WorldWideScience

Sample records for model ideal male

  1. Reality television and the muscular male ideal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallesasse, Starla L; Kluck, Annette S

    2013-06-01

    Although researchers have examined the negative effects of viewing reality television (RTV) on women's body image, this research has not been extended to men. Exploring the extent to which RTV depicts men who embody the muscular ideal may enhance our understanding of the potential influence of this media genre. We explored the extent to which RTV depicted men who embodied the muscular ideal using a quantitative content analysis. Based on binomial tests, the primary male cast members of programs airing on networks popular among young adult men during the Fall 2009 broadcast season were more muscular, with lower levels of body fat, than average U.S. men. The chest-to-waist and shoulder-to-waist ratios of these cast members did not differ as a function of program type (i.e., reality drama, endurance, and romance). Young men who view RTV programs included in the present study would be exposed to an unrepresentative muscular ideal. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Organ dose conversion coefficients for voxel models of the reference male and female from idealized photon exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlattl, H; Zankl, M; Petoussi-Henss, N

    2007-01-01

    A new series of organ equivalent dose conversion coefficients for whole body external photon exposure is presented for a standardized couple of human voxel models, called Rex and Regina. Irradiations from broad parallel beams in antero-posterior, postero-anterior, left- and right-side lateral directions as well as from a 360 deg. rotational source have been performed numerically by the Monte Carlo transport code EGSnrc. Dose conversion coefficients from an isotropically distributed source were computed, too. The voxel models Rex and Regina originating from real patient CT data comply in body and organ dimensions with the currently valid reference values given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the average Caucasian man and woman, respectively. While the equivalent dose conversion coefficients of many organs are in quite good agreement with the reference values of ICRP Publication 74, for some organs and certain geometries the discrepancies amount to 30% or more. Differences between the sexes are of the same order with mostly higher dose conversion coefficients in the smaller female model. However, much smaller deviations from the ICRP values are observed for the resulting effective dose conversion coefficients. With the still valid definition for the effective dose (ICRP Publication 60), the greatest change appears in lateral exposures with a decrease in the new models of at most 9%. However, when the modified definition of the effective dose as suggested by an ICRP draft is applied, the largest deviation from the current reference values is obtained in postero-anterior geometry with a reduction of the effective dose conversion coefficient by at most 12%

  3. Black and White Adolescent Males' Perceptions of Ideal Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sharon H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Studied ideal body size beliefs of 337 white and 159 black adolescent males. Findings point toward a greater approval and social acceptance of a larger body size for black females by black males. Cultural differences may be a factor to consider in designing appropriate weight control programs. (SLD)

  4. Perumusan Model Moneter Berdasarkan Perilaku Gas Ideal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmad Resmiyanto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Telah disusun sebuah model moneter yang berdasarkan perilaku gas ideal. Model disusun dengan menggunakan metode kias/analogi. Model moneter gas ideal mengiaskan jumlah uang beredar dengan volume gas, daya beli dengan tekanan gas dan produksi barang dengan suhu gas. Model ini memiliki formulasi yang berbeda dengan Teori Kuantitas Uang (Quantity Theory of Money yang dicetuskan oleh Irving Fisher, model moneter Marshal-Pigou dari Cambridge serta model moneter ala Keynes. Selama ini 3 model tersebut dianggap sebagai model yang mapan dalam teori moneter pada buku-buku teks ekonomi. Model moneter gas ideal dapat menjadi cara pandang baru terhadap sistem moneter.

  5. The ideal male jaw angle--An Internet survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommaerts, Maurice Y

    2016-04-01

    The ideal male jaw angle has not been established. With the advent of additive manufacturing, precise customized shaping is a reality. This study aimed to define the ideal masculine mandibular angle as an aid for 3-dimensional (3D) design. An Internet survey was conducted using black/white photographs of celebrities and non-celebrities. Preferences regarding gonial angle (profile and frontal views), intergonial width and vertical jaw angle position (face frontal view), and angle curvature and definition in oblique views were obtained using simplified, unbalanced Likert scales. Constructs were defined for planning 3D implant designs. The preferred jaw angle had these characteristics: 130° in face profile view, intergonial width similar to facial width, vertical position in frontal view at the oral commissure or at least not below the lower lip, jawline slope in the face frontal view nearly parallel to (with a maximum 15° downward deviation from) a line extending from the lateral canthus to the alare, ascending ramus slope 65°-75° to the Frankfort horizontal, and curvature in the oblique view visible from earlobe to chin and not pointy. Photogrammetric analysis of panel preferences lead to constructs with values useful for the design of 3D printed jaw angles. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A simple probabilistic model of ideal gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sossinsky, A. B.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a discrete 3D model of ideal gas based on the idea that, on the microscopic level, the particles move randomly (as in ASEP models), instead of obeying Newton's laws as prescribed by Boltzmann.

  7. Gender differences in the evaluation of physical attractiveness ideals for male and female body builds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salusso-Deonier, C J; Markee, N L; Pedersen, E L

    1993-06-01

    The purposes of this research were (1) to explore gender differences in the evaluation of physical attractiveness stimuli developed to represent commonly occurring real builds, (2) to identify observers' concepts of physical attractiveness ideals promoted by the media, and (3) to begin cross-validation of these stimuli as representations of observers' concepts of ideal physical attractiveness for male and female builds. Responses included (1) open-ended descriptions of ideal male and ideal female build, (2) ratings of relative attractiveness of 12 male and 15 female stimuli, (3) selections of stimulus types which best represented ideal builds, and (4) selections of stimulus types perceived to be promoted by the media. Analysis showed strong cross-validation among modes of response. Ideal male build included average/balanced type (small and medium), lean/broad-shouldered type (large), and muscular bulk type (medium). Ideal female body build included average/balanced type (small and medium) and lean/broad-shouldered type (small and medium). Gender differences were in emphasis only. Women emphasized lean/broad-shouldered and average/balanced male types. Men emphasized the muscular bulk male type. Body types perceived to be media-promoted highlighted stereotypic male muscularity and female leanness.

  8. Review of Idealized Aircraft Wake Vortex Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.; Duparcmeur, Fanny M. Limon; Jacob, Don

    2014-01-01

    Properties of three aircraft wake vortex models, Lamb-Oseen, Burnham-Hallock, and Proctor are reviewed. These idealized models are often used to initialize the aircraft wake vortex pair in large eddy simulations and in wake encounter hazard models, as well as to define matched filters for processing lidar observations of aircraft wake vortices. Basic parameters for each vortex model, such as peak tangential velocity and circulation strength as a function of vortex core radius size, are examined. The models are also compared using different vortex characterizations, such as the vorticity magnitude. Results of Euler and large eddy simulations are presented. The application of vortex models in the postprocessing of lidar observations is discussed.

  9. Influence of visual attention on male body dissatisfaction after idealized media exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikkelen, S.W.C.; Anschutz, D.J.; Ha, T.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the moderating effect of men's visual attention toward male images on the relationship between idealized media exposure and body dissatisfaction. Of particular interest was men's visual attention to the abdomens and upper bodies of male images. Fifty male undergraduate

  10. Influence of Visual Attention on Male Body Dissatisfaction After Idealized Media Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikkelen, S.W.C.; Anschutz, D.J.; Ha, P.T.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the moderating effect of men's visual attention toward male images on the relationship between idealized media exposure and body dissatisfaction. Of particular interest was men's visual attention to the abdomens and upper bodies of male images. Fifty male undergraduate

  11. Perceptual Differences in Gender Ideals among Heterosexual and Homosexual Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwege, Dennis R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between sexual orientation and perceptions of self, ideal male, and ideal female using the Androgyny scale of the Bem Sex Role Inventory with 144 college students. Findings include the fact that homosexuals were less likely than heterosexuals to stereotype their perceptions. (FMW)

  12. A model of the ideal molecular surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Bryan; Smilowitz, Laura

    2014-03-01

    We utilize two manifestations of the phenomena of the quasiliquid phase on the surface of molecular crystals to formulate a universal thermodynamic theory describing the thickness of the layer as a function of the liquid phase activity. We use direct measurements of the liquid thickness as a function of temperature and measurements of the acceleration of thermal decomposition as a function of temperature approaching the melting point to illustrate the mechanism. We show that given the existence of a liquid phase below the melting point the ideal liquid activity is necessarily a fixed function of the free energies of sublimation and vaporization. We use this activity to create a reduced formula for the liquid thickness generally applicable to the molecular surface. We provide a prediction of the mechanism and kinetics of quasiliquid formation and show that the phase exists as a metastable kinetic steady state. We show that to first order the principle controlling feature of the system is the configurational entropy of the liquid/solid interface, rather than the specifics of the surface potential energy. This is analogous to other bulk colligative phenomena such as ideal gas and solution theories, and is thus an ideal, universal formulation of inherent, thermodynamically driven, surface disorder.

  13. Age differences in body image responses to idealized male figures in music television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulgrew, Kate E; Cragg, Dinusha Nc

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about how middle-aged and older men are affected by idealized depictions of male singers in music television. A total of 116 males completed pre- and post-test measures of body satisfaction, mood, and social comparison and viewed 5 minutes of clips containing scenery, muscular- or average-looking singers. Negative effects were restricted to young men who viewed the muscular clips. The younger men also reported more comparison while viewing the muscular and average-looking singers compared to the middle-aged and older men. These findings suggest that younger (but not middle-aged or older) men are particularly susceptible to idealized depictions of the male appearance.

  14. The association of idealization and intimacy factors with condom use in gay male couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcneal, J L

    1997-12-01

    Despite all of the education and public awareness about AIDS in the US, some gay men have not adopted risk-reduction behaviors. Findings are reported from a study exploring the extent to which a gay man idealizes his partner is linked to reported condom use among gay male couples. The study also explored how the following intimacy factors are linked to condom use: relationship satisfaction, relationship excitement, and interpersonal closeness. Questionnaires were distributed to 125 gay male couples; both members of 45 of these couples completed and returned the questionnaire. The participants were recruited in the New York City area, were age 21-52 years (mean age, 33.06 years), and the couples had been together for an average period of 29.5 months (range, 1-163 months). The degree of idealization was found to have a significant negative correlation with condom use, suggesting that the more the men idealized each other, the less likely they were to use condoms during sex. Relationship satisfaction and excitement were also significantly negatively associated with condom use. No significant association was found between closeness and condom use.

  15. Ideal Experimental Rat Models for Liver Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang Woo; Kim, Sung Hoon; Min, Seon Ok; Kim, Kyung Sik

    2011-01-01

    There are many limitations for conducting liver disease research in human beings due to the high cost and potential ethical issues. For this reason, conducting a study that is difficult to perform in humans using appropriate animal models, can be beneficial in ascertaining the pathological physiology, and in developing new treatment modalities. However, it is difficult to determine the appropriate animal model which is suitable for research purposes, since every patient has different and dive...

  16. Ideal Experimental Rat Models for Liver Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Woo; Kim, Sung Hoon; Min, Seon Ok; Kim, Kyung Sik

    2011-05-01

    There are many limitations for conducting liver disease research in human beings due to the high cost and potential ethical issues. For this reason, conducting a study that is difficult to perform in humans using appropriate animal models, can be beneficial in ascertaining the pathological physiology, and in developing new treatment modalities. However, it is difficult to determine the appropriate animal model which is suitable for research purposes, since every patient has different and diverse clinical symptoms, adverse reactions, and complications due to the pathological physiology. Also, it is not easy to reproduce identically various clinical situations in animal models. Recently, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals has tightened up the regulations, and therefore it is advisable to select the appropriate animals and decide upon the appropriate quantities through scientific and systemic considerations before conducting animal testing. Therefore, in this review article the authors examined various white rat animal testing models and determined the appropriate usable rat model, and the pros and cons of its application in liver disease research. The authors believe that this review will be beneficial in selecting proper laboratory animals for research purposes.

  17. Historical and idealized climate model experiments: an EMIC intercomparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eby, M.; Weaver, A. J.; Alexander, K.

    2012-01-01

    Both historical and idealized climate model experiments are performed with a variety of Earth System Models of Intermediate Complexity (EMICs) as part of a community contribution to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report. Historical simulations start at 850 CE and c...

  18. Description of Muzzle Blast by Modified Ideal Scaling Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin S. Fansler

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Gun blast data from a large variety of weapons are scaled and presented for both the instantaneous energy release and the constant energy deposition rate models. For both ideal explosion models, similar amounts of data scatter occur for the peak overpressure but the instantaneous energy release model correlated the impulse data significantly better, particularly for the region in front of the gun. Two parameters that characterize gun blast are used in conjunction with the ideal scaling models to improve the data correlation. The gun-emptying parameter works particularly well with the instantaneous energy release model to improve data correlation. In particular, the impulse, especially in the forward direction of the gun, is correlated significantly better using the instantaneous energy release model coupled with the use of the gun-emptying parameter. The use of the Mach disc location parameter improves the correlation only marginally. A predictive model is obtained from the modified instantaneous energy release correlation.

  19. Model of non-ideal detonation of condensed high explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, E. B.; Kostitsin, O. V.; Koval, A. V.; Akhlyustin, I. A.

    2016-11-01

    The Zeldovich-Neumann-Doering theory of ideal detonation allows one to describe adequately the detonation of charges with near-critical diameter. For smaller diameters, detonation velocity can differ significantly from an ideal value expected based on equilibrium chemical thermodynamics. This difference is quite evident when using non-ideal explosives; in certain cases, this value can be up to one third of ideal detonation velocity. Numerical simulation of these systems is a very labor-consuming process because one needs to compute the states inside the chemical reaction zone, as well as to obtain data on the equation of state of high-explosive detonation products mixture and on the velocity of chemical reaction; however, these characteristics are poorly studied today. For practical purposes, one can use the detonation shock dynamics model based on interrelation between local velocity of the front and its local curvature. This interrelation depends on both the equation of state of explosion products, and the reaction velocity; but the explicit definition of these characteristics is not needed. In this paper, experimental results are analyzed. They demonstrate interrelation between the local curvature of detonation front and the detonation velocity. Equation of detonation front shape is found. This equation allows us to predict detonation velocity and shape of detonation wave front in arbitrary geometry by integrating ordinary differential equation for the front shape with a boundary condition at the charge edge. The results confirm that the model of detonation shock dynamics can be used to describe detonation processes in non-ideal explosives.

  20. Microeconomics of the ideal gas like market models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Anindya S.; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

    2009-10-01

    We develop a framework based on microeconomic theory from which the ideal gas like market models can be addressed. A kinetic exchange model based on that framework is proposed and its distributional features have been studied by considering its moments. Next, we derive the moments of the CC model (Eur. Phys. J. B 17 (2000) 167) as well. Some precise solutions are obtained which conform with the solutions obtained earlier. Finally, an output market is introduced with global price determination in the model with some necessary modifications.

  1. Historical and idealized climate model experiments: an EMIC intercomparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eby, M.; Weaver, A. J.; Alexander, K.

    2012-01-01

    Both historical and idealized climate model experiments are performed with a variety of Earth System Models of Intermediate Complexity (EMICs) as part of a community contribution to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report. Historical simulations start at 850 CE...... and continue through to 2005. The standard simulations include changes in forcing from solar luminosity, Earth's orbital configuration, CO2, additional greenhouse gases, land-use, and sulphate and volcanic aerosols. In spite of very different modelled pre-industrial global surface air temperatures...... the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the Little Ice Age estimated from paleoclimate reconstructions. This in turn could be a result of errors in the reconstructions of volcanic and/or solar radiative forcing used to drive the models or the incomplete representation of certain processes or variability within...

  2. Modeling Erlang's Ideal Grading with Multirate BPP Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Glabowski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a complete methodology for modeling gradings (also called non-full-availability groups servicing single-service and multi-service traffic streams. The methodology worked out by the authors makes it possible to determine traffic characteristics of various types of gradings with state-dependent call arrival processes, including a new proposed structure of the Erlang’s Ideal Grading with the multirate links. The elaborated models of the gradings can be used for modeling different systems of modern networks, for example, the radio interfaces of the UMTS system, switching networks carrying a mixture of different multirate traffic streams, and video-on-demand systems. The results of the analytical calculations are compared with the results of the simulation data for selected gradings, which confirm high accuracy of the proposed methodology.

  3. Historical and idealized climate model experiments: an EMIC intercomparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eby, M.; Weaver, A. J.; Alexander, K.

    2012-01-01

    and continue through to 2005. The standard simulations include changes in forcing from solar luminosity, Earth's orbital configuration, CO2, additional greenhouse gases, land-use, and sulphate and volcanic aerosols. In spite of very different modelled pre-industrial global surface air temperatures......Both historical and idealized climate model experiments are performed with a variety of Earth System Models of Intermediate Complexity (EMICs) as part of a community contribution to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report. Historical simulations start at 850 CE......, are used to assess the contributions of different climate forcings to the overall climate and carbon cycle response. The response of surface air temperature is the linear sum of the individual forcings, while the carbon cycle response shows considerable synergy between land-use change and CO2

  4. Velocity profiles in idealized model of human respiratory tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jicha M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with numerical simulation focused on velocity profiles in idealized model of human upper airways during steady inspiration. Three r gimes of breathing were investigated: Resting condition, Deep breathing and Light activity which correspond to most common regimes used for experiments and simulations. Calculation was validated with experimental data given by Phase Doppler Anemometry performed on the model with same geometry. This comparison was made in multiple points which form one cross-section in trachea near first bifurcation of bronchial tree. Development of velocity profile in trachea during steady inspiration was discussed with respect for common phenomenon formed in trachea and for future research of transport of aerosol particles in human respiratory tract.

  5. The media's representation of the ideal male body: a cause for muscle dysmorphia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leit, Richard A; Gray, James J; Pope, Harrison G

    2002-04-01

    This study sought to examine the effects of media images on men's attitudes toward their body appearance. A group of college men viewed advertisements showing muscular men, whereas a control group viewed neutral advertisements. Immediately thereafter, participants performed a computerized test of body image perception while unaware of the hypotheses being tested in the study. The students exposed to the muscular images showed a significantly greater discrepancy between their own perceived muscularity and the level of muscularity that they ideally wanted to have. These findings suggest that media images, even in a brief presentation, can affect men's views of their bodies. Copyright 2002 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A non-ideal MHD model for structure formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Pralay Kumar; Sarma, Pankaj

    2018-02-01

    The evolutionary initiation dynamics of triggered planetary structure formation is indeed a complex process yet to be well understood. We herein develop a theoretical classical model to see the gravitational fragmentation kinetics of the viscoelastic non-ideal magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) fabric. The inhomogeneous planetary disk is primarily composed of heavier dust grains (strongly correlated) together with relatively lighter electrons, ions and neutrals (weakly correlated) in a mean-fluidic approximation. A normal harmonic mode analysis results in a quadratic dispersion relation of a unique shape. It is demonstrated that the growth rate of the MHD fluctuations (magnetosonic) contributing to the planet formation rate, apart from the wave vector and its projection orientation, has a pure explicit dependency on the viscoelastic parameters. The analysis specifically shows that the effective generalized viscosity (χ) , viscoelastic relaxation time (τm) , and K-orientation (θ) play as destabilizing agencies against the non-local gravitational disk collapse. The relevancy is briefly indicated in the real astronomical context of bounded planetary structure formation and evolution.

  7. Three-dimensional semi-idealized model for tidal motion in tidal estuaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, M.; Schuttelaars, H.M.; Roos, P.C.; Möller, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional semi-idealized model for tidal motion in a tidal estuary of arbitrary shape and bathymetry is presented. This model aims at bridging the gap between idealized and complex models. The vertical profiles of the velocities are obtained analytically in terms of the

  8. A Unified Theory of Non-Ideal Gas Lattice Boltzmann Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Li-Shi

    1998-01-01

    A non-ideal gas lattice Boltzmann model is directly derived, in an a priori fashion, from the Enskog equation for dense gases. The model is rigorously obtained by a systematic procedure to discretize the Enskog equation (in the presence of an external force) in both phase space and time. The lattice Boltzmann model derived here is thermodynamically consistent and is free of the defects which exist in previous lattice Boltzmann models for non-ideal gases. The existing lattice Boltzmann models for non-ideal gases are analyzed and compared with the model derived here.

  9. Simulasi Tumbukan Partikel Gas Ideal Dengan Model Cellular Automata Dua Dimensi

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Basid, Annisa Mujriati

    2010-01-01

    Telah dilakukan simulasi tumbukan partikel gas ideal dengan menggunakan  model cellular automata dua dimensi untuk memvisualisasikan tumbukan partikel gas ideal. Tumbukan partikel  disimulasikan  dengan  menggunakan  model  cellular  automata  dua  dimensi.  Di  dalam cellular automata, pergerakan partikel diatur dengan suatu aturan  yaitu aturan delapan tetangga yang merupakan aturan acak. Hasil program simulasi tumbukan partikel gas ideal dengan model cellular automata dua dimensi  mengguna...

  10. Relaxation oscillations in an idealized ocean circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew; Saha, Raj

    2017-04-01

    This work is motivated by a desire to understand transitions between stable equilibria observed in Stommel's 1961 thermohaline circulation model. We adapt the model, including a forcing parameter as a dynamic slow variable. The resulting model is a piecewise-smooth, three time-scale system. The model is analyzed using geometric singular perturbation theory to demonstrate the existence of attracting periodic orbits. The system is capable of producing classical relaxation oscillations as expected, but there is also a parameter regime in which the model exhibits small amplitude oscillations known as canard cycles. Forcing the model with obliquity variations from the last 100,000 years produces oscillations that are modulated in amplitude and frequency. The output shows similarities with important features of the climate proxy data of the same period.

  11. Historical and idealized climate model experiments: an intercomparison of Earth system models of intermediate complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eby, M.; Weaver, A. J.; Alexander, K.

    2013-01-01

    Both historical and idealized climate model experiments are performed with a variety of Earth system models of intermediate complexity (EMICs) as part of a community contribution to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report. Historical simulations start at 850 CE...... and continue through to 2005. The standard simulations include changes in forcing from solar luminosity, Earth's orbital configuration, CO2, additional greenhouse gases, land use, and sulphate and volcanic aerosols. In spite of very different modelled pre-industrial global surface air temperatures, overall 20...

  12. Gusts and Shear in an Idealized LES-modeled Hurricane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsnop, R.; Lundquist, J. K.; Bryan, G. H.; Damiani, R.; Musial, W.

    2016-12-01

    Tropical cyclone winds can cause extreme loading and damage to coastal structures such as buildings and energy infrastructure. Offshore wind energy development is underway along the US East Coast where hurricanes pose a substantial risk. Understanding wind gusts, gust factor, shear, and veer in the hurricane boundary layer (HBL) can help manufacturers assess risk and design wind turbines to better withstand these extreme wind conditions. Because of the paucity of observational data at low-levels (200 m and below), we use the Cloud Model Version I (CM1) large-eddy simulation numerical model to simulate high spatial- (10 m) and temporal- (0.1 s) resolution data. This unique dataset is used to answer the following questions: do severe mean wind speeds and gusts that exceed current design limits occur?; how does the gust factor vary with distance from the eye?; and lastly, how does wind direction vary horizontally and with height? We find that mean winds and gusts near the eyewall can exceed current turbine design thresholds of 50 m s-1 and 70 m s-1, respectively. Gust factors are greatest at the eye-eyewall interface just inward of the peak gust location and can exceed the 1.4 value used to convert a 50 m s-1 reference wind speed to a 50-year 3-second gust. Strong veer (15-30 degrees) across a 120 m-layer suggests that veer should be assessed against standard design prescriptions. Lastly, wind directions can shift 10-25 degrees in durations shorter than 10 minutes, which can challenge structures designed to endure winds from a consistent direction for periods longer than 10 minutes, including wind turbines.

  13. The Assessment of Patient Clinical Outcome: Advantages, Models, Features of an Ideal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mou’ath Hourani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The assessment of patient clinical outcome focuses on measuring various aspects of the health status of a patient who is under healthcare intervention. Patient clinical outcome assessment is a very significant process in the clinical field as it allows health care professionals to better understand the effectiveness of their health care programs and thus for enhancing the health care quality in general. It is thus vital that a high quality, informative review of current issues regarding the assessment of patient clinical outcome should be conducted. Aims & Objectives: 1 Summarizes the advantages of the assessment of patient clinical outcome; 2 reviews some of the existing patient clinical outcome assessment models namely: Simulation, Markov, Bayesian belief networks, Bayesian statistics and Conventional statistics, and Kaplan-Meier analysis models; and 3 demonstrates the desired features that should be fulfilled by a well-established ideal patient clinical outcome assessment model. Material & Methods: An integrative review of the literature has been performed using the Google Scholar to explore the field of patient clinical outcome assessment. Conclusion: This paper will directly support researchers, clinicians and health care professionals in their understanding of developments in the domain of the assessment of patient clinical outcome, thus enabling them to propose ideal assessment models.

