitive ability may impact practice and interval effects on real-world tasks. In this study, we took advantage of existing practice data from 5 simulated flights among 263 middle-aged and older pilots with varying levels of flight expertise (defined by U.S. Federal Aviation Administration proficiency ratings). We developed a new Simultaneous Time Effects on Practice (STEP) model: (a) to model the simultaneous effects of practice and interval on performance of the 5 flights, and (b) to examine the effects of selected covariates (i.e., age, flight expertise, and 3 composite measures of cognitive ability). The STEP model demonstrated consistent positive practice effects, negative interval effects, and predicted covariate effects. Age negatively moderated the beneficial effects of practice. Additionally, cognitive processing speed and intraindividual variability (IIV) in processing speed moderated the benefits of practice and/or the negative influence of interval for particular flight performance measures. Expertise did not interact with practice or interval. Results indicated that practice and interval effects occur in simulated flight tasks. However, processing speed and IIV may influence these effects, even among high-functioning adults. Results have implications for the design and assessment of training interventions targeted at middle-aged and older adults for complex real-world tasks. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Advancing parabolic operators in thermodynamic MHD models: Explicit super time-stepping versus implicit schemes with Krylov solvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, R. M.; Mikić, Z.; Linker, J. A.; Lionello, R.

    2017-05-01

    We explore the performance and advantages/disadvantages of using unconditionally stable explicit super time-stepping (STS) algorithms versus implicit schemes with Krylov solvers for integrating parabolic operators in thermodynamic MHD models of the solar corona. Specifically, we compare the second-order Runge-Kutta Legendre (RKL2) STS method with the implicit backward Euler scheme computed using the preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) solver with both a point-Jacobi and a non-overlapping domain decomposition ILU0 preconditioner. The algorithms are used to integrate anisotropic Spitzer thermal conduction and artificial kinematic viscosity at time-steps much larger than classic explicit stability criteria allow. A key component of the comparison is the use of an established MHD model (MAS) to compute a real-world simulation on a large HPC cluster. Special attention is placed on the parallel scaling of the algorithms. It is shown that, for a specific problem and model, the RKL2 method is comparable or surpasses the implicit method with PCG solvers in performance and scaling, but suffers from some accuracy limitations. These limitations, and the applicability of RKL methods are briefly discussed.

  7. Model for the fine structure of zero field steps in long Josephson tunnel junctions and its comparison with experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbara, Paola; Monaco, R.; Ustinov, A. V.

    1996-01-01

    The single fluxon dynamics in the resonant regime has been investigated on high-quality low-loss Nb/Al–AlOx/Nb window Josephson tunnel junctions. A new model accounting for the fine structure of zero field steps in linear junctions is proposed. Depending on the fluxon velocity and on the junction...... simulations, and experiments. The presence of the idle region has been proved to play a determinant role for the occurrence of the fine structure. ©1996 American Institute of Physics....

  8. Evidence of a one-step replica symmetry breaking in a three-dimensional Potts glass model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Takashi; Hukushima, Koji

    2015-02-01

    We study a seven-state Potts glass model in three dimensions with first-, second-, and third-nearest-neighbor interactions with a bimodal distribution of couplings by Monte Carlo simulations. Our results show the existence of a spin-glass transition at a finite temperature T(c), a discontinuous jump of an order parameter at T(c) without latent heat, and a nontrivial structure in the order parameter distribution below T(c). They are compatible with one-step replica symmetry breaking.

  9. Decommissioning of offshore installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeen, Sigrun; Iversen, Per Erik; Stokke, Reidunn; Nielsen, Frantz; Henriksen, Thor; Natvig, Henning; Dretvik, Oeystein; Martinsen, Finn; Bakke, Gunnstein

    2010-07-01

    New legislation on the handling and storage of radioactive substances came into force 1 January 2011. This version of the report is updated to reflect this new regulation and will therefore in some chapters differ from the Norwegian version (see NEI-NO--1660). The Ministry of the Environment commissioned the Climate and Pollution Agency to examine the environmental impacts associated with the decommissioning of offshore installations (demolition and recycling). This has involved an assessment of the volumes and types of waste material and of decommissioning capacity in Norway now and in the future. This report also presents proposals for measures and instruments to address environmental and other concerns that arise in connection with the decommissioning of offshore installations. At present, Norway has four decommissioning facilities for offshore installations, three of which are currently involved in decommissioning projects. Waste treatment plants of this kind are required to hold permits under the Pollution Control Act. The permit system allows the pollution control authority to tailor the requirements in a specific permit by evaluating conditions and limits for releases of pollutants on a case-to-case basis, and the Act also provides for requirements to be tightened up in line with the development of best available techniques (BAT). The environmental risks posed by decommissioning facilities are much the same as those from process industries and other waste treatment plants that are regulated by means of individual permits. Strict requirements are intended to ensure that environmental and health concerns are taken into account. The review of the four Norwegian decommissioning facilities in connection with this report shows that the degree to which requirements need to be tightened up varies from one facility to another. The permit for the Vats yard is newest and contains the strictest conditions. The Climate and Pollution Agency recommends a number of measures

  10. Hybrid High Fidelity Modeling of Radar Scenarios Using Atemporal, Discrete Event, and Time Step Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    computational power. Such simplifications can produce misleading results. For example, Radar Cross Section (RCS) effects in response to time-varying...and corresponding limitations of computational power. Such simplifications can produce misleading results. For example, Radar Cross Section (RCS...135 xvi Figure 6.1 The RCS of F-16 Falcon fighter model which is simulated by CST Studio software with signal frequency = 8 GHz. In (a), the RCS of

  11. Grey-box Modeling for System Identification of Household Refrigerators: a Step Toward Smart Appliances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Sossan, Fabrizio; Marinelli, Mattia

    2013-01-01

    units, which operation can be shifted within temperature and operational constraints. Even if the refrigerators are not intended to be used as smart loads, validated models are useful in predicting units consumption. This information can increase the optimality of the management of other flexible units......, such as heat pumps for space heating, in order to smooth the load factor during peak hours, enhance reliability and efficiency in power networks and reduce operational costs....

  12. Instability of a two-step Rankine vortex in a reduced gravity QG model

    OpenAIRE

    Perrot, Xavier; Carton, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the stability of a steplike Rankine vortex in a one-active-layer, reduced gravity, quasi-geostrophic model. After calculating the linear stability with a normal mode analysis, the singular modes are determined as a function of the vortex shape to investigate short-time stability. Finally we determine the position of the critical layer and show its influence when it lies inside the vortex.

  13. Instability of a two-step Rankine vortex in a reduced gravity QG model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrot, Xavier [Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Ecole Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75005 Paris (France); Carton, Xavier, E-mail: xperrot@lmd.ens.fr, E-mail: xcarton@univ-brest.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Océans, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, 6 avenue Le Gorgeu, F-29200 Brest (France)

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the stability of a steplike Rankine vortex in a one-active-layer, reduced gravity, quasi-geostrophic model. After calculating the linear stability with a normal mode analysis, the singular modes are determined as a function of the vortex shape to investigate short-time stability. Finally we determine the position of the critical layer and show its influence when it lies inside the vortex. (papers)

  14. Slow Steps Towards Dual Earner/ Dual Carer Family Model: Why Fathers do not Take Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Karu, Marre; Kasearu, Kairi

    2011-01-01

    "The article looks at the transition of Estonian society towards dual earner/ dual carer family model and focuses on fathers' decision regarding taking their parental leave. Based on theory of planned behaviour by Ajzen, data from 20 qualitative interviews with fathers of small children are analysed to explore the beliefs fathers have when it comes to parental leave. The analysis distinguishes between two images of 'good parenting' that play a role in the fathers' intention to take parental l...

  15. Magnetic Field Shear in Kinetic Models Steps Toward Understanding Magnetic Reconnection Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Carrie; Antiochos, Spiro; DeVore, Rick; Karpen, Judith

    2015-11-01

    In the standard model for coronal mass ejections (CME) and/or solar flares, the free energy for the eruptive event resides in a strongly sheared magnetic. A pre-eruption force balance consists of an upward force due to the magnetic pressure of the sheared field and a downward tension due to overlying unsheared field. Magnetic reconnection disrupts this force balance; therefore, it is critical for understanding CME/flare initiation, to model the onset of reconnection driven by the build-up of magnetic shear. In MHD simulations, the application of a magnetic-field shear is a trivial matter. However, kinetic effects are dominant in the diffusion region and thus, it is important to examine this process with PIC simulations as well. The implementation of such a driver in PIC methods is challenging, however, and indicates the necessity of a true multiscale model for such processes in the solar environment. The field must be sheared self-consistently and indirectly to prevent the generation of waves that destroy the desired system. Plasma instabilities can arise nonetheless. Here, we show that we can control this instability and generate a predicted out-of-plane magnetic flux. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Award No. AGS-1331356.

  16. Introducing a Clustering Step in a Consensus Approach for the Scoring of Protein-Protein Docking Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lensink, Marc F.; Petta, Andrea; Serra, Luigi; Scarano, Vittorio; Cavallo, Luigi; Oliva, Romina

    2016-01-01

    Correctly scoring protein-protein docking models to single out native-like ones is an open challenge. It is also an object of assessment in CAPRI (Critical Assessment of PRedicted Interactions), the community-wide blind docking experiment. We introduced in the field the first pure consensus method, CONSRANK, which ranks models based on their ability to match the most conserved contacts in the ensemble they belong to. In CAPRI, scorers are asked to evaluate a set of available models and select the top ten ones, based on their own scoring approach. Scorers’ performance is ranked based on the number of targets/interfaces for which they could provide at least one correct solution. In such terms, blind testing in CAPRI Round 30 (a joint prediction round with CASP11) has shown that critical cases for CONSRANK are represented by targets showing multiple interfaces or for which only a very small number of correct solutions are available. To address these challenging cases, CONSRANK has now been modified to include a contact-based clustering of the models as a preliminary step of the scoring process. We used an agglomerative hierarchical clustering based on the number of common inter-residue contacts within the models. Two criteria, with different thresholds, were explored in the cluster generation, setting either the number of common contacts or of total clusters. For each clustering approach, after selecting the top (most populated) ten clusters, CONSRANK was run on these clusters and the top-ranked model for each cluster was selected, in the limit of 10 models per target. We have applied our modified scoring approach, Clust-CONSRANK, to SCORE_SET, a set of CAPRI scoring models made recently available by CAPRI assessors, and to the subset of homodimeric targets in CAPRI Round 30 for which CONSRANK failed to include a correct solution within the ten selected models. Results show that, for the challenging cases, the clustering step typically enriches the ten top ranked

  17. Introducing a Clustering Step in a Consensus Approach for the Scoring of Protein-Protein Docking Models

    KAUST Repository

    Chermak, Edrisse

    2016-11-15

    Correctly scoring protein-protein docking models to single out native-like ones is an open challenge. It is also an object of assessment in CAPRI (Critical Assessment of PRedicted Interactions), the community-wide blind docking experiment. We introduced in the field the first pure consensus method, CONSRANK, which ranks models based on their ability to match the most conserved contacts in the ensemble they belong to. In CAPRI, scorers are asked to evaluate a set of available models and select the top ten ones, based on their own scoring approach. Scorers\\' performance is ranked based on the number of targets/interfaces for which they could provide at least one correct solution. In such terms, blind testing in CAPRI Round 30 (a joint prediction round with CASP11) has shown that critical cases for CONSRANK are represented by targets showing multiple interfaces or for which only a very small number of correct solutions are available. To address these challenging cases, CONSRANK has now been modified to include a contact-based clustering of the models as a preliminary step of the scoring process. We used an agglomerative hierarchical clustering based on the number of common inter-residue contacts within the models. Two criteria, with different thresholds, were explored in the cluster generation, setting either the number of common contacts or of total clusters. For each clustering approach, after selecting the top (most populated) ten clusters, CONSRANK was run on these clusters and the top-ranked model for each cluster was selected, in the limit of 10 models per target. We have applied our modified scoring approach, Clust-CONSRANK, to SCORE_SET, a set of CAPRI scoring models made recently available by CAPRI assessors, and to the subset of homodimeric targets in CAPRI Round 30 for which CONSRANK failed to include a correct solution within the ten selected models. Results show that, for the challenging cases, the clustering step typically enriches the ten top ranked

  18. Modelling of Thermal Advective Reactive Flow in Hydrothermal Mineral Systems Using an Implicit Time-stepped Finite Element Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, P. G.

    2005-12-01

    Understanding chemical and thermal processes taking place in hydrothermal mineral deposition systems could well be a key to unlocking new mineral reserves through improved targeting of exploration efforts. To aid in this understanding it is very helpful to be able to model such processes with sufficient fidelity to test process hypotheses. To gain understanding, it is often sufficient to obtain semi-quantitative results that model the broad aspects of the complex set of thermal and chemical effects taking place in hydrothermal systems. For example, it is often sufficient to gain an understanding of where thermal, geometric and chemical factors converge to precipitate gold (say) without being perfectly precise about how much gold is precipitated. The traditional approach is to use incompressible Darcy flow together with the Boussinesq approximation. From the flow field, the heat equation is used to advect-conduct the heat. The flow field is also used to transport solutes by solving an advection-dispersion-diffusion equation. The reactions in the fluid and between fluid and rock act as source terms for these advection-dispersion equations. Many existing modelling systems that are used for simulating such systems use explicit time marching schemes and finite differences. The disadvantage of this approach is the need to work on rectilinear grids and the number of time steps required by the Courant condition in the solute transport step. The second factor can be particularly significant if the chemical system is complex, requiring (at a minimum) an equilibrium calculation at each grid point at each time step. In the approach we describe, we use finite elements rather than finite differences, and the pressure, heat and advection-dispersion equations are solved implicitly. The general idea is to put unconditional numerical stability of the time integration first, and let accuracy assume a secondary role. It is in this sense that the method is semi-quantiative. However

  19. SHEDS-Multimedia Model Version 3 (a) Technical Manual; (b) User Guide; and (c) Executable File to Launch SAS Program and Install Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reliable models for assessing human exposures are important for understanding health risks from chemicals. The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model for multimedia, multi-route/pathway chemicals (SHEDS-Multimedia), developed by EPA’s Office of Research and Developm...

  20. Steps in the construction and verification of an explanatory model of psychosocial adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantzazu Rodríguez-Fernández

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to empirically test an explanatory model of psychosocial adjustment during adolescence, with psychosocial adjustment during this stage being understood as a combination of school adjustment (or school engagement and subjective well-being. According to the hypothetic model, psychosocial adjustment depends on self-concept and resilience, which in turn act as mediators of the influence of perceived social support (from family, peers and teachers on this adjustment. Participants were 1250 secondary school students (638 girls and 612 boys aged between 12 and 15 years (Mean = 13.72; SD = 1.09. The results provided evidence of: (a the influence of all three types of perceived support on subject resilience and self-concept, with perceived family support being particularly important in this respect; (b the influence of the support received from teachers on school adjustment and support received from the family on psychological wellbeing; and (c the absence of any direct influence of peer support on psychosocial adjustment, although indirect influence was observed through the psychological variables studied. These results are discussed from an educational perspective and in terms of future research

  1. Low Temperature One-Step Synthesis of Barium Titanate:Thermodynamic Modeling and Experimental Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈志刚; 李世刚; 刘朝文; 张建文; 陈建峰

    2005-01-01

    A thermodynamic model has been developed to determine the reaction conditions favoring low temperature direct synthesis of barium titanate (BaTiO3). The method utilizes standard-state thermodynamic data for solid and aqueous species and a Debye-Hǔckel coefficients model to represent solution nonideality. The method has been used to generate phase stability diagrams that indicate the ranges of pH and reagent concentrations, for which various species predominate in the system at a given temperature. Also, yield diagrams have been constructed that indicate the concentration, pH and temperature conditions for which different yields of crystalline BaTiO3 can be obtained. The stability and yield diagrams have been used to predict the optimum synthesis conditions (e.g.,reagent concentrations, pH and temperature). Subsequently, these predictions have been experimentally verified.As a result, phase-pure perovskite BaTiO3 has been obtained at temperature ranging from 55 to 85℃ using BaCl2,TiCl4 as a source for Ba and Ti. and NaOH as a orecioitator.

  2. Step out the Paradox of Livable City Studies:Conceptual Model and Path Choice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on a comparative analysis on the concepts and standards of livable city in China and abroad,the paper creates a conceptual model and a fundamental formula for livable city development with economic development as the foundation,and the social and cultural conditions,the ecological status,and the city governance as three pillars,so as to provide a theoretical explanation for the two paradoxes of livable city.The paper suggests that China should choose Path C,which combines economic development with city livability.It also analyzes the development rules of livable city under Path C,and talks about the fundamental ideas of livable city construction under the current circumstances in China.In the end,the paper puts forward related planning strategies in terms of spatial structure,ecological environment,cultural construction,transportation system,and housing system,in order to establish a livable city development model that is suitable for China’s practical conditions.

  3. Modelling farm vulnerability to flooding: A step toward vulnerability mitigation policies appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brémond, P.; Abrami, G.; Blanc, C.; Grelot, F.

    2009-04-01

    flood. In the case of farm activities, vulnerability mitigation consists in implementing measures which can be: physical (equipment or electric power system elevation), organizational (emergency or recovery plan) or financial (insurance). These measures aim at decreasing the total damage incurred by farmers in case of flooding. For instance, if equipment is elevated, it will not suffer direct damage such as degradation. As a consequence, equipment will be available to continue production or recovery tasks, thus, avoiding indirect damage such as delays, indebtedness… The effects of these policies on farms, in particular vulnerability mitigation cannot be appraised using current methodologies mainly because they do not consider farm as a whole and focus on direct damage at the land plot scale (loss of yield). Moreover, since vulnerability mitigation policies are quite recent, few examples of implementation exist and no feedback experience can be processed. Meanwhile, decision makers and financial actors require more justification of the efficiency of public fund by economic appraisal of the projects. On the Rhône River, decision makers asked for an economic evaluation of the program of farm vulnerability mitigation they plan to implement. This implies to identify the effects of the measures to mitigate farm vulnerability, and to classify them by comparing their efficacy (avoided damage) and their cost of implementation. In this presentation, we propose and discuss a conceptual model of vulnerability at the farm scale. The modelling, in Unified Modelling Language, enabled to represent the ties between spatial, organizational and temporal dimensions, which are central to understanding of farm vulnerability and resilience to flooding. Through this modelling, we encompass three goals: To improve the comprehension of farm vulnerability and create a framework that allow discussion with experts of different disciplines as well as with local farmers; To identify data which

  4. Planning and installing photovoltaic systems a guide for installers, architects and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sonnenenergie (DGS)

    2013-01-01

    New third edition of the bestselling manual from the German Solar Energy Society (DGS), showing you the essential steps to plan and install a solar photovoltaic system. With a global focus, it has been updated to include sections on new technology and concepts, new legislation and the current PV market.Updates cover:new developments in inverter and module technologymarket situation worldwide and outlookintegration to the grid (voltage stabilization, frequency, remote control)new legal requirements for installation and planningoperational costs for dismantling and recyclingfeed-in managementnew requirements for fire protectionnew requirements in Europe for electric waste (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment, WEEE) and the restriction of the use of certain hazardous substances (RoHS).Also providing information on current developments in system design, economic analysis, operation and maintenance of PV systems, as well as new software tools, hybrid and tracking systems.An essential manual for installers, e...

  5. Very-short-term wind power prediction by a hybrid model with single- and multi-step approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, E.; Wang, S.; Yu, J.

    2017-05-01

    Very-short-term wind power prediction (VSTWPP) has played an essential role for the operation of electric power systems. This paper aims at improving and applying a hybrid method of VSTWPP based on historical data. The hybrid method is combined by multiple linear regressions and least square (MLR&LS), which is intended for reducing prediction errors. The predicted values are obtained through two sub-processes:1) transform the time-series data of actual wind power into the power ratio, and then predict the power ratio;2) use the predicted power ratio to predict the wind power. Besides, the proposed method can include two prediction approaches: single-step prediction (SSP) and multi-step prediction (MSP). WPP is tested comparatively by auto-regressive moving average (ARMA) model from the predicted values and errors. The validity of the proposed hybrid method is confirmed in terms of error analysis by using probability density function (PDF), mean absolute percent error (MAPE) and means square error (MSE). Meanwhile, comparison of the correlation coefficients between the actual values and the predicted values for different prediction times and window has confirmed that MSP approach by using the hybrid model is the most accurate while comparing to SSP approach and ARMA. The MLR&LS is accurate and promising for solving problems in WPP.

