Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jennifer S. Stevens
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Hippocampal structure is particularly sensitive to trauma and other stressors. However, previous findings linking hippocampal function with trauma-related psychopathology have been mixed. Heterogeneity in psychological responses to trauma has not been considered with respect to hippocampal function and may contribute to mixed findings. To address these issues, we examined associations between data-driven symptom dimensions and episodic memory formation, a key function of the hippocampus, in a trauma-exposed sample. Symptom dimensions were defined using principal components analysis (PCA in 3881 trauma-exposed African-American women recruited from primary care waiting rooms of a large urban hospital. Hippocampal and amygdala function were subsequently investigated in an fMRI study of episodic memory formation in a subset of 54 women. Participants viewed scenes with neutral, negative, and positive content during fMRI, and completed a delayed cued recall task. PCA analysis produced five symptom dimensions interpreted as reflecting negative affect, somatic symptoms, re-experiencing, hyper-arousal, and numbing. Re-experiencing was the only symptom type associated with hippocampal function, predicting increased memory encoding-related activation in the hippocampus as well as the amygdala. In contrast, the negative affect component predicted lower amygdala activation for subsequently recalled scenes, and lower functional coupling with other important memory-related regions including the precuneus, inferior frontal gyrus, and occipital cortex. Symptom dimensions were not related to hippocampal volume. The fMRI findings for re-experiencing versus negative affect parallel differences in behavioral memory phenomena in PTSD versus MDD, and highlight a need for more complex models of trauma-related pathology.
Water Associated Zero Maze: A novel rat test for long term traumatic re-experiencing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gilad eRitov
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Often, freezing and startle behaviors in the context of a previously experienced stress are taken as an indication of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD-like symptoms in rats. However, PTSD is characterized by large individual variations of symptoms. In order to take into consideration the complex and long term distinctive variations in effects of trauma exposure additional behavioral measures are required.The current study used a novel behavioral test, the Water Associated Zero Maze (WAZM. This test was planned to enable a formation of an association between the context of the maze and an underwater trauma or swim stress in order to examine the impact of exposure to the context which immediately precedes a stressful or a traumatic experience on rat's complex behavior. Rats were exposed to the WAZM and immediately after to an underwater trauma or short swim. One month later rats were re-exposed to the context of the WAZM while their behavior was video recorded. Furthermore, c-Fos expression in the amygdala was measured 90 min after this exposure.The results of the current study indicate that the WAZM can be used to discern behavioral changes measured a long time after the actual traumatic or stressful events. Furthermore, the behavioral changes detected were accompanied by changes of c-Fos expression in the amygdala of exposed rats. We suggest that the WAZM can be used to model traumatic memories re-experiencing in rodent models of human stress-related pathologies such as PTSD.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emma Hovén
Full Text Available Increased understanding of the relationships between different symptom clusters involved in posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS could guide empirical research and clinical practice. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether hyperarousal and avoidance mediated the relationship between re-experiencing and dysphoria in parents of children diagnosed with cancer.Longitudinal data from parents of children receiving cancer therapy were used. PTSS were assessed using the PTSD Checklist Civilian Version at one week (T1, two (T2 and four months (T3 after diagnosis. Mediation analyses for multiple mediators were conducted for mothers (n = 122 and fathers (n = 121, respectively. The mediation model tested the assumption that the PTSS symptom clusters hyperarousal and avoidance mediated the relationship between re-experiencing and dysphoria.For fathers, none of the hypothesized mediators were significant. For mothers, hyperarousal mediated the relationship between re-experiencing and dysphoria, but avoidance did not.Results suggest that hyperarousal is important for the development of dysphoria in mothers, supporting use of interventions targeting such symptoms in the early and ongoing period following the child's diagnosis.
Episodic Memory Development: Theory of Mind Is Part of Re-Experiencing Experienced Events
Perner, Josef; Kloo, Daniela; Gornik, Edith
2007-01-01
Two experiments with 3 1/2- to 6 1/2-year-old children showed that theory-of-mind development is associated with the growth of episodic memory. Episodic memory was assessed by manipulating informational conditions such that they permit or prevent the formation of episodic memories in terms of re-experiencing the recalled event. Only experienced…
MOS modeling hierarchy including radiation effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexander, D.R.; Turfler, R.M.
1975-01-01
A hierarchy of modeling procedures has been developed for MOS transistors, circuit blocks, and integrated circuits which include the effects of total dose radiation and photocurrent response. The models were developed for use with the SCEPTRE circuit analysis program, but the techniques are suitable for other modern computer aided analysis programs. The modeling hierarchy permits the designer or analyst to select the level of modeling complexity consistent with circuit size, parametric information, and accuracy requirements. Improvements have been made in the implementation of important second order effects in the transistor MOS model, in the definition of MOS building block models, and in the development of composite terminal models for MOS integrated circuits
The neural mechanisms of re-experiencing mental fatigue sensation: a magnetoencephalography study.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Akira Ishii
Full Text Available There have been several studies which have tried to clarify the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation; however fatigue sensation has multiple aspects. We hypothesized that past experience related to fatigue sensation is an important factor which contributes to future formation of fatigue sensation through the transfer to memories that are located within specific brain structures. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation related to memory. In the present study, we investigated the neural activity caused by re-experiencing the fatigue sensation that had been experienced during a fatigue-inducing session. Thirteen healthy volunteers participated in fatigue and non-fatigue experiments in a crossover fashion. In the fatigue experiment, they performed a 2-back test session for 40 min to induce fatigue sensation, a rest session for 15 min to recover from fatigue, and a magnetoencephalography (MEG session in which they were asked to re-experience the state of their body with fatigue that they had experienced in the 2-back test session. In the non-fatigue experiment, the participants performed a free session for 15 min, a rest session for 15 min, and an MEG session in which they were asked to re-experience the state of their body without fatigue that they had experienced in the free session. Spatial filtering analyses of oscillatory brain activity showed that the delta band power in the left Brodmann's area (BA 39, alpha band power in the right pulvinar nucleus and the left BA 40, and beta band power in the left BA 40 were lower when they re-experienced the fatigue sensation than when they re-experienced the fatigue-free sensation, indicating that these brain regions are related to re-experiencing the fatigue sensation. Our findings may help clarify the neural mechanisms underlying fatigue sensation.
The neural mechanisms of re-experiencing mental fatigue sensation: a magnetoencephalography study.
Ishii, Akira; Karasuyama, Takuma; Kikuchi, Taiki; Tanaka, Masaaki; Yamano, Emi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi
2015-01-01
There have been several studies which have tried to clarify the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation; however fatigue sensation has multiple aspects. We hypothesized that past experience related to fatigue sensation is an important factor which contributes to future formation of fatigue sensation through the transfer to memories that are located within specific brain structures. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation related to memory. In the present study, we investigated the neural activity caused by re-experiencing the fatigue sensation that had been experienced during a fatigue-inducing session. Thirteen healthy volunteers participated in fatigue and non-fatigue experiments in a crossover fashion. In the fatigue experiment, they performed a 2-back test session for 40 min to induce fatigue sensation, a rest session for 15 min to recover from fatigue, and a magnetoencephalography (MEG) session in which they were asked to re-experience the state of their body with fatigue that they had experienced in the 2-back test session. In the non-fatigue experiment, the participants performed a free session for 15 min, a rest session for 15 min, and an MEG session in which they were asked to re-experience the state of their body without fatigue that they had experienced in the free session. Spatial filtering analyses of oscillatory brain activity showed that the delta band power in the left Brodmann's area (BA) 39, alpha band power in the right pulvinar nucleus and the left BA 40, and beta band power in the left BA 40 were lower when they re-experienced the fatigue sensation than when they re-experienced the fatigue-free sensation, indicating that these brain regions are related to re-experiencing the fatigue sensation. Our findings may help clarify the neural mechanisms underlying fatigue sensation.
Remembering and Re-Experiencing Trauma during Genocide ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2015-01-27
Jan 27, 2015 ... of 3193 people were reported to have developed ... In order to evaluate the supportive- expressive group therapy intervention, we designed a research study to evaluate the efficacy of this model ... the waiting list participants were offered counseling .... measure resilience in the adolescent and adult.
Bartoszek, Gregory; Hannan, Susan M; Kamm, Janina; Pamp, Barbara; Maieritsch, Kelly P
2017-06-01
Research has demonstrated a strong positive association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and physical pain. However, few studies have explored the impact of pain problems on the symptoms and treatment of PTSD, and results remain inconsistent. This longitudinal study examined whether trauma-related and trauma-unrelated pain differentially and uniquely predicted reexperiencing symptoms. We also examined whether levels of reexperiencing symptoms mediated the relationship between pain intensity and posttreatment symptoms of avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal (ANH). Analyses were conducted using archival data from 99 treatment-seeking veterans who reported the etiology and intensity of their pain and severity of PTSD symptoms pre- and posttreatment. Among veterans with trauma-related pain, pain intensity (a) uniquely corresponded to greater posttreatment reexperiencing symptoms (b = 1.09), and (b) was indirectly predictive of ANH symptoms via the reexperiencing symptoms (b = 1.93). However, veterans with trauma-unrelated pain evidenced no associations between pain intensity and reexperiencing (b = 0.04) or ANH symptoms (b = 0.06). We thus found that trauma-related pain was indirectly related to poor PTSD treatment outcomes via reexperiencing symptoms. These findings offer additional insight into factors that may influence PTSD treatment outcomes for pain-suffering trauma survivors. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Model for safety reports including descriptive examples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1995-12-01
Several safety reports will be produced in the process of planning and constructing the system for disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Sweden. The present report gives a model, with detailed examples, of how these reports should be organized and what steps they should include. In the near future safety reports will deal with the encapsulation plant and the repository. Later reports will treat operation of the handling systems and the repository
SEEPAGE MODEL FOR PA INCLUDING DRIFT COLLAPSE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
C. Tsang
2004-01-01
The purpose of this report is to document the predictions and analyses performed using the seepage model for performance assessment (SMPA) for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and lower lithophysal (Tptpll) lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Look-up tables of seepage flow rates into a drift (and their uncertainty) are generated by performing numerical simulations with the seepage model for many combinations of the three most important seepage-relevant parameters: the fracture permeability, the capillary-strength parameter 1/a, and the percolation flux. The percolation flux values chosen take into account flow focusing effects, which are evaluated based on a flow-focusing model. Moreover, multiple realizations of the underlying stochastic permeability field are conducted. Selected sensitivity studies are performed, including the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift from an independent drift-degradation analysis (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]). The intended purpose of the seepage model is to provide results of drift-scale seepage rates under a series of parameters and scenarios in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). The SMPA is intended for the evaluation of drift-scale seepage rates under the full range of parameter values for three parameters found to be key (fracture permeability, the van Genuchten 1/a parameter, and percolation flux) and drift degradation shape scenarios in support of the TSPA-LA during the period of compliance for postclosure performance [Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160819], Section I-4-2-1)]. The flow-focusing model in the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) unit is intended to provide an estimate of flow focusing factors (FFFs) that (1) bridge the gap between the mountain-scale and drift-scale models, and (2) account for variability in local percolation flux due to
Grand unified models including extra Z bosons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Tiezhong
1989-01-01
The grand unified theories (GUT) of the simple Lie groups including extra Z bosons are discussed. Under authors's hypothesis there are only SU 5+m SO 6+4n and E 6 groups. The general discussion of SU 5+m is given, then the SU 6 and SU 7 are considered. In SU 6 the 15+6 * +6 * fermion representations are used, which are not same as others in fermion content, Yukawa coupling and broken scales. A conception of clans of particles, which are not families, is suggested. These clans consist of extra Z bosons and the corresponding fermions of the scale. The all of fermions in the clans are down quarks except for the standard model which consists of Z bosons and 15 fermions, therefore, the spectrum of the hadrons which are composed of these down quarks are different from hadrons at present
An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling
Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.
1996-11-01
) experience with methods of protein purification; (iii) incorporation of appropriate controls into experiments; (iv) use of basic statistics in data analysis; (v) writing papers and grant proposals in accepted scientific style; (vi) peer review; (vii) oral presentation of results and proposals; and (viii) introduction to molecular modeling. Figure 1 illustrates the modular nature of the lab curriculum. Elements from each of the exercises can be separated and treated as stand-alone exercises, or combined into short or long projects. We have been able to offer the opportunity to use sophisticated molecular modeling in the final module through funding from an NSF-ILI grant. However, many of the benefits of the research proposal can be achieved with other computer programs, or even by literature survey alone. Figure 1.Design of project-based biochemistry laboratory. Modules (projects, or portions of projects) are indicated as boxes. Each of these can be treated independently, or used as part of a larger project. Solid lines indicate some suggested paths from one module to the next. The skills and knowledge required for protein purification and design are developed in three units: (i) an introduction to critical assays needed to monitor degree of purification, including an evaluation of assay parameters; (ii) partial purification by ion-exchange techniques; and (iii) preparation of a grant proposal on protein design by mutagenesis. Brief descriptions of each of these units follow, with experimental details of each project at the end of this paper. Assays for Lysozyme Activity and Protein Concentration (4 weeks) The assays mastered during the first unit are a necessary tool for determining the purity of the enzyme during the second unit on purification by ion exchange. These assays allow an introduction to the concept of specific activity (units of enzyme activity per milligram of total protein) as a measure of purity. In this first sequence, students learn a turbidimetric assay
Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, G.; Tsang, C.
2000-01-01
The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the predictions and analysis performed using the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA) and the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain. These results will be used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into waste-emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as part of the evaluation of the long term performance of the potential repository. This AMR is in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS M andO 2000 [153447]). This purpose is accomplished by performing numerical simulations with stochastic representations of hydrological properties, using the Seepage Model for PA, and evaluating the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift using the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel. Seepage of water into waste-emplacement drifts is considered one of the principal factors having the greatest impact of long-term safety of the repository system (CRWMS M andO 2000 [153225], Table 4-1). This AMR supports the analysis and simulation that are used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into drift, and is therefore a model of primary (Level 1) importance (AP-3.15Q, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''). The intended purpose of the Seepage Model for PA is to support: (1) PA; (2) Abstraction of Drift-Scale Seepage; and (3) Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). Seepage into drifts is evaluated by applying numerical models with stochastic representations of hydrological properties and performing flow simulations with multiple realizations of the permeability field around the drift. The Seepage Model for PA uses the distribution of permeabilities derived from air injection testing in niches and in the cross drift to
Seepage Model for PA Including Dift Collapse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
G. Li; C. Tsang
2000-12-20
The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the predictions and analysis performed using the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (PA) and the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel for both the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal and lower lithophysal lithostratigraphic units at Yucca Mountain. These results will be used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into waste-emplacement drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as part of the evaluation of the long term performance of the potential repository. This AMR is in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153447]). This purpose is accomplished by performing numerical simulations with stochastic representations of hydrological properties, using the Seepage Model for PA, and evaluating the effects of an alternative drift geometry representing a partially collapsed drift using the Disturbed Drift Seepage Submodel. Seepage of water into waste-emplacement drifts is considered one of the principal factors having the greatest impact of long-term safety of the repository system (CRWMS M&O 2000 [153225], Table 4-1). This AMR supports the analysis and simulation that are used by PA to develop the probability distribution of water seepage into drift, and is therefore a model of primary (Level 1) importance (AP-3.15Q, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''). The intended purpose of the Seepage Model for PA is to support: (1) PA; (2) Abstraction of Drift-Scale Seepage; and (3) Unsaturated Zone (UZ) Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). Seepage into drifts is evaluated by applying numerical models with stochastic representations of hydrological properties and performing flow simulations with multiple realizations of the permeability field around the drift. The Seepage Model for PA uses the distribution of permeabilities derived from air injection testing in
Enhanced battery model including temperature effects
Rosca, B.; Wilkins, S.
2013-01-01
Within electric and hybrid vehicles, batteries are used to provide/buffer the energy required for driving. However, battery performance varies throughout the temperature range specific to automotive applications, and as such, models that describe this behaviour are required. This paper presents a
Olkiluoto surface hydrological modelling: Update 2012 including salt transport modelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karvonen, T.
2013-11-01
Posiva Oy is responsible for implementing a final disposal program for spent nuclear fuel of its owners Teollisuuden Voima Oyj and Fortum Power and Heat Oy. The spent nuclear fuel is planned to be disposed at a depth of about 400-450 meters in the crystalline bedrock at the Olkiluoto site. Leakages located at or close to spent fuel repository may give rise to the upconing of deep highly saline groundwater and this is a concern with regard to the performance of the tunnel backfill material after the closure of the tunnels. Therefore a salt transport sub-model was added to the Olkiluoto surface hydrological model (SHYD). The other improvements include update of the particle tracking algorithm and possibility to estimate the influence of open drillholes in a case where overpressure in inflatable packers decreases causing a hydraulic short-circuit between hydrogeological zones HZ19 and HZ20 along the drillhole. Four new hydrogeological zones HZ056, HZ146, BFZ100 and HZ039 were added to the model. In addition, zones HZ20A and HZ20B intersect with each other in the new structure model, which influences salinity upconing caused by leakages in shafts. The aim of the modelling of long-term influence of ONKALO, shafts and repository tunnels provide computational results that can be used to suggest limits for allowed leakages. The model input data included all the existing leakages into ONKALO (35-38 l/min) and shafts in the present day conditions. The influence of shafts was computed using eight different values for total shaft leakage: 5, 11, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 l/min. The selection of the leakage criteria for shafts was influenced by the fact that upconing of saline water increases TDS-values close to the repository areas although HZ20B does not intersect any deposition tunnels. The total limit for all leakages was suggested to be 120 l/min. The limit for HZ20 zones was proposed to be 40 l/min: about 5 l/min the present day leakages to access tunnel, 25 l/min from
Olkiluoto surface hydrological modelling: Update 2012 including salt transport modelling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karvonen, T. [WaterHope, Helsinki (Finland)
2013-11-15
Posiva Oy is responsible for implementing a final disposal program for spent nuclear fuel of its owners Teollisuuden Voima Oyj and Fortum Power and Heat Oy. The spent nuclear fuel is planned to be disposed at a depth of about 400-450 meters in the crystalline bedrock at the Olkiluoto site. Leakages located at or close to spent fuel repository may give rise to the upconing of deep highly saline groundwater and this is a concern with regard to the performance of the tunnel backfill material after the closure of the tunnels. Therefore a salt transport sub-model was added to the Olkiluoto surface hydrological model (SHYD). The other improvements include update of the particle tracking algorithm and possibility to estimate the influence of open drillholes in a case where overpressure in inflatable packers decreases causing a hydraulic short-circuit between hydrogeological zones HZ19 and HZ20 along the drillhole. Four new hydrogeological zones HZ056, HZ146, BFZ100 and HZ039 were added to the model. In addition, zones HZ20A and HZ20B intersect with each other in the new structure model, which influences salinity upconing caused by leakages in shafts. The aim of the modelling of long-term influence of ONKALO, shafts and repository tunnels provide computational results that can be used to suggest limits for allowed leakages. The model input data included all the existing leakages into ONKALO (35-38 l/min) and shafts in the present day conditions. The influence of shafts was computed using eight different values for total shaft leakage: 5, 11, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 l/min. The selection of the leakage criteria for shafts was influenced by the fact that upconing of saline water increases TDS-values close to the repository areas although HZ20B does not intersect any deposition tunnels. The total limit for all leakages was suggested to be 120 l/min. The limit for HZ20 zones was proposed to be 40 l/min: about 5 l/min the present day leakages to access tunnel, 25 l/min from
Stochastic modelling of two-phase flows including phase change
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hurisse, O.; Minier, J.P.
2011-01-01
Stochastic modelling has already been developed and applied for single-phase flows and incompressible two-phase flows. In this article, we propose an extension of this modelling approach to two-phase flows including phase change (e.g. for steam-water flows). Two aspects are emphasised: a stochastic model accounting for phase transition and a modelling constraint which arises from volume conservation. To illustrate the whole approach, some remarks are eventually proposed for two-fluid models. (authors)
Unsteady panel method for complex configurations including wake modeling
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Van Zyl, Lourens H
2008-01-01
Full Text Available implementations of the DLM are however not very versatile in terms of geometries that can be modeled. The ZONA6 code offers a versatile surface panel body model including a separated wake model, but uses a pressure panel method for lifting surfaces. This paper...
Including investment risk in large-scale power market models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard; Meibom, P.
2003-01-01
Long-term energy market models can be used to examine investments in production technologies, however, with market liberalisation it is crucial that such models include investment risks and investor behaviour. This paper analyses how the effect of investment risk on production technology selection...... can be included in large-scale partial equilibrium models of the power market. The analyses are divided into a part about risk measures appropriate for power market investors and a more technical part about the combination of a risk-adjustment model and a partial-equilibrium model. To illustrate...... the analyses quantitatively, a framework based on an iterative interaction between the equilibrium model and a separate risk-adjustment module was constructed. To illustrate the features of the proposed modelling approach we examined how uncertainty in demand and variable costs affects the optimal choice...
MODEL OF THE TOKAMAK EDGE DENSITY PEDESTAL INCLUDING DIFFUSIVE NEUTRALS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
BURRELL, K.H.
2003-01-01
OAK-B135 Several previous analytic models of the tokamak edge density pedestal have been based on diffusive transport of plasma plus free-streaming of neutrals. This latter neutral model includes only the effect of ionization and neglects charge exchange. The present work models the edge density pedestal using diffusive transport for both the plasma and the neutrals. In contrast to the free-streaming model, a diffusion model for the neutrals includes the effect of both charge exchange and ionization and is valid when charge exchange is the dominant interaction. Surprisingly, the functional forms for the electron and neutral density profiles from the present calculation are identical to the results of the previous analytic models. There are some differences in the detailed definition of various parameters in the solution. For experimentally relevant cases where ionization and charge exchange rate are comparable, both models predict approximately the same width for the edge density pedestal
Progressive IRP Models for Power Resources Including EPP
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yiping Zhu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In the view of optimizing regional power supply and demand, the paper makes effective planning scheduling of supply and demand side resources including energy efficiency power plant (EPP, to achieve the target of benefit, cost, and environmental constraints. In order to highlight the characteristics of different supply and demand resources in economic, environmental, and carbon constraints, three planning models with progressive constraints are constructed. Results of three models by the same example show that the best solutions to different models are different. The planning model including EPP has obvious advantages considering pollutant and carbon emission constraints, which confirms the advantages of low cost and emissions of EPP. The construction of progressive IRP models for power resources considering EPP has a certain reference value for guiding the planning and layout of EPP within other power resources and achieving cost and environmental objectives.
A hydrodynamic model for granular material flows including segregation effects
Gilberg, Dominik; Klar, Axel; Steiner, Konrad
2017-06-01
The simulation of granular flows including segregation effects in large industrial processes using particle methods is accurate, but very time-consuming. To overcome the long computation times a macroscopic model is a natural choice. Therefore, we couple a mixture theory based segregation model to a hydrodynamic model of Navier-Stokes-type, describing the flow behavior of the granular material. The granular flow model is a hybrid model derived from kinetic theory and a soil mechanical approach to cover the regime of fast dilute flow, as well as slow dense flow, where the density of the granular material is close to the maximum packing density. Originally, the segregation model has been formulated by Thornton and Gray for idealized avalanches. It is modified and adapted to be in the preferred form for the coupling. In the final coupled model the segregation process depends on the local state of the granular system. On the other hand, the granular system changes as differently mixed regions of the granular material differ i.e. in the packing density. For the modeling process the focus lies on dry granular material flows of two particle types differing only in size but can be easily extended to arbitrary granular mixtures of different particle size and density. To solve the coupled system a finite volume approach is used. To test the model the rotational mixing of small and large particles in a tumbler is simulated.
Modelling a linear PM motor including magnetic saturation
Polinder, H.; Slootweg, J.G.; Compter, J.C.; Hoeijmakers, M.J.
2002-01-01
The use of linear permanent-magnet (PM) actuators increases in a wide variety of applications because of the high force density, robustness and accuracy. The paper describes the modelling of a linear PM motor applied in, for example, wafer steppers, including magnetic saturation. This is important
Simple suggestions for including vertical physics in oil spill models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Asaro, Eric; University of Washington, Seatle, WA
2001-01-01
Current models of oil spills include no vertical physics. They neglect the effect of vertical water motions on the transport and concentration of floating oil. Some simple ways to introduce vertical physics are suggested here. The major suggestion is to routinely measure the density stratification of the upper ocean during oil spills in order to develop a database on the effect of stratification. (Author)
Aggregated Demand Modelling Including Distributed Generation, Storage and Demand Response
Marzooghi, Hesamoddin; Hill, David J.; Verbic, Gregor
2014-01-01
It is anticipated that penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs) in power systems will increase further in the next decades mainly due to environmental issues. In the long term of several decades, which we refer to in terms of the future grid (FG), balancing between supply and demand will become dependent on demand actions including demand response (DR) and energy storage. So far, FG feasibility studies have not considered these new demand-side developments for modelling future demand. I...
Modeling Electric Double-Layers Including Chemical Reaction Effects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.
2014-01-01
A physicochemical and numerical model for the transient formation of an electric double-layer between an electrolyte and a chemically-active flat surface is presented, based on a finite elements integration of the nonlinear Nernst-Planck-Poisson model including chemical reactions. The model works...... for symmetric and asymmetric multi-species electrolytes and is not limited to a range of surface potentials. Numerical simulations are presented, for the case of a CaCO3 electrolyte solution in contact with a surface with rate-controlled protonation/deprotonation reactions. The surface charge and potential...... are determined by the surface reactions, and therefore they depends on the bulk solution composition and concentration...
Exclusive queueing model including the choice of service windows
Tanaka, Masahiro; Yanagisawa, Daichi; Nishinari, Katsuhiro
2018-01-01
In a queueing system involving multiple service windows, choice behavior is a significant concern. This paper incorporates the choice of service windows into a queueing model with a floor represented by discrete cells. We contrived a logit-based choice algorithm for agents considering the numbers of agents and the distances to all service windows. Simulations were conducted with various parameters of agent choice preference for these two elements and for different floor configurations, including the floor length and the number of service windows. We investigated the model from the viewpoint of transit times and entrance block rates. The influences of the parameters on these factors were surveyed in detail and we determined that there are optimum floor lengths that minimize the transit times. In addition, we observed that the transit times were determined almost entirely by the entrance block rates. The results of the presented model are relevant to understanding queueing systems including the choice of service windows and can be employed to optimize facility design and floor management.
Kinetic models of gene expression including non-coding RNAs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhdanov, Vladimir P., E-mail: zhdanov@catalysis.r
2011-03-15
In cells, genes are transcribed into mRNAs, and the latter are translated into proteins. Due to the feedbacks between these processes, the kinetics of gene expression may be complex even in the simplest genetic networks. The corresponding models have already been reviewed in the literature. A new avenue in this field is related to the recognition that the conventional scenario of gene expression is fully applicable only to prokaryotes whose genomes consist of tightly packed protein-coding sequences. In eukaryotic cells, in contrast, such sequences are relatively rare, and the rest of the genome includes numerous transcript units representing non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). During the past decade, it has become clear that such RNAs play a crucial role in gene expression and accordingly influence a multitude of cellular processes both in the normal state and during diseases. The numerous biological functions of ncRNAs are based primarily on their abilities to silence genes via pairing with a target mRNA and subsequently preventing its translation or facilitating degradation of the mRNA-ncRNA complex. Many other abilities of ncRNAs have been discovered as well. Our review is focused on the available kinetic models describing the mRNA, ncRNA and protein interplay. In particular, we systematically present the simplest models without kinetic feedbacks, models containing feedbacks and predicting bistability and oscillations in simple genetic networks, and models describing the effect of ncRNAs on complex genetic networks. Mathematically, the presentation is based primarily on temporal mean-field kinetic equations. The stochastic and spatio-temporal effects are also briefly discussed.
Progress Towards an LES Wall Model Including Unresolved Roughness
Craft, Kyle; Redman, Andrew; Aikens, Kurt
2015-11-01
Wall models used in large eddy simulations (LES) are often based on theories for hydraulically smooth walls. While this is reasonable for many applications, there are also many where the impact of surface roughness is important. A previously developed wall model has been used primarily for jet engine aeroacoustics. However, jet simulations have not accurately captured thick initial shear layers found in some experimental data. This may partly be due to nozzle wall roughness used in the experiments to promote turbulent boundary layers. As a result, the wall model is extended to include the effects of unresolved wall roughness through appropriate alterations to the log-law. The methodology is tested for incompressible flat plate boundary layers with different surface roughness. Correct trends are noted for the impact of surface roughness on the velocity profile. However, velocity deficit profiles and the Reynolds stresses do not collapse as well as expected. Possible reasons for the discrepancies as well as future work will be presented. This work used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation grant number ACI-1053575. Computational resources on TACC Stampede were provided under XSEDE allocation ENG150001.
Extending Primitive Spatial Data Models to Include Semantics
Reitsma, F.; Batcheller, J.
2009-04-01
Our traditional geospatial data model involves associating some measurable quality, such as temperature, or observable feature, such as a tree, with a point or region in space and time. When capturing data we implicitly subscribe to some kind of conceptualisation. If we can make this explicit in an ontology and associate it with the captured data, we can leverage formal semantics to reason with the concepts represented in our spatial data sets. To do so, we extend our fundamental representation of geospatial data in a data model by including a URI in our basic data model that links it to our ontology defining our conceptualisation, We thus extend Goodchild et al's geo-atom [1] with the addition of a URI: (x, Z, z(x), URI) . This provides us with pixel or feature level knowledge and the ability to create layers of data from a set of pixels or features that might be drawn from a database based on their semantics. Using open source tools, we present a prototype that involves simple reasoning as a proof of concept. References [1] M.F. Goodchild, M. Yuan, and T.J. Cova. Towards a general theory of geographic representation in gis. International Journal of Geographical Information Science, 21(3):239-260, 2007.
Accurate SHAPE-directed RNA secondary structure modeling, including pseudoknots.
Hajdin, Christine E; Bellaousov, Stanislav; Huggins, Wayne; Leonard, Christopher W; Mathews, David H; Weeks, Kevin M
2013-04-02
A pseudoknot forms in an RNA when nucleotides in a loop pair with a region outside the helices that close the loop. Pseudoknots occur relatively rarely in RNA but are highly overrepresented in functionally critical motifs in large catalytic RNAs, in riboswitches, and in regulatory elements of viruses. Pseudoknots are usually excluded from RNA structure prediction algorithms. When included, these pairings are difficult to model accurately, especially in large RNAs, because allowing this structure dramatically increases the number of possible incorrect folds and because it is difficult to search the fold space for an optimal structure. We have developed a concise secondary structure modeling approach that combines SHAPE (selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension) experimental chemical probing information and a simple, but robust, energy model for the entropic cost of single pseudoknot formation. Structures are predicted with iterative refinement, using a dynamic programming algorithm. This melded experimental and thermodynamic energy function predicted the secondary structures and the pseudoknots for a set of 21 challenging RNAs of known structure ranging in size from 34 to 530 nt. On average, 93% of known base pairs were predicted, and all pseudoknots in well-folded RNAs were identified.
A speech production model including the nasal Cavity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olesen, Morten
In order to obtain articulatory analysis of speech production the model is improved. the standard model, as used in LPC analysis, to a large extent only models the acoustic properties of speech signal as opposed to articulatory modelling of the speech production. In spite of this the LPC model...... is by far the most widely used model in speech technology....
Hydromechanical modeling of clay rock including fracture damage
Asahina, D.; Houseworth, J. E.; Birkholzer, J. T.
2012-12-01
Argillaceous rock typically acts as a flow barrier, but under certain conditions significant and potentially conductive fractures may be present. Fracture formation is well-known to occur in the vicinity of underground excavations in a region known as the excavation disturbed zone. Such problems are of particular importance for low-permeability, mechanically weak rock such as clays and shales because fractures can be relatively transient as a result of fracture self-sealing processes. Perhaps not as well appreciated is the fact that natural fractures can form in argillaceous rock as a result of hydraulic overpressure caused by phenomena such as disequlibrium compaction, changes in tectonic stress, and mineral dehydration. Overpressure conditions can cause hydraulic fracturing if the fluid pressure leads to tensile effective stresses that exceed the tensile strength of the material. Quantitative modeling of this type of process requires coupling between hydrogeologic processes and geomechanical processes including fracture initiation and propagation. Here we present a computational method for three-dimensional, hydromechanical coupled processes including fracture damage. Fractures are represented as discrete features in a fracture network that interact with a porous rock matrix. Fracture configurations are mapped onto an unstructured, three-dimensonal, Voronoi grid, which is based on a random set of spatial points. Discrete fracture networks (DFN) are represented by the connections of the edges of a Voronoi cells. This methodology has the advantage that fractures can be more easily introduced in response to coupled hydro-mechanical processes and generally eliminates several potential issues associated with the geometry of DFN and numerical gridding. A geomechanical and fracture-damage model is developed here using the Rigid-Body-Spring-Network (RBSN) numerical method. The hydrogelogic and geomechanical models share the same geometrical information from a 3D Voronoi
Material opportunities for children’s participation, articulation and re-experiencing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Anne Maj; Kolmos, Marie
and mindfulness. It is possible to include mutual material references in conversations with children in order to handle some of these challenges. Mutual material references can be situated bodily practices, drawings and artifacts. The poster presents a culture psychological and phenomenological approach...
Including spatial data in nutrient balance modelling on dairy farms
van Leeuwen, Maricke; van Middelaar, Corina; Stoof, Cathelijne; Oenema, Jouke; Stoorvogel, Jetse; de Boer, Imke
2017-04-01
The Annual Nutrient Cycle Assessment (ANCA) calculates the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) balance at a dairy farm, while taking into account the subsequent nutrient cycles of the herd, manure, soil and crop components. Since January 2016, Dutch dairy farmers are required to use ANCA in order to increase understanding of nutrient flows and to minimize nutrient losses to the environment. A nutrient balance calculates the difference between nutrient inputs and outputs. Nutrients enter the farm via purchased feed, fertilizers, deposition and fixation by legumes (nitrogen), and leave the farm via milk, livestock, manure, and roughages. A positive balance indicates to which extent N and/or P are lost to the environment via gaseous emissions (N), leaching, run-off and accumulation in soil. A negative balance indicates that N and/or P are depleted from soil. ANCA was designed to calculate average nutrient flows on farm level (for the herd, manure, soil and crop components). ANCA was not designed to perform calculations of nutrient flows at the field level, as it uses averaged nutrient inputs and outputs across all fields, and it does not include field specific soil characteristics. Land management decisions, however, such as the level of N and P application, are typically taken at the field level given the specific crop and soil characteristics. Therefore the information that ANCA provides is likely not sufficient to support farmers' decisions on land management to minimize nutrient losses to the environment. This is particularly a problem when land management and soils vary between fields. For an accurate estimate of nutrient flows in a given farming system that can be used to optimize land management, the spatial scale of nutrient inputs and outputs (and thus the effect of land management and soil variation) could be essential. Our aim was to determine the effect of the spatial scale of nutrient inputs and outputs on modelled nutrient flows and nutrient use efficiencies
Single-Phase Bundle Flows Including Macroscopic Turbulence Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Seung Jun; Yoon, Han Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seok Jong; Cho, Hyoung Kyu [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2016-05-15
To deal with various thermal hydraulic phenomena due to rapid change of fluid properties when an accident happens, securing mechanistic approaches as much as possible may reduce the uncertainty arising from improper applications of the experimental models. In this study, the turbulence mixing model, which is well defined in the subchannel analysis code such as VIPRE, COBRA, and MATRA by experiments, is replaced by a macroscopic k-e turbulence model, which represents the aspect of mathematical derivation. The performance of CUPID with macroscopic turbulence model is validated against several bundle experiments: CNEN 4x4 and PNL 7x7 rod bundle tests. In this study, the macroscopic k-e model has been validated for the application to subchannel analysis. It has been implemented in the CUPID code and validated against CNEN 4x4 and PNL 7x7 rod bundle tests. The results showed that the macroscopic k-e turbulence model can estimate the experiments properly.
A unitarized meson model including color Coulomb interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Metzger, Kees.
1990-01-01
Ch. 1 gives a general introduction into the problem field of the thesis. It discusses in how far the internal structure of mesons is understood theoretically and which models exist. It discusses from a phenomenological point of view the problem of confinement indicates how quark models of mesons may provide insight in this phenomenon. In ch. 2 the formal theory of scattering in a system with confinement is given. It is shown how a coupled channel (CC) description and the work of other authors fit into this general framework. Explicit examples and arguments are given to support the CC treatment of such a system. In ch. 3 the full coupled-channel model as is employed in this thesis is presented. On the basis of arguments from the former chapters and the observed regularities in the experimental data, the choices underlying the model are supported. In this model confinement is described with a mass-dependent harmonic-oscillator potential and the presence of open (meson-meson) channels plays an essential role. In ch. 4 the unitarized model is applied to light scalar meson resonances. In this regime the contribution of the open channels is considerable. It is demonstrated that the model parameters as used for the description of the pseudo-scalar and vector mesons, unchanged can be used for the description of these mesons. Ch. 5 treats the color-Coulomb interaction. There the effect of the Coulomb interaction is studied in simple models without decay. The results of incorporating the color-Coulomb interaction into the full CC model are given in ch.6. Ch. 7 discusses the results of the previous chapters and the present status of the model. (author). 182 refs.; 16 figs.; 33 tabs
Global atmospheric model for mercury including oxidation by bromine atoms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. D. Holmes
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Global models of atmospheric mercury generally assume that gas-phase OH and ozone are the main oxidants converting Hg^{0} to Hg^{II} and thus driving mercury deposition to ecosystems. However, thermodynamic considerations argue against the importance of these reactions. We demonstrate here the viability of atomic bromine (Br as an alternative Hg^{0} oxidant. We conduct a global 3-D simulation with the GEOS-Chem model assuming gas-phase Br to be the sole Hg^{0} oxidant (Hg + Br model and compare to the previous version of the model with OH and ozone as the sole oxidants (Hg + OH/O_{3} model. We specify global 3-D Br concentration fields based on our best understanding of tropospheric and stratospheric Br chemistry. In both the Hg + Br and Hg + OH/O_{3} models, we add an aqueous photochemical reduction of Hg^{II} in cloud to impose a tropospheric lifetime for mercury of 6.5 months against deposition, as needed to reconcile observed total gaseous mercury (TGM concentrations with current estimates of anthropogenic emissions. This added reduction would not be necessary in the Hg + Br model if we adjusted the Br oxidation kinetics downward within their range of uncertainty. We find that the Hg + Br and Hg + OH/O_{3} models are equally capable of reproducing the spatial distribution of TGM and its seasonal cycle at northern mid-latitudes. The Hg + Br model shows a steeper decline of TGM concentrations from the tropics to southern mid-latitudes. Only the Hg + Br model can reproduce the springtime depletion and summer rebound of TGM observed at polar sites; the snowpack component of GEOS-Chem suggests that 40% of Hg^{II} deposited to snow in the Arctic is transferred to the ocean and land reservoirs, amounting to a net deposition flux to the Arctic of 60 Mg a^{−1}. Summertime events of depleted Hg^{0} at Antarctic sites due to subsidence are much better simulated by
Kong, Jooyoung; Easton, Scott D
2018-03-26
This study primarily examines the associations between histories of childhood maltreatment (i.e., neglect, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse) and elder abuse victimization and explores whether gender moderates the associations. We conducted a secondary data analysis of 5,968 older adults (mean age = 71 years) based on data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (2010-2011). Using retrospective self-reports of childhood and current (past 12 months) victimization experiences, logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate the effects of early-life adversities on the likelihood of elder abuse victimization. Results indicate that childhood emotional abuse and childhood sexual abuse were associated with greater risk of being abused as older adults, after controlling for childhood and adult background factors. We also found that the effect of childhood sexual abuse on elder abuse victimization was weaker for women than men. Findings suggest that the phenomenon of revictimization may occur not only in early and middle adulthood, but also in late life. To advance our understanding of victimization across the life course, future research on root causes of elder abuse should include histories of child abuse.
The prediction of the cavitation phenomena including population balance modeling
Bannari, Rachid; Hliwa, Ghizlane Zineb; Bannari, Abdelfettah; Belghiti, Mly Taib
2017-07-01
Cavitation is the principal reason behind the behavior's modification of the hydraulic turbines. However, the experimental observations can not be appropriate to all cases due to the limitations in the measurement techniques. The mathematical models which have been implemented, use the mixture multiphase frame. As well as, most of the published work is limited by considering a constant bubble size distribution. However, this assumption is not realist. The aim of this article is the implementation and the use of a non-homogeneous multiphase model which solve two phases transport equation. The evolution of bubble size is considered by the population balance equation. This study is based on the eulerian-eulerian model, associated to the cavitation model. All the inter-phase forces such as drag, lift and virtual mass are used.
Including model uncertainty in risk-informed decision making
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reinert, Joshua M.; Apostolakis, George E.
2006-01-01
Model uncertainties can have a significant impact on decisions regarding licensing basis changes. We present a methodology to identify basic events in the risk assessment that have the potential to change the decision and are known to have significant model uncertainties. Because we work with basic event probabilities, this methodology is not appropriate for analyzing uncertainties that cause a structural change to the model, such as success criteria. We use the risk achievement worth (RAW) importance measure with respect to both the core damage frequency (CDF) and the change in core damage frequency (ΔCDF) to identify potentially important basic events. We cross-check these with generically important model uncertainties. Then, sensitivity analysis is performed on the basic event probabilities, which are used as a proxy for the model parameters, to determine how much error in these probabilities would need to be present in order to impact the decision. A previously submitted licensing basis change is used as a case study. Analysis using the SAPHIRE program identifies 20 basic events as important, four of which have model uncertainties that have been identified in the literature as generally important. The decision is fairly insensitive to uncertainties in these basic events. In three of these cases, one would need to show that model uncertainties would lead to basic event probabilities that would be between two and four orders of magnitude larger than modeled in the risk assessment before they would become important to the decision. More detailed analysis would be required to determine whether these higher probabilities are reasonable. Methods to perform this analysis from the literature are reviewed and an example is demonstrated using the case study
Transport modelling including radial electric field and plasma rotation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukuyama, A.; Fuji, Y.; Itoh, S.-I.
1994-01-01
Using a simple turbulent transport model with a constant diffusion coefficient and a fixed temperature profile, the density profile in a steady state and the transient behaviour during the co and counter neutral beam injection are studied. More consistent analysis has been initiated with a turbulent transport model based on the current diffusive high-n ballooning mode. The enhancement of the radial electric field due to ion orbit losses and the reduction of the transport due to the poloidal rotation shear are demonstrated. The preliminary calculation indicates a sensitive temperature dependence of the density profile. (author)
Identifying Clusters with Mixture Models that Include Radial Velocity Observations
Czarnatowicz, Alexis; Ybarra, Jason E.
2018-01-01
The study of stellar clusters plays an integral role in the study of star formation. We present a cluster mixture model that considers radial velocity data in addition to spatial data. Maximum likelihood estimation through the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm is used for parameter estimation. Our mixture model analysis can be used to distinguish adjacent or overlapping clusters, and estimate properties for each cluster.Work supported by awards from the Virginia Foundation for Independent Colleges (VFIC) Undergraduate Science Research Fellowship and The Research Experience @Bridgewater (TREB).
Constitutive modeling of multiphase materials including phase transformations
Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Khan, A.S.; Meredith, C; Farrokh, B
2011-01-01
A constitutive model is developed for materials involving two or more different phases in their microstructure such as DP (Dual Phase) or TRIP (TRansformation Induced Plasticity) steels. Homogenization of the response of the phases is achieved by the Mean-Field method. One of the phases in TRIP
Development of realistic concrete models including scaling effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carpinteri, A.
1989-09-01
Progressive cracking in structural elements of concrete is considered. Two simple models are applied, which, even though different, lead to similar predictions for the fracture behaviour. Both Virtual Crack Propagation Model and Cohesive Limit Analysis (Section 2), show a trend towards brittle behaviour and catastrophical events for large structural sizes. A numerical Cohesive Crack Model is proposed (Section 3) to describe strain softening and strain localization in concrete. Such a model is able to predict the size effects of fracture mechanics accurately. Whereas for Mode I, only untieing of the finite element nodes is applied to simulate crack growth, for Mixed Mode a topological variation is required at each step (Section 4). In the case of the four point shear specimen, the load vs. deflection diagrams reveal snap-back instability for large sizes. By increasing the specimen sizes, such instability tends to reproduce the classical LEFM instability. Remarkable size effects are theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed also for reinforced concrete (Section 5). The brittleness of the flexural members increases by increasing size and/or decreasing steel content. On the basis of these results, the empirical code rules regarding the minimum amount of reinforcement could be considerably revised
Dynamic model including piping acoustics of a centrifugal compression system
Helvoirt, van J.; Jager, de A.G.
2007-01-01
This paper deals with low frequency pulsation phenomena in full-scale centrifugal compression systems associated with compressor surge. The Greitzer lumped parameter model is applied to describe the dynamic behavior of an industrial compressor test rig and experimental evidence is provided for the
Including lateral interactions into microkinetic models of catalytic reactions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hellman, Anders; Honkala, Johanna Karoliina
2007-01-01
In many catalytic reactions lateral interactions between adsorbates are believed to have a strong influence on the reaction rates. We apply a microkinetic model to explore the effect of lateral interactions and how to efficiently take them into account in a simple catalytic reaction. Three differ...... different approximations are investigated: site, mean-field, and quasichemical approximations. The obtained results are compared to accurate Monte Carlo numbers. In the end, we apply the approximations to a real catalytic reaction, namely, ammonia synthesis....
Parton recombination model including resonance production. RL-78-040
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roberts, R.G.; Hwa, R.C.; Matsuda, S.
1978-05-01
Possible effects of resonance production on the meson inclusive distribution in the fragmentation region are investigated in the framework of the parton recombination model. From a detailed study of the data on vector-meson production, a reliable ratio of the vector-to-pseudoscalar rates is determined. Then the influence of the decay of the vector mesons on the pseudoscalar spectrum is examined, and the effect found to be no more than 25% for x > 0.5. The normalization of the non-strange antiquark distributions are still higher than those in a quiescent proton. The agreement between the calculated results and data remain very good. 36 references
Parton recombination model including resonance production. RL-78-040
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roberts, R. G.; Hwa, R. C.; Matsuda, S.
1978-05-01
Possible effects of resonance production on the meson inclusive distribution in the fragmentation region are investigated in the framework of the parton recombination model. From a detailed study of the data on vector-meson production, a reliable ratio of the vector-to-pseudoscalar rates is determined. Then the influence of the decay of the vector mesons on the pseudoscalar spectrum is examined, and the effect found to be no more than 25% for x > 0.5. The normalization of the non-strange antiquark distributions are still higher than those in a quiescent proton. The agreement between the calculated results and data remain very good. 36 references.
Extending PSA models including ageing and asset management - 15291
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martorell, S.; Marton, I.; Carlos, S.; Sanchez, A.I.
2015-01-01
This paper proposes a new approach to Ageing Probabilistic Safety Assessment (APSA) modelling, which is intended to be used to support risk-informed decisions on the effectiveness of maintenance management programs and technical specification requirements of critical equipment of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) within the framework of the Risk Informed Decision Making according to R.G. 1.174 principles. This approach focuses on the incorporation of not only equipment ageing but also effectiveness of maintenance and efficiency of surveillance testing explicitly into APSA models and data. This methodology is applied to a motor-operated valve of the auxiliary feed water system (AFWS) of a PWR. This simple example of application focuses on a critical safety-related equipment of a NPP in order to evaluate the risk impact of considering different approaches to APSA and the combined effect of equipment ageing and maintenance and testing alternatives along NPP design life. The risk impact of several alternatives in maintenance strategy is discussed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jelena Jovanović
2010-03-01
Full Text Available The research is oriented on improvement of environmental management system (EMS using BSC (Balanced Scorecard model that presents strategic model of measurem ents and improvement of organisational performance. The research will present approach of objectives and environmental management me trics involvement (proposed by literature review in conventional BSC in "Ad Barska plovi dba" organisation. Further we will test creation of ECO-BSC model based on business activities of non-profit organisations in order to improve envir onmental management system in parallel with other systems of management. Using this approach we may obtain 4 models of BSC that includ es elements of environmen tal management system for AD "Barska plovidba". Taking into acc ount that implementation and evaluation need long period of time in AD "Barska plovidba", the final choice will be based on 14598 (Information technology - Software product evaluation and ISO 9126 (Software engineering - Product quality using AHP method. Those standards are usually used for evaluation of quality software product and computer programs that serve in organisation as support and factors for development. So, AHP model will be bas ed on evolution criteria based on suggestion of ISO 9126 standards and types of evaluation from two evaluation teams. Members of team & will be experts in BSC and environmental management system that are not em ployed in AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation. The members of team 2 will be managers of AD "Barska Plovidba" organisation (including manage rs from environmental department. Merging results based on previously cr eated two AHP models, one can obtain the most appropriate BSC that includes elements of environmental management system. The chosen model will present at the same time suggestion for approach choice including ecological metrics in conventional BSC model for firm that has at least one ECO strategic orientation.
Study of a diffusion flamelet model, with preferential diffusion effects included
Delhaye, S.; Somers, L.M.T.; Bongers, H.; Oijen, van J.A.; Goey, de L.P.H.; Dias, V.
2005-01-01
The non-premixed flamelet model of Peters [1] (model1), which does not include preferential diffusion effects is investigated. Two similar models are presented, but without the assumption of unity Lewis numbers. One of these models was derived by Peters & Pitsch [2] (model2), while the other one was
BioModels: expanding horizons to include more modelling approaches and formats.
Glont, Mihai; Nguyen, Tung V N; Graesslin, Martin; Hälke, Robert; Ali, Raza; Schramm, Jochen; Wimalaratne, Sarala M; Kothamachu, Varun B; Rodriguez, Nicolas; Swat, Maciej J; Eils, Jurgen; Eils, Roland; Laibe, Camille; Malik-Sheriff, Rahuman S; Chelliah, Vijayalakshmi; Le Novère, Nicolas; Hermjakob, Henning
2018-01-04
BioModels serves as a central repository of mathematical models representing biological processes. It offers a platform to make mathematical models easily shareable across the systems modelling community, thereby supporting model reuse. To facilitate hosting a broader range of model formats derived from diverse modelling approaches and tools, a new infrastructure for BioModels has been developed that is available at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/biomodels. This new system allows submitting and sharing of a wide range of models with improved support for formats other than SBML. It also offers a version-control backed environment in which authors and curators can work collaboratively to curate models. This article summarises the features available in the current system and discusses the potential benefit they offer to the users over the previous system. In summary, the new portal broadens the scope of models accepted in BioModels and supports collaborative model curation which is crucial for model reproducibility and sharing. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bergami, L.; Gaunaa, M.
2012-02-15
The report presents the ATEFlap aerodynamic model, which computes the unsteady lift, drag and moment on a 2D airfoil section equipped with Adaptive Trailing Edge Flap. The model captures the unsteady response related to the effects of the vorticity shed into the wake, and the dynamics of flow separation a thin-airfoil potential flow model is merged with a dynamic stall model of the Beddoes-Leishmann type. The inputs required by the model are steady data for lift, drag, and moment coefficients as function of angle of attack and flap deflection. Further steady data used by the Beddoes- Leishmann dynamic stall model are computed in an external preprocessor application, which gives the user the possibility to verify, and eventually correct, the steady data passed to the aerodynamic model. The ATEFlap aerodynamic model is integrated in the aeroelastic simulation tool HAWC2, thus al- lowing to simulate the response of a wind turbine with trailing edge flaps on the rotor. The algorithms used by the preprocessor, and by aerodynamic model are presented, and modifications to previous implementations of the aerodynamic model are briefly discussed. The performance and the validity of the model are verified by comparing the dynamic response computed by the ATEFlap with solutions from CFD simulations. (Author)
Kołowrocki, Krzysztof; Kuligowska, Ewa; Soszyńska-Budny, Joanna
2017-01-01
The paper presents an integrated general model of complex technical system, linking its multistate safety model and the model of its operation process including operating environment threats and considering variable at different operation states its safety structures and its components safety parameters. Under the assumption that the system has exponential safety function, the safety characteristics of the port oil piping transportation system are determined.
Mathematical model of thyristor inverter including a series-parallel resonant circuit
Luft, M.; Szychta, E.
2008-01-01
The article presents a mathematical model of thyristor inverter including a series-parallel resonant circuit with the aid of state variable method. Maple procedures are used to compute current and voltage waveforms in the inverter.
Mathematical Model of Thyristor Inverter Including a Series-parallel Resonant Circuit
Miroslaw Luft; Elzbieta Szychta
2008-01-01
The article presents a mathematical model of thyristor inverter including a series-parallel resonant circuit with theaid of state variable method. Maple procedures are used to compute current and voltage waveforms in the inverter.
Mathematical Model of Thyristor Inverter Including a Series-parallel Resonant Circuit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miroslaw Luft
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The article presents a mathematical model of thyristor inverter including a series-parallel resonant circuit with theaid of state variable method. Maple procedures are used to compute current and voltage waveforms in the inverter.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Boettner, Daisie
2001-01-01
.... This study develops models for a stand-alone Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack, a direct-hydrogen fuel cell system including auxiliaries, and a methanol reforming fuel cell system for integration into a vehicle performance simulator...
Atmosphere-soil-vegetation model including CO2 exchange processes: SOLVEG2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagai, Haruyasu
2004-11-01
A new atmosphere-soil-vegetation model named SOLVEG2 (SOLVEG version 2) was developed to study the heat, water, and CO 2 exchanges between the atmosphere and land-surface. The model consists of one-dimensional multilayer sub-models for the atmosphere, soil, and vegetation. It also includes sophisticated processes for solar and long-wave radiation transmission in vegetation canopy and CO 2 exchanges among the atmosphere, soil, and vegetation. Although the model usually simulates only vertical variation of variables in the surface-layer atmosphere, soil, and vegetation canopy by using meteorological data as top boundary conditions, it can be used by coupling with a three-dimensional atmosphere model. In this paper, details of SOLVEG2, which includes the function of coupling with atmosphere model MM5, are described. (author)
Modeling of the Direct Current Generator Including the Magnetic Saturation and Temperature Effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alfonso J. Mercado-Samur
2013-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper the inclusion of temperature effect on the field resistance on the direct current generator model DC1A, which is valid to stability studies is proposed. First, the linear generator model is presented, after the effect of magnetic saturation and the change in the resistance value due to temperature produced by the field current are included. The comparison of experimental results and model simulations to validate the model is used. A direct current generator model which is a better representation of the generator is obtained. Visual comparison between simulations and experimental results shows the success of the proposed model, because it presents the lowest error of the compared models. The accuracy of the proposed model is observed via Modified Normalized Sum of Squared Errors index equal to 3.8979%.
Enhanced UWB Radio Channel Model for Short-Range Communication Scenarios Including User Dynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kovacs, Istvan Zsolt; Nguyen, Tuan Hung; Eggers, Patrick Claus F.
2005-01-01
channel model represents an enhancement of the existing IEEE 802.15.3a/4a PAN channel model, where antenna and user-proximity effects are not included. Our investigations showed that significant variations of the received wideband power and time-delay signal clustering are possible due the human body...
Lavrikov, SV; Mikenina, OA; Revuzhenko, AF
2018-03-01
A model of elastic body, including local curvature of elementary volume, is matched with a nonlocal model with a linear structural parameter in the differential approximation. The problem on deformation of rock mass around a circular cross section tunnel is solved numerically. The contours of the calculated stresses are plotted. It is shown that inclusion of local bends in the model results in expansion of influence zone of the tunnel and reduces stress concentration factor at the tunnel boundary.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kołowrocki Krzysztof
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The paper presents an integrated general model of complex technical system, linking its multistate safety model and the model of its operation process including operating environment threats and considering variable at different operation states its safety structures and its components safety parameters. Under the assumption that the system has exponential safety function, the safety characteristics of the port oil piping transportation system are determined.
Including model uncertainty in the model predictive control with output feedback
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rodrigues M.A.
2002-01-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the development of an efficient numerical output feedback robust model predictive controller for open-loop stable systems. Stability of the closed loop is guaranteed by using an infinite horizon predictive controller and a stable state observer. The performance and the computational burden of this approach are compared to a robust predictive controller from the literature. The case used for this study is based on an industrial gasoline debutanizer column.
A constitutive model for the forces of a magnetic bearing including eddy currents
Taylor, D. L.; Hebbale, K. V.
1993-01-01
A multiple magnet bearing can be developed from N individual electromagnets. The constitutive relationships for a single magnet in such a bearing is presented. Analytical expressions are developed for a magnet with poles arranged circumferencially. Maxwell's field equations are used so the model easily includes the effects of induced eddy currents due to the rotation of the journal. Eddy currents must be included in any dynamic model because they are the only speed dependent parameter and may lead to a critical speed for the bearing. The model is applicable to bearings using attraction or repulsion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sitprasert, Chatcharin; Dechaumphai, Pramote; Juntasaro, Varangrat
2009-01-01
The interfacial layer of nanoparticles has been recently shown to have an effect on the thermal conductivity of nanofluids. There is, however, still no thermal conductivity model that includes the effects of temperature and nanoparticle size variations on the thickness and consequently on the thermal conductivity of the interfacial layer. In the present work, the stationary model developed by Leong et al. (J Nanopart Res 8:245-254, 2006) is initially modified to include the thermal dispersion effect due to the Brownian motion of nanoparticles. This model is called the 'Leong et al.'s dynamic model'. However, the Leong et al.'s dynamic model over-predicts the thermal conductivity of nanofluids in the case of the flowing fluid. This suggests that the enhancement in the thermal conductivity of the flowing nanofluids due to the increase in temperature does not come from the thermal dispersion effect. It is more likely that the enhancement in heat transfer of the flowing nanofluids comes from the temperature-dependent interfacial layer effect. Therefore, the Leong et al.'s stationary model is again modified to include the effect of temperature variation on the thermal conductivity of the interfacial layer for different sizes of nanoparticles. This present model is then evaluated and compared with the other thermal conductivity models for the turbulent convective heat transfer in nanofluids along a uniformly heated tube. The results show that the present model is more general than the other models in the sense that it can predict both the temperature and the volume fraction dependence of the thermal conductivity of nanofluids for both non-flowing and flowing fluids. Also, it is found to be more accurate than the other models due to the inclusion of the effect of the temperature-dependent interfacial layer. In conclusion, the present model can accurately predict the changes in thermal conductivity of nanofluids due to the changes in volume fraction and temperature for
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Obe, Emeka S.; Binder, A.
2011-01-01
A detailed model in direct-phase variables of a synchronous reluctance motor operating at mains voltage and frequency is presented. The model includes the stator and rotor slot openings, the actual winding layout and the reluctance rotor geometry. Hence, all mmf and permeance harmonics are taken into account. It is seen that non-negligible harmonics introduced by slots are present in the inductances computed by the winding function procedure. These harmonics are usually ignored in d-q models. The machine performance is simulated in the stator reference frame to depict the difference between this new direct-phase model including all harmonics and the conventional rotor reference frame d-q model. Saturation is included by using a polynomial fitting the variation of d-axis inductance with stator current obtained by finite-element software FEMAG DC (registered) . The detailed phase-variable model can yield torque pulsations comparable to those obtained from finite elements while the d-q model cannot.