  14. Kinetic Models for Adiabatic Reversible Expansion of a Monatomic Ideal Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, On-Kok

    1983-01-01

    A fixed amount of an ideal gas is confined in an adiabatic cylinder and piston device. The relation between temperature and volume in initial/final phases can be derived from the first law of thermodynamics. However, the relation can also be derived based on kinetic models. Several of these models are discussed. (JN)

  15. Historical and idealized climate model experiments: an intercomparison of Earth system models of intermediate complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Eby

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Both historical and idealized climate model experiments are performed with a variety of Earth system models of intermediate complexity (EMICs as part of a community contribution to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report. Historical simulations start at 850 CE and continue through to 2005. The standard simulations include changes in forcing from solar luminosity, Earth's orbital configuration, CO2, additional greenhouse gases, land use, and sulphate and volcanic aerosols. In spite of very different modelled pre-industrial global surface air temperatures, overall 20th century trends in surface air temperature and carbon uptake are reasonably well simulated when compared to observed trends. Land carbon fluxes show much more variation between models than ocean carbon fluxes, and recent land fluxes appear to be slightly underestimated. It is possible that recent modelled climate trends or climate–carbon feedbacks are overestimated resulting in too much land carbon loss or that carbon uptake due to CO2 and/or nitrogen fertilization is underestimated. Several one thousand year long, idealized, 2 × and 4 × CO2 experiments are used to quantify standard model characteristics, including transient and equilibrium climate sensitivities, and climate–carbon feedbacks. The values from EMICs generally fall within the range given by general circulation models. Seven additional historical simulations, each including a single specified forcing, are used to assess the contributions of different climate forcings to the overall climate and carbon cycle response. The response of surface air temperature is the linear sum of the individual forcings, while the carbon cycle response shows a non-linear interaction between land-use change and CO2 forcings for some models. Finally, the preindustrial portions of the last millennium simulations are used to assess historical model carbon-climate feedbacks. Given the specified forcing, there

  16. Performance analysis on free-piston Stirling cryocooler based on an idealized mathematical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y. X.; Chao, Y. J.; Gan, Z. H.; Li, S. Z.; Wang, B.

    2017-12-01

    Free-piston Stirling cryocoolers have extensive applications for its simplicity in structure and decrease in mass. However, the elimination of the motor and the crankshaft has made its thermodynamic characteristic different from that of Stirling cryocoolers with displacer driving mechanism. Therefore, an idealized mathematical model has been established, and with this model, an attempt has been made to analyse the thermodynamic characteristic and the performance of free-piston Stirling cryocooler. To certify this mathematical model, a comparison has been made between the model and a numerical model. This study reveals that due to the displacer damping force necessary for the production of cooling capacity, the free-piston Stirling cryocooler is inherently less efficient than Stirling cryocooler with displacer driving mechanism. Viscous flow resistance and incomplete heat transfer in the regenerator are the two major causes of the discrepancy between the results of the idealized mathematical model and the numerical model.

  17. Evaluating Change in Behavioral Preferences: Multidimensional Scaling Single-Ideal Point Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Cody

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to propose a multidimensional scaling single-ideal point model as a method to evaluate changes in individuals' preferences under the explicit methodological framework of behavioral preference assessment. One example is used to illustrate the approach for a clear idea of what this approach can accomplish.

  18. New integrable models and analytical solutions in f (R ) cosmology with an ideal gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagiannopoulos, G.; Basilakos, Spyros; Barrow, John D.; Paliathanasis, Andronikos

    2018-01-01

    In the context of f (R ) gravity with a spatially flat FLRW metric containing an ideal fluid, we use the method of invariant transformations to specify families of models which are integrable. We find three families of f (R ) theories for which new analytical solutions are given and closed-form solutions are provided.

  19. Three-dimensional semi-idealized model for estuarine turbidity maxima in tidally dominated estuaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Mohit; Schuttelaars, Henk M.; Roos, Pieter C.

    2017-01-01

    We develop a three-dimensional idealized model that is specifically aimed at gaining insight in the physical mechanisms resulting in the formation of estuarine turbidity maxima in tidally dominated estuaries. First, the three-dimensional equations for water motion and suspended sediment

  20. DC Analysis of an Ideal Diode Network Using Its Decomposed Piecevise-Linear Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kolka

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available A new method of finding the operating points in circuits containing ideal diodes which utilizes the decomposed form of the state model of an one-dimensional piecewise-linear (PWL system is developed. The universal procedure shown gives all the existing solutions quite automatically.

  1. Idealized Mesoscale Model Simulations of Open Cellular Convection Over the Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Claire Louise; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Kelly, Mark C.

    2012-01-01

    The atmospheric conditions during an observed case of open cellular convection over the North Sea were simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) numerical model. Wind, temperature and water vapour mixing ratio profiles from the WRF simulation were used to initialize an idealized ...

  2. Ideals, activities, dissonance, and processing: a conceptual model to guide educators' efforts to stimulate student reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Britta M; Teal, Cayla R; Rogers, John C; Paterniti, Debora A; Haidet, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Medical schools are increasingly incorporating opportunities for reflection into their curricula. However, little is known about the cognitive and/or emotional processes that occur when learners participate in activities designed to promote reflection. The purpose of this study was to identify and elucidate those processes. In 2008, the authors analyzed qualitative data from focus groups that were originally conducted to evaluate an educational activity designed to promote reflection. These data afforded the opportunity to explore the processes of reflection in detail. Transcripts (94 pages, single-spaced) from four focus groups were analyzed using a narrative framework. The authors spent approximately 40 hours in group and 240 hours in individual coding activities. The authors developed a conceptual model of five major elements in students' reflective processes: the educational activity, the presence or absence of cognitive or emotional dissonance, and two methods of processing dissonance (preservation or reconciliation). The model also incorporates the relationship between the student's internal ideal of what a doctor is or does and the student's perception of the teacher's ideal of what a doctor is or does. The model further identifies points at which educators may be able to influence the processes of reflection and the development of professional ideals. Students' cognitive and emotional processes have important effects on the success of educational activities intended to stimulate reflection. Although additional research is needed, this model-which incorporates ideals, activities, dissonance, and processing-can guide educators as they plan and implement such activities.

  3. The J–S model versus a non-ideal MHD theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franchi, Franca, E-mail: franca.franchi@unibo.it; Lazzari, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.lazzari@unibo.it; Nibbi, Roberta, E-mail: roberta.nibbi@unibo.it

    2015-07-17

    A new non-ideal electromagnetic interpretation of the J–S type viscoelastic model for polymeric fluids is given and a generalized resisto-elastic magnetohydrodynamic scenario for collisionless plasmas is proposed. The influence of the new theory on the incompressible transverse Alfvén waves is thoroughly investigated. - Highlights: • A non-ideal electromagnetic interpretation of the J–S type viscoelasticity is shown. • A generalized resisto-elastic magneto-hydrodynamic scenario for collision-less plasmas is proposed. • The shear-type magnetic waves are investigated.

  4. Use, misuse and extensions of "ideal gas" models of animal encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, John M C; Waser, Peter M

    2007-08-01

    Biologists have repeatedly rediscovered classical models from physics predicting collision rates in an ideal gas. These models, and their two-dimensional analogues, have been used to predict rates and durations of encounters among animals or social groups that move randomly and independently, given population density, velocity, and distance at which an encounter occurs. They have helped to separate cases of mixed-species association based on behavioural attraction from those that simply reflect high population densities, and to detect cases of attraction or avoidance among conspecifics. They have been used to estimate the impact of population density, speeds of movement and size on rates of encounter between members of the opposite sex, between gametes, between predators and prey, and between observers and the individuals that they are counting. One limitation of published models has been that they predict rates of encounter, but give no means of determining whether observations differ significantly from predictions. Another uncertainty is the robustness of the predictions when animal movements deviate from the model's assumptions in specific, biologically relevant ways. Here, we review applications of the ideal gas model, derive extensions of the model to cover some more realistic movement patterns, correct several errors that have arisen in the literature, and show how to generate confidence limits for expected rates of encounter among independently moving individuals. We illustrate these results using data from mangabey monkeys originally used along with the ideal gas model to argue that groups avoid each other. Although agent-based simulations provide a more flexible alternative approach, the ideal gas model remains both a valuable null model and a useful, less onerous, approximation to biological reality.

  5. The IDEAL (Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Languages) modeling methodology: Capabilities and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Ken H.; Bachert, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    The IDEAL (Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Languages) modeling methodology has been formulated and applied over a five-year period. It has proven to be a unique, integrated approach utilizing a top-down, structured technique to define and document the system of interest; a knowledge engineering technique to collect and organize system descriptive information; a rapid prototyping technique to perform preliminary system performance analysis; and a sophisticated simulation technique to perform in-depth system performance analysis.

  6. Modeling shock waves in an ideal gas: combining the Burnett approximation and Holian's conjecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi-Guang; Tang, Xiu-Zhang; Pu, Yi-Kang

    2008-07-01

    We model a shock wave in an ideal gas by combining the Burnett approximation and Holian's conjecture. We use the temperature in the direction of shock propagation rather than the average temperature in the Burnett transport coefficients. The shock wave profiles and shock thickness are compared with other theories. The results are found to agree better with the nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) and direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) data than the Burnett equations and the modified Navier-Stokes theory.

  7. Assessment of Grade-Level Differences in Coping Behavior among Adolescents Using Multidimensional Scaling Single-Ideal-Point Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Cody; Yang, Dong

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine grade-level differences in coping behaviors among adolescents using a probabilistic multidimensional scaling (MDS) single-ideal-point model. Using data from students in middle school and at college, this article illustrated the MDS single-ideal-point model as an alternative to examine students' typical…

  8. Ideal flow theory for the double – shearing model as a basis for metal forming design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, S.; Trung, N. T.

    2018-02-01

    In the case of Tresca’ solids (i.e. solids obeying the Tresca yield criterion and its associated flow rule) ideal flows have been defined elsewhere as solenoidal smooth deformations in which an eigenvector field associated everywhere with the greatest principal stress (and strain rate) is fixed in the material. Under such conditions all material elements undergo paths of minimum plastic work, a condition which is often advantageous for metal forming processes. Therefore, the ideal flow theory is used as the basis of a procedure for the preliminary design of such processes. The present paper extends the theory of stationary planar ideal flow to pressure dependent materials obeying the double shearing model and the double slip and rotation model. It is shown that the original problem of plasticity reduces to a purely geometric problem. The corresponding system of equations is hyperbolic. The characteristic relations are integrated in elementary functions. In regions where one family of characteristics is straight, mapping between the principal lines and Cartesian coordinates is determined by linear ordinary differential equations. An illustrative example is provided.

  9. Aggregation work at polydisperse micellization: ideal solution and "dressed micelle" models comparing to molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, S V; Shchekin, A K

    2010-12-28

    General thermodynamic relations for the work of polydisperse micelle formation in the model of ideal solution of molecular aggregates in nonionic surfactant solution and the model of "dressed micelles" in ionic solution have been considered. In particular, the dependence of the aggregation work on the total concentration of nonionic surfactant has been analyzed. The analogous dependence for the work of formation of ionic aggregates has been examined with regard to existence of two variables of a state of an ionic aggregate, the aggregation numbers of surface active ions and counterions. To verify the thermodynamic models, the molecular dynamics simulations of micellization in nonionic and ionic surfactant solutions at two total surfactant concentrations have been performed. It was shown that for nonionic surfactants, even at relatively high total surfactant concentrations, the shape and behavior of the work of polydisperse micelle formation found within the model of the ideal solution at different total surfactant concentrations agrees fairly well with the numerical experiment. For ionic surfactant solutions, the numerical results indicate a strong screening of ionic aggregates by the bound counterions. This fact as well as independence of the coefficient in the law of mass action for ionic aggregates on total surfactant concentration and predictable behavior of the "waterfall" lines of surfaces of the aggregation work upholds the model of "dressed" ionic aggregates.

  10. Toward the networked city? : Translating technological ideals and planning models in water and sanitation systems in Dar es Salaam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monstadt, J.; Schramm, S.

    One of the most influential ideals for constructing and managing cities and infrastructures worldwide is that of the ‘networked city'. This ideal refers to the technological design and morphology of cities integrated and ordered by infrastructure networks and to a specific model in the operation,

  11. Numerical estimation of ultrasonic production of hydrogen: Effect of ideal and real gas based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerboua, Kaouther; Hamdaoui, Oualid

    2018-01-01

    Based on two different assumptions regarding the equation describing the state of the gases within an acoustic cavitation bubble, this paper studies the sonochemical production of hydrogen, through two numerical models treating the evolution of a chemical mechanism within a single bubble saturated with oxygen during an oscillation cycle in water. The first approach is built on an ideal gas model, while the second one is founded on Van der Waals equation, and the main objective was to analyze the effect of the considered state equation on the ultrasonic hydrogen production retrieved by simulation under various operating conditions. The obtained results show that even when the second approach gives higher values of temperature, pressure and total free radicals production, yield of hydrogen does not follow the same trend. When comparing the results released by both models regarding hydrogen production, it was noticed that the ratio of the molar amount of hydrogen is frequency and acoustic amplitude dependent. The use of Van der Waals equation leads to higher quantities of hydrogen under low acoustic amplitude and high frequencies, while employing ideal gas law based model gains the upper hand regarding hydrogen production at low frequencies and high acoustic amplitudes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Modeling shock waves in an ideal gas: Going beyond the Navier-Stokes level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holian, B.L.; Patterson, C.W.; Mareschal, M.; Salomons, E.

    1993-01-01

    We model a shock wave in an ideal gas by solving a modified version of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations of hydrodynamics, where, following an earlier conjecture by Holian [Phys. Rev. A 37, 2562 (1988)], we use the temperature in the direction of shock propagation T xx , rather than the average temperature T=(T xx +T yy +T zz )/3, in the evaluation of the linear transport coefficients. The results are found to agree much better with the molecular-dynamics simulations of Salomons and Mareschal [Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 269 (1992)] than standard Navier-Stokes theory

  13. A combustion model for studying the effects of ideal gas properties on jet noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jerin; Tinney, Charles

    2016-11-01

    A theoretical combustion model is developed to simulate the influence of ideal gas effects on various aeroacoustic parameters over a range of equivalence ratios. The motivation is to narrow the gap between laboratory and full-scale jet noise testing. The combustion model is used to model propane combustion in air and kerosene combustion in air. Gas properties from the combustion model are compared to real lab data acquired at the National Center for Physical Acoustics at the University of Mississippi as well as outputs from NASA's Chemical Equilibrium Analysis code. Different jet properties are then studied over a range of equivalence ratios and pressure ratios for propane combustion in air, kerosene combustion in air and heated air. The findings reveal negligible differences between the three constituents where the density and sound speed ratios are concerned. Albeit, the area ratio required for perfectly expanded flow is shown to be more sensitive to gas properties, relative to changes in the temperature ratio.

  14. Ideal point error for model assessment in data-driven river flow forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Dawson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available When analysing the performance of hydrological models in river forecasting, researchers use a number of diverse statistics. Although some statistics appear to be used more regularly in such analyses than others, there is a distinct lack of consistency in evaluation, making studies undertaken by different authors or performed at different locations difficult to compare in a meaningful manner. Moreover, even within individual reported case studies, substantial contradictions are found to occur between one measure of performance and another. In this paper we examine the ideal point error (IPE metric – a recently introduced measure of model performance that integrates a number of recognised metrics in a logical way. Having a single, integrated measure of performance is appealing as it should permit more straightforward model inter-comparisons. However, this is reliant on a transferrable standardisation of the individual metrics that are combined to form the IPE. This paper examines one potential option for standardisation: the use of naive model benchmarking.

  15. SEKOLAH IDEAL PEKERJA ANAK : Ekspektasi dan Model Sekolah bagi Pekerja Anak di Pekalongan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Mumun Muniroh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There are three focus issues in this research, which reveal expectations of child labor on education; ideal school model in their view and the type of knowledge and skills required by them. Observation and in-depth interview were used to obtain data to answer the issues. This research took place in Pekalongan City. The collected data were analyzed by using the interactive model. The results of this study revealed that the majority of child labor still had hopes for an increase in knowledge and skills, while some others felt that the current conditions had been enough for them and they did not have any expectations about school and skills enhancement. It also revealed that the ideal school model in their imagination was that the time and place of learning was flexible, fun friends and teachers, many practical matter, the cost was affordable and it could be used as a vehicle for the development of their talent and creativity. While the knowledge and skills required by them were to sustain their daily needs, such as trading, operating computers, drawing cartoons, salon or beauty, cooking and automotive.

  16. On the Crossover of Boundary Currents in an Idealized Model of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Zhai, Ping

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 American Meteorological Society. The west-to-east crossover of boundary currents has been seen in mean circulation schemes from several past models of the Red Sea. This study investigates the mechanisms that produce and control the crossover in an idealized, eddy-resolving numerical model of the Red Sea. The authors also review the observational evidence and derive an analytical estimate for the crossover latitude. The surface buoyancy loss increases northward in the idealized model, and the resultant mean circulation consists of an anticyclonic gyre in the south and a cyclonic gyre in the north. In the midbasin, the northward surface flow crosses from the western boundary to the eastern boundary. Numerical experiments with different parameters indicate that the crossover latitude of the boundary currents changes with f0, β, and the meridional gradient of surface buoyancy forcing. In the analytical estimate, which is based on quasigeostrophic, β-plane dynamics, the crossover is predicted to lie at the latitude where the net potential vorticity advection (including an eddy component) is zero. Various terms in the potential vorticity budget can be estimated using a buoyancy budget, a thermal wind balance, and a parameterization of baroclinic instability.

  17. Experimental investigations of the steady flow through an idealized model of a femoral artery bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giurgea Corina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents the steps taken by the authors in the first stage of an experimental program within a larger national research project whose objective is to characterize the flow through a femoral artery bypass with a view to finding solutions for its optimization. The objective of the stage is to investigate by means of the PIV method the stationary flow through a bypass model with an idealized geometry. A bypass assembly which reunites the idealized geometry models of the proximal and distal anastomoses, and which respects the lengths of a femoral artery bypass was constructed on the basis of data for a real patient provided by medical investigations. With the aim of testing the model and the established experimental set-up with regard to their suitability for the assessment of the velocity field associated to the steady flow through the bypass, three zones that can restore the whole distal anastomosis were PIV investigated. The measurements were taken in the conditions of maintained inflow at the bypass entry of 0.9 l / min (Re = 600. The article presents comparatively the flow spectra and the velocity fields for each zone obtained in two situations: with the femoral artery completely occluded and completely open.

  18. Numerical modelling of underwater detonation of non-ideal condensed-phase explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, Stefan; Nikiforakis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    The interest in underwater detonation tests originated from the military, since the expansion and subsequent collapse of the explosive bubble can cause considerable damage to surrounding structures or vessels. In military applications, the explosive is typically represented as a pre-burned material under high pressure, a reasonable assumption due to the short reaction zone lengths, and complete detonation of the unreacted explosive. Hence, numerical simulations of underwater detonation tests have been primarily concerned with the prediction of target loading and the damage incurred rather than the accurate modelling of the underwater detonation process. The mining industry in contrast has adopted the underwater detonation test as a means to experimentally characterise the energy output of their highly non-ideal explosives depending on explosive type and charge configuration. This characterisation requires a good understanding of how the charge shape, pond topography, charge depth, and additional charge confinement affect the energy release, some of which can be successfully quantified with the support of accurate numerical simulations. In this work, we propose a numerical framework which is able to capture the non-ideal explosive behaviour and in addition is capable of capturing both length scales: the reaction zone and the pond domain. The length scale problem is overcome with adaptive mesh refinement, which, along with the explosive model, is validated against experimental data of various TNT underwater detonations. The variety of detonation and bubble behaviour observed in non-ideal detonations is demonstrated in a parameter study over the reactivity of TNT. A representative underwater mining test containing an ammonium-nitrate fuel-oil ratestick charge is carried out to demonstrate that the presented method can be readily applied alongside experimental underwater detonation tests.

  19. Conceptual model of male military sexual trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, William B; Domino, Jessica L; Rentz, Timothy O; Mata-Galán, Emma L

    2017-08-01

    Male sexual trauma is understudied, leaving much to be known about the unique mental health needs of male survivors. This study examined veteran men's perceptions of the effects of military sexual trauma. Military sexual trauma was defined as physically forced, verbally coerced, or substance-incapacitated acts experienced during military service. Interviews were conducted with 21 male veterans who reported experiencing military sexual trauma. Data were drawn together using a grounded theory methodology. Three categories emerged from data analysis, including (a) types of military sexual trauma (being touched in a sexual way against their will [N = 18]; sexual remarks directed at them [N = 15]; being physically forced to have sex [N = 13]); (b) negative life effects (difficulty trusting others [N = 18]; fear of abandonment [N = 17]; substance use [N = 13]; fear of interpersonal violence [N = 12]; conduct and vocational problems [N = 11]; irritability/aggression [N = 8]; insecurity about sexual performance [N = 8]; difficulty managing anger [N = 8]); and (c) posttraumatic growth (N = 15). Results from this study suggest sexual trauma in the military context may affect systems of self-organization, specifically problems in affective, self-concept, and relational domains, similar to symptoms of those who have experienced prolonged traumatic stressors. This model can be used by clinicians to select treatments that specifically target these symptoms and promote posttraumatic growth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Multiscale Systems Modeling of Male Reproductive Tract ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reproductive tract is a complex, integrated organ system with diverse embryology and unique sensitivity to prenatal environmental exposures that disrupt morphoregulatory processes and endocrine signaling. U.S. EPA’s in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) database (ToxCastDB) was used to profile the bioactivity of 54 chemicals with male developmental consequences across ~800 molecular and cellular features [Leung et al., accepted manuscript]. The in vitro bioactivity on molecular targets could be condensed into 156 gene annotations in a bipartite network. These results highlighted the role of estrogen and androgen signaling pathways in male reproductive tract development, and importantly, broadened the list of molecular targets to include GPCRs, cytochrome-P450s, vascular remodeling proteins, and retinoic acid signaling. A multicellular agent-based model was used to simulate the complex interactions between morphoregulatory, endocrine, and environmental influences during genital tubercle (GT) development. Spatially dynamic signals (e.g., SHH, FGF10, and androgen) were implemented in the model to address differential adhesion, cell motility, proliferation, and apoptosis. Urethral tube closure was an emergent feature of the model that was linked to gender-specific rates of ventral mesenchymal proliferation and urethral plate endodermal apoptosis, both under control of androgen signaling [Leung et al., manuscript in preparation]. A systemic parameter sweep w

  1. Testing an Idealized Dynamic Cascade Model of the Development of Serious Violence in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Kenneth A.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Malone, Patrick S.

    2008-01-01

    A dynamic cascade model of development of serious adolescent violence was proposed and tested through prospective inquiry with 754 children (50% male; 43% African American) from 27 schools at 4 geographic sites followed annually from kindergarten through Grade 11 (ages 5-18). Self, parent, teacher, peer, observer, and administrative reports…

  2. Reconstruction, modeling, animation and digital fabrication of 'architectures on paper'. Two ideal houses by Carlo Mollino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Spallone

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops some consideration about the issues raised by the reconstruction of 'architectures on paper' of contemporary masters.Generally archival drawings are patchy and fragmented and refer to different ideative moments and paths of inspiration that lend themselves to numerous and different interpretative readings. Moreover it's necessary a careful analysis of the author's poetics and significance of his work. Digital methods and techniques of representation, ranging from 3D modeling, video producing and digital fabrication, should be carefully selected and adapted to the characteristics identified through the interpretation of the project and what it is intended to communicate. In the cases studies of Mollino's 'ideal houses' were tested the capabilities of BIM modeling for this aims.

  3. Numerical Studies of Thermal Conditions in Cities - Systematic Model Simulations of Idealized Urban Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heene, V.; Buchholz, S.; Kossmann, M.

    2016-12-01

    Numerical studies of thermal conditions in cities based on model simulations of idealized urban domains are carried out to investigate how changes in the characteristics of urban areas influence street level air temperatures. The simulated modifications of the urban characteristics represent possible adaptation measures for heat reduction in cities, which are commonly used in urban planning. Model simulations are performed with the thermodynamic version of the 3-dimensional micro-scale urban climate model MUKLIMO_3. The simulated idealized urban areas are designed in a simplistic way, i. e. defining homogeneous squared cities of one settlement type, without orography and centered in the model domain. To assess the impact of different adaptation measures the characteristics of the urban areas have been systematically modified regarding building height, albedo of building roof and impervious surfaces, fraction of impervious surfaces between buildings, and percentage of green roofs. To assess the impact of green and blue infrastructure in cities, different configurations for parks and lakes have been investigated - e. g. varying size and distribution within the city. The experiments are performed for different combinations of typical German settlement types and surrounding rural types under conditions of a typical summer day in July. The adaptation measures implemented in the experiments show different impacts for different settlement types mainly due to the differences in building density, building height or impervious surface fraction. Parks and lakes implemented as adaptation measure show strong potential to reduce daytime air temperature, with cooling effects on their built-up surroundings. At night lakes generate negative and positive effects on air temperature, depending on water temperature. In general, all adaptation measures implemented in experiments reveal different impacts on day and night air temperature.