  6. Modeling and simulation of novel stepped DC coupled quasi Z-Multilevel Inverter for single phase systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi T.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the modeling and simulation of a novel topology of quasi Z-Multilevel Inverter with stepped DC input. The proposed inverter incorporates a simple switching technique with reduced component count and is aimed at producing boosted multilevel output AC voltage. The inverter consists of two stages and the buck /boost operation is obtained by varying the shoot through period of the pulses obtained by maximum constant boost control with third harmonic injection. With all the advantages of the quasi Z-network, the proposed inverter eliminates the fly back diodes and capacitors present in a conventional Z-Multilevel Inverter. Further the stress on the devices is less which leads to reduction in component value and hence the cost. The novel stepped DC coupled Single Phase quasi Z-Multilevel Inverter is modeled and simulated in the MATLAB - SIMULINK environment and its performance is analyzed for varying input and switching conditions. The voltage and current waveforms across each stage of the inverter is analyzed and the results are presented for different levels of input.

  7. Web based health surveys: Using a Two Step Heckman model to examine their potential for population health analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Karyn; Kinderman, Peter; Pontin, Eleanor; Tai, Sara; Schwannauer, Mathias

    2016-08-01

    In June 2011 the BBC Lab UK carried out a web-based survey on the causes of mental distress. The 'Stress Test' was launched on 'All in the Mind' a BBC Radio 4 programme and the test's URL was publicised on radio and TV broadcasts, and made available via BBC web pages and social media. Given the large amount of data created, over 32,800 participants, with corresponding diagnosis, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics; the dataset are potentially an important source of data for population based research on depression and anxiety. However, as respondents self-selected to participate in the online survey, the survey may comprise a non-random sample. It may be only individuals that listen to BBC Radio 4 and/or use their website that participated in the survey. In this instance using the Stress Test data for wider population based research may create sample selection bias. Focusing on the depression component of the Stress Test, this paper presents an easy-to-use method, the Two Step Probit Selection Model, to detect and statistically correct selection bias in the Stress Test. Using a Two Step Probit Selection Model; this paper did not find a statistically significant selection on unobserved factors for participants of the Stress Test. That is, survey participants who accessed and completed an online survey are not systematically different from non-participants on the variables of substantive interest.

  8. OTA-Grapes: A Mechanistic Model to Predict Ochratoxin A Risk in Grapes, a Step beyond the Systems Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battilani Paola

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a fungal metabolite dangerous for human and animal health due to its nephrotoxic, immunotoxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects, classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in group 2B, possible human carcinogen. This toxin has been stated as a wine contaminant since 1996. The aim of this study was to develop a conceptual model for the dynamic simulation of the A. carbonarius life cycle in grapes along the growing season, including OTA production in berries. Functions describing the role of weather parameters in each step of the infection cycle were developed and organized in a prototype model called OTA-grapes. Modelling the influence of temperature on OTA production, it emerged that fungal strains can be shared in two different clusters, based on the dynamic of OTA production and according to the optimal temperature. Therefore, two functions were developed, and based on statistical data analysis, it was assumed that the two types of strains contribute equally to the population. Model validation was not possible because of poor OTA contamination data, but relevant differences in OTA-I, the output index of the model, were noticed between low and high risk areas. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to assess/model A. carbonarius in order to predict the risk of OTA contamination in grapes.

  9. OTA-Grapes: A Mechanistic Model to Predict Ochratoxin A Risk in Grapes, a Step beyond the Systems Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paola, Battilani; Marco, Camardo Leggieri

    2015-08-06

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a fungal metabolite dangerous for human and animal health due to its nephrotoxic, immunotoxic, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects, classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in group 2B, possible human carcinogen. This toxin has been stated as a wine contaminant since 1996. The aim of this study was to develop a conceptual model for the dynamic simulation of the A. carbonarius life cycle in grapes along the growing season, including OTA production in berries. Functions describing the role of weather parameters in each step of the infection cycle were developed and organized in a prototype model called OTA-grapes. Modelling the influence of temperature on OTA production, it emerged that fungal strains can be shared in two different clusters, based on the dynamic of OTA production and according to the optimal temperature. Therefore, two functions were developed, and based on statistical data analysis, it was assumed that the two types of strains contribute equally to the population. Model validation was not possible because of poor OTA contamination data, but relevant differences in OTA-I, the output index of the model, were noticed between low and high risk areas. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to assess/model A. carbonarius in order to predict the risk of OTA contamination in grapes.

  10. Simulation and verification of transient events in large wind power installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, P.; Hansen, A.D.; Christensen, P.; Meritz, M.; Bech, J.; Bak-Jensen, B.; Nielsen, H.

    2003-10-01

    Models for wind power installations excited by transient events have been developed and verified. A number of cases have been investigated, including comparisons of simulations of a three-phase short circuit, validation with measurements of tripping of single wind turbine, islanding of a group of two wind turbines, and voltage steps caused by tripping of wind turbines and by manual transformer tap-changing. A Benchmark model is also presented, enabling the reader to test own simulation results against results obtained with models developed in EMTDC and DIgSILENT. (au)

  11. Back stepping-Based-PID-Controller Designed for an Artificial Pancreas model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ShaimaMahmou Mahdi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial pancreas is simulated to handle Type I diabetic patients under intensive care by automatically controlling the insulin infusion rate. A Backstepping technique is used to apply the effect of PID controller to blood glucose level since there is no direct relation between insulin infusion (the manipulated variable and glucose level in Bergman’s system model subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test by applying a meal translated into a disturbance. Backstepping technique is usually recommended to stabilize and control the states of Bergman's class of nonlinear systems. The results showed a very satisfactory behavior of glucose deviation to a sudden rise represented by the meal that increase the blood glucose

  12. Phd study of reliability and validity: One step closer to a standardized music therapy assessment model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine Lindahl

    The paper will present a phd study concerning reliability and validity of music therapy assessment model “Assessment of Parenting Competences” (APC) in the area of families with emotionally neglected children. This study had a multiple strategy design with a philosophical base of critical realism...... and pragmatism. The fixed design for this study was a between and within groups design in testing the APCs reliability and validity. The two different groups were parents with neglected children and parents with non-neglected children. The flexible design had a multiple case study strategy specifically...... of the theoretical understanding of the clientgroup. Furthermore, a short describtion of the specific assessment protocol and analysis procedures of APC will be a part of the presentation. The phd study sought to explore how to develop measures of parenting competences in looking at autonomy relationship...

  13. Numerical application of k-ε turbulence model to the flow over a backward-facing step

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A model that uses the operator splitting technique based on Eulerian-Lagrangian method and embeds the k-ε turbulence mode is developed. The model is used to simulate a two dimensional flow over a backward-facing step with triangular mesh discrete flow field. The convection operator is solved with the characteristic method and the diffusion operator and pressure-Poisson equation are solved by finite element method. The results from the example showed that numerical results are well agreed with the experimental data,and that the method can be adapted to simulate complex turbulent flow with strong non-linear convection. The treatment of boundary conditions is also studied in the paper.

  14. Climatic change on the Gulf of Fonseca (Central America) using two-step statistical downscaling of CMIP5 model outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribalaygua, Jaime; Gaitán, Emma; Pórtoles, Javier; Monjo, Robert

    2017-04-01

    A two-step statistical downscaling method has been reviewed and adapted to simulate twenty-first-century climate projections for the Gulf of Fonseca (Central America, Pacific Coast) using Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) climate models. The downscaling methodology is adjusted after looking for good predictor fields for this area (where the geostrophic approximation fails and the real wind fields are the most applicable). The method's performance for daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperature is analysed and revealed suitable results for all variables. For instance, the method is able to simulate the characteristic cycle of the wet season for this area, which includes a mid-summer drought between two peaks. Future projections show a gradual temperature increase throughout the twenty-first century and a change in the features of the wet season (the first peak and mid-summer rainfall being reduced relative to the second peak, earlier onset of the wet season and a broader second peak).

  15. Influence of simulation time-step (temporal-scale) on optimal parameter estimation and runoff prediction performance in hydrological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizu, Javier; Álvarez-Mozos, Jesús; Casalí, Javier; Goñi, Mikel

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, most hydrological catchment models are designed to allow their use for streamflow simulation at different time-scales. While this permits models to be applied for broader purposes, it can also be a source of error in hydrological processes simulation at catchment scale. Those errors seem not to affect significantly simple conceptual models, but this flexibility may lead to large behavior errors in physically based models. Equations used in processes such as those related to soil moisture time-variation are usually representative at certain time-scales but they may not characterize properly water transfer in soil layers at larger scales. This effect is especially relevant as we move from detailed hourly scale to daily time-step, which are common time scales used at catchment streamflow simulation for different research and management practices purposes. This study aims to provide an objective methodology to identify the degree of similarity of optimal parameter values when hydrological catchment model calibration is developed at different time-scales. Thus, providing information for an informed discussion of physical parameter significance on hydrological models. In this research, we analyze the influence of time scale simulation on: 1) the optimal values of six highly sensitive parameters of the TOPLATS model and 2) the streamflow simulation efficiency, while optimization is carried out at different time scales. TOPLATS (TOPMODEL-based Land-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme) has been applied on its lumped version on three catchments of varying size located in northern Spain. The model has its basis on shallow groundwater gradients (related to local topography) that set up spatial patterns of soil moisture and are assumed to control infiltration and runoff during storm events and evaporation and drainage in between storm events. The model calculates the saturated portion of the catchment at each time step based on Topographical Index (TI) intervals. Surface

  16. Experimental pleural empyema model in rabbits: Why, how and what are the next steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvijanović Vlado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacgraund/Aim. The use of new therapeutic methods to prevent development of fibrothorax as the final complication of the human pleural infections requires research with experimental animals. The aim of this study was to standardize the procedures for the establishment of our own experimental model of empyema in rabbits, since it should be able to offer similar conditions found in human pleural infections. Methods. This experiment included 15 chinchilla rabbits, weighing from 2.3 to 2.8 kg. There were 12 rabbits in the experimental group, while 3 rabbits formed the control group. On the first day, we administered 0.4-0.5 mL of turpentine in the right pleural space of the rabbits from the experimental group in order to provoke sterile exudative pleurisy. After 24 h we injected 1 mL of Staphylococcus aureus and 1 mL of Escherichia coli bacteria in the same concentration of 4.5 x 108 bacteria/mL. Thoracocentesis for the pleural fluid analysis was performed 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after bacteria instillation. In these pleural samples we estimated the number of leucocytes and the values of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, glucose and pH in pleural fluid, as well as the presence of bacteria. We did not protect the animals with antibiotics, and on the day 7 of the experiment they were sacrificed with the lethal dose of barbiturate (iv. The lung from the empyemic side of all experimental animals and the lung of one control animal were histopathologically examined. Results. A total of 4 animals had a small amount of clear pleural fluids or there was no fluid obtained with thoracocentesis 24 and 48 h after the bacteria instillation. after the bacteria instillation. In the remaining 8 rabbits 24 h after bacteria administration the mean values (± SD of the parameters monitored were as follows: Le 34.75 ± 6.13 x 109/L, LDH 17,000 ± 4,69 U/L, glucose 1.23 ± 0.45 mmol/L, and pH 6.975 ± 0.15. The obtained values met the criteria for the evaluation of effusion as

  17. A Quantitative, Time-Dependent Model of Oxygen Isotopes in the Solar Nebula: Step one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuth, J. A.; Paquette, J. A.; Farquhar, A.; Johnson, N. M.

    2011-01-01

    The remarkable discovery that oxygen isotopes in primitive meteorites were fractionated along a line of slope I rather than along the typical slope 0,52 terrestrial fractionation line occurred almost 40 years ago, However, a satisfactory, quantitative explanation for this observation has yet to be found, though many different explanations have been proposed, The first of these explanations proposed that the observed line represented the final product produced by mixing molecular cloud dust with a nucleosynthetic component, rich in O-16, possibly resulting from a nearby supernova explosion, Donald Clayton suggested that Galactic Chemical Evolution would gradually change the oxygen isotopic composition of the interstellar grain population by steadily producing O-16 in supernovae, then producing the heavier isotopes as secondary products in lower mass stars, Thiemens and collaborators proposed a chemical mechanism that relied on the availability of additional active rotational and vibrational states in otherwise-symmetric molecules, such as CO2, O3 or SiO2, containing two different oxygen isotopes and a second, photochemical process that suggested that differential photochemical dissociation processes could fractionate oxygen , This second line of research has been pursued by several groups, though none of the current models is quantitative,

  18. Mechanical and histological characterization of the abdominal muscle. A previous step to modelling hernia surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, B; Peña, E; Pascual, G; Rodríguez, M; Calvo, B; Doblaré, M; Bellón, J M

    2011-04-01

    The aims of this study are to experimentally characterize the passive elastic behaviour of the rabbit abdominal wall and to develop a mechanical constitutive law which accurately reproduces the obtained experimental results. For this purpose, tissue samples from New Zealand White rabbits 2150±50 (g) were mechanically tested in vitro. Mechanical tests, consisting of uniaxial loading on tissue samples oriented along the craneo-caudal and the perpendicular directions, respectively, revealed the anisotropic non-linear mechanical behaviour of the abdominal tissues. Experiments were performed considering the composite muscle (including external oblique-EO, internal oblique-IO and transverse abdominis-TA muscle layers), as well as separated muscle layers (i.e., external oblique, and the bilayer formed by internal oblique and transverse abdominis). Both the EO muscle layer and the IO-TA bilayer demonstrated a stiffer behaviour along the transversal direction to muscle fibres than along the longitudinal one. The fibre arrangement was measured by means of a histological study which confirmed that collagen fibres are mainly responsible for the passive mechanical strength and stiffness. Furthermore, the degree of anisotropy of the abdominal composite muscle turned out to be less pronounced than those obtained while studying the EO and IO-TA separately. Moreover, a phenomenological constitutive law was used to capture the measured experimental curves. A Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm was used to fit the model constants to reproduce the experimental curves. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A diagnosis method for physical systems using a multi-modeling approach; Utilisation de l'approche multi-modeles pour l'aide au diagnostic d'installations industrielles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thetiot, R

    2000-07-01

    In this thesis we propose a method for diagnosis problem solving. This method is based on a multi-modeling approach describing both normal and abnormal behavior of a system. This modeling approach allows to represent a system at different abstraction levels (behavioral, functional and teleological). Fundamental knowledge is described according to a bond-graph representation. We show that bond-graph representation can be exploited in order to generate (completely or partially) the functional models. The different models of the multi-modeling approach allows to define the functional state of a system at different abstraction levels. We exploit this property to exonerate sub-systems for which the expected behavior is observed. The behavioral and functional descriptions of the remaining sub-systems are exploited hierarchically in a two steps process. In a first step, the abnormal behaviors explaining some observations are identified. In a second step, the remaining unexplained observations are used to generate conflict sets and thus the consistency based diagnoses. The modeling method and the diagnosis process have been applied to a Reactor Coolant Pump Sets. This application illustrates the concepts described in this thesis and shows its potentialities. (authors)

  20. Comparison on genomic predictions using GBLUP models and two single-step blending methods with different relationship matrices in the Nordic Holstein population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Hongding; Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Madsen, Per

    2012-01-01

    Background A single-step blending approach allows genomic prediction using information of genotyped and non-genotyped animals simultaneously. However, the combined relationship matrix in a single-step method may need to be adjusted because marker-based and pedigree-based relationship matrices may...... not be on the same scale. The same may apply when a GBLUP model includes both genomic breeding values and residual polygenic effects. The objective of this study was to compare single-step blending methods and GBLUP methods with and without adjustment of the genomic relationship matrix for genomic prediction of 16......) a simple GBLUP method, 2) a GBLUP method with a polygenic effect, 3) an adjusted GBLUP method with a polygenic effect, 4) a single-step blending method, and 5) an adjusted single-step blending method. In the adjusted GBLUP and single-step methods, the genomic relationship matrix was adjusted...

  1. Introducing Variable-Step Topography (VST) coordinates within dynamically constrained Nonhydrostatic Modeling System (NMS). Part 1: VST formulation within NMS host model framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripoli, Gregory J.; Smith, Eric A.

    2014-06-01

    A Variable-Step Topography (VST) surface coordinate system is introduced into a dynamically constrained, scalable, nonhydrostatic atmospheric model for reliable simulations of flows over both smooth and steep terrain without sacrificing dynamical integrity over either type of surface. Backgrounds of both terrain-following and step coordinate model developments are presented before justifying the turn to a VST approach within an appropriately configured host model. In this first part of a two-part sequence of papers, the full formulation of the VST model, prefaced by a description of the framework of its apposite host, i.e., a re-tooled Nonhydrostatic Modeling System (NMS), are presented. [The second part assesses the performance and benefits of the new VST coordinate system in conjunction with seven orthodox obstacle flow problems.] The NMS is a 3-dimensional, nonhydrostatic cloud-mesoscale model, designed for integrations from plume-cloud scales out to regional-global scales. The derivative properties of VST in conjunction with the NMS's newly designed dynamically constrained core are capable of accurately capturing the deformations of flows by any type of terrain variability. Numerical differencing schemes needed to satisfy critical integral constraints, while also effectively enabling the VST lower boundary, are described. The host model constraints include mass, momentum, energy, vorticity and enstrophy conservation. A quasi-compressible closure cast on multiple-nest rotated spherical grids is the underlying framework used to study the advantages of the VST coordinate system. The principle objective behind the VST formulation is to combine the advantages of both terrain-following and step coordinate systems without suffering either of their disadvantages, while at the same time creating a vertical surface coordinate setting suitable for a scalable, nonhydrostatic model, safeguarded with physically realistic dynamical constraints.

  2. Trendelenburg-Like Gait, Instability and Altered Step Patterns in a Mouse Model for Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy 2i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricelli, Joseph W; Lu, Qi L; Lin, David C; Rodgers, Buel D

    2016-01-01

    Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2i (LGMD2i) affects thousands of lives with shortened life expectancy mainly due to cardiac and respiratory problems and difficulty with ambulation significantly compromising quality of life. Limited studies have noted impaired gait in patients and animal models of different muscular dystrophies, but not in animal models of LGMD2i. Our goal, therefore, was to quantify gait metrics in the fukutin-related protein P448L mutant (P448L) mouse, a recently developed model for LGMD2i. The Noldus CatWalk XT motion capture system was used to identify multiple gait impairments. An average galloping body speed of 35 cm/s for both P448L and C57BL/6 wild-type mice was maintained to ensure differences in gait were due only to strain physiology. Compared to wild-type mice, P448L mice reach maximum contact 10% faster and have 40% more paw surface area during stance. Additionally, force intensity at the time of maximum paw contact is roughly 2-fold higher in P448L mice. Paw swing time is reduced in P448L mice without changes in stride length as a faster swing speed compensates. Gait instability in P448L mice is indicated by 50% higher instances of 3 and 4 paw stance support and conversely, 2-fold fewer instances of single paw stance support and no instance of zero paw support. This leads to lower variation of normal step patterns used and a higher use of uncommon step patterns. Similar anomalies have also been noted in muscular dystrophy patients due to weakness in the hip abductor muscles, producing a Trendelenburg gait characterized by "waddling" and more pronounced shifts to the stance leg. Thus, gait of P448L mice replicates anomalies commonly seen in LGMD2i patients, which is not only potentially valuable for assessing drug efficacy in restoring movement biomechanics, but also for better understanding them.