Dipole model analysis of highest precision HERA data, including very low Q"2's
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luszczak, A.; Kowalski, H.
2016-12-01
We analyse, within a dipole model, the final, inclusive HERA DIS cross section data in the low χ region, using fully correlated errors. We show, that these highest precision data are very well described within the dipole model framework starting from Q"2 values of 3.5 GeV"2 to the highest values of Q"2=250 GeV"2. To analyze the saturation effects we evaluated the data including also the very low 0.35< Q"2 GeV"2 region. The fits including this region show a preference of the saturation ansatz.
Key Characteristics of Combined Accident including TLOFW accident for PSA Modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)
2015-05-15
The conventional PSA techniques cannot adequately evaluate all events. The conventional PSA models usually focus on single internal events such as DBAs, the external hazards such as fire, seismic. However, the Fukushima accident of Japan in 2011 reveals that very rare event is necessary to be considered in the PSA model to prevent the radioactive release to environment caused by poor treatment based on lack of the information, and to improve the emergency operation procedure. Especially, the results from PSA can be used to decision making for regulators. Moreover, designers can consider the weakness of plant safety based on the quantified results and understand accident sequence based on human actions and system availability. This study is for PSA modeling of combined accidents including total loss of feedwater (TLOFW) accident. The TLOFW accident is a representative accident involving the failure of cooling through secondary side. If the amount of heat transfer is not enough due to the failure of secondary side, the heat will be accumulated to the primary side by continuous core decay heat. Transients with loss of feedwater include total loss of feedwater accident, loss of condenser vacuum accident, and closure of all MSIVs. When residual heat removal by the secondary side is terminated, the safety injection into the RCS with direct primary depressurization would provide alternative heat removal. This operation is called feed and bleed (F and B) operation. Combined accidents including TLOFW accident are very rare event and partially considered in conventional PSA model. Since the necessity of F and B operation is related to plant conditions, the PSA modeling for combined accidents including TLOFW accident is necessary to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities.The PSA is significant to assess the risk of NPPs, and to identify the design and operational vulnerabilities. Even though the combined accident is very rare event, the consequence of combined
Conceptualizing a Dynamic Fall Risk Model Including Intrinsic Risks and Exposures.
Klenk, Jochen; Becker, Clemens; Palumbo, Pierpaolo; Schwickert, Lars; Rapp, Kilan; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Todd, Chris; Lord, Stephen R; Kerse, Ngaire
2017-11-01
Falls are a major cause of injury and disability in older people, leading to serious health and social consequences including fractures, poor quality of life, loss of independence, and institutionalization. To design and provide adequate prevention measures, accurate understanding and identification of person's individual fall risk is important. However, to date, the performance of fall risk models is weak compared with models estimating, for example, cardiovascular risk. This deficiency may result from 2 factors. First, current models consider risk factors to be stable for each person and not change over time, an assumption that does not reflect real-life experience. Second, current models do not consider the interplay of individual exposure including type of activity (eg, walking, undertaking transfers) and environmental risks (eg, lighting, floor conditions) in which activity is performed. Therefore, we posit a dynamic fall risk model consisting of intrinsic risk factors that vary over time and exposure (activity in context). eHealth sensor technology (eg, smartphones) begins to enable the continuous measurement of both the above factors. We illustrate our model with examples of real-world falls from the FARSEEING database. This dynamic framework for fall risk adds important aspects that may improve understanding of fall mechanisms, fall risk models, and the development of fall prevention interventions. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Y W [Surface Physics Laboratory and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang, L F [Surface Physics Laboratory and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang, J P [Surface Physics Laboratory and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)
2007-07-20
By using theoretical analysis and computer simulations, we develop the Watts-Strogatz network model by including degree distribution, in an attempt to improve the comparison between characteristic path lengths and clustering coefficients predicted by the original Watts-Strogatz network model and those of the real networks with the small-world property. Good agreement between the predictions of the theoretical analysis and those of the computer simulations has been shown. It is found that the developed Watts-Strogatz network model can fit the real small-world networks more satisfactorily. Some other interesting results are also reported by adjusting the parameters in a model degree-distribution function. The developed Watts-Strogatz network model is expected to help in the future analysis of various social problems as well as financial markets with the small-world property.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Y W; Zhang, L F; Huang, J P
2007-01-01
By using theoretical analysis and computer simulations, we develop the Watts-Strogatz network model by including degree distribution, in an attempt to improve the comparison between characteristic path lengths and clustering coefficients predicted by the original Watts-Strogatz network model and those of the real networks with the small-world property. Good agreement between the predictions of the theoretical analysis and those of the computer simulations has been shown. It is found that the developed Watts-Strogatz network model can fit the real small-world networks more satisfactorily. Some other interesting results are also reported by adjusting the parameters in a model degree-distribution function. The developed Watts-Strogatz network model is expected to help in the future analysis of various social problems as well as financial markets with the small-world property
Modeling of cylindrical surrounding gate MOSFETs including the fringing field effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gupta, Santosh K.; Baishya, Srimanta
2013-01-01
A physically based analytical model for surface potential and threshold voltage including the fringing gate capacitances in cylindrical surround gate (CSG) MOSFETs has been developed. Based on this a subthreshold drain current model has also been derived. This model first computes the charge induced in the drain/source region due to the fringing capacitances and considers an effective charge distribution in the cylindrically extended source/drain region for the development of a simple and compact model. The fringing gate capacitances taken into account are outer fringe capacitance, inner fringe capacitance, overlap capacitance, and sidewall capacitance. The model has been verified with the data extracted from 3D TCAD simulations of CSG MOSFETs and was found to be working satisfactorily. (semiconductor devices)
Modeling of the dynamics of wind to power conversion including high wind speed behavior
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Bjerge, Martin Huus; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio
2016-01-01
This paper proposes and validates an efficient, generic and computationally simple dynamic model for the conversion of the wind speed at hub height into the electrical power by a wind turbine. This proposed wind turbine model was developed as a first step to simulate wind power time series...... for power system studies. This paper focuses on describing and validating the single wind turbine model, and is therefore neither describing wind speed modeling nor aggregation of contributions from a whole wind farm or a power system area. The state-of-the-art is to use static power curves for the purpose...... of power system studies, but the idea of the proposed wind turbine model is to include the main dynamic effects in order to have a better representation of the fluctuations in the output power and of the fast power ramping especially because of high wind speed shutdowns of the wind turbine. The high wind...
Including Effects of Water Stress on Dead Organic Matter Decay to a Forest Carbon Model
Kim, H.; Lee, J.; Han, S. H.; Kim, S.; Son, Y.
2017-12-01
Decay of dead organic matter is a key process of carbon (C) cycling in forest ecosystems. The change in decay rate depends on temperature sensitivity and moisture conditions. The Forest Biomass and Dead organic matter Carbon (FBDC) model includes a decay sub-model considering temperature sensitivity, yet does not consider moisture conditions as drivers of the decay rate change. This study aimed to improve the FBDC model by including a water stress function to the decay sub-model. Also, soil C sequestration under climate change with the FBDC model including the water stress function was simulated. The water stress functions were determined with data from decomposition study on Quercus variabilis forests and Pinus densiflora forests of Korea, and adjustment parameters of the functions were determined for both species. The water stress functions were based on the ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration. Including the water stress function increased the explained variances of the decay rate by 19% for the Q. variabilis forests and 7% for the P. densiflora forests, respectively. The increase of the explained variances resulted from large difference in temperature range and precipitation range across the decomposition study plots. During the period of experiment, the mean annual temperature range was less than 3°C, while the annual precipitation ranged from 720mm to 1466mm. Application of the water stress functions to the FBDC model constrained increasing trend of temperature sensitivity under climate change, and thus increased the model-estimated soil C sequestration (Mg C ha-1) by 6.6 for the Q. variabilis forests and by 3.1 for the P. densiflora forests, respectively. The addition of water stress functions increased reliability of the decay rate estimation and could contribute to reducing the bias in estimating soil C sequestration under varying moisture condition. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by Korea Forest Service (2017044B10-1719-BB01)
Including an ocean carbon cycle model into iLOVECLIM (v1.0)
Bouttes, N.; Roche, D.M.V.A.P.; Mariotti, V.; Bopp, L.
2015-01-01
The atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration plays a crucial role in the radiative balance and as such has a strong influence on the evolution of climate. Because of the numerous interactions between climate and the carbon cycle, it is necessary to include a model of the carbon cycle within a
The Model of the Software Running on a Computer Equipment Hardware Included in the Grid network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. A. Mityushkina
2012-12-01
Full Text Available A new approach to building a cloud computing environment using Grid networks is proposed in this paper. The authors describe the functional capabilities, algorithm, model of software running on a computer equipment hardware included in the Grid network, that will allow to implement cloud computing environment using Grid technologies.
Markovits, Henry; Benenson, Joyce F; Kramer, Donald L
2003-01-01
This study examined internal representations of food sharing in 589 children and adolescents (8-19 years of age). Questionnaires, depicting a variety of contexts in which one person was asked to share a resource with another, were used to examine participants' expectations of food-sharing behavior. Factors that were varied included the value of the resource, the relation between the two depicted actors, the quality of this relation, and gender. Results indicate that internal models of food-sharing behavior showed systematic patterns of variation, demonstrating that individuals have complex contextually based internal models at all ages, including the youngest. Examination of developmental changes in use of individual patterns is consistent with the idea that internal models reflect age-specific patterns of interactions while undergoing a process of progressive consolidation.
Observational constraint on the interacting dark energy models including the Sandage-Loeb test
Zhang, Ming-Jian; Liu, Wen-Biao
2014-05-01
Two types of interacting dark energy models are investigated using the type Ia supernova (SNIa), observational data (OHD), cosmic microwave background shift parameter, and the secular Sandage-Loeb (SL) test. In the investigation, we have used two sets of parameter priors including WMAP-9 and Planck 2013. They have shown some interesting differences. We find that the inclusion of SL test can obviously provide a more stringent constraint on the parameters in both models. For the constant coupling model, the interaction term has been improved to be only a half of the original scale on corresponding errors. Comparing with only SNIa and OHD, we find that the inclusion of the SL test almost reduces the best-fit interaction to zero, which indicates that the higher-redshift observation including the SL test is necessary to track the evolution of the interaction. For the varying coupling model, data with the inclusion of the SL test show that the parameter at C.L. in Planck priors is , where the constant is characteristic for the severity of the coincidence problem. This indicates that the coincidence problem will be less severe. We then reconstruct the interaction , and we find that the best-fit interaction is also negative, similar to the constant coupling model. However, for a high redshift, the interaction generally vanishes at infinity. We also find that the phantom-like dark energy with is favored over the CDM model.
MEMLS3&a: Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks adapted to include backscattering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Proksch
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks (MEMLS was originally developed for microwave emissions of snowpacks in the frequency range 5–100 GHz. It is based on six-flux theory to describe radiative transfer in snow including absorption, multiple volume scattering, radiation trapping due to internal reflection and a combination of coherent and incoherent superposition of reflections between horizontal layer interfaces. Here we introduce MEMLS3&a, an extension of MEMLS, which includes a backscatter model for active microwave remote sensing of snow. The reflectivity is decomposed into diffuse and specular components. Slight undulations of the snow surface are taken into account. The treatment of like- and cross-polarization is accomplished by an empirical splitting parameter q. MEMLS3&a (as well as MEMLS is set up in a way that snow input parameters can be derived by objective measurement methods which avoid fitting procedures of the scattering efficiency of snow, required by several other models. For the validation of the model we have used a combination of active and passive measurements from the NoSREx (Nordic Snow Radar Experiment campaign in Sodankylä, Finland. We find a reasonable agreement between the measurements and simulations, subject to uncertainties in hitherto unmeasured input parameters of the backscatter model. The model is written in Matlab and the code is publicly available for download through the following website: http://www.iapmw.unibe.ch/research/projects/snowtools/memls.html.
Safe distance car-following model including backward-looking and its stability analysis
Yang, Da; Jin, Peter Jing; Pu, Yun; Ran, Bin
2013-03-01
The focus of this paper is the car-following behavior including backward-looking, simply called the bi-directional looking car-following behavior. This study is motivated by the potential changes of the physical properties of traffic flow caused by the fast developing intelligent transportation system (ITS), especially the new connected vehicle technology. Existing studies on this topic focused on general motors (GM) models and optimal velocity (OV) models. The safe distance car-following model, Gipps' model, which is more widely used in practice have not drawn too much attention in the bi-directional looking context. This paper explores the property of the bi-directional looking extension of Gipps' safe distance model. The stability condition of the proposed model is derived using the linear stability theory and is verified using numerical simulations. The impacts of the driver and vehicle characteristics appeared in the proposed model on the traffic flow stability are also investigated. It is found that taking into account the backward-looking effect in car-following has three types of effect on traffic flow: stabilizing, destabilizing and producing non-physical phenomenon. This conclusion is more sophisticated than the study results based on the OV bi-directional looking car-following models. Moreover, the drivers who have the smaller reaction time or the larger additional delay and think the other vehicles have larger maximum decelerations can stabilize traffic flow.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coolen, F.P.A.
1997-01-01
This paper is intended to make researchers in reliability theory aware of a recently introduced Bayesian model with imprecise prior distributions for statistical inference on failure data, that can also be considered as a robust Bayesian model. The model consists of a multinomial distribution with Dirichlet priors, making the approach basically nonparametric. New results for the model are presented, related to right-censored observations, where estimation based on this model is closely related to the product-limit estimator, which is an important statistical method to deal with reliability or survival data including right-censored observations. As for the product-limit estimator, the model considered in this paper aims at not using any information other than that provided by observed data, but our model fits into the robust Bayesian context which has the advantage that all inferences can be based on probabilities or expectations, or bounds for probabilities or expectations. The model uses a finite partition of the time-axis, and as such it is also related to life-tables
Improving weather predictability by including land-surface model parameter uncertainty
Orth, Rene; Dutra, Emanuel; Pappenberger, Florian
2016-04-01
The land surface forms an important component of Earth system models and interacts nonlinearly with other parts such as ocean and atmosphere. To capture the complex and heterogenous hydrology of the land surface, land surface models include a large number of parameters impacting the coupling to other components of the Earth system model. Focusing on ECMWF's land-surface model HTESSEL we present in this study a comprehensive parameter sensitivity evaluation using multiple observational datasets in Europe. We select 6 poorly constrained effective parameters (surface runoff effective depth, skin conductivity, minimum stomatal resistance, maximum interception, soil moisture stress function shape, total soil depth) and explore their sensitivity to model outputs such as soil moisture, evapotranspiration and runoff using uncoupled simulations and coupled seasonal forecasts. Additionally we investigate the possibility to construct ensembles from the multiple land surface parameters. In the uncoupled runs we find that minimum stomatal resistance and total soil depth have the most influence on model performance. Forecast skill scores are moreover sensitive to the same parameters as HTESSEL performance in the uncoupled analysis. We demonstrate the robustness of our findings by comparing multiple best performing parameter sets and multiple randomly chosen parameter sets. We find better temperature and precipitation forecast skill with the best-performing parameter perturbations demonstrating representativeness of model performance across uncoupled (and hence less computationally demanding) and coupled settings. Finally, we construct ensemble forecasts from ensemble members derived with different best-performing parameterizations of HTESSEL. This incorporation of parameter uncertainty in the ensemble generation yields an increase in forecast skill, even beyond the skill of the default system. Orth, R., E. Dutra, and F. Pappenberger, 2016: Improving weather predictability by
Javadi, A A; Al-Najjar, M M
2007-05-17
The movement of chemicals through soils to the groundwater is a major cause of degradation of water resources. In many cases, serious human and stock health implications are associated with this form of pollution. Recent studies have shown that the current models and methods are not able to adequately describe the leaching of nutrients through soils, often underestimating the risk of groundwater contamination by surface-applied chemicals, and overestimating the concentration of resident solutes. Furthermore, the effect of chemical reactions on the fate and transport of contaminants is not included in many of the existing numerical models for contaminant transport. In this paper a numerical model is presented for simulation of the flow of water and air and contaminant transport through unsaturated soils with the main focus being on the effects of chemical reactions. The governing equations of miscible contaminant transport including advection, dispersion-diffusion and adsorption effects together with the effect of chemical reactions are presented. The mathematical framework and the numerical implementation of the model are described in detail. The model is validated by application to a number of test cases from the literature and is then applied to the simulation of a physical model test involving transport of contaminants in a block of soil with particular reference to the effects of chemical reactions. Comparison of the results of the numerical model with the experimental results shows that the model is capable of predicting the effects of chemical reactions with very high accuracy. The importance of consideration of the effects of chemical reactions is highlighted.
A numerical model including PID control of a multizone crystal growth furnace
Panzarella, Charles H.; Kassemi, Mohammad
1992-01-01
This paper presents a 2D axisymmetric combined conduction and radiation model of a multizone crystal growth furnace. The model is based on a programmable multizone furnace (PMZF) designed and built at NASA Lewis Research Center for growing high quality semiconductor crystals. A novel feature of this model is a control algorithm which automatically adjusts the power in any number of independently controlled heaters to establish the desired crystal temperatures in the furnace model. The control algorithm eliminates the need for numerous trial and error runs previously required to obtain the same results. The finite element code, FIDAP, used to develop the furnace model, was modified to directly incorporate the control algorithm. This algorithm, which presently uses PID control, and the associated heat transfer model are briefly discussed. Together, they have been used to predict the heater power distributions for a variety of furnace configurations and desired temperature profiles. Examples are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the PID controlled model in establishing isothermal, Bridgman, and other complicated temperature profies in the sample. Finally, an example is given to show how the algorithm can be used to change the desired profile with time according to a prescribed temperature-time evolution.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hyein Lim
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Spin-torque oscillator (STO is a promising new technology for the future RF oscillators, which is based on the spin-transfer torque (STT effect in magnetic multilayered nanostructure. It is expected to provide a larger tunability, smaller size, lower power consumption, and higher level of integration than the semiconductor-based oscillators. In our previous work, a circuit-level model of the giant magnetoresistance (GMR STO was proposed. In this paper, we present a physics-based circuit-level model of the magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ-based STO. MTJ-STO model includes the effect of perpendicular torque that has been ignored in the GMR-STO model. The variations of three major characteristics, generation frequency, mean oscillation power, and generation linewidth of an MTJ-STO with respect to the amount of perpendicular torque, are investigated, and the results are applied to our model. The operation of the model was verified by HSPICE simulation, and the results show an excellent agreement with the experimental data. The results also prove that a full circuit-level simulation with MJT-STO devices can be made with our proposed model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hossein Sadegh Lafmejani
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Fuzzy logic controller (FLC is a heuristic method by If-Then Rules which resembles human intelligence and it is a good method for designing Non-linear control systems. In this paper, an arbitrary helicopter model includes articulated manipulators has been simulated with Matlab SimMechanics toolbox. Due to the difficulties of modeling this complex system, a fuzzy controller with simple fuzzy rules has been designed for its yaw and roll angles in order to stabilize the helicopter while it is in the presence of disturbances or its manipulators are moving for a task. Results reveal that a simple FLC can appropriately control this system.
A roller chain drive model including contact with guide-bars
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Sine Leergaard; Hansen, John Michael; Ambrósio, J. A. C.
2004-01-01
A model of a roller chain drive is developed and applied to the simulation and analysis of roller chain drives of large marine diesel engines. The model includes the impact with guide-bars that are the motion delimiter components on the chain strands between the sprockets. The main components...... and the sprocket centre, i.e. a constraint is added when such distance is less than the pitch radius. The unilateral kinematic constraint is removed when its associated constraint reaction force, applied on the roller, is in the direction of the root of the sprocket teeth. In order to improve the numerical...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vafamand, Navid; Asemani, Mohammad Hassan; Khayatiyan, Alireza
2018-01-01
This paper proposes a novel robust controller design for a class of nonlinear systems including hard nonlinearity functions. The proposed approach is based on Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy modeling, nonquadratic Lyapunov function, and nonparallel distributed compensation scheme. In this paper, a novel...... criterion, new robust controller design conditions in terms of linear matrix inequalities are derived. Three practical case studies, electric power steering system, a helicopter model and servo-mechanical system, are presented to demonstrate the importance of such class of nonlinear systems comprising...
Actis, Jason A; Honegger, Jasmin D; Gates, Deanna H; Petrella, Anthony J; Nolasco, Luis A; Silverman, Anne K
2018-02-08
Low back mechanics are important to quantify to study injury, pain and disability. As in vivo forces are difficult to measure directly, modeling approaches are commonly used to estimate these forces. Validation of model estimates is critical to gain confidence in modeling results across populations of interest, such as people with lower-limb amputation. Motion capture, ground reaction force and electromyographic data were collected from ten participants without an amputation (five male/five female) and five participants with a unilateral transtibial amputation (four male/one female) during trunk-pelvis range of motion trials in flexion/extension, lateral bending and axial rotation. A musculoskeletal model with a detailed lumbar spine and the legs including 294 muscles was used to predict L4-L5 loading and muscle activations using static optimization. Model estimates of L4-L5 intervertebral joint loading were compared to measured intradiscal pressures from the literature and muscle activations were compared to electromyographic signals. Model loading estimates were only significantly different from experimental measurements during trunk extension for males without an amputation and for people with an amputation, which may suggest a greater portion of L4-L5 axial load transfer through the facet joints, as facet loads are not captured by intradiscal pressure transducers. Pressure estimates between the model and previous work were not significantly different for flexion, lateral bending or axial rotation. Timing of model-estimated muscle activations compared well with electromyographic activity of the lumbar paraspinals and upper erector spinae. Validated estimates of low back loading can increase the applicability of musculoskeletal models to clinical diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Modeling of Temperature-Dependent Noise in Silicon Nanowire FETs including Self-Heating Effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Anandan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Silicon nanowires are leading the CMOS era towards the downsizing limit and its nature will be effectively suppress the short channel effects. Accurate modeling of thermal noise in nanowires is crucial for RF applications of nano-CMOS emerging technologies. In this work, a perfect temperature-dependent model for silicon nanowires including the self-heating effects has been derived and its effects on device parameters have been observed. The power spectral density as a function of thermal resistance shows significant improvement as the channel length decreases. The effects of thermal noise including self-heating of the device are explored. Moreover, significant reduction in noise with respect to channel thermal resistance, gate length, and biasing is analyzed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1995-12-01
Several safety reports will be produced in the process of planning and constructing the system for disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Sweden. The present report gives a model, with detailed examples, of how these reports should be organized and what steps they should include. In the near future safety reports will deal with the encapsulation plant and the repository. Later reports will treat operation of the handling systems and the repository.
A High-Rate, Single-Crystal Model including Phase Transformations, Plastic Slip, and Twinning
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Addessio, Francis L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Bronkhorst, Curt Allan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Bolme, Cynthia Anne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Explosive Science and Shock Physics Division; Brown, Donald William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Cerreta, Ellen Kathleen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Lebensohn, Ricardo A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Lookman, Turab [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Luscher, Darby Jon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Mayeur, Jason Rhea [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Morrow, Benjamin M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Rigg, Paulo A. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Inst. for Shock Physics
2016-08-09
An anisotropic, rate-dependent, single-crystal approach for modeling materials under the conditions of high strain rates and pressures is provided. The model includes the effects of large deformations, nonlinear elasticity, phase transformations, and plastic slip and twinning. It is envisioned that the model may be used to examine these coupled effects on the local deformation of materials that are subjected to ballistic impact or explosive loading. The model is formulated using a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient. A plate impact experiment on a multi-crystal sample of titanium was conducted. The particle velocities at the back surface of three crystal orientations relative to the direction of impact were measured. Molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to investigate the details of the high-rate deformation and pursue issues related to the phase transformation for titanium. Simulations using the single crystal model were conducted and compared to the high-rate experimental data for the impact loaded single crystals. The model was found to capture the features of the experiments.
Collisional-radiative model including recombination processes for W27+ ion★
Murakami, Izumi; Sasaki, Akira; Kato, Daiji; Koike, Fumihiro
2017-10-01
We have constructed a collisional-radiative (CR) model for W27+ ions including 226 configurations with n ≤ 9 and ł ≤ 5 for spectroscopic diagnostics. We newly include recombination processes in the model and this is the first result of extreme ultraviolet spectrum calculated for recombining plasma component. Calculated spectra in 40-70 Å range in ionizing and recombining plasma components show similar 3 strong lines and 1 line weak in recombining plasma component at 45-50 Å and many weak lines at 50-65 Å for both components. Recombination processes do not contribute much to the spectrum at around 60 Å for W27+ ion. Dielectronic satellite lines are also minor contribution to the spectrum of recombining plasma component. Dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficient from W28+ to W27+ ions is also calculated with the same atomic data in the CR model. We found that larger set of energy levels including many autoionizing states gave larger DR rate coefficients but our rate agree within factor 6 with other works at electron temperature around 1 keV in which W27+ and W28+ ions are usually observed in plasmas. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic and Molecular Data and their Applications", edited by Gordon W.F. Drake, Jung-Sik Yoon, Daiji Kato, and Grzegorz Karwasz.
Sixdenier, Fabien; Yade, Ousseynou; Martin, Christian; Bréard, Arnaud; Vollaire, Christian
2018-05-01
Electromagnetic interference (EMI) filters design is a rather difficult task where engineers have to choose adequate magnetic materials, design the magnetic circuit and choose the size and number of turns. The final design must achieve the attenuation requirements (constraints) and has to be as compact as possible (goal). Alternating current (AC) analysis is a powerful tool to predict global impedance or attenuation of any filter. However, AC analysis are generally performed without taking into account the frequency-dependent complex permeability behaviour of soft magnetic materials. That's why, we developed two frequency-dependent complex permeability models able to be included into SPICE models. After an identification process, the performances of each model are compared to measurements made on a realistic EMI filter prototype in common mode (CM) and differential mode (DM) to see the benefit of the approach. Simulation results are in good agreement with the measured ones especially in the middle frequency range.
RELAP5-3D Code Includes ATHENA Features and Models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riemke, Richard A.; Davis, Cliff B.; Schultz, Richard R.
2006-01-01
Version 2.3 of the RELAP5-3D computer program includes all features and models previously available only in the ATHENA version of the code. These include the addition of new working fluids (i.e., ammonia, blood, carbon dioxide, glycerol, helium, hydrogen, lead-bismuth, lithium, lithium-lead, nitrogen, potassium, sodium, and sodium-potassium) and a magnetohydrodynamic model that expands the capability of the code to model many more thermal-hydraulic systems. In addition to the new working fluids along with the standard working fluid water, one or more noncondensable gases (e.g., air, argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, helium, hydrogen, krypton, nitrogen, oxygen, SF 6 , xenon) can be specified as part of the vapor/gas phase of the working fluid. These noncondensable gases were in previous versions of RELAP5-3D. Recently four molten salts have been added as working fluids to RELAP5-3D Version 2.4, which has had limited release. These molten salts will be in RELAP5-3D Version 2.5, which will have a general release like RELAP5-3D Version 2.3. Applications that use these new features and models are discussed in this paper. (authors)
Double-gate junctionless transistor model including short-channel effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paz, B C; Pavanello, M A; Ávila-Herrera, F; Cerdeira, A
2015-01-01
This work presents a physically based model for double-gate junctionless transistors (JLTs), continuous in all operation regimes. To describe short-channel transistors, short-channel effects (SCEs), such as increase of the channel potential due to drain bias, carrier velocity saturation and mobility degradation due to vertical and longitudinal electric fields, are included in a previous model developed for long-channel double-gate JLTs. To validate the model, an analysis is made by using three-dimensional numerical simulations performed in a Sentaurus Device Simulator from Synopsys. Different doping concentrations, channel widths and channel lengths are considered in this work. Besides that, the series resistance influence is numerically included and validated for a wide range of source and drain extensions. In order to check if the SCEs are appropriately described, besides drain current, transconductance and output conductance characteristics, the following parameters are analyzed to demonstrate the good agreement between model and simulation and the SCEs occurrence in this technology: threshold voltage (V TH ), subthreshold slope (S) and drain induced barrier lowering. (paper)
Refitting density dependent relativistic model parameters including Center-of-Mass corrections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avancini, Sidney S.; Marinelli, Jose R.; Carlson, Brett Vern
2011-01-01
Full text: Relativistic mean field models have become a standard approach for precise nuclear structure calculations. After the seminal work of Serot and Walecka, which introduced a model Lagrangian density where the nucleons interact through the exchange of scalar and vector mesons, several models were obtained through its generalization, including other meson degrees of freedom, non-linear meson interactions, meson-meson interactions, etc. More recently density dependent coupling constants were incorporated into the Walecka-like models, which are then extensively used. In particular, for these models a connection with the density functional theory can be established. Due to the inherent difficulties presented by field theoretical models, only the mean field approximation is used for the solution of these models. In order to calculate finite nuclei properties in the mean field approximation, a reference set has to be fixed and therefore the translational symmetry is violated. It is well known that in such case spurious effects due to the center-of-mass (COM) motion are present, which are more pronounced for light nuclei. In a previous work we have proposed a technique based on the Pierls-Yoccoz projection operator applied to the mean-field relativistic solution, in order to project out spurious COM contributions. In this work we obtain a new fitting for the density dependent parameters of a density dependent hadronic model, taking into account the COM corrections. Our fitting is obtained taking into account the charge radii and binding energies for He 4 , O 16 , Ca 40 , Ca 48 , Ni 56 , Ni 68 , Sn 100 , Sn 132 and Pb 208 . We show that the nuclear observables calculated using our fit are of a quality comparable to others that can be found in the literature, with the advantage that now a translational invariant many-body wave function is at our disposal. (author)
Including policy and management in socio-hydrology models: initial conceptualizations
Hermans, Leon; Korbee, Dorien
2017-04-01
Socio-hydrology studies the interactions in coupled human-water systems. So far, the use of dynamic models that capture the direct feedback between societal and hydrological systems has been dominant. What has not yet been included with any particular emphasis, is the policy or management layer, which is a central element in for instance integrated water resources management (IWRM) or adaptive delta management (ADM). Studying the direct interactions between human-water systems generates knowledges that eventually helps influence these interactions in ways that may ensure better outcomes - for society and for the health and sustainability of water systems. This influence sometimes occurs through spontaneous emergence, uncoordinated by societal agents - private sector, citizens, consumers, water users. However, the term 'management' in IWRM and ADM also implies an additional coordinated attempt through various public actors. This contribution is a call to include the policy and management dimension more prominently into the research focus of the socio-hydrology field, and offers first conceptual variables that should be considered in attempts to include this policy or management layer in socio-hydrology models. This is done by drawing on existing frameworks to study policy processes throughout both planning and implementation phases. These include frameworks such as the advocacy coalition framework, collective learning and policy arrangements, which all emphasis longer-term dynamics and feedbacks between actor coalitions in strategic planning and implementation processes. A case about longter-term dynamics in the management of the Haringvliet in the Netherlands is used to illustrate the paper.
SPheno 3.1: extensions including flavour, CP-phases and models beyond the MSSM
Porod, W.; Staub, F.
2012-11-01
We describe recent extensions of the program SPhenoincluding flavour aspects, CP-phases, R-parity violation and low energy observables. In case of flavour mixing all masses of supersymmetric particles are calculated including the complete flavour structure and all possible CP-phases at the 1-loop level. We give details on implemented seesaw models, low energy observables and the corresponding extension of the SUSY Les Houches Accord. Moreover, we comment on the possibilities to include MSSM extensions in SPheno. Catalogue identifier: ADRV_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADRV_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 154062 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1336037 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran95. Computer: PC running under Linux, should run in every Unix environment. Operating system: Linux, Unix. Classification: 11.6. Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADRV_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 153(2003)275 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: The first issue is the determination of the masses and couplings of supersymmetric particles in various supersymmetric models, the R-parity conserved MSSM with generation mixing and including CP-violating phases, various seesaw extensions of the MSSM and the MSSM with bilinear R-parity breaking. Low energy data on Standard Model fermion masses, gauge couplings and electroweak gauge boson masses serve as constraints. Radiative corrections from supersymmetric particles to these inputs must be calculated. Theoretical constraints on the soft SUSY breaking parameters from a high scale theory are imposed and the parameters at the electroweak scale are obtained from the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2015-11-01
The demands on nuclear fuel have recently been increasing, and include transient regimes, higher discharge burnup and longer fuel cycles. This has resulted in an increase of loads on fuel and core internals. In order to satisfy these demands while ensuring compliance with safety criteria, new national and international programmes have been launched and advanced modelling codes are being developed. The Fukushima Daiichi accident has particularly demonstrated the need for adequate analysis of all aspects of fuel performance to prevent a failure and also to predict fuel behaviour were an accident to occur.This publication presents the Proceedings of the Technical Meeting on Modelling of Water Cooled Fuel Including Design Basis and Severe Accidents, which was hosted by the Nuclear Power Institute of China (NPIC) in Chengdu, China, following the recommendation made in 2013 at the IAEA Technical Working Group on Fuel Performance and Technology. This recommendation was in agreement with IAEA mid-term initiatives, linked to the post-Fukushima IAEA Nuclear Safety Action Plan, as well as the forthcoming Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Fuel Modelling in Accident Conditions. At the technical meeting in Chengdu, major areas and physical phenomena, as well as types of code and experiment to be studied and used in the CRP, were discussed. The technical meeting provided a forum for international experts to review the state of the art of code development for modelling fuel performance of nuclear fuel for water cooled reactors with regard to steady state and transient conditions, and for design basis and early phases of severe accidents, including experimental support for code validation. A round table discussion focused on the needs and perspectives on fuel modelling in accident conditions. This meeting was the ninth in a series of IAEA meetings, which reflects Member States’ continuing interest in nuclear fuel issues. The previous meetings were held in 1980 (jointly with
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suh, K.Y.
1989-10-01
A new in-vessel fission product release model has been developed and implemented to perform best-estimate calculations of realistic source terms including fuel morphology effects. The proposed bulk mass transfer correlation determines the product of fission product release and equiaxed grain size as a function of the inverse fuel temperature. The model accounts for the fuel-cladding interaction over the temperature range between 770 K and 3000 K in the steam environment. A separate driver has been developed for the in-vessel thermal hydraulic and fission product behavior models that were developed by the Department of Energy for the Modular Accident Analysis Package (MAAP). Calculational results of these models have been compared to the results of the Power Burst Facility Severe Fuel Damage tests. The code predictions utilizing the mass transfer correlation agreed with the experimentally determined fractional release rates during the course of the heatup, power hold, and cooldown phases of the high temperature transients. Compared to such conventional literature correlations as the steam oxidation model and the NUREG-0956 correlation, the mass transfer correlation resulted in lower and less rapid releases in closer agreement with the on-line and grab sample data from the Severe Fuel Damage tests. The proposed mass transfer correlation can be applied for best-estimate calculations of fission products release from the UO 2 fuel in both nominal and severe accident conditions. 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs
Kim, Sun Jung; Yoo, Il Young
2016-03-01
The purpose of this study was to explain the health promotion behavior of Chinese international students in Korea using a structural equation model including acculturation factors. A survey using self-administered questionnaires was employed. Data were collected from 272 Chinese students who have resided in Korea for longer than 6 months. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The p value of final model is .31. The fitness parameters of the final model such as goodness of fit index, adjusted goodness of fit index, normed fit index, non-normed fit index, and comparative fit index were more than .95. Root mean square of residual and root mean square error of approximation also met the criteria. Self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturative stress and acculturation level had direct effects on health promotion behavior of the participants and the model explained 30.0% of variance. The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Zhang, Hai-Mei; Chen, Shi-Lu
2015-06-09
The lack of dispersion in the B3LYP functional has been proposed to be the main origin of big errors in quantum chemical modeling of a few enzymes and transition metal complexes. In this work, the essential dispersion effects that affect quantum chemical modeling are investigated. With binuclear zinc isoaspartyl dipeptidase (IAD) as an example, dispersion is included in the modeling of enzymatic reactions by two different procedures, i.e., (i) geometry optimizations followed by single-point calculations of dispersion (approach I) and (ii) the inclusion of dispersion throughout geometry optimization and energy evaluation (approach II). Based on a 169-atom chemical model, the calculations show a qualitative consistency between approaches I and II in energetics and most key geometries, demonstrating that both approaches are available with the latter preferential since both geometry and energy are dispersion-corrected in approach II. When a smaller model without Arg233 (147 atoms) was used, an inconsistency was observed, indicating that the missing dispersion interactions are essentially responsible for determining equilibrium geometries. Other technical issues and mechanistic characteristics of IAD are also discussed, in particular with respect to the effects of Arg233.
S5-4: Formal Modeling of Affordance in Human-Included Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Namhun Kim
2012-10-01
Full Text Available In spite of it being necessary for humans to consider modeling, analysis, and control of human-included systems, it has been considered a challenging problem because of the critical role of humans in complex systems and of humans' capability of executing unanticipated actions–both beneficial and detrimental ones. Thus, to provide systematic approaches to modeling human actions as a part of system behaviors, a formal modeling framework for human-involved systems in which humans play a controlling role based on their perceptual information is presented. The theory of affordance provides definitions of human actions and their associated properties; Finite State Automata (FSA based modeling is capable of mapping nondeterministic humans into computable components in the system representation. In this talk, we investigate the role of perception in human actions in the system operation and examine the representation of perceptual elements in affordance-based modeling formalism. The proposed framework is expected to capture the natural ways in which humans participate in the system as part of its operation. A human-machine cooperative manufacturing system control example and a human agent simulation example will be introduced for the illustrative purposes at the end of the presentation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, Mei; Wang, Guomin; Hendon, Harry H.; Alves, Oscar [Bureau of Meteorology, Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Melbourne (Australia)
2011-04-15
Impacts on the coupled variability of the Indo-Pacific by including the effects of surface currents on surface stress are explored in four extended integrations of an experimental version of the Bureau of Meteorology's coupled seasonal forecast model POAMA. The first pair of simulations differs only in their treatment of momentum coupling: one version includes the effects of surface currents on the surface stress computation and the other does not. The version that includes the effect of surface currents has less mean-state bias in the equatorial Pacific cold tongue but produces relatively weak coupled variability in the Tropics, especially that related to the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) and El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The version without the effects of surface currents has greater bias in the Pacific cold tongue but stronger IOD and ENSO variability. In order to diagnose the role of changes in local coupling from changes in remote forcing by ENSO for causing changes in IOD variability, a second set of simulations is conducted where effects of surface currents are included only in the Indian Ocean and only in the Pacific Ocean. IOD variability is found to be equally reduced by inclusion of the local effects of surface currents in the Indian Ocean and by the reduction of ENSO variability as a result of including effects of surface currents in the Pacific. Some implications of these results for predictability of the IOD and its dependence on ENSO, and for ocean subsurface data assimilation are discussed. (orig.)
A new model for including the effect of fly ash on biochemical methane potential.
Gertner, Pablo; Huiliñir, César; Pinto-Villegas, Paula; Castillo, Alejandra; Montalvo, Silvio; Guerrero, Lorna
2017-10-01
The modelling of the effect of trace elements on anaerobic digestion, and specifically the effect of fly ash, has been scarcely studied. Thus, the present work was aimed at the development of a new function that allows accumulated methane models to predict the effect of FA on the volume of methane accumulation. For this, purpose five fly ash concentrations (10, 25, 50, 250 and 500mg/L) using raw and pre-treated sewage sludge were used to calibrate the new function, while three fly ash concentrations were used (40, 150 and 350mg/L) for validation. Three models for accumulated methane volume (the modified Gompertz equation, the logistic function, and the transfer function) were evaluated. The results showed that methane production increased in the presence of FA when the sewage sludge was not pre-treated, while with pretreated sludge there is inhibition of methane production at FA concentrations higher than 50mg/L. In the calibration of the proposed function, it fits well with the experimental data under all the conditions, including the inhibition and stimulating zones, with the values of the parameters of the methane production models falling in the range of those reported in the literature. For validation experiments, the model succeeded in representing the behavior of new experiments in both the stimulating and inhibiting zones, with NRMSE and R 2 ranging from 0.3577 to 0.03714 and 0.2209 to 0.9911, respectively. Thus, the proposed model is robust and valid for the studied conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Models of epidemics: when contact repetition and clustering should be included
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Scholz Roland W
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The spread of infectious disease is determined by biological factors, e.g. the duration of the infectious period, and social factors, e.g. the arrangement of potentially contagious contacts. Repetitiveness and clustering of contacts are known to be relevant factors influencing the transmission of droplet or contact transmitted diseases. However, we do not yet completely know under what conditions repetitiveness and clustering should be included for realistically modelling disease spread. Methods We compare two different types of individual-based models: One assumes random mixing without repetition of contacts, whereas the other assumes that the same contacts repeat day-by-day. The latter exists in two variants, with and without clustering. We systematically test and compare how the total size of an outbreak differs between these model types depending on the key parameters transmission probability, number of contacts per day, duration of the infectious period, different levels of clustering and varying proportions of repetitive contacts. Results The simulation runs under different parameter constellations provide the following results: The difference between both model types is highest for low numbers of contacts per day and low transmission probabilities. The number of contacts and the transmission probability have a higher influence on this difference than the duration of the infectious period. Even when only minor parts of the daily contacts are repetitive and clustered can there be relevant differences compared to a purely random mixing model. Conclusion We show that random mixing models provide acceptable estimates of the total outbreak size if the number of contacts per day is high or if the per-contact transmission probability is high, as seen in typical childhood diseases such as measles. In the case of very short infectious periods, for instance, as in Norovirus, models assuming repeating contacts will also behave
Particle-based modeling of heterogeneous chemical kinetics including mass transfer
Sengar, A.; Kuipers, J. A. M.; van Santen, Rutger A.; Padding, J. T.
2017-08-01
Connecting the macroscopic world of continuous fields to the microscopic world of discrete molecular events is important for understanding several phenomena occurring at physical boundaries of systems. An important example is heterogeneous catalysis, where reactions take place at active surfaces, but the effective reaction rates are determined by transport limitations in the bulk fluid and reaction limitations on the catalyst surface. In this work we study the macro-micro connection in a model heterogeneous catalytic reactor by means of stochastic rotation dynamics. The model is able to resolve the convective and diffusive interplay between participating species, while including adsorption, desorption, and reaction processes on the catalytic surface. Here we apply the simulation methodology to a simple straight microchannel with a catalytic strip. Dimensionless Damkohler numbers are used to comment on the spatial concentration profiles of reactants and products near the catalyst strip and in the bulk. We end the discussion with an outlook on more complicated geometries and increasingly complex reactions.
Analysis of electronic models for solar cells including energy resolved defect densities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glitzky, Annegret
2010-07-01
We introduce an electronic model for solar cells including energy resolved defect densities. The resulting drift-diffusion model corresponds to a generalized van Roosbroeck system with additional source terms coupled with ODEs containing space and energy as parameters for all defect densities. The system has to be considered in heterostructures and with mixed boundary conditions from device simulation. We give a weak formulation of the problem. If the boundary data and the sources are compatible with thermodynamic equilibrium the free energy along solutions decays monotonously. In other cases it may be increasing, but we estimate its growth. We establish boundedness and uniqueness results and prove the existence of a weak solution. This is done by considering a regularized problem, showing its solvability and the boundedness of its solutions independent of the regularization level. (orig.)
Particle-based modeling of heterogeneous chemical kinetics including mass transfer.
Sengar, A; Kuipers, J A M; van Santen, Rutger A; Padding, J T
2017-08-01
Connecting the macroscopic world of continuous fields to the microscopic world of discrete molecular events is important for understanding several phenomena occurring at physical boundaries of systems. An important example is heterogeneous catalysis, where reactions take place at active surfaces, but the effective reaction rates are determined by transport limitations in the bulk fluid and reaction limitations on the catalyst surface. In this work we study the macro-micro connection in a model heterogeneous catalytic reactor by means of stochastic rotation dynamics. The model is able to resolve the convective and diffusive interplay between participating species, while including adsorption, desorption, and reaction processes on the catalytic surface. Here we apply the simulation methodology to a simple straight microchannel with a catalytic strip. Dimensionless Damkohler numbers are used to comment on the spatial concentration profiles of reactants and products near the catalyst strip and in the bulk. We end the discussion with an outlook on more complicated geometries and increasingly complex reactions.
Effect of including decay chains on predictions of equilibrium-type terrestrial food chain models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirchner, G.
1990-01-01
Equilibrium-type food chain models are commonly used for assessing the radiological impact to man from environmental releases of radionuclides. Usually these do not take into account build-up of radioactive decay products during environmental transport. This may be a potential source of underprediction. For estimating consequences of this simplification, the equations of an internationally recognised terrestrial food chain model have been extended to include decay chains of variable length. Example calculations show that for releases from light water reactors as expected both during routine operation and in the case of severe accidents, the build-up of decay products during environmental transport is generally of minor importance. However, a considerable number of radionuclides of potential radiological significance have been identified which show marked contributions of decay products to calculated contamination of human food and resulting radiation dose rates. (author)
Jilg, Andreas; Seifert, Thomas
2018-05-01
Hot work tools are subjected to complex thermal and mechanical loads during hot forming processes. Locally, the stresses can exceed the material's yield strength in highly loaded areas as e.g. in small radii in die cavities. To sustain the high loads, the hot forming tools are typically made of martensitic hot work steels. While temperatures for annealing of the tool steels usually lie in the range between 400 and 600 °C, the steels may experience even higher temperatures during hot forming, resulting in softening of the material due to coarsening of strengthening particles. In this paper, a temperature dependent cyclic plasticity model for the martensitic hot work tool steel 1.2367 (X38CrMoV5-3) is presented that includes softening due to particle coarsening and that can be applied in finite-element calculations to assess the effect of softening on the thermomechanical fatigue life of hot work tools. To this end, a kinetic model for the evolution of the mean size of secondary carbides based on Ostwald ripening is coupled with a cyclic plasticity model with kinematic hardening. Mechanism-based relations are developed to describe the dependency of the mechanical properties on carbide size and temperature. The material properties of the mechanical and kinetic model are determined on the basis of tempering hardness curves as well as monotonic and cyclic tests.
Yoshihara, Lena; Roth, Christian J; Wall, Wolfgang A
2017-04-01
In this article, a novel approach is presented for combining standard fluid-structure interaction with additional volumetric constraints to model fluid flow into and from homogenised solid domains. The proposed algorithm is particularly interesting for investigations in the field of respiratory mechanics as it enables the mutual coupling of airflow in the conducting part and local tissue deformation in the respiratory part of the lung by means of a volume constraint. In combination with a classical monolithic fluid-structure interaction approach, a comprehensive model of the human lung can be established that will be useful to gain new insights into respiratory mechanics in health and disease. To illustrate the validity and versatility of the novel approach, three numerical examples including a patient-specific lung model are presented. The proposed algorithm proves its capability of computing clinically relevant airflow distribution and tissue strain data at a level of detail that is not yet achievable, neither with current imaging techniques nor with existing computational models. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
A generalized model for optimal transport of images including dissipation and density modulation
Maas, Jan
2015-11-01
© EDP Sciences, SMAI 2015. In this paper the optimal transport and the metamorphosis perspectives are combined. For a pair of given input images geodesic paths in the space of images are defined as minimizers of a resulting path energy. To this end, the underlying Riemannian metric measures the rate of transport cost and the rate of viscous dissipation. Furthermore, the model is capable to deal with strongly varying image contrast and explicitly allows for sources and sinks in the transport equations which are incorporated in the metric related to the metamorphosis approach by Trouvé and Younes. In the non-viscous case with source term existence of geodesic paths is proven in the space of measures. The proposed model is explored on the range from merely optimal transport to strongly dissipative dynamics. For this model a robust and effective variational time discretization of geodesic paths is proposed. This requires to minimize a discrete path energy consisting of a sum of consecutive image matching functionals. These functionals are defined on corresponding pairs of intensity functions and on associated pairwise matching deformations. Existence of time discrete geodesics is demonstrated. Furthermore, a finite element implementation is proposed and applied to instructive test cases and to real images. In the non-viscous case this is compared to the algorithm proposed by Benamou and Brenier including a discretization of the source term. Finally, the model is generalized to define discrete weighted barycentres with applications to textures and objects.
Habitability of super-Earth planets around other suns: models including Red Giant Branch evolution.
von Bloh, W; Cuntz, M; Schröder, K-P; Bounama, C; Franck, S
2009-01-01
The unexpected diversity of exoplanets includes a growing number of super-Earth planets, i.e., exoplanets with masses of up to several Earth masses and a similar chemical and mineralogical composition as Earth. We present a thermal evolution model for a 10 Earth-mass planet orbiting a star like the Sun. Our model is based on the integrated system approach, which describes the photosynthetic biomass production and takes into account a variety of climatological, biogeochemical, and geodynamical processes. This allows us to identify a so-called photosynthesis-sustaining habitable zone (pHZ), as determined by the limits of biological productivity on the planetary surface. Our model considers solar evolution during the main-sequence stage and along the Red Giant Branch as described by the most recent solar model. We obtain a large set of solutions consistent with the principal possibility of life. The highest likelihood of habitability is found for "water worlds." Only mass-rich water worlds are able to realize pHZ-type habitability beyond the stellar main sequence on the Red Giant Branch.
Empirical Validation of a Thermal Model of a Complex Roof Including Phase Change Materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stéphane Guichard
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the empirical validation of a building thermal model of a complex roof including a phase change material (PCM. A mathematical model dedicated to PCMs based on the heat apparent capacity method was implemented in a multi-zone building simulation code, the aim being to increase the understanding of the thermal behavior of the whole building with PCM technologies. In order to empirically validate the model, the methodology is based both on numerical and experimental studies. A parametric sensitivity analysis was performed and a set of parameters of the thermal model has been identified for optimization. The use of the generic optimization program called GenOpt® coupled to the building simulation code enabled to determine the set of adequate parameters. We first present the empirical validation methodology and main results of previous work. We then give an overview of GenOpt® and its coupling with the building simulation code. Finally, once the optimization results are obtained, comparisons of the thermal predictions with measurements are found to be acceptable and are presented.
Boullata, Joseph I; Holcombe, Beverly; Sacks, Gordon; Gervasio, Jane; Adams, Stephen C; Christensen, Michael; Durfee, Sharon; Ayers, Phil; Marshall, Neil; Guenter, Peggi
2016-08-01
Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a high-alert medication with a complex drug use process. Key steps in the process include the review of each PN prescription followed by the preparation of the formulation. The preparation step includes compounding the PN or activating a standardized commercially available PN product. The verification and review, as well as preparation of this complex therapy, require competency that may be determined by using a standardized process for pharmacists and for pharmacy technicians involved with PN. An American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) standardized model for PN order review and PN preparation competencies is proposed based on a competency framework, the ASPEN-published interdisciplinary core competencies, safe practice recommendations, and clinical guidelines, and is intended for institutions and agencies to use with their staff. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich
2010-01-01
A wave equation, that governs finite amplitude acoustic disturbances in a thermoviscous Newtonian fluid, and includes nonlinear terms up to second order, is proposed. The equation preserves the Hamiltonian structure of the fundamental fluid dynamical equations in the non dissipative limit. An exact...... thermoviscous shock solution is derived. This solution is, in an overall sense, equivalent to the Taylor shock solution of the Burgers equation. However, in contrast to the Burgers equation, the model equation considered here is capable to describe waves propagating in opposite directions. Studies of head...
A model for Huanglongbing spread between citrus plants including delay times and human intervention
Vilamiu, Raphael G. d'A.; Ternes, Sonia; Braga, Guilherme A.; Laranjeira, Francisco F.
2012-09-01
The objective of this work was to present a compartmental deterministic mathematical model for representing the dynamics of HLB disease in a citrus orchard, including delay in the disease's incubation phase in the plants, and a delay period on the nymphal stage of Diaphorina citri, the most important HLB insect vector in Brazil. Numerical simulations were performed to assess the possible impacts of human detection efficiency of symptomatic plants, as well as the influence of a long incubation period of HLB in the plant.
Rivas, Elena; Lang, Raymond; Eddy, Sean R
2012-02-01
The standard approach for single-sequence RNA secondary structure prediction uses a nearest-neighbor thermodynamic model with several thousand experimentally determined energy parameters. An attractive alternative is to use statistical approaches with parameters estimated from growing databases of structural RNAs. Good results have been reported for discriminative statistical methods using complex nearest-neighbor models, including CONTRAfold, Simfold, and ContextFold. Little work has been reported on generative probabilistic models (stochastic context-free grammars [SCFGs]) of comparable complexity, although probabilistic models are generally easier to train and to use. To explore a range of probabilistic models of increasing complexity, and to directly compare probabilistic, thermodynamic, and discriminative approaches, we created TORNADO, a computational tool that can parse a wide spectrum of RNA grammar architectures (including the standard nearest-neighbor model and more) using a generalized super-grammar that can be parameterized with probabilities, energies, or arbitrary scores. By using TORNADO, we find that probabilistic nearest-neighbor models perform comparably to (but not significantly better than) discriminative methods. We find that complex statistical models are prone to overfitting RNA structure and that evaluations should use structurally nonhomologous training and test data sets. Overfitting has affected at least one published method (ContextFold). The most important barrier to improving statistical approaches for RNA secondary structure prediction is the lack of diversity of well-curated single-sequence RNA secondary structures in current RNA databases.
Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS
Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.
2010-12-01
With 4 million ha currently grown for ethanol in Brazil only, approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005 (Smeets 2008), and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Indeed, ethanol made from biomass is currently the most widespread option for alternative transportation fuels. It was originally promoted as a carbon neutral energy resource that could bring energy independence to countries and local opportunities to farmers, until attention was drawn to its environmental and socio-economical drawbacks. It is still not clear to which extent it is a solution or a contributor to climate change mitigation. Dynamic Global Vegetation models can help address these issues and quantify the potential impacts of biofuels on ecosystems at scales ranging from on-site to global. The global agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE describes water, carbon and energy exchanges at the soil-atmosphere interface for a limited number of natural and agricultural vegetation types. In order to integrate agricultural management to the simulations and to capture more accurately the specificity of crops' phenology, ORCHIDEE has been coupled with the agronomical model STICS. The resulting crop-oriented vegetation model ORCHIDEE-STICS has been used so far to simulate temperate crops such as wheat, corn and soybean. As a generic ecosystem model, each grid cell can include several vegetation types with their own phenology and management practices, making it suitable to spatial simulations. Here, ORCHIDEE-STICS is altered to include sugar cane as a new agricultural Plant functional Type, implemented and parametrized using the STICS approach. An on-site calibration and validation is then performed based on biomass and flux chamber measurements in several sites in Australia and variables such as LAI, dry weight, heat fluxes and respiration are used to evaluate the ability of the model to simulate the specific
Moretti, Rocco; Lyskov, Sergey; Das, Rhiju; Meiler, Jens; Gray, Jeffrey J
2018-01-01
The Rosetta molecular modeling software package provides a large number of experimentally validated tools for modeling and designing proteins, nucleic acids, and other biopolymers, with new protocols being added continually. While freely available to academic users, external usage is limited by the need for expertise in the Unix command line environment. To make Rosetta protocols available to a wider audience, we previously created a web server called Rosetta Online Server that Includes Everyone (ROSIE), which provides a common environment for hosting web-accessible Rosetta protocols. Here we describe a simplification of the ROSIE protocol specification format, one that permits easier implementation of Rosetta protocols. Whereas the previous format required creating multiple separate files in different locations, the new format allows specification of the protocol in a single file. This new, simplified protocol specification has more than doubled the number of Rosetta protocols available under ROSIE. These new applications include pK a determination, lipid accessibility calculation, ribonucleic acid redesign, protein-protein docking, protein-small molecule docking, symmetric docking, antibody docking, cyclic toxin docking, critical binding peptide determination, and mapping small molecule binding sites. ROSIE is freely available to academic users at http://rosie.rosettacommons.org. © 2017 The Protein Society.
MHD model including small-scale perturbations in a plasma with temperature variations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuvshinov, B.N.; Mikhailovskii, A.B.
1996-01-01
The possibility is studied of using a hydrodynamic model to describe a magnetized plasma with density and temperature variations on scales that are arbitrary with respect to the ion Larmor radius. It is shown that the inertial component of the transverse ion thermal flux should be taken into account. This component is found from the collisionless kinetic equation. It can also be obtained from the equations of the Grad type. A set of two-dimensional hydrodynamic equations for ions is obtained with this component taken into account. These equations are used to derive model hydrodynamic expressions for the density and temperature variations. It is shown that, for large-scale perturbations (when the wavelengths are longer than the ion Larmor radius), the expressions derived coincide with the corresponding kinetic expressions and, for perturbations on sub-Larmor scales (when the wavelengths are shorter than the Larmor radius), they agree qualitatively. Hydrodynamic dispersion relations are derived for several types of drift waves with arbitrary wavenumbers. The range of applicability of the MHD model is determined from a comparison of these dispersion relations with the kinetic ones. It is noted that, on the basis of results obtained, drift effects can be included in numerical MHD codes for studying plasma instabilities in high-temperature regimes in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Y. T.; Xu, L. X.; Gui, Y. X.
2010-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in the quintessence cold dark matter model with constant equation of state and constant speed of sound in dark energy rest frame, including dark energy perturbation and its anisotropic stress. Comparing with the ΛCDM model, we find that the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW)-power spectrums are affected by different background evolutions and dark energy perturbation. As we change the speed of sound from 1 to 0 in the quintessence cold dark matter model with given state parameters, it is found that the inclusion of dark energy anisotropic stress makes the variation of magnitude of the ISW source uncertain due to the anticorrelation between the speed of sound and the ratio of dark energy density perturbation contrast to dark matter density perturbation contrast in the ISW-source term. Thus, the magnitude of the ISW-source term is governed by the competition between the alterant multiple of (1+3/2xc-circumflex s 2 ) and that of δ de /δ m with the variation of c-circumflex s 2 .
A Hydrological Concept including Lateral Water Flow Compatible with the Biogeochemical Model ForSAFE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giuliana Zanchi
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The study presents a hydrology concept developed to include lateral water flow in the biogeochemical model ForSAFE. The hydrology concept was evaluated against data collected at Svartberget in the Vindeln Research Forest in Northern Sweden. The results show that the new concept allows simulation of a saturated and an unsaturated zone in the soil as well as water flow that reaches the stream comparable to measurements. The most relevant differences compared to streamflow measurements are that the model simulates a higher base flow in winter and lower flow peaks after snowmelt. These differences are mainly caused by the assumptions made to regulate the percolation at the bottom of the simulated soil columns. The capability for simulating lateral flows and a saturated zone in ForSAFE can greatly improve the simulation of chemical exchange in the soil and export of elements from the soil to watercourses. Such a model can help improve the understanding of how environmental changes in the forest landscape will influence chemical loads to surface waters.