  4. Experimental studies in the bronchial circulation. Which is the ideal animal model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotou, Ioannis; Tsipas, Panteleimon; Melachrinou, Maria; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Dougenis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Background The importance of the role of bronchial arteries is notable in modern days thoracic surgery. The significance of their anastomoses with adjusted structures has not yet been sufficiently rated, especially in cases of haemoptysis, heart-lung transplantations and treatment of aneurysms of the thoracic aorta. The need of a thorough study is more relevant than ever and appropriate laboratory animals are required. Methods We review the literature in order to highlight the ideal experimental animal for the implementation of pilot programs relative to the bronchial circulation. A comparative analysis of the anatomy of the bronchial arterial system in humans along with these of pigs, dogs, rats, and birds, as being the most commonly used laboratory animals, is presented in details. Results The pig has the advantage that the broncho-oesophageal artery usually originates from the aorta as a single vessel, which makes the recognition and dissection of the artery easy to perform. In dogs, there is significant anatomical variation of the origin of the bronchial arteries. In rats, bronchial artery coming from the aorta is a rare event while in birds the pattern of the bronchial artery tree is clearly different from the human analog. Conclusions The pig is anatomically and physiologically suited for experimental studies on the bronchial circulation. The suitable bronchial anatomy and physiology along with the undeniable usefulness of the pig in experimental research and the low maintenance cost make the pig the ideal model for experiments in bronchial circulation. PMID:25364530

  5. Numerical modeling of tokamak breakdown phase driven by pure Ohmic heating under ideal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Peng, Yanli; Zhang, Ya; Lapenta, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    We have simulated tokamak breakdown phase driven by pure Ohmic heating with implicit particle in cell/Monte Carlo collision (PIC/MCC) method. We have found two modes can be differentiated. When performing breakdown at low initial gas pressure, we find that it works at lower density and current, but higher temperature, and requires lower heating power, compared to when having a high initial pressure. Further, two stages can be distinguished during the avalanche process. One is the fast avalanche stage, in which the plasma is heated by induced toroidal electric field. The other is the slow avalanche stage, which begins when the plasma density reaches 1015 m-3. It has been shown that ions are mainly heated by ambipolar field and become stochastic in the velocity distribution. However, when the induced electric field is low, there exists a transition phase between the two stages. Our model simulates the breakdown and early hydrogen burn-through under ideal conditions during tokamak start-up. It adopted fewer assumptions, and can give an idealized range of operative parameters for Ohmic start-up. Qualitatively, the results agree well with certain experimental observations.

  6. Automatic geometric modeling, mesh generation and FE analysis for pipelines with idealized defects and arbitrary location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, R.S.; Afonso, S.M.B.; Willmersdorf, R.B.; Lyra, P.R.M. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Cabral, H.L.D. [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Andrade, E.Q. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Although the Finite Element Method (FEM) has proved to be a powerful tool to predict the failure pressure of corroded pipes, the generation of good computational models of pipes with corrosion defects can take several days. This makes the use of computational simulation procedure difficult to apply in practice. The main purpose of this work is to develop a set of computational tools to produce automatically models of pipes with defects, ready to be analyzed with commercial FEM programs, starting from a few parameters that locate and provide the main dimensions of the defect or a series of defects. Here these defects can be internal and external and also assume general spatial locations along the pipe. Idealized rectangular and elliptic geometries can be generated. These tools were based on MSC.PATRAN pre and post-processing programs and were written with PCL (Patran Command Language). The program for the automatic generation of models (PIPEFLAW) has a simplified and customized graphical interface, so that an engineer with basic notions of computational simulation with the FEM can generate rapidly models that result in precise and reliable simulations. Some examples of models of pipes with defects generated by the PIPEFLAW system are shown, and the results of numerical analyses, done with the tools presented in this work, are compared with, empiric results. (author)

  7. Design of the Modelica Library VehProLib with Non-ideal Gas Models in Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Conny

    2015-01-01

    This thesis covers the reconstruction and the redesign of the modeling library VehProLib,which is constructed in the modeling language Modelica with help of the modeling toolWolfram SystemModeler. The design choices are discussed and implemented. This thesisalso includes the implementation of a turbocharger package and an initial study of the justificationof the ideal gas law in vehicle modeling. The study is made with help of Van derWaals equation of states as a reference of non-ideal gas mo...

  8. Supersonic beams at high particle densities: model description beyond the ideal gas approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Wolfgang; Rademann, Klaus; Even, Uzi

    2010-10-28

    Supersonic molecular beams constitute a very powerful technique in modern chemical physics. They offer several unique features such as a directed, collision-free flow of particles, very high luminosity, and an unsurpassed strong adiabatic cooling during the jet expansion. While it is generally recognized that their maximum flow velocity depends on the molecular weight and the temperature of the working fluid in the stagnation reservoir, not a lot is known on the effects of elevated particle densities. Frequently, the characteristics of supersonic beams are treated in diverse approximations of an ideal gas expansion. In these simplified model descriptions, the real gas character of fluid systems is ignored, although particle associations are responsible for fundamental processes such as the formation of clusters, both in the reservoir at increased densities and during the jet expansion. In this contribution, the various assumptions of ideal gas treatments of supersonic beams and their shortcomings are reviewed. It is shown in detail that a straightforward thermodynamic approach considering the initial and final enthalpy is capable of characterizing the terminal mean beam velocity, even at the liquid-vapor phase boundary and the critical point. Fluid properties are obtained using the most accurate equations of state available at present. This procedure provides the opportunity to naturally include the dramatic effects of nonideal gas behavior for a large variety of fluid systems. Besides the prediction of the terminal flow velocity, thermodynamic models of isentropic jet expansions permit an estimate of the upper limit of the beam temperature and the amount of condensation in the beam. These descriptions can even be extended to include spinodal decomposition processes, thus providing a generally applicable tool for investigating the two-phase region of high supersaturations not easily accessible otherwise.

  9. Male Puberty Rites: A Path Analytic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Michio

    1982-01-01

    Studies two determinants of male puberty rites: communitywide exclusive male work groups and polygyny which act as an extension of male subculture; and sexual integration in the division of labor and distant father-child relationship which act to reduce the distance between the sexes. (Author/RC)

  10. Modeling microalgae cultivation productivities in different geographic locations - estimation method for idealized photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Anette; Lehr, Florian; Posten, Clemens; Schaub, Georg

    2012-04-01

    Microalgae can be used to produce versatile high-value fuels, such as methane, biodiesel, ethanol, or hydrogen gas. One of the most important factors that influence the economics of microalgae cultivation is the primary production of biomass per unit area. This is determined by productivity rates during cultivation, which are influenced by the local climate conditions (solar irradiation, temperature). To compare locations in different climate regions for microalgae cultivation, a mathematical model for an idealized closed photobioreactor was developed. The applied growth kinetics were based on theoretical maximum photon-conversion efficiencies (for the conversion of solar energy to chemical energy in the form of biomass). Known or estimated temperature effects for different algal strains were incorporated. The model was used to calculate hourly average areal productivity rates as well as annual primary production values under local conditions at seven example locations. Here, hourly weather data (solar irradiance and air temperature) were taken into account. According to these model calculations, maximum annual yields were achieved in regions with high irradiation and temperature patterns in or near the optimum range of the specific algal strain (here, desert and equatorial humid climates). The developed model can be used as a tool to assess and compare individual locations for microalgae cultivation. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Prognostic models in male breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pol, Carmen C; Lacle, Miangela M; Witkamp, Arjen J; Kornegoor, Robert; Miao, Hui; Bouchardy, Christine; Borel Rinkes, Inne; van der Wall, Elsken; Verkooijen, Helena M; van Diest, Paul J

    2016-11-01

    Breast cancer in men is uncommon; it accounts for 1 % of all patients with primary breast cancer. Its treatment is mostly extrapolated from its female counterpart. Accurate predictions are essential for adjuvant systemic treatment decision-making and informing patients. Several predictive models are available for female breast cancer (FBC) including the Morphometric Prognostic Index (MPI), Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI), Adjuvant! Online and Predict. The aim of this study was to examine and compare the prognostic performance of these models for male breast cancer (MBC). The population of this study consists of 166 MBC patients. The prognostic scores of the patients are categorized by good, (moderate) and poor, defined by the test itself (MPI and NPI) or based on tertiles (Adjuvant! Online and Predict). Survival according to prognostic score was compared by Kaplan-Meier analysis and differences were tested by logRank. The prognostic performances were evaluated with C-statistics. Calibration was done with the aim to estimate to what extent the survival rates predicted by Predict were similar to the observed survival rates. All prediction models were capable of discriminating between good, moderate and poor survivors. P-values were highly significant. Comparison between the models using C-statistics (n = 88) showed equal performance of MPI (0.67), NPI (0.68), Adjuvant! Online (0.69) and Predict (0.69). Calibration of Predict showed overestimation for MBC patients. In conclusion, MPI, NPI, Adjuvant! and Predict prognostic models, originally developed and validated for FBC patients, also perform quite well for MBC patients.

  12. Spiral blood flows in an idealized 180-degree curved artery model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulusu, Kartik V.; Kulkarni, Varun; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2017-11-01

    Understanding of cardiovascular flows has been greatly advanced by the Magnetic Resonance Velocimetry (MRV) technique and its potential for three-dimensional velocity encoding in regions of anatomic interest. The MRV experiments were performed on a 180-degree curved artery model using a Newtonian blood analog fluid at the Richard M. Lucas Center at Stanford University employing a 3 Tesla General Electric (Discovery 750 MRI system) whole body scanner with an eight-channel cardiac coil. Analysis in two regions of the model-artery was performed for flow with Womersley number=4.2. In the entrance region (or straight-inlet pipe) the unsteady pressure drop per unit length, in-plane vorticity and wall shear stress for the pulsatile, carotid artery-based flow rate waveform were calculated. Along the 180-degree curved pipe (curvature ratio =1/7) the near-wall vorticity and the stretching of the particle paths in the vorticity field are visualized. The resultant flow behavior in the idealized curved artery model is associated with parameters such as Dean number and Womersley number. Additionally, using length scales corresponding to the axial and secondary flow we attempt to understand the mechanisms leading to the formation of various structures observed during the pulsatile flow cycle. Supported by GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE), MRV measurements in collaboration with Prof. John K. Eaton and, Dr. Chris Elkins at Stanford University.

  13. Tuned dynamics stabilizes an idealized regenerative axial-torsional model of rotary drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sunit K.; Wahi, Pankaj

    2018-01-01

    We present an exact stability analysis of a dynamical system idealizing rotary drilling. This system comprises lumped parameter axial-torsional modes of the drill-string coupled via the cutting forces and torques. The kinematics of cutting is modeled through a functional description of the cut surface which evolves as per a partial differential equation (PDE). Linearization of this model is straightforward as opposed to the traditional state-dependent delay (SDDE) model and both the approaches result in the same characteristic equation. A systematic study on the key system parameters influencing the stability characteristics reveals that torsional damping is very critical and stable drilling is, in general, not possible in its absence. The stable regime increases as the natural frequency of the axial mode approaches that of the torsional mode and a 1:1 internal resonance leads to a significant improvement in the system stability. Hence, from a practical point of view, a drill-string with 1:1 internal resonance is desirable to avoid vibrations during rotary drilling. For the non-resonant case, axial damping reduces the stable range of operating parameters while for the resonant case, an optimum value of axial damping (equal to the torsional damping) results in the largest stable regime. Interestingly, the resonant (tuned) system has a significant parameter regime corresponding to stable operation even in the absence of damping.

  14. Utopia And Dystopia in the Communication: A Brief Discussion on the Ideal Communication Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Dantas Figueiredo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we purpose to analyze two communication paradigms, the totalitarian and the democratic ones as ideal types. We take the weberian notion of ideal type to identify these paradigms, evaluating them through dystopian or utopian perspective, according to its more common representations.

  15. Descent and mixing of the overflow plume from Storfjord in Svalbard: an idealized numerical model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Fer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Storfjorden in the Svalbard Archipelago is a sill-fjord that produces significant volumes of dense, brine-enriched shelf water through ice formation. The dense water produced in the fjord overflows the sill and can reach deep into the Fram Strait. For conditions corresponding to a moderate ice production year, the pathway of the overflow, its descent and evolving water mass properties due to mixing are investigated for the first time using a high resolution 3-D numerical model. An idealized modeling approach forced by a typical annual cycle of buoyancy forcing due to ice production is chosen in a terrain-following vertical co-ordinate. Comparison with observational data, including hydrography, fine resolution current measurements and direct turbulence measurements using a microstructure profiler, gives confidence on the model performance. The model eddy diffusivity profiles contrasted to those inferred from the turbulence measurements give confidence on the skill of the Mellor Yamada scheme in representing sub-grid scale mixing for the Storfjorden overflow, and probably for gravity current modeling, in general. The Storfjorden overflow is characterized by low Froude number dynamics except at the shelf break where the plume narrows, accelerates with speed reaching 0.6 m s−1, yielding local Froude number in excess of unity. The volume flux of the plume increases by five-fold from the sill to downstream of the shelf-break. Rotational hydraulic control is not applicable for transport estimates at the sill using upstream basin information. To the leading order, geostrophy establishes the lateral slope of the plume interface at the sill. This allows for a transport estimate that is consistent with the model results by evaluating a weir relation at the sill.

  16. Vortical structures responsible for delayed stall in an idealized humpback whale flipper model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heesu; Kim, Jooha; Choi, Haecheon

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we investigate how the tubercles on the leading edge of an idealized humpback whale flipper model delay the stall. Oil-surface visualization is performed to see the surface flow pattern on the suction surface, and PIV is conducted in several streamwise and crossflow planes at different attack angles (α). Without tubercles, leading edge separation first occurs near the tip region and progresses inboard with increasing α. With tubercles, however, two types of vortical motions are observed at the mid-span. The first is streamwise vortex arrays which are dominant at α 9° , and these structures appear near the trailing edge. These two types of vortical motions delay flow separation at the peak regions of the mid-span, eliminating the spanwise stall progression and resulting in delayed stall. At α = 16° at which the tubercle model stalls, a large-scale streamwise vortex is originated from flow separation near the root region. This structure delays flow separation at the mid-span, leading to higher lift coefficient. Supported by NRF-2014M3C1B1033848.

  17. An idealized model for tree-grass coexistence in savannas : The role of life stage structure and fire disturbances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baudena, Mara|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/340303867; D'Andrea, Fabio; Provenzale, A.

    2010-01-01

    1. We discuss a simple implicit-space model for the competition of trees and grasses in an idealized savanna environment. The model represents patch occupancy dynamics within the habitat and introduces life stage structure in the tree population, namely adults and seedlings. A tree can be

  18. Modelling of an anaerobic plug-flow reactor. Process analysis and evaluation approaches with non-ideal mixing considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso-Bravo, Andrés; Sadino-Riquelme, Constanza; Gómez, Daniel; Segura, Camilo; Valdebenito, Emky; Hansen, Felipe

    2018-03-29

    This study shows the implementation of the Anaerobic Digestion Model (ADM1) in an anaerobic plug-flow reactor (PFR) with two approaches based on the use of consecutive continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) connected in serie for considering non-ideal mixing. The two-region (TR) model splits each CSTR into two regions, while the particulate retention (PR) model adds a retention parameter. The models were calibrated and validated based on experimental data from a bench-scale reactor treating cow manure. The PFR conventional model slightly outperformed the non-ideal mixing approaches. However, the PR model showed an increase in biomass retention time treating high solid content substrate. Biogas production was not sensitive to variations of the mixing parameters. The liquid fraction content was better represented by the PR model than the PFR and TR models. The study shows how reactor modelling is useful for monitoring and supervising biogas plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sediment transport and deposition on a river-dominated tidal flat: An idealized model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Christopher R.; Chen, Shih-Nan; Geyer, W. Rockwell; Ralston, David K.

    2010-01-01

    A 3-D hydrodynamic model is used to investigate how different size classes of river-derived sediment are transported, exported and trapped on an idealized, river-dominated tidal flat. The model is composed of a river channel flanked by sloping tidal flats, a configuration motivated by the intertidal region of the Skagit River mouth in Washington State, United States. It is forced by mixed tides and a pulse of freshwater and sediment with various settling velocities. In this system, the river not only influences stratification but also contributes a significant cross-shore transport. As a result, the bottom stress is strongly ebb-dominated in the channel because of the seaward advance of strong river flow as the tidal flats drain during ebbs. Sediment deposition patterns and mass budgets are sensitive to settling velocity. The lateral sediment spreading scales with an advective distance (settling time multiplied by lateral flow speed), thereby confining the fast settling sediment classes in the channel. Residual sediment transport is landward on the flats, because of settling lag, but is strongly seaward in the channel. The seaward transport mainly occurs during big ebbs and is controlled by a length scale ratio Ld/XWL, where Ld is a cross-shore advective distance (settling time multiplied by river outlet velocity), and XWL is the immersed cross-shore length of the intertidal zone. Sediment trapping requires Ld/XWL stratification and reducing tidal range both favor sediment trapping, whereas varying channel geometries and asymmetry of tides has relatively small impacts. Implications of the modeling results on the south Skagit intertidal region are discussed.

  20. Semi-idealized modeling of lightning initiation related to vertical air motion and cloud microphysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Zhang, Yijun; Zheng, Dong; Xu, Liangtao; Zhang, Wenjuan; Meng, Qing

    2017-10-01

    A three-dimensional charge-discharge numerical model is used, in a semi-idealized mode, to simulate a thunder-storm cell. Characteristics of the graupel microphysics and vertical air motion associated with the lightning initiation are revealed, which could be useful in retrieving charge strength during lightning when no charge-discharge model is available. The results show that the vertical air motion at the lightning initiation sites ( W ini) has a cubic polynomial correlation with the maximum updraft of the storm cell ( W cell-max), with the adjusted regression coefficient R 2 of approximately 0.97. Meanwhile, the graupel mixing ratio at the lightning initiation sites ( q g-ini) has a linear correlation with the maximum graupel mixing ratio of the storm cell ( q g-cell-max) and the initiation height ( z ini), with the coefficients being 0.86 and 0.85, respectively. These linear correlations are more significant during the middle and late stages of lightning activity. A zero-charge zone, namely, the area with very low net charge density between the main positive and negative charge layers, appears above the area of q g-cell-max and below the upper edge of the graupel region, and is found to be an important area for lightning initiation. Inside the zero-charge zone, large electric intensity forms, and the ratio of q ice (ice crystal mixing ratio) to q g (graupel mixing ratio) illustrates an exponential relationship to q g-ini. These relationships provide valuable clues to more accurately locating the high-risk area of lightning initiation in thunderstorms when only dual-polarization radar data or outputs from numerical models without charging/discharging schemes are available. The results can also help understand the environmental conditions at lightning initiation sites.

  1. Multiple climate regimes in an idealized lake-ice-atmosphere model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Noriyuki; Kravtsov, Sergey; Roebber, Paul

    2018-01-01

    In recent decades, the Laurentian Great Lakes have undergone rapid surface warming with the summertime trends substantially exceeding the warming rates of surrounding land. Warming of the deepest (Lake Superior) was the strongest, and that of the shallowest (Lake Erie)—the weakest of all lakes. To investigate the dynamics of accelerated lake warming, we considered single-column and multi-column thermodynamic lake-ice models coupled to an idealized two-layer atmosphere. The variable temperature of the upper atmospheric layer—a proxy for the large-scale atmospheric forcing—consisted, in the most general case, of a linear trend mimicking the global warming and atmospheric interannual variability, both on top of the prescribed seasonal cycle of the upper-air temperature. The atmospheric boundary layer of the coupled model exchanged heat with the lake and exhibited lateral diffusive heat transports between the adjacent atmospheric columns. In simpler single-column models, we find that, for a certain range of periodic atmospheric forcing, each lake possesses two stable equilibrium seasonal cycles, which we call "regimes"—with and without lake-ice occurrence in winter and with corresponding cold and warm temperatures in the following summer, respectively, all under an identical seasonally varying external forcing. Deeper lakes exhibit larger differences in their summertime surface water temperature between the warm and cold regimes, due to their larger thermal and dynamical inertia. The regime behavior of multi-column coupled models is similar but more complex, and in some cases, they admit more than two stable equilibrium seasonal cycles, with varying degrees of wintertime ice-cover. The simulated lake response to climate change in the presence of the atmospheric noise rationalizes the observed accelerated warming of the lakes, the correlation between wintertime ice cover and next summer's lake-surface temperature, as well as higher warming trends of the

  2. Idealized Experiments for Optimizing Model Parameters Using a 4D-Variational Method in an Intermediate Coupled Model of ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chuan; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Wu, Xinrong; Sun, Jichang

    2018-04-01

    Large biases exist in real-time ENSO prediction, which can be attributed to uncertainties in initial conditions and model parameters. Previously, a 4D variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system was developed for an intermediate coupled model (ICM) and used to improve ENSO modeling through optimized initial conditions. In this paper, this system is further applied to optimize model parameters. In the ICM used, one important process for ENSO is related to the anomalous temperature of subsurface water entrained into the mixed layer ( T e), which is empirically and explicitly related to sea level (SL) variation. The strength of the thermocline effect on SST (referred to simply as "the thermocline effect") is represented by an introduced parameter, α Te. A numerical procedure is developed to optimize this model parameter through the 4D-Var assimilation of SST data in a twin experiment context with an idealized setting. Experiments having their initial condition optimized only, and having their initial condition plus this additional model parameter optimized, are compared. It is shown that ENSO evolution can be more effectively recovered by including the additional optimization of this parameter in ENSO modeling. The demonstrated feasibility of optimizing model parameters and initial conditions together through the 4D-Var method provides a modeling platform for ENSO studies. Further applications of the 4D-Var data assimilation system implemented in the ICM are also discussed.

  3. Sperm competition games: A general model for precopulatory male-male competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parker, G.A.; Lessells, C.M.; Simmons, L.W.

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive males face a trade-off between expenditure on precopulatory male–male competition—increasing the number of females that they secure as mates—and sperm competition—increasing their fertilization success with those females. Previous sperm allocation models have focused on scramble

  4. Quantifying contributions to polar warming amplification in an idealized coupled general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianhua; Cai, Ming

    2010-04-01

    An idealized coupled general circulation model is used to demonstrate that the surface warming due to the doubling of CO2 can still be stronger in high latitudes than in low latitudes even without the negative evaporation feedback in low latitudes and positive ice-albedo feedback in high latitudes, as well as without the poleward latent heat transport. The new climate feedback analysis method formulated in Lu and Cai (Clim Dyn 32:873-885, 2009) is used to isolate contributions from both radiative and non-radiative feedback processes to the total temperature change obtained with the coupled GCM. These partial temperature changes are additive and their sum is convergent to the total temperature change. The radiative energy flux perturbations due to the doubling of CO2 and water vapor feedback lead to a stronger warming in low latitudes than in high latitudes at the surface and throughout the entire troposphere. In the vertical, the temperature changes due to the doubling of CO2 and water vapor feedback are maximum near the surface and decrease with height at all latitudes. The simultaneous warming reduction in low latitudes and amplification in high latitudes by the enhanced poleward dry static energy transport reverses the poleward decreasing warming pattern at the surface and in the lower troposphere, but it is not able to do so in the upper troposphere. The enhanced vertical moist convection in the tropics acts to amplify the warming in the upper troposphere at an expense of reducing the warming in the lower troposphere and surface warming in the tropics. As a result, the final warming pattern shows the co-existence of a reduction of the meridional temperature gradient at the surface and in the lower troposphere with an increase of the meridional temperature gradient in the upper troposphere. In the tropics, the total warming in the upper troposphere is stronger than the surface warming.

  5. Three-dimensional semi-idealized model for estuarine turbidity maxima in tidally dominated estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohit; Schuttelaars, Henk M.; Roos, Pieter C.