  3. Mineral mining installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K.; Rosenberg, H.; Weirich, W.

    1981-12-29

    A longwall mineral mining installation has a conveyor and a plurality of roof support units positioned side-by-side on the goaf side of the conveyor. Each roof support unit has a roof shield having an advanceable shield extension. Each unit has a first hydraulic ram for extending its shield extension, and a second hydraulic ram for advancing the conveyor. The extension of each first ram is controlled in dependence upon the retraction of one of the second rams (Either the second ram of the same unit or that of an adjacent unit). This control is effected by controlling the supply of pressurized hydraulic fluid to the first rams. In one embodiment this is carried out by a control valve which has a spring-loaded plunger which engages with a series of equispaced cams on the movable cylinder of the associated second ram. In another embodiment, the piston rods of the rams are provided with series of equispaced magnets. The cylinders of the rams are provided with sensors, which sense the magnets and generate control signals. A control box is provided to direct the control signals to control valves associated with the rams, so that the first rams are extended by the same distance as that through which the second rams are retracted.

  4. Mineral mining installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weirich, W.

    1984-01-24

    A longwall mineral mining installation has a conveyor and a plurality of roof support units positioned side-by-side on the goaf side of the conveyor. Each roof support unit has a roof shield having an advanceable shield extension. Each unit has a first hydraulic ram for extending its shield extension, and a second hydraulic ram for advancing the conveyor. The extension of each first ram is controlled in dependence upon the retraction of one of the second rams (either the second ram of the same unit or that of an adjacent unit). This control is effected by controlling the supply of pressurized hydraulic fluid to the first rams. In one embodiment this is carried out by a control valve which has a springloaded plunger which engages with a series of equispaced cams on the movable cylinder of the associated second ram. In another embodiment, the piston rods of the rams are provided with series of equispaced magnets. The cylinders of the rams are provided with sensors, which sense the magnets and generate control signals. A control box is provided to direct the control signals to control valves associated with the rams, so that the first rams are extended by the same distance as that through which the second rams are retracted.

  5. ROS Installation and Commissioning

    CERN Multimedia

    Gorini, B

    The ATLAS Readout group (a sub-group of TDAQ) has now completed the installation and commissioning of all of the Readout System (ROS) units. Event data from ATLAS is initially handled by detector specific hardware and software, but following a Level 1 Accept the data passes from the detector specific Readout Drivers (RODs) to the ROS, the first stage of the central ATLAS DAQ. Within the final ATLAS TDAQ system the ROS stores the data and on request makes it available to the Level 2 Trigger (L2) processors and to the Event Builder (EB) as required. The ROS is implemented as a large number of PCs housing custom built cards (ROBINs) and running custom multi-threaded software. Each ROBIN card (shown below) contains buffer memories to store the data, plus a field programmable gate array ( FPGA ) and an embedded PowerPC processor for management of the memories and data requests, and is implemented as a 64-bit 66 MHz PCI card. Both the software and the ROBIN cards have been designed and developed by the Readout g...

  6. Null Models for Everyone: A Two-Step Approach to Teaching Null Model Analysis of Biological Community Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Declan J.; Knight, Evelyn J.

    2016-01-01

    Since being introduced by Connor and Simberloff in response to Diamond's assembly rules, null model analysis has been a controversial tool in community ecology. Despite being commonly used in the primary literature, null model analysis has not featured prominently in general textbooks. Complexity of approaches along with difficulty in interpreting…

  7. Supplementary measurements on the Guetsch - Model validation / Monitoring the wind power installation / Icing-up; Zusatzmessungen am Guetsch: Modell-Validierung / Monitoring der Windkraftanlage / Vereisung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattin, R.

    2002-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) documents the results of additional wind measurements made on the Guetsch mountain in the Swiss Alps in Spring 2002. The results of measurements made with heated and non-heated anemometers at the Guetsch weather station and using SODAR at the existing wind turbine site are compared and the discrepancies found discussed. The report also presents findings on the vertical wind profiles at the site, which are dependent on the main direction of the wind. The results of the measurements are compared with calculations made using the fluid-dynamics model developed in the FACTs project, the authors being of the opinion that they match quite well. The measurements indicate that exponential profiles for wind speed cannot be used in complex terrain. The results of the comparison between heated and non-heated anemometers show that the FACTs model predicts icing risks quite well.

  8. Evaluation and optimisation of phenomenological multi-step soot model for spray combustion under diesel engine-like operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Kar Mun; Jangi, Mehdi; Bai, Xue-Song; Schramm, Jesper

    2015-05-01

    In this work, a two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics study is reported of an n-heptane combustion event and the associated soot formation process in a constant volume combustion chamber. The key interest here is to evaluate the sensitivity of the chemical kinetics and submodels of a semi-empirical soot model in predicting the associated events. Numerical computation is performed using an open-source code and a chemistry coordinate mapping approach is used to expedite the calculation. A library consisting of various phenomenological multi-step soot models is constructed and integrated with the spray combustion solver. Prior to the soot modelling, combustion simulations are carried out. Numerical results show that the ignition delay times and lift-off lengths exhibit good agreement with the experimental measurements across a wide range of operating conditions, apart from those in the cases with ambient temperature lower than 850 K. The variation of the soot precursor production with respect to the change of ambient oxygen levels qualitatively agrees with that of the conceptual models when the skeletal n-heptane mechanism is integrated with a reduced pyrene chemistry. Subsequently, a comprehensive sensitivity analysis is carried out to appraise the existing soot formation and oxidation submodels. It is revealed that the soot formation is captured when the surface growth rate is calculated using a square root function of the soot specific surface area and when a pressure-dependent model constant is considered. An optimised soot model is then proposed based on the knowledge gained through this exercise. With the implementation of optimised model, the simulated soot onset and transport phenomena before reaching quasi-steady state agree reasonably well with the experimental observation. Also, variation of spatial soot distribution and soot mass produced at oxygen molar fractions ranging from 10.0 to 21.0% for both low and high density conditions are reproduced.

  9. Playing by the rules: co-designing interactive installations with pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Deriu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During the last couple of decades our perception of what constitutes a good learning environment has changed. Thanks to the use of technology, education is evolving from a passive model towards a more productive model, where students generate knowledge, teach each other, and collaborate on activities that make learning fun and interesting. In some previous works we have adopted this attitude: creating interactive installations thought for learning in an amusing way. Design-based research has demonstrated its potential as a methodology suitable to both research and design of technology-enhanced learning environments, a further step consists in co-design: students directly involved in designing with researchers. This paper provides some comments on the evaluation of the learning experience using two interactive installations promoting eco-friendly behaviours, and describe our experience in codesigning with pupils. We also report the ethnographic research performed underlining the weaknesses and the strengths, the difficulties and findings during the whole work.

  10. Retrofitting step by step. Model project with potentials for different budgets; Modernisieren Schritt fuer Schritt. Modellprojekt mit Potenzialen fuer unterschiedliche Budgets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unger, Astrid [VELUX Deutschland GmbH (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Within a European-wide experiment, Velux (Schwalmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany) establishes six trend-setting concept houses in Denmark, Austria, England, France and Germany between 2009 and 2011 using the Model Home 2020. The vision: Buildings with optimal energy design simultaneously offering the highest quality of life. In Germany, this company accepts the task of social relevance to retrofit a settler's house to a light-active-house. Nearly one-half of the 39 million residential units in Germany is between 30 and 60 years old and must be retrofitted energetically. Here enormous potentials exist: However, not everyone can afford a sophisticated premium modernization. therefore the expert team now calculated two additional modernization variants for small budgets n the case of the German concept house.

  11. Simulation of discharge in insulating gas from initial partial discharge to growth of a stepped leader using the percolation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Akira; Kato, Susumu; Takahashii, Eiichi; Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Fujii, Takashi; Kanazawa, Seiji

    2016-02-01

    We show a cell simulation of a discharge in an insulating gas from the initial partial discharge to leader inception until breakdown, based on the percolation model. In the model, we consider that the propagation of the leader occurs when connections between randomly produced ionized regions in the discharge medium are established. To determine the distribution of ionized regions, the state of each simulation cell is decided by evaluating the probability of ionization in SF6, which depends on the local electric field. The electric field as well as the discharge current are calculated by solving circuit equations for the network of simulation cells. Both calculations are coupled to each other and the temporal evolution of discharge is self-consistently calculated. The model dependence of the features of the discharge is investigated. It is found that taking the suppression of attachment in the presence of a discharge current into account, the calculation reproduces the behavior of experimental discharges. It is shown that for a strong electric field, the inception of a stepped leader causes immediate breakdown. For an electric field of 30-50% of the critical field, the initial partial discharge persists for a stochastic time lag and then the propagation of a leader takes place. As the strength of the electric field decreases, the time lag increases rapidly and eventually only a partial discharge with a short arrested leader occurs, as observed in experiments.

  12. Continuous Video Modeling to Assist with Completion of Multi-Step Home Living Tasks by Young Adults with Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechling, Linda C.; Ayres, Kevin M.; Bryant, Kathryn J.; Foster, Ashley L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study evaluated a relatively new video-based procedure, continuous video modeling (CVM), to teach multi-step cleaning tasks to high school students with moderate intellectual disability. CVM in contrast to video modeling and video prompting allows repetition of the video model (looping) as many times as needed while the user completes…

  13. Complex step-based low-rank extended Kalman filtering for state-parameter estimation in subsurface transport models

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad

    2014-02-01

    The accuracy of groundwater flow and transport model predictions highly depends on our knowledge of subsurface physical parameters. Assimilation of contaminant concentration data from shallow dug wells could help improving model behavior, eventually resulting in better forecasts. In this paper, we propose a joint state-parameter estimation scheme which efficiently integrates a low-rank extended Kalman filtering technique, namely the Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman (SEEK) filter, with the prominent complex-step method (CSM). The SEEK filter avoids the prohibitive computational burden of the Extended Kalman filter by updating the forecast along the directions of error growth only, called filter correction directions. CSM is used within the SEEK filter to efficiently compute model derivatives with respect to the state and parameters along the filter correction directions. CSM is derived using complex Taylor expansion and is second order accurate. It is proven to guarantee accurate gradient computations with zero numerical round-off errors, but requires complexifying the numerical code. We perform twin-experiments to test the performance of the CSM-based SEEK for estimating the state and parameters of a subsurface contaminant transport model. We compare the efficiency and the accuracy of the proposed scheme with two standard finite difference-based SEEK filters as well as with the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). Assimilation results suggest that the use of the CSM in the context of the SEEK filter may provide up to 80% more accurate solutions when compared to standard finite difference schemes and is competitive with the EnKF, even providing more accurate results in certain situations. We analyze the results based on two different observation strategies. We also discuss the complexification of the numerical code and show that this could be efficiently implemented in the context of subsurface flow models. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Practical Steps for Applying a New Dynamic Model to Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Measurements of Hemodynamic Oscillations and Transient Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainerstorfer, Jana M.; Sassaroli, Angelo; Hallacoglu, Bertan; Pierro, Michele L.; Fantini, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Perturbations in cerebral blood volume (CBV), blood flow (CBF), and metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) lead to associated changes in tissue concentrations of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin (ΔO and ΔD), which can be measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). A novel hemodynamic model has been introduced to relate physiological perturbations and measured quantities. We seek to use this model to determine functional traces of cbv(t) and cbf(t) − cmro2(t) from time-varying NIRS data, and cerebrovascular physiological parameters from oscillatory NIRS data (lowercase letters denote the relative changes in CBV, CBF, and CMRO2 with respect to baseline). Such a practical implementation of a quantitative hemodynamic model is an important step toward the clinical translation of NIRS. Materials and Methods In the time domain, we have simulated O(t) and D(t) traces induced by cerebral activation. In the frequency domain, we have performed a new analysis of frequency-resolved measurements of cerebral hemodynamic oscillations during a paced breathing paradigm. Results We have demonstrated that cbv(t) and cbf(t) − cmro2(t) can be reliably obtained from O(t) and D(t) using the model, and that the functional NIRS signals are delayed with respect to cbf(t) − cmro2(t) as a result of the blood transit time in the microvasculature. In the frequency domain, we have identified physiological parameters (e.g., blood transit time, cutoff frequency of autoregulation) that can be measured by frequency-resolved measurements of hemodynamic oscillations. Conclusions The ability to perform noninvasive measurements of cerebrovascular parameters has far-reaching clinical implications. Functional brain studies rely on measurements of CBV, CBF, and CMRO2, whereas the diagnosis and assessment of neurovascular disorders, traumatic brain injury, and stroke would benefit from measurements of local cerebral hemodynamics and autoregulation. PMID:24439332

  15. Additive N-step Markov chains as prototype model of symbolic stochastic dynamical systems with long-range correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayzelis, Z.A. [Department of Physics, Kharkov National University, 4 Svoboda Sq., Kharkov 61077 (Ukraine); Apostolov, S.S. [Department of Physics, Kharkov National University, 4 Svoboda Sq., Kharkov 61077 (Ukraine); Melnyk, S.S. [A. Ya. Usikov Institute for Radiophysics and Electronics, Ukrainian Academy of Science, 12 Proskura Street, 61085 Kharkov (Ukraine); Usatenko, O.V. [A. Ya. Usikov Institute for Radiophysics and Electronics, Ukrainian Academy of Science, 12 Proskura Street, 61085 Kharkov (Ukraine)]. E-mail: usatenko@ire.kharkov.ua; Yampol' skii, V.A. [A. Ya. Usikov Institute for Radiophysics and Electronics, Ukrainian Academy of Science, 12 Proskura Street, 61085 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2007-10-15

    A theory of symbolic dynamic systems with long-range correlations based on the consideration of the binary N-step Markov chains developed earlier in Phys Rev Lett 2003;90:110601 is generalized to the biased case (non-equal numbers of zeros and unities in the chain). In the model, the conditional probability that the ith symbol in the chain equals zero (or unity) is a linear function of the number of unities (zeros) among the preceding N symbols. The correlation and distribution functions as well as the variance of number of symbols in the words of arbitrary length L are obtained analytically and verified by numerical simulations. A self-similarity of the studied stochastic process is revealed and the similarity group transformation of the chain parameters is presented. The diffusion Fokker-Planck equation governing the distribution function of the L-words is explored. If the persistent correlations are not extremely strong, the distribution function is shown to be the Gaussian with the variance being nonlinearly dependent on L. An equation connecting the memory and correlation function of the additive Markov chain is presented. This equation allows reconstructing a memory function using a correlation function of the system. Effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method is demonstrated by simple model examples. Memory functions of concrete coarse-grained literary texts are found and their universal power-law behavior at long distances is revealed.

  16. A Transient Model for Fuel Cell Cathode-Water Propagation Behavior inside a Cathode after a Step Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Der-Sheng Chan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the voltage losses of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC are due to the sluggish kinetics of oxygen reduction on the cathode and the low oxygen diffusion rate inside the flooded cathode. To simulate the transient flooding in the cathode of a PEMFC, a transient model was developed. This model includes the material conservation of oxygen, vapor, water inside the gas diffusion layer (GDL and micro-porous layer (MPL, and the electrode kinetics in the cathode catalyst layer (CL. The variation of hydrophobicity of each layer generated a wicking effect that moves water from one layer to the other. Since the GDL, MPL, and CL are made of composite materials with different hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties, a linear function of saturation was used to calculate the wetting contact angle of these composite materials. The balance among capillary force, gas/liquid pressure, and velocity of water in each layer was considered. Therefore, the dynamic behavior of PEMFC, with saturation transportation taken into account, was obtained in this study. A step change of the cell voltage was used to illustrate the transient phenomena of output current, water movement, and diffusion of oxygen and water vapor across the entire cathode.

  17. Understanding Solar Eruptions with SDO/HMI Measuring Photospheric Flows, Testing Models, and Steps Towards Forecasting Solar Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Peter W.; Linton, Mark; Muglach, Karin; Welsch, Brian; Hageman, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The imminent launch of Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) will carry the first full-disk imaging vector magnetograph, the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI), into an inclined geosynchronous orbit. This magnetograph will provide nearly continuous measurements of photospheric vector magnetic fields at cadences of 90 seconds to 12 minutes with I" resolution, precise pointing, and unfettered by atmospheric seeing. The enormous data stream of 1.5 Terabytes per day from SDO will provide an unprecedented opportunity to understand the mysteries of solar eruptions. These ground-breaking observations will permit the application of a new technique, the differential affine velocity estimator for vector magnetograms (DAVE4VM), to measure photospheric plasma flows in active regions. These measurements will permit, for the first time, accurate assessments of the coronal free energy available for driving CMEs and flares. The details of photospheric plasma flows, particularly along magnetic neutral-lines, are critical to testing models for initiating coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and flares. Assimilating flows and fields into state-of-the art 3D MHD simulations that model the highly stratified solar atmosphere from the convection zone to the corona represents the next step towards achieving NASA's Living with a Star forecasting goals of predicting "when a solar eruption leading to a CME will occur." This talk will describe these major science and predictive advances that will be delivered by SDO /HMI.

  18. Improvement of hydrocyclone installations for starch production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Andreev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multicyclonic installations contain up to 15 steps of division (multicyclones. Improvement of work quality at the reduction of quantity of steps of division can be reached by increasing an starch yield from the step with the reduction of an exit of a liquid phase. To achieve that, a connection of three multicyclones according to the cross scheme is used as for a step of division instead of a separate multicyclone. It is shown that at the three multicyclones a step of division of change in redistribution of suspension components is created the design solution of the division step where liquid products are going out with only to liquid ones, and condensed products – only with condensed ones. At this step the starch yield increases in the condensed product while reducing the end product volume; therefore is received in one step the higher quality starch because of its increased quantity in the condensed descent product step. However, at such connection of multicyclones starch gets to a liquid descent of each step, therefore it is condensed additionally to release starch by con-necting of four multicyclones in to one step of division. New multistage multicyclonic installation consists of 12 multicyclones instead of 15 ones. That reduces capital and operational costs. Thus, varying manipulating the scheme of microcyclones connection in the unit, it is possible to receive the required technological result with the improved economic indicators. AllRussian Research Institute of starch products has developed lines of potato processing for dry starch on the basis 10 and 50 t / per day of initial raw materials using hydrocyclone installations. That allows to organize a new production without big capital expenditures. The hydrocyclone design with the changed external way of supply of suspension is developed at which the flow enters the already rotating product to exclude the influence of an inflow on the quality of suspension fractionation.

  19. Forecasting Climate-Induced Ecosystem Changes on Military Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Westervelt; William W. Hargrove

    2011-01-01

    Military installation training lands must be managed to support species at risk as well as to be effective training environments for soldiers. Forecasts from various global climate change models suggest that the habitats associated with some military training installations will face pressures that induce biome-shifts, invasive species, loss of habitat, and changes in...

  20. INSTALLING AN ERP SYSTEM WITH A METHODOLOGY BASED ON THE PRINCIPLES OF GOAL DIRECTED PROJECT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Zafeiropoulos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a generic methodology to support the process of modelling, adaptation and implementation (MAI of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems (ERPS based on the principles of goal directed project management (GDPM. The proposed methodology guides the project manager through specific stages in order to successfully complete the ERPS implementation. The development of the proper MAI methodology is deemed necessary because it will simplify the installation process of ERPS. The goal directed project management method was chosen since it provides a way of focusing all changes towards a predetermined goal. The main stages of the methodology are the promotion and preparation steps, the proposal, the contract, the implementation and the completion. The methodology was applied as a pilot application by a major ERPS development company. Important benefits were the easy and effective guidance for all installation and analysis stages, the faster installation for the ERPS and the control and cost reduction for the installation, in terms of time, manpower, technological equipment and other resources.

  1. INSTALLING AN ERP SYSTEM WITH A METHODOLOGY BASED ON THE PRINCIPLES OF GOAL DIRECTED PROJECT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Zafeiropoulos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a generic methodology to support the process of modelling, adaptation and implementation (MAI of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems (ERPS based on the principles of goal directed project management (GDPM. The proposed methodology guides the project manager through specific stages in order to successfully complete the ERPS implementation. The development of the proper MAI methodology is deemed necessary because it will simplify the installation process of ERPS. The goal directed project management method was chosen since it provides a way of focusing all changes towards a predetermined goal. The main stages of the methodology are the promotion and preparation steps, the proposal, the contract, the implementation and the completion. The methodology was applied as a pilot application by a major ERPS development company. Important benefits were the easy and effective guidance for all installation and analysis stages, the faster installation for the ERPS and the control and cost reduction for the installation, in terms of time, manpower, technological equipment and other resources.