Modelling and control of a microgrid including photovoltaic and wind generation
Hussain, Mohammed Touseef
Extensive increase of distributed generation (DG) penetration and the existence of multiple DG units at distribution level have introduced the notion of micro-grid. This thesis develops a detailed non-linear and small-signal dynamic model of a microgrid that includes PV, wind and conventional small scale generation along with their power electronics interfaces and the filters. The models developed evaluate the amount of generation mix from various DGs for satisfactory steady state operation of the microgrid. In order to understand the interaction of the DGs on microgrid system initially two simpler configurations were considered. The first one consists of microalternator, PV and their electronics, and the second system consists of microalternator and wind system each connected to the power system grid. Nonlinear and linear state space model of each microgrid are developed. Small signal analysis showed that the large participation of PV/wind can drive the microgrid to the brink of unstable region without adequate control. Non-linear simulations are carried out to verify the results obtained through small-signal analysis. The role of the extent of generation mix of a composite microgrid consisting of wind, PV and conventional generation was investigated next. The findings of the smaller systems were verified through nonlinear and small signal modeling. A central supervisory capacitor energy storage controller interfaced through a STATCOM was proposed to monitor and enhance the microgrid operation. The potential of various control inputs to provide additional damping to the system has been evaluated through decomposition techniques. The signals identified to have damping contents were employed to design the supervisory control system. The controller gains were tuned through an optimal pole placement technique. Simulation studies demonstrate that the STATCOM voltage phase angle and PV inverter phase angle were the best inputs for enhanced stability boundaries.
Thiaw, Modou; Gascuel, Didier; Jouffre, Didier; Thiaw, Omar Thiom
2009-12-01
In Senegal, two stocks of white shrimp ( Penaeusnotialis) are intensively exploited, one in the north and another in the south. We used surplus production models including environmental effects to analyse their changes in abundance over the past 10 years and to estimate their Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) and the related fishing effort ( EMSY). First, yearly abundance indices were estimated from commercial statistics using GLM techniques. Then, two environmental indices were alternatively tested in the model: the coastal upwelling intensity from wind speeds provided by the SeaWifs database and the primary production derived from satellite infrared images of chlorophyll a. Models were fitted, with or without the environmental effect, to the 1996-2005 time series. They express stock abundance and catches as functions of the fishing effort and the environmental index (when considered). For the northern stock, fishing effort and abundance fluctuate over the period without any clear trends. The model based on the upwelling index explains 64.9% of the year-to-year variability. It shows that the stock was slightly overexploited in 2002-2003 and is now close to full exploitation. Stock abundance strongly depends on environmental conditions; consequently, the MSY estimate varies from 300 to 900 tons according to the upwelling intensity. For the southern stock, fishing effort has strongly increased over the past 10 years, while abundance has been reduced 4-fold. The environment has a significant effect on abundance but only explains a small part of the year-to-year variability. The best fit is obtained using the primary production index ( R2 = 0.75), and the stock is now significantly overfished regardless of environmental conditions. MSY varies from 1200 to 1800 tons according to environmental conditions. Finally, in northern Senegal, the upwelling is highly variable from year to year and constitutes the major factor determining productivity. In the south, hydrodynamic
3-D FEM Modeling of fiber/matrix interface debonding in UD composites including surface effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pupurs, A; Varna, J
2012-01-01
Fiber/matrix interface debond growth is one of the main mechanisms of damage evolution in unidirectional (UD) polymer composites. Because for polymer composites the fiber strain to failure is smaller than for the matrix multiple fiber breaks occur at random positions when high mechanical stress is applied to the composite. The energy released due to each fiber break is usually larger than necessary for the creation of a fiber break therefore a partial debonding of fiber/matrix interface is typically observed. Thus the stiffness reduction of UD composite is contributed both from the fiber breaks and from the interface debonds. The aim of this paper is to analyze the debond growth in carbon fiber/epoxy and glass fiber/epoxy UD composites using fracture mechanics principles by calculation of energy release rate G II . A 3-D FEM model is developed for calculation of energy release rate for fiber/matrix interface debonds at different locations in the composite including the composite surface region where the stress state differs from the one in the bulk composite. In the model individual partially debonded fiber is surrounded by matrix region and embedded in a homogenized composite.
Challenges of including nitrogen effects on decomposition in earth system models
Hobbie, S. E.
2011-12-01
Despite the importance of litter decomposition for ecosystem fertility and carbon balance, key uncertainties remain about how this fundamental process is affected by nitrogen (N) availability. Nevertheless, resolving such uncertainties is critical for mechanistic inclusion of such processes in earth system models, towards predicting the ecosystem consequences of increased anthropogenic reactive N. Towards that end, we have conducted a series of experiments examining nitrogen effects on litter decomposition. We found that both substrate N and externally supplied N (regardless of form) accelerated the initial decomposition rate. Faster initial decomposition rates were linked to the higher activity of carbohydrate-degrading enzymes associated with externally supplied N and the greater relative abundances of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria associated with green leaves and externally supplied organic N (assessed using phospholipid fatty acid analysis, PLFA). By contrast, later in decomposition, externally supplied N slowed decomposition, increasing the fraction of slowly decomposing litter and reducing lignin-degrading enzyme activity and relative abundances of Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. Our results suggest that elevated atmospheric N deposition may have contrasting effects on the dynamics of different soil carbon pools, decreasing mean residence times of active fractions comprising very fresh litter, while increasing those of more slowly decomposing fractions including more processed litter. Incorporating these contrasting effects of N on decomposition processes into models is complicated by lingering uncertainties about how these effects generalize across ecosystems and substrates.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Lingen; Kan, Xuxian; Sun, Fengrui; Wu, Feng [College of Naval Architecture and Power, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)
2013-07-01
The operation of a universal steady flow endoreversible refrigeration cycle model consisting of a constant thermal-capacity heating branch, two constant thermal-capacity cooling branches and two adiabatic branches is viewed as a production process with exergy as its output. The finite time exergoeconomic performance optimization of the refrigeration cycle is investigated by taking profit rate optimization criterion as the objective. The relations between the profit rate and the temperature ratio of working fluid, between the COP (coefficient of performance) and the temperature ratio of working fluid, as well as the optimal relation between profit rate and the COP of the cycle are derived. The focus of this paper is to search the compromised optimization between economics (profit rate) and the utilization factor (COP) for endoreversible refrigeration cycles, by searching the optimum COP at maximum profit, which is termed as the finite-time exergoeconomic performance bound. Moreover, performance analysis and optimization of the model are carried out in order to investigate the effect of cycle process on the performance of the cycles using numerical example. The results obtained herein include the performance characteristics of endoreversible Carnot, Diesel, Otto, Atkinson, Dual and Brayton refrigeration cycles.
Stucki, S; Orozco-terWengel, P; Forester, B R; Duruz, S; Colli, L; Masembe, C; Negrini, R; Landguth, E; Jones, M R; Bruford, M W; Taberlet, P; Joost, S
2017-09-01
With the increasing availability of both molecular and topo-climatic data, the main challenges facing landscape genomics - that is the combination of landscape ecology with population genomics - include processing large numbers of models and distinguishing between selection and demographic processes (e.g. population structure). Several methods address the latter, either by estimating a null model of population history or by simultaneously inferring environmental and demographic effects. Here we present samβada, an approach designed to study signatures of local adaptation, with special emphasis on high performance computing of large-scale genetic and environmental data sets. samβada identifies candidate loci using genotype-environment associations while also incorporating multivariate analyses to assess the effect of many environmental predictor variables. This enables the inclusion of explanatory variables representing population structure into the models to lower the occurrences of spurious genotype-environment associations. In addition, samβada calculates local indicators of spatial association for candidate loci to provide information on whether similar genotypes tend to cluster in space, which constitutes a useful indication of the possible kinship between individuals. To test the usefulness of this approach, we carried out a simulation study and analysed a data set from Ugandan cattle to detect signatures of local adaptation with samβada, bayenv, lfmm and an F ST outlier method (FDIST approach in arlequin) and compare their results. samβada - an open source software for Windows, Linux and Mac OS X available at http://lasig.epfl.ch/sambada - outperforms other approaches and better suits whole-genome sequence data processing. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Resources Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
CFD simulations and reduced order modeling of a refrigerator compartment including radiation effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bayer, Ozgur; Oskay, Ruknettin; Paksoy, Akin; Aradag, Selin
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► Free convection in a refrigerator is simulated including radiation effects. ► Heat rates are affected drastically when radiation effects are considered. ► 95% of the flow energy can be represented by using one spatial POD mode. - Abstract: Considering the engineering problem of natural convection in domestic refrigerator applications, this study aims to simulate the fluid flow and temperature distribution in a single commercial refrigerator compartment by using the experimentally determined temperature values as the specified constant wall temperature boundary conditions. The free convection in refrigerator applications is evaluated as a three-dimensional (3D), turbulent, transient and coupled non-linear flow problem. Radiation heat transfer mode is also included in the analysis. According to the results, taking radiation effects into consideration does not change the temperature distribution inside the refrigerator significantly; however the heat rates are affected drastically. The flow inside the compartment is further analyzed with a reduced order modeling method called Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and the energy contents of several spatial and temporal modes that exist in the flow are examined. The results show that approximately 95% of all the flow energy can be represented by only using one spatial mode
Höning, D.; Spohn, T.
2014-12-01
By harvesting solar energy and converting it to chemical energy, photosynthetic life plays an important role in the energy budget of Earth [2]. This leads to alterations of chemical reservoirs eventually affecting the Earth's interior [4]. It further has been speculated [3] that the formation of continents may be a consequence of the evolution life. A steady state model [1] suggests that the Earth without its biosphere would evolve to a steady state with a smaller continent coverage and a dryer mantle than is observed today. We present a model including (i) parameterized thermal evolution, (ii) continental growth and destruction, and (iii) mantle water regassing and outgassing. The biosphere enhances the production rate of sediments which eventually are subducted. These sediments are assumed to (i) carry water to depth bound in stable mineral phases and (ii) have the potential to suppress shallow dewatering of the underlying sediments and crust due to their low permeability. We run a Monte Carlo simulation for various initial conditions and treat all those parameter combinations as success which result in the fraction of continental crust coverage observed for present day Earth. Finally, we simulate the evolution of an abiotic Earth using the same set of parameters but a reduced rate of continental weathering and erosion. Our results suggest that the origin and evolution of life could have stabilized the large continental surface area of the Earth and its wet mantle, leading to the relatively low mantle viscosity we observe at present. Without photosynthetic life on our planet, the Earth would be geodynamical less active due to a dryer mantle, and would have a smaller fraction of continental coverage than observed today. References[1] Höning, D., Hansen-Goos, H., Airo, A., Spohn, T., 2014. Biotic vs. abiotic Earth: A model for mantle hydration and continental coverage. Planetary and Space Science 98, 5-13. [2] Kleidon, A., 2010. Life, hierarchy, and the
A sub-circuit MOSFET model with a wide temperature range including cryogenic temperature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jia Kan; Sun Weifeng; Shi Longxing, E-mail: jiakan.01@gmail.com [National ASIC System Engineering Research Center, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)
2011-06-15
A sub-circuit SPICE model of a MOSFET for low temperature operation is presented. Two resistors are introduced for the freeze-out effect, and the explicit behavioral models are developed for them. The model can be used in a wide temperature range covering both cryogenic temperature and regular temperatures. (semiconductor devices)
Including Overweight or Obese Students in Physical Education: A Social Ecological Constraint Model
Li, Weidong; Rukavina, Paul
2012-01-01
In this review, we propose a social ecological constraint model to study inclusion of overweight or obese students in physical education by integrating key concepts and assumptions from ecological constraint theory in motor development and social ecological models in health promotion and behavior. The social ecological constraint model proposes…
A methodology for including wall roughness effects in k-ε low-Reynolds turbulence models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ambrosini, W.; Pucciarelli, A.; Borroni, I.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • A model for taking into account wall roughness in low-Reynolds k-ε models is presented. • The model is subjected to a first validation to show its potential in general applications. • The application of the model in predicting heat transfer to supercritical fluids is also discussed. - Abstract: A model accounting for wall roughness effects in k-ε low-Reynolds turbulence models is described in the present paper. In particular, the introduction in the transport equations of k and ε of additional source terms related to roughness, based on simple assumptions and dimensional relationships, is proposed. An objective of the present paper, in addition to obtaining more realistic predictions of wall friction, is the application of the proposed model to the study of heat transfer to supercritical fluids. A first validation of the model is reported. The model shows the capability of predicting, at least qualitatively, some of the most important trends observed when dealing with rough pipes in very different flow conditions. Qualitative comparisons with some DNS data available in literature are also performed. Further analyses provided promising results concerning the ability of the model in reproducing the trend of friction factor when varying the flow conditions, though improvements are necessary for achieving better quantitative accuracy. First applications of the model in simulating heat transfer to supercritical fluids are also described, showing the capability of the model to affect the predictions of these heat transfer phenomena, in particular in the vicinity of the pseudo-critical conditions. A more extended application of the model to relevant deteriorated heat transfer conditions will clarify the usefulness of this modelling methodology in improving predictions of these difficult phenomena. Whatever the possible success in this particular application that motivated its development, this approach suggests a general methodology for accounting
Janssen, G.M.C.M.; Valstar, J.R.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.
2008-01-01
Traveltime determinations have found increasing application in the characterization of groundwater systems. No algorithms are available, however, to optimally design sampling strategies including this information type. We propose a first-order methodology to include groundwater age or tracer arrival
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasegawa, Takuma; Miyakawa, Kimio
2009-01-01
It is important to verify the groundwater flow model that reproduces pressure head, water chemistry, and groundwater age. However, water chemistry and groundwater age are considered to be influenced by historical events. In this study, sea level change during glacial-interglacial cycle was taken into account for simulating salinity and groundwater age at coastal granite area. As a result of simulation, salinity movement could not catch up with sea level changes, and mixing zone was formed below the fresh-water zone. This mixing zone was observed in the field measurement, and the observed salinities were agreed with simulated results including sea level change. The simulated residence time including sea level change is one-tenth of steady state. The reason is that the saline water was washed out during regression and modern sea-water was infiltrated during transgression. As mentioned before, considering sea level change are important to reproduce salinity and helium age at coastal area. (author)
Hardware-in-the-loop vehicle system including dynamic fuel cell model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lemes, Z.; Lenhart, T.; Braun, M.; Maencher, H. [MAGNUM Automatisierungstechnik GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)
2005-07-01
In order to reduce costs and accelerate the development of fuel cells and systems the usage of hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing and dynamic modelling opens new possibilities. The dynamic model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) together with a vehicle model is used to carry out a comprehensive system investigation, which allows designing and optimising the behaviour of the components and the entire fuel cell system. The set-up of a HIL system enables real time interaction between the selected hardware and the model. (orig.)
Transverse Crack Modeling and Validation in Rotor Systems, Including Thermal Effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Bachschmid
2003-01-01
Full Text Available This article describes a model that allows the simulation of the static behavior of a transverse crack in a horizontal rotor under the action of weight and other possible static loads and the dynamic behavior of cracked rotating shaft. The crack breathes—that is, the mechanism of the crack's opening and closing is ruled by the stress on the cracked section exerted by the external loads. In a rotor, the stresses are time-dependent and have a period equal to the period of rotation; thus, the crack periodically breathes. An original, simplified model allows cracks of various shapes to be modeled and thermal stresses to be taken into account, as they may influence the opening and closing mechanism. The proposed method was validated by using two criteria. First the crack's breathing mechanism, simulated by the model, was compared with the results obtained by a nonlinear, threedimensional finite element model calculation, and a good agreement in the results was observed. Then the proposed model allowed the development of the equivalent cracked beam. The results of this model were compared with those obtained by the three-dimensional finite element model. Also in this case, there was a good agreement in the results.
A model for firm-specific strategic wisdom : including illustrations and 49 guiding questions
van Straten, Roeland Peter
2017-01-01
This PhD thesis provides an answer to the question ‘How may one think strategically’. It does so by presenting a new prescriptive ‘Model for Firm-Specific Strategic Wisdom’. This Model aims to guide any individual strategist in his or her thinking from a state of firm-specific ‘ignorance’ to a state
A two-dimensional simulation model of phosphorus uptake including crop growth and P-response
Mollier, A.; Willigen, de P.; Heinen, M.; Morel, C.; Schneider, A.; Pellerin, S.
2008-01-01
Modelling nutrient uptake by crops implies considering and integrating the processes controlling the soil nutrient supply, the uptake by the root system and relationships between the crop growth response and the amount of nutrient absorbed. We developed a model that integrates both dynamics of maize
Deterministic Model for Rubber-Metal Contact Including the Interaction Between Asperities
Deladi, E.L.; de Rooij, M.B.; Schipper, D.J.
2005-01-01
Rubber-metal contact involves relatively large deformations and large real contact areas compared to metal-metal contact. Here, a deterministic model is proposed for the contact between rubber and metal surfaces, which takes into account the interaction between neighboring asperities. In this model,
Development of numerical dispersion model for radioactive nuclei including resuspension processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiba, Masaru; Kurita, Susumu; Sasaki, Hidetaka
2003-01-01
Global-scale and local-scale dispersion model are developed combining to global and local scale meteorological forecasting model. By applying this system to another miner constituent such as mineral dust blowing by strong wind in arid region, this system shows very good performance to watch and predict the distribution of it. (author)
An investigation of FLUENT's fan model including the effect of swirl velocity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Saheli, A.; Barron, R.M.
2002-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to investigate and discuss the reliability of simplified models for the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of air flow through automotive engine cooling fans. One of the most widely used simplified fan models in industry is a variant of the actuator disk model which is available in most commercial CFD software, such as FLUENT. In this model, the fan is replaced by an infinitely thin surface on which pressure rise across the fan is specified as a polynomial function of normal velocity or flow rate. The advantages of this model are that it is simple, it accurately predicts the pressure rise through the fan and the axial velocity, and it is robust
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carlen, Ida; Nikolopoulos, Anna; Isaeus, Martin (AquaBiota Water Research, Stockholm (SE))
2007-06-15
GIS grids (maps) of marine parameters were created using point data from previous site investigations in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas. The proportion of global radiation reaching the sea bottom in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated in ArcView, using Secchi depth measurements and the digital elevation models for the respective area. The number of days per year when the incoming light exceeds 5 MJ/m2 at the bottom was then calculated using the result of the previous calculations together with measured global radiation. Existing modelled grid-point data on bottom and pelagic temperature for Forsmark were interpolated to create surface covering grids. Bottom and pelagic temperature grids for Oskarshamn were calculated using point measurements to achieve yearly averages for a few points and then using regressions with existing grids to create new maps. Phytoplankton primary production in Forsmark was calculated using point measurements of chlorophyll and irradiance, and a regression with a modelled grid of Secchi depth. Distribution of biomass of macrophyte communities in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated using spatial modelling in GRASP, based on field data from previous surveys. Physical parameters such as those described above were used as predictor variables. Distribution of biomass of different functional groups of fish in Forsmark was calculated using spatial modelling based on previous surveys and with predictor variables such as physical parameters and results from macrophyte modelling. All results are presented as maps in the report. The quality of the modelled predictions varies as a consequence of the quality and amount of the input data, the ecology and knowledge of the predicted phenomena, and by the modelling technique used. A substantial part of the variation is not described by the models, which should be expected for biological modelling. Therefore, the resulting grids should be used with caution and with this uncertainty kept in mind. All
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlen, Ida; Nikolopoulos, Anna; Isaeus, Martin
2007-06-01
GIS grids (maps) of marine parameters were created using point data from previous site investigations in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas. The proportion of global radiation reaching the sea bottom in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated in ArcView, using Secchi depth measurements and the digital elevation models for the respective area. The number of days per year when the incoming light exceeds 5 MJ/m2 at the bottom was then calculated using the result of the previous calculations together with measured global radiation. Existing modelled grid-point data on bottom and pelagic temperature for Forsmark were interpolated to create surface covering grids. Bottom and pelagic temperature grids for Oskarshamn were calculated using point measurements to achieve yearly averages for a few points and then using regressions with existing grids to create new maps. Phytoplankton primary production in Forsmark was calculated using point measurements of chlorophyll and irradiance, and a regression with a modelled grid of Secchi depth. Distribution of biomass of macrophyte communities in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated using spatial modelling in GRASP, based on field data from previous surveys. Physical parameters such as those described above were used as predictor variables. Distribution of biomass of different functional groups of fish in Forsmark was calculated using spatial modelling based on previous surveys and with predictor variables such as physical parameters and results from macrophyte modelling. All results are presented as maps in the report. The quality of the modelled predictions varies as a consequence of the quality and amount of the input data, the ecology and knowledge of the predicted phenomena, and by the modelling technique used. A substantial part of the variation is not described by the models, which should be expected for biological modelling. Therefore, the resulting grids should be used with caution and with this uncertainty kept in mind. All
A Two-Account Life Insurance Model for Scenario-Based Valuation Including Event Risk
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ninna Reitzel Jensen
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Using a two-account model with event risk, we model life insurance contracts taking into account both guaranteed and non-guaranteed payments in participating life insurance as well as in unit-linked insurance. Here, event risk is used as a generic term for life insurance events, such as death, disability, etc. In our treatment of participating life insurance, we have special focus on the bonus schemes “consolidation” and “additional benefits”, and one goal is to formalize how these work and interact. Another goal is to describe similarities and differences between participating life insurance and unit-linked insurance. By use of a two-account model, we are able to illustrate general concepts without making the model too abstract. To allow for complicated financial markets without dramatically increasing the mathematical complexity, we focus on economic scenarios. We illustrate the use of our model by conducting scenario analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation, but the model applies to scenarios in general and to worst-case and best-estimate scenarios in particular. In addition to easy computations, our model offers a common framework for the valuation of life insurance payments across product types. This enables comparison of participating life insurance products and unit-linked insurance products, thus building a bridge between the two different ways of formalizing life insurance products. Finally, our model distinguishes itself from the existing literature by taking into account the Markov model for the state of the policyholder and, hereby, facilitating event risk.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ozolin, Y.E.; Karol, I.L. [Main Geophysical Observatory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ramaroson, R. [Office National d`Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)
1997-12-31
Box model for coupled gaseous and aqueous phases is used for sensitivity study of potential transformation of trace gases in a cloud environment. The rate of this transformation decreases with decreasing of pH in droplets, with decreasing of photodissociation rates inside the cloud and with increasing of the droplet size. Model calculations show the potential formation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in aqueous phase and transformation of gaseous HNO{sub 3} into NO{sub x} in a cloud. This model is applied for exploration of aircraft exhausts evolution in plume inside a cloud. (author) 10 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ozolin, Y E; Karol, I L [Main Geophysical Observatory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ramaroson, R [Office National d` Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)
1998-12-31
Box model for coupled gaseous and aqueous phases is used for sensitivity study of potential transformation of trace gases in a cloud environment. The rate of this transformation decreases with decreasing of pH in droplets, with decreasing of photodissociation rates inside the cloud and with increasing of the droplet size. Model calculations show the potential formation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in aqueous phase and transformation of gaseous HNO{sub 3} into NO{sub x} in a cloud. This model is applied for exploration of aircraft exhausts evolution in plume inside a cloud. (author) 10 refs.
ETM documentation update – including modelling conventions and manual for software tools
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grohnheit, Poul Erik
This is the final report for the DTU contribution to Socio Economic Research on Fusion (SERF), EFDA Technology Work programme 2013. The structure and contents of this report was presented at the EFDA-TIMES workshop in Garching 12-13 December 2013. This report gives further background and references......, it summarises the work done during 2013, and it also contains presentations for promotion of fusion as a future element in the electricity generation mix and presentations for the modelling community concerning model development and model documentation – in particular for TIAM collaboration workshops....
A generalized model for optimal transport of images including dissipation and density modulation
Maas, Jan; Rumpf, Martin; Schö nlieb, Carola; Simon, Stefan
2015-01-01
transport to strongly dissipative dynamics. For this model a robust and effective variational time discretization of geodesic paths is proposed. This requires to minimize a discrete path energy consisting of a sum of consecutive image matching functionals
Advanced Modeling of Ramp Operations including Departure Status at Secondary Airports, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project addresses three modeling elements relevant to NASA's IADS research and ATD-2 project, two related to ramp operations at primary airports and one related...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede
2018-01-01
Detailed thermal dynamics of high power IGBT modules are important information for the reliability analysis and thermal design of power electronic systems. However, the existing thermal models have their limits to correctly predict these complicated thermal behavior in the IGBTs: The typically used...... thermal model based on one-dimensional RC lumps have limits to provide temperature distributions inside the device, moreover some variable factors in the real-field applications like the cooling and heating conditions of the converter cannot be adapted. On the other hand, the more advanced three......-dimensional thermal models based on Finite Element Method (FEM) need massive computations, which make the long-term thermal dynamics difficult to calculate. In this paper, a new lumped three-dimensional thermal model is proposed, which can be easily characterized from FEM simulations and can acquire the critical...
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Cooper, Antony K
2011-07-01
Full Text Available , Information and Computational Viewpoints of the Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP). We identified six stakeholders: Policy Maker, Producer, Provider, Broker, Value-added Reseller and End User. The Internet has spawned the development...
Transverse Crack Modeling and Validation in Rotor Systems Including Thermal Effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Bachschmid
2004-01-01
Full Text Available In this article, a model is described that allows one to simulate the static behavior of a transversal crack in a horizontal rotor, under the action of the weight and other possible static loads and the dynamical behavior of the rotating cracked shaft. The crack “breaths,” i.e., the mechanism of opening and closing of the crack, is ruled by the stress acting on the cracked section due to the external loads; in a rotor the stress is time-depending with a period equal to the period of rotation, thus the crack “periodically breaths.” An original simplified model is described that allows cracks of different shape to be modeled and thermal stresses to be taken into account, since they may influence the opening and closing mechanism. The proposed method has been validated using two criteria. Firstly, the crack “breathing” mechanism, simulated with the model, has been compared with the results obtained by a nonlinear 3-D FEM calculation and a good agreement in the results has been observed. Secondly, the proposed model allows the development of the equivalent cracked beam. The results of this model are compared with those obtained by the above-mentioned 3-D FEM. There is a good agreement in the results, of this case as well.
Including sugar cane in the agro-ecosystem model ORCHIDEE-STICS: calibration and validation
Valade, A.; Vuichard, N.; Ciais, P.; Viovy, N.
2011-12-01
Sugarcane is currently the most efficient bioenergy crop with regards to the energy produced per hectare. With approximately half the global bioethanol production in 2005, and a devoted land area expected to expand globally in the years to come, sugar cane is at the heart of the biofuel debate. Dynamic global vegetation models coupled with agronomical models are powerful and novel tools to tackle many of the environmental issues related to biofuels if they are carefully calibrated and validated against field observations. Here we adapt the agro-terrestrial model ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane simulations. Observation data of LAI are used to evaluate the sensitivity of the model to parameters of nitrogen absorption and phenology, which are calibrated in a systematic way for six sites in Australia and La Reunion. We find that the optimal set of parameters is highly dependent on the sites' characteristics and that the model can reproduce satisfactorily the evolution of LAI. This careful calibration of ORCHIDEE-STICS for sugar cane biomass production for different locations and technical itineraries provides a strong basis for further analysis of the impacts of bioenergy-related land use change on carbon cycle budgets. As a next step, a sensitivity analysis is carried out to estimate the uncertainty of the model in biomass and carbon flux simulation due to its parameterization.
Chougule, Abhijit; Mann, Jakob; Kelly, Mark; Larsen, Gunner C.
2018-02-01
A spectral-tensor model of non-neutral, atmospheric-boundary-layer turbulence is evaluated using Eulerian statistics from single-point measurements of the wind speed and temperature at heights up to 100 m, assuming constant vertical gradients of mean wind speed and temperature. The model has been previously described in terms of the dissipation rate ɛ , the length scale of energy-containing eddies L , a turbulence anisotropy parameter Γ, the Richardson number Ri, and the normalized rate of destruction of temperature variance η _θ ≡ ɛ _θ /ɛ . Here, the latter two parameters are collapsed into a single atmospheric stability parameter z / L using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, where z is the height above the Earth's surface, and L is the Obukhov length corresponding to Ri,η _θ. Model outputs of the one-dimensional velocity spectra, as well as cospectra of the streamwise and/or vertical velocity components, and/or temperature, and cross-spectra for the spatial separation of all three velocity components and temperature, are compared with measurements. As a function of the four model parameters, spectra and cospectra are reproduced quite well, but horizontal temperature fluxes are slightly underestimated in stable conditions. In moderately unstable stratification, our model reproduces spectra only up to a scale ˜ 1 km. The model also overestimates coherences for vertical separations, but is less severe in unstable than in stable cases.
A Novel Mean-Value Model of the Cardiovascular System Including a Left Ventricular Assist Device.
Ochsner, Gregor; Amacher, Raffael; Schmid Daners, Marianne
2017-06-01
Time-varying elastance models (TVEMs) are often used for simulation studies of the cardiovascular system with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). Because these models are computationally expensive, they cannot be used for long-term simulation studies. In addition, their equilibria are periodic solutions, which prevent the extraction of a linear time-invariant model that could be used e.g. for the design of a physiological controller. In the current paper, we present a new type of model to overcome these problems: the mean-value model (MVM). The MVM captures the behavior of the cardiovascular system by representative mean values that do not change within the cardiac cycle. For this purpose, each time-varying element is manually converted to its mean-value counterpart. We compare the derived MVM to a similar TVEM in two simulation experiments. In both cases, the MVM is able to fully capture the inter-cycle dynamics of the TVEM. We hope that the new MVM will become a useful tool for researchers working on physiological control algorithms. This paper provides a plant model that enables for the first time the use of tools from classical control theory in the field of physiological LVAD control.
Canuto, V. M.
1994-01-01
The Reynolds numbers that characterize geophysical and astrophysical turbulence (Re approximately equals 10(exp 8) for the planetary boundary layer and Re approximately equals 10(exp 14) for the Sun's interior) are too large to allow a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the fundamental Navier-Stokes and temperature equations. In fact, the spatial number of grid points N approximately Re(exp 9/4) exceeds the computational capability of today's supercomputers. Alternative treatments are the ensemble-time average approach, and/or the volume average approach. Since the first method (Reynolds stress approach) is largely analytical, the resulting turbulence equations entail manageable computational requirements and can thus be linked to a stellar evolutionary code or, in the geophysical case, to general circulation models. In the volume average approach, one carries out a large eddy simulation (LES) which resolves numerically the largest scales, while the unresolved scales must be treated theoretically with a subgrid scale model (SGS). Contrary to the ensemble average approach, the LES+SGS approach has considerable computational requirements. Even if this prevents (for the time being) a LES+SGS model to be linked to stellar or geophysical codes, it is still of the greatest relevance as an 'experimental tool' to be used, inter alia, to improve the parameterizations needed in the ensemble average approach. Such a methodology has been successfully adopted in studies of the convective planetary boundary layer. Experienc e with the LES+SGS approach from different fields has shown that its reliability depends on the healthiness of the SGS model for numerical stability as well as for physical completeness. At present, the most widely used SGS model, the Smagorinsky model, accounts for the effect of the shear induced by the large resolved scales on the unresolved scales but does not account for the effects of buoyancy, anisotropy, rotation, and stable stratification. The
Ward, Logan; Liu, Ruoqian; Krishna, Amar; Hegde, Vinay I.; Agrawal, Ankit; Choudhary, Alok; Wolverton, Chris
2017-07-01
While high-throughput density functional theory (DFT) has become a prevalent tool for materials discovery, it is limited by the relatively large computational cost. In this paper, we explore using DFT data from high-throughput calculations to create faster, surrogate models with machine learning (ML) that can be used to guide new searches. Our method works by using decision tree models to map DFT-calculated formation enthalpies to a set of attributes consisting of two distinct types: (i) composition-dependent attributes of elemental properties (as have been used in previous ML models of DFT formation energies), combined with (ii) attributes derived from the Voronoi tessellation of the compound's crystal structure. The ML models created using this method have half the cross-validation error and similar training and evaluation speeds to models created with the Coulomb matrix and partial radial distribution function methods. For a dataset of 435 000 formation energies taken from the Open Quantum Materials Database (OQMD), our model achieves a mean absolute error of 80 meV/atom in cross validation, which is lower than the approximate error between DFT-computed and experimentally measured formation enthalpies and below 15% of the mean absolute deviation of the training set. We also demonstrate that our method can accurately estimate the formation energy of materials outside of the training set and be used to identify materials with especially large formation enthalpies. We propose that our models can be used to accelerate the discovery of new materials by identifying the most promising materials to study with DFT at little additional computational cost.
Kinetic modelling of anaerobic hydrolysis of solid wastes, including disintegration processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
García-Gen, Santiago [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Sousbie, Philippe; Rangaraj, Ganesh [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France); Lema, Juan M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Rodríguez, Jorge, E-mail: jrodriguez@masdar.ac.ae [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Technology, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Institute Centre for Water and Environment (iWater), Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, PO Box 54224 Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Torrijos, Michel [INRA, UR50, Laboratoire de Biotechnologie de l’Environnement, Avenue des Etangs, Narbonne F-11100 (France)
2015-01-15
Highlights: • Fractionation of solid wastes into readily and slowly biodegradable fractions. • Kinetic coefficients estimation from mono-digestion batch assays. • Validation of kinetic coefficients with a co-digestion continuous experiment. • Simulation of batch and continuous experiments with an ADM1-based model. - Abstract: A methodology to estimate disintegration and hydrolysis kinetic parameters of solid wastes and validate an ADM1-based anaerobic co-digestion model is presented. Kinetic parameters of the model were calibrated from batch reactor experiments treating individually fruit and vegetable wastes (among other residues) following a new protocol for batch tests. In addition, decoupled disintegration kinetics for readily and slowly biodegradable fractions of solid wastes was considered. Calibrated parameters from batch assays of individual substrates were used to validate the model for a semi-continuous co-digestion operation treating simultaneously 5 fruit and vegetable wastes. The semi-continuous experiment was carried out in a lab-scale CSTR reactor for 15 weeks at organic loading rate ranging between 2.0 and 4.7 g VS/L d. The model (built in Matlab/Simulink) fit to a large extent the experimental results in both batch and semi-continuous mode and served as a powerful tool to simulate the digestion or co-digestion of solid wastes.
Results of including geometric nonlinearities in an aeroelastic model of an F/A-18
Buttrill, Carey S.
1989-01-01
An integrated, nonlinear simulation model suitable for aeroelastic modeling of fixed-wing aircraft has been developed. While the author realizes that the subject of modeling rotating, elastic structures is not closed, it is believed that the equations of motion developed and applied herein are correct to second order and are suitable for use with typical aircraft structures. The equations are not suitable for large elastic deformation. In addition, the modeling framework generalizes both the methods and terminology of non-linear rigid-body airplane simulation and traditional linear aeroelastic modeling. Concerning the importance of angular/elastic inertial coupling in the dynamic analysis of fixed-wing aircraft, the following may be said. The rigorous inclusion of said coupling is not without peril and must be approached with care. In keeping with the same engineering judgment that guided the development of the traditional aeroelastic equations, the effect of non-linear inertial effects for most airplane applications is expected to be small. A parameter does not tell the whole story, however, and modes flagged by the parameter as significant also need to be checked to see if the coupling is not a one-way path, i.e., the inertially affected modes can influence other modes.
Cracked rotors. A survey on static and dynamic behaviour including modelling and diagnosis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bachschmid, Nicolo; Pennacchi, Paolo; Tanzi, Ezio [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
2010-07-01
Cracks can develop in rotating shafts and can propagate to relevant depths without affecting consistently the normal operating conditions of the shaft. In order to avoid catastrophic failures, accurate vibration analyses have to be performed for crack detection. The identification of the crack location and depth is possible by means of a model based diagnostic approach, provided that the model of the crack and the model of the cracked shaft dynamical behavior are accurate and reliable. This monograph shows the typical dynamical behavior of cracked shafts and presents tests for detecting cracks. The book describes how to model cracks, how to simulate the dynamical behavior of cracked shaft, and compares the corresponding numerical with experimental results. All effects of cracks on the vibrations of rotating shafts are analyzed, and some results of a numerical sensitivity analysis of the vibrations to the presence and severity of the crack are shown. Finally the book describes some crack identification procedures and shows some results in model based crack identification in position and depth. The book is useful for higher university courses in mechanical and energetic engineering, but also for skilled technical people employed in power generation industries. (orig.)
Luo, Rutao; Piovoso, Michael J.; Martinez-Picado, Javier; Zurakowski, Ryan
2012-01-01
Mathematical models based on ordinary differential equations (ODE) have had significant impact on understanding HIV disease dynamics and optimizing patient treatment. A model that characterizes the essential disease dynamics can be used for prediction only if the model parameters are identifiable from clinical data. Most previous parameter identification studies for HIV have used sparsely sampled data from the decay phase following the introduction of therapy. In this paper, model parameters are identified from frequently sampled viral-load data taken from ten patients enrolled in the previously published AutoVac HAART interruption study, providing between 69 and 114 viral load measurements from 3–5 phases of viral decay and rebound for each patient. This dataset is considerably larger than those used in previously published parameter estimation studies. Furthermore, the measurements come from two separate experimental conditions, which allows for the direct estimation of drug efficacy and reservoir contribution rates, two parameters that cannot be identified from decay-phase data alone. A Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo method is used to estimate the model parameter values, with initial estimates obtained using nonlinear least-squares methods. The posterior distributions of the parameter estimates are reported and compared for all patients. PMID:22815727
A void ratio dependent water retention curve model including hydraulic hysteresis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pasha Amin Y.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Past experimental evidence has shown that Water Retention Curve (WRC evolves with mechanical stress and structural changes in soil matrix. Models currently available in the literature for capturing the volume change dependency of WRC are mainly empirical in nature requiring an extensive experimental programme for parameter identification which renders them unsuitable for practical applications. In this paper, an analytical model for the evaluation of the void ratio dependency of WRC in deformable porous media is presented. The approach proposed enables quantification of the dependency of WRC on void ratio solely based on the form of WRC at the reference void ratio and requires no additional parameters. The effect of hydraulic hysteresis on the evolution process is also incorporated in the model, an aspect rarely addressed in the literature. Expressions are presented for the evolution of main and scanning curves due to loading and change in the hydraulic path from scanning to main wetting/drying and vice versa as well as the WRC parameters such as air entry value, air expulsion value, pore size distribution index and slope of the scanning curve. The model is validated using experimental data on compacted and reconstituted soils subjected to various hydro-mechanical paths. Good agreement is obtained between model predictions and experimental data in all the cases considered.
Cheng, Lei; Li, Yizeng; Grosh, Karl
2013-08-15
An approximate boundary condition is developed in this paper to model fluid shear viscosity at boundaries of coupled fluid-structure system. The effect of shear viscosity is approximated by a correction term to the inviscid boundary condition, written in terms of second order in-plane derivatives of pressure. Both thin and thick viscous boundary layer approximations are formulated; the latter subsumes the former. These approximations are used to develop a variational formation, upon which a viscous finite element method (FEM) model is based, requiring only minor modifications to the boundary integral contributions of an existing inviscid FEM model. Since this FEM formulation has only one degree of freedom for pressure, it holds a great computational advantage over the conventional viscous FEM formulation which requires discretization of the full set of linearized Navier-Stokes equations. The results from thick viscous boundary layer approximation are found to be in good agreement with the prediction from a Navier-Stokes model. When applicable, thin viscous boundary layer approximation also gives accurate results with computational simplicity compared to the thick boundary layer formulation. Direct comparison of simulation results using the boundary layer approximations and a full, linearized Navier-Stokes model are made and used to evaluate the accuracy of the approximate technique. Guidelines are given for the parameter ranges over which the accurate application of the thick and thin boundary approximations can be used for a fluid-structure interaction problem.
A Two-Account Life Insurance Model for Scenario-Based Valuation Including Event Risk
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Ninna Reitzel; Schomacker, Kristian Juul
2015-01-01
Using a two-account model with event risk, we model life insurance contracts taking into account both guaranteed and non-guaranteed payments in participating life insurance as well as in unit-linked insurance. Here, event risk is used as a generic term for life insurance events, such as death......, disability, etc. In our treatment of participating life insurance, we have special focus on the bonus schemes “consolidation” and “additional benefits”, and one goal is to formalize how these work and interact. Another goal is to describe similarities and differences between participating life insurance...... product types. This enables comparison of participating life insurance products and unit-linked insurance products, thus building a bridge between the two different ways of formalizing life insurance products. Finally, our model distinguishes itself from the existing literature by taking into account...
A new mammalian circadian oscillator model including the cAMP module
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jun-Wei, Wang; Tian-Shou, Zhou
2009-01-01
In this paper, we develop a new mathematical model for the mammalian circadian clock, which incorporates both transcriptional/translational feedback loops (TTFLs) and a cAMP-mediated feedback loop. The model shows that TTFLs and cAMP signalling cooperatively drive the circadian rhythms. It reproduces typical experimental observations with qualitative similarities, e.g. circadian oscillations in constant darkness and entrainment to light–dark cycles. In addition, it can explain the phenotypes of cAMP-mutant and Rev-erbα −/− -mutant mice, and help us make an experimentally-testable prediction: oscillations may be rescued when arrhythmic mice with constitutively low concentrations of cAMP are crossed with Rev-erbα −/− mutant mice. The model enhances our understanding of the mammalian circadian clockwork from the viewpoint of the entire cell. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
A Simple Model of Fields Including the Strong or Nuclear Force and a Cosmological Speculation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David L. Spencer
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Reexamining the assumptions underlying the General Theory of Relativity and calling an object's gravitational field its inertia, and acceleration simply resistance to that inertia, yields a simple field model where the potential (kinetic energy of a particle at rest is its capacity to move itself when its inertial field becomes imbalanced. The model then attributes electromagnetic and strong forces to the effects of changes in basic particle shape. Following up on the model's assumption that the relative intensity of a particle's gravitational field is always inversely related to its perceived volume and assuming that all black holes spin, may create the possibility of a cosmic rebound where a final spinning black hole ends with a new Big Bang.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P.-L. Blelly
2005-02-01
Full Text Available The TRANSCAR ionospheric model was extended to account for the convection of the magnetic field lines in the auroral and polar ionosphere. A mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian 13-moment approach was used to describe the dynamics of an ionospheric plasma tube. In the present study, one focuses on large scale transports in the polar ionosphere. The model was used to simulate a 35-h period of EISCAT-UHF observations on 16-17 February 1993. The first day was magnetically quiet, and characterized by elevated electron concentrations: the diurnal F_{2} layer reached as much as 10^{12}m^{-3}, which is unusual for a winter and moderate solar activity (F_{10.7}=130 period. An intense geomagnetic event occurred on the second day, seen in the data as a strong intensification of the ionosphere convection velocities in the early afternoon (with the northward electric field reaching 150mVm^{-1} and corresponding frictional heating of the ions up to 2500K. The simulation used time-dependent AMIE outputs to infer flux-tube transports in the polar region, and to provide magnetospheric particle and energy inputs to the ionosphere. The overall very good agreement, obtained between the model and the observations, demonstrates the high ability of the extended TRANSCAR model for quantitative modelling of the high-latitude ionosphere; however, some differences are found which are attributed to the precipitation of electrons with very low energy. All these results are finally discussed in the frame of modelling the auroral ionosphere with space weather applications in mind.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P.-L. Blelly
2005-02-01
Full Text Available The TRANSCAR ionospheric model was extended to account for the convection of the magnetic field lines in the auroral and polar ionosphere. A mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian 13-moment approach was used to describe the dynamics of an ionospheric plasma tube. In the present study, one focuses on large scale transports in the polar ionosphere. The model was used to simulate a 35-h period of EISCAT-UHF observations on 16-17 February 1993. The first day was magnetically quiet, and characterized by elevated electron concentrations: the diurnal F2 layer reached as much as 1012m-3, which is unusual for a winter and moderate solar activity (F10.7=130 period. An intense geomagnetic event occurred on the second day, seen in the data as a strong intensification of the ionosphere convection velocities in the early afternoon (with the northward electric field reaching 150mVm-1 and corresponding frictional heating of the ions up to 2500K. The simulation used time-dependent AMIE outputs to infer flux-tube transports in the polar region, and to provide magnetospheric particle and energy inputs to the ionosphere. The overall very good agreement, obtained between the model and the observations, demonstrates the high ability of the extended TRANSCAR model for quantitative modelling of the high-latitude ionosphere; however, some differences are found which are attributed to the precipitation of electrons with very low energy. All these results are finally discussed in the frame of modelling the auroral ionosphere with space weather applications in mind.
A Two-Phase Solid/Fluid Model for Dense Granular Flows Including Dilatancy Effects
Mangeney, Anne; Bouchut, Francois; Fernandez-Nieto, Enrique; Narbona-Reina, Gladys
2015-04-01
We propose a thin layer depth-averaged two-phase model to describe solid-fluid mixtures such as debris flows. It describes the velocity of the two phases, the compression/dilatation of the granular media and its interaction with the pore fluid pressure, that itself modifies the friction within the granular phase (Iverson et al., 2010). The model is derived from a 3D two-phase model proposed by Jackson (2000) based on the 4 equations of mass and momentum conservation within the two phases. This system has 5 unknowns: the solid and fluid velocities, the solid and fluid pressures and the solid volume fraction. As a result, an additional equation inside the mixture is necessary to close the system. Surprisingly, this issue is inadequately accounted for in the models that have been developed on the basis of Jackson's work (Bouchut et al., 2014). In particular, Pitman and Le replaced this closure simply by imposing an extra boundary condition at the surface of the flow. When making a shallow expansion, this condition can be considered as a closure condition. However, the corresponding model cannot account for a dissipative energy balance. We propose here an approach to correctly deal with the thermodynamics of Jackson's equations. We close the mixture equations by a weak compressibility relation involving a critical density, or equivalently a critical pressure. Moreover, we relax one boundary condition, making it possible for the fluid to escape the granular media when compression of the granular mass occurs. Furthermore, we introduce second order terms in the equations making it possible to describe the evolution of the pore fluid pressure in response to the compression/dilatation of the granular mass without prescribing an extra ad-hoc equation for the pore pressure. We prove that the energy balance associated with this Jackson closure is dissipative, as well as its thin layer associated model. We present several numerical tests for the 1D case that are compared to the
Molecular Modeling of Aerospace Polymer Matrices Including Carbon Nanotube-Enhanced Epoxy
Radue, Matthew S.
Carbon fiber (CF) composites are increasingly replacing metals used in major structural parts of aircraft, spacecraft, and automobiles. The current limitations of carbon fiber composites are addressed through computational material design by modeling the salient aerospace matrix materials. Molecular Dynamics (MD) models of epoxies with and without carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforcement and models of pure bismaleimides (BMIs) were developed to elucidate structure-property relationships for improved selection and tailoring of matrices. The influence of monomer functionality on the mechanical properties of epoxies is studied using the Reax Force Field (ReaxFF). From deformation simulations, the Young's modulus, yield point, and Poisson's ratio are calculated and analyzed. The results demonstrate an increase in stiffness and yield strength with increasing resin functionality. Comparison between the network structures of distinct epoxies is further advanced by the Monomeric Degree Index (MDI). Experimental validation demonstrates the MD results correctly predict the relationship in Young's moduli for all epoxies modeled. Therefore, the ReaxFF is confirmed to be a useful tool for studying the mechanical behavior of epoxies. While epoxies have been well-studied using MD, there has been no concerted effort to model cured BMI polymers due to the complexity of the network-forming reactions. A novel, adaptable crosslinking framework is developed for implementing 5 distinct cure reactions of Matrimid-5292 (a BMI resin) and investigating the network structure using MD simulations. The influence of different cure reactions and extent of curing are analyzed on the several thermo-mechanical properties such as mass density, glass transition temperature, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic moduli, and thermal conductivity. The developed crosslinked models correctly predict experimentally observed trends for various properties. Finally, the epoxies modeled (di-, tri-, and tetra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rest, J.; Hofman, G.L.
1997-01-01
The Dispersion Analysis Research Tool (DART) contains models for fission-gas-induced fuel swelling, interaction of fuel with the matrix aluminum, for the resultant reaction-product swelling, and for the calculation of the stress gradient within the fuel particle. The effects of an aluminide shell on fuel particle swelling are evaluated. Validation of the model is demonstrated by a comparison of DART calculations of fuel swelling of U 3 SiAl-Al and U 3 Si 2 -Al for various dispersion fuel element designs with the data
Dusty Plasma Modeling of the Fusion Reactor Sheath Including Collisional-Radiative Effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dezairi, Aouatif; Samir, Mhamed; Eddahby, Mohamed; Saifaoui, Dennoun; Katsonis, Konstantinos; Berenguer, Chloe
2008-01-01
The structure and the behavior of the sheath in Tokamak collisional plasmas has been studied. The sheath is modeled taking into account the presence of the dust 2 and the effects of the charged particle collisions and radiative processes. The latter may allow for optical diagnostics of the plasma.
Analysis of shallow water experimental acoustic data including normal mode model comparisons
McHugh, R.; Simons, D.G.
2000-01-01
Ss part of a propagation model validation exercise experimental acoustic and oceanographic data was collected from a shallow-water, long-range channel, off the west coast of Scotland. Temporal variability effects in this channel were assessed through visual inspection of stacked plots, each of which
Description of the new version 4.0 of the tritium model UFOTRI including user guide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raskob, W.
1993-08-01
In view of the future operation of fusion reactors the release of tritium may play a dominant role during normal operation as well as after accidents. Because of its physical and chemical properties which differ significantly from those of other radionuclides, the model UFOTRI for assessing the radiological consequences of accidental tritium releases has been developed. It describes the behaviour of tritium in the biosphere and calculates the radiological impact on individuals and the population due to the direct exposure and by the ingestion pathways. Processes such as the conversion of tritium gas into tritiated water (HTO) in the soil, re-emission after deposition and the conversion of HTO into organically bound tritium, are considered. The use of UFOTRI in its probabilistic mode shows the spectrum of the radiological impact together with the associated probability of occurrence. A first model version was established in 1991. As the ongoing work on investigating the main processes of the tritium behaviour in the environment shows up new results, the model has been improved in several points. The report describes the changes incorporated into the model since 1991. Additionally provides the up-dated user guide for handling the revised UFOTRI version which will be distributed to interested organizations. (orig.) [de
3D numerical surface charge model including relative permeability : the general theory
Casteren, van D.T.E.H.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.A.
2014-01-01
One of the still "open" issues within low-frequency magnetics is the inclusion of µr in the calculations using the magnetic charge method. In this paper a new iterative method to take the relative permeability into account is investigated. Results show that the model accurately accounts for the
Modeling the elastic behavior of ductile cast iron including anisotropy in the graphite nodules
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andriollo, Tito; Thorborg, Jesper; Hattel, Jesper Henri
2016-01-01
by means of a 3D periodic unit cell model. In this respect, an explicit procedure to enforce both periodic displacement and periodic traction boundary conditions in ABAQUS is presented, and the importance of fulfilling the traction continuity conditions at the unit cell boundaries is discussed. It is shown...
Loss and thermal model for power semiconductors including device rating information
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ma, Ke; Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Beczkowski, Szymon
2014-01-01
The electrical loading and device rating are both important factors that determine the loss and thermal behaviors of power semiconductor devices. In the existing loss and thermal models, only the electrical loadings are focused and treated as design variables, while the device rating is normally...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, P.D.; Chirazi, A.; Atwood, R.C.; Wang, W.
2004-01-01
Phase transition phenomena in metallic alloys involve complex physical processes occurring over a wide range of temporal, spatial and energy scales. Multiscale modelling is a powerful methodology for understanding these complex systems. In this paper, a multiscale model of grain and pore formation is presented during solidification. At the microscale, a combined stochastic-deterministic approach based on the cellular automata method is used to solve multicomponent diffusion in a three-phase system (liquid, solid and gas), simulating the nucleation and growth of both grains and pores. The impingement of the growing pores upon the developing solid is also solved to predict the tortuous shape of the porosity, a critical factor for fatigue properties. The micromodel is coupled with a finite element method (FEM) solution of the macroscale heat transfer and fluid flow in industrial castings through the temperature and pressure fields. The result model was used to investigate the influence of local solidification time, hydrogen content, local metallostatic pressure and alloy composition upon the predicted grain structure and pore morphology. Comparison of the model predictions to both laboratory and industrial scale castings are presented
Situational effects of the school factors included in the dynamic model of educational effectiveness
Creerners, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas
We present results of a longitudinal study in which 50 schools, 113 classes and 2,542 Cypriot primary students participated. We tested the validity of the dynamic model of educational effectiveness and especially its assumption that the impact of school factors depends on the current situation of
Non-local modelling of cyclic thermal shock damage including parameter estimation
Damhof, F.; Brekelmans, W.A.M.; Geers, M.G.D.
2011-01-01
In this paper, rate dependent evolution laws are identified and characterized to model the mechanical (elasticity-based) and thermal damage occurring in coarse grain refractory material subject to cyclic thermal shock. The interacting mechanisms for elastic deformation driven damage induced by
Logical diagnosis model turbojet engine including double-circuit intermittent flow of his injuries
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
О.П. Стьопушкіна
2007-01-01
Full Text Available In this article is considered question of the change quantitative and qualitative factors of the technical condition constructive element running part of jet engine. As a result called on experimental studies diagnostic sign were definite sign with provision for intermittent damages and on base this is built expert model of the turbojet double-circuit engine.
Static aeroelastic analysis including geometric nonlinearities based on reduced order model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Changchuan Xie
2017-04-01
Full Text Available This paper describes a method proposed for modeling large deflection of aircraft in nonlinear aeroelastic analysis by developing reduced order model (ROM. The method is applied for solving the static aeroelastic and static aeroelastic trim problems of flexible aircraft containing geometric nonlinearities; meanwhile, the non-planar effects of aerodynamics and follower force effect have been considered. ROMs are computational inexpensive mathematical representations compared to traditional nonlinear finite element method (FEM especially in aeroelastic solutions. The approach for structure modeling presented here is on the basis of combined modal/finite element (MFE method that characterizes the stiffness nonlinearities and we apply that structure modeling method as ROM to aeroelastic analysis. Moreover, the non-planar aerodynamic force is computed by the non-planar vortex lattice method (VLM. Structure and aerodynamics can be coupled with the surface spline method. The results show that both of the static aeroelastic analysis and trim analysis of aircraft based on structure ROM can achieve a good agreement compared to analysis based on the FEM and experimental result.
Saidi, Maryam; Towhidkhah, Farzad; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar; Lari, Abdolaziz Azizi
2013-12-01
Humans perceive the surrounding world by integration of information through different sensory modalities. Earlier models of multisensory integration rely mainly on traditional Bayesian and causal Bayesian inferences for single causal (source) and two causal (for two senses such as visual and auditory systems), respectively. In this paper a new recurrent neural model is presented for integration of visual and proprioceptive information. This model is based on population coding which is able to mimic multisensory integration of neural centers in the human brain. The simulation results agree with those achieved by casual Bayesian inference. The model can also simulate the sensory training process of visual and proprioceptive information in human. Training process in multisensory integration is a point with less attention in the literature before. The effect of proprioceptive training on multisensory perception was investigated through a set of experiments in our previous study. The current study, evaluates the effect of both modalities, i.e., visual and proprioceptive training and compares them with each other through a set of new experiments. In these experiments, the subject was asked to move his/her hand in a circle and estimate its position. The experiments were performed on eight subjects with proprioception training and eight subjects with visual training. Results of the experiments show three important points: (1) visual learning rate is significantly more than that of proprioception; (2) means of visual and proprioceptive errors are decreased by training but statistical analysis shows that this decrement is significant for proprioceptive error and non-significant for visual error, and (3) visual errors in training phase even in the beginning of it, is much less than errors of the main test stage because in the main test, the subject has to focus on two senses. The results of the experiments in this paper is in agreement with the results of the neural model
European column buckling curves and finite element modelling including high strength steels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jönsson, Jeppe; Stan, Tudor-Cristian
2017-01-01
Eurocode allows for finite element modelling of plated steel structures, however the information in the code on how to perform the analysis or what assumptions to make is quite sparse. The present paper investigates the deterministic modelling of flexural column buckling using plane shell elements...... imperfections may be very conservative if considered by finite element analysis as described in the current Eurocode code. A suggestion is given for a slightly modified imperfection formula within the Ayrton-Perry formulation leading to adequate inclusion of modern high grade steels within the original four...... bucking curves. It is also suggested that finite element or frame analysis may be performed with equivalent column bow imperfections extracted directly from the Ayrton-Perry formulation....
Classical model for nuclear collisions including the meson degree of freedom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babinet, R.; Kunz, J.; Mosel, U.; Wilets, L.
1980-01-01
Many different approaches have been taken to describe high energy heavy ion collisions. L. Wilets et al proposed a classical treatment of the problem. In his model non-relativistic nucleons move on classical trajectories. However, the Pauli-principle is simulated by a momentum dependent potential acting between the nucleons. This model is extended in two ways. The nucleons are coupled to a pionfield, which enables us to describe inelastic processes. Nucleons and pionfiled are treated completely relativistically, this also assures Lorentz invariance. We aim at a set of classical equations of motion describing the interacting system of nucleons and pionfield. These classical equations should have a quantum mechanical basis. Further, they should contain such fundamental properties of the pion-nucleon system as the Δ(3,3)-resonance, at least in a qualitative manner. (orig./FKS)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seiler, J.M.; Bonnet, J.M.; Bernaz, L.
2001-01-01
Extensive studies have been performed to investigate the heat transfer within a molten corium pool (homogeneous, stratified and with miscibility gap): Synthesis of heat transfer correlations in molten pool (homogeneous and stratified), Focusing effect in stratified metal layer, DNS analysis of Rayleigh Benard instabilities at the top boundary; interpretation of the different convection regimes and exponents affecting the Rayleigh number in the heat transfer correlations, Molten pool model for corium presenting a miscibility gap. Condition for de-stratification. (authors)
Framework of cloud parameterization including ice for 3-D mesoscale models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Levkov, L; Jacob, D; Eppel, D; Grassl, H
1989-01-01
A parameterization scheme for the simulation of ice in clouds incorporated into the hydrostatic version of the GKSS three-dimensional mesoscale model. Numerical simulations of precipitation are performed: over the Northe Sea, the Hawaiian trade wind area and in the region of the intertropical convergence zone. Not only some major features of convective structures in all three areas but also cloud-aerosol interactions have successfully been simulated. (orig.) With 19 figs., 2 tabs.
The baryonic spectrum in a constituent quark model including a three-body force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Desplanques, B.; Gignoux, C.; Silvestre-Brac, B.; Gonzalez, P.; Navarro, J.; Noguera, S.