    2017-05-01

    We develop a three-dimensional idealized model that is specifically aimed at gaining insight in the physical mechanisms resulting in the formation of estuarine turbidity maxima in tidally dominated estuaries. First, the three-dimensional equations for water motion and suspended sediment concentration together with the so-called morphodynamic equilibrium condition, are scaled. Next, surface elevation, velocity and sediment concentration are expanded in a small parameter ɛ =AbarM2 / H , where AbarM2 is the mean amplitude of the M2 tide and H is the mean water depth at the seaward side. This results in a system of equations at each order in this small parameter. This ordering allows solving for the vertical structure of the velocity and suspended sediment concentration, independently of the horizontal dimension. After obtaining these vertical structures, the horizontal dependencies of the physical variables follow from solving a two-dimensional elliptic partial differential equation for the surface elevation. The availability of fine sediments in the estuary follows from a two-dimensional elliptic partial differential equation which results from requiring the system to be in morphodynamic equilibrium, and prescribing the total amount of easily erodible sediments available in the estuary. These elliptic equations for the surface elevation and sediment availability are solved numerically using the finite element method with cubic polynomials as basis functions. As a first application, the model is applied to the Ems estuary using a simplified geometry and bathymetric profiles characteristic for the years 1980 and 2005. The availability of fine sediments and location of maximum concentration are investigated for different lateral depth profiles. In the first experiment, a uniform lateral depth is considered. In this case, both the sediment availability and suspended sediment concentration are, as expected, uniform in the lateral direction. In 1980, the sediment is

  6. The effects of exposure to muscular male models among men: exploring the moderating role of gym use and exercise motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Emma; Dittmar, Helga; Orsborn, Amber

    2007-09-01

    This study examines the effects of exposure to the muscular male body ideal on body-focused negative affect among male gym users and non-exercisers. As hypothesized, the impact of media exposure depended on men's exercise status. Non-exercisers (n = 58) reported greater body-focused negative affect after exposure to images of muscular male models than after neutral images (no model controls), whereas gym users (n = 58) showed a tendency for less body-focused negative affect after the model images than after the control images. Furthermore, the extent to which gym users were motivated to increase strength and muscularity moderated these exposure effects; men who reported stronger strength and muscularity exercise motivation reported a greater degree of self-enhancement after exposure to the muscular ideal. The findings are interpreted with respect to likely differences in motives for social comparisons.

  7. Estimating Price Effects in an Almost Ideal Demand Model of Outbound Thai Tourism to East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); T. Khamkaew (Tanchanok); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes the responsiveness of Thai outbound tourism to East Asian destinations, namely China, Hong Kong, Japan, Taiwan and Korea, to changes in effective relative price of tourism, total real total tourism expenditure, and one-off events. The nonlinear and linear Almost Ideal

  8. [The impact of exposure to images of ideally thin models on body dissatisfaction in young French and Italian women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, R; Chabrol, H

    2009-06-01

    The thin-ideal of feminine beauty has a strong impact on body image and plays a central part in eating disorders. This ideal is widely promoted by the media images that flood western societies. Although the harmful effects of exposure to thin-ideal media images have been repeatedly demonstrated experimentally in English-speaking western countries, no such studies exist in southern Europe. There is evidence to suggest that the use of average-size models could reduce these negative effects. This study investigates body image amongst French and Italian students following exposure to media images of thin or average-size models, with a neutral or supportive slogan. The data were gathered in three locations: the psychology departments of the Universities of Padua, Italy, and Toulouse, France, and lastly high schools in the Toulouse area. A total of 299 girls took part in the study; their average age was 19.9 years old (S.D.=2.54) In order to investigate the effects of media images, we created three fake advertisements, allegedly promoting body-cream. The first advertisement displayed an ideally-thin model accompanied by a neutral slogan. In the second, the model was average-size with the same neutral slogan. The last advertisement also contained the average-size model, but with a supportive slogan designed to convey acceptance of deviations from the social norms of thinness. The participants first graded themselves on a VAS of body dissatisfaction (0 to 10). On the basis of this score, we created a first group containing girls reporting body dissatisfaction (VAS>or=5), the second with those reporting no body dissatisfaction (VASadvertisements, after which they filled in the body dissatisfaction sub-scale of the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI-2). The results showed that girls with initial body dissatisfaction reported higher body dissatisfaction after being exposed to images of ideally thin models than images of average-size models (F(1.32)=4.64, p=0.039). However, there

  9. Evaluation of the Utility of Static and Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Idealized Tropical Cyclone Problems in a Spectral Element Shallow Water Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-09

    Refinement for Idealized Tropical Cyclone Problems in a Spectral Element Shallow Water Model 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...amined for idealized tropical cyclone (TC) simulations in a spectral element f-plane shallow water model. The SMR simulations have varying sizes of...adaptive mesh refinement1 for idealized tropical cyclone problems in a spectral element2 shallow water model3 Eric A. Hendricks ∗ Marine Meteorology Division

  10. Idealized WRF model sensitivity simulations of sea breeze types and their effects on offshore windfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Steele

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour and characteristics of the marine component of sea breeze cells have received little attention relative to their onshore counterparts. Yet there is a growing interest and dependence on the offshore wind climate from, for example, a wind energy perspective. Using idealized model experiments, we investigate the sea breeze circulation at scales which approximate to those of the southern North Sea, a region of major ongoing offshore wind farm development. We also contrast the scales and characteristics of the pure and the little known corkscrew and backdoor sea breeze types, where the type is pre-defined by the orientation of the synoptic scale flow relative to the shoreline. We find, crucially, that pure sea breezes, in contrast to corkscrew and backdoor types, can lead to substantial wind speed reductions offshore and that the addition of a second eastern coastline emphasises this effect through generation of offshore "calm zones". The offshore extent of all sea breeze types is found to be sensitive to both the influence of Coriolis acceleration and to the boundary layer scheme selected. These extents range, for example for a pure sea breeze produced in a 2 m s−1 offshore gradient wind, from 0 km to 21 km between the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino and the Yonsei State University schemes respectively. The corkscrew type restricts the development of a backdoor sea breeze on the opposite coast and is also capable of traversing a 100 km offshore domain even under high along-shore gradient wind speed (>15 m s−1 conditions. Realistic variations in sea surface skin temperature and initializing vertical thermodynamic profile do not significantly alter the resulting circulation, though the strengths of the simulated sea breezes are modulated if the effective land-sea thermal contrast is altered. We highlight how sea breeze impacts on circulation need to be

  11. Modeling reactive transport in non-ideal aqueous-solid solution system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Haibing, E-mail: haibing.shao@ufz.de [UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department Environmental Informatics, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)] [Applied Environmental System Analysis, TU Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 10, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Dmytrieva, Svitlana V. [SSC Technocentre, Nauky Prosp. 46, 03650 Kyiv (Ukraine)] [Laboratory for Waste Management, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kolditz, Olaf [UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department Environmental Informatics, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)] [Applied Environmental System Analysis, TU Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 10, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Kulik, Dmitrii A.; Pfingsten, Wilfried; Kosakowski, Georg [Laboratory for Waste Management, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2009-07-15

    The numerical simulation of reactive mass transport processes in complex geochemical environments is an important tool for the performance assessment of future waste repositories. A new combination of the multi-component mass transport code GeoSys/RockFlow and the Gibbs Energy Minimization (GEM) equilibrium solver GEM-Selektor is used to calculate the accurate equilibrium of multiple non-ideal solid solutions which are important for the immobilization of radionuclides such as Ra. The coupled code is verified by a widely used benchmark of dissolution-precipitation in a calcite-dolomite system. A more complex application shown in this paper is the transport of Ra in the near-field of a nuclear waste repository. Depending on the initial inventories of Sr, Ba and sulfate, non-ideal sulfate and carbonate solid solutions can fix mobile Ra cations. Due to the complex geochemical interactions, the reactive transport simulations can describe the migration of Ra in a much more realistic way than using the traditional linear K{sub D} approach only.

  12. Ideal gender identity related to parent images and locus of control: Jungian and social learning perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Hiroko; Keskinen, Soili

    2004-06-01

    In this research, we wanted to clarify how gender images are different or invariant and related to parents, attributes, and the attitude of controlling life (locus of control) in two cultural contexts, Japan and Finland. For this purpose, students' ideal gender images, consisting of ideal mother, female, father and male images, and parents' similarity to the four ideal gender images were studied in 135 Japanese and 119 Finnish university students. Major findings were (a) Japanese students' ideal gender images were more stereotypic than those of Finnish students; (b) students' ideal mother image and parents' similarity to the ideal mother image were related only to their sex, which supports Jung's theory; (c) students socially learned other ideal gender images, but these did not fit with expectation from social learning theory; (d) Japanese students' mothers are models or examples of gender images, but Finnish male students did not seem to base their ideal gender images on their parents. Implication of measures was discussed.

  13. Computationally efficient models for simulation of non-ideal DC–DC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    buck, boost and buck–boost) under continuous and discontinuous modes of operation. Three types of models are presented for each converter, namely, switching model, average model and harmonic model. These models include significant ...

  14. Validation of the Jarzynski relation for a system with strong thermal coupling: an isothermal ideal gas model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baule, A; Evans, R M L; Olmsted, P D

    2006-12-01

    We revisit the paradigm of an ideal gas under isothermal conditions. A moving piston performs work on an ideal gas in a container that is strongly coupled to a heat reservoir. The thermal coupling is modeled by stochastic scattering at the boundaries. In contrast to recent studies of an adiabatic ideal gas with a piston [R.C. Lua and A.Y. Grosberg, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 6805 (2005); I. Bena, Europhys. Lett. 71, 879 (2005)], the container and piston stay in contact with the heat bath during the work process. Under this condition the heat reservoir as well as the system depend on the work parameter lambda and microscopic reversibility is broken for a moving piston. Our model is thus not included in the class of systems for which the nonequilibrium work theorem has been derived rigorously either by Hamiltonian [C. Jarzynski, J. Stat. Mech. (2004) P09005] or stochastic methods [G.E. Crooks, J. Stat. Phys. 90, 1481 (1998)]. Nevertheless the validity of the nonequilibrium work theorem is confirmed both numerically for a wide range of parameter values and analytically in the limit of a very fast moving piston, i.e., in the far nonequilibrium regime.

  15. Hemodynamic analysis in an idealized artery tree: differences in wall shear stress between Newtonian and non-Newtonian blood models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared C Weddell

    Full Text Available Development of many conditions and disorders, such as atherosclerosis and stroke, are dependent upon hemodynamic forces. To accurately predict and prevent these conditions and disorders hemodynamic forces must be properly mapped. Here we compare a shear-rate dependent fluid (SDF constitutive model, based on the works by Yasuda et al in 1981, against a Newtonian model of blood. We verify our stabilized finite element numerical method with the benchmark lid-driven cavity flow problem. Numerical simulations show that the Newtonian model gives similar velocity profiles in the 2-dimensional cavity given different height and width dimensions, given the same Reynolds number. Conversely, the SDF model gave dissimilar velocity profiles, differing from the Newtonian velocity profiles by up to 25% in velocity magnitudes. This difference can affect estimation in platelet distribution within blood vessels or magnetic nanoparticle delivery. Wall shear stress (WSS is an important quantity involved in vascular remodeling through integrin and adhesion molecule mechanotransduction. The SDF model gave a 7.3-fold greater WSS than the Newtonian model at the top of the 3-dimensional cavity. The SDF model gave a 37.7-fold greater WSS than the Newtonian model at artery walls located immediately after bifurcations in the idealized femoral artery tree. The pressure drop across arteries reveals arterial sections highly resistive to flow which correlates with stenosis formation. Numerical simulations give the pressure drop across the idealized femoral artery tree with the SDF model which is approximately 2.3-fold higher than with the Newtonian model. In atherosclerotic lesion models, the SDF model gives over 1 Pa higher WSS than the Newtonian model, a difference correlated with over twice as many adherent monocytes to endothelial cells from the Newtonian model compared to the SDF model.

  16. Computationally efficient models for simulation of non-ideal DC–DC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper discusses dynamic modeling of non-isolated DC–DC con- verters (buck, boost and buck–boost) under continuous and discontinuous modes of operation. Three types of models are presented for each converter, namely, switching model, average model and harmonic model. These models include ...

  17. DC parameter extraction of equivalent circuit model in InGaAsSb heterojunction bipolar transistors including non-ideal effects in the base region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yang-Hua; Cheng, Zong-Tai

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the DC parameter extraction of the equivalent circuit model in an InP-InGaAsSb double heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT). The non-ideal collector current is modeled by a non-ideal doping distribution in the base region. Then several consequent non-ideal effects, which have always been neglected in typical HBTs, are studied using Medici device simulator. Moreover, the associated DC parameters of VBIC model are extracted accordingly. The equivalent circuit model is in good agreement with the measured data in I C- V CE characteristics.

  18. Atmospheric Circulation Response to Episodic Arctic Warming in an Idealized Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hell, M. C.; Schneider, T.; Li, C.

    2017-12-01

    Recent Arctic sea ice loss has drawn attention as a potential driver of fall/winter circulation changes. Past work has shown that sea ice loss can be related to a stratospheric polar vortex breakdown, with the result of long-delayed surface weather phenomena in late winter/early spring. In this study, we separate the atmospheric dynamic components and mean timescales to episodic polar surface heat fluxes using large ensembles of an idealized GCM in absence of continents and seasons. The atmospheric ensemble-mean response is linear related to the surface forcing strength and insensitive to the forcing symmetry. Analyses in the Transformed Eulerian Mean show that the responses can be separated into 1) an in-phase thermal adjustment, and 2) a lagged, eddy-driven component invoking long-standing anomalies in the lower stratosphere. The mid-latitude adjustment to the episodically reduced baroclinity leads to stratosphere-directed eddy-heat fluxes, establishing a stratospheric temperature anomaly responsible for vortex break down. In addition, we discuss the dependence on the background state via correlation in ensemble member space. Thus, we range the role of arctic perturbations in the transient large-scale circulation.

  19. Tomographic anthropomorphic models. Pt. 4. Organ doses for adults due to idealized external photon exposures

    CERN Document Server

    Zankl, M; Petoussi-Henss, N; Regulla, D

    2002-01-01

    The present report contains extensive tables and figures of conversion coefficients of organ and tissue equivalent dose, normalised to air kerma free in air for voxel anthropomorphic phantoms and for standard geometries of external photon radiation, estimated with Monte Carlo techniques. Four realistic adult voxel phantoms were used for the calculations, based on computed tomographic data of real people: three male phantoms, two of them being of average size, one representing a big man, and one female phantom of a tall and somewhat over weighted woman.

  20. Experiments with three-dimensional riblets as an idealized model of shark skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechert, D.W.; Bruse, M.; Hage, W. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Turbulence Res.

    2000-05-01

    The skin of fast sharks exhibits a rather intriguing three-dimensional rib pattern. Therefore, the question arises whether or not such three-dimensional riblet surfaces may produce an equivalent or even higher drag reduction than straight two-dimensional riblets. Previously, the latter have been shown to reduce turbulent wall shear stress by up to 10%. Hence, the drag reduction by three-dimensional riblet surfaces is investigated experimentally. Our idealized 3D-surface consists of sharp-edged fin-shaped elements arranged in an interlocking array. The turbulent wall shear stress on this surface is measured using direct force balances. In a first attempt, wind tunnel experiments with about 365000 tiny fin elements per test surface have been carried out. Due to the complexity of the surface manufacturing process, a comprehensive parametric study was not possible. These initial wind tunnel data, however, hinted at an appreciable drag reduction. Subsequently, in order to have a better judgement on the potential of these 3D-surfaces, oil channel experiments are carried out. In our new oil channel, the geometrical dimensions of the fins can be magnified 10 times in size as compared to the initial wind tunnel experiments, i.e., from typically 0.5 mm to 5 mm. For these latter oil channel experiments, novel test plates with variable fin configuration have been manufactured, with 1920-4000 fins. This enhanced variability permits measurements with a comparatively large parameter range. As a result of our measurements, it can be concluded, that 3D-riblet surfaces do indeed produce an appreciable drag reduction. We found as much as 7.3% decreased turbulent shear stress, as compared to a smooth reference plate.

  1. Sex education and ideals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruyter, D.J.; Spiecker, B.

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that sex education should include sexual ideals. Sexual ideals are divided into sexual ideals in the strict sense and sexual ideals in the broad sense. It is argued that ideals that refer to the context that is deemed to be most ideal for the gratification of sexual ideals in the

  2. Experiments with three-dimensional riblets as an idealized model of shark skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechert, D. W.; Bruse, M.; Hage, W.

    The skin of fast sharks exhibits a rather intriguing three-dimensional rib pattern. Therefore, the question arises whether or not such three-dimensional riblet surfaces may produce an equivalent or even higher drag reduction than straight two-dimensional riblets. Previously, the latter have been shown to reduce turbulent wall shear stress by up to 10%. Hence, the drag reduction by three-dimensional riblet surfaces is investigated experimentally. Our idealized 3D-surface consists of sharp-edged fin-shaped elements arranged in an interlocking array. The turbulent wall shear stress on this surface is measured using direct force balances. In a first attempt, wind tunnel experiments with about 365,000 tiny fin elements per test surface have been carried out. Due to the complexity of the surface manufacturing process, a comprehensive parametric study was not possible. These initial wind tunnel data, however, hinted at an appreciable drag reduction. Subsequently, in order to have a better judgement on the potential of these 3D-surfaces, oil channel experiments are carried out. In our new oil channel, the geometrical dimensions of the fins can be magnified 10 times in size as compared to the initial wind tunnel experiments, i.e., from typically 0.5mm to 5mm. For these latter oil channel experiments, novel test plates with variable fin configuration have been manufactured, with 1,920-4,000 fins. This enhanced variability permits measurements with a comparatively large parameter range. As a result of our measurements, it can be concluded, that 3D-riblet surfaces do indeed produce an appreciable drag reduction. We found as much as 7.3% decreased turbulent shear stress, as compared to a smooth reference plate. However, in direct comparison with 2D riblets, the performance of 3D-riblets is still inferior by about 1.7%. On the other hand, it appears conceivable, with a careful design of the fin shape (possibly supported by theory), that this inferiority in performance might be

  3. Pragmatism, mathematical models, and the scientific ideal of prediction and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J

    2015-05-01

    Mathematical models are often held to be valuable, if not necessary, for theories and explanations in the quantitative analysis of behavior. The present review suggests that mathematical models primarily derived from the observation of functional relations do indeed contribute to the scientific value of theories and explanations, even though the final form of the models appears to be highly abstract. However, mathematical models not primarily so derived risk being essentialist in character, based on a particular view of formal causation. Such models invite less effective and frequently mentalistic theories and explanations of behavior. Models may be evaluated in terms of both (a) the verbal processes responsible for their origin and development and (b) the prediction and control engendered by the theories and explanations that incorporate the models, however indirect or abstract that prediction and control may be. Overall, the present review suggests that technological application and theoretical contemplation may be usefully viewed as continuous and overlapping forms of scientific activity, rather than dichotomous and mutually exclusive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Persepsi Mahasiswa, Dosen dan Bidan Pembimbing tentang Model Pembelajaran Klinik Kebidanan yang Ideal

    OpenAIRE

    Yanti, Yanti; Emilia, Ova; Claramita, Mora

    2017-01-01

    Background: A large number graduates of midwife even now accompanied with low competency isues in associated with quality of clinical learning. Now implementation of clinical learning with caseload model has problems. Clinical learning model in clinical practice that student, teacher and clinical midwife experienced provide greater insight to develop an effective clinical teaching strategy in midwifery education. The main objective of this study was to investigate student midwife, teacher and...

  5. Non-ideal Stirling engine thermodynamic model suitable for the integration into overall energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araoz, Joseph A.; Salomon, Marianne; Alejo, Lucio; Fransson, Torsten H.

    2014-01-01

    The reliability of modelling and simulation of energy systems strongly depends on the prediction accuracy of each system component. This is the case of Stirling engine-based systems, where an accurate modelling of the engine performance is very important to understand the overall system behaviour. In this sense, many Stirling engine analyses with different approaches have been already developed. However, there is a lack of Stirling engine models suitable for the integration into overall system simulations. In this context, this paper aims to develop a rigorous Stirling engine model that could be easily integrated into combined heat and power schemes for the overall techno-economic analysis of these systems. The model developed considers a Stirling engine with adiabatic working spaces, isothermal heat exchangers, dead volumes, and imperfect regeneration. Additionally, it considers mechanical pumping losses due to friction, limited heat transfer and thermal losses on the heat exchangers. The model is suitable for different engine configurations (alpha beta and gamma engines). It was developed using Aspen Custom Modeller ® (ACM®) as modelling software. The set of equations were solved using ACM ® equation solver for steady-state operation. However, due to the dynamic behaviour of the cycle, a C++ code was integrated to solve iteratively a set of differential equations. This resulted in a cyclic steady-state model that calculates the power output and thermal requirements of the system. The predicted efficiency and power output were compared with the numerical model and the experimental work reported by the NASA Lewis Research Centre for the GPU-3 Stirling engine. This showed average absolute errors around ±4% for the brake power, and ±5% for the brake efficiency at different frequencies. However, the model also showed large errors (±15%) for these calculations at higher frequencies and low pressures. Additional results include the calculation of the cyclic

  6. Modified ideal observer model (MIOM) for high-contrast and high-spatial resolution CT imaging tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Bastida, Juan P; Gomez-Cardona, Daniel; Garrett, John; Szczykutowicz, Timothy; Chen, Guang-Hong; Li, Ke

    2017-09-01

    Although a variety of mathematical observer models have been developed to predict human observer performance for low contrast lesion detection tasks, their predictive power for high contrast and high spatial resolution discrimination imaging tasks, including those in CT bone imaging, could be limited. The purpose of this work was to develop a modified observer model that has improved correlation with human observer performance for these tasks. The proposed observer model, referred to as the modified ideal observer model (MIOM), uses a weight function to penalize components in the task function that have less contribution to the actual human observer performance for high contrast and high spatial resolution discrimination tasks. To validate MIOM, both human observer and observer model studies were performed, each using exactly the same CT imaging task [discrimination of a connected component in a high contrast (1000 HU) high spatial resolution bone fracture model (0.3 mm)] and experimental CT image data. For the human observer studies, three physicist observers rated the connectivity of the fracture model using a five-point Likert scale; for the observer model studies, a total of five observer models, including both conventional models and the proposed MIOM, were used to calculate the discrimination capability of the CT images in resolving the connected component. Images used in the studies encompassed nine different reconstruction kernels. Correlation between human and observer model performance for these kernels were quantified using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient (ρ). After the validation study, an example application of MIOM was presented, in which the observer model was used to select the optimal reconstruction kernel for a High-Resolution (Hi-Res, GE Healthcare) CT scan technique. The performance of the proposed MIOM correlated well with that of the human observers with a Spearman rank correlation coefficient ρ of 0.88 (P = 0.003). In comparison

  7. An Idealized Meteorological-Hydrodynamic Model for Exploring Extreme Storm Surge Statistics in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ledden, M.; Van den Berg, N.J.F.; De Jong, M.S.; Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.; Den Heijer, C.; Vrijling, J.K.; Jonkman, S.N.; Roos, P.C.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.; Lansen, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores an alternative method to determine extreme surge levels at the Dutch Coast. For this exploration, specific focus is on the extreme water level at Hoek van Holland, The Netherlands. The alternative method has been based on a joint probability model of the storm characteristics at

  8. Shallow convection over land: a mesoscale modelling study based on idealized WRF experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenaerts, J.T.M.; Heerwaarden, van C.C.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.

    2009-01-01

    A shallow cumulus over land redistributes heat and moisture in the boundary layer, but is also important on larger scales, because it can trigger severe convection events. Due to its small (102 - 103 m) spatial scale, this feature is defined as a sub-grid process in mesoscale models. The goal of

  9. A Labor Market Success Model of Young Male Hispanic Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenstat, Paul

    The study develops a labor market success model of young male inner-city Hispanics and examines several variables influencing labor market success. A sample of inner-city Puerto Ricans who attended the eighth grade in two schools in Wilmington, Delaware, in the 1966-1971 period was chosen and interviewed. Small control groups of blacks and whites…

  10. An Idealized Modeling Study of the Gulf-Stream and Kuroshio Extension Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primeau, F. W.; Newman, D.

    2004-05-01

    A shallow-water model is used to study the dynamics of the mid-latitude wind-driven ocean circulation. A bifurcation analysis of the steady-state equilibrium solutions is presented. The analysis is in terms of several control parameters: some that control the wind-stress pattern and others that controls the dissipation parameterization. Of the parameters that control the wind-stress, one controls the tilt of the zero-curl line, another controls the relative intensity of the vorticity input in the subtropical and sub-polar gyres and a third controls the overall intensity of the wind-stress. We identify parameter ranges for which multiple equilibria with elongated and contracted western boundary current extensions exist. We also present time-dependent solutions with low frequency variability associated with transitions between the elongated and contracted modes of circulation. The modeled variability is conjectured to correspond to similar elongation-contraction patterns of variability observed in the Kuroshio and Gulf-Stream extension systems from satellite observations.