  2. Numerical simulation of installation of skirt foundations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelsten, Bjoern Vidar

    1997-12-31

    Skirt foundation has been increasingly used for permanent offshore oil installations and anchors for drilling ships. Suction is commonly used in skirt foundation installing. If a large amount of suction is applied, the soil around the foundation may fail and the foundation become useless. This thesis studies failure due to high seepage gradients, aiming to provide a basis for reducing the risk of such failures. Skirt penetration model testing has shown that to solve the problem one must understand what is going on at the skirt tip during suction installation. A numerical model based on micro mechanics was developed as continuum hypothesis was seen to be unsuitable to describe the processes in the critical phases of the failure. The numerical model combines two-dimensional elliptical particles with the finite difference method for flow to model water flow in a granular material. The key idea is to formulate the permeability as a function of the porosity of the grain assembly and so obtain an interaction between the finite difference method on flow and the particle movement. A computer program, DYNELL, was developed and used to simulate: (1) weight penetration of a skirt wall, (2) combined suction and weight penetration of a skirt wall, and (3) critical gradient tests around a skirt wall to study failure mechanisms. The model calculations agree well with laboratory experiments. 16 refs., 124 figs., 21 tabs.

  3. Improving genetic evaluation using a multitrait single-step genomic model for ability to resume cycling after calving, measured by activity tags in Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismael, Ahmed; Løvendahl, Peter; Fogh, Anders

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the improvement of the accuracy of estimated breeding values for ability to recycle after calving by using information of genomic markers and phenotypic information of correlated traits. The traits in this study were the interval from calving to first...... to first high activity, and the genetic correlation between both traits was strong (0.87). Breeding values were obtained using 4 models: conventional single-trait BLUP; conventional multitrait BLUP with pedigree-based relationship matrix; single-trait single-step genomic BLUP; and multitrait single......-step genomic BLUP model with joint relationship matrix combining pedigree and genomic information. The results showed that reliabilities of estimated breeding values (EBV) from single-step genomic BLUP models were about 40% higher than those from conventional BLUP models for both traits. Furthermore, using...

  4. 基于STEP的特征模型及重构算法%STEP-Based Feature Model and Feature Reconstructed Arithmetic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘乃若; 王金伦

    2003-01-01

    For CAX systems,the technology of Feature-based product data integration is one of hot points. STEP AP214 protocol provides a standard to resolve this problem. This paper discusses the relations of entities in STEP AP214. Especially,for the problem that the protocol doesn't obviously give those features,it puts forward methods on expression and operation of feature-oriented data model. It gives the feature model mapping between AP214 and feature-based CAD systems,which is a basal theory to design out a uniform feature model of CAD/CAPP/CAM.

  5. Self-similar semi-analytical RMHD jet model: first steps towards a more comprehensive jet modelling for data fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markoff, Sera; Ceccobello, Chiara; Heemskerk, Martin; Cavecchi, Yuri; Polko, Peter; Meier, David

    2017-08-01

    Jets are ubiquitous and reveal themselves at different scales and redshifts, showing an extreme diversity in energetics, shapes and emission. Indeed jets are found to be characteristic features of black hole systems, such as X-ray binaries (XRBs) and active galactic nuclei (AGN), as well as of young stellar objects (YSOs) and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Observations suggest that jets are an energetically important component of the system that hosts them, because the jet power appears to be comparable to the accretion power. Significant evidence has been found of the impact of jets not only in the immediate proximity of the central object, but as well on their surrounding environment, where they deposit the energy extracted from the accretion flow. Moreover, the inflow/outflow system produces radiation over the entire electromagnetic spectrum, from radio to X-rays. Therefore it is a compelling problem to be solved and deeply understood. I present a new integration scheme to solve radial self-similar, stationary, axisymmetric relativistic magneto-hydro-dynamics (MHD) equations describing collimated, relativistic outflows crossing smoothly all the singular points (the Alfvén point and the modified slow/fast points). For the first time, the integration can be performed all the way from the disk mid-plane to downstream of the modified fast point. I will discuss an ensemble of jet solutions showing diverse jet dynamics (jet Lorentz factor ~ 1-10) and geometric properties (i.e. shock height ~ 103 - 107 gravitational radii), which makes our model suitable for application to many different systems where a relativistic jet is launched.

  6. Recognition of cyclic steps in sandy and gravelly turbidite sequences and consequences for the Bouma facies model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, George; Kleverlaan, K.; Cartigny, Matthieu

    2014-01-01

    Preservation of cyclic steps contrasts markedly with that of subcritical-flow bedforms, because cyclic steps migrate upslope eroding their lee face and preserving their stoss side. Such bedforms have not been described from turbidite outcrops and cores as yet. A conceptual block diagram for recognit

  7. Installation of the Gbar LINAC

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien, Brice

    2017-01-01

    Installation of the GBAR linac in its shielding bunker. The electrons accelerated to 10 MeV toward a target will produce the positrons that are necessary to form anti hydrogen with the antiprotons coming from the ELENA decelerator.

  8. Solar Installation Labor Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, B.; Jordan, P.; Carrese, J.

    2011-12-01

    The potential economic benefits of the growing renewable energy sector have led to increased federal, state, and local investments in solar industries, including federal grants for expanded workforce training for U.S. solar installers. However, there remain gaps in the data required to understand the size and composition of the workforce needed to meet the demand for solar power. Through primary research on the U.S. solar installation employer base, this report seeks to address that gap, improving policymakers and other solar stakeholders understanding of both the evolving needs of these employers and the economic opportunity associated with solar market development. Included are labor market data covering current U.S. employment, expected industry growth, and employer skill preferences for solar installation-related occupations. This study offers an in-depth look at the solar installation sectors. A study published by the Solar Foundation in October 2011 provides a census of labor data across the entire solar value chain.

  9. DAQ INSTALLATION IN USC COMPLETED

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Racz

    After one year of work at P5 in the underground control rooms (USC55-S1&S2), the DAQ installation in USC55 is completed. The first half of 2006 was dedicated to the DAQ infrastructures installation (private cable trays, rack equipment for a very dense cabling, connection to services i.e. water, power, network). The second half has been spent to install the custom made electronics (FRLs and FMMs) and place all the inter-rack cables/fibers connecting all sub-systems to central DAQ (more details are given in the internal pages). The installation has been carried out by DAQ group members, coming from the hardware and software side as well. The pictures show the very nice team spirit !

  10. Countering Terrorism on Military Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-29

    enforcement purposes. Installation Provost Marshal should review the installation Tables of Distribucion and Allowances to determine commercial items of law...terrorist acts occurring within the 50 U.S. states, territor- ies, and possessions (including the Panama Canal Zone) rests with the Federal Bureadu...nence of the threat is difficult to predict. Today I estimate the threat as relatively low. S- In the Panama Canal Zone there could be three threats. One

  11. Suitcase to Audit Solar Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, J.; Barcala, J.M.; Blas de, J.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.J.; Yuste, C.

    2001-07-01

    The audit suitcase was proposed by BESEL to introduce in the solar energy market a new tool which can make an evaluation of solar installation efficiency. Non-invasive sensors and low power components permit both easy installation of the devices and data storage for a period as long as ten days. This project was funded by the contract JOR3-CT98-7030 of the European Union JOULE III program. (Author)

  12. Stepped care model of pain management and quality of pain care in long-term opioid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brent A; Anderson, Daren; Dorflinger, Lindsey; Zlateva, Ianita; Lee, Allison; Gilliam, Wesley; Tian, Terrence; Khatri, Khushbu; Ruser, Christopher B; Kerns, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    Successful organizational improvement processes depend on application of reliable metrics to establish targets and to monitor progress. This study examined the utility of the Pain Care Quality (PCQ) extraction tool in evaluating implementation of the Stepped Care Model for Pain Management at one Veterans Health Administration (VHA) healthcare system over 4 yr and in a non-VHA Federally qualified health center (FQHC) over 2 yr. Two hundred progress notes per year from VHA and 150 notes per year from FQHC primary care prescribers of long-term opioid therapy (>90 consecutive days) were randomly sampled. Each note was coded for the presence or absence of key dimensions of PCQ (i.e., pain assessment, treatment plans, pain reassessment/outcomes, patient education). General estimating equations controlling for provider and facility were used to examine changes in PCQ items over time. Improvements in the VHA were noted in pain reassessment and patient education, with trends in positive directions for all dimensions. Results suggest that the PCQ extraction tool is feasible and may be responsive to efforts to promote organizational improvements in pain care. Future research is indicated to improve the reliability of the PCQ extraction tool and enhance its usability.

  13. Stepped care model for pain management and quality of pain care in long-term opioid therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent A. Moore, PhD

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Successful organizational improvement processes depend on application of reliable metrics to establish targets and to monitor progress. This study examined the utility of the Pain Care Quality (PCQ extraction tool in evaluating implementation of the Stepped Care Model for Pain Management at one Veterans Health Administration (VHA healthcare system over 4 yr and in a non-VHA Federally qualified health center (FQHC over 2 yr. Two hundred progress notes per year from VHA and 150 notes per year from FQHC primary care prescribers of long-term opioid therapy (>90 consecutive days were randomly sampled. Each note was coded for the presence or absence of key dimensions of PCQ (i.e., pain assessment, treatment plans, pain reassessment/outcomes, patient education. General estimating equations controlling for provider and facility were used to examine changes in PCQ items over time. Improvements in the VHA were noted in pain reassessment and patient education, with trends in positive directions for all dimensions. Results suggest that the PCQ extraction tool is feasible and may be responsive to efforts to promote organizational improvements in pain care. Future research is indicated to improve the reliability of the PCQ extraction tool and enhance its usability.

  14. Implementing an acceptance and commitment therapy group protocol with veterans using VA's stepped care model of pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosio, David; Schafer, Tracy

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend previous findings; further demonstrating the effectiveness of an ACT outpatient, group-based treatment for Veterans who suffer from mixed idiopathic, chronic, non-cancer pain. This course of treatment utilized the VA's Stepped Care Model of Pain Management as a framework. A sample of 50 Veterans who participated in an ACT for chronic pain group intervention was evaluated after completing a pain health education program at a Midwestern VA Medical Center between February 16, 2010 and November 9, 2010. All participants completed a standard set of pre- and post-intervention measures. Paired-samples t tests were conducted to evaluate the impact of the manualized intervention on Veterans' scores. The current study found a significant difference in measures of pain interference, illness-focused coping, and global distress upon completion of the intervention. Findings suggest that ACT is an effective treatment for Veterans with chronic pain as a secondary consultative service.

  15. EXPERIMENTAL DATA, THERMODYNAMIC MODELING AND SENSITIVITY ANALYSES FOR THE PURIFICATION STEPS OF ETHYL BIODIESEL FROM FODDER RADISH OIL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Basso

    Full Text Available Abstract The goals of this work were to present original liquid-liquid equilibrium data of the system containing glycerol + ethanol + ethyl biodiesel from fodder radish oil, including the individual distribution of each ethyl ester; to adjust binary parameters of the NRTL; to compare NRTL and UNIFAC-Dortmund in the LLE representation of the system containing glycerol; to simulate different mixer/settler flowsheets for biodiesel purification, evaluating the ratio water/biodiesel used. In thermodynamic modeling, the deviations between experimental data and calculated values were 0.97% and 3.6%, respectively, using NRTL and UNIFAC-Dortmund. After transesterification, with 3 moles of excess ethanol, removal of this component until a content equal to 0.08 before an ideal settling step allows a glycerol content lower than 0.02% in the ester-rich phase. Removal of ethanol, glycerol and water from biodiesel can be performed with countercurrent mixer/settler, using 0.27% of water in relation to the ester amount in the feed stream.

  16. A field application of the ASAM placement criteria in a 12-step model of treatment for chemical dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, W W

    1998-01-01

    Procedures followed in the development of a standardized method of rating patient behavior relevant to engaging in a 12 step model of recovery are presented in the context of deriving an empirical cross-walk for the ASAM PPC. This instrument permits addictions counselors to rate the severity of operationally defined behaviors on each of the six criteria dimensions identified in the adaptation of the PPC by the WV Division on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse for use in the 14 member community mental health centers funded by the state. Substance dependent adults (N = 78), who self-selected either residential or partial day treatment at EastRidge's Addictions Treatment Center were evaluated with this procedure over a nine month period. Intercorrelations of ratings on six criteria dimensions at intake ranged from .053 to .576 and after an average length of stay of 18 days, behavioral severity on all dimensions was significantly reduced (p < .0001) on the discharge evaluation with this tool. An empirically based, treatment matching matrix, was constructed from confidence intervals calculated obtained from intake data to form norm referenced ranges for four levels of care (which equate to PPC-2 Levels: III.5, II.5, II.2, I). The utility of this methodology in facilitating the application of the WVPC and PPC-2, and the potential of the DRS as a multiple baseline measure in treatment outcome research is discussed.

  17. The Status of LIGO Installation and Commissioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Frederick J.

    2002-12-01

    LIGO is engaged in installation and commissioning in Hanford and Livingston. We are commissioning the first instance of any subsystem installed, applying lessons learned to later installations. We have installed all seismic stacks, installed lasers and input optics at both observatories and we have operated both of the 2-km Fabry-Perot cavities at Hanford, with lock times up to 10 hrs.

  18. Linear algebra step by step

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Kuldeep

    2013-01-01

    Linear algebra is a fundamental area of mathematics, and is arguably the most powerful mathematical tool ever developed. It is a core topic of study within fields as diverse as: business, economics, engineering, physics, computer science, ecology, sociology, demography and genetics. For an example of linear algebra at work, one needs to look no further than the Google search engine, which relies upon linear algebra to rank the results of a search with respect to relevance. The strength of the text is in the large number of examples and the step-by-step explanation of each topic as it is introduced. It is compiled in a way that allows distance learning, with explicit solutions to set problems freely available online. The miscellaneous exercises at the end of each chapter comprise questions from past exam papers from various universities, helping to reinforce the reader's confidence. Also included, generally at the beginning of sections, are short historicalbiographies of the leading players in the field of lin...

  19. Enhanced Automated Canopy Characterization from Hyperspectral Data by a Novel Two Step Radiative Transfer Model Inversion Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Wagner

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Automated, image based methods for the retrieval of vegetation biophysical and biochemical variables are often hampered by the lack of a priori knowledge about land cover and phenology, which makes the retrieval a highly underdetermined problem. This study addresses this problem by presenting a novel approach, called CRASh, for the concurrent retrieval of leaf area index, leaf chlorophyll content, leaf water content and leaf dry matter content from high resolution solar reflective earth observation data. CRASh, which is based on the inversion of the combined PROSPECT+SAILh radiative transfer model (RTM, explores the benefits of combining semi-empirical and physically based approaches. The approach exploits novel ways to address the underdetermined problem in the context of an automated retrieval from mono-temporal high resolution data. To regularize the inverse problem in the variable domain, RTM inversion is coupled with an automated land cover classification. Model inversion is based on a two step lookup table (LUT approach: First, a range of possible solutions is selected from a previously calculated LUT based on the analogy between measured and simulated reflectance. The final solution is determined from this subset by minimizing the difference between the variables used to simulate the spectra contained in the reduced LUT and a first guess of the solution. This first guess of the variables is derived from predictive semi-empirical relationships between classical vegetation indices and the single variables. Additional spectral regularization is obtained by the use of hyperspectral data. Results show that estimates obtained with CRASh are significantly more accurate than those obtained with a tested conventional RTM inversion and semi-empirical approach. Accuracies obtained in this study are comparable to the results obtained by various authors for better constrained inversions that assume more a priori information. The completely automated

  20. THE NATURAL COLD ACCUMULATOR AND VACUUM INSTALLATION FOR MILK COOLING IN REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cretu V.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on theoretical and experimental research of the milk cooling process was elaborated mathematical model of accumulator with natural cold and vacuum installations, which allows determining the operating system installations, mentioned from environmental parameters.

  1. The ATALANTE installation; L'installation atalante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    In the Atalante installation of the CEA/Marcoule, researches on the reprocessing of irradiated fuel from nuclear reactors, are performed. In the framework of the law (30 december 1991) on the public policy concerning the radioactive wastes management, the ATALANTE project has to proposed solutions for the long-dated management of these wastes and to help the reprocessing industry. The specifications of the installation and the research programs are detailed with a special interest for the glass durability and the plutonium purifying cycle. The public policy stakes are also recalled. (A.L.B.)

  2. Dance-the-Music: an educational platform for the modeling, recognition and audiovisual monitoring of dance steps using spatiotemporal motion templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Pieter-Jan; Amelynck, Denis; Leman, Marc

    2012-12-01

    In this article, a computational platform is presented, entitled "Dance-the-Music", that can be used in a dance educational context to explore and learn the basics of dance steps. By introducing a method based on spatiotemporal motion templates, the platform facilitates to train basic step models from sequentially repeated dance figures performed by a dance teacher. Movements are captured with an optical motion capture system. The teachers' models can be visualized from a first-person perspective to instruct students how to perform the specific dance steps in the correct manner. Moreover, recognition algorithms-based on a template matching method-can determine the quality of a student's performance in real time by means of multimodal monitoring techniques. The results of an evaluation study suggest that the Dance-the-Music is effective in helping dance students to master the basics of dance figures.

  3. The development and evaluation of single cell suspension from wheat and barley as a model system; a first step towards functional genomics application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Jing; Bowra, Steve; Vincze, Éva

    2010-01-01

    suspension culture from both species. Results We established growth conditions to allow routine culturing of somatic cells in 24 well microtiter plate format. Evaluation of the wheat and barley cell suspension as model cell system is a multi step process. As an initial step in the evaluation procedure we......Background The overall research objective was to develop single cell plant cultures as a model system to facilitate functional genomics of monocots, in particular wheat and barley. The essential first step towards achieving the stated objective was the development of a robust, viable single cell...... chose to study the impact of selected abiotic stress elicitors at the physiological, biochemical and molecular level. We report the results of osmotic stress imposed by NaCl and PEG. As proline is an important osmoprotectant of the cereal cells, colorimetric assay for proline detection was developed...

  4. A Lagrangian model for soil water dynamics: can we step beyond Richard's equation while preserving capillarity as first order control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehe, Erwin; Jackisch, Conrad

    2016-04-01

    established soil physics by estimating the drift velocity and the diffusion term based on the soil water characteristics. A naive random walk, which assumes all water particles to move at the same drift velocity and diffusivity, overestimated depletion of soil moisture gradients compared to a Richards' solver within three distinctly different soils. This is because soil water and hence the corresponding water particles in smaller pores size fractions, are, due to the non-linear decrease of soil hydraulic conductivity with decreasing soil moisture, much less mobile. After accounting for this subscale variability of particle mobility, the particle model and a Richards' solver performed highly similar during simulated wetting and drying circles in three distinctly different soils. Alternatively, we tested a computational less approach, assuming only the 10 or 20% of the fastest particles as mobile, while treating the remaining particles located in smaller pores sizes as immobile. For instance in a sandy soil a mobile fraction of 20% revealed almost identical results as the full mobility model and performed even closer to the Richards solver. In this context we also compared the cases of perfect mixing and no mixing between mobile and immobile water particles between different time steps. The second option was clearly superior with respect to match simulations with the Richards' solver. The particle model is hence a suitable tool to "unmask" a) inherent implications of the Darcy-Richards concept on the fraction of soil water that actually contributes to soil water dynamics and b) the inherent very limited degrees of freedom for mixing between mobile and immobile water fractions. A main asset of the particle based approach is that the assumption of local equilibrium equation during infiltration may be easily released. We tested this idea in a straight forward manner, by treating infiltrating event water particles as second particle type which travel initially, mainly gravity

  5. YB0 SERVICES INSTALLATION COMPLETED

    CERN Multimedia

    The beauty of the completed YB0 was briefly visible at P5 as preparations continue for Tracker installation. A tremendous effort, lasting 7 months and involving more than 100 workers on the busiest days, resulted in 5700 electrical cables, 780 optical cables with 65k fibre channels, and 550 pipes laid on YB0 for HB, EB and Tracker.