1992-01-01
We analyze, within a non-relativistic quark model, the low energy part of the baryonic spectrum in the octet and decuplet flavour representations. The relevance of a strong Coulomb potential is emphasized in order to explain its general features. The addition of a three-body force allows to solve the 'Roper puzzle', giving a consistent explanation to its relative position in the spectrum. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seiler, J.M.; Bonnet, J.M.; Bernaz, L. [CEA Grenoble (France)
2001-07-01
Extensive studies have been performed to investigate the heat transfer within a molten corium pool (homogeneous, stratified and with miscibility gap): Synthesis of heat transfer correlations in molten pool (homogeneous and stratified), Focusing effect in stratified metal layer, DNS analysis of Rayleigh Benard instabilities at the top boundary; interpretation of the different convection regimes and exponents affecting the Rayleigh number in the heat transfer correlations, Molten pool model for corium presenting a miscibility gap. Condition for de-stratification. (authors)
An Evacuation Model for Passenger Ships That Includes the Influence of Obstacles in Cabins
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Baocheng Ni
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Passenger behavior and ship environment are the key factors affecting evacuation efficiency. However, current studies ignore the interior layout of passenger ship cabins and treat the cabins as empty rooms. To investigate the influence of obstacles (e.g., tables and stools on cabin evacuation, we propose an agent-based social force model for advanced evacuation analysis of passenger ships; this model uses a goal-driven submodel to determine a plan and an extended social force submodel to govern the movement of passengers. The extended social force submodel considers the interaction forces between the passengers, crew, and obstacles and minimises the range of these forces to improve computational efficiency. We drew the following conclusions based on a series of evacuation simulations conducted in this study: (1 the proposed model endows the passenger with the behaviors of bypassing and crossing obstacles, (2 funnel-shaped exits from cabins can improve evacuation efficiency, and (3 as the exit angle increases, the evacuation time also increases. These findings offer ship designers some insight towards increasing the safety of large passenger ships.
Kinetic model of water disinfection using peracetic acid including synergistic effects.
Flores, Marina J; Brandi, Rodolfo J; Cassano, Alberto E; Labas, Marisol D
2016-01-01
The disinfection efficiencies of a commercial mixture of peracetic acid against Escherichia coli were studied in laboratory scale experiments. The joint and separate action of two disinfectant agents, hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid, were evaluated in order to observe synergistic effects. A kinetic model for each component of the mixture and for the commercial mixture was proposed. Through simple mathematical equations, the model describes different stages of attack by disinfectants during the inactivation process. Based on the experiments and the kinetic parameters obtained, it could be established that the efficiency of hydrogen peroxide was much lower than that of peracetic acid alone. However, the contribution of hydrogen peroxide was very important in the commercial mixture. It should be noted that this improvement occurred only after peracetic acid had initiated the attack on the cell. This synergistic effect was successfully explained by the proposed scheme and was verified by experimental results. Besides providing a clearer mechanistic understanding of water disinfection, such models may improve our ability to design reactors.
A stepped leader model for lightning including charge distribution in branched channels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shi, Wei; Zhang, Li [School of Electrical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Li, Qingmin, E-mail: lqmeee@ncepu.edu.cn [Beijing Key Lab of HV and EMC, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); State Key Lab of Alternate Electrical Power System with Renewable Energy Sources, Beijing 102206 (China)
2014-09-14
The stepped leader process in negative cloud-to-ground lightning plays a vital role in lightning protection analysis. As lightning discharge usually presents significant branched or tortuous channels, the charge distribution along the branched channels and the stochastic feature of stepped leader propagation were investigated in this paper. The charge density along the leader channel and the charge in the leader tip for each lightning branch were approximated by introducing branch correlation coefficients. In combination with geometric characteristics of natural lightning discharge, a stochastic stepped leader propagation model was presented based on the fractal theory. By comparing simulation results with the statistics of natural lightning discharges, it was found that the fractal dimension of lightning trajectory in simulation was in the range of that observed in nature and the calculation results of electric field at ground level were in good agreement with the measurements of a negative flash, which shows the validity of this proposed model. Furthermore, a new equation to estimate the lightning striking distance to flat ground was suggested based on the present model. The striking distance obtained by this new equation is smaller than the value estimated by previous equations, which indicates that the traditional equations may somewhat overestimate the attractive effect of the ground.
A stepped leader model for lightning including charge distribution in branched channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shi, Wei; Zhang, Li; Li, Qingmin
2014-01-01
The stepped leader process in negative cloud-to-ground lightning plays a vital role in lightning protection analysis. As lightning discharge usually presents significant branched or tortuous channels, the charge distribution along the branched channels and the stochastic feature of stepped leader propagation were investigated in this paper. The charge density along the leader channel and the charge in the leader tip for each lightning branch were approximated by introducing branch correlation coefficients. In combination with geometric characteristics of natural lightning discharge, a stochastic stepped leader propagation model was presented based on the fractal theory. By comparing simulation results with the statistics of natural lightning discharges, it was found that the fractal dimension of lightning trajectory in simulation was in the range of that observed in nature and the calculation results of electric field at ground level were in good agreement with the measurements of a negative flash, which shows the validity of this proposed model. Furthermore, a new equation to estimate the lightning striking distance to flat ground was suggested based on the present model. The striking distance obtained by this new equation is smaller than the value estimated by previous equations, which indicates that the traditional equations may somewhat overestimate the attractive effect of the ground.
Modeling and Control of Risley Prism Beam Steering Including BLDC Motors
Gunnarsson, Oscar
2016-01-01
Saab AB Training & Simulation is specialized on military training, including laserbased training. To continue being the world leader in this area, a new generationof laser simulators needs to be developed. To simplify the development of thishighly complex system, this master thesis have resulted in a MATLAB/Simulinkmodel which simulates the electro-opto/mechanical system representing theirlaser based simulation platform. The focus of this master thesis has been to simulateand control the ...
Extending Galactic Habitable Zone Modeling to Include the Emergence of Intelligent Life.
Morrison, Ian S; Gowanlock, Michael G
2015-08-01
Previous studies of the galactic habitable zone have been concerned with identifying those regions of the Galaxy that may favor the emergence of complex life. A planet is deemed habitable if it meets a set of assumed criteria for supporting the emergence of such complex life. In this work, we extend the assessment of habitability to consider the potential for life to further evolve to the point of intelligence--termed the propensity for the emergence of intelligent life, φI. We assume φI is strongly influenced by the time durations available for evolutionary processes to proceed undisturbed by the sterilizing effects of nearby supernovae. The times between supernova events provide windows of opportunity for the evolution of intelligence. We developed a model that allows us to analyze these window times to generate a metric for φI, and we examine here the spatial and temporal variation of this metric. Even under the assumption that long time durations are required between sterilizations to allow for the emergence of intelligence, our model suggests that the inner Galaxy provides the greatest number of opportunities for intelligence to arise. This is due to the substantially higher number density of habitable planets in this region, which outweighs the effects of a higher supernova rate in the region. Our model also shows that φI is increasing with time. Intelligent life emerged at approximately the present time at Earth's galactocentric radius, but a similar level of evolutionary opportunity was available in the inner Galaxy more than 2 Gyr ago. Our findings suggest that the inner Galaxy should logically be a prime target region for searches for extraterrestrial intelligence and that any civilizations that may have emerged there are potentially much older than our own.
Double pendulum model for a tennis stroke including a collision process
Youn, Sun-Hyun
2015-10-01
By means of adding a collision process between the ball and racket in the double pendulum model, we analyzed the tennis stroke. The ball and the racket system may be accelerated during the collision time; thus, the speed of the rebound ball does not simply depend on the angular velocity of the racket. A higher angular velocity sometimes gives a lower rebound ball speed. We numerically showed that the proper time-lagged racket rotation increased the speed of the rebound ball by 20%. We also showed that the elbow should move in the proper direction in order to add the angular velocity of the racket.
Model - including thermal creep effects - for the analysis of three-dimensional concrete structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez, C.; Rebora, B.; Favrod, J.D.
1979-01-01
This article presents the most recent developments and results of research carried out by IPEN to establish a mathematical model for the non-linear rheological three-dimensional analysis of massive prestressed concrete structures. The main point of these latest developments is the simulation of the creep of concrete submitted to high temperatures over a long period of time. This research, financed by the Swiss National Science Foundation, has taken an increased importance with the advent of nuclear reactor vessels of the HHT type and new conceptions concerning the cooling of their concrete (replacement of the thermal insulation by a zone of hot concrete). (orig.)
An Infusion Model for Including Content on Elders with Chronic Illness in the Curriculum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sherry M. Cummings
2000-05-01
Full Text Available Older people with chronic mental illness (CMI are experiencing longer life expectancies that parallel those of the general population. Due to their experience of having CMI, these older adults present unique issues that affect service delivery and care provision. Content on this population is often omitted in the curriculum, which leaves students unprepared to practice with these clients. This article proposes an infusion model that can be used in baccalaureate or graduate foundation courses to increase exposure to elders with CMI.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tournassat, Christophe; Gaucher, Eric C.; Leupin, Olivier X.; Wersin, Paul
2010-01-01
Document available in extended abstract form only. An in-situ test in the Opalinus Clay formation, termed pore water Chemistry (PC) experiment, was run for a period of five years. It was based on the concept of diffusive equilibration whereby traced water with a composition close to that expected in the formation was continuously circulated and monitored in a packed off borehole. The main original focus was to obtain reliable data on the pH/pCO 2 of the pore water, but because of unexpected microbially- induced redox reactions, the objective was then changed to elucidate the biogeochemical processes happening in the borehole and to understand their impact on pH/pCO 2 and pH in the low permeability clay formation. The biologically perturbed chemical evolution of the PC experiment was simulated with reactive transport models. The aim of this modelling exercise was to develop a 'minimal-' model able to reproduce the chemical evolution of the PC experiment, i.e. the chemical evolution of solute inorganic and organic compounds (organic carbon, dissolved inorganic carbon etc...) that are coupled with each other through the simultaneous occurrence of biological transformation of solute or solid compounds, in-diffusion and out-diffusion of solute species and precipitation/dissolution of minerals (in the borehole and in the formation). An accurate description of the initial chemical conditions in the surrounding formation together with simplified kinetics rule mimicking the different phases of bacterial activities allowed reproducing the evolution of all main measured parameters (e.g. pH, TOC). Analyses from the overcoring and these simulations evidence the high buffer capacity of Opalinus clay regarding chemical perturbations due to bacterial activity. This pH buffering capacity is mainly attributed to the carbonate system as well as to the clay surfaces reactivity. Glycerol leaching from the pH-electrode might be the primary organic source responsible for
Walzer, Amy S; Czopp, Alexander M
2011-01-01
The stereotype content model (SCM) posits that warmth and competence are the key components underlying judgments about social groups. Because competence can encompass different components (e.g., intelligence, talent) different group members may be perceived to be competent for different reasons. Therefore, we believe it may be important to specify the type of competence being assessed when examining perceptions of groups that are positively stereotyped (i.e., Black athletes and musical Blacks). Consistent with the SCM, these subgroups were perceived as high in competence-talent but not in competence-intelligence and low in warmth. Both the intelligence and talent frame of competence fit in the SCM's social structural hypothesis.
A model for optimal offspring size in fish, including live-bearing and parental effects.
Jørgensen, Christian; Auer, Sonya K; Reznick, David N
2011-05-01
Since Smith and Fretwell's seminal article in 1974 on the optimal offspring size, most theory has assumed a trade-off between offspring number and offspring fitness, where larger offspring have better survival or fitness, but with diminishing returns. In this article, we use two ubiquitous biological mechanisms to derive the shape of this trade-off: the offspring's growth rate combined with its size-dependent mortality (predation). For a large parameter region, we obtain the same sigmoid relationship between offspring size and offspring survival as Smith and Fretwell, but we also identify parameter regions where the optimal offspring size is as small or as large as possible. With increasing growth rate, the optimal offspring size is smaller. We then integrate our model with strategies of parental care. Egg guarding that reduces egg mortality favors smaller or larger offspring, depending on how mortality scales with size. For live-bearers, the survival of offspring to birth is a function of maternal survival; if the mother's survival increases with her size, then the model predicts that larger mothers should produce larger offspring. When using parameters for Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata, differences in both growth and size-dependent predation are required to predict observed differences in offspring size between wild populations from high- and low-predation environments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merchant, Thomas E.; Kiehna, Erin N.; Li Chenghong; Shukla, Hemant; Sengupta, Saikat; Xiong Xiaoping; Gajjar, Amar; Mulhern, Raymond K.
2006-01-01
Purpose: Model the effects of radiation dosimetry on IQ among pediatric patients with central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Methods and Materials: Pediatric patients with CNS embryonal tumors (n = 39) were prospectively evaluated with serial cognitive testing, before and after treatment with postoperative, risk-adapted craniospinal irradiation (CSI) and conformal primary-site irradiation, followed by chemotherapy. Differential dose-volume data for 5 brain volumes (total brain, supratentorial brain, infratentorial brain, and left and right temporal lobes) were correlated with IQ after surgery and at follow-up by use of linear regression. Results: When the dose distribution was partitioned into 2 levels, both had a significantly negative effect on longitudinal IQ across all 5 brain volumes. When the dose distribution was partitioned into 3 levels (low, medium, and high), exposure to the supratentorial brain appeared to have the most significant impact. For most models, each Gy of exposure had a similar effect on IQ decline, regardless of dose level. Conclusions: Our results suggest that radiation dosimetry data from 5 brain volumes can be used to predict decline in longitudinal IQ. Despite measures to reduce radiation dose and treatment volume, the volume that receives the highest dose continues to have the greatest effect, which supports current volume-reduction efforts
Modeling a space-based quantum link that includes an adaptive optics system
Duchane, Alexander W.; Hodson, Douglas D.; Mailloux, Logan O.
2017-10-01
Quantum Key Distribution uses optical pulses to generate shared random bit strings between two locations. If a high percentage of the optical pulses are comprised of single photons, then the statistical nature of light and information theory can be used to generate secure shared random bit strings which can then be converted to keys for encryption systems. When these keys are incorporated along with symmetric encryption techniques such as a one-time pad, then this method of key generation and encryption is resistant to future advances in quantum computing which will significantly degrade the effectiveness of current asymmetric key sharing techniques. This research first reviews the transition of Quantum Key Distribution free-space experiments from the laboratory environment to field experiments, and finally, ongoing space experiments. Next, a propagation model for an optical pulse from low-earth orbit to ground and the effects of turbulence on the transmitted optical pulse is described. An Adaptive Optics system is modeled to correct for the aberrations caused by the atmosphere. The long-term point spread function of the completed low-earth orbit to ground optical system is explored in the results section. Finally, the impact of this optical system and its point spread function on an overall quantum key distribution system as well as the future work necessary to show this impact is described.
On the modelling of semi-insulating GaAs including surface tension and bulk stresses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dreyer, W.; Duderstadt, F.
2004-07-01
Necessary heat treatment of single crystal semi-insulating Gallium Arsenide (GaAs), which is deployed in micro- and opto- electronic devices, generate undesirable liquid precipitates in the solid phase. The appearance of precipitates is influenced by surface tension at the liquid/solid interface and deviatoric stresses in the solid. The central quantity for the description of the various aspects of phase transitions is the chemical potential, which can be additively decomposed into a chemical and a mechanical part. In particular the calculation of the mechanical part of the chemical potential is of crucial importance. We determine the chemical potential in the framework of the St. Venant-Kirchhoff law which gives an appropriate stress/strain relation for many solids in the small strain regime. We establish criteria, which allow the correct replacement of the St. Venant-Kirchhoff law by the simpler Hooke law. The main objectives of this study are: (i) We develop a thermo-mechanical model that describes diffusion and interface motion, which both are strongly influenced by surface tension effects and deviatoric stresses. (ii) We give an overview and outlook on problems that can be posed and solved within the framework of the model. (iii) We calculate non-standard phase diagrams, i.e. those that take into account surface tension and non-deviatoric stresses, for GaAs above 786 C, and we compare the results with classical phase diagrams without these phenomena. (orig.)
Model for CO2 leakage including multiple geological layers and multiple leaky wells.
Nordbotten, Jan M; Kavetski, Dmitri; Celia, Michael A; Bachu, Stefan
2009-02-01
Geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) is likely to be an integral component of any realistic plan to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. In conjunction with large-scale deployment of carbon storage as a technology, there is an urgent need for tools which provide reliable and quick assessments of aquifer storage performance. Previously, abandoned wells from over a century of oil and gas exploration and production have been identified as critical potential leakage paths. The practical importance of abandoned wells is emphasized by the correlation of heavy CO2 emitters (typically associated with industrialized areas) to oil and gas producing regions in North America. Herein, we describe a novel framework for predicting the leakage from large numbers of abandoned wells, forming leakage paths connecting multiple subsurface permeable formations. The framework is designed to exploit analytical solutions to various components of the problem and, ultimately, leads to a grid-free approximation to CO2 and brine leakage rates, as well as fluid distributions. We apply our model in a comparison to an established numerical solverforthe underlying governing equations. Thereafter, we demonstrate the capabilities of the model on typical field data taken from the vicinity of Edmonton, Alberta. This data set consists of over 500 wells and 7 permeable formations. Results show the flexibility and utility of the solution methods, and highlight the role that analytical and semianalytical solutions can play in this important problem.
The 4-parameter Compressible Packing Model (CPM) including a critical cavity size ratio
Roquier, Gerard
2017-06-01
The 4-parameter Compressible Packing Model (CPM) has been developed to predict the packing density of mixtures constituted by bidisperse spherical particles. The four parameters are: the wall effect and the loosening effect coefficients, the compaction index and a critical cavity size ratio. The two geometrical interactions have been studied theoretically on the basis of a spherical cell centered on a secondary class bead. For the loosening effect, a critical cavity size ratio, below which a fine particle can be inserted into a small cavity created by touching coarser particles, is introduced. This is the only parameter which requires adaptation to extend the model to other types of particles. The 4-parameter CPM demonstrates its efficiency on frictionless glass beads (300 values), spherical particles numerically simulated (20 values), round natural particles (125 values) and crushed particles (335 values) with correlation coefficients equal to respectively 99.0%, 98.7%, 97.8%, 96.4% and mean deviations equal to respectively 0.007, 0.006, 0.007, 0.010.
A coupling method for a cardiovascular simulation model which includes the Kalman filter.
Hasegawa, Yuki; Shimayoshi, Takao; Amano, Akira; Matsuda, Tetsuya
2012-01-01
Multi-scale models of the cardiovascular system provide new insight that was unavailable with in vivo and in vitro experiments. For the cardiovascular system, multi-scale simulations provide a valuable perspective in analyzing the interaction of three phenomenons occurring at different spatial scales: circulatory hemodynamics, ventricular structural dynamics, and myocardial excitation-contraction. In order to simulate these interactions, multiscale cardiovascular simulation systems couple models that simulate different phenomena. However, coupling methods require a significant amount of calculation, since a system of non-linear equations must be solved for each timestep. Therefore, we proposed a coupling method which decreases the amount of calculation by using the Kalman filter. In our method, the Kalman filter calculates approximations for the solution to the system of non-linear equations at each timestep. The approximations are then used as initial values for solving the system of non-linear equations. The proposed method decreases the number of iterations required by 94.0% compared to the conventional strong coupling method. When compared with a smoothing spline predictor, the proposed method required 49.4% fewer iterations.
Energy-based fatigue model for shape memory alloys including thermomechanical coupling
Zhang, Yahui; Zhu, Jihong; Moumni, Ziad; Van Herpen, Alain; Zhang, Weihong
2016-03-01
This paper is aimed at developing a low cycle fatigue criterion for pseudoelastic shape memory alloys to take into account thermomechanical coupling. To this end, fatigue tests are carried out at different loading rates under strain control at room temperature using NiTi wires. Temperature distribution on the specimen is measured using a high speed thermal camera. Specimens are tested to failure and fatigue lifetimes of specimens are measured. Test results show that the fatigue lifetime is greatly influenced by the loading rate: as the strain rate increases, the fatigue lifetime decreases. Furthermore, it is shown that the fatigue cracks initiate when the stored energy inside the material reaches a critical value. An energy-based fatigue criterion is thus proposed as a function of the irreversible hysteresis energy of the stabilized cycle and the loading rate. Fatigue life is calculated using the proposed model. The experimental and computational results compare well.
Energy-based fatigue model for shape memory alloys including thermomechanical coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Yahui; Zhu, Jihong; Moumni, Ziad; Zhang, Weihong; Van Herpen, Alain
2016-01-01
This paper is aimed at developing a low cycle fatigue criterion for pseudoelastic shape memory alloys to take into account thermomechanical coupling. To this end, fatigue tests are carried out at different loading rates under strain control at room temperature using NiTi wires. Temperature distribution on the specimen is measured using a high speed thermal camera. Specimens are tested to failure and fatigue lifetimes of specimens are measured. Test results show that the fatigue lifetime is greatly influenced by the loading rate: as the strain rate increases, the fatigue lifetime decreases. Furthermore, it is shown that the fatigue cracks initiate when the stored energy inside the material reaches a critical value. An energy-based fatigue criterion is thus proposed as a function of the irreversible hysteresis energy of the stabilized cycle and the loading rate. Fatigue life is calculated using the proposed model. The experimental and computational results compare well. (paper)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bloch Isabelle
2007-01-01
Full Text Available This paper describes a system for optical music recognition (OMR in case of monophonic typeset scores. After clarifying the difficulties specific to this domain, we propose appropriate solutions at both image analysis level and high-level interpretation. Thus, a recognition and segmentation method is designed, that allows dealing with common printing defects and numerous symbol interconnections. Then, musical rules are modeled and integrated, in order to make a consistent decision. This high-level interpretation step relies on the fuzzy sets and possibility framework, since it allows dealing with symbol variability, flexibility, and imprecision of music rules, and merging all these heterogeneous pieces of information. Other innovative features are the indication of potential errors and the possibility of applying learning procedures, in order to gain in robustness. Experiments conducted on a large data base show that the proposed method constitutes an interesting contribution to OMR.
Including ethical considerations in models for ﬁrst-trimester screening for pre-eclampsia
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Jennifer Maureen; Hedley, Paula L.; Gjerris, Mickey
2014-01-01
Recent efforts to develop reliable and efficient early pregnancy screening programmes for pre-eclampsia have focused on com-bining clinical, biochemical and biophysical markers. The same model has been used for first-trimester screening for fetal aneuploidies i.e. prenatal diagnosis (PD), which...... is routinely offered to all pregnant women in many developed countries. Some studies suggest combining PD and pre-eclampsia screening, so women can be offered testing for a number of conditions at the same clinical visit. A combination of these tests may be practical in terms of saving time and resources......; however, the combination raises ethical issues. First-trimester PD and pre-eclampsia screening entail qualitative differences which alter the requirements for disclosure, non-directedness and consent with regard to the informed consent process. This article explores the differences related to the ethical...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Korhan Ozgan
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Dynamic analysis of foundation plate-beam systems with transverse shear deformation is presented using modified Vlasov foundation model. Finite element formulation of the problem is derived by using an 8-node (PBQ8 finite element based on Mindlin plate theory for the plate and a 2-node Hughes element based on Timoshenko beam theory for the beam. Selective reduced integration technique is used to avoid shear locking problem for the evaluation of the stiffness matrices for both the elements. The effect of beam thickness, the aspect ratio of the plate and subsoil depth on the response of plate-beam-soil system is analyzed. Numerical examples show that the displacement, bending moments and shear forces are changed significantly by adding the beams.
Areal rainfall estimation using moving cars - computer experiments including hydrological modeling
Rabiei, Ehsan; Haberlandt, Uwe; Sester, Monika; Fitzner, Daniel; Wallner, Markus
2016-09-01
The need for high temporal and spatial resolution precipitation data for hydrological analyses has been discussed in several studies. Although rain gauges provide valuable information, a very dense rain gauge network is costly. As a result, several new ideas have emerged to help estimating areal rainfall with higher temporal and spatial resolution. Rabiei et al. (2013) observed that moving cars, called RainCars (RCs), can potentially be a new source of data for measuring rain rate. The optical sensors used in that study are designed for operating the windscreen wipers and showed promising results for rainfall measurement purposes. Their measurement accuracy has been quantified in laboratory experiments. Considering explicitly those errors, the main objective of this study is to investigate the benefit of using RCs for estimating areal rainfall. For that, computer experiments are carried out, where radar rainfall is considered as the reference and the other sources of data, i.e., RCs and rain gauges, are extracted from radar data. Comparing the quality of areal rainfall estimation by RCs with rain gauges and reference data helps to investigate the benefit of the RCs. The value of this additional source of data is not only assessed for areal rainfall estimation performance but also for use in hydrological modeling. Considering measurement errors derived from laboratory experiments, the result shows that the RCs provide useful additional information for areal rainfall estimation as well as for hydrological modeling. Moreover, by testing larger uncertainties for RCs, they observed to be useful up to a certain level for areal rainfall estimation and discharge simulation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Kumar
2009-04-01
Full Text Available Dust and black carbon aerosol have long been known to exert potentially important and diverse impacts on cloud droplet formation. Most studies to date focus on the soluble fraction of these particles, and overlook interactions of the insoluble fraction with water vapor (even if known to be hydrophilic. To address this gap, we developed a new parameterization that considers cloud droplet formation within an ascending air parcel containing insoluble (but wettable particles externally mixed with aerosol containing an appreciable soluble fraction. Activation of particles with a soluble fraction is described through well-established Köhler theory, while the activation of hydrophilic insoluble particles is treated by "adsorption-activation" theory. In the latter, water vapor is adsorbed onto insoluble particles, the activity of which is described by a multilayer Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH adsorption isotherm modified to account for particle curvature. We further develop FHH activation theory to i find combinations of the adsorption parameters A_{FHH}, B_{FHH} which yield atmospherically-relevant behavior, and, ii express activation properties (critical supersaturation that follow a simple power law with respect to dry particle diameter.
The new parameterization is tested by comparing the parameterized cloud droplet number concentration against predictions with a detailed numerical cloud model, considering a wide range of particle populations, cloud updraft conditions, water vapor condensation coefficient and FHH adsorption isotherm characteristics. The agreement between parameterization and parcel model is excellent, with an average error of 10% and R^{2}~0.98. A preliminary sensitivity study suggests that the sublinear response of droplet number to Köhler particle concentration is not as strong for FHH particles.
McLarty, Dustin Fogle
Distributed energy systems are a promising means by which to reduce both emissions and costs. Continuous generators must be responsive and highly efficiency to support building dynamics and intermittent on-site renewable power. Fuel cell -- gas turbine hybrids (FC/GT) are fuel-flexible generators capable of ultra-high efficiency, ultra-low emissions, and rapid power response. This work undertakes a detailed study of the electrochemistry, chemistry and mechanical dynamics governing the complex interaction between the individual systems in such a highly coupled hybrid arrangement. The mechanisms leading to the compressor stall/surge phenomena are studied for the increased risk posed to particular hybrid configurations. A novel fuel cell modeling method introduced captures various spatial resolutions, flow geometries, stack configurations and novel heat transfer pathways. Several promising hybrid configurations are analyzed throughout the work and a sensitivity analysis of seven design parameters is conducted. A simple estimating method is introduced for the combined system efficiency of a fuel cell and a turbine using component performance specifications. Existing solid oxide fuel cell technology is capable of hybrid efficiencies greater than 75% (LHV) operating on natural gas, and existing molten carbonate systems greater than 70% (LHV). A dynamic model is calibrated to accurately capture the physical coupling of a FC/GT demonstrator tested at UC Irvine. The 2900 hour experiment highlighted the sensitivity to small perturbations and a need for additional control development. Further sensitivity studies outlined the responsiveness and limits of different control approaches. The capability for substantial turn-down and load following through speed control and flow bypass with minimal impact on internal fuel cell thermal distribution is particularly promising to meet local demands or provide dispatchable support for renewable power. Advanced control and dispatch
Mahran, Yossra; Schueler, Robert; Weber, Marcel; Pizarro, Carmen; Nickenig, Georg; Skowasch, Dirk; Hammerstingl, Christoph
2016-08-26
To find parameters from transthorathic echocardiography (TTE) including speckle-tracking (ST) analysis of the right ventricle (RV) to identify precapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH). Forty-four patients with suspected PH undergoing right heart catheterization (RHC) were consecutively included (mean age 63.1 ± 14 years, 61% male gender). All patients underwent standardized TTE including ST analysis of the RV. Based on the subsequent TTE-derived measurements, the presence of PH was assessed: Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was calculated by Simpsons rule from 4Ch. Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) was assessed with continuous wave Doppler of systolic tricuspid regurgitant velocity and regarded raised with values ≥ 30 mmHg as a surrogate parameter for RA pressure. A concomitantly elevated PCWP was considered a means to discriminate between the precapillary and postcapillary form of PH. PCWP was considered elevated when the E/e' ratio was > 12 as a surrogate for LV diastolic pressure. E/e' ratio was measured by gauging systolic and diastolic velocities of the lateral and septal mitral valve annulus using TDI mode. The results were then averaged with conventional measurement of mitral valve inflow. Furthermore, functional testing with six minutes walking distance (6MWD), ECG-RV stress signs, NT pro-BNP and other laboratory values were assessed. PH was confirmed in 34 patients (precapillary PH, n = 15, postcapillary PH, n = 19). TTE showed significant differences in E/e' ratio (precapillary PH: 12.3 ± 4.4, postcapillary PH: 17.3 ± 10.3, no PH: 12.1 ± 4.5, P = 0.02), LV volumes (ESV: 25.0 ± 15.0 mL, 49.9 ± 29.5 mL, 32.2 ± 13.6 mL, P = 0.027; EDV: 73.6 ± 24.0 mL, 110.6 ± 31.8 mL, 87.8 ± 33.0 mL, P = 0.021) and systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (sPAP: 61.2 ± 22.3 mmHg, 53.6 ± 20.1 mmHg, 31.2 ± 24.6 mmHg, P = 0.001). STRV analysis showed significant differences for apical RV longitudinal strain (RVAS: -7.5% ± 5.6%, -13.3% ± 4.3%, -14
Pilgrim, Matthew G; Lengyel, Imre; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Newville, Matt; Fearn, Sarah; Emri, Eszter; Knowles, Jonathan C; Messinger, Jeffrey D; Read, Russell W; Guidry, Clyde; Curcio, Christine A
2017-02-01
Extracellular deposits containing hydroxyapatite, lipids, proteins, and trace metals that form between the basal lamina of the RPE and the inner collagenous layer of Bruch's membrane are hallmarks of early AMD. We examined whether cultured RPE cells could produce extracellular deposits containing all of these molecular components. Retinal pigment epithelium cells isolated from freshly enucleated porcine eyes were cultured on Transwell membranes for up to 6 months. Deposit composition and structure were characterized using light, fluorescence, and electron microscopy; synchrotron x-ray diffraction and x-ray fluorescence; secondary ion mass spectroscopy; and immunohistochemistry. Apparently functional primary RPE cells, when cultured on 10-μm-thick inserts with 0.4-μm-diameter pores, can produce sub-RPE deposits that contain hydroxyapatite, lipids, proteins, and trace elements, without outer segment supplementation, by 12 weeks. The data suggest that sub-RPE deposit formation is initiated, and probably regulated, by the RPE, as well as the loss of permeability of the Bruch's membrane and choriocapillaris complex associated with age and early AMD. This cell culture model of early AMD lesions provides a novel system for testing new therapeutic interventions against sub-RPE deposit formation, an event occurring well in advance of the onset of vision loss.
Landau quantized dynamics and spectra for group-VI dichalcogenides, including a model quantum wire
Horing, Norman J. M.
2017-06-01
This work is concerned with the derivation of the Green's function for Landau-quantized carriers in the Group-VI dichalcogenides. In the spatially homogeneous case, the Green's function is separated into a Peierls phase factor and a translationally invariant part which is determined in a closed form integral representation involving only elementary functions. The latter is expanded in an eigenfunction series of Laguerre polynomials. These results for the retarded Green's function are presented in both position and momentum representations, and yet another closed form representation is derived in circular coordinates in terms of the Bessel wave function of the second kind (not to be confused with the Bessel function). The case of a quantum wire is also addressed, representing the quantum wire in terms of a model one-dimensional δ (x ) -potential profile. This retarded Green's function for propagation directly along the wire is determined exactly in terms of the corresponding Green's function for the system without the δ (x ) -potential, and the Landau quantized eigenenergy dispersion relation is examined. The thermodynamic Green's function for the dichalcogenide carriers in a normal magnetic field is formulated here in terms of its spectral weight, and its solution is presented in a momentum/integral representation involving only elementary functions, which is subsequently expanded in Laguerre eigenfunctions and presented in both momentum and position representations.
Landau quantized dynamics and spectra for group-VI dichalcogenides, including a model quantum wire
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Norman J. M. Horing
2017-06-01
Full Text Available This work is concerned with the derivation of the Green’s function for Landau-quantized carriers in the Group-VI dichalcogenides. In the spatially homogeneous case, the Green’s function is separated into a Peierls phase factor and a translationally invariant part which is determined in a closed form integral representation involving only elementary functions. The latter is expanded in an eigenfunction series of Laguerre polynomials. These results for the retarded Green’s function are presented in both position and momentum representations, and yet another closed form representation is derived in circular coordinates in terms of the Bessel wave function of the second kind (not to be confused with the Bessel function. The case of a quantum wire is also addressed, representing the quantum wire in terms of a model one-dimensional δ(x-potential profile. This retarded Green’s function for propagation directly along the wire is determined exactly in terms of the corresponding Green’s function for the system without the δ(x-potential, and the Landau quantized eigenenergy dispersion relation is examined. The thermodynamic Green’s function for the dichalcogenide carriers in a normal magnetic field is formulated here in terms of its spectral weight, and its solution is presented in a momentum/integral representation involving only elementary functions, which is subsequently expanded in Laguerre eigenfunctions and presented in both momentum and position representations.
Nuclear Reactor/Hydrogen Process Interface Including the HyPEP Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steven R. Sherman
2007-01-01
The Nuclear Reactor/Hydrogen Plant interface is the intermediate heat transport loop that will connect a very high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (VHTR) to a thermochemical, high-temperature electrolysis, or hybrid hydrogen production plant. A prototype plant called the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) is planned for construction and operation at the Idaho National Laboratory in the 2018-2021 timeframe, and will involve a VHTR, a high-temperature interface, and a hydrogen production plant. The interface is responsible for transporting high-temperature thermal energy from the nuclear reactor to the hydrogen production plant while protecting the nuclear plant from operational disturbances at the hydrogen plant. Development of the interface is occurring under the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) and involves the study, design, and development of high-temperature heat exchangers, heat transport systems, materials, safety, and integrated system models. Research and development work on the system interface began in 2004 and is expected to continue at least until the start of construction of an engineering-scale demonstration plant
Geostatistical simulations for radon indoor with a nested model including the housing factor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cafaro, C.; Giovani, C.; Garavaglia, M.
2016-01-01
The radon prone areas definition is matter of many researches in radioecology, since radon is considered a leading cause of lung tumours, therefore the authorities ask for support to develop an appropriate sanitary prevention strategy. In this paper, we use geostatistical tools to elaborate a definition accounting for some of the available information about the dwellings. Co-kriging is the proper interpolator used in geostatistics to refine the predictions by using external covariates. In advance, co-kriging is not guaranteed to improve significantly the results obtained by applying the common lognormal kriging. Here, instead, such multivariate approach leads to reduce the cross-validation residual variance to an extent which is deemed as satisfying. Furthermore, with the application of Monte Carlo simulations, the paradigm provides a more conservative radon prone areas definition than the one previously made by lognormal kriging. - Highlights: • The housing class is inserted into co-kriging via an indicator function. • Inserting the housing classes in a co-kriging improves predictions. • The housing class has a structured component in space. • A nested model is implemented into the multigaussian algorithm. • A collection of risk maps is merged into one to create RPA.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Flores Alsina, Xavier; Comas, J.; Rodriquez-Roda, I.
2009-01-01
The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate how including the occurrence of filamentous bulking sludge in a secondary clarifier model will affect the predicted process performance during the simulation of WWTPs. The IWA Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2) is hereby used as a simulation...... are automatically changed during the simulation by modifying the settling model parameters to mimic the effect of growth of filamentous bacteria. The simulation results demonstrate that including effects of filamentous bulking in the secondary clarifier model results in a more realistic plant performance...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Etsuji Suzuki
Full Text Available Multilevel analyses are ideally suited to assess the effects of ecological (higher level and individual (lower level exposure variables simultaneously. In applying such analyses to measures of ecologies in epidemiological studies, individual variables are usually aggregated into the higher level unit. Typically, the aggregated measure includes responses of every individual belonging to that group (i.e. it constitutes a self-included measure. More recently, researchers have developed an aggregate measure which excludes the response of the individual to whom the aggregate measure is linked (i.e. a self-excluded measure. In this study, we clarify the substantive and technical properties of these two measures when they are used as exposures in multilevel models.Although the differences between the two aggregated measures are mathematically subtle, distinguishing between them is important in terms of the specific scientific questions to be addressed. We then show how these measures can be used in two distinct types of multilevel models-self-included model and self-excluded model-and interpret the parameters in each model by imposing hypothetical interventions. The concept is tested on empirical data of workplace social capital and employees' systolic blood pressure.Researchers assume group-level interventions when using a self-included model, and individual-level interventions when using a self-excluded model. Analytical re-parameterizations of these two models highlight their differences in parameter interpretation. Cluster-mean centered self-included models enable researchers to decompose the collective effect into its within- and between-group components. The benefit of cluster-mean centering procedure is further discussed in terms of hypothetical interventions.When investigating the potential roles of aggregated variables, researchers should carefully explore which type of model-self-included or self-excluded-is suitable for a given situation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dreyer, Wolfgang [Weierstrass-Institut fuer Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik (WIAS) im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (Germany); Kimmerle, Sven-Joachim [Humboldt-Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Mathematics
2009-07-01
Based on a thermodynamically consistent model for precipitation in gallium arsenide crystals including surface tension and bulk stresses by Dreyer and Duderstadt, we propose different mathematical models to describe the size evolution of liquid droplets in a crystalline solid. The first class of models treats the diffusion-controlled regime of interface motion, while the second class is concerned with the interface-controlled regime of interface motion. Our models take care of conservation of mass and substance. We consider homogenised models, where different length scales of the experimental situation have been exploited in order to simplify the equations. These homogenised models generalise the well-known Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner model for Ostwald ripening. Mean field models capture the main properties of our system and are well adapted for numerics and further analysis. Numerical evidence suggests in which case which one of the two regimes might be appropriate to the experimental situation. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prister, B.S.; Vinogradskaya, V.D.
2009-01-01
On the basis of modern pictures of cesium and strontium ion absorption mechanisms a soil taking complex was build the kinetic model of radionuclide migration from soil to plants. Model parameter association with the agricultural chemistry properties of soil, represented by complex estimation of soil properties S e f. The example of model application for prognostication of population internal irradiation dose due to consumption of milk at the soil way of long-living radionuclides including in food chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Defraene, Gilles; Van den Bergh, Laura; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Haustermans, Karin; Heemsbergen, Wilma; Van den Heuvel, Frank; Lebesque, Joos V.
2012-01-01
Purpose: To study the impact of clinical predisposing factors on rectal normal tissue complication probability modeling using the updated results of the Dutch prostate dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: Toxicity data of 512 patients (conformally treated to 68 Gy [n = 284] and 78 Gy [n = 228]) with complete follow-up at 3 years after radiotherapy were studied. Scored end points were rectal bleeding, high stool frequency, and fecal incontinence. Two traditional dose-based models (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) and a logistic model were fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. Furthermore, these model fits were improved by including the most significant clinical factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminating ability of all fits. Results: Including clinical factors significantly increased the predictive power of the models for all end points. In the optimal LKB, RS, and logistic models for rectal bleeding and fecal incontinence, the first significant (p = 0.011–0.013) clinical factor was “previous abdominal surgery.” As second significant (p = 0.012–0.016) factor, “cardiac history” was included in all three rectal bleeding fits, whereas including “diabetes” was significant (p = 0.039–0.048) in fecal incontinence modeling but only in the LKB and logistic models. High stool frequency fits only benefitted significantly (p = 0.003–0.006) from the inclusion of the baseline toxicity score. For all models rectal bleeding fits had the highest AUC (0.77) where it was 0.63 and 0.68 for high stool frequency and fecal incontinence, respectively. LKB and logistic model fits resulted in similar values for the volume parameter. The steepness parameter was somewhat higher in the logistic model, also resulting in a slightly lower D 50 . Anal wall DVHs were used for fecal incontinence, whereas anorectal wall dose best described the other two endpoints. Conclusions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Defraene, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.defraene@uzleuven.be [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Van den Bergh, Laura [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Al-Mamgani, Abrahim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center - Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Haustermans, Karin [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Heemsbergen, Wilma [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van den Heuvel, Frank [Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Lebesque, Joos V. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2012-03-01
Purpose: To study the impact of clinical predisposing factors on rectal normal tissue complication probability modeling using the updated results of the Dutch prostate dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: Toxicity data of 512 patients (conformally treated to 68 Gy [n = 284] and 78 Gy [n = 228]) with complete follow-up at 3 years after radiotherapy were studied. Scored end points were rectal bleeding, high stool frequency, and fecal incontinence. Two traditional dose-based models (Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) and Relative Seriality (RS) and a logistic model were fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. Furthermore, these model fits were improved by including the most significant clinical factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to compare the discriminating ability of all fits. Results: Including clinical factors significantly increased the predictive power of the models for all end points. In the optimal LKB, RS, and logistic models for rectal bleeding and fecal incontinence, the first significant (p = 0.011-0.013) clinical factor was 'previous abdominal surgery.' As second significant (p = 0.012-0.016) factor, 'cardiac history' was included in all three rectal bleeding fits, whereas including 'diabetes' was significant (p = 0.039-0.048) in fecal incontinence modeling but only in the LKB and logistic models. High stool frequency fits only benefitted significantly (p = 0.003-0.006) from the inclusion of the baseline toxicity score. For all models rectal bleeding fits had the highest AUC (0.77) where it was 0.63 and 0.68 for high stool frequency and fecal incontinence, respectively. LKB and logistic model fits resulted in similar values for the volume parameter. The steepness parameter was somewhat higher in the logistic model, also resulting in a slightly lower D{sub 50}. Anal wall DVHs were used for fecal incontinence, whereas anorectal wall dose best described the other two endpoints
Karlsson, Hanna; Pettersson, Anders; Larsson, Marcus; Strömberg, Tomas
2011-02-01
Model based analysis of calibrated diffuse reflectance spectroscopy can be used for determining oxygenation and concentration of skin chromophores. This study aimed at assessing the effect of including melanin in addition to hemoglobin (Hb) as chromophores and compensating for inhomogeneously distributed blood (vessel packaging), in a single-layer skin model. Spectra from four humans were collected during different provocations using a twochannel fiber optic probe with source-detector separations 0.4 and 1.2 mm. Absolute calibrated spectra using data from either a single distance or both distances were analyzed using inverse Monte Carlo for light transport and Levenberg-Marquardt for non-linear fitting. The model fitting was excellent using a single distance. However, the estimated model failed to explain spectra from the other distance. The two-distance model did not fit the data well at either distance. Model fitting was significantly improved including melanin and vessel packaging. The most prominent effect when fitting data from the larger separation compared to the smaller separation was a different light scattering decay with wavelength, while the tissue fraction of Hb and saturation were similar. For modeling spectra at both distances, we propose using either a multi-layer skin model or a more advanced model for the scattering phase function.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sun, C; Madsen, P; Lund, M S
2010-01-01
This study investigated the improvement in genetic evaluation of fertility traits by using production traits as secondary traits (MILK = 305-d milk yield, FAT = 305-d fat yield, and PROT = 305-d protein yield). Data including 471,742 records from first lactations of Denmark Holstein cows, covering...... the years of inseminations during first lactations from 1995 to 2004, were analyzed. Six fertility traits (i.e., interval in days from calving to first insemination, calving interval, days open, interval in days from first to last insemination, numbers of inseminations per conception, and nonreturn rate...... stability and predictive ability than single-trait models for all the fertility traits, except for nonreturn rate within 56 d after first service. The stability and predictive ability for the model including MILK or PROT were similar to the model including all 3 milk production traits and better than...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chelsea Uggenti
2018-03-01
Full Text Available We begin with a detailed study of a delayed SI model of disease transmission with immigration into both classes. The incidence function allows for a nonlinear dependence on the infected population, including mass action and saturating incidence as special cases. Due to the immigration of infectives, there is no disease-free equilibrium and hence no basic reproduction number. We show there is a unique endemic equilibrium and that this equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable for all parameter values. The results include vector-style delay and latency-style delay. Next, we show that previous global stability results for an SEI model and an SVI model that include immigration of infectives and non-linear incidence but not delay can be extended to systems with vector-style delay and latency-style delay.
Mathematical Model of Two Phase Flow in Natural Draft Wet-Cooling Tower Including Flue Gas Injection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hyhlík Tomáš
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The previously developed model of natural draft wet-cooling tower flow, heat and mass transfer is extended to be able to take into account the flow of supersaturated moist air. The two phase flow model is based on void fraction of gas phase which is included in the governing equations. Homogeneous equilibrium model, where the two phases are well mixed and have the same velocity, is used. The effect of flue gas injection is included into the developed mathematical model by using source terms in governing equations and by using momentum flux coefficient and kinetic energy flux coefficient. Heat and mass transfer in the fill zone is described by the system of ordinary differential equations, where the mass transfer is represented by measured fill Merkel number and heat transfer is calculated using prescribed Lewis factor.
Dynamic model of a micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell stack including an integrated cooling system
Hering, Martin; Brouwer, Jacob; Winkler, Wolfgang
2017-02-01
A novel dynamic micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell (MT-SOFC) and stack model including an integrated cooling system is developed using a quasi three-dimensional, spatially resolved, transient thermodynamic, physical and electrochemical model that accounts for the complex geometrical relations between the cells and cooling-tubes. The modeling approach includes a simplified tubular geometry and stack design including an integrated cooling structure, detailed pressure drop and gas property calculations, the electrical and physical constraints of the stack design that determine the current, as well as control strategies for the temperature. Moreover, an advanced heat transfer balance with detailed radiative heat transfer between the cells and the integrated cooling-tubes, convective heat transfer between the gas flows and the surrounding structures and conductive heat transfer between the solid structures inside of the stack, is included. The detailed model can be used as a design basis for the novel MT-SOFC stack assembly including an integrated cooling system, as well as for the development of a dynamic system control strategy. The evaluated best-case design achieves very high electrical efficiency between around 75 and 55% in the entire power density range between 50 and 550 mW /cm2 due to the novel stack design comprising an integrated cooling structure.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thiessen, K.M.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Batandjieva, B.
2009-01-01
The Urban Remediation Working Group of the International Atomic Energy Agency's EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) program was organized to address issues of remediation assessment modelling for urban areas contaminated with dispersed radionuclides. The present paper describes...... the second of two modelling exercises. This exercise was based on a hypothetical dispersal of radioactivity in an urban area from a radiological dispersal device, with reference surface contamination at selected sites used as the primary input information. Modelling endpoints for the exercise included...... radionuclide concentrations and external dose rates at specified locations, contributions to the dose rates from individual surfaces, and annual and cumulative external doses to specified reference individuals. Model predictions were performed for a "no action" situation (with no remedial measures...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wendi Liu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to apply simple ODE models in the area of modeling the spread of emerging infectious diseases and show the importance of model selection in estimating parameters, the basic reproduction number, turning point, and final size. To quantify the plausibility of each model, given the data and the set of four models including Logistic, Gompertz, Rosenzweg, and Richards models, the Bayes factors are calculated and the precise estimates of the best fitted model parameters and key epidemic characteristics have been obtained. In particular, for Ebola the basic reproduction numbers are 1.3522 (95% CI (1.3506, 1.3537, 1.2101 (95% CI (1.2084, 1.2119, 3.0234 (95% CI (2.6063, 3.4881, and 1.9018 (95% CI (1.8565, 1.9478, the turning points are November 7,November 17, October 2, and November 3, 2014, and the final sizes until December 2015 are 25794 (95% CI (25630, 25958, 3916 (95% CI (3865, 3967, 9886 (95% CI (9740, 10031, and 12633 (95% CI (12515, 12750 for West Africa, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, respectively. The main results confirm that model selection is crucial in evaluating and predicting the important quantities describing the emerging infectious diseases, and arbitrarily picking a model without any consideration of alternatives is problematic.
Nonato, Fábio; Cavalca, Katia L.
2014-12-01
This work presents a methodology for including the Elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film effects to a lateral vibration model of a deep groove ball bearing by using a novel approximation for the EHD contacts by a set of equivalent nonlinear spring and viscous damper. The fitting of the equivalent contact model used the results of a transient multi-level finite difference EHD algorithm to adjust the dynamic parameters. The comparison between the approximated model and the finite difference simulated results showed a suitable representation of the stationary and dynamic contact behaviors. The linear damping hypothesis could be shown as a rough representation of the actual hysteretic behavior of the EHD contact. Nevertheless, the overall accuracy of the model was not impaired by the use of such approximation. Further on, the inclusion of the equivalent EHD contact model is equated for both the restoring and the dissipative components of the bearing's lateral dynamics. The derived model was used to investigate the effects of the rolling element bearing lubrication on the vibration response of a rotor's lumped parameter model. The fluid film stiffening effect, previously only observable by experimentation, could be quantified using the proposed model, as well as the portion of the bearing damping provided by the EHD fluid film. Results from a laboratory rotor-bearing test rig were used to indirectly validate the proposed contact approximation. A finite element model of the rotor accounting for the lubricated bearing formulation adequately portrayed the frequency content of the bearing orbits observed on the test rig.
Reerink, Thomas J.; van de Berg, Willem Jan; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.
2016-11-01
This paper accompanies the second OBLIMAP open-source release. The package is developed to map climate fields between a general circulation model (GCM) and an ice sheet model (ISM) in both directions by using optimal aligned oblique projections, which minimize distortions. The curvature of the surfaces of the GCM and ISM grid differ, both grids may be irregularly spaced and the ratio of the grids is allowed to differ largely. OBLIMAP's stand-alone version is able to map data sets that differ in various aspects on the same ISM grid. Each grid may either coincide with the surface of a sphere, an ellipsoid or a flat plane, while the grid types might differ. Re-projection of, for example, ISM data sets is also facilitated. This is demonstrated by relevant applications concerning the major ice caps. As the stand-alone version also applies to the reverse mapping direction, it can be used as an offline coupler. Furthermore, OBLIMAP 2.0 is an embeddable GCM-ISM coupler, suited for high-frequency online coupled experiments. A new fast scan method is presented for structured grids as an alternative for the former time-consuming grid search strategy, realising a performance gain of several orders of magnitude and enabling the mapping of high-resolution data sets with a much larger number of grid nodes. Further, a highly flexible masked mapping option is added. The limitation of the fast scan method with respect to unstructured and adaptive grids is discussed together with a possible future parallel Message Passing Interface (MPI) implementation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moonen Marie
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Valve dysfunction is a common cardiovascular pathology. Despite significant clinical research, there is little formal study of how valve dysfunction affects overall circulatory dynamics. Validated models would offer the ability to better understand these dynamics and thus optimize diagnosis, as well as surgical and other interventions. Methods A cardiovascular and circulatory system (CVS model has already been validated in silico, and in several animal model studies. It accounts for valve dynamics using Heaviside functions to simulate a physiologically accurate "open on pressure, close on flow" law. However, it does not consider real-time valve opening dynamics and therefore does not fully capture valve dysfunction, particularly where the dysfunction involves partial closure. This research describes an updated version of this previous closed-loop CVS model that includes the progressive opening of the mitral valve, and is defined over the full cardiac cycle. Results Simulations of the cardiovascular system with healthy mitral valve are performed, and, the global hemodynamic behaviour is studied compared with previously validated results. The error between resulting pressure-volume (PV loops of already validated CVS model and the new CVS model that includes the progressive opening of the mitral valve is assessed and remains within typical measurement error and variability. Simulations of ischemic mitral insufficiency are also performed. Pressure-Volume loops, transmitral flow evolution and mitral valve aperture area evolution follow reported measurements in shape, amplitude and trends. Conclusions The resulting cardiovascular system model including mitral valve dynamics provides a foundation for clinical validation and the study of valvular dysfunction in vivo. The overall models and results could readily be generalised to other cardiac valves.
Lee, H. P.
1977-01-01
The NASTRAN Thermal Analyzer Manual describes the fundamental and theoretical treatment of the finite element method, with emphasis on the derivations of the constituent matrices of different elements and solution algorithms. Necessary information and data relating to the practical applications of engineering modeling are included.
Jackson, C. E., Jr.
1977-01-01
A sample problem library containing 20 problems covering most facets of Nastran Thermal Analyzer modeling is presented. Areas discussed include radiative interchange, arbitrary nonlinear loads, transient temperature and steady-state structural plots, temperature-dependent conductivities, simulated multi-layer insulation, and constraint techniques. The use of the major control options and important DMAP alters is demonstrated.
Testing alternative factor models of PTSD and the robustness of the dysphoria factor.
Elklit, Ask; Armour, Cherie; Shevlin, Mark
2010-01-01
This study first aimed to examine the structure of self-reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms using three different samples. The second aim of the paper was to test the robustness of the factor analytic model when depression scores were controlled for. Based on previous factor analytic findings and the DSM-IV formulation, six confirmatory factor models were specified and estimated that reflected different symptom clusters. The best fitting model was subsequently re-fitted to the data after including a depression variable. The analyses were based on responses from 973 participants across three samples. Sample 1 consisted of 633 parents who were members of 'The National Association of Infant Death' and who had lost a child. Sample 2 consisted of 227 victims of rape, who completed a questionnaire within 4 weeks of the rape. Each respondent had been in contact with the Centre for Rape Victims (CRV) at the Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Sample 3 consisted of 113 refugees resident in Denmark. All participants had been referred to a treatment centre which focused on rehabilitating refugees through treatment for psychosocial integration problems (RRCF: Rehabliterings og Revliderings Centre for Flygtninge). In total 500 participants received a diagnosis of PTSD/sub-clinical PTSD (Sample 1, N=214; 2, N=176; 3, N=110). A correlated four-factor model with re-experiencing, avoidance, dysphoria, and arousal factors provided the best fit to the sample data. The average attenuation in the factor loadings was highest for the dysphoria factor (M=-.26, SD=.11) compared to the re-experiencing (M=-.14, SD=.18), avoidance (M=-.10, SD=.21), and arousal (M=-.09, SD=.13) factors. With regards to the best fitting factor model these results concur with previous research findings using different trauma populations but do not reflect the current DSM-IV symptom groupings. The attenuation of dysphoria factor loadings suggests that dysphoria is a non-specific component of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sartori, E.; Schuler, W.
1992-01-01
Software and data for nuclear energy applications are acquired, tested and distributed by several information centres; in particular, relevant computer codes are distributed internationally by the OECD/NEA Data Bank (France) and by ESTSC and EPIC/RSIC (United States). This activity is coordinated among the centres and is extended outside the OECD area through an arrangement with the IAEA. This article proposes more specifically a scheme for acquiring, storing and distributing atmospheric tracer experiment data (ATE) required for verification of atmospheric dispersion models especially the most advanced ones including topographic effects and specific to the local and meso-scale. These well documented data sets will form a valuable complement to the set of atmospheric dispersion computer codes distributed internationally. Modellers will be able to gain confidence in the predictive power of their models or to verify their modelling skills. (au)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marsolat, F; De Marzi, L; Mazal, A; Pouzoulet, F
2016-01-01
In proton therapy, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) depends on various types of parameters such as linear energy transfer (LET). An analytical model for LET calculation exists (Wilkens’ model), but secondary particles are not included in this model. In the present study, we propose a correction factor, L sec , for Wilkens’ model in order to take into account the LET contributions of certain secondary particles. This study includes secondary protons and deuterons, since the effects of these two types of particles can be described by the same RBE-LET relationship. L sec was evaluated by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations using the GATE/GEANT4 platform and was defined by the ratio of the LET d distributions of all protons and deuterons and only primary protons. This method was applied to the innovative Pencil Beam Scanning (PBS) delivery systems and L sec was evaluated along the beam axis. This correction factor indicates the high contribution of secondary particles in the entrance region, with L sec values higher than 1.6 for a 220 MeV clinical pencil beam. MC simulations showed the impact of pencil beam parameters, such as mean initial energy, spot size, and depth in water, on L sec . The variation of L sec with these different parameters was integrated in a polynomial function of the L sec factor in order to obtain a model universally applicable to all PBS delivery systems. The validity of this correction factor applied to Wilkens’ model was verified along the beam axis of various pencil beams in comparison with MC simulations. A good agreement was obtained between the corrected analytical model and the MC calculations, with mean-LET deviations along the beam axis less than 0.05 keV μm −1 . These results demonstrate the efficacy of our new correction of the existing LET model in order to take into account secondary protons and deuterons along the pencil beam axis. (paper)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yong Zhao
1997-01-01
Full Text Available A nonlinear three dimensional (3D single rack model and a nonlinear 3D whole pool multi-rack model are developed for the spent fuel storage racks of a nuclear power plant (NPP to determine impacts and frictional motion responses when subjected to 3D excitations from the supporting building floor. The submerged free standing rack system and surrounding water are coupled due to hydrodynamic fluid-structure interaction (FSI using potential theory. The models developed have features that allow consideration of geometric and material nonlinearities including (1 the impacts of fuel assemblies to rack cells, a rack to adjacent racks or pool walls, and rack support legs to the pool floor; (2 the hydrodynamic coupling of fuel assemblies with their storing racks, and of a rack with adjacent racks, pool walls, and the pool floor; and (3 the dynamic motion behavior of rocking, twisting, and frictional sliding of rack modules. Using these models 3D nonlinear time history dynamic analyses are performed per the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC criteria. Since few such modeling, analyses, and results using both the 3D single and whole pool multiple rack models are available in the literature, this paper emphasizes description of modeling and analysis techniques using the SOLVIA general purpose nonlinear finite element code. Typical response results with different Coulomb friction coefficients are presented and discussed.
Andersson, P. B. U.; Kropp, W.
2008-11-01
Rolling resistance, traction, wear, excitation of vibrations, and noise generation are all attributes to consider in optimisation of the interaction between automotive tyres and wearing courses of roads. The key to understand and describe the interaction is to include a wide range of length scales in the description of the contact geometry. This means including scales on the order of micrometres that have been neglected in previous tyre/road interaction models. A time domain contact model for the tyre/road interaction that includes interfacial details is presented. The contact geometry is discretised into multiple elements forming pairs of matching points. The dynamic response of the tyre is calculated by convolving the contact forces with pre-calculated Green's functions. The smaller-length scales are included by using constitutive interfacial relations, i.e. by using nonlinear contact springs, for each pair of contact elements. The method is presented for normal (out-of-plane) contact and a method for assessing the stiffness of the nonlinear springs based on detailed geometry and elastic data of the tread is suggested. The governing equations of the nonlinear contact problem are solved with the Newton-Raphson iterative scheme. Relations between force, indentation, and contact stiffness are calculated for a single tread block in contact with a road surface. The calculated results have the same character as results from measurements found in literature. Comparison to traditional contact formulations shows that the effect of the small-scale roughness is large; the contact stiffness is only up to half of the stiffness that would result if contact is made over the whole element directly to the bulk of the tread. It is concluded that the suggested contact formulation is a suitable model to include more details of the contact interface. Further, the presented result for the tread block in contact with the road is a suitable input for a global tyre/road interaction model
Glynn, Robert J; Colditz, Graham A; Tamimi, Rulla M; Chen, Wendy Y; Hankinson, Susan E; Willett, Walter W; Rosner, Bernard
2017-08-01
A breast cancer risk prediction rule previously developed by Rosner and Colditz has reasonable predictive ability. We developed a re-fitted version of this model, based on more than twice as many cases now including women up to age 85, and further extended it to a model that distinguished risk factor prediction of tumors with different estrogen/progesterone receptor status. We compared the calibration and discriminatory ability of the original, the re-fitted, and the type-specific models. Evaluation used data from the Nurses' Health Study during the period 1980-2008, when 4384 incident invasive breast cancers occurred over 1.5 million person-years. Model development used two-thirds of study subjects and validation used one-third. Predicted risks in the validation sample from the original and re-fitted models were highly correlated (ρ = 0.93), but several parameters, notably those related to use of menopausal hormone therapy and age, had different estimates. The re-fitted model was well-calibrated and had an overall C-statistic of 0.65. The extended, type-specific model identified several risk factors with varying associations with occurrence of tumors of different receptor status. However, this extended model relative to the prediction of any breast cancer did not meaningfully reclassify women who developed breast cancer to higher risk categories, nor women remaining cancer free to lower risk categories. The re-fitted Rosner-Colditz model has applicability to risk prediction in women up to age 85, and its discrimination is not improved by consideration of varying associations across tumor subtypes.