  11. Physical mechanisms controlling self-aggregation of convection in idealized numerical modeling simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Allison A.; Emanuel, Kerry A.

    2014-03-01

    elucidate the physics of self-aggregation by applying a new diagnostic technique to the output of a cloud resolving model. Specifically, the System for Atmospheric Modeling is used to perform 3- D cloud system resolving simulations of radiative-convective equilibrium in a nonrotating framework, with interactive radiation and surface fluxes and fixed sea surface temperature (SST). We note that self-aggregation begins as a dry patch that expands, eventually forcing all the convection into a single clump. Thus, when examining the initiation of self-aggregation, we focus on processes that can amplify this initial dry patch. We introduce a novel method to quantify the magnitudes of the various feedbacks that control self-aggregation within the framework of the budget for the spatial variance of column-integrated frozen moist static energy. The absorption of shortwave radiation by atmospheric water vapor is found to be a key positive feedback in the evolution of aggregation. In addition, we find a positive wind speed-surface flux feedback whose role is to counteract a negative feedback due to the effect of air-sea enthalpy disequilibrium on surface fluxes. The longwave radiation feedback can be either positive or negative in the early and intermediate stages of aggregation; however, it is the dominant positive feedback that maintains the aggregated state once it develops. Importantly, the mechanisms that maintain the aggregate state are distinct from those that instigate the evolution of self-aggregation.

  12. A Normative Model of Serum Inhibin B in Young Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Miles, Amy; Mitchell, Rod T; Anderson, Richard A; Wallace, W Hamish B

    2016-01-01

    Inhibin B has been identified as a potential marker of Sertoli cell function in males. The aim of this study is to produce a normative model of serum inhibin B in males from birth to seventeen years. We used a well-defined search strategy to identify studies containing data that can contribute to a larger approximation of the healthy population. We combined data from four published studies (n = 709) and derived an internally validated model with high goodness-of-fit and normally distributed residuals. Our results show that inhibin B increases following birth to a post-natal peak of 270 pg/mL (IQR 210-335 pg/mL) and then decreases during childhood followed by a rise at around 8 years, peaking at a mean 305 pg/mL (IQR 240-445 pg/mL) at around age 17. Following this peak there is a slow decline to the standard mature adult normal range of 170 pg/mL (IQR 125-215 pg/mL). This normative model suggests that 35% of the variation in Inhibin B levels in young males is due to age alone, provides an age-specific reference range for inhibin B in the young healthy male population, and will be a powerful tool in evaluating the potential of inhibin B as a marker of Sertoli cell function in pre-pubertal boys.

  13. Development of an ideal plant type and male sterility system in sesame suitable for summer rice fallow in the coastal regions of Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, J.

    2001-01-01

    In Tamil Nadu, sesame growing on available residual soil moisture after the rice harvest is expanding. In order to achieve higher and more reliable yields under these conditions, a more suitable plant type is needed: with shorter stature and growing period, moderate basal branching and higher productivity. Seeds of 6 varieties were treated with gamma rays, diethyl sulphate (DES) and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS). The M 1 -M 4 generations were studied and several promising mutants were selected. Among them were also male sterile mutants; it is thought that such mutants will assist in producing hybrid varieties which will give the desired yield breakthrough. (author)

  14. Rate control management of atrial fibrillation: may a mathematical model suggest an ideal heart rate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Anselmino

    Full Text Available Despite the routine prescription of rate control therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF, clinical evidence demonstrating a heart rate target is lacking. Aim of the present study was to run a mathematical model simulating AF episodes with a different heart rate (HR to predict hemodynamic parameters for each situation.The lumped model, representing the pumping heart together with systemic and pulmonary circuits, was run to simulate AF with HR of 50, 70, 90, 110 and 130 bpm, respectively.Left ventricular pressure increased by 57%, from 33.92±37.56 mmHg to 53.15±47.56 mmHg, and mean systemic arterial pressure increased by 27%, from 82.66±14.04 mmHg to 105.3±7.6 mmHg, at the 50 and 130 bpm simulations, respectively. Stroke volume (from 77.45±8.50 to 39.09±8.08 mL, ejection fraction (from 61.10±4.40 to 39.32±5.42% and stroke work (SW, from 0.88±0.04 to 0.58±0.09 J decreased by 50, 36 and 34%, at the 50 and 130 bpm simulations, respectively. In addition, oxygen consumption indexes (rate pressure product - RPP, tension time index per minute - TTI/min, and pressure volume area per minute - PVA/min increased from the 50 to the 130 bpm simulation, respectively, by 186% (from 5598±1939 to 15995±3219 mmHg/min, 56% (from 2094±265 to 3257±301 mmHg s/min and 102% (from 57.99±17.90 to 117.4±26.0 J/min. In fact, left ventricular efficiency (SW/PVA decreased from 80.91±2.91% at 50 bpm to 66.43±3.72% at the 130 bpm HR simulation.Awaiting compulsory direct clinical evidences, the present mathematical model suggests that lower HRs during permanent AF relates to improved hemodynamic parameters, cardiac efficiency, and lower oxygen consumption.

  15. Rate control management of atrial fibrillation: may a mathematical model suggest an ideal heart rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmino, Matteo; Scarsoglio, Stefania; Camporeale, Carlo; Saglietto, Andrea; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Despite the routine prescription of rate control therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF), clinical evidence demonstrating a heart rate target is lacking. Aim of the present study was to run a mathematical model simulating AF episodes with a different heart rate (HR) to predict hemodynamic parameters for each situation. The lumped model, representing the pumping heart together with systemic and pulmonary circuits, was run to simulate AF with HR of 50, 70, 90, 110 and 130 bpm, respectively. Left ventricular pressure increased by 57%, from 33.92±37.56 mmHg to 53.15±47.56 mmHg, and mean systemic arterial pressure increased by 27%, from 82.66±14.04 mmHg to 105.3±7.6 mmHg, at the 50 and 130 bpm simulations, respectively. Stroke volume (from 77.45±8.50 to 39.09±8.08 mL), ejection fraction (from 61.10±4.40 to 39.32±5.42%) and stroke work (SW, from 0.88±0.04 to 0.58±0.09 J) decreased by 50, 36 and 34%, at the 50 and 130 bpm simulations, respectively. In addition, oxygen consumption indexes (rate pressure product - RPP, tension time index per minute - TTI/min, and pressure volume area per minute - PVA/min) increased from the 50 to the 130 bpm simulation, respectively, by 186% (from 5598±1939 to 15995±3219 mmHg/min), 56% (from 2094±265 to 3257±301 mmHg s/min) and 102% (from 57.99±17.90 to 117.4±26.0 J/min). In fact, left ventricular efficiency (SW/PVA) decreased from 80.91±2.91% at 50 bpm to 66.43±3.72% at the 130 bpm HR simulation. Awaiting compulsory direct clinical evidences, the present mathematical model suggests that lower HRs during permanent AF relates to improved hemodynamic parameters, cardiac efficiency, and lower oxygen consumption.

  16. Overweight in young males reduce fertility in rabbit model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Marco-Jiménez

    Full Text Available Semen quality has certainly declined over the past few decades, possibly owing to modern lifestyle factors. In this sense, the role of overweight and obesity in the development of subfertility in males has generated a considerable amount of interest in recent years. However, there is no consensus on whether overweight or obesity impaired sperm quality. Thus, based on the ongoing debate about risk factors for subfertility associated with overweight and obesity in men, this study was designed to investigate the effect of overweight on sperm quality parameters and fertility success in randomized controlled trial in a rabbit model. Fourteen male rabbits were randomly assigned to a control group in which nutritional requirements were satisfied or a group fed to satiety from 12 to 32 weeks of age. At 24 weeks of age, semen samples were analysed weekly by conventional semen analysis for 8 weeks. In addition, during the trial female rabbits were artificially inseminated by each male to assess the fertility success and the number of offspring. Young males fed to satiety were associated with a significant increase in body weight (13.6% overweight and perirenal fat thickness (5%. Male overweight presented a significant decrease in sperm concentration. There were no differences in the remaining sperm parameters. However, male overweight showed a clear and significant decrease in fertility success (control group, 64±8.9% versus fed to satiety group, 35±9.2%, but not in the number of offspring. Taken together, our findings provide new evidence on the loss of fertility induced by overweight in males.

  17. Overweight in young males reduce fertility in rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Jiménez, Francisco; Vicente, José Salvador

    2017-01-01

    Semen quality has certainly declined over the past few decades, possibly owing to modern lifestyle factors. In this sense, the role of overweight and obesity in the development of subfertility in males has generated a considerable amount of interest in recent years. However, there is no consensus on whether overweight or obesity impaired sperm quality. Thus, based on the ongoing debate about risk factors for subfertility associated with overweight and obesity in men, this study was designed to investigate the effect of overweight on sperm quality parameters and fertility success in randomized controlled trial in a rabbit model. Fourteen male rabbits were randomly assigned to a control group in which nutritional requirements were satisfied or a group fed to satiety from 12 to 32 weeks of age. At 24 weeks of age, semen samples were analysed weekly by conventional semen analysis for 8 weeks. In addition, during the trial female rabbits were artificially inseminated by each male to assess the fertility success and the number of offspring. Young males fed to satiety were associated with a significant increase in body weight (13.6% overweight) and perirenal fat thickness (5%). Male overweight presented a significant decrease in sperm concentration. There were no differences in the remaining sperm parameters. However, male overweight showed a clear and significant decrease in fertility success (control group, 64±8.9% versus fed to satiety group, 35±9.2%), but not in the number of offspring. Taken together, our findings provide new evidence on the loss of fertility induced by overweight in males.

  18. Ideals and anti-ideals students of the basic and senior school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir S. Sobkin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the study of representations of the ideals and anti-ideals in secondary and high schools students. The study is important due to connection with the peculiarities of modern adolescent socialization in the context of contemporary social cultural realities. Shaping the world view in students is significantly influenced by the choice of values and the social role model. In this regard, the aim of this study was to examine gender and age dynamics of different groups of personalities related to the politics and spiritual culture in the structure of ideals and anti-idials in modern adolescents. Aggravation of the internal and external political situation, politically-oriented media content and society as a whole, the introduction of information technologies in various spheres of life, the «western» background of cultural values and information environment, the shift of sex-role identification has a significant influence on gender-specific and age-specific dynamics and significance of different groups of personalities in the structure of ideals and anti-idials in modern adolescents are based on the data of content analysis and a questionnaire survey of 2,273 students, grades 5-11. The features of the structure of ideals and anti-idials of boys and girls, which are formed under the influence of gender identification are characterized. The analysis of the students’ groups of ideals and anti-idials is held depending on their belonging to the Russian and foreign cultures. The students’ representations of the ideals and anti-idials are of a mixed structure, dominated by the personalities of the real people in comparison with the images (characters of works of literature, cinema, cartoons. The sphere of political culture and ideology (politicians, historical figures that presents male personalities is significant for boys. For girls, besides politics, the literary field (writers and movie actors is more important, where the

  19. Role of the Ocean-Atmosphere interactions for the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability in an idealized coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamet, Quentin; Huck, Thierry; de Verdière, Alain Colin; Arzel, Olivier; Campin, Jean-Michel

    2015-04-01

    The role of the ocean-atmosphere interactions in the multidecadal variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is investigated in an idealized coupled configuration of the MIT General Circulation Model. The flat-bottom ocean, composed of an Atlantic-like small basin, a Pacific-like large basin, and an unblocked Antarctic-like circumpolar channel, is coupled to a global atmospheric model (SPEEDY). In order to better represent the atmospheric dynamics and its interactions with the ocean, three set-ups, with horizontal resolution of about 4°, 2° and 1° (at the equator) in both the ocean and atmosphere models, are compared. They show a linearly increasing North Atlantic Oscillation-like variability. At all resolutions, the AMOC undergoes a spontaneous variability on multidecadal time scales between 30-40 yr, with an additional higher frequency in the highest resolution set-up. The AMOC variability responds to temperature anomalies along the western boundary through the thermal wind relationship. These temperature anomalies result from the propagation of large-scale baroclinic Rossby waves across the small basin. The unstable region responsible for the growth of Rossby waves through baroclinic instability, diagnosed using a temperature variance budget, shifts from the eastern boundary at coarse resolution (4°) to the western boundary at higher resolution (2° and 1°). An earlier study, performed with the same coarse resolution set-up (4°), has shown that the AMOC does not participate to the growth of Rossby waves, but passively reacts to these waves. The AMOC being mainly connected to the western boundary dynamics, its role in setting large scale baroclinic Rossby waves might be different between the coarse resolution set-ups (4°) and the higher resolution set-ups (2° and 1°). The ocean-atmosphere interactions are strongly enhanced in the highest resolution set-up (1°), with the development of a significant correlation of about 0

  20. Modelling the Progression of Male Swimmers’ Performances through Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilo J. Dormehl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient data on adolescent athletes is contributing to the challenges facing youth athletic development and accurate talent identification. The purpose of this study was to model the progression of male sub-elite swimmers’ performances during adolescence. The performances of 446 males (12–19 year olds competing in seven individual events (50, 100, 200 m freestyle, 100 m backstroke, breaststroke, butterfly, 200 m individual medley over an eight-year period at an annual international schools swimming championship, run under FINA regulations were collected. Quadratic functions for each event were determined using mixed linear models. Thresholds of peak performance were achieved between the ages of 18.5 ± 0.1 (50 m freestyle and 200 m individual medley and 19.8 ± 0.1 (100 m butterfly years. The slowest rate of improvement was observed in the 200 m individual medley (20.7% and the highest in the 100 m butterfly (26.2%. Butterfly does however appear to be one of the last strokes in which males specialise. The models may be useful as talent identification tools, as they predict the age at which an average sub-elite swimmer could potentially peak. The expected rate of improvement could serve as a tool in which to monitor and evaluate benchmarks.

  1. All things to all people: trade-offs in pursuit of an ideal modeling tool for maternal and child health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Roberton

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modeling tools have potential to aid decision making for program planning and evaluation at all levels, but are still largely the domain of technical experts, consultants, and global-level staff. One model that can improve decision making for maternal and child health is the Lives Saved Tool (LiST. We examined respondents’ perceptions of LiST’s strengths and weaknesses, to identify ways in which LiST – and similar modeling tools – can adapt to be more accessible and helpful to policy makers. Methods We interviewed 21 purposefully sampled LiST users. First, we identified the characteristics that respondents explicitly stated, or implicitly implied, were important in a modeling tool, and then used these results to create a framework for reviewing a modeling tool. Second, we used this framework to categorize the strengths and weaknesses of LiST that respondents articulated. Results Two overarching qualities were important to respondents: usability and accuracy. For some users, LiST already meets these criteria: it allows for customized input parameters to increase specificity; the interface is intuitive; the assumptions and calculations are scientifically sound; and the standard metric of “additional lives saved” is understood and comparable across settings. Other respondents had different views, although their complaints were typically not that the tool is unusable or inaccurate, but that aspects of the tool could be better explained or easier to understand. Conclusion Government and agency staff at all levels should be empowered to use the data available to them, including the use of models to make full use of these data. For this, we need tools that meet a threshold of both accuracy, so results clarify rather than mislead, and usability, so tools can be used readily and widely, not just by select experts. With these ideals in mind, there are ways in which LiST might continue to be improved or adapted to further

  2. Regional model simulation of North Atlantic cyclones: Present climate and idealized response to increased sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmler, Tido; Varghese, Saji; McGrath, Ray; Nolan, Paul; Wang, Shiyu; Lynch, Peter; O'Dowd, Colin

    2008-01-01

    The influence of an increased sea surface temperature (SST) on the frequency and intensity of cyclones over the North Atlantic is investigated using two data sets from simulations with the Rossby Centre regional climate model RCA3. The model domain comprises large parts of the North Atlantic and the adjacent continents. RCA3 is driven by reanalysis data for May to December 1985-2000 at the lateral and lower boundaries, using SST and lateral boundary temperatures. A realistic interannual variation in tropical storm and hurricane counts is simulated. In an idealized sensitivity experiment, SSTs and boundary condition temperatures at all levels are increased by 1 K to ensure that we can distinguish the SST from other factors influencing the development of cyclones. An increase in the count of strong hurricanes is simulated. There is not much change in the location of hurricanes. Generally weaker changes are seen in the extratropical region and for the less extreme events. Increases of 9% in the count of extratropical cyclones and 39% in the count of tropical cyclones with wind speeds of at least 18 m/s are found.

  3. Longitudinal relationships among internalization of the media ideal, peer social comparison, and body dissatisfaction: implications for the tripartite influence model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; McLean, Siân A; Paxton, Susan J

    2015-05-01

    Sociocultural theory of body dissatisfaction posits that internalization of the media ideal and appearance comparison are predictors of body dissatisfaction, a key risk factor for eating disorders. However, no data exist regarding the longitudinal relationships between these variables. The aim of this study was to explore longitudinal relationships among internalization of the media-ideal, social appearance comparison, and body dissatisfaction. A sample of 277 Grade 7 school girls (M age = 12.77 years, SD = 0.44) completed measures of internalization of the media ideal, social appearance comparison, and body dissatisfaction at baseline, 8 months, and 14 months. Path analyses indicated that baseline internalization of the media ideal predicted social appearance comparison and body dissatisfaction at 8 months, and social appearance comparison at 8 months predicted body dissatisfaction at 14 months. A reciprocal effect emerged with body dissatisfaction at 8 months predicting internalization of the media ideal at 14 months. The findings inform sociocultural theory of body dissatisfaction, suggesting that internalization of the media ideal precedes and predicts appearance comparison and that body image interventions that target internalization of the media ideal, and social appearance comparison as well as body dissatisfaction are likely to be effective. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. On the robustness of aerosol effects on an idealized supercell storm simulated with a cloud system-resolving model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Morrison

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A cloud system-resolving model (the Weather Research and Forecasting model with 1 km horizontal grid spacing is used to investigate the response of an idealized supercell storm to increased cloud droplet concentrations associated with polluted conditions. The primary focus is on exploring robustness of simulated aerosol effects in the face of complex process interactions and feedbacks between the cloud microphysics and dynamics. Simulations are run using sixteen different model configurations with various microphysical or thermodynamic processes modified or turned off. Robustness of the storm response to polluted conditions is also explored for each configuration by performing additional simulations with small perturbations to the initial conditions. Differences in the domain-mean accumulated surface precipitation and convective mass flux between polluted and pristine conditions are small for almost all model configurations, with relative differences in each quantity generally less than 15%. Configurations that produce a decrease (increase in cold pool strength in polluted conditions also tend to simulate a decrease (increase in surface precipitation and convective mass flux. Combined with an analysis of the dynamical and thermodynamic fields, these results indicate the importance of interactions between microphysics, cold pool evolution, and dynamics along outflow boundaries in explaining the system response. Several model configurations, including the baseline, produce an overall similar storm response (weakening in polluted conditions despite having different microphysical or thermodynamic processes turned off. With hail initiation turned off or the hail fallspeed-size relation set to that of snow, the model produces an invigoration instead of weakening of the storm in polluted conditions. These results highlight the difficulty of foreseeing impacts of changes to model parameterizations and isolating process interactions that drive the system

  5. Implementation and Testing of Advanced Surface Boundary Conditions Over Complex Terrain in A Semi-idealized Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Epifanio, C.

    2017-12-01

    In numerical prediction models, the interaction between the Earth's surface and the atmosphere is typically accounted for in terms of surface layer parameterizations, whose main job is to specify turbulent fluxes of heat, moisture and momentum across the lower boundary of the model domain. In the case of a domain with complex geometry, implementing the flux conditions (particularly the tensor stress condition) at the boundary can be somewhat subtle, and there has been a notable history of confusion in the CFD community over how to formulate and impose such conditions generally. In the atmospheric case, modelers have largely been able to avoid these complications, at least until recently, by assuming that the terrain resolved at typical model resolutions is fairly gentle, in the sense of having relatively shallow slopes. This in turn allows the flux conditions to be imposed as if the lower boundary were essentially flat. Unfortunately, while this flat-boundary assumption is acceptable for coarse resolutions, as grids become more refined and the geometry of the resolved terrain becomes more complex, the appproach is less justified. With this in mind, the goal of our present study is to explore the implementation and usage of the full, unapproximated version of the turbulent flux/stress conditions in atmospheric models, thus taking full account of the complex geometry of the resolved terrain. We propose to implement the conditions using a semi-idealized model developed by Epifanio (2007), in which the discretized boundary conditions are reduced to a large, sparse-matrix problem. The emphasis will be on fluxes of momentum, as the tensor nature of this flux makes the associated stress condition more difficult to impose, although the flux conditions for heat and moisture will be considered as well. With the resulotion of 90 meters, some of the results show that the typical differences between flat-boundary cases and full/stress cases are on the order of 10%, with extreme

  6. Why Are Males Bad for Females? Models for the Evolution of Damaging Male Mating Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    One explanation for the cost to mating for females caused by damaging male mating behavior is that this causes the females to adaptively modify their subsequent life histories in a way that also increases male fitness. This might occur because the reduction in residual reproductive value of the

  7. Deposition and flux of sediment from the Po River, Italy: An idealized and wintertime numerical modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bever, A.J.; Harris, C.K.; Sherwood, C.R.; Signell, R.P.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies of sediment dynamics and clinoform development in the northern Adriatic Sea focused on winter 2002-2003 and provided the data and motivation for development of a detailed sediment-transport model for the area near the Po River delta. We used both idealized test cases and more realistic simulations to improve our understanding of seasonal sediment dynamics there. We also investigated the relationship between physical processes and the observed depositional products; e.g. the accumulation of sediment very near the Po River distributary mouths. Sediment transport near the Po River was evaluated using a three-dimensional ocean model coupled to sediment-transport calculations that included wave- and current-induced resuspension, suspended-sediment transport, multiple grain classes, and fluvial input from the Po River. High-resolution estimates from available meteorological and wave models were used to specify wind, wave, and meteorological forcing. Model results indicated that more than half of the discharged sediment remained within 15??km of the Po River distributary mouths, even after two months of intensive reworking by winter storms. During floods of the Po River, transport in the middle to upper water column dominated sediment fluxes. Otherwise, sediment fluxes from the subaqueous portion of the delta were confined to the bottom few meters of the water column, and correlated with increases in current speed and wave energy. Spatial and temporal variation in wind velocities determined depositional patterns and the directions of sediment transport. Northeasterly Bora winds produced relatively more eastward transport, while southwesterly Sirocco winds generated fluxes towards both the north and the south. Eastward transport accounted for the majority of the sediment exported from the subaqueous delta, most likely due to the frequent occurrence of Bora conditions. Progradation of the Po River delta into the Adriatic Sea may restrict the formation of the

  8. Creation of an idealized nasopharynx geometry for accurate computational fluid dynamics simulations of nasal airflow in patient-specific models lacking the nasopharynx anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A T Borojeni, Azadeh; Frank-Ito, Dennis O; Kimbell, Julia S; Rhee, John S; Garcia, Guilherme J M

    2017-05-01

    Virtual surgery planning based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations has the potential to improve surgical outcomes for nasal airway obstruction patients, but the benefits of virtual surgery planning must outweigh the risks of radiation exposure. Cone beam computed tomography (CT) scans represent an attractive imaging modality for virtual surgery planning due to lower costs and lower radiation exposures compared with conventional CT scans. However, to minimize the radiation exposure, the cone beam CT sinusitis protocol sometimes images only the nasal cavity, excluding the nasopharynx. The goal of this study was to develop an idealized nasopharynx geometry for accurate representation of outlet boundary conditions when the nasopharynx geometry is unavailable. Anatomically accurate models of the nasopharynx created from 30 CT scans were intersected with planes rotated at different angles to obtain an average geometry. Cross sections of the idealized nasopharynx were approximated as ellipses with cross-sectional areas and aspect ratios equal to the average in the actual patient-specific models. CFD simulations were performed to investigate whether nasal airflow patterns were affected when the CT-based nasopharynx was replaced by the idealized nasopharynx in 10 nasal airway obstruction patients. Despite the simple form of the idealized geometry, all biophysical variables (nasal resistance, airflow rate, and heat fluxes) were very similar in the idealized vs patient-specific models. The results confirmed the expectation that the nasopharynx geometry has a minimal effect in the nasal airflow patterns during inspiration. The idealized nasopharynx geometry will be useful in future CFD studies of nasal airflow based on medical images that exclude the nasopharynx. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. A Comparison of the Aged to the Bayesian Ideal Observer Model for Cueing Tasks with Peripheral and Central Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor F Swan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies investigating automatic (peripheral cues and voluntary (central cues attention decline with age have produced inconsistent findings. The present study investigated automatic and voluntary attention in the aged by comparing performance in 15 younger (18–25 years and 15 older (65–78 years observers to the Bayesian Ideal Observer Model (BIOM. The BIOM predicts cueing effects by the optimal differential weighting of likelihoods of targets appearing at each location (cue validity. It also allows the measure of bias in the responses and accounts for the detectability of targets, a factor that influences the predicted size of the cueing effect in the BIOM (Shimozaki et al 2003, Journal of Vision 3 209–229 and thus may explain some of the inconsistencies in previous research. Observers performed a yes/no cueing task of 2D Gaussian targets (60 ms, eccentricity 8 deg appearing at one of two locations. Pre-cues (150 ms were 70% valid and appeared either in peripheral (2 deg squares, Experiment 1 or central (shapes symbolizing left or right, Experiment 2 locations. Detectability was controlled across observers with a staircase, and difficulty was manipulated (contrast = threshold or one-octave below threshold. Both age groups showed cueing effects whether the cue appeared in peripheral or central locations, suggesting that automatic and voluntary attention are preserved in older adults. Both groups weighted the valid cue optimally at both levels of detectability (threshold and 1-octave below. However, for centrally located cues (voluntary attention, older adults were less accurate and exhibited more bias than their younger counterparts.