  6. Horn installed in CNGS tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The horn is installed for the CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) project. Protons collide with a graphite target producing charged particles that are focussed by the magnetic field in the horn. These particles will then pass into a decay tube where they decay into neutrinos, which travel towards a detector at Gran Sasso 732 km away in Italy.

  7. Temperature rise of installed FCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    Report discusses temperature profiles of installed FCC for wood and tile surfaces. Three-conductor FCC was tested at twice nominal current-carrying capacity over bare floor and under carpet, with result indicating that temperature rise is not a linear function of current with FCC at this level.

  8. Effect of the Four-Step Learning Cycle Model on Students' Understanding of Concepts Related to Simple Harmonic Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, B. C.

    2012-01-01

    The study explored the efficacy of four-step (4-E) learning cycle approach on students understanding of concepts related to Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM). 124 students (63 for experimental group and 61 for control group) participated in the study. The students' views and ideas in simple Harmonic Achievement test were analyzed qualitatively. The…

  9. Impact of multi-resolution analysis of artificial intelligence models inputs on multi-step ahead river flow forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrzadeh, Honey; Sarukkalige, Ranjan; Jayawardena, A. W.

    2013-12-01

    Discrete wavelet transform was applied to decomposed ANN and ANFIS inputs.Novel approach of WNF with subtractive clustering applied for flow forecasting.Forecasting was performed in 1-5 step ahead, using multi-variate inputs.Forecasting accuracy of peak values and longer lead-time significantly improved.

  10. Screening of Stepping Forces in an Arthritic Rat Model Using a Novel Analgesic Meter and Data Acquisition System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusliza Basir

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The stepping forces of normal and Freund Complete Adjuvant (FCA-induced arthritic rats were studied in vivo using a proposed novel analgesic meter. An infrared charge-coupled device (CCD camera and a data acquisition system were incorporated into the analgesic meter to determine and measure the weight of loads on the right hind paw before and after induction of arthritis by FCA injection into the paw cavity. FCA injection resulted in a significant reduction in the stepping force of the affected hind paw. The stepping force decreased to the minimum level on day 4 after the injection and then gradually increased up to day 25. Oral administration of prednisolone significantly increased the stepping forces of FCA-induced arthritic rats on days 14 and 21. These results suggest that the novel device is an effective tool for measuring the arthritic pain in in vivo studies even though walking is a dynamic condition.

  11. 3D elastic wave modeling using modified high‐order time stepping schemes with improved stability conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei

    2009-01-01

    We present two Lax‐Wendroff type high‐order time stepping schemes and apply them to solving the 3D elastic wave equation. The proposed schemes have the same format as the Taylor series expansion based schemes, only with modified temporal extrapolation coefficients. We demonstrate by both theoretical analysis and numerical examples that the modified schemes significantly improve the stability conditions.

  12. Combining Different Conceptual Change Methods within Four-Step Constructivist Teaching Model: A Sample Teaching of Series and Parallel Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipek, Hava; Calik, Muammer

    2008-01-01

    Based on students' alternative conceptions of the topics "electric circuits", "electric charge flows within an electric circuit", "how the brightness of bulbs and the resistance changes in series and parallel circuits", the current study aims to present a combination of different conceptual change methods within a four-step constructivist teaching…

  13. A step-indexed Kripke model of hidden state via recursive properties on recursively defined metric spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Schwinghammer, Jan; Støvring, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    for Chargu´eraud and Pottier’s type and capability system including frame and anti-frame rules, based on the operational semantics and step-indexed heap relations. The worlds are constructed as a recursively defined predicate on a recursively defined metric space, which provides a considerably simpler...

  14. An application of the time-step topological model for three-phase transformer no-load current calculation considering hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrander, Claes; Mousavi, Seyed Ali; Engdahl, G. öran

    2017-02-01

    In many transformer applications, it is necessary to have a core magnetization model that takes into account both magnetic and electrical effects. This becomes particularly important in three-phase transformers, where the zero-sequence impedance is generally high, and therefore affects the magnetization very strongly. In this paper, we demonstrate a time-step topological simulation method that uses a lumped-element approach to accurately model both the electrical and magnetic circuits. The simulation method is independent of the used hysteresis model. In this paper, a hysteresis model based on the first-order reversal-curve has been used.

  15. Next Steps in Signaling (NSIS): Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hancock, R.; Loughney, J.; van den Bosch, S.; Hancock, R.; Karagiannis, Georgios; Loughney, J.; van den Bosch, S.

    2005-01-01

    The Next Steps in Signaling (NSIS) working group is considering protocols for signaling information about a data flow along its path in the network. The NSIS suite of protocols is envisioned to support various signaling applications that need to install and/or manipulate such state in the network. B

  16. Faceting diagram for sticky steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Akutsu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Faceting diagrams for the step-faceting zone, the step droplet zone, and the Gruber-Mullins-Pokrovsky-Talapov (GMPT zone for a crystal surface are obtained by using the density matrix renormalization group method to calculate the surface tension. The model based on these calculations is the restricted solid-on-solid (RSOS model with a point-contact-type step-step attraction (p-RSOS model on a square lattice. The point-contact-type step-step attraction represents the energy gain obtained by forming a bonding state with orbital overlap at the meeting point of the neighboring steps. In the step-faceting zone, disconnectedness in the surface tension leads to the formation of a faceted macrostep on a vicinal surface at equilibrium. The disconnectedness in the surface tension also causes the first-order shape transition for the equilibrium shape of a crystal droplet. The lower zone boundary line (ZBL, which separates the step-faceting zone and the step droplet zone, is obtained by the condition γ 1 = lim n → ∞ γ n / n , where γn is the step tension of the n-th merged step. The upper ZBL, which separates the GMPT zone and the step droplet zone, is obtained by the condition Aq,eff = 0 and Bq,eff = 0, where Aq,eff and Bq,eff represent the coefficients for the | q → | 2 term and the | q → | 3 term, respectively, in the | q → | -expanded form of the surface free energy f eff ( q → . Here, q → is the surface gradient relative to the (111 surface. The reason why the vicinal surface inclined in the 〈101〉 direction does not exhibit step-faceting is explained in terms of the one-dimensional spinless quasi-impenetrable attractive bosons at absolute zero.

  17. Realizing the Potential of the Effective Area Model: Refining the Software and Incorporating Recent Advances to Maximize Usefulness on Military Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    designed our Edge Effect Resource Center website. Other technicians who helped develop scenario maps include Paul Robey, Brian Scherer and Michael...some maximum distance (Fig. 11). In Malcolm’s original model this point edge effect was assumed to be linear from the edge to the maximum distance of...current usefulness in developing parameters for the EAM and 2) determine whether EAM Figure 11. Malcolm’s model uses a point edge effect that is a

  18. Installation and Operation of Particle Transport Simulation Programs to Model the Detection and Measurement of Space Radiation of Space-Borne Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    realistic flight sensor computer models; (3) performance of particle transport calculations ; (4) analysis of transport simulation results, including...programs (LAHET, ACCEPT, CYLTRAN, MCNPX ) for particle transport simulation were applied to the modeling of the CEASE and HEP sensors. In addition, a...preliminary version of a post-processor program for analysis of single particle histories from MCNPX was written. Shown in this report are several listings

  19. 粉砂中筒型基础沉贯过程筒-土作用机理试验研究%Model tests on bucket-soil interaction during installation of bucket foundation in silt sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈飞; 练继建; 马煜祥; 张杰; 卜同胜

    2015-01-01

    The installation of bucket foundation is a vital construction procedure. The existing relative studies have mainly focused on the methods for calculating the penetration resistance and required suction. However, the understanding of the soil-skirt interaction during the installation is not clear yet due to inadequate test data. Model tests on the installation of bucket foundation are carried out in silt sand. The inner and outer soil pressures on the skirt are measured under both jacking installation and suction installation conditions. The jacking test results show that the inner soil pressures on the skirt are much larger than the outer ones. The compaction extent of the inner sand grows with the increase of the penetration depth, which is contrary to that of the outer sand. The suction test results show that the inner soil pressures decrease dramatically when the suction is applied. The outer soil pressures, however, increase firstly and then fall down to stable values rapidly. The inner friction and tip resistance are greatly reduced due to the seepage effects. The test results also indicate that the existing critical suction is too conservative. Based on the test results, the existing prediction method for the required suction is modified and evaluated, and a more accurate method is obtained.%筒型基础沉贯安装是一项关键施工过程,目前相关研究多集中在沉贯阻力与吸力的计算方法上,而缺乏对沉贯过程筒–土作用机理研究。针对这一问题,开展了粉砂中筒型基础沉贯试验,得到了静压和吸力沉贯工况下筒壁内、外侧所受土压力发展变化规律。静压试验结果表明,筒壁内侧所受土压力远大于外侧,内侧土体挤压程度随下沉深度增加而增大,外侧相反。吸力试验结果表明,施加吸力时内侧土压力减小,外侧土压力先增大后迅速减小至稳定值,吸力产生的渗流可以大大减小端阻力与内侧摩阻力。试验

  20. A neuro-mechanical model explaining the physiological role of fast and slow muscle fibres at stop and start of stepping of an insect leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Tibor Istvan; Grabowska, Martyna; Schmidt, Joachim; Büschges, Ansgar; Daun-Gruhn, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Stop and start of stepping are two basic actions of the musculo-skeletal system of a leg. Although they are basic phenomena, they require the coordinated activities of the leg muscles. However, little is known of the details of how these activities are generated by the interactions between the local neuronal networks controlling the fast and slow muscle fibres at the individual leg joints. In the present work, we aim at uncovering some of those details using a suitable neuro-mechanical model. It is an extension of the model in the accompanying paper and now includes all three antagonistic muscle pairs of the main joints of an insect leg, together with their dedicated neuronal control, as well as common inhibitory motoneurons and the residual stiffness of the slow muscles. This model enabled us to study putative processes of intra-leg coordination during stop and start of stepping. We also made use of the effects of sensory signals encoding the position and velocity of the leg joints. Where experimental observations are available, the corresponding simulation results are in good agreement with them. Our model makes detailed predictions as to the coordination processes of the individual muscle systems both at stop and start of stepping. In particular, it reveals a possible role of the slow muscle fibres at stop in accelerating the convergence of the leg to its steady-state position. These findings lend our model physiological relevance and can therefore be used to elucidate details of the stop and start of stepping in insects, and perhaps in other animals, too.

  1. A neuro-mechanical model explaining the physiological role of fast and slow muscle fibres at stop and start of stepping of an insect leg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Istvan Toth

    Full Text Available Stop and start of stepping are two basic actions of the musculo-skeletal system of a leg. Although they are basic phenomena, they require the coordinated activities of the leg muscles. However, little is known of the details of how these activities are generated by the interactions between the local neuronal networks controlling the fast and slow muscle fibres at the individual leg joints. In the present work, we aim at uncovering some of those details using a suitable neuro-mechanical model. It is an extension of the model in the accompanying paper and now includes all three antagonistic muscle pairs of the main joints of an insect leg, together with their dedicated neuronal control, as well as common inhibitory motoneurons and the residual stiffness of the slow muscles. This model enabled us to study putative processes of intra-leg coordination during stop and start of stepping. We also made use of the effects of sensory signals encoding the position and velocity of the leg joints. Where experimental observations are available, the corresponding simulation results are in good agreement with them. Our model makes detailed predictions as to the coordination processes of the individual muscle systems both at stop and start of stepping. In particular, it reveals a possible role of the slow muscle fibres at stop in accelerating the convergence of the leg to its steady-state position. These findings lend our model physiological relevance and can therefore be used to elucidate details of the stop and start of stepping in insects, and perhaps in other animals, too.

  2. Reliability of Arctic offshore installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bercha, F.G. [Bercha Group, Calgary, AB (Canada); Gudmestad, O.T. [Stavanger Univ., Stavanger (Norway)]|[Statoil, Stavanger (Norway)]|[Norwegian Univ. of Technology, Stavanger (Norway); Foschi, R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Sliggers, F. [Shell International Exploration and Production, Rijswijk (Netherlands); Nikitina, N. [VNIIG, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Nevel, D.

    2006-11-15

    Life threatening and fatal failures of offshore structures can be attributed to a broad range of causes such as fires and explosions, buoyancy losses, and structural overloads. This paper addressed the different severities of failure types, categorized as catastrophic failure, local failure or serviceability failure. Offshore tragedies were also highlighted, namely the failures of P-36, the Ocean Ranger, the Piper Alpha, and the Alexander Kieland which all resulted in losses of human life. P-36 and the Ocean Ranger both failed ultimately due to a loss of buoyancy. The Piper Alpha was destroyed by a natural gas fire, while the Alexander Kieland failed due to fatigue induced structural failure. The mode of failure was described as being the specific way in which a failure occurs from a given cause. Current reliability measures in the context of offshore installations only consider the limited number of causes such as environmental loads. However, it was emphasized that a realistic value of the catastrophic failure probability should consider all credible causes of failure. This paper presented a general method for evaluating all credible causes of failure of an installation. The approach to calculating integrated reliability involves the use of network methods such as fault trees to combine the probabilities of all factors that can cause a catastrophic failure, as well as those which can cause a local failure with the potential to escalate to a catastrophic failure. This paper also proposed a protocol for setting credible reliability targets such as the consideration of life safety targets and escape, evacuation, and rescue (EER) success probabilities. A set of realistic reliability targets for both catastrophic and local failures for representative safety and consequence categories associated with offshore installations was also presented. The reliability targets were expressed as maximum average annual failure probabilities. The method for converting these annual

  3. Renewable Energy Assessment Methodology for Japanese OCONUS Army Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solana, Amy E.; Horner, Jacob A.; Russo, Bryan J.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Kora, Angela R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Hand, James R.; Orrell, Alice C.; Williamson, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-30

    Since 2005, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been asked by Installation Management Command (IMCOM) to conduct strategic assessments at selected US Army installations of the potential use of renewable energy resources, including solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, waste, and ground source heat pumps (GSHPs). IMCOM has the same economic, security, and legal drivers to develop alternative, renewable energy resources overseas as it has for installations located in the US. The approach for continental US (CONUS) studies has been to use known, US-based renewable resource characterizations and information sources coupled with local, site-specific sources and interviews. However, the extent to which this sort of data might be available for outside the continental US (OCONUS) sites was unknown. An assessment at Camp Zama, Japan was completed as a trial to test the applicability of the CONUS methodology at OCONUS installations. It was found that, with some help from Camp Zama personnel in translating and locating a few Japanese sources, there was relatively little difficulty in finding sources that should provide a solid basis for conducting an assessment of comparable depth to those conducted for US installations. Project implementation will likely be more of a challenge, but the feasibility analysis will be able to use the same basic steps, with some adjusted inputs, as PNNL’s established renewable resource assessment methodology.

  4. Installation and Commissioning of CYCIAE-100 RF Cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI; Bin; XING; Jian-sheng; LIU; Geng-shou; YIN; Zhi-guo; ZHANG; Tian-jue; LEI; Yu; FU; Xiao-liang; LI; Peng-zhan; LV; Yin-long; ZHU; Peng-fei; FU; Li-cheng; LIU; Jie; ZHANG; De-zhi; CUI; Bai-yao; DONG; Huan-jun; WANG; Zhen-hui

    2013-01-01

    The RF cavity is used to establish electrical field for the particle acceleration in the cyclotron,the stability of the RF cavity affects the RF system directly.A RF cavity with high quality can reduce thepower consumption of the RF system and make the cooling system simple.A good design is the first step towards RF cavity with high quality.The installation and commissioning are the next important process to achieve an excellent performance.The height of the

  5. A Study of Models of Life Quality Development of Isan Marginal Communities as Affected by Installation of the Solar Home System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsil Simvised

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: The electricity production system by using solar home cells is regarded as a substitute for energy which the state provides for the marginal communities because the area cannot be extended for putting up pylons with electric cables, all this for the marginal communities to have better life and being. The purposes of this thesis were to examine the history and development of the electricity production system by using solar home cells, and to examine models of life quality of Isan marginal communities as affected by the use of solar home system by using solar home cells. Approach: The sample consisted of 100 people in Isan marginal communities who lived in mountains, on highlands, on lowlands, and in national park areas with totally 4 areas. The instruments used for collecting data were an observation form, an interview form a group discourse note-taking form and workshop note-taking form. The 6 aspects of Minimum Needs (MN was included into every instrument. The data analysis results were subsequently presented by means of a descriptive analysis: Results: 1for the history and development of the solar home system, it was found that Thailand began using solar cells in 1977 by the Unit of Volunteer Doctors. At present, solar cells are used in various types: battery charging stations, communication systems, water pumping system, traffic light signals, blinkers and electric systems in marginal communities in general.2 for the models of life quality development of Isan marginal communities as affected by the use of the solar home system, the life quality was developed according to indicators of maximum needs in these 6 aspects: the model of developing good health, the model of developing progressive incomes, the models of This value cultivation and the model of developing cooperative development. It was found that the positive effects were at 98.67% and negative effects were at only 1.33%. Conclusion/Recommendation: There for, it can

  6. Hydrogen isotope separation by cryogenic distillation: system modelization and design; La separation des isotopes de l`hydrogene par distillation cryogenique: modelisation et conception des installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latge, C.; Boisset-Baticle, L.; Buvat, J.C. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d`Etudes des Reacteurs

    1994-12-31

    The design of fusion reactor systems involves high safety constraints, especially concerning tritium quantity retained in the reactor processes. It is thus necessary to carefully design the separation cascade in order to minimize the tritium inventory. A simulation code has been developed which describes precisely the packed column, based on a mass transfer model and on an automatic optimization procedure for isotopic separation cascades. 4 figs., 5 refs.

  7. Finite Element Model to Analyze an Installation Load-based Stress-Strain State of the Parts Forming Gas Joint of a Medium-Speed Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Chainov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a developed computational model to study a stress-strain state of the assembly unit components of a medium-speed diesel engine of new generation, type CH26.5/31, which comprises a cylinder head, a sleeve, a gasket, a block, two mounting studs and four power studs.The developed three-dimensional finite element model presented in this article allows us to take into consideration all the components that make up a gas joint, regardless of their geometric complexity. Its use enables us to estimate the cylinder head - gasket - sleeve tightness of sealing when applying the mounting, temperature, and gas loads, to define the stress and strain components of parts, as well as to study the gasket condition, including pressure distribution across its surface.Based on the results obtained in the study the finite element model of the cylinder head was modified considering a more detailed description of its geometry, thus reducing the principal tensile stresses.

  8. A theoretical model investigation of peptide bond formation involving two water molecules in ribosome supports the two-step and eight membered ring mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qiang [School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Gao, Jun, E-mail: gaojun@sdu.edu.cn [Agricultural Bioinformatics Key Laboratory of Hubei Province, College of Informatics, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhang, Dongju; Liu, Chengbu [School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2015-04-01

    Highlights: • We theoretical studied peptide bond formation reaction mechanism with two water molecules. • The first water molecule can decrease the reaction barriers by forming hydrogen bonds. • The water molecule mediated three-proton transfer mechanism is the favorable mechanism. • Our calculation supports the two-step and eight membered ring mechanism. - Abstract: The ribosome is the macromolecular machine that catalyzes protein synthesis. The kinetic isotope effect analysis reported by Strobel group supports the two-step mechanism. However, the destination of the proton originating from the nucleophilic amine is uncertain. A computational simulation of different mechanisms including water molecules is carried out using the same reaction model and theoretical level. Formation the tetrahedral intermediate with proton transfer from nucleophilic nitrogen, is the rate-limiting step when two water molecules participate in peptide bond formation. The first water molecule forming hydrogen bonds with O9′ and H15′ in the A site can decrease the reaction barriers. Combined with results of the solvent isotope effects analysis, we conclude that the three-proton transfer mechanism in which water molecule mediate the proton shuttle between amino and carbon oxygen in rate-limiting step is the favorable mechanism. Our results will shield light on a better understand the reaction mechanism of ribosome.