Kral, Q.; Thebault, P.; Charnoz, S.
2014-01-01
The first attempt at developing a fully self-consistent code coupling dynamics and collisions to study debris discs (Kral et al. 2013) is presented. So far, these two crucial mechanisms were studied separately, with N-body and statistical collisional codes respectively, because of stringent computational constraints. We present a new model named LIDT-DD which is able to follow over long timescales the coupled evolution of dynamics (including radiation forces) and collisions in a self-consistent way.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thiessen, K.M.; Andersson, K.G.; Batandjieva, B.; Cheng, J.-J.; Hwang, W.T.; Kaiser, J.C.; Kamboj, S.; Steiner, M.; Tomas, J.; Trifunovic, D.; Yu, C.
2009-01-01
The Urban Remediation Working Group of the International Atomic Energy Agency's EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) program was organized to address issues of remediation assessment modelling for urban areas contaminated with dispersed radionuclides. The present paper describes the second of two modelling exercises. This exercise was based on a hypothetical dispersal of radioactivity in an urban area from a radiological dispersal device, with reference surface contamination at selected sites used as the primary input information. Modelling endpoints for the exercise included radionuclide concentrations and external dose rates at specified locations, contributions to the dose rates from individual surfaces, and annual and cumulative external doses to specified reference individuals. Model predictions were performed for a 'no action' situation (with no remedial measures) and for selected countermeasures. The exercise provided an opportunity for comparison of three modelling approaches, as well as a comparison of the predicted effectiveness of various countermeasures in terms of their short-term and long-term effects on predicted doses to humans.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Xiao-Lu; Fan, Xiang-Yu; Nie, Ren-Shi; Huang, Quan-Hua; He, Yong-Ming
2013-01-01
Based on material balance and Darcy's law, the governing equation with the quadratic pressure gradient term was deduced. Then the nonlinear model for fluid flow in a multiple-zone composite reservoir including the quadratic gradient term was established and solved using a Laplace transform. A series of standard log–log type curves of 1-zone (homogeneous), 2-zone and 3-zone reservoirs were plotted and nonlinear flow characteristics were analysed. The type curves governed by the coefficient of the quadratic gradient term (β) gradually deviate from those of a linear model with time elapsing. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were implemented to compare the solutions of the linear and nonlinear models. The results showed that differences of pressure transients between the linear and nonlinear models increase with elapsed time and β. At the end, a successful application of the theoretical model data against the field data shows that the nonlinear model will be a good tool to evaluate formation parameters more accurately. (paper)
Jiménez, Noé; Camarena, Francisco; Redondo, Javier; Sánchez-Morcillo, Víctor; Konofagou, Elisa E.
2015-10-01
We report a numerical method for solving the constitutive relations of nonlinear acoustics, where multiple relaxation processes are included in a generalized formulation that allows the time-domain numerical solution by an explicit finite differences scheme. Thus, the proposed physical model overcomes the limitations of the one-way Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) type models and, due to the Lagrangian density is implicitly included in the calculation, the proposed method also overcomes the limitations of Westervelt equation in complex configurations for medical ultrasound. In order to model frequency power law attenuation and dispersion, such as observed in biological media, the relaxation parameters are fitted to both exact frequency power law attenuation/dispersion media and also empirically measured attenuation of a variety of tissues that does not fit an exact power law. Finally, a computational technique based on artificial relaxation is included to correct the non-negligible numerical dispersion of the finite difference scheme, and, on the other hand, improve stability trough artificial attenuation when shock waves are present. This technique avoids the use of high-order finite-differences schemes leading to fast calculations. The present algorithm is especially suited for practical configuration where spatial discontinuities are present in the domain (e.g. axisymmetric domains or zero normal velocity boundary conditions in general). The accuracy of the method is discussed by comparing the proposed simulation solutions to one dimensional analytical and k-space numerical solutions.
Di Nucci, Carmine
2018-05-01
This note examines the two-dimensional unsteady isothermal free surface flow of an incompressible fluid in a non-deformable, homogeneous, isotropic, and saturated porous medium (with zero recharge and neglecting capillary effects). Coupling a Boussinesq-type model for nonlinear water waves with Darcy's law, the two-dimensional flow problem is solved using one-dimensional model equations including vertical effects and seepage face. In order to take into account the seepage face development, the system equations (given by the continuity and momentum equations) are completed by an integral relation (deduced from the Cauchy theorem). After testing the model against data sets available in the literature, some numerical simulations, concerning the unsteady flow through a rectangular dam (with an impermeable horizontal bottom), are presented and discussed.
Ghavanloo, Esmaeal; Fazelzadeh, S. Ahmad; Rafii-Tabar, Hashem
2014-05-01
Nonlocal and surface effects significantly influence the mechanical response of nanomaterials and nanostructures. In this work, the breathing mode of a circular nanowire is studied on the basis of the nonlocal continuum model. Both the surface elastic properties and surface inertia effect are included. Nanowires can be modeled as long cylindrical solid objects. The classical model is reformulated using the nonlocal differential constitutive relations of Eringen and Gurtin-Murdoch surface continuum elasticity formalism. A new frequency equation for the breathing mode of nanowires, including small scale effect, surface stress and surface inertia is presented by employing the Bessel functions. Numerical results are computed, and are compared to confirm the validity and accuracy of the proposed method. Furthermore, the model is used to elucidate the effect of nonlocal parameter, the surface stress, the surface inertia and the nanowire orientation on the breathing mode of several types of nanowires with size ranging from 0.5 to 4 nm. Our results reveal that the combined surface and small scale effects are significant for nanowires with diameter smaller than 4 nm.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghavanloo, Esmaeal; Fazelzadeh, S. Ahmad; Rafii-Tabar, Hashem
2014-01-01
Nonlocal and surface effects significantly influence the mechanical response of nanomaterials and nanostructures. In this work, the breathing mode of a circular nanowire is studied on the basis of the nonlocal continuum model. Both the surface elastic properties and surface inertia effect are included. Nanowires can be modeled as long cylindrical solid objects. The classical model is reformulated using the nonlocal differential constitutive relations of Eringen and Gurtin–Murdoch surface continuum elasticity formalism. A new frequency equation for the breathing mode of nanowires, including small scale effect, surface stress and surface inertia is presented by employing the Bessel functions. Numerical results are computed, and are compared to confirm the validity and accuracy of the proposed method. Furthermore, the model is used to elucidate the effect of nonlocal parameter, the surface stress, the surface inertia and the nanowire orientation on the breathing mode of several types of nanowires with size ranging from 0.5 to 4 nm. Our results reveal that the combined surface and small scale effects are significant for nanowires with diameter smaller than 4 nm.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghavanloo, Esmaeal, E-mail: ghavanloo@shirazu.ac.ir [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71963-16548 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fazelzadeh, S. Ahmad [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71963-16548 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rafii-Tabar, Hashem [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Research Center for Medical Nanotechnology and Tissue Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Computational Physical Sciences Research Laboratory, School of Nano-Science, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-05-01
Nonlocal and surface effects significantly influence the mechanical response of nanomaterials and nanostructures. In this work, the breathing mode of a circular nanowire is studied on the basis of the nonlocal continuum model. Both the surface elastic properties and surface inertia effect are included. Nanowires can be modeled as long cylindrical solid objects. The classical model is reformulated using the nonlocal differential constitutive relations of Eringen and Gurtin–Murdoch surface continuum elasticity formalism. A new frequency equation for the breathing mode of nanowires, including small scale effect, surface stress and surface inertia is presented by employing the Bessel functions. Numerical results are computed, and are compared to confirm the validity and accuracy of the proposed method. Furthermore, the model is used to elucidate the effect of nonlocal parameter, the surface stress, the surface inertia and the nanowire orientation on the breathing mode of several types of nanowires with size ranging from 0.5 to 4 nm. Our results reveal that the combined surface and small scale effects are significant for nanowires with diameter smaller than 4 nm.
Eaton, Lisa A.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Kenny, David A.; Harel, Ofer
2013-01-01
Background Project EXPLORE -- a large-scale, behavioral intervention tested among men who have sex with men (MSM) at-risk for HIV infection --was generally deemed as ineffective in reducing HIV incidence. Using novel and more precise data analytic techniques we reanalyzed Project EXPLORE by including both direct and indirect paths of intervention effects. Methods Data from 4,296 HIV negative MSM who participated in Project EXPLORE, which included ten sessions of behavioral risk reduction counseling completed from 1999-2005, were included in the analysis. We reanalyzed the data to include parameters that estimate the overtime effects of the intervention on unprotected anal sex and the over-time effects of the intervention on HIV status mediated by unprotected anal sex simultaneously in a single model. Results We found the indirect effect of intervention on HIV infection through unprotected anal sex to be statistically significant up through 12 months post-intervention, OR=.83, 95% CI=.72-.95. Furthermore, the intervention significantly reduced unprotected anal sex up through 18 months post-intervention, OR=.79, 95% CI=.63-.99. Discussion Our results reveal effects not tested in the original model that offer new insight into the effectiveness of a behavioral intervention for reducing HIV incidence. Project EXPLORE demonstrated that when tested against an evidence-based, effective control condition can result in reductions in rates of HIV acquisition at one year follow-up. Findings highlight the critical role of addressing behavioral risk reduction counseling in HIV prevention. PMID:23245226
Zheng, Han; Kimber, Alan; Goodwin, Victoria A; Pickering, Ruth M
2018-01-01
A common design for a falls prevention trial is to assess falling at baseline, randomize participants into an intervention or control group, and ask them to record the number of falls they experience during a follow-up period of time. This paper addresses how best to include the baseline count in the analysis of the follow-up count of falls in negative binomial (NB) regression. We examine the performance of various approaches in simulated datasets where both counts are generated from a mixed Poisson distribution with shared random subject effect. Including the baseline count after log-transformation as a regressor in NB regression (NB-logged) or as an offset (NB-offset) resulted in greater power than including the untransformed baseline count (NB-unlogged). Cook and Wei's conditional negative binomial (CNB) model replicates the underlying process generating the data. In our motivating dataset, a statistically significant intervention effect resulted from the NB-logged, NB-offset, and CNB models, but not from NB-unlogged, and large, outlying baseline counts were overly influential in NB-unlogged but not in NB-logged. We conclude that there is little to lose by including the log-transformed baseline count in standard NB regression compared to CNB for moderate to larger sized datasets. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Běták Emil
2014-04-01
Full Text Available For low-energy nuclear reactions well above the resonance region, but still below the pion threshold, statistical pre-equilibrium models (e.g., the exciton and the hybrid ones are a frequent tool for analysis of energy spectra and the cross sections of cluster emission. For α’s, two essentially distinct approaches are popular, namely the preformed one and the different versions of coalescence approaches, whereas only the latter group of models can be used for other types of cluster ejectiles. The original Iwamoto-Harada model of pre-equilibrium cluster emission was formulated using the overlap of the cluster and its constituent nucleons in momentum space. Transforming it into level or state densities is not a straigthforward task; however, physically the same model was presented at a conference on reaction models five years earlier. At that time, only the densities without spin were used. The introduction of spin variables into the exciton model enabled detailed calculation of the γ emission and its competition with nucleon channels, and – at the same time – it stimulated further developments of the model. However – to the best of our knowledge – no spin formulation has been presented for cluster emission till recently, when the first attempts have been reported, but restricted to the first emission only. We have updated this effort now and we are able to handle (using the same simplifications as in our previous work pre-equilibrium cluster emission with spin including all nuclei in the reaction chain.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Darcel, C.; Davy, P.; Le Goc, R.; Dreuzy, J.R. de; Bour, O.
2009-11-01
the other, addresses the issue of the nature of the transition. We develop a new 'mechanistic' model that could help in modeling why and where this transition can occur. The transition between both regimes would occur for a fracture length of 1-10 m and even at a smaller scale for the few outcrops that follow the self-similar density model. A consequence for the disposal issue is that the model that is likely to apply in the 'blind' scale window between 10-100 m is the self-similar model as it is defined for large-scale lineaments. The self-similar model, as it is measured for some outcrops and most lineament maps, is definitely worth being investigated as a reference for scales above 1-10 m. In the rest of the report, we develop a methodology for incorporating uncertainty and variability into the DFN modeling. Fracturing properties arise from complex processes which produce an intrinsic variability; characterizing this variability as an admissible variation of model parameter or as the division of the site into subdomains with distinct DFN models is a critical point of the modeling effort. Moreover, the DFN model encompasses a part of uncertainty, due to data inherent uncertainties and sampling limits. Both effects must be quantified and incorporated into the DFN site model definition process. In that context, all available borehole data including recording of fracture intercept positions, pole orientation and relative uncertainties are used as the basis for the methodological development and further site model assessment. An elementary dataset contains a set of discrete fracture intercepts from which a parent orientation/density distribution can be computed. The elementary bricks of the site, from which these initial parent density distributions are computed, rely on the former Single Hole Interpretation division of the boreholes into sections whose local boundaries are expected to reflect - locally - geology and fracturing properties main characteristics. From that
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frimann Nielsen, Rasmus; Haglind, Fredrik; Larsen, Ulrik
2014-01-01
the efficiency of machinery systems. The wet sulphuric acid process is an effective way of removing flue gas sulphur oxides from land-based coal-fired power plants. Moreover, organic Rankine cycles (ORC) are suitable for heat to power conversion for low temperature heat sources. This paper describes the design...... that an ORC placed after the conventional waste heat recovery system is able to extract the sulphuric acid from the exhaust gas, while at the same time increase the combined cycle thermal efficiency by 2.6%. The findings indicate that the technology has potential in marine applications regarding both energy...... and modeling of a highly efficient machinery system which includes the removal of exhaust gas sulphur oxides. The system consists of a two-stroke diesel engine, the wet sulphuric process for sulphur removal, a conventional steam Rankine cycle and an ORC. Results of numerical modeling efforts suggest...
Mansoori Kermani, Maryam; Dehestani, Maryam
2018-06-01
We modeled a one-dimensional actuator including the Casimir and electrostatic forces perturbed by an external force with fractional damping. The movable electrode was assumed to oscillate by an anharmonic elastic force originated from Murrell-Mottram or Lippincott potential. The nonlinear equations have been solved via the Adomian decomposition method. The behavior of the displacement of the electrode from equilibrium position, its velocity and acceleration were described versus time. Also, the changes of the displacement have been investigated according to the frequency of the external force and the voltage of the electrostatic force. The convergence of the Adomian method and the effect of the orders of expansion on the displacement versus time, frequency, and voltage were discussed. The pull-in parameter was obtained and compared with the other models in the literature. This parameter was described versus the equilibrium position and anharmonicity constant.
Mansoori Kermani, Maryam; Dehestani, Maryam
2018-03-01
We modeled a one-dimensional actuator including the Casimir and electrostatic forces perturbed by an external force with fractional damping. The movable electrode was assumed to oscillate by an anharmonic elastic force originated from Murrell-Mottram or Lippincott potential. The nonlinear equations have been solved via the Adomian decomposition method. The behavior of the displacement of the electrode from equilibrium position, its velocity and acceleration were described versus time. Also, the changes of the displacement have been investigated according to the frequency of the external force and the voltage of the electrostatic force. The convergence of the Adomian method and the effect of the orders of expansion on the displacement versus time, frequency, and voltage were discussed. The pull-in parameter was obtained and compared with the other models in the literature. This parameter was described versus the equilibrium position and anharmonicity constant.
Neudecker, Denise; Talou, Patrick; Kahler, Albert C.; White, Morgan C.; Kawano, Toshihiko
2017-09-01
We present an evaluation of the 235U prompt fission neutron spectrum (PFNS) induced by thermal to 20-MeV neutrons. Experimental data and associated covariances were analyzed in detail. The incident energy dependence of the PFNS was modeled with an extended Los Alamos model combined with the Hauser-Feshbach and the exciton models. These models describe prompt fission, pre-fission compound nucleus and pre-equilibrium neutron emissions. The evaluated PFNS agree well with the experimental data included in this evaluation, preliminary data of the LANL and LLNL Chi-Nu measurement and recent evaluations by Capote et al. and Rising et al. However, they are softer than the ENDF/B-VII.1 (VII.1) and JENDL-4.0 PFNS for incident neutron energies up to 2 MeV. Simulated effective multiplication factors keff of the Godiva and Flattop-25 critical assemblies are further from the measured keff if the current data are used within VII.1 compared to using only VII.1 data. However, if this work is used with ENDF/B-VIII.0β2 data, simulated values of keff agree well with the measured ones.
Haqshenas, S R; Ford, I J; Saffari, N
2018-01-14
Effects of acoustic waves on a phase transformation in a metastable phase were investigated in our previous work [S. R. Haqshenas, I. J. Ford, and N. Saffari, "Modelling the effect of acoustic waves on nucleation," J. Chem. Phys. 145, 024315 (2016)]. We developed a non-equimolar dividing surface cluster model and employed it to determine the thermodynamics and kinetics of crystallisation induced by an acoustic field in a mass-conserved system. In the present work, we developed a master equation based on a hybrid Szilard-Fokker-Planck model, which accounts for mass transportation due to acoustic waves. This model can determine the kinetics of nucleation and the early stage of growth of clusters including the Ostwald ripening phenomenon. It was solved numerically to calculate the kinetics of an isothermal sonocrystallisation process in a system with mass transportation. The simulation results show that the effect of mass transportation for different excitations depends on the waveform as well as the imposed boundary conditions and tends to be noticeable in the case of shock waves. The derivations are generic and can be used with any acoustic source and waveform.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scot Martin
2013-01-31
The chemical evolution of secondary-organic-aerosol (SOA) particles and how this evolution alters their cloud-nucleating properties were studied. Simplified forms of full Koehler theory were targeted, specifically forms that contain only those aspects essential to describing the laboratory observations, because of the requirement to minimize computational burden for use in integrated climate and chemistry models. The associated data analysis and interpretation have therefore focused on model development in the framework of modified kappa-Koehler theory. Kappa is a single parameter describing effective hygroscopicity, grouping together several separate physicochemical parameters (e.g., molar volume, surface tension, and van't Hoff factor) that otherwise must be tracked and evaluated in an iterative full-Koehler equation in a large-scale model. A major finding of the project was that secondary organic materials produced by the oxidation of a range of biogenic volatile organic compounds for diverse conditions have kappa values bracketed in the range of 0.10 +/- 0.05. In these same experiments, somewhat incongruently there was significant chemical variation in the secondary organic material, especially oxidation state, as was indicated by changes in the particle mass spectra. Taken together, these findings then support the use of kappa as a simplified yet accurate general parameter to represent the CCN activation of secondary organic material in large-scale atmospheric and climate models, thereby greatly reducing the computational burden while simultaneously including the most recent mechanistic findings of laboratory studies.
Tournier, Jean-Michel; El-Genk, Mohamed S.
1995-01-01
A two-dimensional Heat Pipe Transient Analysis Model, 'HPTAM,' was developed to simulate the transient operation of fully-thawed heat pipes and the startup of heat pipes from a frozen state. The model incorporates: (a) sublimation and resolidification of working fluid; (b) melting and freezing of the working fluid in the porous wick; (c) evaporation of thawed working fluid and condensation as a thin liquid film on a frozen substrate; (d) free-molecule, transition, and continuum vapor flow regimes, using the Dusty Gas Model; (e) liquid flow and heat transfer in the porous wick; and (f) thermal and hydrodynamic couplings of phases at their respective interfaces. HPTAM predicts the radius of curvature of the liquid meniscus at the liquid-vapor interface and the radial location of the working fluid level (liquid or solid) in the wick. It also includes the transverse momentum jump condition (capillary relationship of Pascal) at the liquid-vapor interface and geometrically relates the radius of curvature of the liquid meniscus to the volume fraction of vapor in the wick. The present model predicts the capillary limit and partial liquid recess (dryout) in the evaporator wick, and incorporates a liquid pooling submodel, which simulates accumulation of the excess liquid in the vapor core at the condenser end.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lapa, Celso Marcelo Franklin.
1996-05-01
The use of redundancy to increase the reliability of industrial systems make them subject to the occurrence of common cause events. The industrial experience and the results of safety analysis studies have indicated that common cause failures are the main contributors to the unreliability of plants that have redundant systems, specially in nuclear power plants. In this Thesis procedures are developed in order to include the impact of common cause failures in the calculation of the top event occurrence probability of the Auxiliary Feedwater System in a typical two-loop Nuclear Power Plant (PWR). For this purpose the Multiple Greek Letter Model is used. (author). 14 refs., 10 figs., 11 tabs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Darcel, C. (Itasca Consultants SAS (France)); Davy, P.; Le Goc, R.; Dreuzy, J.R. de; Bour, O. (Geosciences Rennes, UMR 6118 CNRS, Univ. def Rennes, Rennes (France))
2009-11-15
the lineament scale (k{sub t} = 2) on the other, addresses the issue of the nature of the transition. We develop a new 'mechanistic' model that could help in modeling why and where this transition can occur. The transition between both regimes would occur for a fracture length of 1-10 m and even at a smaller scale for the few outcrops that follow the self-similar density model. A consequence for the disposal issue is that the model that is likely to apply in the 'blind' scale window between 10-100 m is the self-similar model as it is defined for large-scale lineaments. The self-similar model, as it is measured for some outcrops and most lineament maps, is definitely worth being investigated as a reference for scales above 1-10 m. In the rest of the report, we develop a methodology for incorporating uncertainty and variability into the DFN modeling. Fracturing properties arise from complex processes which produce an intrinsic variability; characterizing this variability as an admissible variation of model parameter or as the division of the site into subdomains with distinct DFN models is a critical point of the modeling effort. Moreover, the DFN model encompasses a part of uncertainty, due to data inherent uncertainties and sampling limits. Both effects must be quantified and incorporated into the DFN site model definition process. In that context, all available borehole data including recording of fracture intercept positions, pole orientation and relative uncertainties are used as the basis for the methodological development and further site model assessment. An elementary dataset contains a set of discrete fracture intercepts from which a parent orientation/density distribution can be computed. The elementary bricks of the site, from which these initial parent density distributions are computed, rely on the former Single Hole Interpretation division of the boreholes into sections whose local boundaries are expected to reflect - locally - geology
Kim, Sun Bean; Yoon, Myoungho; Ku, Nam Su; Kim, Min Hyung; Song, Je Eun; Ahn, Jin Young; Jeong, Su Jin; Kim, Changsoo; Kwon, Hee-Dae; Lee, Jeehyun; Smith, Davey M; Choi, Jun Yong
2014-01-01
Multiple prevention measures have the possibility of impacting HIV incidence in South Korea, including early diagnosis, early treatment, and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We investigated how each of these interventions could impact the local HIV epidemic, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM), who have become the major risk group in South Korea. A mathematical model was used to estimate the effects of each these interventions on the HIV epidemic in South Korea over the next 40 years, as compared to the current situation. We constructed a mathematical model of HIV infection among MSM in South Korea, dividing the MSM population into seven groups, and simulated the effects of early antiretroviral therapy (ART), early diagnosis, PrEP, and combination interventions on the incidence and prevalence of HIV infection, as compared to the current situation that would be expected without any new prevention measures. Overall, the model suggested that the most effective prevention measure would be PrEP. Even though PrEP effectiveness could be lessened by increased unsafe sex behavior, PrEP use was still more beneficial than the current situation. In the model, early diagnosis of HIV infection was also effectively decreased HIV incidence. However, early ART did not show considerable effectiveness. As expected, it would be most effective if all interventions (PrEP, early diagnosis and early treatment) were implemented together. This model suggests that PrEP and early diagnosis could be a very effective way to reduce HIV incidence in South Korea among MSM.
Neumann, Rebecca B; Cardon, Zoe G; Teshera-Levye, Jennifer; Rockwell, Fulton E; Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Holbrook, N Michele
2014-04-01
The movement of water from moist to dry soil layers through the root systems of plants, referred to as hydraulic redistribution (HR), occurs throughout the world and is thought to influence carbon and water budgets and ecosystem functioning. The realized hydrologic, biogeochemical and ecological consequences of HR depend on the amount of redistributed water, whereas the ability to assess these impacts requires models that correctly capture HR magnitude and timing. Using several soil types and two ecotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in split-pot experiments, we examined how well the widely used HR modelling formulation developed by Ryel et al. matched experimental determination of HR across a range of water potential driving gradients. H. annuus carries out extensive night-time transpiration, and although over the last decade it has become more widely recognized that night-time transpiration occurs in multiple species and many ecosystems, the original Ryel et al. formulation does not include the effect of night-time transpiration on HR. We developed and added a representation of night-time transpiration into the formulation, and only then was the model able to capture the dynamics and magnitude of HR we observed as soils dried and night-time stomatal behaviour changed, both influencing HR. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fornaro, Michele; Sharthiya, Harsh; Tiwari, Vaibhav
2018-03-09
This protocol describes an ex vivo model of mouse-derived dorsal root ganglia (DRG) explant and in vitro DRG-derived co-culture of dissociated sensory neurons and glial satellite cells. These are useful and versatile models to investigate a variety of biological responses associated with physiological and pathological conditions of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) ranging from neuron-glial interaction, neuroplasticity, neuroinflammation, and viral infection. The usage of DRG explant is scientifically advantageous compared to simplistic single cells models for multiple reasons. For instance, as an organotypic culture, the DRG explant allows ex vivo transfer of an entire neuronal network including the extracellular microenvironment that play a significant role in all the neuronal and glial functions. Further, DRG explants can also be maintained ex vivo for several days and the culture conditions can be perturbed as desired. In addition, the harvested DRG can be further dissociated into an in vitro co-culture of primary sensory neurons and satellite glial cells to investigate neuronal-glial interaction, neuritogenesis, axonal cone interaction with the extracellular microenvironment, and more general, any aspect associated with the neuronal metabolism. Therefore, the DRG-explant system offers a great deal of flexibility to study a wide array of events related to biological, physiological, and pathological conditions in a cost-effective manner.
Bermúdez, María; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Bates, Paul D.; Coxon, Gemma; Freer, Jim E.; Cea, Luis; Puertas, Jerónimo
2016-04-01
Flood inundation models require appropriate boundary conditions to be specified at the limits of the domain, which commonly consist of upstream flow rate and downstream water level. These data are usually acquired from gauging stations on the river network where measured water levels are converted to discharge via a rating curve. Derived streamflow estimates are therefore subject to uncertainties in this rating curve, including extrapolating beyond the maximum observed ratings magnitude. In addition, the limited number of gauges in reach-scale studies often requires flow to be routed from the nearest upstream gauge to the boundary of the model domain. This introduces additional uncertainty, derived not only from the flow routing method used, but also from the additional lateral rainfall-runoff contributions downstream of the gauging point. Although generally assumed to have a minor impact on discharge in fluvial flood modeling, this local hydrological input may become important in a sparse gauge network or in events with significant local rainfall. In this study, a method to incorporate rating curve uncertainty and the local rainfall-runoff dynamics into the predictions of a reach-scale flood inundation model is proposed. Discharge uncertainty bounds are generated by applying a non-parametric local weighted regression approach to stage-discharge measurements for two gauging stations, while measured rainfall downstream from these locations is cascaded into a hydrological model to quantify additional inflows along the main channel. A regional simplified-physics hydraulic model is then applied to combine these inputs and generate an ensemble of discharge and water elevation time series at the boundaries of a local-scale high complexity hydraulic model. Finally, the effect of these rainfall dynamics and uncertain boundary conditions are evaluated on the local-scale model. Improvements in model performance when incorporating these processes are quantified using observed
Oral, Elif; Gélis, Céline; Bonilla, Luis Fabián; Delavaud, Elise
2017-12-01
Numerical modelling of seismic wave propagation, considering soil nonlinearity, has become a major topic in seismic hazard studies when strong shaking is involved under particular soil conditions. Indeed, when strong ground motion propagates in saturated soils, pore pressure is another important parameter to take into account when successive phases of contractive and dilatant soil behaviour are expected. Here, we model 1-D seismic wave propagation in linear and nonlinear media using the spectral element numerical method. The study uses a three-component (3C) nonlinear rheology and includes pore-pressure excess. The 1-D-3C model is used to study the 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake (ML 6.6), which was recorded at the Wildlife Refuge Liquefaction Array, USA. The data of this event present strong soil nonlinearity involving pore-pressure effects. The ground motion is numerically modelled for different assumptions on soil rheology and input motion (1C versus 3C), using the recorded borehole signals as input motion. The computed acceleration-time histories show low-frequency amplification and strong high-frequency damping due to the development of pore pressure in one of the soil layers. Furthermore, the soil is found to be more nonlinear and more dilatant under triaxial loading compared to the classical 1C analysis, and significant differences in surface displacements are observed between the 1C and 3C approaches. This study contributes to identify and understand the dominant phenomena occurring in superficial layers, depending on local soil properties and input motions, conditions relevant for site-specific studies.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olesen, Morten
In order to obtain articulatory analysis of speech production the model is improved. the standard model, as used in LPC analysis, to a large extent only models the acoustic properties of speech signal as opposed to articulatory modelling of the speech production. In spite of this the LPC model...... is by far the most widely used model in speech technology....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Camilo Saavedra
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Single-species models have been commonly used to assess fish stocks in the past. Since these models have relatively simple data requirements, they sometimes provide the only tool available to assess the status of a stock when data are not enough to develop more complex models. However, these models have been criticized for several reasons since they provide reference points independently for each species assessed ignoring their interactions. For example, several studies suggest that even more substantial reductions in fishing mortality may be necessary to ensure MSY is reached when taking into consideration multiespecies interactions. Therefore, and as Pauly et al. (1998 stated, single-species analysis may mislead researchers and managers into neglecting the gear and trophic interactions which ultimately determine stocks long-term yields and ecosystem health. Ecosystem or multispecies models offer a number of advantages over single-species models. As stated in the workshop “Incorporating ecosystem considerations into stock assessments and management advice” (Mace, 2000 two general improvements are: a better appreciation of the fishing on ecosystem structure and function, and a better appreciation of the need to consider de value of marine ecosystems for functions other than harvesting fish. As disadvantages, multispecies models are statistically complex and include trophic relationships requiring more information (e.g. good estimations of biological parameters of each species and generally a full quantification of the diet sometimes available though the analysis of stomach contents. To reduce the number of species and therefore the amount of information needed, Minimum Realistic Models (MRMs represent an intermediate level of complexity, where only the subset of the ecosystem, important for the issue under consideration, is modeled. This approach offers the advantage of allowing a refinement of our estimates and can help answer more targeted
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Grosso Juan M.
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a reliability-based economic model predictive control (MPC strategy for the management of generalised flow-based networks, integrating some ideas on network service reliability, dynamic safety stock planning, and degradation of equipment health. The proposed strategy is based on a single-layer economic optimisation problem with dynamic constraints, which includes two enhancements with respect to existing approaches. The first enhancement considers chance-constraint programming to compute an optimal inventory replenishment policy based on a desired risk acceptability level, leading to dynamical allocation of safety stocks in flow-based networks to satisfy non-stationary flow demands. The second enhancement computes a smart distribution of the control effort and maximises actuators’ availability by estimating their degradation and reliability. The proposed approach is illustrated with an application of water transport networks using the Barcelona network as the case study considered.
Cain, C P; Polhamus, G D; Roach, W P; Stolarski, D J; Schuster, K J; Stockton, K L; Rockwell, B A; Chen, Bo; Welch, A J
2006-01-01
With the advent of such systems as the airborne laser and advanced tactical laser, high-energy lasers that use 1315-nm wavelengths in the near-infrared band will soon present a new laser safety challenge to armed forces and civilian populations. Experiments in nonhuman primates using this wavelength have demonstrated a range of ocular injuries, including corneal, lenticular, and retinal lesions as a function of pulse duration. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) laser safety standards have traditionally been based on experimental data, and there is scant data for this wavelength. We are reporting minimum visible lesion (MVL) threshold measurements using a porcine skin model for two different pulse durations and spot sizes for this wavelength. We also compare our measurements to results from our model based on the heat transfer equation and rate process equation, together with actual temperature measurements on the skin surface using a high-speed infrared camera. Our MVL-ED50 thresholds for long pulses (350 micros) at 24-h postexposure are measured to be 99 and 83 J cm(-2) for spot sizes of 0.7 and 1.3 mm diam, respectively. Q-switched laser pulses of 50 ns have a lower threshold of 11 J cm(-2) for a 5-mm-diam top-hat laser pulse.
Rozell, Joshua C; Courtney, Paul M; Dattilo, Jonathan R; Wu, Chia H; Lee, Gwo-Chin
2016-09-01
Alternative payment models in total joint replacement incentivize cost effective health care delivery and reward reductions in length of stay (LOS), complications, and readmissions. If not adjusted for patient comorbidities, they may encourage restrictive access to health care. We prospectively evaluated 802 consecutive primary total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty patients evaluating comorbidities associated with increased LOS and readmissions. During this 9-month period, 115 patients (14.3%) required hospitalization >3 days and 16 (1.99%) were readmitted within 90 days. Univariate analysis demonstrated that preoperative narcotic use, heart failure, stroke, chronic kidney disease (CKD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and liver disease were more likely to require hospitalization >3 days. In multivariate analysis, CKD and COPD were independent risk factors for LOS >3 days. A Charlson comorbidity index >5 points was associated with increased LOS and readmissions. Patients with CKD, COPD, and Charlson comorbidity index >5 points should not be included in alternative payment model for THA and TKA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guerrero Angulo, Jose Oscar [Universidad Autonoma de Sinaloa (Mexico); Arreguin Cortes, Felipe [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)
2002-03-01
This paper presents a hydraulic simulation model for drinking water networks, including elements that are currently not considered household connections, spatially variable flowrate distribution pipelines, and tee secondary network. This model is determined by solving the equations needed for a conventional model following an indirect procedure for the solution of large equations systems. Household connection performance is considered as dependent of water pressure and the way in which users operate the taps of such intakes. This approach allows a better a acquaintance with the drinking water supply networks performance as well as solving problems that demand a more precise hydraulic simulation, such as water quality variations, leaks in networks, and the influence of home water tanks as regulating devices. [Spanish] Se presenta un modelo de simulacion hidraulica para redes de agua potable en el cual se incluyen elementos que no se toman en cuenta actualmente, como las tomas domiciliarias, los tubos de distribucion con gastos espacialmente variado y la red secundaria, resolviendo el numero de ecuaciones que seria necesario plantear en un modelo convencional mediante un procedimiento indirecto para la solucion de grandes sistemas de ecuaciones. En las tomas domiciliarias se considera que su funcionamiento depende de las presiones y la forma en que los usuarios operan las llaves de las mismas. Este planteamiento permite conocer mejor el funcionamiento de las redes de abastecimiento de agua potable y solucionar problemas que requieren de una simulacion hidraulica mas precisa, como el comportamiento de la calidad del agua, las fugas en las redes y la influencia reguladora de los tinacos de las casas.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Hattel, Jesper Henri
In this work, a numerical finite element model for friction stir welding of 2024-T3 aluminum alloy, consisting of a heat transfer analysis and a sequentially coupled quasi-static stress analysis is proposed. Metallurgical softening of the material is properly considered and included...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
GERMÁN LOBOS
2015-12-01
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The traditional method of net present value (NPV to analyze the economic profitability of an investment (based on a deterministic approach does not adequately represent the implicit risk associated with different but correlated input variables. Using a stochastic simulation approach for evaluating the profitability of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. production in Chile, the objective of this study is to illustrate the complexity of including risk in economic feasibility analysis when the project is subject to several but correlated risks. The results of the simulation analysis suggest that the non-inclusion of the intratemporal correlation between input variables underestimate the risk associated with investment decisions. The methodological contribution of this study illustrates the complexity of the interrelationships between uncertain variables and their impact on the convenience of carrying out this type of business in Chile. The steps for the analysis of economic viability were: First, adjusted probability distributions for stochastic input variables (SIV were simulated and validated. Second, the random values of SIV were used to calculate random values of variables such as production, revenues, costs, depreciation, taxes and net cash flows. Third, the complete stochastic model was simulated with 10,000 iterations using random values for SIV. This result gave information to estimate the probability distributions of the stochastic output variables (SOV such as the net present value, internal rate of return, value at risk, average cost of production, contribution margin and return on capital. Fourth, the complete stochastic model simulation results were used to analyze alternative scenarios and provide the results to decision makers in the form of probabilities, probability distributions, and for the SOV probabilistic forecasts. The main conclusion shown that this project is a profitable alternative investment in fruit trees in
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Short, D.R.
1980-01-01
Results are presented from computer calculations based upon an improved diffusion-kinetic model of the spur which includes a novel initial distribution for the hydrated electron and an approximate mathematical treatment of the overlap of spurs in three dimensions. Experimental data for the decay of the hydrated electron and hydroxyl radical before one in electron-pulse-irradated, solute-free and air-free water are fit wihtin experimental uncertainty by adjustment of the initial spatial distributions of spur intermediates and the average energy deposited in the spur. Using the same values of these parameters, the hydrated electron decay is computed for times from 1 ps 10 μs after the radiatio pulse. The results of such calcuations for various conditions of pulse dose and concentrations of scavengers of individual primary chemical species in the spur are compared with corresponding experimental data obtained predominantly from water and aqueous solutions irradiated with 10 to 15 MeV electron pulses. Very good agreement between calculated and experimental hydrated electron decay in pure water is observed for the entire time range studied when a pulse dose of approximately 7900 rads is modeled, but the calcuated and experimental curves are observed to deviate for times greater than 10 ns nanoseconds when low pulse doses and low scavenger concentrations are considered. It is shown that this deviation is experimental and calculated hydrated electron decay cannot be explained by assuming the presence of a hydrated electron scavenging impurity nor by employing a distribution of nearest neighbor interspur distances to refine the overlap approximation
Frömer, Romy; Maier, Martin; Abdel Rahman, Rasha
2018-01-01
Here we present an application of an EEG processing pipeline customizing EEGLAB and FieldTrip functions, specifically optimized to flexibly analyze EEG data based on single trial information. The key component of our approach is to create a comprehensive 3-D EEG data structure including all trials and all participants maintaining the original order of recording. This allows straightforward access to subsets of the data based on any information available in a behavioral data structure matched with the EEG data (experimental conditions, but also performance indicators, such accuracy or RTs of single trials). In the present study we exploit this structure to compute linear mixed models (LMMs, using lmer in R) including random intercepts and slopes for items. This information can easily be read out from the matched behavioral data, whereas it might not be accessible in traditional ERP approaches without substantial effort. We further provide easily adaptable scripts for performing cluster-based permutation tests (as implemented in FieldTrip), as a more robust alternative to traditional omnibus ANOVAs. Our approach is particularly advantageous for data with parametric within-subject covariates (e.g., performance) and/or multiple complex stimuli (such as words, faces or objects) that vary in features affecting cognitive processes and ERPs (such as word frequency, salience or familiarity), which are sometimes hard to control experimentally or might themselves constitute variables of interest. The present dataset was recorded from 40 participants who performed a visual search task on previously unfamiliar objects, presented either visually intact or blurred. MATLAB as well as R scripts are provided that can be adapted to different datasets.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andersson, M.; Beale, S.B.; Espinoza, M.; Wu, Z.; Lehnert, W.
2016-01-01
on the transport processes inside the porous GDL are extensively discussed. The selection of a computational approach, for the two-phase flow within a GDL or GC, for example, should be based on the computational resources available, concerns about time and scale (microscale, cell scale, stack scale or system scale), as well as accuracy requirements. One important feature, included in some computational approaches, is the possibility to track the front between the liquid and the gas phases. To build a PEFC model, one must make a large number of assumptions. Some assumptions have a negligible effect on the results and reliability of the model. However, other assumptions may significantly affect the result. It is strongly recommended in any modeling paper to clearly state the assumptions being implemented, for others to be able to judge the work. It is important to note that a large fraction of the expressions that presently are used to describe the transport processes inside PEFC GDLs were originally developed to describe significantly different systems, such as sand or rocks. Moreover, the flow pattern maps and pressure drop correlations of two phase flow in micro channels may not be applicable for GCs due to one side wall being porous, with the resulting interaction between the GDL and GC.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shah, N. K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Park, W. Y. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gerke, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
2017-08-30
, the highest-efficiency RAC models employ the low-GWP refrigerants R-32 or R-290. • RACs are available in most regions and worldwide that surpass the highest efficiency levels recognized by labeling programs. • Fixed-speed RACs using high-GWP and ozone-depleting R-22 refrigerant still dominate the market in many emerging economies. There is significant scope to improve RAC efficiency and transition to low-GWP refrigerants using commercially available technology and to design market-transformation programs for high-efficiency, low-GWP equipment including standards, labeling, procurement, and incentive programs.
Blower, Sally; Go, Myong-Hyun
2011-01-01
Abstract Mathematical models are useful tools for understanding and predicting epidemics. A recent innovative modeling study by Stehle and colleagues addressed the issue of how complex models need to be to ensure accuracy. The authors collected data on face-to-face contacts during a two-day conference. They then constructed a series of dynamic social contact networks, each of which was used to model an epidemic generated by a fast-spreading airborne pathogen. Intriguingly, Stehle and colleagu...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Torto, Lorenzo; Cester, Andrea; Rizzo, Antonio
2017-01-01
We developed an improved model to fit the photocurrent density versus voltage in organic solar cells. The model has been validated by fitting data from P3HT:PCBM solar cells. Our model quantitatively accounts for the band bending near the electrodes caused by charge accumulation in the active layer...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Del Ben, Mauro; Hutter, Jürg; VandeVondele, Joost
2015-01-01
Water is a ubiquitous liquid that displays a wide range of anomalous properties and has a delicate structure that challenges experiment and simulation alike. The various intermolecular interactions that play an important role, such as repulsion, polarization, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals interactions, are often difficult to reproduce faithfully in atomistic models. Here, electronic structure theories including all these interactions at equal footing, which requires the inclusion of non-local electron correlation, are used to describe structure and dynamics of bulk liquid water. Isobaric-isothermal (NpT) ensemble simulations based on the Random Phase Approximation (RPA) yield excellent density (0.994 g/ml) and fair radial distribution functions, while various other density functional approximations produce scattered results (0.8-1.2 g/ml). Molecular dynamics simulation in the microcanonical (NVE) ensemble based on Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) yields dynamical properties in the condensed phase, namely, the infrared spectrum and diffusion constant. At the MP2 and RPA levels of theory, ice is correctly predicted to float on water, resolving one of the anomalies as resulting from a delicate balance between van der Waals and hydrogen bonding interactions. For several properties, obtaining quantitative agreement with experiment requires correction for nuclear quantum effects (NQEs), highlighting their importance, for structure, dynamics, and electronic properties. A computed NQE shift of 0.6 eV for the band gap and absorption spectrum illustrates the latter. Giving access to both structure and dynamics of condensed phase systems, non-local electron correlation will increasingly be used to study systems where weak interactions are of paramount importance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindblom, Erik Ulfson; Press-Kristensen, Kåre; Vanrolleghem, P.A.
2009-01-01
The perspective of this work is to develop a model, which can be used to better understand and optimize wastewater treatment plants that are able to remove xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) in combination with removal of traditional pollutants. Results from dynamic experiments conducted...... with the endocrine disrupting XOC bisphenol-A (BPA) in an activated sludge process with real wastewater were used to hypothesize an ASM-based process model including aerobic growth of a specific BPA-degrading microorganism and sorption of BPA to sludge. A parameter estimation method was developed, which...... simultaneously utilizes steady-state background concentrations and dynamic step response data, as well as conceptual simplifications of the plant configuration. Validation results show that biodegradation of BPA is sensitive to operational conditions before and during the experiment and that the proposed model...
Revilla, Marta; Galán, Berta; Viguri, Javier R
2016-07-01
An integrated mathematical model is proposed for modelling a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) under aerobic conditions. The composite model combines the following: (i) a one-dimensional biofilm model, (ii) a bulk liquid model, and (iii) biological processes in the bulk liquid and biofilm considering the interactions among autotrophic, heterotrophic and predator microorganisms. Depending on the values for the soluble biodegradable COD loading rate (SCLR), the model takes into account a) the hydrolysis of slowly biodegradable compounds in the bulk liquid, and b) the growth of predator microorganisms in the bulk liquid and in the biofilm. The integration of the model and the SCLR allows a general description of the behaviour of COD removal by the MBBR under various conditions. The model is applied for two in-series MBBR wastewater plant from an integrated cellulose and viscose production and accurately describes the experimental concentrations of COD, total suspended solids (TSS), nitrogen and phosphorous obtained during 14 months working at different SCLRs and nutrient dosages. The representation of the microorganism group distribution in the biofilm and in the bulk liquid allow for verification of the presence of predator microorganisms in the second reactor under some operational conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Carlone, Pierpaolo; Palazzo, Gaetano S.
2014-01-01
In the present paper, a numerical finite element model of the precipitation hardenable AA2024-T3 aluminum alloy, consisting of a heat transfer analysis based on the Thermal Pseudo Mechanical model for heat generation, and a sequentially coupled quasi-static stress analysis is proposed. Metallurgi...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Go Myong-Hyun
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Mathematical models are useful tools for understanding and predicting epidemics. A recent innovative modeling study by Stehle and colleagues addressed the issue of how complex models need to be to ensure accuracy. The authors collected data on face-to-face contacts during a two-day conference. They then constructed a series of dynamic social contact networks, each of which was used to model an epidemic generated by a fast-spreading airborne pathogen. Intriguingly, Stehle and colleagues found that increasing model complexity did not always increase accuracy. Specifically, the most detailed contact network and a simplified version of this network generated very similar results. These results are extremely interesting and require further exploration to determine their generalizability. Please see related article BMC Medicine, 2011, 9:87
Blower, Sally; Go, Myong-Hyun
2011-07-19
Mathematical models are useful tools for understanding and predicting epidemics. A recent innovative modeling study by Stehle and colleagues addressed the issue of how complex models need to be to ensure accuracy. The authors collected data on face-to-face contacts during a two-day conference. They then constructed a series of dynamic social contact networks, each of which was used to model an epidemic generated by a fast-spreading airborne pathogen. Intriguingly, Stehle and colleagues found that increasing model complexity did not always increase accuracy. Specifically, the most detailed contact network and a simplified version of this network generated very similar results. These results are extremely interesting and require further exploration to determine their generalizability.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hiatt, Jessica R.; Davis, Stephen D.; Rivard, Mark J.
2015-01-01
Purpose: The model S700 Axxent electronic brachytherapy source by Xoft, Inc., was characterized by Rivard et al. in 2006. Since then, the source design was modified to include a new insert at the source tip. Current study objectives were to establish an accurate source model for simulation purposes, dosimetrically characterize the new source and obtain its TG-43 brachytherapy dosimetry parameters, and determine dose differences between the original simulation model and the current model S700 source design. Methods: Design information from measurements of dissected model S700 sources and from vendor-supplied CAD drawings was used to aid establishment of an updated Monte Carlo source model, which included the complex-shaped plastic source-centering insert intended to promote water flow for cooling the source anode. These data were used to create a model for subsequent radiation transport simulations in a water phantom. Compared to the 2006 simulation geometry, the influence of volume averaging close to the source was substantially reduced. A track-length estimator was used to evaluate collision kerma as a function of radial distance and polar angle for determination of TG-43 dosimetry parameters. Results for the 50 kV source were determined every 0.1 cm from 0.3 to 15 cm and every 1° from 0° to 180°. Photon spectra in water with 0.1 keV resolution were also obtained from 0.5 to 15 cm and polar angles from 0° to 165°. Simulations were run for 10 10 histories, resulting in statistical uncertainties on the transverse plane of 0.04% at r = 1 cm and 0.06% at r = 5 cm. Results: The dose-rate distribution ratio for the model S700 source as compared to the 2006 model exceeded unity by more than 5% for roughly one quarter of the solid angle surrounding the source, i.e., θ ≥ 120°. The radial dose function diminished in a similar manner as for an 125 I seed, with values of 1.434, 0.636, 0.283, and 0.0975 at 0.5, 2, 5, and 10 cm, respectively. The radial dose function
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hiatt, Jessica R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02903 (United States); Davis, Stephen D. [Department of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada); Rivard, Mark J., E-mail: mark.j.rivard@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States)
2015-06-15
Purpose: The model S700 Axxent electronic brachytherapy source by Xoft, Inc., was characterized by Rivard et al. in 2006. Since then, the source design was modified to include a new insert at the source tip. Current study objectives were to establish an accurate source model for simulation purposes, dosimetrically characterize the new source and obtain its TG-43 brachytherapy dosimetry parameters, and determine dose differences between the original simulation model and the current model S700 source design. Methods: Design information from measurements of dissected model S700 sources and from vendor-supplied CAD drawings was used to aid establishment of an updated Monte Carlo source model, which included the complex-shaped plastic source-centering insert intended to promote water flow for cooling the source anode. These data were used to create a model for subsequent radiation transport simulations in a water phantom. Compared to the 2006 simulation geometry, the influence of volume averaging close to the source was substantially reduced. A track-length estimator was used to evaluate collision kerma as a function of radial distance and polar angle for determination of TG-43 dosimetry parameters. Results for the 50 kV source were determined every 0.1 cm from 0.3 to 15 cm and every 1° from 0° to 180°. Photon spectra in water with 0.1 keV resolution were also obtained from 0.5 to 15 cm and polar angles from 0° to 165°. Simulations were run for 10{sup 10} histories, resulting in statistical uncertainties on the transverse plane of 0.04% at r = 1 cm and 0.06% at r = 5 cm. Results: The dose-rate distribution ratio for the model S700 source as compared to the 2006 model exceeded unity by more than 5% for roughly one quarter of the solid angle surrounding the source, i.e., θ ≥ 120°. The radial dose function diminished in a similar manner as for an {sup 125}I seed, with values of 1.434, 0.636, 0.283, and 0.0975 at 0.5, 2, 5, and 10 cm, respectively. The radial dose
Hiatt, Jessica R; Davis, Stephen D; Rivard, Mark J
2015-06-01
The model S700 Axxent electronic brachytherapy source by Xoft, Inc., was characterized by Rivard et al. in 2006. Since then, the source design was modified to include a new insert at the source tip. Current study objectives were to establish an accurate source model for simulation purposes, dosimetrically characterize the new source and obtain its TG-43 brachytherapy dosimetry parameters, and determine dose differences between the original simulation model and the current model S700 source design. Design information from measurements of dissected model S700 sources and from vendor-supplied CAD drawings was used to aid establishment of an updated Monte Carlo source model, which included the complex-shaped plastic source-centering insert intended to promote water flow for cooling the source anode. These data were used to create a model for subsequent radiation transport simulations in a water phantom. Compared to the 2006 simulation geometry, the influence of volume averaging close to the source was substantially reduced. A track-length estimator was used to evaluate collision kerma as a function of radial distance and polar angle for determination of TG-43 dosimetry parameters. Results for the 50 kV source were determined every 0.1 cm from 0.3 to 15 cm and every 1° from 0° to 180°. Photon spectra in water with 0.1 keV resolution were also obtained from 0.5 to 15 cm and polar angles from 0° to 165°. Simulations were run for 10(10) histories, resulting in statistical uncertainties on the transverse plane of 0.04% at r = 1 cm and 0.06% at r = 5 cm. The dose-rate distribution ratio for the model S700 source as compared to the 2006 model exceeded unity by more than 5% for roughly one quarter of the solid angle surrounding the source, i.e., θ ≥ 120°. The radial dose function diminished in a similar manner as for an (125)I seed, with values of 1.434, 0.636, 0.283, and 0.0975 at 0.5, 2, 5, and 10 cm, respectively. The radial dose function ratio between the current
1974-01-01
After the simplified version of the 41-Node Stolwijk Metabolic Man Model was implemented on the Sigma 3 and UNIVAC 1110 computers in batch mode, it became desirable to make certain revisions. First, the availability of time-sharing terminals makes it possible to provide the capability and flexibility of conversational interaction between user and model. Secondly, recent physiological studies show the need to revise certain parameter values contained in the model. Thirdly, it was desired to make quantitative and accurate predictions of evaporative water loss for humans in an orbiting space station. The result of the first phase of this effort are reported.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goyal, Nitin, E-mail: nitin@unik.no [Carinthian Tech Research CTR AG, Europastraße 4/1, Technologiepark Villach, A-9524 Villach/St. Magdalen (Austria); Department of Electronics and Telecommunication, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO7034 (Norway); Fjeldly, Tor A. [Department of Electronics and Telecommunication, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO7034 (Norway)
2014-07-14
In this paper, a physics based analytical model is presented for calculation of the two-dimensional electron gas density and the bare surface barrier height of AlGaN/AlN/GaN material stacks. The presented model is based on the concept of distributed surface donor states and the self-consistent solution of Poisson equation at the different material interfaces. The model shows good agreement with the reported experimental data and can be used for the design and characterization of advanced GaN devices for power and radio frequency applications.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Per; Rømer, Daniel; Andersen, Torben Ole
2014-01-01
The increasing interest in hydraulic transmissions in wind and wave energy applications has created an incentive for the development of high efficiency fluid power machinery. Modeling and analysis of fluid power machinery loss mechanisms are necessary in order to accommodate this demand. At present...... fully coupled thermo-elastic models has been used to simulate and study loss mechanisms in various tribological interfaces. Consequently, a reasonable focus of further development is to couple the interface models and the rigid body mechanics of fluid power machinery. The focus of the current paper...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andriollo, Tito; Thorborg, Jesper; Tiedje, Niels Skat
2015-01-01
In the present paper a micro-mechanical model for investigating the stress-strain relation of ductile cast iron subjected to simple loading conditions is presented. The model is based on a unit cell containing a single spherical graphite nodule embedded in a uniform ferritic matrix, under...... the assumption of infinitesimal strains and plane-stress conditions. Despite the latter being a limitation with respect to full 3D models, it allows a direct comparison with experimental investigations of damage evolution on the surface of ductile cast iron components, where the stress state is biaxial in nature...
Cross, Tracy L.
2017-01-01
This column examines the recent political campaign and possible effects on gifted and talented students. Using psychological theories, the author describes ways that adults can interpret the events and model appropriate American values.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Underwood, John
2000-01-01
...; overload residual stress. Modeling of applied and residual stresses at the location of the fatigue failure site is performed by elastic-plastic finite element analysis using ABAQUS and by solid...
Tanioka, Yuichiro; Miranda, Greyving Jose Arguello; Gusman, Aditya Riadi; Fujii, Yushiro
2017-01-01
Large earthquakes, such as the Mw 7.7 1992 Nicaragua earthquake, have occurred off the Pacific coasts of El Salvador and Nicaragua in Central America and have generated distractive tsunamis along these coasts. It is necessary to determine appropriate fault models before large tsunamis hit the coast. In this study, first, fault parameters were estimated from the W-phase inversion, and then an appropriate fault model was determined from the fault parameters and scaling relationships with a dept...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brochard, M.
2009-06-01
During this work, a 2D axially symmetric model of a TIG arc welding process had been developed in order to predict for given welding parameters, the needed variables for a designer of welded assembly: the heat input on the work piece, the weld pool geometry,... The developed model, using the Cast3M finite elements software, deals with the physical phenomena acting in each part of the process: the cathode, the plasma, the work piece with a weld pool, and the interfaces between these parts. To solve this model, the thermohydraulics equations are coupled with the electromagnetic equations that are calculated in part using the least squares finite element method. The beginning of the model validation consisted in comparing the results obtained with the ones available in the scientific literature. Thus, this step points out the action of each force in the weld pool, the contribution of each heat flux in the energy balance. Finally, to validate the model predictiveness, experimental and numerical sensitivity analyses were conducted using a design of experiments approach. The effects of the process current, the arc gap and the electrode tip angle on the weld pool geometry and the energy transferred to the work piece and the arc efficiency were studied. The good agreement obtained by the developed model for these outputs shows the good reproduction of the process physics. (author)
de Villiers, Marelize; Kriticos, Darren J; Veldtman, Ruan
2017-01-01
The European wasp, Vespula germanica (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), is of Palaearctic origin, being native to Europe, northern Africa and Asia, and introduced into North America, Chile, Argentina, Iceland, Ascension Island, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Due to its polyphagous nature and scavenging behaviour, V. germanica threatens agriculture and silviculture, and negatively affects biodiversity, while its aggressive nature and venomous sting pose a health risk to humans. In areas with warmer winters and longer summers, queens and workers can survive the winter months, leading to the build-up of large nests during the following season; thereby increasing the risk posed by this species. To prevent or prepare for such unwanted impacts it is important to know where the wasp may be able to establish, either through natural spread or through introduction as a result of human transport. Distribution data from Argentina and Australia, and seasonal phenology data from Argentina were used to determine the potential distribution of V. germanica using CLIMEX modelling. In contrast to previous models, the influence of irrigation on its distribution was also investigated. Under a natural rainfall scenario, the model showed similarities to previous models. When irrigation is applied, dry stress is alleviated, leading to larger areas modelled climatically suitable compared with previous models, which provided a better fit with the actual distribution of the species. The main areas at risk of invasion by V. germanica include western USA, Mexico, small areas in Central America and in the north-western region of South America, eastern Brazil, western Russia, north-western China, Japan, the Mediterranean coastal regions of North Africa, and parts of southern and eastern Africa.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marelize de Villiers
Full Text Available The European wasp, Vespula germanica (Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, is of Palaearctic origin, being native to Europe, northern Africa and Asia, and introduced into North America, Chile, Argentina, Iceland, Ascension Island, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Due to its polyphagous nature and scavenging behaviour, V. germanica threatens agriculture and silviculture, and negatively affects biodiversity, while its aggressive nature and venomous sting pose a health risk to humans. In areas with warmer winters and longer summers, queens and workers can survive the winter months, leading to the build-up of large nests during the following season; thereby increasing the risk posed by this species. To prevent or prepare for such unwanted impacts it is important to know where the wasp may be able to establish, either through natural spread or through introduction as a result of human transport. Distribution data from Argentina and Australia, and seasonal phenology data from Argentina were used to determine the potential distribution of V. germanica using CLIMEX modelling. In contrast to previous models, the influence of irrigation on its distribution was also investigated. Under a natural rainfall scenario, the model showed similarities to previous models. When irrigation is applied, dry stress is alleviated, leading to larger areas modelled climatically suitable compared with previous models, which provided a better fit with the actual distribution of the species. The main areas at risk of invasion by V. germanica include western USA, Mexico, small areas in Central America and in the north-western region of South America, eastern Brazil, western Russia, north-western China, Japan, the Mediterranean coastal regions of North Africa, and parts of southern and eastern Africa.