  10. Longitudinal Relationships among Internalization of the Media Ideal, Peer Social Comparison, and Body Dissatisfaction: Implications for the Tripartite Influence Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F.; McLean, Siân A.; Paxton, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    Sociocultural theory of body dissatisfaction posits that internalization of the media ideal and appearance comparison are predictors of body dissatisfaction, a key risk factor for eating disorders. However, no data exist regarding the longitudinal relationships between these variables. The aim of this study was to explore longitudinal…

  11. Selection Ideal Coal Suppliers of Thermal Power Plants Using the Matter-Element Extension Model with Integrated Empowerment Method for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfu Tan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce thermal power generation cost and improve its market competitiveness, considering fuel quality, cost, creditworthiness, and sustainable development capacity factors, this paper established the evaluation system for coal supplier selection of thermal power and put forward the coal supplier selection strategies for thermal power based on integrated empowering and ideal matter-element extension models. On the one hand, the integrated empowering model can overcome the limitations of subjective and objective methods to determine weights, better balance subjective, and objective information. On the other hand, since the evaluation results of the traditional element extension model may fall into the same class and only get part of the order results, in order to overcome this shortcoming, the idealistic matter-element extension model is constructed. It selects the ideal positive and negative matter-elements classical field and uses the closeness degree to replace traditional maximum degree of membership criterion and calculates the positive or negative distance between the matter-element to be evaluated and the ideal matter-element; then it can get the full order results of the evaluation schemes. Simulated and compared with the TOPSIS method, Romania selection method, and PROMETHEE method, numerical example results show that the method put forward by this paper is effective and reliable.

  12. A Novel Model of the Ideal Point Method Coupled with Objective and Subjective Weighting Method for Evaluation of Surrounding Rock Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingchao Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The classification of surrounding rock stability is the critical problem in tunneling engineering. In order to decrease engineering disasters, the surrounding rock stability should be accurately evaluated. The ideal point method is applied to the classification of surrounding rock stability. Considering the complexity of surrounding rock classification, some factors such as rock uniaxial compressive strengthen, integrality coefficient of rock mass, the angle between tunnel axis and the main joint, joints condition, and seepage measurement of groundwater are selected as evaluation indices. The weight coefficients of these evaluation indices are determined by the objective and subjective weighting method, consisting with the delphi method and the information entropy theory. The objective and subjective weighting method is exact and reliable to determine the weights of evaluation indices, considering not only the expert’s experiences, but also objectivity of the field test data. A new composite model is established for evaluating the surrounding rock stability based on the ideal point method and the objective and subjective weighting method. The present model is applied to Beigu mountain tunnel in Jiangsu province, China. The result is in good agreement with practical situation of surrounding rock, which proves that the ideal point method used to classify the surrounding rock in tunnels is reasonable and effective. The present model is simple and has very strong operability, which possesses a good prospect of engineering application.

  13. Idealization of The Real Stirling Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Červenka Libor

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a potential idealization of the real Stirling cycle. This idealization is performed by modifying the piston movement corresponding to the ideal Stirling cycle. The focus is on the cycle thermodynamics with respect to the indicated efficiency and indicated power. A detailed 1-D simulation model of a Stirling engine is used as a tool for this assessment. The model includes real non-zero volumes of heater, regenerator, cooler and connecting pipe. The model is created in the GT...

  14. Optimization of energy window and evaluation of scatter compensation methods in myocardial perfusion SPECT using the ideal observer with and without model mismatch and an anthropomorphic model observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaly, Michael; Links, Jonathan M.; Frey, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. We used the ideal observer (IO) and IO with model mismatch (IO-MM) applied in the projection domain and an anthropomorphic channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) applied to reconstructed images to optimize the acquisition energy window width and to evaluate various scatter compensation methods in the context of a myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) defect detection task. The IO has perfect knowledge of the image formation process and thus reflects the performance with perfect compensation for image-degrading factors. Thus, using the IO to optimize imaging systems could lead to suboptimal parameters compared with those optimized for humans interpreting SPECT images reconstructed with imperfect or no compensation. The IO-MM allows incorporating imperfect system models into the IO optimization process. We found that with near-perfect scatter compensation, the optimal energy window for the IO and CHO was similar; in its absence, the IO-MM gave a better prediction of the optimal energy window for the CHO using different scatter compensation methods. These data suggest that the IO-MM may be useful for projection-domain optimization when MM is significant and that the IO is useful when followed by reconstruction with good models of the image formation process. PMID:26029730

  15. The impact of exposure to images of ideally thin models in TV commercials on eating behavior: an experimental study with women diagnosed with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühl, Ilka; Legenbauer, Tanja; Hiller, Wolfgang

    2011-09-01

    This study investigates whether eating behavior in women with diagnosed bulimia nervosa is influenced by prior exposure to images of ideally thin models. Twenty-six participants diagnosed with bulimia nervosa (BN) and 30 normal controls (NC) were exposed to body-related and neutral TV commercials; then food that typically triggers binge eating was provided, and the amount of food eaten was measured. No significant difference for food intake between NC and BN could be found, but food intake for BN was predicted by the degree of thoughts related to eating behaviors during exposure to the thin ideal. No impact of general body image or eating pathology on food intake could be found. The results emphasize the importance of action-relevance of dysfunctional cognitions for the maintenance of eating-disordered behaviors in women with bulimia nervosa, when exposed to eating-disorder-specific triggers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A prediction model for ongoing pregnancy after in vitro fertilization in couples with male subfertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weert, Janne-Meije; Repping, Sjoerd; van der Steeg, Jan Willem; Steures, Pieternel; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben Willem

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the predictive capacity of male and female characteristics on in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome in couples with male subfertility and to construct an IVF prediction model. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a cohort study including all couples with male subfertility undergoing IVF.

  17. Existence of ideal knots

    CERN Document Server

    González, O

    2002-01-01

    Ideal knots are curves that maximize the scale invariant ratio of thickness to length. Here we present a simple argument to establish the existence of ideal knots for each knot type and each isotopy class and show that they are $C^{1,1}$ curves.

  18. Evaluating cloud processes in large-scale models: Of idealized case studies, parameterization testbeds and single-column modelling on climate time-scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neggers, Roel

    2016-04-01

    Boundary-layer schemes have always formed an integral part of General Circulation Models (GCMs) used for numerical weather and climate prediction. The spatial and temporal scales associated with boundary-layer processes and clouds are typically much smaller than those at which GCMs are discretized, which makes their representation through parameterization a necessity. The need for generally applicable boundary-layer parameterizations has motivated many scientific studies, which in effect has created its own active research field in the atmospheric sciences. Of particular interest has been the evaluation of boundary-layer schemes at "process-level". This means that parameterized physics are studied in isolated mode from the larger-scale circulation, using prescribed forcings and excluding any upscale interaction. Although feedbacks are thus prevented, the benefit is an enhanced model transparency, which might aid an investigator in identifying model errors and understanding model behavior. The popularity and success of the process-level approach is demonstrated by the many past and ongoing model inter-comparison studies that have been organized by initiatives such as GCSS/GASS. A red line in the results of these studies is that although most schemes somehow manage to capture first-order aspects of boundary layer cloud fields, there certainly remains room for improvement in many areas. Only too often are boundary layer parameterizations still found to be at the heart of problems in large-scale models, negatively affecting forecast skills of NWP models or causing uncertainty in numerical predictions of future climate. How to break this parameterization "deadlock" remains an open problem. This presentation attempts to give an overview of the various existing methods for the process-level evaluation of boundary-layer physics in large-scale models. This includes i) idealized case studies, ii) longer-term evaluation at permanent meteorological sites (the testbed approach

  19. Fusion rings and fusion ideals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Bak

    This dissertation investigates fusion rings, which are Grothendieck groups of rigid, monoidal, semisimple, abelian categories. Special interest is in rational fusion rings, i.e., fusion rings which admit a finite basis, for as commutative rings they may be presented as quotients of polynomial rings...... by the so-called fusion ideals. The fusion rings of Wess-Zumino-Witten models have been widely studied and are well understood in terms of precise combinatorial descriptions and explicit generating sets of the fusion ideals. They also appear in another, more general, setting via tilting modules for quantum...

  20. The place of surveillance technology in residential care for people with intellectual disabilities: is there an ideal model of application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeijer, A; Frederiks, B; Depla, M; Eefsting, J; Hertogh, C

    2013-03-01

    The demand for (care) services for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) is on the rise, because of an expanding population of people with ID as resources are concurrently diminishing. As a result, service providers are increasingly turning to technology as a potential answer to this problem. However, the use and application of surveillance technology (ST) in the care for people with ID provokes conflicting reactions among ethicists and healthcare professionals, and no ethical consensus has been reached as of yet. The aim of this study was thus to provide an overview of how ST is viewed by (care) professionals and ethicists working in the field by investigating what the ideal application of ST in the residential care for people with ID might entail. Use was made of the concept mapping method as developed by Trochim; a computer-assisted procedure consisting of five subsequent steps: brainstorming, prioritising, clustering, processing by the computer and finally analysis. Various participants (ranging from ethicists, physicians to support workers) were invited on the basis of their intended (professional) background. Prior to this study, the views of care professionals on the (ideal) application of ST in the residential care of people with dementia have been consulted and analysed using concept mapping. A comparison between the two studies has been made. Results show that the generated views represent six categories, varying from it being beneficial to the client; reducing restraints and it being based on a clear vision to (the need for) staff to be equipped; user friendliness and attending to the client. The results are presented in the form of a graphic chart. Both studies have produced very similar results, but there are some differences, as there appears to be more fear for ST among care professionals in the care for people with ID and views are expressed from a more developmental perspective rather than a person-centred perspective with regard to people

  1. Black and White Adolescent Females Perceptions of Ideal Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Kathy; And Others

    1996-01-01

    White and black adolescent females (n=344) participated in a survey of ideal body size beliefs using a questionnaire and 9 female and male body size drawings. Black females preferred a significantly heavier ideal female body size than whites and perceived that their parents and friends would select as ideal a significantly heavier female body size…

  2. Model Stature Estimation formula for Adult Male Nigerians based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Stature prediction formulas provide a method of preliminary identification of dead individuals from their skeletal remains. No such formula has been reported for indigenous Nigerian populations. Materials and Method: Twenty-five adult male cadavers with Nigerian identities were used to evaluate the ...

  3. The Idealized Cultural Encounter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lene Bull

    ). This paper proposes to study cultural encounters which are organised around ideals of cultural difference as a positive social and political force. The Danish People to People NGO Mellemfolkeligt Samvirke (MS) is build around ideals of equality, co-operation, mutuality and solidarity between people...... framework for an investigation into MS’ organisation of what I have termed ‘the idealized cultural encounter’, while also questioning the ways in which ‘culture’ is envisioned in contexts where ‘encounter’ is seen as a positive and desirable force....

  4. Parker's sneak-guard model revisited: why do reproductively parasitic males heavily invest in testes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Kazutaka; Kohda, Masanori; Hori, Michio; Sato, Tetsu

    2011-10-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics are widespread in males and may cause intraspecific differences in testes investment. Parker's sneak-guard model predicts that sneaker males, who mate under sperm competition risk, invest in testes relatively more than bourgeois conspecifics that have lower risk. Given that sneakers are much smaller than bourgeois males, sneakers may increase testes investment to overcome their limited sperm productivity because of their small body sizes. In this study, we examined the mechanism that mediates differential testes investment across tactics in the Lake Tanganyika cichlid fish Lamprologus callipterus. In the Rumonge population of Burundi, bourgeois males are small compared with those in other populations and have a body size close to sneaky dwarf males. Therefore, if differences in relative testis investment depend on sperm competition, the rank order of relative testis investment should be dwarf males > bourgeois males in Rumonge = bourgeois males in the other populations. If differences in relative testis investment depend on body size, the rank order of relative testes investment should be dwarf males > bourgeois males in Rumonge > bourgeois males in the other populations. Comparisons of relative testis investment among the three male groups supported the role of sperm competition, as predicted by the sneak-guard model. Nevertheless, the effects of absolute body size on testes investment should be considered to understand the mechanisms underlying intraspecific variation in testes investment caused by alternative reproductive tactics.

  5. Ideals in intimate relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, G J; Simpson, J A; Thomas, G; Giles, L

    1999-01-01

    This research examined lay relationship and partner ideals in romantic relationships from both a social-cognitive and an evolutionary perspective. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that the qualities of an ideal partner were represented by 3 factors (partner warmth-trustworthiness, vitality-attractiveness, and status-resources), whereas the qualities of an ideal relationship were represented by 2 factors (relationship intimacy-loyalty and passion). A confirmatory factor analysis in Study 3 replicated these factor structures but found considerable overlap across the partner and relationship dimensions. Studies 4 and 5 produced convergent and discriminant validity evidence for all 5 factors. Study 6 indicated that the higher the consistency between the ideals and related assessments of the current partner and relationship, the more positively the current relationship was evaluated.

  6. The Effect of Physical Attractiveness of Models on Advertising Effectiveness for Male and Female Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chih-Hsiang

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of advertising with physically attractive models on male and female adolescents. The findings suggest that highly attractive models are less effective than those who are normally attractive. Implications of social comparison are discussed.

  7. Probability-Based Damage Detection of Structures Using Model Updating with Enhanced Ideal Gas Molecular Movement Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    M. R. Ghasemi; R. Ghiasi; H. Varaee

    2017-01-01

    Model updating method has received increasing attention in damage detection structures based on measured modal parameters. Therefore, a probability-based damage detection (PBDD) procedure based on a model updating procedure is presented in this paper, in which a one-stage model-based damage identification technique based on the dynamic features of a structure is investigated. The presented framework uses a finite element updating method with a Monte Carlo simulation that ...

  8. Comparison of realistic and idealized breathing patterns in computational models of airflow and vapor dosimetry in the rodent upper respiratory tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colby, Sean M.; Kabilan, Senthil; Jacob, Richard E.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Corley, Richard A.

    2016-03-17

    Abstract Context: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of airflows coupled with physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling of respiratory tissue doses of airborne materials have traditionally used either steady-state inhalation or a sinusoidal approximation of the breathing cycle for airflow simulations despite their differences from normal breathing patterns. Objective: Evaluate the impact of realistic breathing patterns, including sniffing, on predicted nasal tissue concentrations of a reactive vapor that targets the nose in rats as a case study. Materials and methods: Whole-body plethysmography measurements from a free-breathing rat were used to produce profiles of normal breathing, sniffing and combinations of both as flow inputs to CFD/PBPK simulations of acetaldehyde exposure. Results: For the normal measured ventilation profile, modest reductions in time- and tissue depth-dependent areas under the curve (AUC) acetaldehyde concentrations were predicted in the wet squamous, respiratory and transitional epithelium along the main airflow path, while corresponding increases were predicted in the olfactory epithelium, especially the most distal regions of the ethmoid turbinates, versus the idealized profile. The higher amplitude/frequency sniffing profile produced greater AUC increases over the idealized profile in the olfactory epithelium, especially in the posterior region. Conclusions: The differences in tissue AUCs at known lesion-forming regions for acetaldehyde between normal and idealized profiles were minimal, suggesting that sinusoidal profiles may be used for this chemical and exposure concentration. However, depending upon the chemical, exposure system and concentration and the time spent sniffing, the use of realistic breathing profiles, including sniffing, could become an important modulator for local tissue dose predictions.

  9. Focusing on media body ideal images triggers food intake among restrained eaters: a test of restraint theory and the elaboration likelihood model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Jessica A; Kuijer, Roeline G

    2014-04-01

    Although research consistently shows that images of thin women in the media (media body ideals) affect women negatively (e.g., increased weight dissatisfaction and food intake), this effect is less clear among restrained eaters. The majority of experiments demonstrate that restrained eaters - identified with the Restraint Scale - consume more food than do other participants after viewing media body ideal images; whereas a minority of experiments suggest that such images trigger restrained eaters' dietary restraint. Weight satisfaction and mood results are just as variable. One reason for these inconsistent results might be that different methods of image exposure (e.g., slideshow vs. film) afford varying levels of attention. Therefore, we manipulated attention levels and measured participants' weight satisfaction and food intake. We based our hypotheses on the elaboration likelihood model and on restraint theory. We hypothesised that advertent (i.e., processing the images via central routes of persuasion) and inadvertent (i.e., processing the images via peripheral routes of persuasion) exposure would trigger differing degrees of weight dissatisfaction and dietary disinhibition among restrained eaters (cf. restraint theory). Participants (N = 174) were assigned to one of four conditions: advertent or inadvertent exposure to media or control images. The dependent variables were measured in a supposedly unrelated study. Although restrained eaters' weight satisfaction was not significantly affected by either media exposure condition, advertent (but not inadvertent) media exposure triggered restrained eaters' eating. These results suggest that teaching restrained eaters how to pay less attention to media body ideal images might be an effective strategy in media-literary interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Socrates: Platonic Political Ideal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Long

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay articulates the differences and suggests the similarities between the practices of Socratic political speaking and those of Platonic political writing. The essay delineates Socratic speaking and Platonic writing as both erotically oriented toward ideals capable of transforming the lives of individuals and their relationships with one another. Besides it shows that in the Protagoras the practices of Socratic political speaking are concerned less with Protagoras than with the individual young man, Hippocrates. In the Phaedo, this ideal of a Socrates is amplified in such a way that Platonic writing itself emerges as capable of doing with readers what Socratic speaking did with those he encountered. Socrates is the Platonic political ideal. The result is a picture of the transformative political power of Socratic speaking and Platonic writing both.

  11. Idealized marine cloud brightening experiments G4cdnc from the geoengineering model intercomparison project GeoMIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weum Stjern, Camilla; Egill Kristjánsson, Jón; Boucher, Olivier; Cole, Jason N. S.; Jones, Andy; Kravitz, Ben; Niemeier, Ulrike; Muri, Helene; Phipps, Steven J.; Watanabe, Shingo

    2017-04-01

    Climate engineering could be considered as part of a response portfolio to contribute to reach such ambitious climate targets as those set by the Paris Agreement. Marine cloud brightening (MCB) is one of these techniques, which falls into the category of solar radiation management, or albedo modification, and aims to cool the climate by increasing the amount of solar radiation reflected by clouds. Existing model assessments of MCB have very different experimental set-ups, making comparison difficult. Therefore, the experiment G4cdnc was designed, in which several Earth system models performed the same perturbation of cloud properties, to assess the climate impacts. The G4cdnc experiment starts in year 2020 in the RCP4.5 scenario and dictates a 50% increase in cloud droplet number concentrations of low level clouds over global oceans for a duration of 50 years. Many of the models significantly underestimate low level cloud amounts; nevertheless, all the models simulate a cooling effect from MCB. The resulting net radiative forcing is of -1.8 Wm^-2 in the ensemble mean with large inter-model spread. The ensemble mean global cooling achieved is of -0.95 K with a particularly strong cooling over low latitude land masses. There is a global precipitation decrease of -0.08 mm/day due to a cooler climate, but in low latitudes there is a 0.03 mm/day increase over land from circulation changes. Inter-model differences can be partly explained by different cloud susceptibilities, but more studies are needed to fully understand the mechanisms involved.

  12. On Classical Ideal Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Chusseau

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We show that the thermodynamics of ideal gases may be derived solely from the Democritean concept of corpuscles moving in vacuum plus a principle of simplicity, namely that these laws are independent of the laws of motion, aside from the law of energy conservation. Only a single corpuscle in contact with a heat bath submitted to a z and t-invariant force is considered. Most of the end results are known but the method appears to be novel. The mathematics being elementary, the present paper should facilitate the understanding of the ideal gas law and of classical thermodynamics even though not-usually-taught concepts are being introduced.

  13. A non-ideal model for predicting the effect of dissolved salt on the flash point of solvent mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Horng-Jang; Wang, Tzu-Ai

    2007-03-06

    Flash point is one of the major quantities used to characterize the fire and explosion hazard of liquids. Herein, a liquid with dissolved salt is presented in a salt-distillation process for separating close-boiling or azeotropic systems. The addition of salts to a liquid may reduce fire and explosion hazard. In this study, we have modified a previously proposed model for predicting the flash point of miscible mixtures to extend its application to solvent/salt mixtures. This modified model was verified by comparison with the experimental data for organic solvent/salt and aqueous-organic solvent/salt mixtures to confirm its efficacy in terms of prediction of the flash points of these mixtures. The experimental results confirm marked increases in liquid flash point increment with addition of inorganic salts relative to supplementation with equivalent quantities of water. Based on this evidence, it appears reasonable to suggest potential application for the model in assessment of the fire and explosion hazard for solvent/salt mixtures and, further, that addition of inorganic salts may prove useful for hazard reduction in flammable liquids.

  14. Cofinalities of Borel ideals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrušák, M.; Rojas-Rebolledo, D.; Zapletal, Jindřich

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, 1-2 (2014), s. 31-39 ISSN 0942-5616 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Borel ideals * natural numbers Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.325, year: 2014 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/malq.201200079/abstract

  15. Quaternions and ideal flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eshraghi, H [Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), School of Physics, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gibbon, J D [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-29

    After a review of some of the recent works by Holm and Gibbon on quaternions and their application to Lagrangian flows, particularly the incompressible Euler equations and the equations of ideal MHD, this paper investigates the compressible and relativistic Euler equations using these methods.

  16. An examination of two pathways to tropical cyclogenesis occurring in idealized simulations with a cloud-resolving numerical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Nicholls

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Simulations are conducted with a cloud-resolving numerical model to examine the transformation of a weak incipient mid-level cyclonic vortex into a tropical cyclone. Results demonstrate that two distinct pathways are possible and that development along a particular pathway is sensitive to model physics and initial conditions. One pathway involves a steady increase of the surface winds to tropical cyclone strength as the radius of maximum winds gradually decreases. A notable feature of this evolution is the creation of small-scale lower tropospheric cyclonic vorticity anomalies by deep convective towers and subsequent merger and convergence by the low-level secondary circulation. The second pathway also begins with a strengthening low-level circulation, but eventually a significantly stronger mid-level circulation develops. Cyclogenesis occurs subsequently when a small-scale surface concentrated vortex forms abruptly near the center of the larger-scale circulation. The small-scale vortex is warm core throughout the troposphere and results in a fall in local surface pressure of a few millibars. It usually develops rapidly, undergoing a modest growth to form a small tropical cyclone. Many of the simulated systems approach or reach tropical cyclone strength prior to development of a prominent mid-level vortex so that the subsequent formation of a strong small-scale surface concentrated vortex in these cases could be considered intensification rather than genesis. Experiments are performed to investigate the dependence on the inclusion of the ice phase, radiation, the size and strength of the incipient mid-level vortex, the amount of moisture present in the initial vortex, and the sea surface temperature. Notably, as the sea surface temperature is raised, the likelihood of development along the second pathway is increased. This appears to be related to an increased production of ice. The sensitivity of the pathway taken to model physics and initial

  17. Computational fluid dynamic simulation of axial and radial flow membrane chromatography: mechanisms of non-ideality and validation of the zonal rate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Pranay; Vahedipour, Kaveh; Lin, Min; Vogel, Jens H; Haynes, Charles; von Lieres, Eric

    2013-08-30

    Membrane chromatography (MC) is increasingly being used as a purification platform for large biomolecules due to higher operational flow rates. The zonal rate model (ZRM) has previously been applied to accurately characterize the hydrodynamic behavior in commercial MC capsules at different configurations and scales. Explorations of capsule size, geometry and operating conditions using the model and experiment were used to identify possible causes of inhomogeneous flow and their contributions to band broadening. In the present study, the hydrodynamics within membrane chromatography capsules are more rigorously investigated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The CFD models are defined according to precisely measured capsule geometries in order to avoid the estimation of geometry related model parameters. In addition to validating the assumptions and hypotheses regarding non-ideal flow mechanisms encoded in the ZRM, we show that CFD simulations can be used to mechanistically understand and predict non-binding breakthrough curves without need for estimation of any parameters. When applied to a small-scale axial flow MC capsules, CFD simulations identify non-ideal flows in the distribution (hold-up) volumes upstream and downstream of the membrane stack as the major source of band broadening. For the large-scale radial flow capsule, the CFD model quantitatively predicts breakthrough data using binding parameters independently determined using the small-scale axial flow capsule, identifying structural irregularities within the membrane pleats as an important source of band broadening. The modeling and parameter determination scheme described here therefore facilitates a holistic mechanistic-based method for model based scale-up, obviating the need of performing expensive large-scale experiments under binding conditions. As the CFD model described provides a rich mechanistic analysis of membrane chromatography systems and the ability to explore operational space, but

  18. Mesoscale model to select the ideal location for new vineyard plantations in the Rioja qualified denomination of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cámara, E; Blanco, J; Jiménez, E; Saenz-Díez, J C; Rioja, J

    2014-01-01

    La Rioja is the region where the top rated wines from Spain come from and also the origin of one of the most prestigious wines in the world. It is worldwide recognized, not only for the quality of the vine, but also for the many factors involved in the process that are controllable by the farmer, such as fertilizers, irrigation, etc. Likewise, there are other key factors, which cannot be controlled that play, however, a crucial role in the quality of the wine, such as temperature, radiation, humidity, and rainfall. This research is focused on two of these factors: temperature and irradiation. The objective of this paper is to be able to recognize these factors, so as to ensure a proper decision criterion when selecting the best location for new vineyard plantations. To achieve this objective, a mesoscale model MM5 is used, and its performance is assessed and compared using different parameters, from the grid resolution to the physical parameterization of the model. Finally, the study evaluates the impact of the different parameterizations and options for the simulation of meteorological variables particularly relevant when choosing new vineyard sites (rainfall frequency, temperature, and sun exposure).