  9. Installation errors in calculating large-panel buildings (rus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedviga E.S.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Every year the problem of civil and erection work quality gets sharper in Russia. The article is devoted to solving the identified problem not from the point of organizational and technological aspects of building but from the point of design and calculation. The paper considers the influence of offsetting and axes fractures of wall panels in the process of its installation into large-panel building. Comparative analysis of design schemes that takes into account different types of errors in installation is done. The structure calculation taking into account errors of details installation was made. Obtained efforts in structural elements exceeded allowable values prescribed in the standard documentation. Conclusions about need to consider installation errors (caused by a deviation from the design of vertical structures in design model were made, including calculation in the CAD software.

  10. LAMPF 805-MHz accelerator structure tuning and its relation to fabrication and installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, G.R.

    1979-07-01

    In the course of construction of the 805-MHz linac, it was necessary to set 10,000 resonant cavities to precise frequencies and to check, and in some cases, to adjust the field distribution along the beam axis of the 104 rf tanks composing the linac. Since this was the first proton linac of the side-coupled type ever built, it was necessary to develop new techniques and instrumentation for structure tuning. An outline of the fabrication and installation process is given, showing how the tuning operations were interwoven with the fabrication steps and indicating the relation of tuning to other installation and check-out activities. The steps of the tuning procedure are then examined in detail. Tools for tuning by dinging, nose-stretching, and septum bending are described. Techniques for frequency measurements and for beadpull measurements of field distribution are discussed. The section on field distribution measurement includes results of research on measurement procedure and theory and observations confirming the low-power stability of field distributions for a three-year period. Selected results from the theory of chains of coupled resonators are given. Coupled resonator model parameters and various measured parameters for the 805-MHz linac are tabulated.

  11. Aeropropulsive characteristics of Mach numbers up to 2.2 of axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric nozzles installed on an F-18 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation to determine the aeropropulsive characteristics of nonaxisymmetric nozzles on an F-18 jet effects model was conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel and the AEDC 16-foot supersonic wind tunnel. The performance of a two dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle, a single expansion ramp nozzle, and a wedge nozzle was compared with that of the baseline axisymmetric nozzle. Test data were obtained at static conditions and at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 2.20 at an angle of attack of 0 deg. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from jet-off to about 20.

  12. Step-step interactions on GaAs (110) nanopatterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galiana, B.; Benedicto, M.; Tejedor, P. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, C.S.I.C., Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-01-14

    The step-step interactions on vicinal GaAs (110) surface patterns have been extracted from the quantitative analysis of the terrace width distribution (TWD). We have specifically studied the interactions in near-equilibrium faceting and kinetics-driven step bunching and meandering formed by spontaneous self-organization or through the modification of GaAs growth kinetics by atomic hydrogen. We show that the experimental TWDs determined from atomic force microscopy measurements can be accurately described by a weighed sum of a generalized Wigner distribution and several Gaussians. The results of our calculations indicate that straight facets are formed during high temperature homoepitaxy due to attractive interactions between [110] steps. At low temperatures, steady state attractive interactions in [110] step bunches are preceded by a transition regime dominated by entropic and energetic repulsions between meandering [11n]-type steps (n {>=} 2), whose population density exceeds that of the [110] bunched steps. In addition, it has been found that atomic H reduces the attractive interactions between [110] bunched steps and enhances entropic and dipole-induced energetic repulsions between H-terminated [11n] steps through the inhibition of As-As bond formation at step edges. Our analysis has evidenced a correlation between the value of the adjustable parameter that accounts in our model for the specific weight of the secondary peaks in the TWD ({beta}) and the extent of transverse meandering on the vicinal surface.

  13. Installation package for a solar heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Installation information is given for a solar heating system installed in Concho Indian School at El Reno, Oklahoma. This package includes a system Operation and Maintenance Manual, hardware brochures, schematics, system operating modes and drawings.

  14. Multifunctional Heat Pump Installation for Dairy Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sit M.L.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the installation based on the approach using the integration of the carbon dioxide heat pump in pasteurization and cooling installation for milk and in installations for preparing of hot and "icy" water. The scheme differs from the prototype by the use of additional heat exchangers and of their connection to the main elements of the installation. A proposed technique of elements connection in the heat pump installation permits to compensate the effect of temperature of cold water supply source, which is low-grade heat source for the heat pump, on the quality the work of the installation. The design of the installation enables to compensate the impact of seasonal variation of water temperature. The installation ensures the COP = 5.3.

  15. A model of developing medical terms in indigenous languages: a step towards consumer health informatics in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbananga, Nolwazi; Mniki, Sindiswa; Oelofse, Alet; Makapan, Sylvia; Lubisi, Moses

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology that has been used in the development of medical terms in the indigenous languages of South Africa. Development of medical terms in indigenous languages is the primary step towards Consumer Health Informatics in the country. This process has been driven by, among others, an emerging paradigm shift in patient care management, whereby patients and other members of the community are encouraged to participate in the process of making treatment or management choices regarding their illnesses or health conditions. In view of this change in the health environment, language and understanding seem to play a major role. Without clear communication and understanding between health providers and the consumers of health services, little can be achieved. Language comprehension is invaluable to empower patients to engage in the decision-making process regarding their health problems.

  16. Measure Guideline. Installing Rigid Foam Insulation on the Interior of Existing Brick Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natarajan, Hariharan [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Klocke, Steve [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This measure guideline provides information on an effective method to insulate the interior of existing brick masonry walls with extruded polystyrene (XPS) insulation board. The guide outlines step-by-step design and installation procedures while explaining the benefits and tradeoffs where applicable. The authors intend that this document be useful to a varied audience that includes builders,remodelers, contractors and homeowners.

  17. Measure Guideline: Installing Rigid Foam Insulation on the Interior of Existing Brick Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natarajan, H.; Klocke, S.; Puttagunta, S.

    2012-06-01

    This measure guideline provides information on an effective method to insulate the interior of existing brick masonry walls with extruded polystyrene (XPS) insulation board. The guide outlines step-by-step design and installation procedures while explaining the benefits and tradeoffs where applicable. The authors intend that this document be useful to a varied audience that includes builders, remodelers, contractors and homeowners.

  18. Helium transfer line installation details.

    CERN Multimedia

    G. Perinic

    2007-01-01

    A particularity of the 32 m long four in one helium transfer line in between the cold box in USC55 and the cavern UX5 is the fact that the transfer line passes through a hole in the crane rail support beam. In order to ensure the alignment of the suspension rail in the interconnecting tunnel with the hole in the rail support as well as the connection points at both ends required precise measurements of the given geometries as well as the installation of a temporary target for the verification of the theoretical predictions.

  19. Automated solar collector installation design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne, Gary; Frumkin, Alexander; Zaydman, Michael; Lehman, Scott; Brenner, Jules

    2014-08-26

    Embodiments may include systems and methods to create and edit a representation of a worksite, to create various data objects, to classify such objects as various types of pre-defined "features" with attendant properties and layout constraints. As part of or in addition to classification, an embodiment may include systems and methods to create, associate, and edit intrinsic and extrinsic properties to these objects. A design engine may apply of design rules to the features described above to generate one or more solar collectors installation design alternatives, including generation of on-screen and/or paper representations of the physical layout or arrangement of the one or more design alternatives.

  20. 基于非标准指派模型的交巡警服务平台设置与调度%Installation and Dispatch of the Patrol Service Platform Based on Nonstandard Assignment Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳灵; 高俊; 梁慧玲; 门阳阳

    2013-01-01

    To solve reasonably the problem about the installation and dispatch of the patrol service platform, based on the discrete location choice model, the distribution scope was divided by considering the feature of the discrete distribution of the patrol service platform and intersection nodes and the urgency and efficiency of the patrol service, then the nonstandard assignment model with non-linear target function was formulated by using quadratic programming. Furthermore , the mathematics software of Matlab and Lingo were used to solve the model, the results shows that the proposed method is effective and feasible.%为能够合理地解决交巡警服务平台设置与调度问题,根据交巡警服务平台和路口节点的离散分布和交巡警服务所要求的时间紧迫性和高效性特点,以离散点选址问题中的覆盖模型为基础,初步划分分配范围,再运用二次规划,建立具有非线性目标函数的非标准指派模型,并通过Matlab、Lingo软件求解,验证所提方法的有效性和可行性.

  1. A Reconfigurable Stepping Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Charles; Selvaggi, Richard

    2009-04-01

    Multiphase brushless actuators, commonly known as the stepper motors, are ubiquitous for many precision control applications. Developments in the microelectronics have lead to their use as efficient drive motors for modern electric vehicles. Understanding the physics and the control logic for interfacing these transducers continues to be important for scientists and engineers. An overview of the stepping motor principles and interfacing requirements is presented and a simple working model used to teach the concepts of stepper motors is described and demonstrated. This model was used to design a much larger stepper motor required to precisely rotate a massive optical system in the undergraduate advanced physics laboratory.

  2. Wind power installations in Switzerland - Checklist for investors in large-scale installations; Eoliennes en Suisse. Liste de controle pour investisseurs de grandes installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Kaufmann, Y.; Steiner, P. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Gilgen, K.; Sartoris, A. [IRAP-HSR, Institut fuer Raumentwicklung an der Hochschule fuer Technik Rapperswil, Rapperswil (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    This report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a checklist for investors in large-scale wind-power installations. The authors state that the same questions are often posed in the course of the planning and realisation of wind turbine installations. This document presents a checklist that will help achieve the following goals: Tackling the steps involved in the planning and implementation phases, increasing planning security, systematic implementation in order to reduce risks for investors and to shorten time-scales as well as the reduction of costs. Further, participative processes can be optimised by using comprehensively prepared information in order to reduce the risk of objections during project approval. The structure of the check-list is described and discussed.

  3. Optimizing Installation and Operation Properties of an AUV-Mounted Swath Sonar Sensor for Automated Marine Gas Seep Detection - a Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenau, S.; Fei, T.; Tóth, Z.; Keil, H.; Spiess, V.; Kraus, D.

    2014-12-01

    The detection of gas bubble streams in the water column by single- and multibeam sonars has been a common procedure in the research of marine seep sites. In the framework of the development of an AUV capable of automatic detection and sampling of gas bubble streams, such acoustic flares were modelled in MATLAB routines to assess the optimal sonar configuration for flare detection. The AUV development (IMGAM-project) is carried out as a cooperation of the company ATLAS Hydrographic and the MARUM at the University of Bremen. The combination of sensor inclination, sonar carrier frequency and pulse characteristics affect the ability of the system to detect bubble streams of different sizes and intensities. These variations in acoustic signal return from gas bubble streams depending on acquisition parameters can affect the detectability and acoustic properties of recorded acoustic flares in various seepage areas in the world's oceans. We show several examples of acoustic signatures of previously defined bubble streams under varying acquisition parameters and document the effects of changing sensor parameters on detection efficiency.

  4. A First Step Towards High-Level Cost Models for the Implementation of SDRs on Multiprocessing Reconfigurable Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Moullec, Yannick

    2011-01-01

    -In-Progress paper we introduce our set of high-level estimation models for Area-Time costs of applications mapped onto FPGA-based multiprocessing reconfigurable architectures. In particular, we suggest models for static and dynamic implementations, taking various internal and external architectural elements...

  5. Long-term corrosion of rebars embedded in aerial and hydraulic binders - Parametric study and first step of modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitty, Walter-John [CEA, DSM, IRAMIS, Laboratoire Pierre Suee, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Dillmann, Philippe [CEA, DSM, IRAMIS, Laboratoire Pierre Suee, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Institut de Recherches sur les Archeomateriaux, LMC UMR5060 CNRS (France)], E-mail: philippe.dillmann@cea.fr; L' Hostis, Valerie [CEA, DEN, DPC, SCCME, Laboratoire d' Etude du Comportement des Betons et des Argiles, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Millard, Alain [CEA, DEN, DM2S, SEMT, Laboratoire de Modelisation, Systemes et Simulation, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2008-11-15

    The prediction of long-term behaviour of reinforced concrete structures involved in the nuclear industry requires a phenomenological modelling of the rebars corrosion processes. Previous analytical characterisation of archaeological artefacts allowed to identify a typical layout constituted of four layers (the metal, the dense product layer, the transformed medium and the binder). Additional experiments leaded to identify the long-term corrosion mechanisms. Following these results, this paper proposes an analytical model of long-term corrosion of rebars embedded in concrete. This modelling is considering the kinetic of oxygen diffusion through the system and its consumption at the metal/dense product layer interface as a function of concrete water saturation degree. Corrosion products thicknesses estimated with the model are then compared to corrosion product thicknesses measured on archaeological artefacts. A parametric study is performed and demonstrates that the oxygen diffusivity and the kinetic constant of the cathodic reaction affect in a wide range the model results.

  6. VIRUS early installation and commissioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Sarah E.; Hill, Gary J.; Vattiat, Brian L.; Lee, Hanshin; Drory, Niv; Kelz, Andreas; Ramsey, Jason; Peterson, Trent; Noyola, Eva; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Chonis, Taylor S.; Dalton, Gavin; Fabricius, Maximilian; Farrow, Daniel; Good, John M.; Haynes, Dionne M.; Indahl, Briana; Jahn, Thomas; Kriel, Hermanus; Nicklas, Harald; Montesano, Francesco; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Landriau, Martin; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Roth, Martin M.; Savage, Richard; Snigula, Jan M.

    2016-08-01

    VIRUS is a massively replicated spectrograph built for HETDEX, the Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment. It consists of 156 channels within 78 units fed by 34944 fibers over the 22 arcminute field of the upgraded HET. VIRUS covers a relatively narrow bandpass (350-550nm) at low resolution (R 700) to target the emission of Lyman-alpha emitters (LAEs) for HETDEX. VIRUS is a first demonstration of industrial style assembly line replication in optical astronomy. Installation and testing of VIRUS units began in November of 2015. This winter we celebrated the first on sky instrument activity of the upgraded HET, using a VIRUS unit and LRS2-R (the upgraded facility Low Resolution Spectrograph for the HET). Here we describe progress in VIRUS installation and commissioning through June 2016. We include early sky data obtained to characterize spectrograph performance and on sky performance of the newly upgraded HET. As part of the instrumentation for first science light at the HET, the IFU fed spectrographs were used to test a full range of telescope system functionality including the field calibration unit (FCU).We also use placement of strategic IFUs to map the new HET field to the fiber placement, and demonstrate actuation of the dithering mechanism key to HETDEX observations.

  7. Step-up multiple regression model to compute Chlorophyll a in the coastal waters off Cochin, southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, K.K.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Laluraj, C.M.; Nair, M.; Joseph, T.; Sheeba, P.

    The interaction effects of abiotic processes in the production of phytoplankton in a coastal marine region off Cochin are evaluated using multiple regression models. The study shows that chlorophyll production is not limited by nutrients...

  8. A first step towards a quantum mechanical description of surface energy and diffusivity in the bubble model of positronium annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Tapas, E-mail: tapas.mukherjee1@gmail.co [Physics Department, Bhairab Ganguly College, Kolkata-700056 (India); Dutta, Dhanadeep [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2010-07-15

    In the bubble model of positronium annihilation in liquids, the inward contractile force on the bubble surface is described through classical surface tension of the liquids. In the present calculation, we adopted a simple quantum mechanical approach to describe the bubble surface energy in terms of the motion of a representative quasi-free electron outside the bubble. The bubble parameters (radius, potential, etc.) for different liquids obtained using the prescribed model are consistent with the results obtained using classical surface tension.

  9. Used-habitat calibration plots: A new procedure for validating species distribution, resource selection, and step-selection models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieberg, John R.; Forester, James D.; Street, Garrett M.; Johnson, Douglas H.; ArchMiller, Althea A.; Matthiopoulos, Jason

    2017-01-01

    “Species distribution modeling” was recently ranked as one of the top five “research fronts” in ecology and the environmental sciences by ISI's Essential Science Indicators (Renner and Warton 2013), reflecting the importance of predicting how species distributions will respond to anthropogenic change. Unfortunately, species distribution models (SDMs) often perform poorly when applied to novel environments. Compounding on this problem is the shortage of methods for evaluating SDMs (hence, we may be getting our predictions wrong and not even know it). Traditional methods for validating SDMs quantify a model's ability to classify locations as used or unused. Instead, we propose to focus on how well SDMs can predict the characteristics of used locations. This subtle shift in viewpoint leads to a more natural and informative evaluation and validation of models across the entire spectrum of SDMs. Through a series of examples, we show how simple graphical methods can help with three fundamental challenges of habitat modeling: identifying missing covariates, non-linearity, and multicollinearity. Identifying habitat characteristics that are not well-predicted by the model can provide insights into variables affecting the distribution of species, suggest appropriate model modifications, and ultimately improve the reliability and generality of conservation and management recommendations.

  10. Two-step amplification of the human PPT sequence provides specific gene expression in an immunocompetent murine prostate cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzojic, H; Cheng, W-S; Essand, M

    2007-03-01

    The recombinant prostate-specific PPT sequence comprises a prostate-specific antigen enhancer, a PSMA enhancer and a TARP promoter. It is transcriptionally active in human prostate cancer cells both in the presence and absence of testosterone. However, in experimental murine prostate cancer, it has no detectable transcriptional activity. Herein, we describe that the PPT sequence in combination with a two-step transcriptional amplification (TSTA) system becomes active also in murine prostate cancer cells. An adenovirus with TSTA-amplified PPT-controlled expression of the luciferase reporter gene, Ad[PPT/TSTA-Luc], has up to 100-fold higher prostate-specific transcriptional activity than a non-amplified PPT-based adenovirus, Ad[PPT-Luc], in human cells. In addition, Ad[PPT/TSTA-Luc] confers prostate-specific transgene expression in murine cells, with an activity that is approximately 23% of Ad[CMV-Luc] in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP)-C2 cells. Moreover, to visualize luciferase expression in living mice a charge-coupled device camera was used. Ad[PPT/TSTA-Luc] yielded approximately 30-fold higher transgene expression than Ad[PPT-Luc] in LNCaP tumor xenografts. Importantly, Ad[PPT/TSTA-Luc] also showed activity in murine TRAMP-C2 tumors, whereas Ad[PPT-Luc] activity was undetectable. These results highlight that the recombinant PPT sequence is active in murine prostate cancer cells when augmented by a TSTA system. This finding opens up for preclinical studies with prostate-specific therapeutic gene expression in immunocompetent mice.

  11. 3D modelling of an aero-gravity and -magnetic survey as an first exploration step in a frontier basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köther, Nils; Eckard, Marcel; Götze, Hans-Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    The West African Taoudeni basin covers a desert area of about 1.8 million km² and is one of the last frontier basins worldwide. Here Wintershall Holding AG holds acreage of about 68000 km². During 2005-2007 geological surveys and an aero-gravity and -magnetic survey were conducted in this area. The potential field modelling should contribute first insight about the subsurface to plan an economic seismic survey. 2D models lead to poor results. 2008 the results of an internship (NK) were 3D subsurface models, which were enhanced during the following diploma thesis (Köther, 2009). Complex igneous rocks and sparsely distributed constraints lead to an ambiguous interpretation. Therefore, several simple 3D models were compiled with the in-house software IGMAS+, which base on geological ideas of the underground and fit well the measured data. These basic models allow a geophysical evaluation of different geological theories about the subsurface. Also, for a thorough interpretation field transformations (Euler, Curvature, and Derivatives) were calculated. These results led to new constraints for further interpretation of the basin structures and therefore they are important contributions for future exploration e.g. the planning of seismic surveys.