Kang, G.; Kim, J.
2017-12-01
This study investigated the tree's effect on wind comfort at pedestrian height in an urban area using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. We implemented the tree's drag parameterization scheme to the CFD model and validated the simulated results against the wind-tunnel measurement data as well as LES data via several statistical methods. The CFD model underestimated (overestimated) the concentrations on the leeward (windward) walls inside the street canyon in the presence of trees, because the CFD model can't resolve the latticed cage and can't reflect the concentration increase and decrease caused by the latticed cage in the simulations. However, the scalar pollutants' dispersion simulated by the CFD model was quite similar to that in the wind-tunnel measurement in pattern and magnitude, on the whole. The CFD model overall satisfied the statistical validation indices (root normalized mean square error, geometric mean variance, correlation coefficient, and FAC2) but failed to satisfy the fractional bias and geometric mean bias due to the underestimation on the leeward wall and overestimation on the windward wall, showing that its performance was comparable to the LES's performance. We applied the CFD model to evaluation of the trees' effect on the pedestrian's wind-comfort in an urban area. To investigate sensory levels for human activities, the wind-comfort criteria based on Beaufort wind-force scales (BWSs) were used. In the tree-free scenario, BWS 4 and 5 (unpleasant condition for sitting long and sitting short, respectively) appeared in the narrow spaces between buildings, in the upwind side of buildings, and the unobstructed areas. In the tree scenario, BWSs decreased by 1 3 grade inside the campus of Pukyong National University located in the target area, which indicated that trees planted in the campus effectively improved pedestrian's wind comfort.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmet Mete Vural
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Power flow study in a power network embedded with FACTS device requires effort in program coding. Moreover, Newton-Raphson method should be modified by embedding injected power components into the algorithm. In this study, we have proposed a method for modeling of one of the newest FACTS concepts in power flow study without program coding or modification of existing Newton-Raphson algorithm. Real and reactive power injections for each voltage source converter of Back-to-Back Static Synchronous Compensator (BtB-STATCOM are PI regulated to their desired steady-state values. With this respect, reactive power injection of each voltage source converter as well as real power transfer among them can be assigned as control constraint. Operating losses are also taken into account in the proposed modeling approach. Furthermore, proposed model can be easily modified for the modeling of conventional STATCOM having only one voltage source converter or two STATCOMs operating independently. The proposed modeling approach is verified in PSCAD through a number of simulation scenarios in BtB-STATCOM and STATCOM embedded power systems, namely 1-Machine 4-Bus system and 3-Machine 7-Bus system. PV curves of local buses compensated by BtB-STATCOM and STATCOM are presented and compared. Steady-state performance of BtB-STATCOM and STATCOM is also compared in power flow handling.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Bent Jesper; van der Wel, Michel
of the risk premium is associated with the slope factor, and individual risk prices depend on own past values, factor realizations, and past values of other risk prices, and are significantly related to the output gap, consumption, and the equity risk price. The absence of arbitrage opportunities is strongly...... is tested, but in addition to the standard bilinear term in factor loadings and market prices of risk, the relevant mean restriction in the term structure case involves an additional nonlinear (quadratic) term in factor loadings. We estimate our general model using likelihood-based dynamic factor model...... techniques for a variety of volatility factors, and implement the relevant likelihood ratio tests. Our factor model estimates are similar across a general state space implementation and an alternative robust two-step principal components approach. The evidence favors time-varying market prices of risk. Most...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E.C. Biscaia Junior
2001-06-01
Full Text Available A dynamic kinetic-diffusive model for the extraction of metallic ions from aqueous liquors using liquid surfactant membranes is proposed. The model incorporates undesirable intrinsic phenomena such as swelling and breakage of the emulsion globules that have to be controlled during process operation. These phenomena change the spatial location of the chemical reaction during the course of extraction, resulting in a transient moving boundary problem. The orthogonal collocation method was used to transform the partial differential equations into an ordinary differential equation set that was solved by an implicit numerical routine. The model was found to be numerically stable and reliable in predicting the behaviour of zinc extraction with acidic extractant for long residence times.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Martins, Paulo A. F.; Bay, Niels Oluf
2016-01-01
New equipment for testing asperity deformation at various normal loads and subsurface elongations is presented. Resulting real contact area ratios increase heavily with increasing subsurface expansion due to lowered yield pressure on the asperities when imposing subsurface normal stress parallel ...... for estimating friction in the numerical modelling of metal forming processes.......New equipment for testing asperity deformation at various normal loads and subsurface elongations is presented. Resulting real contact area ratios increase heavily with increasing subsurface expansion due to lowered yield pressure on the asperities when imposing subsurface normal stress parallel...... to the surface. Finite element modelling supports the presentation and contributes by extrapolation of results to complete the mapping of contact area as function of normal pressure and one-directional subsurface strain parallel to the surface. Improved modelling of the real contact area is the basis...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berthoud, G.; Crecy, F. de; Meignen, R.; Valette, M. [CEA-G, DRN/DTP/SMTH, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)
1998-01-01
The premixing phase of a molten fuel-coolant interaction is studied by the way of mechanistic multidimensional calculation. Beside water and steam, corium droplet flow and continuous corium jet flow are calculated independent. The 4-field MC3D code and a detailed hot jet fragmentation model are presented. MC3D calculations are compared to the FARO L14 experiment results and are found to give satisfactory results; heat transfer and jet fragmentation models are still to be improved to predict better final debris size values. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Filip Salling; Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Larsen, Martin
In the present study, a two-dimensional (2D) transient Eulerian thermo-chemical analysis of a carbon fibre epoxy thermosetting Resin Injection Pultrusion (RIP) process is carried out. The numerical model is implemented using the well known unconditionally stable Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI......) scheme. The total heat of reaction and the cure kinetics of the epoxy thermosetting are determined using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). A very good agreement is observed between the fitted cure kinetic model and the experimental measurements. The numerical steady state temperature predictions...
Chapter 5: Modeling and Control of Three-Phase AC/DC Converter Including Phase-Locked Loop
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, Dao; Song, Yipeng; Blaabjerg, Frede
2018-01-01
In this chapter, a mathematical model of the power circuit of a three-phase AC/DC converter is developed in the stationary and synchronous reference frames. Then, the operation principle of the phasor locked loop is addressed to exact the angle information of the power grid to realize the accurat...
Iverson, Richard M.; George, David L.
2014-01-01
To simulate debris-flow behaviour from initiation to deposition, we derive a depth-averaged, two-phase model that combines concepts of critical-state soil mechanics, grain-flow mechanics and fluid mechanics. The model's balance equations describe coupled evolution of the solid volume fraction, m, basal pore-fluid pressure, flow thickness and two components of flow velocity. Basal friction is evaluated using a generalized Coulomb rule, and fluid motion is evaluated in a frame of reference that translates with the velocity of the granular phase, vs. Source terms in each of the depth-averaged balance equations account for the influence of the granular dilation rate, defined as the depth integral of ∇⋅vs. Calculation of the dilation rate involves the effects of an elastic compressibility and an inelastic dilatancy angle proportional to m−meq, where meq is the value of m in equilibrium with the ambient stress state and flow rate. Normalization of the model equations shows that predicted debris-flow behaviour depends principally on the initial value of m−meq and on the ratio of two fundamental timescales. One of these timescales governs downslope debris-flow motion, and the other governs pore-pressure relaxation that modifies Coulomb friction and regulates evolution of m. A companion paper presents a suite of model predictions and tests.
Tanioka, Yuichiro; Miranda, Greyving Jose Arguello; Gusman, Aditya Riadi; Fujii, Yushiro
2017-08-01
Large earthquakes, such as the Mw 7.7 1992 Nicaragua earthquake, have occurred off the Pacific coasts of El Salvador and Nicaragua in Central America and have generated distractive tsunamis along these coasts. It is necessary to determine appropriate fault models before large tsunamis hit the coast. In this study, first, fault parameters were estimated from the W-phase inversion, and then an appropriate fault model was determined from the fault parameters and scaling relationships with a depth dependent rigidity. The method was tested for four large earthquakes, the 1992 Nicaragua tsunami earthquake (Mw7.7), the 2001 El Salvador earthquake (Mw7.7), the 2004 El Astillero earthquake (Mw7.0), and the 2012 El Salvador-Nicaragua earthquake (Mw7.3), which occurred off El Salvador and Nicaragua in Central America. The tsunami numerical simulations were carried out from the determined fault models. We found that the observed tsunami heights, run-up heights, and inundation areas were reasonably well explained by the computed ones. Therefore, our method for tsunami early warning purpose should work to estimate a fault model which reproduces tsunami heights near the coast of El Salvador and Nicaragua due to large earthquakes in the subduction zone.
Two-stage robust UC including a novel scenario-based uncertainty model for wind power applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Álvarez-Miranda, Eduardo; Campos-Valdés, Camilo; Rahmann, Claudia
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Methodological framework for obtaining Robust Unit Commitment (UC) policies. • Wind-power forecast using a revisited bootstrap predictive inference approach. • Novel scenario-based model for wind-power uncertainty. • Efficient modeling framework for obtaining nearly optimal UC policies in reasonable time. • Effective incorporation of wind-power uncertainty in the UC modeling. - Abstract: The complex processes involved in the determination of the availability of power from renewable energy sources, such as wind power, impose great challenges in the forecasting processes carried out by transmission system operators (TSOs). Nowadays, many of these TSOs use operation planning tools that take into account the uncertainty of the wind-power. However, most of these methods typically require strict assumptions about the probabilistic behavior of the forecast error, and usually ignore the dynamic nature of the forecasting process. In this paper a methodological framework to obtain Robust Unit Commitment (UC) policies is presented; such methodology considers a novel scenario-based uncertainty model for wind power applications. The proposed method is composed by three main phases. The first two phases generate a sound wind-power forecast using a bootstrap predictive inference approach. The third phase corresponds to modeling and solving a one-day ahead Robust UC considering the output of the first phase. The performance of proposed approach is evaluated using as case study a new wind farm to be incorporated into the Northern Interconnected System (NIS) of Chile. A projection of wind-based power installation, as well as different characteristic of the uncertain data, are considered in this study
Kolandaivelu, K. P.; Lowell, R. P.
2015-12-01
To better understand the effects of anhydrite precipitation on mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems, we conducted 2-D numerical simulations of two-phase hydrothermal circulation in a NaCl-H2O fluid at the East Pacific Rise 9°50'N. The simulations were constrained by key observational thermal data and seismicity that suggests the fluid flow is primarily along axis with recharge focused into a small zone near a 4th order discontinuity. The simulations considered an open-top square box with a fixed seafloor pressure of 25 MPa, and nominal seafloor temperature of 10 °C. The sides of the box were assumed to be impermeable and insulated. We considered two models: a homogeneous model with a permeability of 10-13 m2 and a heterogeneous model in which layer 2A extrusives were given a higher permeability. Both models had a fixed bottom temperature distribution and initial porosity of 0.1. Assuming that anhydrite precipitation resulted from the decrease in solubility with increasing temperature as downwelling fluid gets heated, we calculated the rate of porosity decrease and sealing times in each cell at certain time snapshots in the simulations. The results showed that sealing would occur most rapidly in limited regions near the base of the high-temperature plumes, where complete sealing could occur on decadal time scales. Though more detailed analysis is needed, it appeared that the areas of rapid sealing would likely have negligible impact on the overall circulation pattern and hydrothermal vent temperatures. The simulations also indicated that sealing due to anhydrite precipitation would occur more slowly at the margins of the ascending plumes. The sealing times in the deep recharge zone determined in these simulations were considerably greater than estimated from 1D analytical calculations, suggesting that with a 2D model, focused recharge at the EPR 9°50'N site may occur, at least on a decadal time scale.
Iliev, Oleg P.
2013-05-15
Paper production is a problem with significant importance for society; it is also a challenging topic for scientific investigation. This study is concerned with the simulation of the pressing section of a paper machine. A two-dimensional model is developed to account for the water flow within the pressing zone. A Richards-type equation is used to describe the flow in the unsaturated zone. The dynamic capillary pressure-saturation relation is adopted for the paper production process. The mathematical model accounts for the coexistence of saturated and unsaturated zones in a multilayer computational domain. The discretization is performed by the MPFA-O method. Numerical experiments are carried out for parameters that are typical of the production process. The static and dynamic capillary pressure-saturation relations are tested to evaluate the influence of the dynamic capillary effect. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Barthélémy Romain
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Metallic foams have known a keen interest in the last decades. Their ability to undergo very large deformations while transmitting low stress levels make them capable of performing functions of protective layers against intense loadings and of energy absorbers, for instance. The behaviour of metal foams varies considerably between quasi-static and dynamic regimes. Those differences can be linked to the strain-rate sensitivity of the skeleton material and to micro-inertial effects (induced by the crushing of the foam cells. In the present work, a micromechanical model has been developed to take into account micro-inertia effects on the macroscopic behaviour of closed-cell foams under dynamic loading conditions. The proposed modelling is based on the dynamic homogenisation procedure introduced by Molinari and Mercier (J. Mech. Phys. Solids 49 (2001 1497–1516. Within this framework, the macrostress is the sum of two terms. The first one is a static stress, that can be described with any existing model of metal foam. The second contribution is a dynamic stress related to micro-inertia effects. Considering an initially spherical shell as a Representative Volume Element (RVE of the foam material, a closed-form expression of the dynamic stress was obtained. The proposed modelling was applied to shock propagation in aluminium foams (it should however be noted that the present theory is not restricted to uniaxial deformation but can be applied to arbitrary loadings. From experimental data of the literature, it is observed that incorporating micro-inertia effects allows one to achieve a better description of the foam shock response. This indicates that micro-inertia may have a significant influence on the dynamic behaviour of metallic foams.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keall, P J; Webb, S
2007-01-01
The heterogeneity of human tumour radiation response is well known. Researchers have used the normal distribution to describe interpatient tumour radiosensitivity. However, many natural phenomena show a log-normal distribution. Log-normal distributions are common when mean values are low, variances are large and values cannot be negative. These conditions apply to radiosensitivity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the log-normal distribution to predict clinical tumour control probability (TCP) data and to compare the results with the homogeneous (δ-function with single α-value) and normal distributions. The clinically derived TCP data for four tumour types-melanoma, breast, squamous cell carcinoma and nodes-were used to fit the TCP models. Three forms of interpatient tumour radiosensitivity were considered: the log-normal, normal and δ-function. The free parameters in the models were the radiosensitivity mean, standard deviation and clonogenic cell density. The evaluation metric was the deviance of the maximum likelihood estimation of the fit of the TCP calculated using the predicted parameters to the clinical data. We conclude that (1) the log-normal and normal distributions of interpatient tumour radiosensitivity heterogeneity more closely describe clinical TCP data than a single radiosensitivity value and (2) the log-normal distribution has some theoretical and practical advantages over the normal distribution. Further work is needed to test these models on higher quality clinical outcome datasets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Yun Goo; Seong, Poong Hyun
2012-01-01
The Computerized Procedure System (CPS) is one of the primary operating support systems in the digital Main Control Room. The CPS displays procedure on the computer screen in the form of a flow chart, and displays plant operating information along with procedure instructions. It also supports operator decision making by providing a system decision. A procedure flow should be correct and reliable, as an error would lead to operator misjudgement and inadequate control. In this paper we present a modeling for the CPS that enables formal verification based on Petri nets. The proposed State Token Petri Nets (STPN) also support modeling of a procedure flow that has various interruptions by the operator, according to the plant condition. STPN modeling is compared with Coloured Petri net when they are applied to Emergency Operating Computerized Procedure. A converting program for Computerized Procedure (CP) to STPN has been also developed. The formal verification and validation methods of CP with STPN increase the safety of a nuclear power plant and provide digital quality assurance means that are needed when the role and function of the CPS is increasing.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zybell, G.
1995-01-01
Co-operation between industrial autoproducers and the public utilities has a long tradition in Germany. This is particularly the case in combined heat and power generation. In 1993 electricity supplied by third parties contributed with approximately 14% to electricity demand coverage. This is (as in Italy) the next highest proportion in the EU. In 1994 the industry's associations -BDI, VIK and VDEW - agreed upon new remuneration models for electricity supplied by combined heat and power stations and plants on the basis of renewable energies. Additionally, principles agreed upon in 1979 were further developed. (orig.) [de
Tack, Ignace L M M; Nimmegeers, Philippe; Akkermans, Simen; Hashem, Ihab; Van Impe, Jan F M
2017-01-01
Clustered microbial communities are omnipresent in the food industry, e.g., as colonies of microbial pathogens in/on food media or as biofilms on food processing surfaces. These clustered communities are often characterized by metabolic differentiation among their constituting cells as a result of heterogeneous environmental conditions in the cellular surroundings. This paper focuses on the role of metabolic differentiation due to oxygen gradients in the development of Escherichia coli cell communities, whereby low local oxygen concentrations lead to cellular secretion of weak acid products. For this reason, a metabolic model has been developed for the facultative anaerobe E. coli covering the range of aerobic, microaerobic, and anaerobic environmental conditions. This metabolic model is expressed as a multiparametric programming problem, in which the influence of low extracellular pH values and the presence of undissociated acid cell products in the environment has been taken into account. Furthermore, the developed metabolic model is incorporated in MICRODIMS, an in-house developed individual-based modeling framework to simulate microbial colony and biofilm dynamics. Two case studies have been elaborated using the MICRODIMS simulator: (i) biofilm growth on a substratum surface and (ii) submerged colony growth in a semi-solid mixed food product. In the first case study, the acidification of the biofilm environment and the emergence of typical biofilm morphologies have been observed, such as the mushroom-shaped structure of mature biofilms and the formation of cellular chains at the exterior surface of the biofilm. The simulations show that these morphological phenomena are respectively dependent on the initial affinity of pioneer cells for the substratum surface and the cell detachment process at the outer surface of the biofilm. In the second case study, a no-growth zone emerges in the colony center due to a local decline of the environmental pH. As a result
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ignace L. M. M. Tack
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Clustered microbial communities are omnipresent in the food industry, e.g., as colonies of microbial pathogens in/on food media or as biofilms on food processing surfaces. These clustered communities are often characterized by metabolic differentiation among their constituting cells as a result of heterogeneous environmental conditions in the cellular surroundings. This paper focuses on the role of metabolic differentiation due to oxygen gradients in the development of Escherichia coli cell communities, whereby low local oxygen concentrations lead to cellular secretion of weak acid products. For this reason, a metabolic model has been developed for the facultative anaerobe E. coli covering the range of aerobic, microaerobic, and anaerobic environmental conditions. This metabolic model is expressed as a multiparametric programming problem, in which the influence of low extracellular pH values and the presence of undissociated acid cell products in the environment has been taken into account. Furthermore, the developed metabolic model is incorporated in MICRODIMS, an in-house developed individual-based modeling framework to simulate microbial colony and biofilm dynamics. Two case studies have been elaborated using the MICRODIMS simulator: (i biofilm growth on a substratum surface and (ii submerged colony growth in a semi-solid mixed food product. In the first case study, the acidification of the biofilm environment and the emergence of typical biofilm morphologies have been observed, such as the mushroom-shaped structure of mature biofilms and the formation of cellular chains at the exterior surface of the biofilm. The simulations show that these morphological phenomena are respectively dependent on the initial affinity of pioneer cells for the substratum surface and the cell detachment process at the outer surface of the biofilm. In the second case study, a no-growth zone emerges in the colony center due to a local decline of the environmental p
Khadilkar, Aditi B.
The utility of fluidized bed reactors for combustion and gasification can be enhanced if operational issues such as agglomeration are mitigated. The monetary and efficiency losses could be avoided through a mechanistic understanding of the agglomeration process and prediction of operational conditions that promote agglomeration. Pilot-scale experimentation prior to operation for each specific condition can be cumbersome and expensive. So the development of a mathematical model would aid predictions. With this motivation, the study comprised of the following model development stages- 1) development of an agglomeration modeling methodology based on binary particle collisions, 2) study of heterogeneities in ash chemical composition and gaseous atmosphere, 3) computation of a distribution of particle collision frequencies based on granular physics for a poly-disperse particle size distribution, 4) combining the ash chemistry and granular physics inputs to obtain agglomerate growth probabilities and 5) validation of the modeling methodology. The modeling methodology comprised of testing every binary particle collision in the system for sticking, based on the extent of dissipation of the particles' kinetic energy through viscous dissipation by slag-liquid (molten ash) covering the particles. In the modeling methodology developed in this study, thermodynamic equilibrium calculations are used to estimate the amount of slag-liquid in the system, and the changes in particle collision frequencies are accounted for by continuously tracking the number density of the various particle sizes. In this study, the heterogeneities in chemical composition of fuel ash were studied by separating the bulk fuel into particle classes that are rich in specific minerals. FactSage simulations were performed on two bituminous coals and an anthracite to understand the effect of particle-level heterogeneities on agglomeration. The mineral matter behavior of these constituent classes was studied
Analytical charge control model for AlGaN/GaN MIS-HFETs including an undepleted barrier layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shenghui, Lu; Jiangfeng, Du; Qian, Luo; Qi, Yu; Wei, Zhou; Jianxin, Xia; Mohua, Yang, E-mail: lushenghui@sohu.co [State key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)
2010-09-15
An analytical charge control model considering the insulator/AlGaN interface charge and undepleted Al-GaN barrier layer is presented for AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor heterostructure field effect transistors (MIS-HFETs) over the entire operation range of gate voltage. The whole process of charge control is analyzed in detail and partitioned into four regions: I-full depletion, II-partial depletion, III-neutral region and IV-electron accumulation at the insulator/AlGaN interface. The results show that two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) saturates at the boundary of region II/III and the gate voltage should not exceed the 2DEG saturation voltage in order to keep the channel in control. In addition, the span of region II accounts for about 50% of the range of gate voltage before 2DEG saturates. The good agreement of the calculated transfer characteristic with the measured data confirms the validity of the proposed model. (semiconductor devices)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frimann Nielsen, Rasmus; Haglind, Fredrik; Larsen, Ulrik
2013-01-01
-stroke diesel engine and a conventional waste heat recovery system. The results suggest that an organic Rankine cycle placed after the conventional waste heat recovery system is able to extract the sulphuric acid from the exhaust gas, while at the same time increase power generation from waste heat by 32...... consists of a two-stroke diesel engine, the wet sulphuric process for sulphur removal and an advanced waste heat recovery system including a conventional steam Rankine cycle and an organic Rankine cycle. The results are compared with those of a state-of-the-art machinery system featuring a two...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schulte, R T; Fritzen, C-P; Moll, J
2010-01-01
During the last decades, guided waves have shown great potential for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) applications. These waves can be excited and sensed by piezoelectric elements that can be permanently attached onto a structure offering online monitoring capability. However, the setup of wave based SHM systems for complex structures may be very difficult and time consuming. For that reason there is a growing demand for efficient simulation tools providing the opportunity to design wave based SHM systems in a virtual environment. As usually high frequency waves are used, the associated short wavelength leads to the necessity of a very dense mesh, which makes conventional finite elements not well suited for this purpose. Therefore in this contribution a flat shell spectral element approach is presented. By including electromechanical coupling a SHM system can be simulated entirely from actuator voltage to sensor voltage. Besides a comparison to measured data for anisotropic materials including delamination, a numerical example of a more complex, stiffened shell structure with debonding is presented.
Zhu, Ting-Lei; Zhao, Chang-Yin; Zhang, Ming-Jiang
2017-04-01
This paper aims to obtain an analytic approximation to the evolution of circular orbits governed by the Earth's J2 and the luni-solar gravitational perturbations. Assuming that the lunar orbital plane coincides with the ecliptic plane, Allan and Cook (Proc. R. Soc. A, Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 280(1380):97, 1964) derived an analytic solution to the orbital plane evolution of circular orbits. Using their result as an intermediate solution, we establish an approximate analytic model with lunar orbital inclination and its node regression be taken into account. Finally, an approximate analytic expression is derived, which is accurate compared to the numerical results except for the resonant cases when the period of the reference orbit approximately equals the integer multiples (especially 1 or 2 times) of lunar node regression period.
Rhazi, Dilal
In the field of aeronautics, reducing the harmful effects of acoustics constitutes a major concern at the international level and justifies the call for further research, particularly in Canada where aeronautics is a key economic sector, which operates in a context of global competition. Aircraft sidewall structure is usually of a double wall construction with a curved ribbed metallic skin and a lightweight composite or sandwich trim separated by a cavity filled with a noise control treatment. The latter is of a great importance in the transport industry, and continues to be of interest in many engineering applications. However, the insertion loss noise control treatment depends on the excitation of the supporting structure. In particular, Turbulent Boundary Layer is of interest to several industries. This excitation is difficult to simulate in laboratory conditions, given the prohibiting costs and difficulties associated with wind tunnel and in-flight tests. Numerical simulation is the only practical way to predict the response to such excitations and to analyze effects of design changes to the response to such excitation. Another kinds of excitations encountered in industrial are monopole, rain on the Roof and diffuse acoustic field. Deterministic methods can calculate in each point the spectral response of the system. Most known are numerical methods such as finite elements and boundary elements methods. These methods generally apply to the low frequency where modal behavior of the structure dominates. However, the high limit of calculation in frequency of these methods cannot be defined in a strict way because it is related to the capacity of data processing and to the nature of the studied mechanical system. With these challenges in mind, and with limitations of the main numerical codes on the market, the manufacturers have expressed the need for simple models immediately available as early as the stage of preliminary drafts. This thesis represents an attempt
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. J. Reerink
2016-11-01
Full Text Available This paper accompanies the second OBLIMAP open-source release. The package is developed to map climate fields between a general circulation model (GCM and an ice sheet model (ISM in both directions by using optimal aligned oblique projections, which minimize distortions. The curvature of the surfaces of the GCM and ISM grid differ, both grids may be irregularly spaced and the ratio of the grids is allowed to differ largely. OBLIMAP's stand-alone version is able to map data sets that differ in various aspects on the same ISM grid. Each grid may either coincide with the surface of a sphere, an ellipsoid or a flat plane, while the grid types might differ. Re-projection of, for example, ISM data sets is also facilitated. This is demonstrated by relevant applications concerning the major ice caps. As the stand-alone version also applies to the reverse mapping direction, it can be used as an offline coupler. Furthermore, OBLIMAP 2.0 is an embeddable GCM–ISM coupler, suited for high-frequency online coupled experiments. A new fast scan method is presented for structured grids as an alternative for the former time-consuming grid search strategy, realising a performance gain of several orders of magnitude and enabling the mapping of high-resolution data sets with a much larger number of grid nodes. Further, a highly flexible masked mapping option is added. The limitation of the fast scan method with respect to unstructured and adaptive grids is discussed together with a possible future parallel Message Passing Interface (MPI implementation.
Nakagawa, Fumiyo
2017-01-28
Migrants account for a significant number of people living with HIV in Europe, and it is important to fully consider this population in national estimates. Using a novel approach with the UK as an example, we present key public health measures of the HIV epidemic, taking into account both in-country infections and infections likely to have been acquired abroad. Mathematical model calibrated to extensive data sources. An individual-based stochastic simulation model is used to calibrate to routinely collected surveillance data in the UK. Data on number of new HIV diagnoses, number of deaths, CD4 cell count at diagnosis, as well as time of arrival into the UK for migrants and the annual number of people receiving care were used. An estimated 106 400 (90% plausibility range: 88 700-124 600) people were living with HIV in the UK in 2013. Twenty-three percent of these people, 24 600 (15 000-36 200) were estimated to be undiagnosed; this number has remained stable over the last decade. An estimated 32% of the total undiagnosed population had CD4 cell count less than 350 cells/μl in 2013. Twenty-five and 23% of black African men and women heterosexuals living with HIV were undiagnosed respectively. We have shown a working example to characterize the HIV population in a European context which incorporates migrants from countries with generalized epidemics. Despite all aspects of HIV care being free and widely available to anyone in need in the UK, there is still a substantial number of people who are not yet diagnosed and thus not in care.
Klinkusch, Stefan; Saalfrank, Peter; Klamroth, Tillmann
2009-09-21
We report simulations of laser-pulse driven many-electron dynamics by means of a simple, heuristic extension of the time-dependent configuration interaction singles (TD-CIS) approach. The extension allows for the treatment of ionizing states as nonstationary states with a finite, energy-dependent lifetime to account for above-threshold ionization losses in laser-driven many-electron dynamics. The extended TD-CIS method is applied to the following specific examples: (i) state-to-state transitions in the LiCN molecule which correspond to intramolecular charge transfer, (ii) creation of electronic wave packets in LiCN including wave packet analysis by pump-probe spectroscopy, and, finally, (iii) the effect of ionization on the dynamic polarizability of H(2) when calculated nonperturbatively by TD-CIS.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Anne Lausten; Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Christensen, Britt Stenhøj Baun
2013-01-01
the catchment. In this study, a coupled groundwater-surface water model based on the MIKE SHE code was developed for the 4.7 km2 Lillebæk catchment in Denmark, where tile drain flow is a major contributor to the stream discharge. The catchment model was calibrated in several steps by incrementally including...... the observation data into the calibration to see the effect on model performance of including diverse data types, especially tile drain discharge. For the Lillebæk catchment, measurements of hydraulic head, daily stream discharge, and daily tile drain discharge from five small (1–4 ha) drainage areas exist....... The results showed that including tile drain data in the calibration of the catchment model improved its general performance for hydraulic heads and stream discharges. However, the model failed to correctly describe the local-scale dynamics of the tile drain discharges, and, furthermore, including the drain...
Samsudin, Hayati; Auras, Rafael; Burgess, Gary; Dolan, Kirk; Soto-Valdez, Herlinda
2018-03-01
A two-step solution based on the boundary conditions of Crank's equations for mass transfer in a film was developed. Three driving factors, the diffusion (D), partition (K p,f ) and convective mass transfer coefficients (h), govern the sorption and/or desorption kinetics of migrants from polymer films. These three parameters were simultaneously estimated. They provide in-depth insight into the physics of a migration process. The first step was used to find the combination of D, K p,f and h that minimized the sums of squared errors (SSE) between the predicted and actual results. In step 2, an ordinary least square (OLS) estimation was performed by using the proposed analytical solution containing D, K p,f and h. Three selected migration studies of PLA/antioxidant-based films were used to demonstrate the use of this two-step solution. Additional parameter estimation approaches such as sequential and bootstrap were also performed to acquire a better knowledge about the kinetics of migration. The proposed model successfully provided the initial guesses for D, K p,f and h. The h value was determined without performing a specific experiment for it. By determining h together with D, under or overestimation issues pertaining to a migration process can be avoided since these two parameters are correlated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soheyli, Saman; Shafiei Mayam, Mohamad Hossein; Mehrjoo, Mehri
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Considering renewable energy resources as the main prime movers in CCHP systems. • Simultaneous application of FEL and FTL by optimizing two probability functions. • Simultaneous optimization the equipment and penalty factors by CC-MOPSO algorithm. • Reducing fuel consumption and pollution up to 263 and 353 times, respectively. - Abstract: Due to problems, such as, heat losses of equipment, low energy efficiency, increasing pollution and the fossil fuels consumption, combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) systems have attracted lots of attention during the last decade. In this paper, for minimizing fossil fuel consumption and pollution, a novel CCHP system including photovoltaic (PV) modules, wind turbines, and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) as the prime movers is considered. Moreover, in order to minimize the excess electrical and heat energy production of the CCHP system and so reducing the need for the local power grid and any auxiliary heat production system, following electrical load (FEL) and following thermal load (FTL) operation strategies are considered, simultaneously. In order to determine the optimal number of each system component and also set the penalty factors in the used penalty function, a co-constrained multi objective particle swarm optimization (CC-MOPSO) algorithm is applied. Utilization of the renewable energy resources, the annual total cost (ATC) and the CCHP system area are considered as the objective functions. It also includes constraints such as, loss of power supply probability (LPSP), loss of heat supply probability (LHSP), state of battery charge (SOC), and the number of each CCHP component. A hypothetical hotel in Kermanshah, Iran is conducted to verify the feasibility of the proposed system. 10 wind turbines, 430 PV modules, 11 SOFCs, 106 batteries and 2 heat storage tanks (HST) are numerical results for the spring as the best season in terms of decreasing cost and fuel consumption. Comparing the results
Seo, G.; DeAngelis, D.L.
2011-01-01
The most widely used functional response in describing predator-prey relationships is the Holling type II functional response, where per capita predation is a smooth, increasing, and saturating function of prey density. Beddington and DeAngelis modified the Holling type II response to include interference of predators that increases with predator density. Here we introduce a predator-interference term into a Holling type I functional response. We explain the ecological rationale for the response and note that the phase plane configuration of the predator and prey isoclines differs greatly from that of the Beddington-DeAngelis response; for example, in having three possible interior equilibria rather than one. In fact, this new functional response seems to be quite unique. We used analytical and numerical methods to show that the resulting system shows a much richer dynamical behavior than the Beddington-DeAngelis response, or other typically used functional responses. For example, cyclic-fold, saddle-fold, homoclinic saddle connection, and multiple crossing bifurcations can all occur. We then use a smooth approximation to the Holling type I functional response with predator mutual interference to show that these dynamical properties do not result from the lack of smoothness, but rather from subtle differences in the functional responses. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
MacDonald, Shannon E; Schopflocher, Donald P; Vaudry, Wendy
2014-01-01
Children who begin but do not fully complete the recommended series of childhood vaccines by 2 y of age are a much larger group than those who receive no vaccines. While parents who refuse all vaccines typically express concern about vaccine safety, it is critical to determine what influences parents of 'partially' immunized children. This case-control study examined whether parental concern about vaccine safety was responsible for partial immunization, and whether other personal or system-level factors played an important role. A random sample of parents of partially and completely immunized 2 y old children were selected from a Canadian regional immunization registry and completed a postal survey assessing various personal and system-level factors. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and adjusted ORs (aOR) were calculated with logistic regression. While vaccine safety concern was associated with partial immunization (OR 7.338, 95% CI 4.138-13.012), other variables were more strongly associated and reduced the strength of the relationship between concern and partial immunization in multivariable analysis (aOR 2.829, 95% CI 1.151-6.957). Other important factors included perceived disease susceptibility and severity (aOR 4.629, 95% CI 2.017-10.625), residential mobility (aOR 3.908, 95% CI 2.075-7.358), daycare use (aOR 0.310, 95% CI 0.144-0.671), number of needles administered at each visit (aOR 7.734, 95% CI 2.598-23.025) and access to a regular physician (aOR 0.219, 95% CI 0.057-0.846). While concern about vaccine safety may be addressed through educational strategies, this study suggests that additional program and policy-level strategies may positively impact immunization uptake.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Kristensen, Kasper; Lewy, Peter
2014-01-01
Trawl survey data with high spatial and seasonal coverage were analysed using a variant of the Log Gaussian Cox Process (LGCP) statistical model to estimate unbiased relative fish densities. The model estimates correlations between observations according to time, space, and fish size and includes...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwicklis, Edward Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Keating, Elizabeth H [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-12-02
Much progress has been made in the last several years in modeling radionuclide transport from tests conducted both in the unsaturated zone and saturated volcanic rocks of Yucca Flat, Nevada. The presentations to the DOE NNSA pre-emptive review panel contained herein document the progress to date, and discuss preliminary conclusions regarding the present and future extents of contamination resulting from past nuclear tests. The presentations also discuss possible strategies for addressing uncertainty in the model results.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Briffod, Fabien, E-mail: briffod@rme.mm.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Shiraiwa, Takayuki; Enoki, Manabu
2017-05-17
In this study, fatigue crack initiation in pure α-iron is investigated through a microstructure-sensitive framework. At first, synthetic microstructures are modeled based on an anisotropic tessellation that accounts for the information of the grains morphology extracted from electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis. Low-cycle fatigue experiments under strain-controlled conditions are conducted in order to calibrate a crystal plasticity model and a J{sub 2} model including isotropic and kinematic hardening. A critical plane fatigue indicator parameter (FIP) based on the Tanaka-Mura model is then presented to evaluate the location and quantify the driving force for the formation of a crack. The FIP is averaged over several potential crack paths within each grain defined by the intersection between a given slip plane and the plane of the model thus accounting for both the lattice orientation and morphology of the grain. Several fatigue simulations at various stress amplitudes are conducted using a sub-modeling technique for the attribution of boundary conditions on the polycrystalline aggregate models including an elliptic defect. The influence of the microstructure attributes and stress level on the location and amplitude of the FIP are then quantified and discussed.
Biesheuvel, P.M.; Veen, van der M.; Norde, W.
2005-01-01
The equilibrium adsorption of polyelectrolytes with multiple types of ionizable groups is described using a modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation including charge regulation of both the polymer and the interface. A one-dimensional mean-field model is used in which the electrostatic potential is
The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contributed to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) ap...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meng, Qingyong, E-mail: mengqingyong@dicp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongshan Road 457, 116023 Dalian (China); Meyer, Hans-Dieter, E-mail: hans-dieter.meyer@pci.uni-heidelberg.de [Theoretische Chemie, Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)
2015-10-28
Molecular-surface studies are often done by assuming a corrugated, static (i.e., rigid) surface. To be able to investigate the effects that vibrations of surface atoms may have on spectra and cross sections, an expansion Hamiltonian model is proposed on the basis of the recently reported [R. Marquardt et al., J. Chem. Phys. 132, 074108 (2010)] SAP potential energy surface (PES), which was built for the CO/Cu(100) system with a rigid surface. In contrast to other molecule-surface coupling models, such as the modified surface oscillator model, the coupling between the adsorbed molecule and the surface atoms is already included in the present expansion SAP-PES model, in which a Taylor expansion around the equilibrium positions of the surface atoms is performed. To test the quality of the Taylor expansion, a direct model, that is avoiding the expansion, is also studied. The latter, however, requests that there is only one movable surface atom included. On the basis of the present expansion and direct models, the effects of a moving top copper atom (the one to which CO is bound) on the energy levels of a bound CO/Cu(100) system are studied. For this purpose, the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree calculations are carried out to obtain the vibrational fundamentals and overtones of the CO/Cu(100) system including a movable top copper atom. In order to interpret the results, a simple model consisting of two coupled harmonic oscillators is introduced. From these calculations, the vibrational levels of the CO/Cu(100) system as function of the frequency of the top copper atom are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, Ying-Qi; Segall, Paul; Bradley, Andrew; Anderson, Kyle
2017-01-01
Physics-based models of volcanic eruptions track conduit processes as functions of depth and time. When used in inversions, these models permit integration of diverse geological and geophysical data sets to constrain important parameters of magmatic systems. We develop a 1-D steady state conduit model for effusive eruptions including equilibrium crystallization and gas transport through the conduit and compare with the quasi-steady dome growth phase of Mount St. Helens in 2005. Viscosity increase resulting from pressure-dependent crystallization leads to a natural transition from viscous flow to frictional sliding on the conduit margin. Erupted mass flux depends strongly on wall rock and magma permeabilities due to their impact on magma density. Including both lateral and vertical gas transport reveals competing effects that produce nonmonotonic behavior in the mass flux when increasing magma permeability. Using this physics-based model in a Bayesian inversion, we link data sets from Mount St. Helens such as extrusion flux and earthquake depths with petrological data to estimate unknown model parameters, including magma chamber pressure and water content, magma permeability constants, conduit radius, and friction along the conduit walls. Even with this relatively simple model and limited data, we obtain improved constraints on important model parameters. We find that the magma chamber had low (<5 wt %) total volatiles and that the magma permeability scale is well constrained at ~10 –11.4 m 2 to reproduce observed dome rock porosities. Here, compared with previous results, higher magma overpressure and lower wall friction are required to compensate for increased viscous resistance while keeping extrusion rate at the observed value.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kohl, B.
2010-01-01
In hydrology a basic task is the estimation of design discharges and runoff changes in ungauged catchments. However, traditional empirical rules of thumb as well as regionalization of measured discharges are subject to uncertainty. It seems that precipitation-runoff modelling is the only comprehensible way to predict discharge alterations due to changes in ungauged basins, even though the results are perhaps not less uncertain. In order to minimize this uncertainty this work presents a new methodology for discharge estimation in ungauged basins by introducing runoff coefficients derived from field assessment, by a new adapted precipitation-runoff model (ZEMOKOST) and routines for a plausibility check. Subsequently ten gauged Austrian catchments were used as hypothetical ungauged catchments for application and verification of this method. Except for special questions in karst- and glacier-hydrology the procedure showed satisfying results. (author) [de
Arcella, D; Soggiu, M E; Leclercq, C
2003-10-01
For the assessment of exposure to food-borne chemicals, the most commonly used methods in the European Union follow a deterministic approach based on conservative assumptions. Over the past few years, to get a more realistic view of exposure to food chemicals, risk managers are getting more interested in the probabilistic approach. Within the EU-funded 'Monte Carlo' project, a stochastic model of exposure to chemical substances from the diet and a computer software program were developed. The aim of this paper was to validate the model with respect to the intake of saccharin from table-top sweeteners and cyclamate from soft drinks by Italian teenagers with the use of the software and to evaluate the impact of the inclusion/exclusion of indicators on market share and brand loyalty through a sensitivity analysis. Data on food consumption and the concentration of sweeteners were collected. A food frequency questionnaire aimed at identifying females who were high consumers of sugar-free soft drinks and/or of table top sweeteners was filled in by 3982 teenagers living in the District of Rome. Moreover, 362 subjects participated in a detailed food survey by recording, at brand level, all foods and beverages ingested over 12 days. Producers were asked to provide the intense sweeteners' concentration of sugar-free products. Results showed that consumer behaviour with respect to brands has an impact on exposure assessments. Only probabilistic models that took into account indicators of market share and brand loyalty met the validation criteria.
van de Mheen, Lidewij; Schuit, Ewoud; Lim, Arianne C; Porath, Martina M; Papatsonis, Dimitri; Erwich, Jan J; van Eyck, Jim; van Oirschot, Charlotte M; Hummel, Piet; Duvekot, Johannes J; Hasaart, Tom H M; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Moons, Karl G M; de Groot, Christianne J M; Bruinse, Hein W; van Pampus, Maria G; Mol, Ben W J
2014-04-01
To develop a multivariable prognostic model for the risk of preterm delivery in women with multiple pregnancy that includes cervical length measurement at 16 to 21 weeks' gestation and other variables. We used data from a previous randomized trial. We assessed the association between maternal and pregnancy characteristics including cervical length measurement at 16 to 21 weeks' gestation and time to delivery using multivariable Cox regression modelling. Performance of the final model was assessed for the outcomes of preterm and very preterm delivery using calibration and discrimination measures. We studied 507 women, of whom 270 (53%) delivered models for preterm and very preterm delivery had a c-index of 0.68 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.72) and 0.68 (95% CI 0.62 to 0.75), respectively, and showed good calibration. In women with a multiple pregnancy, the risk of preterm delivery can be assessed with a multivariable model incorporating cervical length and other predictors.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J Rasmus Nielsen
Full Text Available Trawl survey data with high spatial and seasonal coverage were analysed using a variant of the Log Gaussian Cox Process (LGCP statistical model to estimate unbiased relative fish densities. The model estimates correlations between observations according to time, space, and fish size and includes zero observations and over-dispersion. The model utilises the fact the correlation between numbers of fish caught increases when the distance in space and time between the fish decreases, and the correlation between size groups in a haul increases when the difference in size decreases. Here the model is extended in two ways. Instead of assuming a natural scale size correlation, the model is further developed to allow for a transformed length scale. Furthermore, in the present application, the spatial- and size-dependent correlation between species was included. For cod (Gadus morhua and whiting (Merlangius merlangus, a common structured size correlation was fitted, and a separable structure between the time and space-size correlation was found for each species, whereas more complex structures were required to describe the correlation between species (and space-size. The within-species time correlation is strong, whereas the correlations between the species are weaker over time but strong within the year.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stell, G.
1983-01-01
Some new theoretical results on the microstructure of models of two-phase disordered media are given, as well as the new quantitative bounds on the thermal conductivity that follows for one such model (randomly centered spherical inclusions). A second set of results is then given for random flights, including random flights with hit expectancy prescribed in a unit hall around the flight origin. Finally, some interesting correspondences are demonstrated, via the Ornstein-Zernike equation, between random-flight results, liquid-state results and percolation-theory results. 27 references, 6 figures, 4 tables
Heather, Eleanor M; Payne, Katherine; Harrison, Mark; Symmons, Deborah P M
2014-02-01
Anti-tumour necrosis factor-α drugs (anti-TNFs) have revolutionised the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). More effective than standard non-biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (nbDMARDs), anti-TNFs are also substantially more expensive. Consequently, a number of model-based economic evaluations have been conducted to establish the relative cost-effectiveness of anti-TNFs. However, anti-TNFs are associated with an increased risk of adverse drug events (ADEs) such as serious infections relative to nbDMARDs. Such ADEs will likely impact on both the costs and consequences of anti-TNFs, for example, through hospitalisations and forced withdrawal from treatment. The aim of this review was to identify and critically appraise if, and how, ADEs have been incorporated into model-based cost-effectiveness analyses of anti-TNFs for adult patients with RA. A systematic literature review was performed. Electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid EMBASE; Web of Science; NHS Economic Evaluations Database) were searched for literature published between January 1990 and October 2013 using electronic search strategies. The reference lists of retrieved studies were also hand searched. In addition, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence technology appraisals were searched to identify economic models used to inform UK healthcare decision making. Only full economic evaluations that had used an economic model to evaluate biological DMARDs (bDMARDs) (including anti-TNFs) for adult patients with RA and had incorporated the direct costs and/or consequences of ADEs were critically appraised. To be included, studies also had to be available as a full text in English. Data extracted included general study characteristics and information concerning the methods used to incorporate ADEs and any associated assumptions made. The extracted data were synthesised using a tabular and narrative format. A total of 43 model-based economic evaluations of bDMARDs for adult RA
Raman, Jayanthi; Smith, Evelyn; Hay, Phillipa
2013-01-01
Psychological distress and deficits in executive functioning are likely to be important barriers to effective weight loss maintenance. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, in the light of recent evidence in the fields of neuropsychology and obesity, particularly on the deficits in the executive function in overweight and obese individuals, a conceptual and theoretical framework of obesity maintenance is introduced by way of a clinical obesity maintenance model (COMM). It is argued that psychological variables, that of habitual cluster Behaviors, emotional dysregulation, mood, and health literacy, interact with executive functioning and impact on the overeating/binge eating behaviors of obese individuals. Second, cognizant of this model, it is argued that the focus of obesity management should be extended to include a broader range of maintaining mechanisms, including but not limited to cognitive deficits. Finally, a discussion on potential future directions in research and practice using the COMM is provided.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jayanthi Raman
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Psychological distress and deficits in executive functioning are likely to be important barriers to effective weight loss maintenance. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, in the light of recent evidence in the fields of neuropsychology and obesity, particularly on the deficits in the executive function in overweight and obese individuals, a conceptual and theoretical framework of obesity maintenance is introduced by way of a clinical obesity maintenance model (COMM. It is argued that psychological variables, that of habitual cluster Behaviors, emotional dysregulation, mood, and health literacy, interact with executive functioning and impact on the overeating/binge eating behaviors of obese individuals. Second, cognizant of this model, it is argued that the focus of obesity management should be extended to include a broader range of maintaining mechanisms, including but not limited to cognitive deficits. Finally, a discussion on potential future directions in research and practice using the COMM is provided.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriel Felipe Aguilera
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The hydrocyclone is one of the most used classification equipment in industry, particularly in mineral processing. Maybe its main characteristic is to be a hydrodynamic separation equipment, whereby it has a high production capability and different levels of efficiency are depending on the geometrical configuration, operational parameters and the type of material to be processed. Nevertheless, there are a few successful studies regarding the modelling and simulation of its hydrodynamic principles, because the flow behavior inside is quite complex. Most of the current models are empirical and they are not applicable to all cases and types of minerals. One of the most important problems to be solved, besides the cut size and the effect of the physical properties of the particles, is the distribution of the flow inside the hydrocyclone, because if the work of the equipment is at low slurry densities, very clear for small hydrocyclones, its mechanic behavior is a consequence of the kind of liquid used as continuous phase, being water the most common liquid. This work shows the modelling and simulation of the hydrodynamic behavior of a suspension inside a hydrocyclone, including the air core effect, through the use of finite differences method. For the developing of the model, the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM for the evaluation of turbulence, and the Volume of Fluid (VOF to study the interaction between water and air were used. Finally, the model shows to be significant for experimental data, and for different conditions of an industrial plant.
Coe, Jason B.
2018-01-01
Concerns over cat homelessness, over-taxed animal shelters, public health risks, and environmental impacts has raised attention on urban-cat populations. To truly understand cat population dynamics, the collective population of owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in the shelter system must be considered simultaneously because each subpopulation contributes differently to the overall population of cats in a community (e.g., differences in neuter rates, differences in impacts on wildlife) and cats move among categories through human interventions (e.g., adoption, abandonment). To assess this complex socio-ecological system, we developed a multistate matrix model of cats in urban areas that include owned cats, unowned cats (free-roaming and feral), and cats that move through the shelter system. Our model requires three inputs—location, number of human dwellings, and urban area—to provide testable predictions of cat abundance for any city in North America. Model-predicted population size of unowned cats in seven Canadian cities were not significantly different than published estimates (p = 0.23). Model-predicted proportions of sterile feral cats did not match observed sterile cat proportions for six USA cities (p = 0.001). Using a case study from Guelph, Ontario, Canada, we compared model-predicted to empirical estimates of cat abundance in each subpopulation and used perturbation analysis to calculate relative sensitivity of vital rates to cat abundance to demonstrate how management or mismanagement in one portion of the population could have repercussions across all portions of the network. Our study provides a general framework to consider cat population abundance in urban areas and, with refinement that includes city-specific parameter estimates and modeling, could provide a better understanding of population dynamics of cats in our communities. PMID:29489854
Flockhart, D T Tyler; Coe, Jason B
2018-01-01
Concerns over cat homelessness, over-taxed animal shelters, public health risks, and environmental impacts has raised attention on urban-cat populations. To truly understand cat population dynamics, the collective population of owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in the shelter system must be considered simultaneously because each subpopulation contributes differently to the overall population of cats in a community (e.g., differences in neuter rates, differences in impacts on wildlife) and cats move among categories through human interventions (e.g., adoption, abandonment). To assess this complex socio-ecological system, we developed a multistate matrix model of cats in urban areas that include owned cats, unowned cats (free-roaming and feral), and cats that move through the shelter system. Our model requires three inputs-location, number of human dwellings, and urban area-to provide testable predictions of cat abundance for any city in North America. Model-predicted population size of unowned cats in seven Canadian cities were not significantly different than published estimates (p = 0.23). Model-predicted proportions of sterile feral cats did not match observed sterile cat proportions for six USA cities (p = 0.001). Using a case study from Guelph, Ontario, Canada, we compared model-predicted to empirical estimates of cat abundance in each subpopulation and used perturbation analysis to calculate relative sensitivity of vital rates to cat abundance to demonstrate how management or mismanagement in one portion of the population could have repercussions across all portions of the network. Our study provides a general framework to consider cat population abundance in urban areas and, with refinement that includes city-specific parameter estimates and modeling, could provide a better understanding of population dynamics of cats in our communities.
Stigson, Helena; Krafft, Maria; Tingvall, Claes
2008-10-01
To evaluate if the Swedish Road Administration (SRA) model for a safe road transport system, which includes the interaction between the road user, the vehicle, and the road, could be used to classify fatal car crashes according to some safety indicators. Also, to present a development of the model to better identify system weakness. Real-life crashes with a fatal outcome were classified according to the vehicle's safety rating by Euro NCAP (European Road Assessment Programme) and fitment of ESC (Electronic Stability Control). For each crash, the road was also classified according to EuroRAP (European Road Assessment Programme) criteria, and human behavior in terms of speeding, seat belt use, and driving under the influence of alcohol. Each crash was compared with the model criteria, to identify components that might have contributed to fatal outcome. All fatal crashes where a car occupant was killed that occurred in Sweden during 2004 were included: in all, 215 crashes with 248 fatalities. The data were collected from the in-depth fatal crash data of the Swedish Road Administration (SRA). It was possible to classify 93% of the fatal car crashes according to the SRA model. A number of shortcomings in the criteria were identified since the model did not address rear-end or animal collisions or collisions with stationary/parked vehicles or trailers (18 out of 248 cases). Using the further developed model, it was possible to identify that most of the crashes occurred when two or all three components interacted (in 85 of the total 230 cases). Noncompliance with safety criteria for the road user, the vehicle, and the road led to fatal outcome in 43, 27, and 75 cases, respectively. The SRA model was found to be useful for classifying fatal crashes but needs to be further developed to identify how the components interact and thereby identify weaknesses in the road traffic system. This developed model might be a tool to systematically identify which of the components are
Lagerlöf, Jakob H; Kindblom, Jon; Bernhardt, Peter
2014-04-01
Oxygen distribution models have been used to analyze the influences of oxygen tensions on tissue response after radiotherapy. These distributions are often generated assuming constant oxygen tension in the blood vessels. However, as red blood cells progress through the vessels, oxygen is continuously released into the plasma and the surrounding tissue, resulting in longitudinally varying oxygen levels in the blood vessels. In the present study, the authors investigated whether a tumor oxygenation model that incorporated longitudinally varying oxygen levels would provide different predictions of necrotic fractions and radiosensitivity compared to commonly used models with a constant oxygen pressure. Our models simulated oxygen diffusion based on a Green's function approach and oxygen consumption according to the Michaelis-Menten equation. The authors constructed tumor models with different vascular fractions (VFs), from which they generated depth oxygenation curves and a look-up table of oxygen pressure gradients. The authors evaluated models of spherical tumors of various sizes, from 1 to 10(4) mg. The authors compared the results from a model with constant vessel oxygen (CVO) pressure to those from models with longitudinal variations in oxygen saturation and either a constant VF (CVF) or variable VF (VVF) within the tumor tissue. The authors monitored the necrotic fractions, defined as tumor regions with an oxygen pressure below 1 mmHg. Tumor radiation sensitivity was expressed as D99, the homogeneous radiation dose required for a tumor control probability of 0.99. In the CVO saturation model, no necrosis was observed, and decreasing the VF could only decrease the D99 by up to 10%. Furthermore, the D99 vs VF dependence was similar for different tumor masses. Compared to the CVO model, the extended CVF and VVF models provided clearly different results, including pronounced effects of VF and tumor size on the necrotic fraction and D99, necrotic fractions ranging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Flavia Fayet-Moore
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Populations are not meeting recommended intakes of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA. The aim was (i to develop a database on n-3 LCPUFA enriched products; (ii to undertake dietary modelling exercise using four dietary approaches to meet the recommendations and (iii to determine the cost of the models. Six n-3 LCPUFA enriched foods were identified. Fish was categorised by n-3 LCPUFA content (mg/100 g categories as “excellent” “good” and “moderate”. The four models to meet recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes were (i fish only; (ii moderate fish (with red meat and enriched foods; (iii fish avoiders (red meat and enriched foods only; and (iv lacto-ovo vegetarian diet (enriched foods only. Diets were modelled using the NUTTAB2010 database and n-3 LCPUFA were calculated and compared to the Suggested Dietary Targets (SDT. The cost of meeting these recommendations was calculated per 100 mg n-3 LCPUFA. The SDT were achieved for all life-stages with all four models. The weekly food intake in number of serves to meet the n-3 LCPUFA SDT for all life-stages for each dietary model were: (i 2 “excellent” fish; (ii 1 “excellent” and 1 “good” fish, and depending on life-stage, 3–4 lean red meat, 0–2 eggs and 3–26 enriched foods; (iii 4 lean red meat, and 20–59 enriched foods; (iv 37–66 enriched foods. Recommended intakes of n-3 LCPUFA were easily met by the consumption of fish, which was the cheapest source of n-3 LCPUFA. Other strategies may be required to achieve the recommendations including modifying the current food supply through feeding practices, novel plant sources and more enriched foods.
Scholz, Robert; Floß, Gereon; Saalfrank, Peter; Füchsel, Gernot; Lončarić, Ivor; Juaristi, J. I.
2016-10-01
A Langevin model accounting for all six molecular degrees of freedom is applied to femtosecond-laser induced, hot-electron driven dynamics of Ru(0001)(2 ×2 ):CO. In our molecular dynamics with electronic friction approach, a recently developed potential energy surface based on gradient-corrected density functional theory accounting for van der Waals interactions is adopted. Electronic friction due to the coupling of molecular degrees of freedom to electron-hole pairs in the metal are included via a local density friction approximation, and surface phonons by a generalized Langevin oscillator model. The action of ultrashort laser pulses enters through a substrate-mediated, hot-electron mechanism via a time-dependent electronic temperature (derived from a two-temperature model), causing random forces acting on the molecule. The model is applied to laser induced lateral diffusion of CO on the surface, "hot adsorbate" formation, and laser induced desorption. Reaction probabilities are strongly enhanced compared to purely thermal processes, both for diffusion and desorption. Reaction yields depend in a characteristic (nonlinear) fashion on the applied laser fluence, as well as branching ratios for various reaction channels. Computed two-pulse correlation traces for desorption and other indicators suggest that aside from electron-hole pairs, phonons play a non-negligible role for laser induced dynamics in this system, acting on a surprisingly short time scale. Our simulations on precomputed potentials allow for good statistics and the treatment of long-time dynamics (300 ps), giving insight into this system which hitherto has not been reached. We find generally good agreement with experimental data where available and make predictions in addition. A recently proposed laser induced population of physisorbed precursor states could not be observed with the present low-coverage model.
Moreno, Pablo M.
2011-05-19
We present in this paper a new three-dimensional (3-D) model for bed-load sediment transport, based on a Lagrangian description. We analyze generalized sub-models for the velocities after collision and the representation of the bed-roughness. The free-flight sub-model includes the effect of several forces, such as buoyancy, drag, virtual mass, lift, Basset and Magnus, and also addresses the particle rotation. A recent methodology for saving computational time in the Basset force is also employed. The sub-models for the post-collision velocity and rotation are based on the conservation of linear and angular momentum during the collision with the bed. We develop a new 3-D representation for the bed roughness by using geometric considerations. In order to address the interaction of particles with the turbulent flow, we tracked the particles through a computed turbulent velocity field for a smooth flat plate. This velocity field was used as a surrogate of the 3-D turbulent conditions close to the bed in streams. We first checked that the basic turbulence statistics for this velocity field could be used to approximate those in an open-channel flow. We then analyzed the interaction of the sediment and the turbulence for a single and multiple particles. We compared numerical results with experimental data obtained by Niño and García (1998b). We show that model predictions are in good agreement with existing data, in the sand size range. © 2011 ASCE.