  19. Mesoscale Model to Select the Ideal Location for New Vineyard Plantations in the Rioja Qualified Denomination of Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Martínez-Cámara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La Rioja is the region where the top rated wines from Spain come from and also the origin of one of the most prestigious wines in the world. It is worldwide recognized, not only for the quality of the vine, but also for the many factors involved in the process that are controllable by the farmer, such as fertilizers, irrigation, etc. Likewise, there are other key factors, which cannot be controlled that play, however, a crucial role in the quality of the wine, such as temperature, radiation, humidity, and rainfall. This research is focused on two of these factors: temperature and irradiation. The objective of this paper is to be able to recognize these factors, so as to ensure a proper decision criterion when selecting the best location for new vineyard plantations. To achieve this objective, a mesoscale model MM5 is used, and its performance is assessed and compared using different parameters, from the grid resolution to the physical parameterization of the model. Finally, the study evaluates the impact of the different parameterizations and options for the simulation of meteorological variables particularly relevant when choosing new vineyard sites (rainfall frequency, temperature, and sun exposure.

  20. Zonal flow shear amplification by depletion of anisotropic potential eddies in a magnetized plasma: idealized models and laboratory experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorczak, N; Manz, P; Chakraborty Thakur, S; Xu, M; Tynan, G R

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of vorticity conservation on the spatio-temporal interaction of a E × B zonal shear with a generic pattern of plasma potential modes are investigated in a magnetized plasma environment. Eddies organized on a chain along the zonal direction are locally depleted, resulting in what appears to be a radial decorrelation by the shear flow in the absence of dissipation. The eddy depletion occurs due to a transfer of enstrophy from the chain to the shear flow during the progressive growth in the chain anisotropy. The rate of zonal shear acceleration is derived analytically and its expression is validated by numerical simulations. The rate is proportional to the chain amplitude in the weak shear regime and to the shearing rate in the strong shear regime. Basic properties of the model are validated with fast visible imaging data collected on a magnetized plasma column experiment. A characteristic vorticity flux across the edge shear layer of tokamak plasmas is associated with the model predictions. The dependence of the interaction rate with turbulence amplitude and shearing rate could be an important ingredient of the low to high confinement mode transition. (paper)

  1. SECCIÓN TEMÁTICA - 3. EL MODELO DE LOS TIPOS IDEALES PARA LA REPRESENTACIÓN DEL 'HOMO TURÍSTICUS' // THE MODEL OF IDEAL TYPES TO REPRESENT THE 'HOMO TURISTICUS'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gómez Encinas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La elaboración de tipologías es frecuente en los análisis sociales y en particular dentro del estudio del consumo turístico. La propuesta de este artículo recupera el modelo del tipo ideal de Max Weber para aplicarlo a la comprensión del fenómeno turístico en la actualidad. Se trata de proporcionar elementos útiles de análisis a una Sociología del Turismo que tiene pendiente explicar los nuevos comportamientos sociales del turismo asociados a la revolución tecnológica y la crisis económica. El objetivo es, desde una perspectiva sociológica, representar el perfil de un nuevo consumidor, en este caso un comprador de viajes, cuyas pautas de consumo responden a nuevas variables que podemos identificar con esta metodología.

  2. Response of precipitation extremes to idealized global warming in an aqua-planet climate model: Towards robust projection across different horizontal resolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, F.; Collins, W.D.; Wehner, M.F.; Williamson, D.L.; Olson, J.G.

    2011-04-15

    Current climate models produce quite heterogeneous projections for the responses of precipitation extremes to future climate change. To help understand the range of projections from multimodel ensembles, a series of idealized 'aquaplanet' Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) runs have been performed with the Community Atmosphere Model CAM3. These runs have been analysed to identify the effects of horizontal resolution on precipitation extreme projections under two simple global warming scenarios. We adopt the aquaplanet framework for our simulations to remove any sensitivity to the spatial resolution of external inputs and to focus on the roles of model physics and dynamics. Results show that a uniform increase of sea surface temperature (SST) and an increase of low-to-high latitude SST gradient both lead to increase of precipitation and precipitation extremes for most latitudes. The perturbed SSTs generally have stronger impacts on precipitation extremes than on mean precipitation. Horizontal model resolution strongly affects the global warming signals in the extreme precipitation in tropical and subtropical regions but not in high latitude regions. This study illustrates that the effects of horizontal resolution have to be taken into account to develop more robust projections of precipitation extremes.

  3. 高二學生在理想氣體多重表徵教學前後心智模式的改變 The Evolution of the 11th Graders’ Mental Models of Ideal Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    鍾曉蘭 Shiao-Lan Chung

    2012-12-01

    this study. Students were exposed to eight 50-min teaching periods, 14 students (8 males and 6 females were interviewed, and their verbal and drawing data were collected. This study analyzed concepts related to ideal gas (particle view, gas volume definition, pressure effect, factors affecting pressure, rigid particles, and the distribution and motion of gas particles in 14 students by using verbal and graphic data retrieved from 3 interviews (before, during, and after instruction. We also analyzed types of ideal gas mental models that the students use, and the evolutionary processes they follow. The results indicate that dynamic particle model concrete teaching aids, ideal gas model slides, and a computer animation and simulation program changed the 14 student conceptions of gas particle views, rigid particles, and the distribution and motion of gas particles. However, 2 incorrect conceptions—causes of gas pressure and factors of gas pressure—hardly changed and even regressed to their pre-instruction conceptions. The evolution of mental models shows that only one student used the scientific model before instruction. After 4 periods of multi-representational modeling teaching activities, 11 students changed their conceptions from incorrect ideal gas models to scientific models (12 students or 85.7%. Of the 11 students, 2 students reverted to the weight model, 1 student used the attractive force model, and 8 students still held the scientific model after 8 teaching periods.

  4. Halfway between 2D and Animal Models: Are 3D Cultures the Ideal Tool to Study Cancer-Microenvironment Interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoarau-Véchot, Jessica; Rafii, Arash; Pasquier, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    An area that has come to be of tremendous interest in tumor research in the last decade is the role of the microenvironment in the biology of neoplastic diseases. The tumor microenvironment (TME) comprises various cells that are collectively important for normal tissue homeostasis as well as tumor progression or regression. Seminal studies have demonstrated the role of the dialogue between cancer cells (at many sites) and the cellular component of the microenvironment in tumor progression, metastasis, and resistance to treatment. Using an appropriate system of microenvironment and tumor culture is the first step towards a better understanding of the complex interaction between cancer cells and their surroundings. Three-dimensional (3D) models have been widely described recently. However, while it is claimed that they can bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo, it is sometimes hard to decipher their advantage or limitation compared to classical two-dimensional (2D) cultures, especially given the broad number of techniques used. We present here a comprehensive review of the different 3D methods developed recently, and, secondly, we discuss the pros and cons of 3D culture compared to 2D when studying interactions between cancer cells and their microenvironment. PMID:29346265

  5. Halfway between 2D and Animal Models: Are 3D Cultures the Ideal Tool to Study Cancer-Microenvironment Interactions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Hoarau-Véchot

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An area that has come to be of tremendous interest in tumor research in the last decade is the role of the microenvironment in the biology of neoplastic diseases. The tumor microenvironment (TME comprises various cells that are collectively important for normal tissue homeostasis as well as tumor progression or regression. Seminal studies have demonstrated the role of the dialogue between cancer cells (at many sites and the cellular component of the microenvironment in tumor progression, metastasis, and resistance to treatment. Using an appropriate system of microenvironment and tumor culture is the first step towards a better understanding of the complex interaction between cancer cells and their surroundings. Three-dimensional (3D models have been widely described recently. However, while it is claimed that they can bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo, it is sometimes hard to decipher their advantage or limitation compared to classical two-dimensional (2D cultures, especially given the broad number of techniques used. We present here a comprehensive review of the different 3D methods developed recently, and, secondly, we discuss the pros and cons of 3D culture compared to 2D when studying interactions between cancer cells and their microenvironment.

  6. Can a numerically stable subgrid-scale model for turbulent flow computation be ideally accurate?: a preliminary theoretical study for the Gaussian filtered Navier-Stokes equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Masato; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki

    2003-09-01

    This paper introduces a candidate for the origin of the numerical instabilities in large eddy simulation repeatedly observed in academic and practical industrial flow computations. Without resorting to any subgrid-scale modeling, but based on a simple assumption regarding the streamwise component of flow velocity, it is shown theoretically that in a channel-flow computation, the application of the Gaussian filtering to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations yields a numerically unstable term, a cross-derivative term, which is similar to one appearing in the Gaussian filtered Vlasov equation derived by Klimas [J. Comput. Phys. 68, 202 (1987)] and also to one derived recently by Kobayashi and Shimomura [Phys. Fluids 15, L29 (2003)] from the tensor-diffusivity subgrid-scale term in a dynamic mixed model. The present result predicts that not only the numerical methods and the subgrid-scale models employed but also only the applied filtering process can be a seed of this numerical instability. An investigation concerning the relationship between the turbulent energy scattering and the unstable term shows that the instability of the term does not necessarily represent the backscatter of kinetic energy which has been considered a possible origin of numerical instabilities in large eddy simulation. The present findings raise the question whether a numerically stable subgrid-scale model can be ideally accurate.

  7. Delivering ideal employee experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Marjorie D; Tyink, Steve; Kubiak, Curt

    2009-05-01

    Employee-centric strategies have moved from employee satisfaction and brand awareness to employee "affinity" or "attachment." In today's marketplace, occupational health nurses understand that differentiation (i.e., the perception of uniqueness) is the direct result of superior employee interactions, which lead to better employee care, enduring employee relationships, loyal employees, and satisfied employers. What drives employees to occupational health nurse attachment? The answer is a passion for rising above the competition to create ideal employee experiences.

  8. Biomimetic agent based modelling using male Frog calling behaviour as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren V.; Demazeau, Yves; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    A new agent-based modelling tool has been developed to allow the modelling of populations of individuals whose interactions are characterised by tightly timed dynamics. The tool was developed to model male frog calling dynamics, to facilitate research into what local rules may be employed by indi...

  9. Teaching Thermodynamics of Ideal Solutions: An Entropy-Based Approach to Help Students Better Understand and Appreciate the Subtleties of Solution Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomba, J. Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The thermodynamic formalism of ideal solutions is developed in most of the textbooks postulating a form for the chemical potential of a generic component, which is adapted from the thermodynamics of ideal gas mixtures. From this basis, the rest of useful thermodynamic properties can be derived straightforwardly without further hypothesis. Although…

  10. GI Joe or Average Joe? The impact of average-size and muscular male fashion models on men's and women's body image and advertisement effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Lee, Christina

    2010-06-01

    Increasing body size and shape diversity in media imagery may promote positive body image. While research has largely focused on female models and women's body image, men may also be affected by unrealistic images. We examined the impact of average-size and muscular male fashion models on men's and women's body image and perceived advertisement effectiveness. A sample of 330 men and 289 women viewed one of four advertisement conditions: no models, muscular, average-slim or average-large models. Men and women rated average-size models as equally effective in advertisements as muscular models. For men, exposure to average-size models was associated with more positive body image in comparison to viewing no models, but no difference was found in comparison to muscular models. Similar results were found for women. Internalisation of beauty ideals did not moderate these effects. These findings suggest that average-size male models can promote positive body image and appeal to consumers. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling of pheromone communication system of forest Lepidopterous insects. II. Model of female searching by male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kovalev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose an agent­based simulation model search. This model allows us to evaluate the effectiveness of different males­females pheromone search strategies for Lepidoptera. In the model, we consider the simplest case of the search, when the pheromone has only one chemical component. It is assumed that the insects are able to detect the pheromone molecules and the sensory cells generate action potentials in contact with the pheromone for some time. Thereafter pheromone molecule is inactivated. This behavior can be regarded as a memory of individual. Proportion of individuals who have reached the source is selected as an integral indicator of the search efficiency. To evaluate the effectiveness, numeric experiments were performed in different conditions: random walk, search algorithm without memory, and algorithm with memory and return mechanism. The resulting effectiveness of source localization by insects for flight in turbulent flows is ~ 70 %, which corresponds to experiments with live specimens in literature. In this case, proposed pheromone search algorithm is quite simple, which makes it biologically correct. Conducted modeling calculations can be the starting point for planning of field observations and pest monitoring systems using pheromone traps.

  12. Physiological gas exchange mapping of hyperpolarized 129 Xe using spiral-IDEAL and MOXE in a model of regional radiation-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanette, Brandon; Stirrat, Elaine; Jelveh, Salomeh; Hope, Andrew; Santyr, Giles

    2018-02-01

    To map physiological gas exchange parameters using dissolved hyperpolarized (HP) 129 Xe in a rat model of regional radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) with spiral-IDEAL and the model of xenon exchange (MOXE). Results are compared to quantitative histology of pulmonary tissue and red blood cell (RBC) distribution. Two cohorts (n = 6 each) of age-matched rats were used. One was irradiated in the right-medial lung, producing regional injury. Gas exchange was mapped 4 weeks postirradiation by imaging dissolved-phase HP 129 Xe using spiral-IDEAL at five gas exchange timepoints using a clinical 1.5 T scanner. Physiological lung parameters were extracted regionally on a voxel-wise basis using MOXE. Mean gas exchange parameters, specifically air-capillary barrier thickness (δ) and hematocrit (HCT) in the right-medial lung were compared to the contralateral lung as well as nonirradiated control animals. Whole-lung spectroscopic analysis of gas exchange was also performed. δ was significantly increased (1.43 ± 0.12 μm from 1.07 ± 0.09 μm) and HCT was significantly decreased (17.2 ± 1.2% from 23.6 ± 1.9%) in the right-medial lung (i.e., irradiated region) compared to the contralateral lung of the irradiated rats. These changes were not observed in healthy controls. δ and HCT correlated with histologically measured increases in pulmonary tissue heterogeneity (r = 0.77) and decreases in RBC distribution (r = 0.91), respectively. No changes were observed using whole-lung analysis. This work demonstrates the feasibility of mapping gas exchange using HP 129 Xe in an animal model of RILI 4 weeks postirradiation. Spatially resolved gas exchange mapping is sensitive to regional injury between cohorts that was undetected with whole-lung gas exchange analysis, in agreement with histology. Gas exchange mapping holds promise for assessing regional lung function in RILI and other pulmonary diseases. © 2017 The Authors. Medical Physics published by Wiley

  13. A logistic regression model of Coronary Artery Disease among Male Patients in Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Chand

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This is a cross-sectional retrospective study of 308 male patients, who were presented first time for coronary angiography at the Punjab Institute of Cardiology. The mean age was 50.97 + 9.9 among male patients. As the response variable coronary artery disease (CAD was a binary variable, logistic regression model was fitted to predict the Coronary Artery Disease with the help of significant risk factors. Age, Chest pain, Diabetes Mellitus, Smoking and Lipids are resulted as significant risk factors associated with CAD among male population.

  14. Male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amory, John K

    2016-11-01

    Although female contraceptives are very effective at preventing unintended pregnancy, some women can not use them because of health conditions or side-effects, leaving some couples without effective contraceptive options. In addition, many men wish to take active responsibility for family planning. Thus, there is a great need for male contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancies, of which 80-90 million occur annually. At present, effective male contraceptive options are condoms and vasectomy, which are not ideal for all men. Therefore, efforts are under way to develop novel male contraceptives. This paper briefly reviews the advantages and disadvantages of condoms and vasectomies and then discusses the research directed toward development of novel methods of male contraception. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Male Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amory, John K.

    2016-01-01

    NARRATIVE ABSTRACT Although female contraceptives are very effective at preventing unintended pregnancy, some women cannot use them due to health conditions or side effects, leaving some couples without effective contraceptive options. In addition, many men wish to take active responsibility for family planning. Thus, there is a great need for male contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancy, of which 80–90 million occur annually. At present, effective male contraceptive options are condoms and vasectomy, which are not ideal for all men. Therefore, efforts are under way to develop novel male contraceptives. This paper will briefly review the advantages and disadvantages of condoms and vasectomies, and then discuss the research directed towards the development of novel methods of male contraception. PMID:27678037

  16. An ideal job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Kurt J

    2012-01-01

    A brief personal history illustrates how fortunate I was to have stumbled into a career in plant pathology, which turned out to be the ideal job for me. Several of the people who steered me or facilitated my development in research on plant diseases are mentioned. Starting with my PhD research, I have had the good fortune to indulge a career-long fascination with epidemiology and genetics of disease resistance in plants, particularly coevolution of gene-for-gene host-pathogen systems. I hope that my example may inspire others of like minds to consider a research career in plant pathology.

  17. Kelvin's ideal foam structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaire, Denis

    2009-01-01

    Among his many extraordinary accomplishments, Kelvin was a pioneer of crystallography, elasticity and materials science. These interests came together to inspire his speculation on the nature of the ether in 1887. He conceived it to be an ordered liquid foam, of minimal surface area. Kelvin's ideal structure of foam has been realised in the laboratory only recently. In the meantime it was surpassed (in terms of surface area minimisation) by the Weaire-Phelan foam, which is the basis for one of the main buildings of the Beijing Olympics.

  18. Mouse models of altered gonadotrophin action: insight into male reproductive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Kim C; Oduwole, Olayiwola O; Peltoketo, Hellevi; Rulli, Susana B; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T

    2014-10-01

    The advent of technologies to genetically manipulate the mouse genome has revolutionised research approaches, providing a unique platform to study the causality of reproductive disorders in vivo. With the relative ease of generating genetically modified (GM) mouse models, the last two decades have yielded multiple loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutation mouse models to explore the role of gonadotrophins and their receptors in reproductive pathologies. This work has provided key insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying reproductive disorders with altered gonadotrophin action, revealing the fundamental roles of these pituitary hormones and their receptors in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. This review will describe GM mouse models of gonadotrophins and their receptors with enhanced or diminished actions, specifically focusing on the male. We will discuss the mechanistic insights gained from these models into male reproductive disorders, and the relationship and understanding provided into male human reproductive disorders originating from altered gonadotrophin action. © 2014 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  19. MANOVA vs nonlinear mixed effects modeling: The comparison of growth patterns of female and male quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürcan, Eser Kemal

    2017-04-01

    The most commonly used methods for analyzing time-dependent data are multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and nonlinear regression models. The aim of this study was to compare some MANOVA techniques and nonlinear mixed modeling approach for investigation of growth differentiation in female and male Japanese quail. Weekly individual body weight data of 352 male and 335 female quail from hatch to 8 weeks of age were used to perform analyses. It is possible to say that when all the analyses are evaluated, the nonlinear mixed modeling is superior to the other techniques because it also reveals the individual variation. In addition, the profile analysis also provides important information.

  20. A Continuum of Male Controls and Violence against Women: A Teaching Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Karen D.

    1991-01-01

    A model for teaching social work students and professionals about widely existing severe, subtle, and overt forms of male controls and violence against women is described. Topics addressed during a three-hour workshop ranged from sexist language to harassment, battery, and femicide. Evaluation of workshops using the model suggest participants…

  1. The influence of materialism and ideal body internalization on body-dissatisfaction and body-shaping behaviors of young men and women: support for the Consumer Culture Impact Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guðnadóttir, Unnur; Garðarsdóttir, Ragna B

    2014-04-01

    Exposure to media images of the 'body-perfect' ideal has been partly blamed for the pursuit of thinness among women and muscularity among men. Research has largely overlooked the materialistic messages frequently associated with these images. We present findings from two studies with Icelandic students aged 18-21, one focusing on young women (n = 303) and one on young men (n = 226), which test associations of materialistic and body-perfect ideals with body dissatisfaction and excessive body shaping behaviors. In both studies, the internalization of materialistic values is strongly linked to the internalization of body-perfect ideals: the thin-ideal for young women, and the muscular-ideal for young men. A materialist value orientation also predicted body dissatisfaction in both studies, and was linked to body shaping behaviors, albeit differently for young women and men. Thus, the research identifies materialism as a further correlate of both body dissatisfaction and excessive body-shaping behaviors. The findings support Dittmar's (2008) Consumer Culture Impact Model, which proposes that the body-perfect and 'material good life' ideals jointly impact well-being. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The T47D cell line is an ideal experimental model to elucidate the progesterone-specific effects of a luminal A subtype of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sungryul; Kim, Taemook; Yoo, Kyung Hyun; Kang, Keunsoo

    2017-05-06

    Cell lines are often used as in vitro tools to mimic certain types of in vivo system; several cell lines, including MCF-7 and T47D, have been widely used in breast cancer studies without investigating the cell lines' characteristics. In this study, we compared the genome-wide binding profiles of ERα, PR, and P300, and the gene expression changes between MCF-7 and T47D cell lines that represent the luminal A subtype of breast cancer. Surprisingly, several thousand genes were differentially expressed under estrogenic condition. In addition, ERα, PR, and P300 binding to regulatory elements showed distinct genomic landscapes between MCF-7 and T47D cell lines in the same hormonal states. In particular, the T47D cell line was markedly susceptible to progesterone, whereas the MCF-7 cell line did not respond to progesterone in the presence of estrogen. Consistently, changes in the expression level of the PR-target gene, STAT5A, were only observed in the T47D cell line, not the MCF-7 cell line, when treated with progesterone. Overall, the results highlight the importance of selecting appropriate cell lines for breast cancer studies and suggest that T47D cell lines can be an ideal experimental model to elucidate the progesterone-specific effects of a luminal A subtype of breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Steroid Tumor Environment in Male and Female Mice Model of Canine and Human Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Caceres

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine inflammatory mammary cancer (IMC shares clinical and histopathological characteristics with human inflammatory breast cancer (IBC and has been proposed as a good model for studying the human disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of female and male mice to reproduce IMC and IBC tumors and identify the hormonal tumor environment. To perform the study sixty 6–8-week-old male and female mice were inoculated subcutaneously with a suspension of 106 IPC-366 and SUM149 cells. Tumors and serum were collected and used for hormonal analysis. Results revealed that IPC-366 reproduced tumors in 90% of males inoculated after 2 weeks compared with 100% of females that reproduced tumor at the same time. SUM149 reproduced tumors in 40% of males instead of 80% of females that reproduced tumors after 4 weeks. Both cell lines produce distant metastasis in lungs being higher than the metastatic rates in females. EIA analysis revealed that male tumors had higher T and SO4E1 concentrations compared to female tumors. Serum steroid levels were lower than those found in tumors. In conclusion, IBC and IMC male mouse model is useful as a tool for IBC research and those circulating estrogens and intratumoral hormonal levels are crucial in the development and progression of tumors.