  12. Mechanistic modelling of infrared mediated energy transfer during the primary drying step of a continuous freeze-drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F C; De Meyer, Laurens; Corver, Jos; Vervaet, Chris; Nopens, Ingmar; De Beer, Thomas

    2017-01-12

    Conventional pharmaceutical freeze-drying is an inefficient and expensive batch-wise process, associated with several disadvantages leading to an uncontrolled end product variability. The proposed continuous alternative, based on spinning the vials during freezing and on optimal energy supply during drying, strongly increases process efficiency and improves product quality (uniformity). The heat transfer during continuous drying of the spin frozen vials is provided via non-contact infrared (IR) radiation. The energy transfer to the spin frozen vials should be optimised to maximise the drying efficiency while avoiding cake collapse. Therefore, a mechanistic model was developed which allows computing the optimal, dynamic IR heater temperature in function of the primary drying progress and which, hence, also allows predicting the primary drying endpoint based on the applied dynamic IR heater temperature. The model was validated by drying spin frozen vials containing the model formulation (3.9mL in 10R vials) according to the computed IR heater temperature profile. In total, 6 validation experiments were conducted. The primary drying endpoint was experimentally determined via in-line near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and compared with the endpoint predicted by the model (50min). The mean ratio of the experimental drying time to the predicted value was 0.91, indicating a good agreement between the model predictions and the experimental data. The end product had an elegant product appearance (visual inspection) and an acceptable residual moisture content (Karl Fischer).

  13. A step-indexed Kripke model of hidden state via recursive properties on recursively defined metric spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwinghammer, Jan; Birkedal, Lars; Støvring, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Frame and anti-frame rules have been proposed as proof rules for modular reasoning about programs. Frame rules allow one to hide irrelevant parts of the state during verification, whereas the anti-frame rule allows one to hide local state from the context. We give the first sound model for Chargu...... the model to account for Pottier’s generalized frame and anti-frame rules, where invariants are generalized to families of invariants indexed over pre-orders. This generalization enables reasoning about some well-bracketed as well as (locally) monotonic uses of local state.......Frame and anti-frame rules have been proposed as proof rules for modular reasoning about programs. Frame rules allow one to hide irrelevant parts of the state during verification, whereas the anti-frame rule allows one to hide local state from the context. We give the first sound model for Chargu...

  14. Radiological safety status and quality assurance audit of medical X-ray diagnostic installations in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonawane A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a radiological safety and quality assurance (QA audit of 118 medical X-ray diagnostic machines installed in 45 major hospitals in India. The main objective of the audit was to verify compliance with the regulatory requirements stipulated by the national regulatory body. The audit mainly covered accuracy check of accelerating potential (kVp, linearity of tube current (mA station and timer, congruence of radiation and optical field, and total filtration; in addition, we also reviewed medical X-ray diagnostic installations with reference to room layout of X-ray machines and conduct of radiological protection survey. A QA kit consisting of a kVp Test-O-Meter (ToM (Model RAD/FLU-9001, dose Test-O-Meter (ToM (Model 6001, ionization chamber-based radiation survey meter model Gun Monitor and other standard accessories were used for the required measurements. The important areas where there was noncompliance with the national safety code were: inaccuracy of kVp calibration (23%, lack of congruence of radiation and optical field (23%, nonlinearity of mA station (16% and timer (9%, improper collimator/diaphragm (19.6%, faulty adjustor knob for alignment of field size (4%, nonavailability of warning light (red light at the entrance of the X-ray room (29%, and use of mobile protective barriers without lead glass viewing window (14%. The present study on the radiological safety status of diagnostic X-ray installations may be a reasonably good representation of the situation in the country as a whole. The study contributes significantly to the improvement of radiological safety by the way of the steps already taken and by providing a vital feed back to the national regulatory body.

  15. Trendelenburg-Like Gait, Instability and Altered Step Patterns in a Mouse Model for Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy 2i

    OpenAIRE

    Maricelli, Joseph W.; Lu, Qi L.; Lin, David C.; Rodgers, Buel D.

    2016-01-01

    Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2i (LGMD2i) affects thousands of lives with shortened life expectancy mainly due to cardiac and respiratory problems and difficulty with ambulation significantly compromising quality of life. Limited studies have noted impaired gait in patients and animal models of different muscular dystrophies, but not in animal models of LGMD2i. Our goal, therefore, was to quantify gait metrics in the fukutin-related protein P448L mutant (P448L) mouse, a recently develop...

  16. On Transition Structures for Hydride Transfer Step in Enzyme Catalysis. A Comparative Study on Models of Glutathione Reductase Derived from Semiempirical, HF, and DFT Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Juan; Moliner, Vicente; Safont, Vicent S.; Domingo, Luís R.; Picher, María T.

    1996-11-01

    As a model of the chemical reactions that take place in the active site of gluthatione reductase, the nature of the molecular mechanism for the hydride transfer step has been characterized by means of accurate quantum chemical characterizations of transition structures. The calculations have been carried out with analytical gradients at AM1 and PM3 semiempirical procedures, ab initio at HF level with 3-21G, 4-31G, 6-31G, and 6-31G basis sets and BP86 and BLYP as density functional methods. The results of this study suggest that the endo relative orientation on the substrate imposed by the active site is optimal in polarizing the C4-Ht bond and situating the system in the neighborhood of the quadratic region of the transition structure associated to the hydride transfer step on potential energy surface. The endo arrangement of the transition structure results in optimal frontier HOMO orbital interaction between NADH and FAD partners. The geometries of the transition structures and the corresponding transition vectors, that contain the fundamental information relating reactive fluctuation patterns, are model independent and weakly dependent on the level of theory used to determine them. A comparison between simple and complex molecular models shows that there is a minimal set of coordinates describing the essentials of hydride transfer step. The analysis of transition vector components suggests that the primary and secondary kinetic isotope effects can be strongly coupled, and this prompted the calculation of deuterium and tritium primary, secondary, and primary and secondary kinetic isotope effects. The results obtained agree well with experimental data and demonstrate this coupling.

  17. Tilecal towards the Installation at Cruise Speed

    CERN Multimedia

    Miralles, Ll

    Over the last month the Tile Calorimeter has made a major step in its way towards its assembly in ATLAS. Late February the final EndCap supports were installed and the load (200 Tn) transferred from the assembly cradle to the supports. By mid-March, 32 Endcap modules, 50% of the total with a weight of 350 Tn were pre-assembled in bldg. 185 at CERN. At this stage the assembly is inside its geometrical envelope and the tooling and procedures have been developed. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is composed of 3 cylinders ("barrels") of steel, scintillating tiles and optical fibers, altogether about 12 m long, with an outer diameter of 8.4 m, inner diameter of 4.5 m and weighing about 2800 tons. The central cavity will contain the Liquid Argon cryostats, and the whole calorimetry system will measure the direction and energy of jets produced at the LHC, as well as the missing transverse energy, which - as everyone knows - is one of the telltale signals of new and exciting physics. Each of the three cylinders is divid...

  18. Enhancing photocatalysis in SrTiO{sub 3} by using Ag nanoparticles: A two-step excitation model for surface plasmon-enhanced photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Lei; Sun, Tao; Cai, Hua; Zhou, Zhi-Quan; Sun, Jian, E-mail: jsun@fudan.edu.cn, E-mail: minglu55@fudan.edu.cn; Lu, Ming, E-mail: jsun@fudan.edu.cn, E-mail: minglu55@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Optical Science and Engineering, and Shanghai Ultra-Precision Optical Manufacturing Engineering Center, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2015-08-28

    Surface plasmon (SP)-enhanced ultraviolet and visible photocatalytic activities of SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) are observed after incorporating Ag nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) on STO surfaces. A two-step excitation model is proposed to explain the SP-enhanced photocatalysis. The point of the model is that an electron at the valence band of STO is first excited onto the Fermi level of Ag-NP by the SP field generated on the Ag-NP, and then injected into the conduction band of STO from the SP band, leaving a hole at the valence band of STO. A full redox catalytic reaction at the surface of STO is then available. For Ag-NP incorporated STO, up-converted and inter-band photoluminescence emissions of STO are observed, and nonlinear evolutions of photocatalytic activity with illumination light powers are found. Furthermore, near infrared photocatalysis is detected. These results support the proposed model.

  19. Enhancing photocatalysis in SrTiO3 by using Ag nanoparticles: A two-step excitation model for surface plasmon-enhanced photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lei; Sun, Tao; Cai, Hua; Zhou, Zhi-Quan; Sun, Jian; Lu, Ming

    2015-08-28

    Surface plasmon (SP)-enhanced ultraviolet and visible photocatalytic activities of SrTiO3 (STO) are observed after incorporating Ag nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) on STO surfaces. A two-step excitation model is proposed to explain the SP-enhanced photocatalysis. The point of the model is that an electron at the valence band of STO is first excited onto the Fermi level of Ag-NP by the SP field generated on the Ag-NP, and then injected into the conduction band of STO from the SP band, leaving a hole at the valence band of STO. A full redox catalytic reaction at the surface of STO is then available. For Ag-NP incorporated STO, up-converted and inter-band photoluminescence emissions of STO are observed, and nonlinear evolutions of photocatalytic activity with illumination light powers are found. Furthermore, near infrared photocatalysis is detected. These results support the proposed model.

  20. A four-step model: Initiating writing development at faculty level using Master’s thesis workshops as a vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Eva Naur; Jensen, Tine Wirenfeldt; Bay, Gina

    , librarians, student’s teachers) as well as a method to gain insight into students’ experiences and needs across departments (in this case in the form of 354 written student evaluations). The model has, to a slightly surprising degree, shown potential to motivate departments to continue to focus on developing...

  1. Stepping into the Unknown: Three Models for the Teaching and Learning of the Opening Sections of Scientific Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Hedda; Yarden, Anat

    2011-01-01

    Different genres of scientific articles have begun to diffuse into science curricula. Among them, adapted primary literature (APL) retains the characteristics of scientific research articles, while adapting their contents to the knowledge level of students in the 11th to 12th grades. We present three models for the teaching and learning of the…

  2. Applying the Deployment Focused Treatment Development Model to School-Based Yoga for Elementary School Students: Steps One and Two

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bradley H.; Connington, Alison; McQuillin, Samuel; Crowder Bierman, Leigh

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in yoga to enhance positive youth development, but many challenges to overcome before introducing yoga to schools. Weisz et al. [Weisz, J. R., Jensen, A. L., McLeod, B. D. (2004). "Development and dissemination of child and adolescent therapies: milestones, methods, and a new deployment-focussed model." In E.…

  3. A Step-Indexed Kripke Model of Hidden State via Recursive Properties on Recursively Defined Metric Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwinghammer, Jan; Birkedal, Lars; Støvring, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Frame and anti-frame rules have been proposed as proof rules for modular reasoning about programs. Frame rules allow one to hide irrelevant parts of the state during verification, whereas the anti-frame rule allows one to hide local state from the context. We give the first sound model for Chargu...

  4. Evaluation and optimisation of phenomenological multi-step soot model for spray combustion under diesel engine-like operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Kar Mun; Jangi, Mehdi; Bai, Xue-Song

    2015-01-01

    with the spray combustion solver. Prior to the soot modelling, combustion simulations are carried out. Numerical results show that the ignition delay times and lift-off lengths exhibit good agreement with the experimental measurements across a wide range of operating conditions, apart from those in the cases...

  5. Stepping into the Unknown: Three Models for the Teaching and Learning of the Opening Sections of Scientific Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Hedda; Yarden, Anat

    2011-01-01

    Different genres of scientific articles have begun to diffuse into science curricula. Among them, adapted primary literature (APL) retains the characteristics of scientific research articles, while adapting their contents to the knowledge level of students in the 11th to 12th grades. We present three models for the teaching and learning of the…

  6. Review of Real-Time Simulator and the Steps Involved for Implementation of a Model from MATLAB/SIMULINK to Real-Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkili, Suresh; Panda, Anup Kumar; Prattipati, Jayanthi

    2014-07-01

    Nowadays the researchers want to develop their model in real-time environment. Simulation tools have been widely used for the design and improvement of electrical systems since the mid twentieth century. The evolution of simulation tools has progressed in step with the evolution of computing technologies. In recent years, computing technologies have improved dramatically in performance and become widely available at a steadily decreasing cost. Consequently, simulation tools have also seen dramatic performance gains and steady cost decreases. Researchers and engineers now have the access to affordable, high performance simulation tools that were previously too cost prohibitive, except for the largest manufacturers. This work has introduced a specific class of digital simulator known as a real-time simulator by answering the questions "what is real-time simulation", "why is it needed" and "how it works". The latest trend in real-time simulation consists of exporting simulation models to FPGA. In this article, the Steps involved for implementation of a model from MATLAB to REAL-TIME are provided in detail.

  7. A Neuro-Mechanical Model Explaining the Physiological Role of Fast and Slow Muscle Fibres at Stop and Start of Stepping of an Insect Leg

    OpenAIRE

    Tibor Istvan Toth; Martyna Grabowska; Joachim Schmidt; Ansgar Büschges; Silvia Daun-Gruhn

    2013-01-01

    Stop and start of stepping are two basic actions of the musculo-skeletal system of a leg. Although they are basic phenomena, they require the coordinated activities of the leg muscles. However, little is known of the details of how these activities are generated by the interactions between the local neuronal networks controlling the fast and slow muscle fibres at the individual leg joints. In the present work, we aim at uncovering some of those details using a suitable neuro-mechanical model....

  8. Modeling of Combined Processing Steps for Reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 Populations in Apple Cider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uljas, Heidi E.; Schaffner, Donald W.; Duffy, Siobain; Zhao, Lihui; Ingham, Steven C.

    2001-01-01

    Probabilistic models were used as a systematic approach to describe the response of Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations to combinations of commonly used preservation methods in unpasteurized apple cider. Using a complete factorial experimental design, the effect of pH (3.1 to 4.3), storage temperature and time (5 to 35°C for 0 to 6 h or 12 h), preservatives (0, 0.05, or 0.1% potassium sorbate or sodium benzoate), and freeze-thaw (F-T; −20°C, 48 h and 4°C, 4 h) treatment combinations (a total of 1,600 treatments) on the probability of achieving a 5-log10-unit reduction in a three-strain E. coli O157:H7 mixture in cider was determined. Using logistic regression techniques, pH, temperature, time, and concentration were modeled in separate segments of the data set, resulting in prediction equations for: (i) no preservatives, before F-T; (ii) no preservatives, after F-T; (iii) sorbate, before F-T; (iv) sorbate, after F-T; (v) benzoate, before F-T; and (vi) benzoate, after F-T. Statistical analysis revealed a highly significant (P cider pH being the most important, followed by temperature and time, and finally by preservative concentration. All models predicted 92 to 99% of the responses correctly. To ensure safety, use of the models is most appropriate at a 0.9 probability level, where the percentage of false positives, i.e., falsely predicting a 5-log10-unit reduction, is the lowest (0 to 4.4%). The present study demonstrates the applicability of logistic regression approaches to describing the effectiveness of multiple treatment combinations in pathogen control in cider making. The resulting models can serve as valuable tools in designing safe apple cider processes. PMID:11133437

  9. Modeling fish egg production and spatial distribution from acoustic data: a step forward into the analysis of recruitment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ospina-Álvarez

    Full Text Available To date, there are numerous transport simulation studies demonstrating the relevance of the hydrodynamics for the advection, dispersion and recruitment of early stages of marine organisms. However, the lack of data has conditioned the use of realistic locations for the model setup and configuration in transport studies. This work (I demonstrates the key role played by the use of the realistic initial position of the eggs of small pelagic fishes in the analysis of late-larval recruitment in coastal nursery areas and (II provides a general solution for deriving future egg positions and abundances from adult biomass obtained from acoustic surveys and available fecundity data. Using European anchovy in the NW Mediterranean as a case study, we first analyzed the impact of the initial location, timing, egg buoyancy and diel vertical migration of larvae on the potential late-larval recruitment to coastal areas. The results suggested that prior knowledge of the initial spawning grounds may substantially affect the estimates of potential recruitment. We then integrated biological and acoustics-derived data (the biomass and size structure, sex ratio, a weight-batch fecundity model, mean weight, number of fish and mean spawning to build a predictive model for interannual egg production. This model was satisfactorily contrasted with field data for two years obtained with the Daily Egg Production Method (DEPM. We discuss our results in the context of the fluctuations of European anchovy egg abundance from 2003 through 2010 in the NW Mediterranean and in terms of the potential applicability of the acoustics-based spatial predictive egg production model.

  10. Installing and Scaling out Ubuntu Enterprise Cloud in Virtual Environment, Supplement to “Guidelines for Building a Private Cloud Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantić, Zoran; Ali Babar, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    This document contains the supplemental material to the book “Guidelines for Building a Private Cloud Infrastructure”. This document provides guidance on how to install Ubuntu Enterprise Cloud in virtual environment, and afterwards how to scale out when needed. The purpose of this supplemental book...... is to provide a practical, step-by-step, detailed guide on how to dimension and install the machines and network. Some initial steps of configuring the cloud are also covered. The installation is performed in a virtual environment based on Windows 7 and VMware Workstation 7. The cloud installation is performed...... cloud, both using the command line tools, and GUI based tool HybridFox....

  11. First steps in incorporating data-driven modelling to flood early warning in Norway's Flood Forecasting Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsányi, Péter; Hamududu, Byman; Wong Kwok, Wai; Magnusson, Jan; Shi, Min

    2016-04-01

    The national Flood Early Warning Services (FEWS) in Norway use time-series of precipitation and temperature data as input to conceptual physically based rainfall-runoff models for forecasts. Runoff is forecasted in selected catchments and the warnings are based on regionalization of these. This concept proved useful in many catchments, however there are some exceptions, where forecasts are of worse quality. To improve this, data-driven modelling (DDM) techniques are sought applied. The first objective of the study is to identify those DDM methods, which are feasible for application and can easily be fit in the present, well-developed procedures of the operational FEWS. Therefore an experiment is conducted, where about thirty years of daily accumulated precipitation and daily mean temperature as input and observed runoff as output data are used. This was repeated from five, regionally and physically different catchments. In each case different DDMs were developed and their simulation results compared to those generated by the operational (conceptual based) models and to the observations. The methods of Artificial Neural Networks, Genetic Programming, Evolutionary Polynomial Regression and Support Vector Machines were used in the experiment. Various combinations of the last, the last two and the last three timesteps (in this case: days) of the data was tested as possible inputs. Forecast quality was described by Absolute Accumulated Error, Root Mean Square Error, Nash-Sutcliff Efficiency, the Ideal Point Error (combination of the previous) as well as by Taylor-diagrams. The first comparisons show promising results, which need to be further examined. The follow-up study will first focus on standardizing and automating the tests on forecast quality to be able to perform the studies on a larger number of datasets, as well as for other forecast periods. We expect the DDM to perform better in cases where conceptual models don't perform well. In these cases the quality

  12. [The discussion of the infiltrative model of chemical knowledge stepping into genetics teaching in agricultural institute or university].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ping; Luo, Pei-Gao

    2010-05-01

    Chemistry is an important group of basic courses, while genetics is one of the important major-basic courses in curriculum of many majors in agricultural institutes or universities. In order to establish the linkage between the major course and the basic course, the ability of application of the chemical knowledge previously learned in understanding genetic knowledge in genetics teaching is worthy of discussion for genetics teachers. In this paper, the authors advocate to apply some chemical knowledge previously learned to understand genetic knowledge in genetics teaching with infiltrative model, which could help students learn and understand genetic knowledge more deeply. Analysis of the intrinsic logistic relationship among the knowledge of different courses and construction of the integral knowledge network are useful for students to improve their analytic, comprehensive and logistic abilities. By this way, we could explore a new teaching model to develop the talents with new ideas and comprehensive competence in agricultural fields.

  13. Hybrid High-Fidelity Modeling of Radar Scenarios Using Atemporal, Discrete-Event, and Time-Step Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    computational power. Such simplifications can produce misleading results. For example, Radar Cross Section (RCS) effects in response to time-varying...and corresponding limitations of computational power. Such simplifications can produce misleading results. For example, Radar Cross Section (RCS...135 xvi Figure 6.1 The RCS of F-16 Falcon fighter model which is simulated by CST Studio software with signal frequency = 8 GHz. In (a), the RCS of

  14. Slow Steps towards Dual Earner/Dual Carer Family Model: Why Do Fathers Not Take Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Marre Karu; Kairi Kasearu

    2011-01-01

    The article looks at the transition of Estonian society towards dual earner/dual carer family model and focuses on fathers’ decision regarding taking their parental leave. Based on theory of planned behaviour by Ajzen, data from 20 qualitative interviews with fathers of small children are analysed to explore the beliefs fathers have when it comes to parental leave. The analysis distinguishes between two images of ‘good parenting’ that play a role in the fathers’ intention to take parental lea...