Moreno, Pablo M.; Bombardelli, Fabiá n A.; Gonzá lez, Andrea E.; Calo, Victor M.
2011-01-01
We present in this paper a new three-dimensional (3-D) model for bed-load sediment transport, based on a Lagrangian description. We analyze generalized sub-models for the velocities after collision and the representation of the bed-roughness. The free-flight sub-model includes the effect of several forces, such as buoyancy, drag, virtual mass, lift, Basset and Magnus, and also addresses the particle rotation. A recent methodology for saving computational time in the Basset force is also employed. The sub-models for the post-collision velocity and rotation are based on the conservation of linear and angular momentum during the collision with the bed. We develop a new 3-D representation for the bed roughness by using geometric considerations. In order to address the interaction of particles with the turbulent flow, we tracked the particles through a computed turbulent velocity field for a smooth flat plate. This velocity field was used as a surrogate of the 3-D turbulent conditions close to the bed in streams. We first checked that the basic turbulence statistics for this velocity field could be used to approximate those in an open-channel flow. We then analyzed the interaction of the sediment and the turbulence for a single and multiple particles. We compared numerical results with experimental data obtained by Niño and García (1998b). We show that model predictions are in good agreement with existing data, in the sand size range. © 2011 ASCE.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hess, C.T.; Smith, C.W.; Price, A.H.
1977-01-01
The uptake, accumulation and loss of radionuclides by the American oyster (C. virginica) aquacultured in the effluent of a nuclear power reactor has been measured monthly for 3 yr at four field stations in the Montsweag Estuary of the Sheepscot River and at a control station in the nearby Damariscotta River Estuary, southern central coastal Maine, U.S.A. A mathematical model for the time variation of the specific activity of the oysters has been developed to include the physical half-lives of the various radionuclides, the biological half-lives of the various radionuclides (biological depuration), the water temperature (oyster hibernation) and shell growth. The resulting first order linear differential equation incorporating these phenomena is driven by the liquid radionuclide effluent release of the Maine Yankee Nuclear Reactor. Comparison of the monthly measurements of the specific activity for 58 Co, 60 Co, 54 Mn, 134 Cs and 137 Cs in oysters with model calculations show close agreement over all ranges of variation observed. A special feature of this mathematical model is its ability to describe the non-chemostatic field situation. (author)
Megiatto, Jackson D; Cazeils, Emmanuel; Ham-Pichavant, Frédérique; Grelier, Stéphane; Gardrat, Christian; Castellan, Alain
2012-05-14
A series of random copoly(styrene)s has been synthesized via radical polymerization of functionalized anthraquinone (AQ) and β-O-4 lignin model monomers. The copolymers were designed to have a different number of styrene spacer groups between the AQ and β-O-4 lignin side chains aiming at investigating the distance effects on AQ/β-O-4 electron transfer mechanisms. A detailed molecular characterization, including techniques such as size exclusion chromatography, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and (1)H, (13)C, (31)P NMR and UV-vis spectroscopies, afforded quantitative information about the composition of the copolymers as well as the average distribution of the AQ and β-O-4 groups in the macromolecular structures. TGA and DSC thermal analysis have indicated that the copolymers were thermally stable under regular pulping conditions, revealing the inertness of the styrene polymer backbone in the investigation of electron transfer mechanisms. Alkaline pulping experiments showed that close contact between the redox active side chains in the copolymers was fundamental for an efficient degradation of the β-O-4 lignin model units, highlighting the importance of electron transfer reactions in the lignin degradation mechanisms catalyzed by AQ. In the absence of glucose, AQ units oxidized phenolic β-O-4 lignin model parts, mainly by electron transfer leading to vanillin as major product. By contrast, in presence of glucose, anthrahydroquinone units (formed by reduction of AQ) reduced the quinone-methide units (issued by dehydration of phenolic β-O-4 lignin model part) mainly by electron transfer leading to guaiacol as major product. Both processes were distance dependent.
El-Amin, Mohamed
2017-11-23
In this article, we consider a two-phase immiscible incompressible flow including nanoparticles transport in fractured heterogeneous porous media. The system of the governing equations consists of water saturation, Darcy’s law, nanoparticles concentration in water, deposited nanoparticles concentration on the pore-wall, and entrapped nanoparticles concentration in the pore-throat, as well as, porosity and permeability variation due to the nanoparticles deposition/entrapment on/in the pores. The discrete-fracture model (DFM) is used to describe the flow and transport in fractured porous media. Moreover, multiscale time-splitting strategy has been employed to manage different time-step sizes for different physics, such as saturation, concentration, etc. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed multi-scale time splitting approach.
El-Amin, Mohamed; Kou, Jisheng; Sun, Shuyu
2017-01-01
In this article, we consider a two-phase immiscible incompressible flow including nanoparticles transport in fractured heterogeneous porous media. The system of the governing equations consists of water saturation, Darcy’s law, nanoparticles concentration in water, deposited nanoparticles concentration on the pore-wall, and entrapped nanoparticles concentration in the pore-throat, as well as, porosity and permeability variation due to the nanoparticles deposition/entrapment on/in the pores. The discrete-fracture model (DFM) is used to describe the flow and transport in fractured porous media. Moreover, multiscale time-splitting strategy has been employed to manage different time-step sizes for different physics, such as saturation, concentration, etc. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed multi-scale time splitting approach.
Vreman, Rick A; Goodell, Alex J; Rodriguez, Luis A; Porco, Travis C; Lustig, Robert H; Kahn, James G
2017-08-03
Excessive consumption of added sugars in the human diet has been associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), coronary heart disease (CHD) and other elements of the metabolic syndrome. Recent studies have shown that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a critical pathway to metabolic syndrome. This model assesses the health and economic benefits of interventions aimed at reducing intake of added sugars. Using data from US National Health Surveys and current literature, we simulated an open cohort, for the period 2015-2035. We constructed a microsimulation model with Markov chains for NAFLD (including steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)), body mass index, T2D and CHD. We assessed reductions in population disease prevalence, disease-attributable disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and costs, with interventions that reduce added sugars consumption by either 20% or 50%. The model estimated that a 20% reduction in added sugars intake will reduce prevalence of hepatic steatosis, NASH, cirrhosis, HCC, obesity, T2D and CHD. Incidence of T2D and CHD would be expected to decrease by 19.9 (95% CI 12.8 to 27.0) and 9.4 (95% CI 3.1 to 15.8) cases per 100 000 people after 20 years, respectively. A 20% reduction in consumption is also projected to annually avert 0.767 million (M) DALYs (95% CI 0.757M to 0.777M) and a total of US$10.3 billion (B) (95% CI 10.2B to 10.4B) in discounted direct medical costs by 2035. These effects increased proportionally when added sugars intake were reduced by 50%. The decrease in incidence and prevalence of disease is similar to results in other models, but averted costs and DALYs were higher, mainly due to inclusion of NAFLD and CHD. The model suggests that efforts to reduce consumption of added sugars may result in significant public health and economic benefits. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All
Carcione, José M.; Poletto, Flavio; Farina, Biancamaria; Bellezza, Cinzia
2018-06-01
Seismic propagation in the upper part of the crust, where geothermal reservoirs are located, shows generally strong velocity dispersion and attenuation due to varying permeability and saturation conditions and is affected by the brittleness and/or ductility of the rocks, including zones of partial melting. From the elastic-plastic aspect, the seismic properties (seismic velocity, quality factor and density) depend on effective pressure and temperature. We describe the related effects with a Burgers mechanical element for the shear modulus of the dry-rock frame. The Arrhenius equation combined to the octahedral stress criterion define the Burgers viscosity responsible of the brittle-ductile behaviour. The effects of permeability, partial saturation, varying porosity and mineral composition on the seismic properties is described by a generalization of the White mesoscopic-loss model to the case of a distribution of heterogeneities of those properties. White model involves the wave-induced fluid flow attenuation mechanism, by which seismic waves propagating through small-scale heterogeneities, induce pressure gradients between regions of dissimilar properties, where part of the energy of the fast P-wave is converted to slow P (Biot)-wave. We consider a range of variations of the radius and size of the patches and thin layers whose probability density function is defined by different distributions. The White models used here are that of spherical patches (for partial saturation) and thin layers (for permeability heterogeneities). The complex bulk modulus of the composite medium is obtained with the Voigt-Reuss-Hill average. Effective pressure effects are taken into account by using exponential functions. We then solve the 3D equation of motion in the space-time domain, by approximating the White complex bulk modulus with that of a set of Zener elements connected in series. The Burgers and generalized Zener models allows us to solve the equations with a direct grid
Vreman, Rick A; Goodell, Alex J; Rodriguez, Luis A; Porco, Travis C; Lustig, Robert H; Kahn, James G
2017-01-01
Objectives Excessive consumption of added sugars in the human diet has been associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), coronary heart disease (CHD) and other elements of the metabolic syndrome. Recent studies have shown that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a critical pathway to metabolic syndrome. This model assesses the health and economic benefits of interventions aimed at reducing intake of added sugars. Methods Using data from US National Health Surveys and current literature, we simulated an open cohort, for the period 2015–2035. We constructed a microsimulation model with Markov chains for NAFLD (including steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)), body mass index, T2D and CHD. We assessed reductions in population disease prevalence, disease-attributable disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and costs, with interventions that reduce added sugars consumption by either 20% or 50%. Findings The model estimated that a 20% reduction in added sugars intake will reduce prevalence of hepatic steatosis, NASH, cirrhosis, HCC, obesity, T2D and CHD. Incidence of T2D and CHD would be expected to decrease by 19.9 (95% CI 12.8 to 27.0) and 9.4 (95% CI 3.1 to 15.8) cases per 100 000 people after 20 years, respectively. A 20% reduction in consumption is also projected to annually avert 0.767 million (M) DALYs (95% CI 0.757M to 0.777M) and a total of US$10.3 billion (B) (95% CI 10.2B to 10.4B) in discounted direct medical costs by 2035. These effects increased proportionally when added sugars intake were reduced by 50%. Conclusions The decrease in incidence and prevalence of disease is similar to results in other models, but averted costs and DALYs were higher, mainly due to inclusion of NAFLD and CHD. The model suggests that efforts to reduce consumption of added sugars may result in significant public health and economic benefits. PMID:28775179
Held, Christian; Liewald, Mathias; Schleich, Ralf; Sindel, Manfred
2010-06-01
The use of lightweight materials offers substantial strength and weight advantages in car body design. Unfortunately such kinds of sheet material are more susceptible to wrinkling, spring back and fracture during press shop operations. For characterization of capability of sheet material dedicated to deep drawing processes in the automotive industry, mainly Forming Limit Diagrams (FLD) are used. However, new investigations at the Institute for Metal Forming Technology have shown that High Strength Steel Sheet Material and Aluminum Alloys show increased formability in case of bending loads are superposed to stretching loads. Likewise, by superposing shearing on in plane uniaxial or biaxial tension formability changes because of materials crystallographic texture. Such mixed stress and strain conditions including bending and shearing effects can occur in deep-drawing processes of complex car body parts as well as subsequent forming operations like flanging. But changes in formability cannot be described by using the conventional FLC. Hence, for purpose of improvement of failure prediction in numerical simulation codes significant failure criteria for these strain conditions are missing. Considering such aspects in defining suitable failure criteria which is easy to implement into FEA a new semi-empirical model has been developed considering the effect of bending and shearing in sheet metals formability. This failure criterion consists of the combination of the so called cFLC (combined Forming Limit Curve), which considers superposed bending load conditions and the SFLC (Shear Forming Limit Curve), which again includes the effect of shearing on sheet metal's formability.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Held, Christian; Liewald, Mathias; Schleich, Ralf; Sindel, Manfred
2010-01-01
The use of lightweight materials offers substantial strength and weight advantages in car body design. Unfortunately such kinds of sheet material are more susceptible to wrinkling, spring back and fracture during press shop operations. For characterization of capability of sheet material dedicated to deep drawing processes in the automotive industry, mainly Forming Limit Diagrams (FLD) are used. However, new investigations at the Institute for Metal Forming Technology have shown that High Strength Steel Sheet Material and Aluminum Alloys show increased formability in case of bending loads are superposed to stretching loads. Likewise, by superposing shearing on in plane uniaxial or biaxial tension formability changes because of materials crystallographic texture. Such mixed stress and strain conditions including bending and shearing effects can occur in deep-drawing processes of complex car body parts as well as subsequent forming operations like flanging. But changes in formability cannot be described by using the conventional FLC. Hence, for purpose of improvement of failure prediction in numerical simulation codes significant failure criteria for these strain conditions are missing. Considering such aspects in defining suitable failure criteria which is easy to implement into FEA a new semi-empirical model has been developed considering the effect of bending and shearing in sheet metals formability. This failure criterion consists of the combination of the so called cFLC (combined Forming Limit Curve), which considers superposed bending load conditions and the SFLC (Shear Forming Limit Curve), which again includes the effect of shearing on sheet metal's formability.
Rehbein, Pia; Brügemann, Kerstin; Yin, Tong; V Borstel, U König; Wu, Xiao-Lin; König, Sven
2013-10-01
A dataset of test-day records, fertility traits, and one health trait including 1275 Brown Swiss cows kept in 46 small-scale organic farms was used to infer relationships among these traits based on recursive Gaussian-threshold models. Test-day records included milk yield (MY), protein percentage (PROT-%), fat percentage (FAT-%), somatic cell score (SCS), the ratio of FAT-% to PROT-% (FPR), lactose percentage (LAC-%), and milk urea nitrogen (MUN). Female fertility traits were defined as the interval from calving to first insemination (CTFS) and success of a first insemination (SFI), and the health trait was clinical mastitis (CM). First, a tri-trait model was used which postulated the recursive effect of a test-day observation in the early period of lactation on liability to CM (LCM), and further the recursive effect of LCM on the following test-day observation. For CM and female fertility traits, a bi-trait recursive Gaussian-threshold model was employed to estimate the effects from CM to CTFS and from CM on SFI. The recursive effects from CTFS and SFI onto CM were not relevant, because CM was recorded prior to the measurements for CTFS and SFI. Results show that the posterior heritability for LCM was 0.05, and for all other traits, heritability estimates were in reasonable ranges, each with a small posterior SD. Lowest heritability estimates were obtained for female reproduction traits, i.e. h(2)=0.02 for SFI, and h(2)≈0 for CTFS. Posterior estimates of genetic correlations between LCM and production traits (MY and MUN), and between LCM and somatic cell score (SCS), were large and positive (0.56-0.68). Results confirm the genetic antagonism between MY and LCM, and the suitability of SCS as an indicator trait for CM. Structural equation coefficients describe the impact of one trait on a second trait on the phenotypic pathway. Higher values for FAT-% and FPR were associated with a higher LCM. The rate of change in FAT-% and in FPR in the ongoing lactation with
Bistacchi, A.; Pisterna, R.; Romano, V.; Rust, D.; Tibaldi, A.
2009-04-01
The plumbing system that connects a sub-volcanic magma reservoir to the surface has been the object of field characterization and mechanical modelling efforts since the pioneering work by Anderson (1936), who produced a detailed account of the spectacular Cullin Cone-sheet Complex (Isle of Skye, UK) and a geometrical and mechanical model aimed at defining the depth to the magma chamber. Since this work, the definition of the stress state in the half space comprised between the magma reservoir and the surface (modelled either as a flat surface or a surface comprising a volcanic edifice) was considered the key point in reconstructing dike propagation paths from the magma chamber. In fact, this process is generally seen as the propagation in an elastic media of purely tensional joints (mode I or opening mode propagation), which follow trajectories perpendicular to the least compressive principal stress axis. Later works generally used different continuum mechanics methodologies (analytic, BEM, FEM) to solve the problem of a pressure source (the magma chamber, either a point source or a finite volume) in an elastic (in some cases heterogeneous) half space (bounded by a flat topography or topped by a "volcano"). All these models (with a few limited exceptions) disregard the effect of the regional stress field, which is caused by tectonic boundary forces and gravitational body load, and consider only the pressure source represented by the magma chamber (review in Gudmundsson, 2006). However, this is only a (sometimes subordinate) component of the total stress field. Grosfils (2007) first introduced the gravitational load (but not tectonic stresses) in an elastic model solved with FEM in a 2D axisymmetric half-space, showing that "failure to incorporate gravitational loading correctly" affect the calculated stress pattern and many of the predictions that can be drawn from the models. In this contribution we report on modelling results that include: 2D axisymmetric or true
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foit, J.J.; Adroguer, B.; Cenerino, G.; Stiefel, S.
1995-02-01
The WECHSL-Mod3 code is a mechanistic computer code developed for the analysis of the thermal and chemical interaction of initially molten reactor materials with concrete in a two-dimensional as well as in a one-dimensional, axisymmetrical concrete cavity. The code performs calculations from the time of initial contact of a hot molten pool over start of solidification processes until long term basemat erosion over several days with the possibility of basemat penetration. It is assumed that an underlying metallic layer exists covered by an oxidic layer or that only one oxidic layer is present which can contain a homogeneously dispersed metallic phase. Heat generation in the melt is by decay heat and chemical reactions from metal oxidation. Energy is lost to the melting concrete and to the upper containment by radiation or evaporation of sumpwater possibly flooding the surface of the melt. Thermodynamic and transport properties as well as criteria for heat transfer and solidification processes are internally calculated for each time step. Heat transfer is modelled taking into account the high gas flux from the decomposing concrete and the heat conduction in the crusts possibly forming in the long term at the melt/concrete interface. The CALTHER code (developed at CEA, France) which models the radiative heat transfer from the upper surface of the corium melt to the surrounding cavity is implemented in the present WECHSL version. The WECHSL code in its present version was validated by the BETA, ACE and SURC experiments. The test samples include a BETA and the SURC2 post test calculations and a WECHSL application to a reactor accident. (orig.) [de
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Beatriz Martínez-López
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The spatial pattern and epidemiology of backyard pig farming and other low bio-security pig production systems and their role in the occurrence of classical swine fever (CSF is described and evaluated. A spatial Bayesian model was used to explore the risk factors, including human demographics, socioeconomic and environmental factors. The analyses were performed for Bulgaria, which has a large number of backyard farms (96% of all pig farms in the country are classified as backyard farms, and it is one of the countries for which both backyard pig and farm counts were available. Results reveal that the high-risk areas are typically concentrated in areas with small family farms, high numbers of outgoing pig shipments and low levels of personal consumption (i.e. economically deprived areas. Identification of risk factors and high-risk areas for CSF will allow to targeting risk-based surveillance strategies leading to prevention, control and, ultimately, elimination of the disease in Bulgaria and other countries with similar socio-epidemiological conditions.
Sriyudthsak, Kansuporn; Shiraishi, Fumihide
2010-11-01
A number of recent research studies have focused on theoretical and experimental investigation of a bottleneck in a metabolic reaction network. However, there is no study on how the bottleneck affects the performance of a fermentation process when a product is highly toxic and remarkably influences the growth and death of cells. The present work therefore studies the effect of bottleneck on product concentrations under different product toxicity conditions. A generalized bottleneck model in a fed-batch fermentation is constructed including both the bottleneck and the product influences on cell growth and death. The simulation result reveals that when the toxic product strongly influences the cell growth and death, the final product concentration is hardly changed even if the bottleneck is removed, whereas it is markedly changed by the degree of product toxicity. The performance of an ethanol fermentation process is also discussed as a case example to validate this result. In conclusion, when the product is highly toxic, one cannot expect a significant increase in the final product concentration even if removing the bottleneck; rather, it may be more effective to somehow protect the cells so that they can continuously produce the product. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cummings, E Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed
2010-07-01
Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, we tested a social-ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes. Participants were 700 mother-child (M = 12.1 years, SD = 1.8) dyads from 18 working-class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children's reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems, and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social-ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single- and two-parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children's functioning are discussed.
Cummings, E. Mark; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed
2013-01-01
Moving beyond simply documenting that political violence negatively impacts children, a social ecological hypothesis for relations between political violence and child outcomes was tested. Participants were 700 mother-child (M=12.1years, SD=1.8) dyads from 18 working class, socially deprived areas in Belfast, Northern Ireland, including single- and two-parent families. Sectarian community violence was associated with elevated family conflict and children’s reduced security about multiple aspects of their social environment (i.e., family, parent-child relations, and community), with links to child adjustment problems and reductions in prosocial behavior. By comparison, and consistent with expectations, links with negative family processes, child regulatory problems and child outcomes were less consistent for nonsectarian community violence. Support was found for a social ecological model for relations between political violence and child outcomes among both single and two parent families, with evidence that emotional security and adjustment problems were more negatively affected in single-parent families. The implications for understanding social ecologies of political violence and children’s functioning are discussed. PMID:20604605
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eliyahu, Ian
2015-01-01
relative OA band HCP induced efficiencies as described in the following. The high fluence region has allowed the determination of the saturation concentration of the F band and 4.77 eV band using the Beer-Lambert and Smakula formulas. The results indicate order of magnitude enhanced concentrations of vii these centers following the proton and He irradiations relative to photon irradiation. 2. Kinetic Analysis: The second focus of investigation was the development of a kinetic model to describe charge carrier transport in the LiF:Mg,Ti system including three features delineated in the following. The primary motivation for the kinetic analysis was the intention to modify track structure theory by taking into account enhanced vacancy/F center creation in the low ionization density kinetic simulations but was expanded in order to simulate the unique features of dose response in LiF:Mg,Ti. The kinetic model includes: c) Estimated electron-hole (e-h) and e-only population of the spatially correlated trapping center/luminescent center responsible for composite glow peak 5 in the glow curve of LiF:Mg,Ti. d) Combined localized and delocalized recombination of the e-h and e-only centers in the recombination stage. These features are shown to be capable of simulating both the linear/supralinear dose response and the dependence of the supralinearity on photon energy as is observed for composite peak 5. Both of these characteristics have previously eluded the predictive powers of kinetic theory based exclusively on delocalized recombination. e) Vacancy/F center creation in the irradiation stage including vacancyinterstitial recombination. The kinetic model with the latter mechanisms attempts to resolve a central question concerning the mechanisms leading to the linear/exponentially saturating dose response of the F band even though Fluorine vacancies are being continuously created during the irradiation. The electron-trapping characteristics of the created vacancies are assumed to
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lorin, E; Bandrauk, A D; Lytova, M; Memarian, A
2015-01-01
This paper is dedicated to the exploration of non-conventional nonlinear optics models for intense and short electromagnetic fields propagating in a gas. When an intense field interacts with a gas, usual nonlinear optics models, such as cubic nonlinear Maxwell, wave and Schrödinger equations, derived by perturbation theory may become inaccurate or even irrelevant. As a consequence, and to include in particular the effect of free electrons generated by laser–molecule interaction, several heuristic models, such as UPPE, HOKE models, etc, coupled with Drude-like models [1, 2], were derived. The goal of this paper is to present alternative approaches based on non-heuristic principles. This work is in particular motivated by the on-going debate in the filamentation community, about the effect of high order nonlinearities versus plasma effects due to free electrons, in pulse defocusing occurring in laser filaments [3–9]. The motivation of our work goes beyond filamentation modeling, and is more generally related to the interaction of any external intense and (short) pulse with a gas. In this paper, two different strategies are developed. The first one is based on the derivation of an evolution equation on the polarization, in order to determine the response of the medium (polarization) subject to a short and intense electromagnetic field. Then, we derive a combined semi-heuristic model, based on Lewenstein’s strong field approximation model and the usual perturbative modeling in nonlinear optics. The proposed model allows for inclusion of high order nonlinearities as well as free electron plasma effects. (paper)
Dawson, John R
1938-01-01
The results of a general tank test of a 1/6 full-size model of the hull of the Pem-1 flying boat (N.A.C.A. model 18) are given in non-dimensional form. In addition to the usual curves, the results are presented in a new form that makes it possible to apply them more conveniently than in the forms previously used. The resistance was compared with that of N.A.C.A. models 11-C and 26(Sikorsky S-40) and was found to be generally less than the resistance of either.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glasser, M. L.; March, N. H.; Nieto, L. M. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, ES-47011 Valladolid, Spain and Department of Physics, Clarkson University, Potsdam, New York 13699 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Antwerp, BE-2020 Antwerp, Belgium and Department of Theoretical Chemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD (United Kingdom); Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, ES-47011 Valladolid (Spain)
2011-12-15
Here attention is first drawn to the importance of gaining insight into Fock's early proposal for expanding the ground-state wave function for He-like atomic ions in hyperspherical coordinates. We approach the problem via two solvable models, namely, (i) the s-term model put forth by Temkin [Phys. Rev. 126, 130 (1962)] and (ii) the Hookean atom model proposed by Kestner and Sinanoglu [Phys. Rev. 128, 2687 (1962)]. In both cases the local kinetic energy can be obtained explicitly in hyperspherical coordinates. Separation of variables occurs in both model wave functions, though in a different context in the two cases. Finally, a k-space formulation is proposed that should eventually result in distinctive identifying characteristics of Fock's nonanalyticities for He-like atomic ions when both electrons are close to the nucleus.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sossan, Fabrizio; Bindner, Henrik W.; Madsen, Henrik
2014-01-01
The objective of this paper is to analyze the value of energy replacement in the context of demand response. Energy replacement is dened as the possibility of the consumer to choose the most convenient source for providing space heating to a smart building according to a dynamic electricity price....... In the proposed setup, heat is provided by conventional electric radiators and a combined heat and power generation system, composed by a fuel cell and an electrolyzer. The energy replacement strategy is formulated using model predictive control and mathematical models of the components involved. Simulations show...... that the predictive energy replacement strategy reduces the operating costs of the system and is able to provide a larger amount of regulating power to the grid. In the paper, we also develop a novel dynamic model of a PEM fuel cell suitable for micro-grid applications. The model is realized applying a grey...
Pinho, Silvestre T.; Davila, C. G.; Camanho, P. P.; Iannucci, L.; Robinson, P.
2005-01-01
A set of three-dimensional failure criteria for laminated fiber-reinforced composites, denoted LaRC04, is proposed. The criteria are based on physical models for each failure mode and take into consideration non-linear matrix shear behaviour. The model for matrix compressive failure is based on the Mohr-Coulomb criterion and it predicts the fracture angle. Fiber kinking is triggered by an initial fiber misalignment angle and by the rotation of the fibers during compressive loading. The plane of fiber kinking is predicted by the model. LaRC04 consists of 6 expressions that can be used directly for design purposes. Several applications involving a broad range of load combinations are presented and compared to experimental data and other existing criteria. Predictions using LaRC04 correlate well with the experimental data, arguably better than most existing criteria. The good correlation seems to be attributable to the physical soundness of the underlying failure models.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kris Tri Basuki
2008-01-01
Emulsion liquid membrane systems are double emulsion drops. Two immiscible phases are separated by a third phase which is immiscible with the other two phases. The liquid membrane systems were classified into two types: (1) carrier mediated mass transfer, (2) mass transfer without any reaction involved. Uranium extraction, molybdenum extraction and solvent extraction were used as purposed elements for each type of the membrane systems in the derivation of their mathematical models. Mass transfer in emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) systems has been modeled by several differential and algebraic equations. The models take into account the following : mass transfer of the solute from the bulk external phase to the external phase-membrane interface; an equilibrium reaction between the solute and the carrier to form the solute-carrier complex at the interface; mass transfer by diffusion of the solute-carrier complex in the membrane phase to the membrane-internal phase interface; another equilibrium reaction of the solute-carrier complex to release the solute at the membrane-internal phase interface into the internal phase. Models with or without the consideration of film resistances were developed and compared. The models developed in this study can predict the extraction rate through emulsion liquid membranes theoretically. All parameters required in the models can be determined before an experimental extraction run. Experimental data from literature (uranium extraction) and (molybdenum extraction and solvent extraction) were used to test the models. The agreements between the theoretical predictions and the experimental data were very good. The advantages of emulsion liquid membrane systems over traditional methods were discussed. The models developed in this research can be used directly for the design of emulsion liquid membrane systems. The results of this study represent a very significant step toward the practical applications of the emulsion liquid membrane
Artnak, Edward Joseph, III
This work seeks to illustrate the potential benefits afforded by implementing aspects of fluid dynamics, especially the latest computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling approach, through numerical experimentation and the traditional discipline of physical experimentation to improve the calibration of the severe reactor accident analysis code, MELCOR, in one of several spent fuel pool (SFP) complete loss-ofcoolant accident (LOCA) scenarios. While the scope of experimental work performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) extends well beyond that which is reasonably addressed by our allotted resources and computational time in accordance with initial project allocations to complete the report, these simulated case trials produced a significant array of supplementary high-fidelity solutions and hydraulic flow-field data in support of SNL research objectives. Results contained herein show FLUENT CFD model representations of a 9x9 BWR fuel assembly in conditions corresponding to a complete loss-of-coolant accident scenario. In addition to the CFD model developments, a MATLAB based controlvolume model was constructed to independently assess the 9x9 BWR fuel assembly under similar accident scenarios. The data produced from this work show that FLUENT CFD models are capable of resolving complex flow fields within a BWR fuel assembly in the realm of buoyancy-induced mass flow rates and that characteristic hydraulic parameters from such CFD simulations (or physical experiments) are reasonably employed in corresponding constitutive correlations for developing simplified numerical models of comparable solution accuracy.
Heussner, Nico; Holl, Lukas; Nowak, Timo; Beuth, Thorsten; Spitzer, Martin S; Stork, Wilhelm
2014-08-01
The work presented here describes the development and use of a three-dimensional thermo-dynamic model of the human eye for the prediction of temperatures and damage thresholds under irradiation. This model takes into account the blood flow by the implementation of a vectorial blood stream in the choroid and also uses the actual physiological extensions and tissue parameters of the eye. Furthermore it considers evaporation, radiation and convection at the cornea as well as the eye lid. The predicted temperatures were successfully validated against existing eye models in terms of corneal and global thermal behaviour. The model׳s predictions were additionally checked for consistency with in-vivo temperature measurements of the cornea, the irradiated retina and its damage thresholds. These thresholds were calculated from the retinal temperatures using the Arrhenius integral. Hence the model can be used to predict the temperature increase and irradiation hazard within the human eye as long as the absorption values and the Arrhenius coefficients are known and the damage mechanism is in the thermal regime. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Taljaard, Susan
2009-11-01
Full Text Available the relatively constricted, microtidal estuaries located along wave dominated coasts in the region, specifically focusing on the limiting macronutrients nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and on key processes, including physical (e.g. flushing, mixing...
Xu, Huifang; Dai, Yuehua
2017-02-01
A two-dimensional analytical model of double-gate (DG) tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) with interface trapped charges is proposed in this paper. The influence of the channel mobile charges on the potential profile is also taken into account in order to improve the accuracy of the models. On the basis of potential profile, the electric field is derived and the expression for the drain current is obtained by integrating the BTBT generation rate. The model can be used to study the impact of interface trapped charges on the surface potential, the shortest tunneling length, the drain current and the threshold voltage for varying interface trapped charge densities, length of damaged region as well as the structural parameters of the DG TFET and can also be utilized to design the charge trapped memory devices based on TFET. The biggest advantage of this model is that it is more accurate, and in its expression there are no fitting parameters with small calculating amount. Very good agreements for both the potential, drain current and threshold voltage are observed between the model calculations and the simulated results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61376106), the University Natural Science Research Key Project of Anhui Province (No. KJ2016A169), and the Introduced Talents Project of Anhui Science and Technology University.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Woochul Nam
Full Text Available Kinesins are molecular motors which walk along microtubules by moving their heads to different binding sites. The motion of kinesin is realized by a conformational change in the structure of the kinesin molecule and by a diffusion of one of its two heads. In this study, a novel model is developed to account for the 2D diffusion of kinesin heads to several neighboring binding sites (near the surface of microtubules. To determine the direction of the next step of a kinesin molecule, this model considers the extension in the neck linkers of kinesin and the dynamic behavior of the coiled-coil structure of the kinesin neck. Also, the mechanical interference between kinesins and obstacles anchored on the microtubules is characterized. The model predicts that both the kinesin velocity and run length (i.e., the walking distance before detaching from the microtubule are reduced by static obstacles. The run length is decreased more significantly by static obstacles than the velocity. Moreover, our model is able to predict the motion of kinesin when other (several motors also move along the same microtubule. Furthermore, it suggests that the effect of mechanical interaction/interference between motors is much weaker than the effect of static obstacles. Our newly developed model can be used to address unanswered questions regarding degraded transport caused by the presence of excessive tau proteins on microtubules.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alonso, A.; Buron, J.M.; Fernandez, S.
1991-07-01
In this report, a kinetic model has been developed with the aim to try to reproduce the chemical phenomena that take place in a flowing system containing steam, hydrogen and iodine and caesium vapours. The work is divided into two different parts. The first part consists in the estimation, through the Activited Complex Theory, of the reaction rate constants, for the chosen reactions, and the development of the kinetic model based on the concept of ideal tubular chemical reactor. The second part deals with the application of such model to several cases, which were taken from the Phase B 'Scoping Calculations' of the Phebus-FP Project (sequence AB) and the SFD-ST and SFD1.1 experiments. The main conclusion obtained from this work is that the assumption of instantaneous equilibrium could be inacurrate in order to estimate the iodine and caesium species distribution under severe accidents conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaber, M Ben; Mehrez, S; Ghazouani, O
2014-01-01
In this paper, a new 1D constitutive model for shape memory alloy using strain and temperature as control variables is presented. The new formulation is restricted to the 1D stress case and takes into account the martensite reorientation and the asymmetry of the SMA behavior in tension and compression. Numerical implementation of the new model in a finite element code was conducted. The numerical results for superelastic behavior in tension and compression tests are presented and were compared to experimental data taken from the literature. Other numerical tests are presented, showing the model’s ability to reproduce the main aspects of SMA behavior such as the shape memory effect and the martensite reorientation under cyclic loading. Finally, to demonstrate the utility of the new constitutive model, a dynamic test of a bi-clamped SMA bending beam under forced oscillation is described. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ngo, Tri-Dat
2016-01-01
This work deals with the mathematical modeling and the numerical simulation of the migration under gravity and capillarity effects of the supercritical CO 2 injected into a geological heterogeneous sequestration site. The simulations are performed with the code DuMux. Particularly, we consider the up-scaling, from the cell scale to the reservoir scale, of a two-phase (CO 2 -brine) flow model within a periodic stratified medium made up of horizontal low permeability barriers, continuous or discontinuous. The up-scaling is done by the two-scale asymptotic method. First, we consider perfectly layered media. An homogenized model is developed and validated by numerical simulation for different values of capillary number and the incident flux of CO 2 . The homogenization method is then applied to the case of a two-dimensional medium made up of discontinuous layers. Due to the gravity effect, the CO 2 accumulates under the low permeability layers, which leads to a non-standard local mathematical problem. This stratification is modeled using the gravity current approach. This approach is then extended to the case of semi-permeable strata taking into account the capillarity. The up-scaled model is compared with numerical simulations for different types of layers, with or without capillary pressure, and its limit of validity is discussed in each of these cases. The final part of this thesis is devoted to the study of the parallel computing performances of the code DuMux to simulate the injection and migration of CO 2 in three-dimensional heterogeneous media (layered periodic media, fluvial media and reservoir model SPE 10). (author) [fr
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Stoll
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Climate change related modifications in the spatio-temporal distribution of precipitation and evapotranspiration will have an impact on groundwater resources. This study presents a modelling approach exploiting the advantages of integrated hydrological modelling and a broad climate model basis. We applied the integrated MIKE SHE model on a perialpine, small catchment in northern Switzerland near Zurich. To examine the impact of climate change we forced the hydrological model with data from eight GCM-RCM combinations showing systematic biases which are corrected by three different statistical downscaling methods, not only for precipitation but also for the variables that govern potential evapotranspiration. The downscaling methods are evaluated in a split sample test and the sensitivity of the downscaling procedure on the hydrological fluxes is analyzed. The RCMs resulted in very different projections of potential evapotranspiration and, especially, precipitation. All three downscaling methods reduced the differences between the predictions of the RCMs and all corrected predictions showed no future groundwater stress which can be related to an expected increase in precipitation during winter. It turned out that especially the timing of the precipitation and thus recharge is very important for the future development of the groundwater levels. However, the simulation experiments revealed the weaknesses of the downscaling methods which directly influence the predicted hydrological fluxes, and thus also the predicted groundwater levels. The downscaling process is identified as an important source of uncertainty in hydrological impact studies, which has to be accounted for. Therefore it is strongly recommended to test different downscaling methods by using verification data before applying them to climate model data.
New seismograph includes filters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1979-11-02
The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Morin, Léo; Leblond, Jean Baptiste; Tvergaard, Viggo
2016-01-01
, a numerical implementation of the model is proposed and incorporated into the SYSTUS® and ABAQUS® finite element programmes (through some freely available UMAT (Leblond, 2015) in the second case). Second, the implementation in SYSTUS® is used to simulate previous "numerical experiments" of Tvergaard...... and coworkers (Tvergaard, 2008, 2009, 2012, 2015a; Dahl et al., 2012; Nielsen et al., 2012) involving the shear loading of elementary porous cells, where softening due to changes of the void shape and orientation was very apparent. It is found that with a simple, heuristic modelling of the phenomenon...
Lammers, R.J.M.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Rodriguez Faba, O.; Witjes, W.P.J.; Palou, J.; Witjes, J.A.
2016-01-01
PURPOSE: To develop a model to predict recurrence for patients with intermediate-risk (IR) non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) treated with intravesical chemotherapy which can be challenging because of the heterogeneous characteristics of these patients. METHODS: Data from three Dutch trials
Bao, Cheng; Jiang, Zeyi; Zhang, Xinxin
2015-10-01
Fuel flexibility is a significant advantage of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). A comprehensive macroscopic framework is proposed for synthesis gas (syngas) fueled electrochemistry and transport in SOFC anode with two main novelties, i.e. analytical H2/CO electrochemical co-oxidation, and correction of gas species concentration at triple phase boundary considering competitive absorption and surface diffusion. Staring from analytical approximation of the decoupled charge and mass transfer, we present analytical solutions of two defined variables, i.e. hydrogen current fraction and enhancement factor. Giving explicit answer (rather than case-by-case numerical calculation) on how many percent of the current output contributed by H2 or CO and on how great the water gas shift reaction plays role on, this approach establishes at the first time an adaptive superposition mechanism of H2-fuel and CO-fuel electrochemistry for syngas fuel. Based on the diffusion equivalent circuit model, assuming series-connected resistances of surface diffusion and bulk diffusion, the model predicts well at high fuel utilization by keeping fixed porosity/tortuosity ratio. The model has been validated by experimental polarization behaviors in a wide range of operation on a button cell for H2-H2O-CO-CO2-N2 fuel systems. The framework could be helpful to narrow the gap between macro-scale and meso-scale SOFC modeling.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Creighton, J.R.
1975-01-01
Waveforms and population distributions have been calculated by a numerical model and compared with experiment for an electric-discharge-initiated, pulsed NF 3 + H 2 chemical laser. The model treats each vibrational-rotational state separately, allowing rotational relaxation between adjacent states as well as vibrational relaxation and lasing according to P-branch selection rules. Calculated waveforms agree with experiment and show several features not seen when rotational equilibrium is assumed: simultaneous lasing on many transitions, cascade behavior, spikes due to laser relaxation oscillations, non-Boltzmann rotational distributions, and ''hole burning'' in the population distributions. The calculations give insight into the physical phenomena governing the shape and duration of the waveforms. The effect of varying certain parameters, relaxation rates, temperature, pressure, and diluents, is studied. Best fit to experimental waveforms is obtained when the rotational relaxation rate and collisional line broadening rate are approximately equal at about 10 times the hard sphere collision rate. The IXION computer code, developed for these calculations, is described in detail. In addition, an analytic model is presented which accounts for major features of the total (all transitions) output waveform of the laser assuming rotational equilibrium, a steady state laser model, and constant temperature. A second computer code, MINOTAR, was developed as a general purpose chemical kinetics code. It verifies the analytic model and extends the results to adiabatic reactions where the temperature varies, and can yield waveforms using the assumptions of rotational equilibrium and a steady state laser. The MINOTAR code, being general, can also be used for chemical kinetics problems such as air pollution and combustion
Analytic device including nanostructures
Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni
2015-01-01
A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.
Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1979-09-01
The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia Giraldo, Jairo A; Boshell, Jose Francisco
2004-01-01
ARIMA-type models are proposed to simulate the behavior of dengue and to make apparent the relations with the climatic variability in four localities of Colombia. The climatic variable was introduced into the models as an index that modulates the behavior of the disease. It was obtained by means of a multivariate analysis of principal components. The investigation was carried out with information corresponding to the epidemiological weeks from January 1997 to December 2000, for both the number of disease cases and the data corresponding to the meteorological variables. The study shows that the variations of the climate between the previous 9 to 14 weeks have influence on the appearance of new cases of dengue. In particular, the precipitation in these weeks was seen to be greater when in later periods the disease presented epidemic characteristics than the precipitation in those weeks preceded the disease within endemic limits
Nacif el Alaoui, Reda
Mechanical structure-property relations have been quantified for AISI 4140 steel. under different strain rates and temperatures. The structure-property relations were used. to calibrate a microstructure-based internal state variable plasticity-damage model for. monotonic tension, compression and torsion plasticity, as well as damage evolution. Strong stress state and temperature dependences were observed for the AISI 4140 steel. Tension tests on three different notched Bridgman specimens were undertaken to study. the damage-triaxiality dependence for model validation purposes. Fracture surface. analysis was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to quantify the void. nucleation and void sizes in the different specimens. The stress-strain behavior exhibited. a fairly large applied stress state (tension, compression dependence, and torsion), a. moderate temperature dependence, and a relatively small strain rate dependence.
Raman, Jayanthi; Smith, Evelyn; Hay, Phillipa
2013-01-01
Psychological distress and deficits in executive functioning are likely to be important barriers to effective weight loss maintenance. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, in the light of recent evidence in the fields of neuropsychology and obesity, particularly on the deficits in the executive function in overweight and obese individuals, a conceptual and theoretical framework of obesity maintenance is introduced by way of a clinical obesity maintenance model (COMM). It is argued tha...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Snel, H. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN, Renewable Energy, Wind Energy (Netherlands)
1997-08-01
Recently the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method has been made more versatile. Inclusion of rotational effects on time averaged profile coefficients have improved its achievements for performance calculations in stalled flow. Time dependence as a result of turbulent inflow, pitching actions and yawed operation is now treated more correctly (although more improvement is needed) than before. It is of interest to note that adaptations in modelling of unsteady or periodic induction stem from qualitative and quantitative insights obtained from free vortex models. Free vortex methods and further into the future Navier Stokes (NS) calculations, together with wind tunnel and field experiments, can be very useful in enhancing the potential of BEM for aero-elastic response calculations. It must be kept in mind however that extreme caution must be used with free vortex methods, as will be discussed in the following chapters. A discussion of the shortcomings and the strength of BEM and of vortex wake models is given. Some ideas are presented on how BEM might be improved without too much loss of efficiency. (EG)
George, David L.; Iverson, Richard M.
2011-01-01
Pore-fluid pressure plays a crucial role in debris flows because it counteracts normal stresses at grain contacts and thereby reduces intergranular friction. Pore-pressure feedback accompanying debris deformation is particularly important during the onset of debrisflow motion, when it can dramatically influence the balance of forces governing downslope acceleration. We consider further effects of this feedback by formulating a new, depth-averaged mathematical model that simulates coupled evolution of granular dilatancy, solid and fluid volume fractions, pore-fluid pressure, and flow depth and velocity during all stages of debris-flow motion. To illustrate implications of the model, we use a finite-volume method to compute one-dimensional motion of a debris flow descending a rigid, uniformly inclined slope, and we compare model predictions with data obtained in large-scale experiments at the USGS debris-flow flume. Predictions for the first 1 s of motion show that increasing pore pressures (due to debris contraction) cause liquefaction that enhances flow acceleration. As acceleration continues, however, debris dilation causes dissipation of pore pressures, and this dissipation helps stabilize debris-flow motion. Our numerical predictions of this process match experimental data reasonably well, but predictions might be improved by accounting for the effects of grain-size segregation.
Mesbah, M.; Pattey, E.; Jégo, G.; Geng, X.; Tremblay, N.; Didier, A.
2017-12-01
Identifying optimum nitrogen (N) application rate is essential for increasing agricultural production while limiting potential environmental contaminations caused by release of reactive N, especially for high demand N crops such as corn. The central question of N management is then how the optimum N rate is affected by climate variability for given soil. The experimental determination of optimum N rates involve the analyses of variance on the mean value of crop yield response to various N application rates used by factorial plot based experiments for a few years in several regions. This traditional approach has limitations to capture 1) the non-linear response of yield to N application rates due to large incremental N rates (often more than 40 kg N ha-1) and 2) the ecophysiological response of the crop to climate variability because of limited numbers of growing seasons considered. Modeling on the other hand, does not have such limitations and hence we use a crop model and propose a model-based methodology called Finding NEMO (N Ecophysiologically Modelled Optimum) to identify the optimum N rates for variable agro-climatic conditions and given soil properties. The performance of the methodology is illustrated using the STICS crop model adapted for rainfed corn in the Mixedwood Plains ecozone of eastern Canada (42.3oN 83oW-46.8oN 71oW) where more than 90% of Canadian corn is produced. The simulations were performed using small increment of preplant N application rate (10 kg N ha -1), long time series of daily climatic data (48 to 61 years) for 5 regions along the ecozone, and three contrasting soils per region. The results show that N recommendations should be region and soil specific. Soils with lower available water capacity required more N compared to soil with higher available water capacity. When N rates were at their ecophysiologically optimum level, 10 to 17 kg increase in dry yield could be achieved by adding 1 kg N. Expected yield also affected the optimum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Engqvist, A.; Andrejev, O.
2000-02-01
A sensitivity analysis with regard to variations of physical forcing has been performed using a 3D baroclinic model of the Oeregrundsgrepen area for a whole-year period with data pertaining to 1992. The results of these variations are compared to a nominal run with unaltered physical forcing. This nominal simulation is based on the experience gained in an earlier whole-year modelling of the same area; the difference is mainly that the present nominal simulation is run with identical parameters for the whole year. From a computational economy point of view it has been necessary to vary the time step between the month-long simulation periods. For all simulations with varied forcing, the same time step as for the nominal run has been used. The analysis also comprises the water turnover of a hypsographically defined subsection, the Bio Model area, located above the SFR depository. The external forcing factors that have been varied are the following (with their found relative impact on the volume average of the retention time of the Bio Model area over one year given within parentheses): atmospheric temperature increased/reduced by 2.5 deg C (-0.1% resp. +0.6%), local freshwater discharge rate doubled/halved (-1.6% resp. +0.01%), salinity range at the border increased/reduced a factor 2 (-0.84% resp. 0.00%), wind speed forcing reduced 10% (+8.6%). The results of these simulations, at least the yearly averages, permit a reasonably direct physical explanation, while the detailed dynamics is for natural reasons more intricate. Two additional full-year simulations of possible future hydrographic regimes have also been performed. The first mimics a hypothetical situation with permanent ice cover, which increases the average retention time 87%. The second regime entails the future hypsography with its anticipated shoreline displacement by an 11 m land-rise in the year 4000 AD, which also considerably increases the average retention times for the two remaining layers of the
Liu, P. F.; Li, X. K.
2018-06-01
The purpose of this paper is to study micromechanical progressive failure properties of carbon fiber/epoxy composites with thermal residual stress by finite element analysis (FEA). Composite microstructures with hexagonal fiber distribution are used for the representative volume element (RVE), where an initial fiber breakage is assumed. Fiber breakage with random fiber strength is predicted using Monte Carlo simulation, progressive matrix damage is predicted by proposing a continuum damage mechanics model and interface failure is simulated using Xu and Needleman's cohesive model. Temperature dependent thermal expansion coefficients for epoxy matrix are used. FEA by developing numerical codes using ANSYS finite element software is divided into two steps: 1. Thermal residual stresses due to mismatch between fiber and matrix are calculated; 2. Longitudinal tensile load is further exerted on the RVE to perform progressive failure analysis of carbon fiber/epoxy composites. Numerical convergence is solved by introducing the viscous damping effect properly. The extended Mori-Tanaka method that considers interface debonding is used to get homogenized mechanical responses of composites. Three main results by FEA are obtained: 1. the real-time matrix cracking, fiber breakage and interface debonding with increasing tensile strain is simulated. 2. the stress concentration coefficients on neighbouring fibers near the initial broken fiber and the axial fiber stress distribution along the broken fiber are predicted, compared with the results using the global and local load-sharing models based on the shear-lag theory. 3. the tensile strength of composite by FEA is compared with those by the shear-lag theory and experiments. Finally, the tensile stress-strain curve of composites by FEA is applied to the progressive failure analysis of composite pressure vessel.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Sedlák, Petr; Frost, Miroslav; Benešová, Barbora; Zineb, T.B.; Šittner, Petr
2012-01-01
Roč. 39, DEC 2012 (2012), s. 132-151 ISSN 0749-6419 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/1296; GA ČR GA106/09/1573; GA ČR(CZ) GA101/09/0702; GA ČR GAP107/12/0800 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : shape memory alloys * constitutive modeling * R-phase * non-proportional loading * dissipation function Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics; JJ - Other Materials (FZU-D) Impact factor: 4.356, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749641912001027
Neira, Francisco J.; Keane, John P.; Lyle, Jeremy M.; Tracey, Sean R.
2008-08-01
Reared eggs and field-collected material were employed to describe the development of the pelagic eggs and larvae of Emmelichthys nitidus (Emmelichthyidae), a small (36 cm TL) mid-water schooling species common in shelf waters of temperate Australia. Hydrated oocytes from adults trawled from spawning grounds off eastern Tasmania were fertilized and reared to the yolk-sac larval stage, and the data employed to build a temperature-dependent egg incubation model. Embryogenesis lasted 96, 84 and 54 h at mean temperatures of 13.1, 14.4 and 16.5 °C respectively, and was divided into seven stages based on extent of epiboly until blastopore closure (stages I-III) and embryo growth (stages IV-VII). Eggs (1.00-1.05 mm diameter) are spherical with a smooth chorion, small perivitelline space and prominent, unsegmented yolk with a single, posteriorly-located oil globule (0.18-0.20 mm diameter) that becomes pigmented from stage III. Embryos have two distinct snout melanophores, and a paired melanophore row laterally along the trunk and tail. Morphological identification of eggs collected during surveys in October 2005 and 2006 was validated using quantitative PCR amplification of the mtDNA d-loop gene region unique to E. nitidus, producing an 80-100% agreement across all seven stages. Newly-emerged larvae (1.9-3.3 mm) possess a prominent yolk sac with the posteriorly-located, pigmented oil globule, mouth not yet functional and unpigmented eyes. Notochord flexion occurs between 5 and 8 mm while fins are formed by 12 mm. Larvae examined (3.3-17.4 mm) are lightly pigmented and possess percoid features such as an elongate to moderate body, coiled, triangular-shaped gut, preopercular spines and 24-25 myomeres; two prominent pigment patches opposite each other dorsally and ventrally along the tail are diagnostic. Variability of mean egg ages ( y) by temperature ( t) and stage ( i) was best described by the deterministic stage-to-age model y = 35.911exp[-(0.155 t + 0.262 i)] i2
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Korzenevica, Marina
2016-01-01
Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keskin, Mustafa; Erdinc, Ahmet
2004-01-01
As a continuation of the previously published work, the pair approximation of the cluster variation method is applied to study the temperature dependences of the order parameters of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with repulsive biquadratic coupling on a body centered cubic lattice. We obtain metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters besides the stable branches and phase transitions of these branches are investigated extensively. We study the dynamics of the model by the path probability method with pair distribution in order to make sure that we find and define the metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters completely and correctly. We present the metastable phase diagram in addition to the equilibrium phase diagram and also the first-order phase transition line for the unstable branches of the quadrupole order parameter is superimposed on the phase diagrams. It is found that the metastable phase diagram and the first-order phase boundary for the unstable quadrupole order parameter always exist at the low temperatures which are consistent with experimental and theoretical works
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rong Xing; Du Yong; Frey, Eric C
2012-01-01
Quantitative Yttrium-90 ( 90 Y) bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has shown great potential to provide reliable estimates of 90 Y activity distribution for targeted radionuclide therapy dosimetry applications. One factor that potentially affects the reliability of the activity estimates is the choice of the acquisition energy window. In contrast to imaging conventional gamma photon emitters where the acquisition energy windows are usually placed around photopeaks, there has been great variation in the choice of the acquisition energy window for 90 Y imaging due to the continuous and broad energy distribution of the bremsstrahlung photons. In quantitative imaging of conventional gamma photon emitters, previous methods for optimizing the acquisition energy window assumed unbiased estimators and used the variance in the estimates as a figure of merit (FOM). However, for situations, such as 90 Y imaging, where there are errors in the modeling of the image formation process used in the reconstruction there will be bias in the activity estimates. In 90 Y bremsstrahlung imaging this will be especially important due to the high levels of scatter, multiple scatter, and collimator septal penetration and scatter. Thus variance will not be a complete measure of reliability of the estimates and thus is not a complete FOM. To address this, we first aimed to develop a new method to optimize the energy window that accounts for both the bias due to model-mismatch and the variance of the activity estimates. We applied this method to optimize the acquisition energy window for quantitative 90 Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging in microsphere brachytherapy. Since absorbed dose is defined as the absorbed energy from the radiation per unit mass of tissues in this new method we proposed a mass-weighted root mean squared error of the volume of interest (VOI) activity estimates as the FOM. To calculate this FOM, two analytical expressions were derived for
Studer, Mirjam S.; Abiven, Samuel; González Domínguez, Beatriz R.; Hagedorn, Frank; Reisser, Moritz; Walthert, Lorenz; Zimmermann, Stephan; Niklaus, Pascal A.
2016-04-01
It is still largely unknown what drives the vulnerability of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks to climate change, i.e. the likelihood of a soil to loose its SOC along with the change in environmental conditions. Our objective is to assess the SOC vulnerability of Swiss forest soils and identify its potential drivers: climate (temperature, soil moisture), soil (clay content, pH) and landscape (slope, aspect) properties. Fifty-four sites were selected for balanced spatial and driver magnitudes distribution. We measured the SOC characteristics (content and radiocarbon) and studied the C decomposition by laboratory soil incubations (details in Part I, abstract by B. González Domínguez). In order to assess the current SOC pool distribution and its radiocarbon signatures, we extended the Rothamsted Carbon (RothC) model with radiocarbon (14C) isotope modelling (RothCiso). The RothC model distinguishes four active SOC pools, decomposable and resistant plant material, microbial biomass and humified organic matter, and an inert SOC pool (Jenkinson 1990). The active pools are decomposed and mineralized to CO2 by first order kinetics. The RothCiso assigns all pools a 14C signature, based on the atmospheric 14C concentrations of the past century (plant C inputs) and their turnover. Currently we constrain the model with 14C signatures measured on the 54 fresh and their corresponding archived bulk soil samples, taken 12-24 years before. We were able to reproduce the measured radiocarbon concentrations of the SOC with the RothCiso and first results indicate, that the assumption of an inert SOC pool, that is radiocarbon dead, is not appropriate. In a second step we will compare the SOC mean residence time assessed by the two methodological approaches - incubation (C efflux based) and modelling (C stock based) - and relate it to the environmental drivers mentioned above. With the combination of the two methodological approaches and 14C analysis we hope to gain more insights into
Rong, Xing; Du, Yong; Frey, Eric C
2012-06-21
Quantitative Yttrium-90 ((90)Y) bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has shown great potential to provide reliable estimates of (90)Y activity distribution for targeted radionuclide therapy dosimetry applications. One factor that potentially affects the reliability of the activity estimates is the choice of the acquisition energy window. In contrast to imaging conventional gamma photon emitters where the acquisition energy windows are usually placed around photopeaks, there has been great variation in the choice of the acquisition energy window for (90)Y imaging due to the continuous and broad energy distribution of the bremsstrahlung photons. In quantitative imaging of conventional gamma photon emitters, previous methods for optimizing the acquisition energy window assumed unbiased estimators and used the variance in the estimates as a figure of merit (FOM). However, for situations, such as (90)Y imaging, where there are errors in the modeling of the image formation process used in the reconstruction there will be bias in the activity estimates. In (90)Y bremsstrahlung imaging this will be especially important due to the high levels of scatter, multiple scatter, and collimator septal penetration and scatter. Thus variance will not be a complete measure of reliability of the estimates and thus is not a complete FOM. To address this, we first aimed to develop a new method to optimize the energy window that accounts for both the bias due to model-mismatch and the variance of the activity estimates. We applied this method to optimize the acquisition energy window for quantitative (90)Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging in microsphere brachytherapy. Since absorbed dose is defined as the absorbed energy from the radiation per unit mass of tissues in this new method we proposed a mass-weighted root mean squared error of the volume of interest (VOI) activity estimates as the FOM. To calculate this FOM, two analytical expressions were
Montoya, V.; Baeyens, B.; Glaus, M. A.; Kupcik, T.; Marques Fernandes, M.; Van Laer, L.; Bruggeman, C.; Maes, N.; Schäfer, T.
2018-02-01
Experimental investigations on the uptake of divalent cations (Sr, Co and Zn) onto illite (Illite du Puy, Le-Puy-en-Velay, France) were carried out by three different international research groups (Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal, KIT (Germany), Group Waste & Disposal, SCK-CEN, (Belgium) and Laboratory for Waste Management, PSI (Switzerland)) in the framework of the European FP7 CatClay project. The dependence of solid-liquid distribution ratios (Rd values) on pH at trace metal conditions (sorption edges) and on the metal ion concentration (sorption isotherms) was determined in dilute suspensions of homo-ionic Na-illite (Na-IdP) under controlled N2 atmosphere. The experimental results were modelled using the 2 Site Protolysis Non Electrostatic Surface Complexation and Cation Exchange (2SPNE SC/CE) sorption model. The sorption of Sr depends strongly on ionic strength, while a rather weak pH dependence is observed in a pH range between 3 and 11. The data were modelled with cation exchange reactions, taking into account competition with H, K, Ca, Mg and Al, and surface complexation on weak amphotheric edge sites at higher pH values. The sorption of Co on Na-IdP, however, is strongly pH dependent. Cation exchange on the planar sites and surface complexation on strong and weak amphoteric edge sites were used to describe the Co sorption data. Rd values for Co derived from in-diffusion measurements on compacted Na-IdP samples (bulk-dry density of 1700 kg m-3) between pH 5.0 and 9.0 are in good agreement with the batch sorption data. The equivalence of both approaches to measure sorption was thus confirmed for the present test system. In addition, the results highlight the importance of both major and minor surface species for the diffusive transport behaviour of strongly sorbing metal cations. While surface complexes at the edge sites determine largely the Rd value, the diffusive flux may be governed by those species bound to the planar sites, even at low fractional
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fox, T.; Kotzian, M.; Roesch, N.