  15. Digital elevation models in 10 minute time steps - a status report on 4D monitoring of an active erosional scar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Neugirg, Fabian; Hass, Erik; Jose, Steffen; Haas, Florian; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    In erosional research a variety of processes are well understood and have been mimicked under laboratory conditions. In complex natural systems such as Alpine environments a multitude of influencing factors tend to superimpose single processes in a mixed signal which impedes a reliable interpretation. These mixed signals can already be captured by geoscientific research approaches such as sediment collectors, erosion pins or remote sensing surveys. Nevertheless, they fail to distinguish between single processes and their individual impact on slope morphology. Throughout the last two years a highly active slope of unsorted glacial deposits in the northern Alps has been monitored by repeated terrestrial laser scans roughly every three months. Resulting high resolution digital elevation models of difference were produced to identify possible seasonal patterns. By reproducing the TLS results with a physically based erosion model (EROSION 3D) ran with in situ input data from rainfall simulations and a climate station a better understanding of individual mechanism could be achieved. However, the already elaborate combination of soil science and close range remote sensing could not answer all questions concerning the slopes behaviour, especially not for freeze and thaw cycles and the winter period. Therefore, an array of three fully automatic synchronised cameras was setup to generate continuous 3D surface models. Among the main challenges faced for the system were the energy supply and durability, perspectives of the cameras to avoid shadowing and to guarantee sufficient overlap, a certain robustness to withstand rough alpine weather conditions, the scaling of each 3D model by tracked ground control points and the automatic data handling. First results show individual processes sculpting the slope's morphology but further work is required to improve automatic point cloud creation and change monitoring.

  16. Comparative environmental assessment of unconventional power installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnina, E. N.; Masleeva, O. V.; Kryukov, E. V.

    2015-08-01

    Procedure of the strategic environmental assessment of the power installations operating on the basis of renewable energy sources (RES) was developed and described. This procedure takes into account not only the operational process of the power installation but also the whole life cycles: from the production and distribution of power resources for manufacturing of the power installations to the process of their recovery. Such an approach gives an opportunity to make a more comprehensive assessment of the influence of the power installations on environments and may be used during adaptation of the current regulations and development of new regulations for application of different types of unconventional power installations with due account of the ecological factor. Application of the procedure of the integrated environmental assessment in the context of mini-HPP (Hydro Power Plant); wind, solar, and biogas power installations; and traditional power installation operating natural gas was considered. Comparison of environmental influence revealed advantages of new energy technologies compared to traditional ones. It is shown that solar energy installations hardly pollute the environment during operation, but the negative influence of the mining operations and manufacturing and utilization of the materials used for solar modules is maximum. Biogas power installations are on the second place as concerns the impact on the environment due to the considerable mass of the biogas installation and gas reciprocating engine. The minimum impact on the environment is exerted by the mini-HPP. Consumption of material and energy resources for the production of the traditional power installation is less compared to power installations on RES; however, this factor incomparably increases when taking into account the fuel extraction and transfer. The greatest impact on the environment is exerted by the operational process of the traditional power installations.

  17. Synthesis of 3-tetrazolylmethyl-azepino[4,5-b]indol-4-ones in two reaction steps: (Ugi-azide/N-acylation/SN2)/free radical cyclization and docking studies to a 5-Ht(6) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo-Cruz, Raul E; Rentería-Gómez, Angel; Islas-Jácome, Alejandro; Cortes-García, Carlos J; Díaz-Cervantes, Erik; Robles, Juvencio; Gámez-Montaño, Rocío

    2013-10-14

    A series of nine novel 3-tetrazolylmethyl-azepino[4,5-b]indol-4-ones were prepared in moderate to good overall yields in only two reaction steps. The first step consisted of a one-pot sequential process of an Ugi-azide multicomponent reaction, N-acylation and SN2 to give the xanthates. The second step was an intramolecular cyclization under free radical conditions. Also, their binding modes have been modelled using docking techniques.

  18. Engineering-Geological Data Model - The First Step to Build National Polish Standard for Multilevel Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryżyński, Grzegorz; Nałęcz, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    The efficient geological data management in Poland is necessary to support multilevel decision processes for government and local authorities in case of spatial planning, mineral resources and groundwater supply and the rational use of subsurface. Vast amount of geological information gathered in the digital archives and databases of Polish Geological Survey (PGS) is a basic resource for multi-scale national subsurface management. Data integration is the key factor to allow development of GIS and web tools for decision makers, however the main barrier for efficient geological information management is the heterogeneity of data in the resources of the Polish Geological Survey. Engineering-geological database is the first PGS thematic domain applied in the whole data integration plan. The solutions developed within this area will facilitate creation of procedures and standards for multilevel data management in PGS. Twenty years of experience in delivering digital engineering-geological mapping in 1:10 000 scale and archival geotechnical reports acquisition and digitisation allowed gathering of more than 300 thousands engineering-geological boreholes database as well as set of 10 thematic spatial layers (including foundation conditions map, depth to the first groundwater level, bedrock level, geohazards). Historically, the desktop approach was the source form of the geological-engineering data storage, resulting in multiple non-correlated interbase datasets. The need for creation of domain data model emerged and an object-oriented modelling (UML) scheme has been developed. The aim of the aforementioned development was to merge all datasets in one centralised Oracle server and prepare the unified spatial data structure for efficient web presentation and applications development. The presented approach will be the milestone toward creation of the Polish national standard for engineering-geological information management. The paper presents the approach and methodology

  19. The way to collisions, step by step

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    While the LHC sectors cool down and reach the cryogenic operating temperature, spirits are warming up as we all eagerly await the first collisions. No reason to hurry, though. Making particles collide involves the complex manoeuvring of thousands of delicate components. The experts will make it happen using a step-by-step approach.

  20. Internship guide : Work placements step by step

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haag, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Internship Guide: Work Placements Step by Step has been written from the practical perspective of a placement coordinator. This book addresses the following questions : what problems do students encounter when they start thinking about the jobs their degree programme prepares them for? How do you

  1. Internship guide : Work placements step by step

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haag, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Internship Guide: Work Placements Step by Step has been written from the practical perspective of a placement coordinator. This book addresses the following questions : what problems do students encounter when they start thinking about the jobs their degree programme prepares them for? How do you fi

  2. On Computational Small Steps and Big Steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Jacob

    rules in the small-step semantics cause the refocusing step of the syntactic correspondence to be inapplicable. Second, we propose two solutions to overcome this in-applicability: backtracking and rule generalization. Third, we show how these solutions affect the other transformations of the two...

  3. Development and validation of a local time stepping-based PaSR solver for combustion and radiation modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Kar Mun; Ivarsson, Anders; Haider, Sajjad

    2013-01-01

    is henceforth addressed as radiationReactingLTSFoam (rareLTSFoam). A performance benchmarking exercise is here carried out to evaluate the effect of each LTS parameter on calculation stability, results accuracy and computational runtime. The model validation uses two test cases. The first test case presents...... library in the edcSimpleFoam solver which was introduced during the 6th OpenFOAM workshop is modified and coupled with the current solver. One of the main amendments made is the integration of soot radiation submodel since this is significant in rich flames where soot particles are formed. The new solver...

  4. A First Step Towards High-Level Cost Models for the Implementation of SDRs on Multiprocessing Reconfigurable Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Moullec, Yannick

    2011-01-01

    VLSI technological advances provide designers with more and more powerful and flexible platforms such as reconfigurable heterogeneous multiprocessing systems based on FPGAs. At the same time, the applications which are to be implemented onto such platforms are increasingly more and more complex...... into account. We believe that such models could be used for rapidly comparing implementation alternatives at a high level of abstraction and for guiding the designer during the (pre)analysis phase of the design flow for the implementation of e.g. SDR platforms....

  5. 基于偏爱度的多步Markov网页预测模型%Preferred K-Step Markov Model for Webpage Prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超慧; 荆立夏; 牛晓太

    2010-01-01

    随着WWW的迅速扩张和网络用户的急剧增加,准确预测Web用户的访问行为对减少用户的感知延时、提高网络服务质量具有重要作用.文章分析了传统Markov模型的优缺点,针对低阶Markov模型准确率不高,而高阶Markov模型状态空间复杂度较高的缺点,提出了一种新的K步Markov模型(K-Step Markov Model,K-SMM),并引入了偏爱度的概念,建立了基于偏爱度的多步Markov网页预测模型(Preferred K-Step Markov Model,PKSMM).实验结果表明,该模型可以获得更高的预测准确率与覆盖率,并能有效地降低存储复杂度.

  6. Buckling of Bucket Foundations During Installation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren

    in order to reduce the cost of energy. This limits the on land application due to transportation limitations and unwillingness from prospect neighbours. Thus, offshore wind energy started developing over the last couple of years. Although installing the wind turbines offshore resolves the before men tioned...... issues, it brings up the cost of energy mainly due to increased installation and maintenance costs. A very large part—up to 30–50% using current technology—of the installation cost origins from the expenses related to the installation of foundations. A new foundation concept—the bucket foundation...... the suction assisted installation process. In this thesis, the phenomenon of buckling of the bucket foundation during installation is investigated by means of Finite Element Analysis. The influence of boundary conditions on the bucket foundation is adressed as well as the effect of including the surrounding...

  7. Effective use of simple computer programmes and clay models to demonstrate the planning and operative steps for teaching and presentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Krishnarao Patil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Presenting and demonstrating a surgical procedure in the current era is difficult without good intraoperative pictures and videos. A long, complex, multi-staged surgery is better illustrated by detailed intraoperative images at various stages. Although desirable, it may be difficult due to various reasons. Material and Methods: A simple method of preparing illustrations with pictures/diagrams created on PowerPoint and clay models to recreate the missing links in clinical photographs has been proposed. Results: It is a simple technique with a moderate learning curve. Once familiar with technique, one can effectively use the technique to convey the details in much more clear manner. Conclusion: It is a simple and effective way of communicating through digital images, and gives the audience a 3 dimensional idea about the concept.

  8. Slow Steps towards Dual Earner/Dual Carer Family Model: Why Do Fathers Not Take Parental Leave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marre Karu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at the transition of Estonian society towards dual earner/dual carer family model and focuses on fathers’ decision regarding taking their parental leave. Based on theory of planned behaviour by Ajzen, data from 20 qualitative interviews with fathers of small children are analysed to explore the beliefs fathers have when it comes to parental leave. The analysis distinguishes between two images of ‘good parenting’ that play a role in the fathers’ intention to take parental leave. First, there is an image of an outcome-oriented ‘project manager’ affected by failure anxiety, and second, there is a much more relaxed image of a ‘good parent’ as a ‘companion’ who values everyday contact and a close relationship with the child(ren.

  9. The Next Steps in Developing the Triple Helix Model: A Brief Introduction to National Open Innovation System (NOIS Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu Santonen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of beliefs on open innovation, online social networks and Web 2.0, we propose a new type of approach based on people-to-people interaction to support national innovation activities. With the aim of generating new ideas, our National Open Innovation System (NOIS combines two rival innovation sources: (1 technology and social foresight research, and (2 customer needs and experiences (i.e. customer orientation strategy, while following the principles of latest incarnation of Triple Helix model. The resulting NOIS is an effective and comprehensive open innovation structure where university students and senior citizens are engaged as a significant resource for the business community, in order to fulfil the national innovation strategy as defined by the government.

  10. A Straightforward Convergence Method for ICCG Simulation of Multiloop and Time-Stepping FE Model of Synchronous Generators with Simultaneous AC and Rectified DC Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanming Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Now electric machines integrate with power electronics to form inseparable systems in lots of applications for high performance. For such systems, two kinds of nonlinearities, the magnetic nonlinearity of iron core and the circuit nonlinearity caused by power electronics devices, coexist at the same time, which makes simulation time-consuming. In this paper, the multiloop model combined with FE model of AC-DC synchronous generators, as one example of electric machine with power electronics system, is set up. FE method is applied for magnetic nonlinearity and variable-step variable-topology simulation method is applied for circuit nonlinearity. In order to improve the simulation speed, the incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient (ICCG method is used to solve the state equation. However, when power electronics device switches off, the convergence difficulty occurs. So a straightforward approach to achieve convergence of simulation is proposed. At last, the simulation results are compared with the experiments.

  11. Installation of Shimming Bars for CYCIAE-100

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LV; Yin-long; WANG; Zhen-hui; ZHONG; Jun-qing; LIU; Geng-shou

    2012-01-01

    <正>The 100 MeV high intensity proton cyclotron, CYCIAE-100, is the most critical equipment of the BRIF project at CIAE. The shimming bars are used to get the isochronous magnetic field. In the process of magnetic mapping and shimming, the bars should be repeated the installed and disassembly for about 10 times. Each time the installation precision must be ensured. The bars installation schedule and quality are directly related to the BRIF project progress.

  12. Modern electrical installation for craft students

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electrical Installation for Craft Students, Volume 2, Third Edition discusses several topics concerning electrical installations. The book is comprised of eight chapters that deal with craft theory, associated subjects, and electrical industries. Chapter 1 covers inductors and inductance, while Chapter 2 tackles capacitors and capacitance. Chapter 3 deals with inductance and capacitance in installation work. The book also discusses cells, batteries, and transformers. The electrical industries, control and earthing, and testing are also dealt with. The last chapter discusses the basic el

  13. USE OF SIMULINK(MATLAB FOR ANALYSIS OF ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF CLASSICAL PHASE SHIFT INSTALLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinin L.P.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the development of simulation model in Simulink environment of phase shift installation, executed on classical scheme “Marcerau Connection”, test of idle, short-circuit and loading modes on base of this simulation model and determine of energy characteristics of this installation.

  14. The Dynamic Model Based on PFC of Asphalt Concrete Cutting Process and Optimization of Tools Installation%基于PFC的沥青混凝土铣削仿真及刀具安装优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周里群; 李军; 邢国

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, based on the superiority of the simulation of the discrete element method with the rheological properties on asphalt concrete, it simulates milling machine cutting process of asphalt concrete , overcome the limitations of the macro continuity hypothesis based on traditional continuum mechanics model, and can make this cutting process visible from microcosmic angle. The research results indicated that the model checked by uniaxial compression test, gets change rule of cutting force and friction force in different cutting angle on cutting knife surface of cutting tools, and gets the conclusion that 5~20 degrees cutting angle in installation tools is good to tools' life.%基于离散元对沥青混凝土流变特性模拟的优越性,对其切削过程进行动态仿真,克服了传统连续介质力学模型的宏观连续性假设的局限性,可以从徽观角度对切削过程进行可视化的数值模拟.研究结果表明:通过单轴压缩试验校正后的模型,得到在不同切削角下切削过程中刀具前刀面受力变化规律,并得出刀具在安装工程中优先选择5~20°切削角的结论,为工程实际提供了参考.

  15. ID Barrel installed in cryostat

    CERN Multimedia

    Apsimon, R.; Romaniouk, A.

    Wednesday 23rd August was a memorable day for the Inner Detector community as they witnessed the transport and installation of the central part of the inner detector (ID-barrel) into the ATLAS detector. Many members of the collaboration gathered to witness this moment at Point 1. After years of design, construction and commissioning, the outer two detectors (TRT and SCT) of the ID barrel were moved from the SR1 cleanroom to the ATLAS cavern. The barrel was moved across the car park from building 2175 to SX1. Although only a journey of about 100 metres, this required weeks of planning and some degree of luck as far as the weather was concerned. Accelerometers were fitted to the barrel to provide real-time monitoring and no values greater than 0.1 g were recorded, fully satisfying the transport specification for this extremely precise and fragile detector. Muriel, despite her fear of heights, bravely volunteered to keep a close eye on the detector. Swapping cranes to cross the entire parking lot, while Mur...

  16. Modeling biology with HDL languages: a first step toward a genetic design automation tool inspired from microelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendrault, Yves; Madec, Morgan; Lallement, Christophe; Haiech, Jacques

    2014-04-01

    Nowadays, synthetic biology is a hot research topic. Each day, progresses are made to improve the complexity of artificial biological functions in order to tend to complex biodevices and biosystems. Up to now, these systems are handmade by bioengineers, which require strong technical skills and leads to nonreusable development. Besides, scientific fields that share the same design approach, such as microelectronics, have already overcome several issues and designers succeed in building extremely complex systems with many evolved functions. On the other hand, in systems engineering and more specifically in microelectronics, the development of the domain has been promoted by both the improvement of technological processes and electronic design automation tools. The work presented in this paper paves the way for the adaptation of microelectronics design tools to synthetic biology. Considering the similarities and differences between the synthetic biology and microelectronics, the milestones of this adaptation are described. The first one concerns the modeling of biological mechanisms. To do so, a new formalism is proposed, based on an extension of the generalized Kirchhoff laws to biology. This way, a description of all biological mechanisms can be made with languages widely used in microelectronics. Our approach is therefore successfully validated on specific examples drawn from the literature.

  17. Suitability of Water Harvesting in the Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia: A First Step towards a Mesoscale Hydrological Modeling Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihun T. Dile

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme rainfall variability has been one of the major factors to famine and environmental degradation in Ethiopia. The potential for water harvesting in the Upper Blue Nile Basin was assessed using two GIS-based Multicriteria Evaluation methods: (1 a Boolean approach to locate suitable areas for in situ and ex situ systems and (2 a weighted overlay analysis to classify suitable areas into different water harvesting suitability levels. The sensitivity of the results was analyzed to the influence given to different constraining factors. A large part of the basin was suitable for water harvesting: the Boolean analysis showed that 36% of the basin was suitable for in situ and ex situ systems, while the weighted overlay analysis showed that 6–24% of the basin was highly suitable. Rainfall has the highest influence on suitability for water harvesting. Implementing water harvesting in nonagricultural land use types may further increase the benefit. Assessing water harvesting suitability at the larger catchment scale lays the foundation for modeling of water harvesting at mesoscale, which enables analysis of the potential and implications of upscaling of water harvesting practices for building resilience against climatic shocks. A complete water harvesting suitability study requires socioeconomic analysis and stakeholder consultation.

  18. PC-1D installation manual and user's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basore, P.A.

    1991-05-01

    PC-1D is a software package for personal computers that uses finite-element analysis to solve the fully-coupled two-carrier semiconductor transport equations in one dimension. This program is particularly useful for analyzing the performance of optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, but can be applied to any bipolar device whose carrier flows are primarily one-dimensional. This User's Guide provides the information necessary to install PC-1D, define a problem for solution, solve the problem, and examine the results. Example problems are presented which illustrate these steps. The physical models and numerical methods utilized are presented in detail. This document supports version 3.1 of PC-1D, which incorporates faster numerical algorithms with better convergence properties than previous versions of the program. 51 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Microsoft Office professional 2010 step by step

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Joyce; Frye, Curtis

    2011-01-01

    Teach yourself exactly what you need to know about using Office Professional 2010-one step at a time! With STEP BY STEP, you build and practice new skills hands-on, at your own pace. Covering Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Outlook, Excel, Access, Publisher, and OneNote, this book will help you learn the core features and capabilities needed to: Create attractive documents, publications, and spreadsheetsManage your e-mail, calendar, meetings, and communicationsPut your business data to workDevelop and deliver great presentationsOrganize your ideas and notes in one placeConnect, share, and accom

  20. Two-Step Electroweak Baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Satoru; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    We analyze electroweak baryogenesis during a two-step electroweak symmetry breaking transition, wherein the baryon asymmetry is generated during the first step and preserved during the second. Focusing on the dynamics of CP-violation required for asymmetry generation, we discuss general considerations for successful two-step baryogenesis. Using a concrete model realization, we illustrate in detail the viability of this scenario and the implications for present and future electric dipole moment (EDM) searches. We find that CP-violation associated with a partially excluded sector may yield the observed baryon asymmetry while evading present and future EDM constraints.