1992-01-01
The authors present an INDO/S Molecular-orbital investigation of organic molecules containing a barrelene moiety that provides a rigid link between an aromatic donor and a maleic ester acceptor group. Molecules of this type have recently been synthesized and characterized spectroscopically. The authors discuss the ground state and various excited states both in vacuo and in solution. Solvent effects are incorporated by use of an electrostatic cavity model which is not restricted to a spherical cavity, but allows for a cavity shape that is adapted to the solute molecule. The calculations indicate low-lying charge-transfer (CT) excitations in the region of the first aromatic transitions, even in the gas phase
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fejgin, Kim; Nielsen, Jacob; Birknow, Michelle R.
2014-01-01
to develop myoclonic and absence-like seizures but decreased propensity for clonic and tonic seizures. Furthermore, they had impaired long-term spatial reference memory and a decreased theta frequency in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Electroencephalogram characterization revealed auditory processing......Background: Genome-wide scans have uncovered rare copy number variants conferring high risk of psychiatric disorders. The 15q13.3 microdeletion is associated with a considerably increased risk of idiopathic generalized epilepsy, intellectual disability, and schizophrenia. Methods: A 15q13.......3 microdeletion mouse model (Df[h15q13]/) was generated by hemizygous deletion of the orthologous region and characterized with focus on schizophrenia- and epilepsy-relevant parameters. Results: Df(h15q13)/ mice showed marked changes in neuronal excitability in acute seizure assays, with increased propensity...
Schechter, J; Green, L W; Olsen, L; Kruse, K; Cargo, M
1997-01-01
To apply Karasek's Job Content Model to an analysis of the relationships between job type and perceived stress and stress behaviors in a large company during a period of reorganization and downsizing. Cross-sectional mail-out, mail-back survey. A large Canadian telephone/telecommunications company. Stratified random sample (stratified by job category) of 2200 out of 13,000 employees with a response rate of 48.8%. Responses to 25 of Karasek's core questions were utilized to define four job types: low-demand and high control = "relaxed"; high demand and high control = "active"; low demand and low control = "passive", and high demand and low control = "high strain." These job types were compared against self-reported stress levels, perceived general level of health, absenteeism, alcohol use, exercise level, and use of medications and drugs. Similar analyses were performed to assess the influence of shift work. Employees with "passive" or "high strain" job types reported higher levels of stress (trend test p Karasek and Theorell was validated in this setting with respect to stress and some stress-associated attitudes and behaviors.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gökçen Uysal
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Optimal control of reservoirs is a challenging task due to conflicting objectives, complex system structure, and uncertainties in the system. Real time control decisions suffer from streamflow forecast uncertainty. This study aims to use Probabilistic Streamflow Forecasts (PSFs having a lead-time up to 48 h as input for the recurrent reservoir operation problem. A related technique for decision making is multi-stage stochastic optimization using scenario trees, referred to as Tree-based Model Predictive Control (TB-MPC. Deterministic Streamflow Forecasts (DSFs are provided by applying random perturbations on perfect data. PSFs are synthetically generated from DSFs by a new approach which explicitly presents dynamic uncertainty evolution. We assessed different variables in the generation of stochasticity and compared the results using different scenarios. The developed real-time hourly flood control was applied to a test case which had limited reservoir storage and restricted downstream condition. According to hindcasting closed-loop experiment results, TB-MPC outperforms the deterministic counterpart in terms of decreased downstream flood risk according to different independent forecast scenarios. TB-MPC was also tested considering different number of tree branches, forecast horizons, and different inflow conditions. We conclude that using synthetic PSFs in TB-MPC can provide more robust solutions against forecast uncertainty by resolution of uncertainty in trees.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. M. G. M. Trines
2001-06-01
Full Text Available A new method for the calculation of the magnetic field of beam guiding elements is presented. The method relates the calculation to measurement data of the magnetic field in a direct way. It can be applied to single beam guiding elements as well as to clusters of elements. The presented description of the magnetic field differs from the classical approach in that it does not rely on power series approximations. It is also both divergence free and curl free, and takes fringe field effects up to any desired order into account. In the field description, pseudodifferential operators described by Bessel functions are used to obtain the various multipole contributions. Magnetic field data on a two-dimensional surface, e.g., a cylindrical surface or median plane, serve as input for the calculation of the three-dimensional magnetic field. A boundary element method is presented to fit the fields to a discrete set of field data, obtained, for instance, from field measurements, on the two-dimensional surface. Relative errors in the field approximation do not exceed the maximal relative errors in the input data. Methods for incorporating the obtained field in both analytical and numerical computation of transfer functions are outlined. Applications include easy calculation of the transfer functions of clusters of beam guiding elements and of generalized field gradients for any multipole contribution up to any order.
Inline CBET Model Including SRS Backscatter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bailey, David S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2015-06-26
Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) has been used as a tool on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) since the first energetics experiments in 2009 to control the energy deposition in ignition hohlraums and tune the implosion symmetry. As large amounts of power are transferred between laser beams at the entrance holes of NIF hohlraums, the presence of many overlapping beat waves can lead to stochastic ion heating in the regions where laser beams overlap [P. Michel et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 195004 (2012)]. Using the CBET gains derived in this paper, we show how to implement these equations in a ray-based laser source for a rad-hydro code.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grassberger, C; Paganetti, H
2016-01-01
Purpose: To develop a model that includes the process of resistance development into the treatment optimization process for schedules that include targeted therapies. Further, to validate the approach using clinical data and to apply the model to assess the optimal induction period with targeted agents before curative treatment with chemo-radiation in stage III lung cancer. Methods: Growth of the tumor and its subpopulations is modeled by Gompertzian growth dynamics, resistance induction as a stochastic process. Chemotherapy induced cell kill is modeled by log-cell kill dynamics, targeted agents similarly but restricted to the sensitive population. Radiation induced cell kill is assumed to follow the linear-quadratic model. The validation patient data consist of a cohort of lung cancer patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors that had longitudinal imaging data available. Results: The resistance induction model was successfully validated using clinical trial data from 49 patients treated with targeted agents. The observed recurrence kinetics, with tumors progressing from 1.4–63 months, result in tumor growth equaling a median volume doubling time of 92 days [34–248] and a median fraction of pre-existing resistance of 0.035 [0–0.22], in agreement with previous clinical studies. The model revealed widely varying optimal time points for the use of curative therapy, reaching from ∼1m to >6m depending on the patient’s growth rate and amount of pre-existing resistance. This demonstrates the importance of patient-specific treatment schedules when targeted agents are incorporated into the treatment. Conclusion: We developed a model including evolutionary dynamics of resistant sub-populations with traditional chemotherapy and radiation cell kill models. Fitting to clinical data yielded patient specific growth rates and resistant fraction in agreement with previous studies. Further application of the model demonstrated how proper timing of chemo
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grassberger, C; Paganetti, H [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: To develop a model that includes the process of resistance development into the treatment optimization process for schedules that include targeted therapies. Further, to validate the approach using clinical data and to apply the model to assess the optimal induction period with targeted agents before curative treatment with chemo-radiation in stage III lung cancer. Methods: Growth of the tumor and its subpopulations is modeled by Gompertzian growth dynamics, resistance induction as a stochastic process. Chemotherapy induced cell kill is modeled by log-cell kill dynamics, targeted agents similarly but restricted to the sensitive population. Radiation induced cell kill is assumed to follow the linear-quadratic model. The validation patient data consist of a cohort of lung cancer patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors that had longitudinal imaging data available. Results: The resistance induction model was successfully validated using clinical trial data from 49 patients treated with targeted agents. The observed recurrence kinetics, with tumors progressing from 1.4–63 months, result in tumor growth equaling a median volume doubling time of 92 days [34–248] and a median fraction of pre-existing resistance of 0.035 [0–0.22], in agreement with previous clinical studies. The model revealed widely varying optimal time points for the use of curative therapy, reaching from ∼1m to >6m depending on the patient’s growth rate and amount of pre-existing resistance. This demonstrates the importance of patient-specific treatment schedules when targeted agents are incorporated into the treatment. Conclusion: We developed a model including evolutionary dynamics of resistant sub-populations with traditional chemotherapy and radiation cell kill models. Fitting to clinical data yielded patient specific growth rates and resistant fraction in agreement with previous studies. Further application of the model demonstrated how proper timing of chemo
Kerkweg, Astrid; Hofmann, Christiane; Jöckel, Patrick; Mertens, Mariano; Pante, Gregor
2018-03-01
As part of the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy), the Multi-Model-Driver (MMD v1.0) was developed to couple online the regional Consortium for Small-scale Modeling (COSMO) model into a driving model, which can be either the regional COSMO model or the global European Centre Hamburg general circulation model (ECHAM) (see Part 2 of the model documentation). The coupled system is called MECO(n), i.e., MESSy-fied ECHAM and COSMO models nested n times. In this article, which is part of the model documentation of the MECO(n) system, the second generation of MMD is introduced. MMD comprises the message-passing infrastructure required for the parallel execution (multiple programme multiple data, MPMD) of different models and the communication of the individual model instances, i.e. between the driving and the driven models. Initially, the MMD library was developed for a one-way coupling between the global chemistry-climate ECHAM/MESSy atmospheric chemistry (EMAC) model and an arbitrary number of (optionally cascaded) instances of the regional chemistry-climate model COSMO/MESSy. Thus, MMD (v1.0) provided only functions for unidirectional data transfer, i.e. from the larger-scale to the smaller-scale models.Soon, extended applications requiring data transfer from the small-scale model back to the larger-scale model became of interest. For instance, the original fields of the larger-scale model can directly be compared to the upscaled small-scale fields to analyse the improvements gained through the small-scale calculations, after the results are upscaled. Moreover, the fields originating from the two different models might be fed into the same diagnostic tool, e.g. the online calculation of the radiative forcing calculated consistently with the same radiation scheme. Last but not least, enabling the two-way data transfer between two models is the first important step on the way to a fully dynamical and chemical two-way coupling of the various model instances.In MMD (v1
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Kerkweg
2018-03-01
Full Text Available As part of the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy, the Multi-Model-Driver (MMD v1.0 was developed to couple online the regional Consortium for Small-scale Modeling (COSMO model into a driving model, which can be either the regional COSMO model or the global European Centre Hamburg general circulation model (ECHAM (see Part 2 of the model documentation. The coupled system is called MECO(n, i.e., MESSy-fied ECHAM and COSMO models nested n times. In this article, which is part of the model documentation of the MECO(n system, the second generation of MMD is introduced. MMD comprises the message-passing infrastructure required for the parallel execution (multiple programme multiple data, MPMD of different models and the communication of the individual model instances, i.e. between the driving and the driven models. Initially, the MMD library was developed for a one-way coupling between the global chemistry–climate ECHAM/MESSy atmospheric chemistry (EMAC model and an arbitrary number of (optionally cascaded instances of the regional chemistry–climate model COSMO/MESSy. Thus, MMD (v1.0 provided only functions for unidirectional data transfer, i.e. from the larger-scale to the smaller-scale models.Soon, extended applications requiring data transfer from the small-scale model back to the larger-scale model became of interest. For instance, the original fields of the larger-scale model can directly be compared to the upscaled small-scale fields to analyse the improvements gained through the small-scale calculations, after the results are upscaled. Moreover, the fields originating from the two different models might be fed into the same diagnostic tool, e.g. the online calculation of the radiative forcing calculated consistently with the same radiation scheme. Last but not least, enabling the two-way data transfer between two models is the first important step on the way to a fully dynamical and chemical two-way coupling of the various model
Quiquet, Aurélien; Roche, Didier M.
2017-04-01
Comprehensive fully coupled ice sheet - climate models allowing for multi-millenia transient simulations are becoming available. They represent powerful tools to investigate ice sheet - climate interactions during the repeated retreats and advances of continental ice sheets of the Pleistocene. However, in such models, most of the time, the spatial resolution of the ice sheet model is one order of magnitude lower than the one of the atmospheric model. As such, orography-induced precipitation is only poorly represented. In this work, we briefly present the most recent improvements of the ice sheet - climate coupling within the model of intermediate complexity iLOVECLIM. On the one hand, from the native atmospheric resolution (T21), we have included a dynamical downscaling of heat and moisture at the ice sheet model resolution (40 km x 40 km). This downscaling accounts for feedbacks of sub-grid precipitation on large scale energy and water budgets. From the sub-grid atmospheric variables, we compute an ice sheet surface mass balance required by the ice sheet model. On the other hand, we also explicitly use oceanic temperatures to compute sub-shelf melting at a given depth. Based on palaeo evidences for rate of change of eustatic sea level, we discuss the capability of our new model to correctly simulate the last glacial inception ( 116 kaBP) and the ice volume of the last glacial maximum ( 21 kaBP). We show that the model performs well in certain areas (e.g. Canadian archipelago) but some model biases are consistent over time periods (e.g. Kara-Barents sector). We explore various model sensitivities (e.g. initial state, vegetation, albedo) and we discuss the importance of the downscaling of precipitation for ice nucleation over elevated area and for the surface mass balance of larger ice sheets.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brochard, M.
2009-06-15
During this work, a 2D axially symmetric model of a TIG arc welding process had been developed in order to predict for given welding parameters, the needed variables for a designer of welded assembly: the heat input on the work piece, the weld pool geometry,... The developed model, using the Cast3M finite elements software, deals with the physical phenomena acting in each part of the process: the cathode, the plasma, the work piece with a weld pool, and the interfaces between these parts. To solve this model, the thermohydraulics equations are coupled with the electromagnetic equations that are calculated in part using the least squares finite element method. The beginning of the model validation consisted in comparing the results obtained with the ones available in the scientific literature. Thus, this step points out the action of each force in the weld pool, the contribution of each heat flux in the energy balance. Finally, to validate the model predictiveness, experimental and numerical sensitivity analyses were conducted using a design of experiments approach. The effects of the process current, the arc gap and the electrode tip angle on the weld pool geometry and the energy transferred to the work piece and the arc efficiency were studied. The good agreement obtained by the developed model for these outputs shows the good reproduction of the process physics. (author)
Pietrzak, Robert H; Tsai, Jack; Armour, Cherie; Mota, Natalie; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan; Southwick, Steven M
2015-03-15
While posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in the recently published Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) are clustered into four factors, emerging confirmatory factor analytic studies suggest that this disorder is best characterized by seven symptom clusters, including re-experiencing, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behaviors, and anxious and dysphoric arousal symptoms. To date, however, data are lacking regarding the relation between this novel model of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms and measures of clinical significance in this population (e.g., functioning). Using data from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study (NHRVS), a contemporary, nationally representative sample of 1484 U.S. veterans, we evaluated clinical and functional correlates of a novel 7-factor model of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms. Differential patterns of associations were observed between DSM-5 PTSD symptom clusters, and psychiatric comorbidities, suicidal ideation, hostility, and functioning and quality of life. Anhedonia symptoms, in particular, were strongly related to current depression, as well as reduced mental functioning and quality of life. Externalizing behaviors were most strongly related to hostility, supporting the convergent validity of this construct. Cross-sectional design and employment of self-report measures. These results suggest that a more refined 7-factor model of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms may provide greater specificity in understanding associations with comorbid psychopathology, suicidal ideation, and functioning and quality of life in U.S. veterans. They further suggest that prevention and treatment efforts that target distinct aspects of the PTSD phenotype may be more effective in mitigating key clinical and functional outcomes in this population. Published by Elsevier B.V.
NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) dataset current as of 2001. DEM data are useful for terrain analysis and modeling including slope and aspect calculations. They may be...
Static, Lightweight Includes Resolution for PHP
M.A. Hills (Mark); P. Klint (Paul); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen)
2014-01-01
htmlabstractDynamic languages include a number of features that are challenging to model properly in static analysis tools. In PHP, one of these features is the include expression, where an arbitrary expression provides the path of the file to include at runtime. In this paper we present two
Slack, R J; Hall, D A
2012-07-01
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The operational model provides a key conceptual framework for the analysis of pharmacological data. However, this model does not include constitutive receptor activity, a frequent phenomenon in modern pharmacology, particularly in recombinant systems. Here, we developed extensions of the operational model which include constitutive activity and applied them to effects of agonists at the chemokine receptor CCR4. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effects of agonists of CCR4 on [(35) S]GTPγS binding to recombinant cell membranes and on the filamentous (F-) actin content of human CD4(+) CCR4(+) T cells were determined. The basal [(35) S]GTPγS binding was changed by varying the GDP concentration whilst the basal F-actin contents of the higher expressing T cell populations were elevated, suggesting constitutive activity of CCR4. Both sets of data were analysed using the mathematical models. RESULTS The affinity of CCL17 (also known as TARC) derived from analysis of the T cell data (pK(a) = 9.61 ± 0.17) was consistent with radioligand binding experiments (9.50 ± 0.11) while that from the [(35) S]GTPγS binding experiments was lower (8.27 ± 0.09). Its intrinsic efficacy differed between the two systems (110 in T cells vs. 11). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The presence of constitutive receptor activity allows the absolute intrinsic efficacy of agonists to be determined without a contribution from the signal transduction system. Intrinsic efficacy estimated in this way is consistent with Furchgott's definition of this property. CCL17 may have a higher intrinsic efficacy at CCR4 in human T cells than that expressed recombinantly in CHO cells. © 2012 GSK Services Unlimited. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yokogawa, D., E-mail: d.yokogawa@chem.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Institute of Transformative Bio-Molecules (WPI-ITbM), Nagoya University, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)
2016-09-07
Theoretical approach to design bright bio-imaging molecules is one of the most progressing ones. However, because of the system size and computational accuracy, the number of theoretical studies is limited to our knowledge. To overcome the difficulties, we developed a new method based on reference interaction site model self-consistent field explicitly including spatial electron density distribution and time-dependent density functional theory. We applied it to the calculation of indole and 5-cyanoindole at ground and excited states in gas and solution phases. The changes in the optimized geometries were clearly explained with resonance structures and the Stokes shift was correctly reproduced.
Benabderrahmane, A., Sr.
2017-12-01
Hydrogeological site characterization for deep geological high level and intermediate level long lived radioactive waste repository cover a large time scale needed for safety analysis and calculation. Hydrogeological performance of a site relies also on the effects of geodynamic evolution as tectonic uplift, erosion/sedimentation and climate including glaciation on the groundwater flow and solute and heat transfer. Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical model of multilayered aquifer system of Paris Basin is developed to reproduce the present time flow and the natural tracer (Helium) concentration profiles based on the last 2 Ma of geodynamic evolution. Present time geological conceptual model consist of 27 layers at Paris Basin (Triassic-Tertiary) with refinement at project site scale (29 layers from Triassic to Portlandian). Target layers are the clay host formation of Callovo-Oxfrodian age (160 Ma) and the surrounding aquifer layers of Oxfordian and Dogger. Modelled processes are: groundwater flow, heat and solutes (natural tracers) transport, freezing and thawing of groundwater (expansion and retreat of permafrost), deformation of the multilayered aquifer system induced by differential tectonic uplift and the hydro-mechanical stress effect as caused by erosion of the outcropping layers. Numerical simulation considers a period from 2 Ma BP and up to the present. Transient boundary conditions are governed by geodynamic processes: (i) modification of the geometry of the basin and (ii) temperatures along the topography will change according to a series of 15 identical climate cycles with multiple permafrost (glaciation) periods. Numerical model contains 71 layers and 18 million cells. The solution procedure solves three coupled systems of equations, head, temperature and concentrations, by the use of a finite difference method, and by applying extensive parallel processing. The major modelling results related to the processes of importance for site characterization as hydraulic
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ueda, Yoshihiro [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Akiyama, Masayuki [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Hasinger, Günther [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive Honolulu, HI 96822-1839 (United States); Miyaji, Takamitsu [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Watson, Michael G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)
2014-05-10
We present the most up to date X-ray luminosity function (XLF) and absorption function of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over the redshift range from 0 to 5, utilizing the largest, highly complete sample ever available obtained from surveys performed with Swift/BAT, MAXI, ASCA, XMM-Newton, Chandra, and ROSAT. The combined sample, including that of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey, consists of 4039 detections in the soft (0.5-2 keV) and/or hard (>2 keV) band. We utilize a maximum likelihood method to reproduce the count rate versus redshift distribution for each survey, by taking into account the evolution of the absorbed fraction, the contribution from Compton-thick (CTK) AGNs, and broadband spectra of AGNs, including reflection components from tori based on the luminosity- and redshift-dependent unified scheme. We find that the shape of the XLF at z ∼ 1-3 is significantly different from that in the local universe, for which the luminosity-dependent density evolution model gives much better description than the luminosity and density evolution model. These results establish the standard population synthesis model of the X-ray background (XRB), which well reproduces the source counts, the observed fractions of CTK AGNs, and the spectrum of the hard XRB. The number ratio of CTK AGNs to the absorbed Compton-thin (CTN) AGNs is constrained to be ≈0.5-1.6 to produce the 20-50 keV XRB intensity within present uncertainties, by assuming that they follow the same evolution as CTN AGNs. The growth history of supermassive black holes is discussed based on the new AGN bolometric luminosity function.
Archer, Rachel; Tappenden, Paul; Ren, Shijie; Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Harvey, Rebecca; Basarir, Hasan; Stevens, John; Carroll, Christopher; Cantrell, Anna; Lobo, Alan; Hoque, Sami
2016-05-01
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is the most common form of inflammatory bowel disease in the UK. UC can have a considerable impact on patients' quality of life. The burden for the NHS is substantial. To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of interventions, to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness of all interventions and comparators (including medical and surgical options), to estimate the expected net budget impact of each intervention, and to identify key research priorities. Peer-reviewed publications, European Public Assessment Reports and manufacturers' submissions. The following databases were searched from inception to December 2013 for clinical effectiveness searches and from inception to January 2014 for cost-effectiveness searches for published and unpublished research evidence: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, The Cochrane Library including the Cochrane Systematic Reviews Database, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, the Health Technology Assessment database and NHS Economic Evaluation Database; ISI Web of Science, including Science Citation Index, and the Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science and Bioscience Information Service Previews. The US Food and Drug Administration website and the European Medicines Agency website were also searched, as were research registers, conference proceedings and key journals. A systematic review [including network meta-analysis (NMA)] was conducted to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of named interventions. The health economic analysis included a review of published economic evaluations and the development of a de novo model. Ten randomised controlled trials were included in the systematic review. The trials suggest that adult patients receiving infliximab (IFX) [Remicade(®), Merck Sharp & Dohme Ltd (MSD)], adalimumab (ADA) (Humira(®), AbbVie) or golimumab (GOL) (Simponi(®), MSD) were more likely to
(including travel dates) Proposed itinerary
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Ashok
31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.
Theory including future not excluded
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.
2013-01-01
We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...
Genome to Phenome: A Systems Biology Approach to PTSD Using an Animal Model.
Chakraborty, Nabarun; Meyerhoff, James; Jett, Marti; Hammamieh, Rasha
2017-01-01
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating illness that imposes significant emotional and financial burdens on military families. The understanding of PTSD etiology remains elusive; nonetheless, it is clear that PTSD is manifested by a cluster of symptoms including hyperarousal, reexperiencing of traumatic events, and avoidance of trauma reminders. With these characteristics in mind, several rodent models have been developed eliciting PTSD-like features. Animal models with social dimensions are of particular interest, since the social context plays a major role in the development and manifestation of PTSD.For civilians, a core trauma that elicits PTSD might be characterized by a singular life-threatening event such as a car accident. In contrast, among war veterans, PTSD might be triggered by repeated threats and a cumulative psychological burden that coalesced in the combat zone. In capturing this fundamental difference, the aggressor-exposed social stress (Agg-E SS) model imposes highly threatening conspecific trauma on naïve mice repeatedly and randomly.There is abundant evidence that suggests the potential role of genetic contributions to risk factors for PTSD. Specific observations include putatively heritable attributes of the disorder, the cited cases of atypical brain morphology, and the observed neuroendocrine shifts away from normative. Taken together, these features underscore the importance of multi-omics investigations to develop a comprehensive picture. More daunting will be the task of downstream analysis with integration of these heterogeneous genotypic and phenotypic data types to deliver putative clinical biomarkers. Researchers are advocating for a systems biology approach, which has demonstrated an increasingly robust potential for integrating multidisciplinary data. By applying a systems biology approach here, we have connected the tissue-specific molecular perturbations to the behaviors displayed by mice subjected to Agg-E SS. A
van den Berg, Ineke; Kaandorp, Guido C; Bosch, Johanna L; Duvekot, Johannes J; Arends, Lidia R; Hunink, M G Myriam
2010-04-01
To assess, using a modelling approach, the effectiveness and costs of breech version with acupuncture-type interventions on BL67 (BVA-T), including moxibustion, compared to expectant management for women with a foetal breech presentation at 33 weeks gestation. A decision tree was developed to predict the number of caesarean sections prevented by BVA-T compared to expectant management to rectify breech presentation. The model accounted for external cephalic versions (ECV), treatment compliance, and costs for 10,000 simulated breech presentations at 33 weeks gestational age. Event rates were taken from Dutch population data and the international literature, and the relative effectiveness of BVA-T was based on a specific meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the robustness of the results. We calculated percentages of breech presentations at term, caesarean sections, and costs from the third-party payer perspective. Odds ratios (OR) and cost differences of BVA-T versus expectant management were calculated. (Probabilistic) sensitivity analysis and expected value of perfect information analysis were performed. The simulated outcomes demonstrated 32% breech presentations after BVA-T versus 53% with expectant management (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.43, 0.83). The percentage caesarean section was 37% after BVA-T versus 50% with expectant management (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.59, 0.88). The mean cost-savings per woman was euro 451 (95% CI euro 109, euro 775; p=0.005) using moxibustion. Sensitivity analysis showed that if 16% or more of women offered moxibustion complied, it was more effective and less costly than expectant management. To prevent one caesarean section, 7 women had to use BVA-T. The expected value of perfect information from further research was euro0.32 per woman. The results suggest that offering BVA-T to women with a breech foetus at 33 weeks gestation reduces the number of breech presentations at term, thus reducing the number of caesarean sections
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Keck, Rolf-Erik; de Mare, Martin Tobias; Churchfield, Matthew J.
2015-01-01
The dynamic wake meandering (DWM) model is an engineering wake model designed to physically model the wake deficit evolution and the unsteady meandering that occurs in wind turbine wakes. The present study aims at improving two features of the model: The effect of the atmospheric boundary layer s...
Device including a contact detector
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2011-01-01
arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area......The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of the test sample by movement of the probe relative to the surface of the test sample into the specific orientation.; The probe may further comprise a contact detector (14) extending from the supporting body arranged so as to contact the surface of the test sample prior to any one of the plurality...
Neoclassical transport including collisional nonlinearity.
Candy, J; Belli, E A
2011-06-10
In the standard δf theory of neoclassical transport, the zeroth-order (Maxwellian) solution is obtained analytically via the solution of a nonlinear equation. The first-order correction δf is subsequently computed as the solution of a linear, inhomogeneous equation that includes the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This equation admits analytic solutions only in extreme asymptotic limits (banana, plateau, Pfirsch-Schlüter), and so must be solved numerically for realistic plasma parameters. Recently, numerical codes have appeared which attempt to compute the total distribution f more accurately than in the standard ordering by retaining some nonlinear terms related to finite-orbit width, while simultaneously reusing some form of the linearized collision operator. In this work we show that higher-order corrections to the distribution function may be unphysical if collisional nonlinearities are ignored.
Bierkens, M.F.P.; Bron, W.A.
2000-01-01
The VIDENTE program contains a decision support system (DSS) to choose between different models for stochastic modelling of water-table depths, and a graphical user interface to facilitate operating and running four implemented models: KALMAX, KALTFN,SSDS and EMERALD. In self-contained parts each of
Extending flood damage assessment methodology to include ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Optimal and sustainable flood plain management, including flood control, can only be achieved when the impacts of flood control measures are considered for both the man-made and natural environments, and the sociological aspects are fully considered. Until now, methods/models developed to determine the influences ...
The structure of PTSD symptoms: a test of alternative models using confirmatory factor analysis.
Elklit, Ask; Shevlin, Mark
2007-09-01
This study aimed to examine the structure of self-reported post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Based on previous factor analytic findings and the DSM-IV formulation, six confirmatory factor models were specified and estimated that reflected different symptom clusters. The analyses were based on responses from 1116 participants who had suffered whiplash injuries and screened for full or subclinical PTSD using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. A correlated four-factor model with re-experiencing, avoidance, dysphoria and arousal factors fitted the data very well. Correlations with criteria measures showed that these factors were associated with other trauma related variables in a theoretically predictable way and showed evidence of unique predictive utility. These results concur with previous research findings using different trauma populations but do not reflect the current DSM-IV symptom groupings.
Cho, S. Y.; Yetter, R. A.; Dryer, F. L.
1992-01-01
Various chemically reacting flow problems highlighting chemical and physical fundamentals rather than flow geometry are presently investigated by means of a comprehensive mathematical model that incorporates multicomponent molecular diffusion, complex chemistry, and heterogeneous processes, in the interest of obtaining sensitivity-related information. The sensitivity equations were decoupled from those of the model, and then integrated one time-step behind the integration of the model equations, and analytical Jacobian matrices were applied to improve the accuracy of sensitivity coefficients that are calculated together with model solutions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Caridad Rodríguez Rodríguez
2007-11-01
Full Text Available Por las palabras expresadas por el Comandante en Jefe Fidel Castro: "creando valores, creando capital humano, creando ética y creando principios, la calidad de nuestra educación alcanzará altísimos niveles" y la importancia de formar el modelo de hombre que necesita la sociedad se realizó un estudio observacional, analítico y trasversal del universo de enfermeros del nuevo modelo pedagógico con un total de 200 correspondiente a la Vicedirección de Enfermería del Hospital General Docente "Comandante Pinares" de San Cristóbal, Pinar del Río. Se aplicó una encuesta anónima que se anexará al trabajo donde se hicieron preguntas sobre conceptos importantes dentro de la formación de valores. Se insertaron situaciones problemas para valorar con sus respuestas cómo se encuentran los enfermeros en su formación ética frente al ejercicio de su profesión y determinar cual es la formación de valores de los enfermeros frente a su realidad para llegar a ofrecer servicios de excelencia en salud, y poder concientizar que la enfermera no sólo debe estar bien preparada en sus conocimientos profesionales, sino ser un profesional íntegro moral, cívica y éticamente. Se pudo apreciar que a pesar de la buena preparación que poseen los enfermeros aún podemos continuar trabajando en base a la formación de valores en la ética frente a su profesión, puntualizando en la responsabilidad, la valentía y la audacia, así como la honestidad con que deben enfrentar su trabajo.Because of the importance of forming a new model of men and women that our society needs, an observational, analytical and cross-sectional study was conducted with nursing students who are included in the new pedagogical model. The sample was formed by 200 students belonging to the Vice-direction of Nursing at "Comandante Pinares" General Teaching Hospital in San Cristóbal, Pinar del Río. An anonymous survey was applied (it is attached where questions about the most important
Roberti, Giovanni; Fiore, Rosalia; Franco, Claudia; Pimpinella, Giovanni; Piscioneri, Patrizia
2010-01-01
Healthcare organizations must implement organizational and management models of regulation and control systems for effectively preventing possible administrative torts by personnel. We define an organizational management and control model for healthcare organizations, based on the legal dispositions of Decree n.231/2001. The model identifies critical points in the administrative and healthcare services delivery processes that are at high-risk of violations to the code. Its primary aim is to prevent torts by the personnel and safeguard the organization at the same time.
Bai, S; Hua, L; Wang, X; Liu, Q; Bao, Y
2018-05-11
Asthma is a complex and heterogeneous disease. We found that gene-gene interactions among IL13 rs20541, IL4 rs2243250, ADRB2 rs1042713, and FCER1B rs569108 in asthmatic children of Chinese Han nationality. This four-locus set constituted an optimal statistical interaction model. Objective: This study examined associations of the four-gene model consisting of IL13, IL4, FCER1B, and ADRB2 with the Asthma Predictive Index (API) and atopy in Chinese Han children. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the four genes were genotyped in 385 preschool children with wheezing symptoms using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Student's t test and x2 tests were used for this analysis. : Significant correlations were found between the four-locus gene model and the stringent and loose API (both Pfour-locus gene model with atopy (Pfour-locus gene model consisting of L13 rs20541, IL4 rs2243250, ADRB2 rs1042713 and FCER1B rs569108 was associated with the API and atopy. These findings provide an evidence of the gene model for determining a high risk of developing asthma and atopy in Chinese Han children.
Awuah, Lawrence J.
2012-01-01
Understanding citizens' adoption of electronic-government (e-government) is an important topic, as the use of e-government has become an integral part of governance. Success of such initiatives depends largely on the efficient use of e-government services. The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model has provided a…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolev, N.I.
1986-06-01
This report contains a formal code description (description of the input data, contents of the COMMON blocks, functions of the IVA2/001 routines). In addition the nonformal description of the current IVA2/001 constitutive package and the reactor core model are given. (orig.) [de
Archer, R.; Tappenden, P.; Ren, S.; Martyn-St James, M.; Harvey, R.; Basarir, H.; Stevens, J.; Carroll, C.; Cantrell, A.; Lobo, A.; Hoque, S.
2016-01-01
BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is the most common form of inflammatory bowel disease in the UK. UC can have a considerable impact on patients' quality of life. The burden for the NHS is substantial. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of interventions, to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness of all interventions and comparators (including medical and surgical options), to estimate the expected net budget impact of each intervention, and to identify key re...
Anton, J. M.; Grau, J. B.; Tarquis, A. M.; Andina, D.; Cisneros, J. M.
2012-04-01
There is evidence that the climate changes and that now, the change is influenced and accelerated by the CO2 augmentation in atmosphere due to combustion by humans. Such "Climate change" is on the policy agenda at the global level, with the aim of understanding and reducing its causes and to mitigate its consequences. In most countries and international organisms UNO (e.g. Rio de Janeiro 1992), OECD, EC, etc … the efforts and debates have been directed to know the possible causes, to predict the future evolution of some variable conditioners, and trying to make studies to fight against the effects or to delay the negative evolution of such. The Protocol of Kyoto 1997 set international efforts about CO2 emissions, but it was partial and not followed e.g. by USA and China …, and in Durban 2011 the ineffectiveness of humanity on such global real challenges was set as evident. Among all that, the elaboration of a global model was not boarded that can help to choose the best alternative between the feasible ones, to elaborate the strategies and to evaluate the costs, and the authors propose to enter in that frame for study. As in all natural, technological and social changes, the best-prepared countries will have the best bear and the more rapid recover. In all the geographic areas the alternative will not be the same one, but the model must help us to make the appropriated decision. It is essential to know those areas that are more sensitive to the negative effects of climate change, the parameters to take into account for its evaluation, and comprehensive plans to deal with it. The objective of this paper is to elaborate a mathematical model support of decisions, which will allow to develop and to evaluate alternatives of adaptation to the climatic change of different communities in Europe and Latin-America, mainly in especially vulnerable areas to the climatic change, considering in them all the intervening factors. The models will consider criteria of physical
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keskin, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr; Canko, Osman [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2008-01-15
We study the thermal variations of the ferromagnetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) model with repulsive biquadratic coupling by using the lowest approximation of the cluster variation method (LACVM) in the absence and presence of the external magnetic field. We obtain metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters besides the stable branches and phase transitions of these branches are investigated extensively. The classification of the stable, metastable and unstable states is made by comparing the free energy values of these states. We also study the dynamics of the model by using the path probability method (PPM) with the point distribution in order to make sure that we find and define the metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters completely and correctly. We present the metastable phase diagrams in addition to the equilibrium phase diagrams in the (kT/J, K/J) and (kT/J, D/J) planes. It is found that the metastable phase diagrams always exist at the low temperatures, which are consistent with experimental and theoretical works.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keskin, Mustafa; Canko, Osman
2008-01-01
We study the thermal variations of the ferromagnetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) model with repulsive biquadratic coupling by using the lowest approximation of the cluster variation method (LACVM) in the absence and presence of the external magnetic field. We obtain metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters besides the stable branches and phase transitions of these branches are investigated extensively. The classification of the stable, metastable and unstable states is made by comparing the free energy values of these states. We also study the dynamics of the model by using the path probability method (PPM) with the point distribution in order to make sure that we find and define the metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters completely and correctly. We present the metastable phase diagrams in addition to the equilibrium phase diagrams in the (kT/J, K/J) and (kT/J, D/J) planes. It is found that the metastable phase diagrams always exist at the low temperatures, which are consistent with experimental and theoretical works
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Audibert F.
2006-11-01
difficultés relevant du mode d'exploration et de la non adéquation entre les structures asphalténiques et fractales. On a finalement opté pour une détermination visuelle s'appuyant sur les clichés sur lesquels les agglomérats d'asphaltènes sont clairement visualisés tels qu'ils sont dans le fuel. Ce mode d'exploration laborieux a cependant permis de déterminer un modèle construit sur une série de 25 fuels dont 10 ont été brûlés sur une chaudière de 2 MW, et 15 sur un four de 100 kW. Ce modèle fait intervenir les teneurs en carbone Conradson et en métaux, ainsi que le taux de dispersion des asphaltènes. Le perfectionnement des moyens d'exploration aidant, on peut s'attendre à ce que soient disponibles des techniques d'évaluation de la dispersion sur les clichés. Ce paramètre pourra alors être pris en considération pour une meilleure prédiction de résultats de combustion insuffisamment expliqués avec les paramètres classiques. Various models aiming to predict the amount of unburned particles (solids during heavy fuel-oil combustion have been developed. The parameters taken into consideration are generally asphaltenes precipitated by normal heptane or pentane and Conradson carbon as well as the metals content having a known catalytic effect on cenosphere combustion in the combustion chamber. The Exxon and Shell models can be mentioned, which were developed respectively in 1979 and 1981 (Chapter II. Other models also give consideration to the fuel-oil composition, the way it is atomized and diffused in the chamber and the combustion kinetics (research done by the MIT Energy Laboratory published in 1986. However, the above parameters are not the only ones involved. For some fuel oils, experience has shown that the state of dispersion of asphaltenes may also play an important role particularly for combustion installations with mechanical injection for which the dispersion of fuel-oil droplets is not very great and does not affect the structures built
Chwist, Alina; Hartleb, Marek; Lekstan, Andrzej; Kukla, Michał; Gutkowski, Krzysztof; Kajor, Maciej
2014-01-01
Histopathological risk factors for end-stage liver failure in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) include nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and advanced liver fibrosis. There is a need for noninvasive diagnostic methods for these 2 conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate new laboratory variables with a predictive potential to detect advanced fibrosis (stages 2 and 3) in NAFLD. The study involved 70 patients with histologically proven NAFLD of varied severity. Additional laboratory variables included zonulin, haptoglobin, visfatin, adiponectin, leptin, tissue polypeptide-specific antigen (TPSA), hyaluronic acid, and interleukin 6. Patients with NASH (NAFLD activity score of ≥5) had significantly higher HOMA-IR values and serum levels of visfatin, haptoglobin, and zonulin as compared with those without NASH on histological examination. Advanced fibrosis was found in 16 patients (22.9%) and the risk factors associated with its prevalence were age, the ratio of erythrocyte count to red blood cell distribution width, platelet count, and serum levels of visfatin and TPSA. Based on these variables, we constructed a scoring system that differentiated between NAFLD patients with and without advanced fibrosis with a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 100% (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.93). The scoring system based on the above variables allows to predict advanced fibrosis with high sensitivity and specificity. However, its clinical utility should be verified in further studies involving a larger number of patients.
Yasunari, Tppei J.; Lau, K.-U.; Koster, Randal D.; Suarez, Max; Mahanama, Sarith; Dasilva, Arlindo M.; Colarco, Peter R.
2011-01-01
The snow darkening effect, i.e. the reduction of snow albedo, is caused by absorption of solar radiation by absorbing aerosols (dust, black carbon, and organic carbon) deposited on the snow surface. This process is probably important over Himalayan and Tibetan glaciers due to the transport of highly polluted Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) from the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). This effect has been incorporated into the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System model, version 5 (GEOS-5) atmospheric transport model. The Catchment land surface model (LSM) used in GEOS-5 considers 3 snow layers. Code was developed to track the mass concentration of aerosols in the three layers, taking into account such processes as the flushing of the compounds as liquid water percolates through the snowpack. In GEOS-5, aerosol emissions, transports, and depositions are well simulated in the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GO CART) module; we recently made the connection between GOCART and the GEOS-5 system fitted with the revised LSM. Preliminary simulations were performed with this new system in "replay" mode (i.e., with atmospheric dynamics guided by reanalysis) at 2x2.5 degree horizontal resolution, covering the period 1 November 2005 - 31 December 2009; we consider the final three years of simulation here. The three simulations used the following variants of the LSM: (1) the original Catchment LSM with a fixed fresh snowfall density of 150 kg m-3 ; (2) the LSM fitted with the new snow albedo code, used here without aerosol deposition but with changes in density formulation and melting water effect on snow specific surface area, (3) the LSM fitted with the new snow albedo code as same as (2) but with fixed aerosol deposition rates (computed from GOCART values averaged over the Tibetan Plateau domain [Ion.: 60-120E; lat.: 20-50N] during March-May 2008) applied to all grid points at every time step. For (2) and (3), the same setting on the fresh snowfall density as in (1
Mikutis, Gediminas; Karaköse, Hande; Jaiswal, Rakesh; LeGresley, Adam; Islam, Tuhidul; Fernandez-Lahore, Marcelo; Kuhnert, Nikolai
2013-02-01
Flavanols from tea have been reported to accumulate in the cell nucleus in considerable concentrations. The nature of this phenomenon, which could provide novel approaches in understanding the well-known beneficial health effects of tea phenols, is investigated in this contribution. The interaction between epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) from green tea and a selection of theaflavins from black tea with selected cell nuclear structures such as model histone proteins, double stranded DNA and quadruplex DNA was investigated using mass spectrometry, Circular Dichroism spectroscopy and fluorescent assays. The selected polyphenols were shown to display affinity to all of the selected cell nuclear structures, thereby demonstrating a degree of unexpected molecular promiscuity. Most interestingly theaflavin-digallate was shown to display the highest affinity to quadruplex DNA reported for any naturally occurring molecule reported so far. This finding has immediate implications in rationalising the chemopreventive effect of the tea beverage against cancer and possibly the role of tea phenolics as "life span essentials".
Yasunari, T. J.; Lau, W. K.; Koster, R. D.; Suarez, M.; Mahanama, S. P.; da Silva, A.; Colarco, P. R.
2011-12-01
The snow darkening effect, i.e. the reduction of snow albedo, is caused by absorption of solar radiation by absorbing aerosols (dust, black carbon, and organic carbon) deposited on the snow surface. This process is probably important over Himalayan and Tibetan glaciers due to the transport of highly polluted Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) from the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). This effect has been incorporated into the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System model, version 5 (GEOS-5) atmospheric transport model. The Catchment land surface model (LSM) used in GEOS-5 considers 3 snow layers. Code was developed to track the mass concentration of aerosols in the three layers, taking into account such processes as the flushing of the compounds as liquid water percolates through the snowpack. In GEOS-5, aerosol emissions, transports, and depositions are well simulated in the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) module; we recently made the connection between GOCART and the GEOS-5 system fitted with the revised LSM. Preliminary simulations were performed with this new system in "replay" mode (i.e., with atmospheric dynamics guided by reanalysis) at 2x2.5 degree horizontal resolution, covering the period 1 November 2005 - 31 December 2009; we consider the final three years of simulation here. The three simulations used the following variants of the LSM: (1) the original Catchment LSM with a fixed fresh snowfall density of 150 kg m-3; (2) the LSM fitted with the new snow albedo code, used here without aerosol deposition but with changes in density formulation and melting water effect on snow specific surface area, (3) the LSM fitted with the new snow albedo code as same as (2) but with fixed aerosol deposition rates (computed from GOCART values averaged over the Tibetan Plateau domain [lon.: 60-120E; lat.: 20-50N] during March-May 2008) applied to all grid points at every time step. For (2) and (3), the same setting on the fresh snowfall density as in (1) was
Islam, Kamrul; Sayeed, Md Abu; Hossen, Emran; Khanam, Farhana; Charles, Richelle C; Andrews, Jason; Ryan, Edward T; Qadri, Firdausi
2016-04-01
There is an urgent need for an improved diagnostic assay for typhoid fever. In this current study, we compared the recently developed TPTest (Typhoid and Paratyphoid Test) with the Widal test, blood culture, and two commonly used commercially available kits, Tubex and Typhidot. For analysis, we categorized 92 Bangladeshi patients with suspected enteric fever into four groups: S. Typhi bacteremic patients (n = 28); patients with a fourfold change in Widal test from day 0 to convalescent period (n = 7); patients with Widal titer ≥1:320 (n = 13) at either acute or convalescent stage of disease; and patients suspected with enteric fever, but with a negative blood culture and Widal titer (n = 44). We also tested healthy endemic zone controls (n = 20) and Bangladeshi patients with other febrile illnesses (n = 15). Sample size was based on convenience to facilitate preliminary analysis. Of 28 S. Typhi bacteremic patients, 28 (100%), 21 (75%) and 18 (64%) patients were positive by TPTest, Tubex and Typhidot, respectively. In healthy endemic zone controls, the TPTest method was negative in all, whereas Tubex and Typhidot were positive in 3 (15%) and 5 (25%), respectively. We then estimated sensitivity and specificity of all diagnostic tests using Bayesian latent class modeling. The sensitivity of TPTest, Tubex and Typhidot were estimated at 96.0% (95% CI: 87.1%-99.8%), 60.2% (95% CI: 49.3%-71.2%), and 59.6% (95% CI: 50.1%-69.3%), respectively. Specificity was estimated at 96.6% (90.7%-99.2%) for TPTest, 89.9% (79.6%-96.8%) for Tubex, and 80.0% (67.7%-89.7%) for Typhidot. These results suggest that the TPTest is highly sensitive and specific in diagnosing individuals with typhoid fever in a typhoid endemic setting, outperforming currently available and commonly used alternatives.
The Neural Mechanisms of Re-Experiencing Mental Fatigue Sensation: A Magnetoencephalography Study
Ishii, Akira; Karasuyama, Takuma; Kikuchi, Taiki; Tanaka, Masaaki; Yamano, Emi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi
2015-01-01
There have been several studies which have tried to clarify the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation; however fatigue sensation has multiple aspects. We hypothesized that past experience related to fatigue sensation is an important factor which contributes to future formation of fatigue sensation through the transfer to memories that are located within specific brain structures. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation related to memory. In the present s...
Olff, Miranda; Sijbrandij, Marit; Opmeer, Brent C.; Carlier, Ingrid V. E.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.
2009-01-01
Empirical data have challenged chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) consisting of three dimensions. In the present Study we aimed to determine the factor structure of acute posttraumatic symptoms in two recently traumatized samples. In sample 1, 203 civilian trauma survivors were
Including gauge corrections to thermal leptogenesis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huetig, Janine
2013-05-17
This thesis provides the first approach of a systematic inclusion of gauge corrections to leading order to the ansatz of thermal leptogenesis. We have derived a complete expression for the integrated lepton number matrix including all resummations needed. For this purpose, a new class of diagram has been invented, namely the cylindrical diagram, which allows diverse investigations into the topic of leptogenesis such as the case of resonant leptogenesis. After a brief introduction of the topic of the baryon asymmetry in the universe and a discussion of its most promising solutions as well as their advantages and disadvantages, we have presented our framework of thermal leptogenesis. An effective model was described as well as the associated Feynman rules. The basis for using nonequilibrium quantum field theory has been built in chapter 3. At first, the main definitions have been presented for equilibrium thermal field theory, afterwards we have discussed the Kadanoff-Baym equations for systems out of equilibrium using the example of the Majorana neutrino. The equations have also been solved in the context of leptogenesis in chapter 4. Since gauge corrections play a crucial role throughout this thesis, we have also repeated the naive ansatz by replacing the free equilibrium propagator by propagators including thermal damping rates due to the Standard Model damping widths for lepton and Higgs fields. It is shown that this leads to a comparable result to the solutions of the Boltzmann equations for thermal leptogenesis. Thus it becomes obvious that Standard Model corrections are not negligible for thermal leptogenesis and therefore need to be included systematically from first principles. In order to achieve this we have started discussing the calculation of ladder rung diagrams for Majorana neutrinos using the HTL and the CTL approach in chapter 5. All gauge corrections are included in this framework and thus it has become the basis for the following considerations
Including gauge corrections to thermal leptogenesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huetig, Janine
2013-01-01
This thesis provides the first approach of a systematic inclusion of gauge corrections to leading order to the ansatz of thermal leptogenesis. We have derived a complete expression for the integrated lepton number matrix including all resummations needed. For this purpose, a new class of diagram has been invented, namely the cylindrical diagram, which allows diverse investigations into the topic of leptogenesis such as the case of resonant leptogenesis. After a brief introduction of the topic of the baryon asymmetry in the universe and a discussion of its most promising solutions as well as their advantages and disadvantages, we have presented our framework of thermal leptogenesis. An effective model was described as well as the associated Feynman rules. The basis for using nonequilibrium quantum field theory has been built in chapter 3. At first, the main definitions have been presented for equilibrium thermal field theory, afterwards we have discussed the Kadanoff-Baym equations for systems out of equilibrium using the example of the Majorana neutrino. The equations have also been solved in the context of leptogenesis in chapter 4. Since gauge corrections play a crucial role throughout this thesis, we have also repeated the naive ansatz by replacing the free equilibrium propagator by propagators including thermal damping rates due to the Standard Model damping widths for lepton and Higgs fields. It is shown that this leads to a comparable result to the solutions of the Boltzmann equations for thermal leptogenesis. Thus it becomes obvious that Standard Model corrections are not negligible for thermal leptogenesis and therefore need to be included systematically from first principles. In order to achieve this we have started discussing the calculation of ladder rung diagrams for Majorana neutrinos using the HTL and the CTL approach in chapter 5. All gauge corrections are included in this framework and thus it has become the basis for the following considerations
Analysis of Smart Composite Structures Including Debonding
Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Seeley, Charles E.
1997-01-01
Smart composite structures with distributed sensors and actuators have the capability to actively respond to a changing environment while offering significant weight savings and additional passive controllability through ply tailoring. Piezoelectric sensing and actuation of composite laminates is the most promising concept due to the static and dynamic control capabilities. Essential to the implementation of these smart composites are the development of accurate and efficient modeling techniques and experimental validation. This research addresses each of these important topics. A refined higher order theory is developed to model composite structures with surface bonded or embedded piezoelectric transducers. These transducers are used as both sensors and actuators for closed loop control. The theory accurately captures the transverse shear deformation through the thickness of the smart composite laminate while satisfying stress free boundary conditions on the free surfaces. The theory is extended to include the effect of debonding at the actuator-laminate interface. The developed analytical model is implemented using the finite element method utilizing an induced strain approach for computational efficiency. This allows general laminate geometries and boundary conditions to be analyzed. The state space control equations are developed to allow flexibility in the design of the control system. Circuit concepts are also discussed. Static and dynamic results of smart composite structures, obtained using the higher order theory, are correlated with available analytical data. Comparisons, including debonded laminates, are also made with a general purpose finite element code and available experimental data. Overall, very good agreement is observed. Convergence of the finite element implementation of the higher order theory is shown with exact solutions. Additional results demonstrate the utility of the developed theory to study piezoelectric actuation of composite
Medellin, a model that includes poverty as a business
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Janeth Restrepo Marín
2016-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents inputs discussions Kavilando research group, around Medellin today, in terms of poverty; of how that category proves to be an excellent place which places the bulk of the population as worthy of technical-social intervention, to restore their dignity and change the system inequitable distribution of wealth, but rather as a mechanism that circulates the budget private to public, altruism faced with the discourse of inclusion, seeking demagogically making new poor consumers, entrepreneurs, etc., thus further delaying the essential discussion.
Model-Based Brake Control including Tyre Behaviour
De Vries, E.J.H.
2012-01-01
The objective of the thesis is to develop a method for controlled braking of a vehicle. The brake pedal depression has been considered to be proportional to the intended deceleration. The brake controller is not aimed to replace a cruise control; it will have an anti-lock braking (ABS) function. The
Aircrew Availability: Modeling Predictors of Duties Not Including Flying Status
2017-07-25
and Utilization Project (HCUP). The Clinical Classification Software ( CCS ) for ICD-9-CM aids analysts to collapse diagnostic data from over 14,000...interquartile range. aOnly AFSCs comprising 80% of participants shown for brevity. bHCUP- CCS secondary level diagnosis categories shown for brevity. 7...Aug 2017. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS AFSC Air Force Specialty Code ASIMS Aeromedical Services Information Management System CCS
Double folding model including the Pauli exclusion principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gridnev, K.A.; Soubbotin, V.B.; Oertzen, W. von; Bohlen, H.G.; Vinas, X.
2002-01-01
A new method to incorporate the Pauli principle into the double folding approach to the heavy ion potential is proposed. It is shown that in order to take into account the Pauli blocking a redefinition of the density matrices of the free isolated nuclei must be one. A solution to the self-consistent incorporation of the Pauli-blocking effects in the mean-field nucleus-nucleus potential is obtained in the Thomas-Fermi approximation [ru
Double-folding model including the Pauli exclusion principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gridnev, K.A.; Soubbotin, V.B.; Oertzen, W. von; Bohlen, H.G.; Vinas, X.
2002-01-01
A new method for incorporating the Pauli exclusion principle into the double-folding approach to the heavy-ion potential is proposed. The description of the exchange terms at the level of the semiclassical one-body density matrix is used. It is shown that, in order to take into account Pauli blocking properly, the density matrices of free isolated nuclei must be redefined. A solution to the self-consistent incorporation of Pauli blocking effects in the mean-field nucleus-nucleus potential is obtained in the Thomas-Fermi approximation
Zγ production at NNLO including anomalous couplings
Campbell, John M.; Neumann, Tobias; Williams, Ciaran
2017-11-01
In this paper we present a next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) QCD calculation of the processes pp → l + l -γ and pp\\to ν \\overline{ν}γ that we have implemented in MCFM. Our calculation includes QCD corrections at NNLO both for the Standard Model (SM) and additionally in the presence of Zγγ and ZZγ anomalous couplings. We compare our implementation, obtained using the jettiness slicing approach, with a previous SM calculation and find broad agreement. Focusing on the sensitivity of our results to the slicing parameter, we show that using our setup we are able to compute NNLO cross sections with numerical uncertainties of about 0.1%, which is small compared to residual scale uncertainties of a few percent. We study potential improvements using two different jettiness definitions and the inclusion of power corrections. At √{s}=13 TeV we present phenomenological results and consider Zγ as a background to H → Zγ production. We find that, with typical cuts, the inclusion of NNLO corrections represents a small effect and loosens the extraction of limits on anomalous couplings by about 10%.
Including product features in process redesign
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hvam, Lars; Hauksdóttir, Dagný; Mortensen, Niels Henrik
2017-01-01
do not take into account how the product features are applied throughout the process, which makes it difficult to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the activities in the processes and to generate significant improvements. The suggested approach models the product family using the so......This article suggests a visual modelling method for integrating models of product features with business process models for redesigning the business processes involving specifications of customer-tailored products and services. The current methods for redesigning these types of business processes......-called product variant master and the business process modelling notation for modelling the process flow. The product model is combined with the process map by identifying features used in each step of the process flow. Additionally, based on the information absorbed from the integrated model, the value stream...
Soil-structure interaction including nonlinear soil
Gicev, Vlado
2008-01-01
There are two types of models of soil-structure system depending upon the rigidity of foundation: models with rigid and models with flexible foundation. Main features of the soil-structure interaction phenomenon: -wave scattering, -radiation damping, -reduction of the system frequencies. In this presentation, the influence of interaction on the development of nonlinear zones in the soil is studied.
42 CFR 410.100 - Included services.
2010-10-01
... service; however, maintenance therapy itself is not covered as part of these services. (c) Occupational... increase respiratory function, such as graded activity services; these services include physiologic... rehabilitation plan of treatment, including physical therapy services, occupational therapy services, speech...
Article Including Environmental Barrier Coating System
Lee, Kang N. (Inventor)
2015-01-01
An enhanced environmental barrier coating for a silicon containing substrate. The enhanced barrier coating may include a bond coat doped with at least one of an alkali metal oxide and an alkali earth metal oxide. The enhanced barrier coating may include a composite mullite bond coat including BSAS and another distinct second phase oxide applied over said surface.
Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma
Siesling, Sabine; van der Zwan, Jan Maarten; Izarzugaza, Isabel; Jaal, Jana; Treasure, Tom; Foschi, Roberto; Ricardi, Umberto; Groen, Harry; Tavilla, Andrea; Ardanaz, Eva
Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,
Rare thoracic cancers, including peritoneum mesothelioma
Siesling, Sabine; Zwan, J.M.V.D.; Izarzugaza, I.; Jaal, J.; Treasure, T.; Foschi, R.; Ricardi, U.; Groen, H.; Tavilla, A.; Ardanaz, E.
2012-01-01
Rare thoracic cancers include those of the trachea, thymus and mesothelioma (including peritoneum mesothelioma). The aim of this study was to describe the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare thoracic tumours using a large database, which includes cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 2002,
The ENVISION Collaboration
2014-01-01
Deliverable 6.2 - Software: upgraded MC simulation tools capable of simulating a complete in-beam ET experiment, from the beam to the detected events. Report with the description of one (or few) reference clinical case(s), including the complete patient model and beam characteristics
Bierkens, M.F.P.; Bron, W.A.; Knotters, M.
2002-01-01
A description is given of the program VIDENTE. VIDENTE contains a decision support system to choose between different models for stochastic modelling of water-table depths and a graphical user interface to facilitate operating and running four implemented models: KALMAX, KALTFN, SSD and EMERALD. In
Births and deaths including fetal deaths
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...
Including Indigenous Minorities in Decision-Making
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pristed Nielsen, Helene
Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand......Based on theories of public sphere participation and deliberative democracy, this book presents empirical results from a study of experiences with including Aboriginal and Maori groups in political decision-making in respectively Western Australia and New Zealand...
Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials
Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji
2013-02-19
A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.
HETC-3STEP included fragmentation process
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Iga, Kiminori; Ishibashi, Kenji [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1997-03-01
High Energy Transport Code (HETC) based on the cascade-evaporation model is modified to calculate the fragmentation cross section. For the cascade process, nucleon-nucleon cross sections are used for collision computation; effective in-medium-corrected cross sections are adopted instead of the original free-nucleon collision. The exciton model is adopted for improvement of backward nucleon-emission cross section for low-energy nucleon-incident events. The fragmentation reaction is incorporated into the original HETC as a subroutine set by the use of the systematics of the reaction. The modified HETC (HETC-3STEP/FRG) reproduces experimental fragment yields to a reasonable degree. (author)
On search games that include ambush
Alpern, S.; Fokkink, R.; Gal, S.; Timmer, M.
2013-01-01
We present a stochastic game that models ambush/search in a finite region Q which has area but no other structure. The searcher can search a unit area of Q in unit time or adopt an "ambush" mode for a certain period. The searcher "captures" the hider when the searched region contains the hider's