  4. Explanatory models of obesity of inner-city African-American adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcraft, Pamela F

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological inquiry was to construct an explanatory model of illness in inner-city African-American adolescent males using Kleinman's Explanatory Model of Illness as a framework. Thirteen males were enrolled in this study. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were used to explore adolescents' perspectives regarding the nature, cause, prevention and responses to obesity; their perception of self; and meanings they attach to obesity with particular emphasis on existing attitudes, expectations, and values. Data analysis was achieved through a process of inductive content analysis. Findings, future research and clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Certain variants of multipermutohedron ideals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Multipermutohedron ideals have rich combinatorial properties. An explicit combinatorial formula for the multigraded Betti numbers of a multipermutohedron ideal and their Alexander duals are known. Also, the dimension of the Artinian quotient of an Alexander dual of a multipermutohedron ideal is the number of generalized ...

  6. Lessons learnt from comprehensive evaluation of community-based education in Uganda: a proposal for an ideal model community-based education for health professional training institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Dan K; Muhwezi, Wilson W; Kasozi, Ann N; Kijjambu, Steven; Mbalinda, Scovia N; Okullo, Isaac; Nabirye, Rose C; Oria, Hussein; Atuyambe, Lynn; Groves, Sarah; Burnham, Gilbert; Mwanika, Andrew

    2011-03-01

    Community-based education (CBE) can provide contextual learning that addresses manpower scarcity by enabling trainees acquire requisite experiences, competence, confidence and values. In Uganda, many health professional training institutions conduct some form of community-based education (CBE). However, there is scanty information on the nature of the training: whether a curriculum exists (objectives, intended outcomes, content, implementation strategy), administration and constraints faced. The objective was to make a comprehensive assessment of CBE as implemented by Ugandan health professional training institutions to document the nature of CBE conducted and propose an ideal model with minimum requirements for health professional training institutions in Uganda. We employed several methods: documentary review of curricula of 22 institutions, so as to assess the nature, purpose, outcomes, and methods of instruction and assessment; site visits to these institutions and their CBE sites, to assess the learning environment (infrastructure and resources); in-depth interviews with key people involved in running CBE at the institutions and community, to evaluate CBE implementation, challenges experienced and perceived solutions. CBE was perceived differently ranging from a subject, a course, a program or a project. Despite having similar curricula, institutions differ in the administration, implementation and assessment of CBE. Objectives of CBE, the curricula content and implementation strategies differ in similar institutions. On collaborative and social learning, most trainees do not reside in the community, though they work on group projects and write group reports. Lectures and skills demonstrations were the main instruction methods. Assessment involved mainly continuous assessment, oral or written reports and summative examination. This assessment identified deficiencies in the design and implementation of CBE at several health professional training institutions

  7. Monomial ideals, computations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gimenez, Philippe; Sáenz-de-Cabezón, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This work covers three important aspects of monomials ideals in the three chapters "Stanley decompositions" by Jürgen Herzog, "Edge ideals" by Adam Van Tuyl and "Local cohomology" by Josep Álvarez Montaner. The chapters, written by top experts, include computer tutorials that emphasize the computational aspects of the respective areas. Monomial ideals and algebras are, in a sense, among the simplest structures in commutative algebra and the main objects of combinatorial commutative algebra. Also, they are of major importance for at least three reasons. Firstly, Gröbner basis theory allows us to treat certain problems on general polynomial ideals by means of monomial ideals. Secondly, the combinatorial structure of monomial ideals connects them to other combinatorial structures and allows us to solve problems on both sides of this correspondence using the techniques of each of the respective areas. And thirdly, the combinatorial nature of monomial ideals also makes them particularly well suited to the devel...

  8. Professional hazards? The impact of models' body size on advertising effectiveness and women's body-focused anxiety in professions that do and do not emphasize the cultural ideal of thinness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Helga; Howard, Sarah

    2004-12-01

    Previous experimental research indicates that the use of average-size women models in advertising prevents the well-documented negative effect of thin models on women's body image, while such adverts are perceived as equally effective (Halliwell & Dittmar, 2004). The current study extends this work by: (a) seeking to replicate the finding of no difference in advertising effectiveness between average-size and thin models (b) examining level of ideal-body internalization as an individual, internal factor that moderates women's vulnerability to thin media models, in the context of (c) comparing women in professions that differ radically in their focus on, and promotion of, the sociocultural ideal of thinness for women--employees in fashion advertising (n = 75) and teachers in secondary schools (n = 75). Adverts showing thin, average-size and no models were perceived as equally effective. High internalizers in both groups of women felt worse about their body image after exposure to thin models compared to other images. Profession affected responses to average-size models. Teachers reported significantly less body-focused anxiety after seeing average-size models compared to no models, while there was no difference for fashion advertisers. This suggests that women in professional environments with less focus on appearance-related ideals can experience increased body-esteem when exposed to average-size models, whereas women in appearance-focused professions report no such relief.

  9. Modelling the potential impact and cost of scaling-up male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modelling the potential impact and cost of scaling-up male circumcision in resource poor settings: A case of Uganda. Nazarius M Tumwesigye, Fred Wabwire-Mangen, Danstan Bagenda, Freddie Ssengooba, Alex Opio, Christine K Nalwadda, Lori Bollinger, John Stover ...

  10. Developing an Integrative Play Therapy Group Model for Middle School Male Students to Address Bullying Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jakarla

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the systematic process of developing an integrative play therapy group model for middle school male students, ages 11-15 who participate in bullying behaviors. Play therapy approaches and evidence-based practices are documented as effective measures for addressing bullying behaviors with children and adolescents. This group…

  11. Characterization of mammary adenocarcinomas in male rats after N-methyl-N-nitrosourea exposure--Potential for human male breast cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Yuki, Michiko; Kinoshita, Yuichi; Emoto, Yuko; Yuri, Takashi; Shikata, Nobuaki; Elmore, Susan A; Tsubura, Airo

    2016-05-01

    The frequency of breast cancer in men is extremely rare, reported to be less than 1% and there is currently no available animal model for male mammary tumors. We compared the characteristics of various immunohistochemical markers in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mammary adenocarcinomas in male and female Crj:CD(SD)IGS rats including: estrogen receptor α (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), androgen receptor (AR), receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 (HER2), GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Female mammary adenocarcinomas were strongly positive in the nuclei of tumor cells for PCNA and ER (100%) with only 60% and 53% expressing PgR and GATA3, respectively. 100% of male adenocarcinomas also exhibited strongly positive expression in the nuclei of tumor cells for PCNA, with 25% expressing AR and only 8% showing positivity for ER. Male carcinomas did not express PgR or GATA3 and none of the tumors, male or female, were positive for HER2. Based on the observed ER and PgR positivity and HER2 negativity within these tumors, MNU-induced mammary adenocarcinomas in female rats appear to be hormonally dependent, similar to human luminal A type breast cancer. In contrast, MNU-induced mammary adenocarcinomas in male rats showed no reactivity for ER, PgR, HER2 or GATA3, suggesting no hormonal dependency. Both male and female adenocarcinomas showed high proliferating activity by PCNA immunohistochemistry. Based on our literature review, human male breast cancers are mainly dependent on ER and/or PgR, therefore the biological pathogenesis of MNU-induced male mammary cancer in rats may differ from that of male breast cancer in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Surface models of the male urogenital organs built from the Visible Korean using popular software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Park, Jin Seo; Shin, Byeong-Seok

    2011-01-01

    Unlike volume models, surface models, which are empty three-dimensional images, have a small file size, so they can be displayed, rotated, and modified in real time. Thus, surface models of male urogenital organs can be effectively applied to an interactive computer simulation and contribute to the clinical practice of urologists. To create high-quality surface models, the urogenital organs and other neighboring structures were outlined in 464 sectioned images of the Visible Korean male using Adobe Photoshop; the outlines were interpolated on Discreet Combustion; then an almost automatic volume reconstruction followed by surface reconstruction was performed on 3D-DOCTOR. The surface models were refined and assembled in their proper positions on Maya, and a surface model was coated with actual surface texture acquired from the volume model of the structure on specially programmed software. In total, 95 surface models were prepared, particularly complete models of the urinary and genital tracts. These surface models will be distributed to encourage other investigators to develop various kinds of medical training simulations. Increasingly automated surface reconstruction technology using commercial software will enable other researchers to produce their own surface models more effectively. PMID:21829759

  13. The iFlow modelling framework v2.4: a modular idealized process-based model for flow and transport in estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Yoeri M.; Brouwer, Ronald L.; Schuttelaars, Henk M.; Schramkowski, George P.

    2017-07-01

    The iFlow modelling framework is a width-averaged model for the systematic analysis of the water motion and sediment transport processes in estuaries and tidal rivers. The distinctive solution method, a mathematical perturbation method, used in the model allows for identification of the effect of individual physical processes on the water motion and sediment transport and study of the sensitivity of these processes to model parameters. This distinction between processes provides a unique tool for interpreting and explaining hydrodynamic interactions and sediment trapping. iFlow also includes a large number of options to configure the model geometry and multiple choices of turbulence and salinity models. Additionally, the model contains auxiliary components, including one that facilitates easy and fast sensitivity studies. iFlow has a modular structure, which makes it easy to include, exclude or change individual model components, called modules. Depending on the required functionality for the application at hand, modules can be selected to construct anything from very simple quasi-linear models to rather complex models involving multiple non-linear interactions. This way, the model complexity can be adjusted to the application. Once the modules containing the required functionality are selected, the underlying model structure automatically ensures modules are called in the correct order. The model inserts iteration loops over groups of modules that are mutually dependent. iFlow also ensures a smooth coupling of modules using analytical and numerical solution methods. This way the model combines the speed and accuracy of analytical solutions with the versatility of numerical solution methods. In this paper we present the modular structure, solution method and two examples of the use of iFlow. In the examples we present two case studies, of the Yangtze and Scheldt rivers, demonstrating how iFlow facilitates the analysis of model results, the understanding of the

  14. Space Sciences and Idealism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, M.

    Erwin Schrodinger suggested that " Scientific knowledge forms part of the idealistic background of human life", which exalted man from a nude and savage state to true humanity [Science and Humanism, Cambridge, 1961, p9]. Modern space sciences an space exploration are a brilliant demonstration of the validity of Schrodinger's thesis on Idealism. Moreover, Schrodingers thesis could be considered also as a basic principle for the New Educational Space Philosophical Project "TIMAEUS"."TIMAEUS" is not only an attempt to to start a new dialogue between Science, the Humanities and Religion; but also it is an origin of the cultural innovations of our so strange of globilisation. TIMAEUS, thus, can reveal Idealism as something more fundamental , more refined, more developed than is now accepted by the scientific community and the piblic. TIMAEUS has a significant cultural agenda, connected with the high orbital performance of the synthetic arts, combining a knowledge of the truly spiritual as well as the universal. In particular, classical ballet as a synthetic art can be a new and powerful perfector and re-creator of the real human, real idealistic, real complex culture in orbit. As is well known, Carlo Blasis, the most important dance theorist of the 19t h .century, made probably the first attempts to use the scientific ideas of Leonardo da Vinci and Isaac Newton for the understanding of the gravitational nature of balance and allegro in ballet. In particular Blasis's idea of the limited use of the legs in classical dance realised by the gifted pupils of Enrico Cecchetti - M.Fokine, A.Pavlova and V.Nijinsky, with thinkable purity and elegance of style. V.Nijinsky in his remarkable animation of the dance of two dimensional creatures of a Euclidean flat world (L'Apres Midi d'un Faune,1912) discovered that true classical dance has some gravitational limits. For example, Nijinsky's Faunes and Nymphs mut use running on the heels (In accordance with "Partitura" 1916); they

  15. Morphological Alterations in Gastrocnemius and Soleus Muscles in Male and Female Mice in a Fibromyalgia Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Alejandro Bonaterra

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia (FM is a chronic musculoskeletal pain disorder, characterized by chronic widespread pain and bodily tenderness and is often accompanied by affective disturbances, however often with unknown etiology. According to recent reports, physical and psychological stress trigger FM. To develop new treatments for FM, experimental animal models for FM are needed to be development and characterized. Using a mouse model for FM including intermittent cold stress (ICS, we hypothesized that ICS leads to morphological alterations in skeletal muscles in mice.Male and female ICS mice were kept under alternating temperature (4 °C/room temperature [22 °C]; mice constantly kept at room temperature served as control. After scarification, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were removed and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen-cooled isopentane or fixed for electron microscopy.In gastrocnemius/soleus muscles of male ICS mice, we found a 21.6% and 33.2% decrease of fiber cross sectional area (FCSA, which in soleus muscle concerns the loss of type IIa and IIx FCSA. This phenomenon was not seen in muscles of female ICS mice. However, this loss in male ICS mice was associated with an increase in gastrocnemius of the density of MIF+ (8.6%-, MuRF+ (14.7%-, Fbxo32+ (17.8%-cells, a 12.1% loss of capillary contacts/muscle fiber as well as a 30.7% increase of damaged mitochondria in comparison with male control mice. Moreover, significant positive correlations exist among densities (n/mm(2 of MIF+, MuRF+, Fbxo32+-cells in gastrocnemius/ soleus muscles of male ICS mice; these cell densities inversely correlate with FCSA especially in gastrocnemius muscle of male ICS mice.The ICS-induced decrease of FCSA mainly concerns gastrocnemius muscle of male mice due to an increase of inflammatory and atrogenic cells. In soleus muscle of male ICS and soleus/gastrocnemius muscles of female ICS mice morphological alterations seem to occur not at all or delayed. The sex-specificity of

  16. Smoking behaviours and cessation services among male physicians in China: evidence from a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Guo, Chaoran; Yu, Shaohua; Feng, Yan; Song, Julia; Eriksen, Michael; Redmon, Pam; Koplan, Jeffrey

    2013-09-01

    To investigate smoking prevalence and cessation services provided by male physicians in hospitals in three Chinese cities. Data were collected from a survey of male physicians employed at 33 hospitals in Changsha, Qingdao and Wuxi City (n=720). Exploratory factor analysis was performed to identify latent variables, and confirmatory structural equation modelling analysis was performed to test the relationships between predictor variables and smoking in male physicians, and their provision of cessation services. Of the sampled male physicians, 25.7% were current smokers, and 54.0% provided cessation services by counselling (18.8%), distributing self-help materials (17.1%), and providing traditional remedies or medication (18.2%). Factors that predicted smoking included peer smoking (OR 1.14 95% CI 1.03 to 1.26) and uncommon knowledge (OR 0.94 95% CI 0.89 to 0.99), a variable measuring awareness of the association of smoking with stroke, heart attack, premature ageing and impotence in male adults as well as the role of passive smoking in heart attack. Factors that predicted whether physicians provided smoking cessation services included peer smoking (OR 0.82 95% CI 0.76 to 0.89), physicians' own smoking (OR 0.87 95% CI 0.81 to 0.93), training in cessation (OR 1.36 95% CI 1.27 to 1.45) and access to smoking cessation resources (OR 1.69 95% CI 1.58 to 1.82). The smoke-free policy is not strictly implemented at healthcare facilities, and smoking remains a public health problem among male physicians. A holistic approach, including a stricter implementation of the smoke-free policy, comprehensive education on the hazards of smoking, training in standard smoking-cessation techniques and provision of cessation resources, is needed to curb the smoking epidemic among male physicians and to promote smoking cessation services in China.

  17. Lessons learnt from comprehensive evaluation of community-based education in Uganda: a proposal for an ideal model community-based education for health professional training institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atuyambe Lynn

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based education (CBE can provide contextual learning that addresses manpower scarcity by enabling trainees acquire requisite experiences, competence, confidence and values. In Uganda, many health professional training institutions conduct some form of community-based education (CBE. However, there is scanty information on the nature of the training: whether a curriculum exists (objectives, intended outcomes, content, implementation strategy, administration and constraints faced. The objective was to make a comprehensive assessment of CBE as implemented by Ugandan health professional training institutions to document the nature of CBE conducted and propose an ideal model with minimum requirements for health professional training institutions in Uganda. Methods We employed several methods: documentary review of curricula of 22 institutions, so as to assess the nature, purpose, outcomes, and methods of instruction and assessment; site visits to these institutions and their CBE sites, to assess the learning environment (infrastructure and resources; in-depth interviews with key people involved in running CBE at the institutions and community, to evaluate CBE implementation, challenges experienced and perceived solutions. Results CBE was perceived differently ranging from a subject, a course, a program or a project. Despite having similar curricula, institutions differ in the administration, implementation and assessment of CBE. Objectives of CBE, the curricula content and implementation strategies differ in similar institutions. On collaborative and social learning, most trainees do not reside in the community, though they work on group projects and write group reports. Lectures and skills demonstrations were the main instruction methods. Assessment involved mainly continuous assessment, oral or written reports and summative examination. Conclusion This assessment identified deficiencies in the design and implementation

  18. Growth curve by Gompertz nonlinear regression model in female and males in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDA DE MELLO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Was evaluated the pattern of growth among females and males of tambaqui by Gompertz nonlinear regression model. Five traits of economic importance were measured on 145 animals during the three years, totaling 981 morphometric data analyzed. Different curves were adjusted between males and females for body weight, height and head length and only one curve was adjusted to the width and body length. The asymptotic weight (a and relative growth rate to maturity (k were different between sexes in animals with ± 5 kg; slaughter weight practiced by a specific niche market, very profitable. However, there was no difference between males and females up to ± 2 kg; slaughter weight established to supply the bigger consumer market. Females showed weight greater than males (± 280 g, which are more suitable for fish farming purposes defined for the niche market to larger animals. In general, males had lower maximum growth rate (8.66 g / day than females (9.34 g / day, however, reached faster than females, 476 and 486 days growth rate, respectively. The height and length body are the traits that contributed most to the weight at 516 days (P <0.001.

  19. Growth curve by Gompertz nonlinear regression model in female and males in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mello, Fernanda; Oliveira, Carlos A L; Ribeiro, Ricardo P; Resende, Emiko K; Povh, Jayme A; Fornari, Darci C; Barreto, Rogério V; McManus, Concepta; Streit, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Was evaluated the pattern of growth among females and males of tambaqui by Gompertz nonlinear regression model. Five traits of economic importance were measured on 145 animals during the three years, totaling 981 morphometric data analyzed. Different curves were adjusted between males and females for body weight, height and head length and only one curve was adjusted to the width and body length. The asymptotic weight (a) and relative growth rate to maturity (k) were different between sexes in animals with ± 5 kg; slaughter weight practiced by a specific niche market, very profitable. However, there was no difference between males and females up to ± 2 kg; slaughter weight established to supply the bigger consumer market. Females showed weight greater than males (± 280 g), which are more suitable for fish farming purposes defined for the niche market to larger animals. In general, males had lower maximum growth rate (8.66 g / day) than females (9.34 g / day), however, reached faster than females, 476 and 486 days growth rate, respectively. The height and length body are the traits that contributed most to the weight at 516 days (P <0.001).

  20. Dosimetry in Japanese male and female models for a low-frequency electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    The present study quantified induced current in anatomically based Japanese male and female models for exposure to low-frequency electric fields. A quasi-static finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method was applied to analyze this problem. For our computational results, the difference of the induced current density averaged over an area of 1 cm 2 between Japanese male and female models was less than 30% for each nerve tissue. The difference of induced current density between the present study and earlier works was less than 50% for the same conductivities, despite the different morphology. Particularly, maximum current density in central nerve tissues appeared in the retina of Japanese models, the same as in the earlier works. (note)

  1. Alexander duals of multipermutohedron ideals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (Definition 2.1) is a monomial ideal in the polynomial ring R. Many properties of the ... which is the number of labeled trees on (n + 1) vertices. Thus ... is called a tree ideal. The vertices of the first barycentric subdivision of an (n − 1)-simplex can be naturally labeled with the min- imal generators of the tree ideal I(1, 2,...,n). [n].

  2. Voxel models representing the male and female ICRP reference adult: a dosimetric tool for medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zankl, M.; Schlattl, H.; Becker, J.; Petoussi-Henss, N.; Hoeschen, C.

    2008-03-01

    For optimisation in diagnostic medical imaging it is important to consider the relation between diagnostic image quality and patient dose. In the past, schematic representations of the human body were commonly used for dosimetric simulations together with Monte Carlo codes. During the last two decades, voxel models were introduced as an improvement to these body models. Studies performed by various research groups have shown that the more realistic organ topology of voxel models constructed from medical image data of real persons has an impact on calculated doses for external as well as internal exposures. As a consequence of these findings, the ICRP decided to use voxel models for the forthcoming update of organ dose conversion coefficients. These voxel models should be representative of an average population, i.e. they should resemble the ICRP reference anatomical data with respect to their external dimensions and their organ masses. To meet the ICRP requirements, our group at the Helmholtz Zentrum München (formerly known as GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health) constructed voxel models of a male and female adult, based on the voxel models of two individuals whose body height and weight resembled those of the male and female ICRP reference adult. The organ masses of both models were adjusted to the ICRP reference anatomical data, without spoiling their realistic anatomy. The paper describes the method used for this process and the resulting voxel models.

  3. Job Stress and Related Factors Among Iranian Male Staff Using a Path Analysis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad-Marzabadi, Esfandiar; Gholami Fesharaki, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years, job stress has been cited as a risk factor for some diseases. Objectives Given the importance of this subject, we established a new model for classifying job stress among Iranian male staff using path analysis. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was done on male staff in Tehran, Iran, 2013. The participants in the study were selected using a proportional stratum sampling method. The tools used included nine questionnaires (1- HSE questionnaire; 2- GHQ questionnaire; 3- Beck depression inventory; 4- Framingham personality type; 5- Azad-Fesharaki’s physical activity questionnaire; 6- Adult attachment style questionnaire; 7- Azad socioeconomic questionnaire; 8- Job satisfaction survey; and 9- demographic questionnaire). Results A total of 575 individuals (all male) were recruited for the study. Their mean (±SD) age was 33.49 (±8.9) and their mean job experience was 12.79 (±8.98) years. The pathway of job stress among Iranian male staff showed an adequate model fit (RMSEA=0.021, GFI=0.99, AGFI=0.97, P=0.136). In addition, the total effect of variables like personality type (β=0.283), job satisfaction (β=0.287), and age (β=0.108) showed a positive relationship with job stress, while variables like general health (β=-0.151) and depression (β=-0.242) showed the reverse effect on job stress. Conclusions According to the results of this study, we can conclude that our suggested model is suited to explaining the pathways of stress among Iranian male staff. PMID:27621934

  4. Family support and acceptance, gay male identity formation, and psychological adjustment: a path model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizur, Y; Ziv, M

    2001-01-01

    While heterosexist family undermining has been demonstrated to be a developmental risk factor in the life of persons with same-gender orientation, the issue of protective family factors is both controversial and relatively neglected. In this study of Israeli gay males (N = 114), we focused on the interrelations of family support, family acceptance and family knowledge of gay orientation, and gay male identity formation, and their effects on mental health and self-esteem. A path model was proposed based on the hypotheses that family support, family acceptance, family knowledge, and gay identity formation have an impact on psychological adjustment, and that family support has an effect on gay identity formation that is mediated by family acceptance. The assessment of gay identity formation was based on an established stage model that was streamlined for cross-cultural practice by defining three basic processes of same-gender identity formation: self-definition, self-acceptance, and disclosure (Elizur & Mintzer, 2001). The testing of our conceptual path model demonstrated an excellent fit with the data. An alternative model that hypothesized effects of gay male identity on family acceptance and family knowledge did not fit the data. Interpreting these results, we propose that the main effect of family support/acceptance on gay identity is related to the process of disclosure, and that both general family support and family acceptance of same-gender orientation play a significant role in the psychological adjustment of gay men.

  5. Economic man as model man: Ideal types, idealization and caricatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgan, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    Economics revolves around a central character: "economic man." As historians, we are all familiar with various episodes in the history of this character, and we appreciate his ever-changing aspect even while many of our colleagues in economics think the rational economic agent of neoclassical

  6. Structural arrest in an ideal gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketel, W. van; Das, C.; Frenkel, D.

    2005-01-01

    We report a molecular dynamics study of a simple model system that has the static properties of an ideal gas, yet exhibits nontrivial "glassy" dynamics behavior at high densities. The constituent molecules of this system are constructs of three infinitely thin hard rods of length L, rigidly joined

  7. Tel Aviv. Tracing the Ideal City dream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonova, Yulia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In descriptions of Tel Aviv often occur reflections about the ideal “first Hebrew city”. A gap between real Tel Aviv and its visionary model is a commonplace. Nevertheless, links between them are plentiful, although they are discussed either with irony or with pathos. The paper gives a cursory review of some of such links.

  8. Modelling Socio-Economic Differences in the Mortality of Danish Males Using a New Affluence Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cairns, Andrew J.G.; Kallestrup-Lamb, Malene; Rosenskjold, Carsten Paysen T.

    We investigate and model how the mortality of Danish males aged 55-94 has changed over the period 1985-2012. We divide the population into ten socio-economic subgroups using a new measure of affluence that combines wealth and income reported on the Statistics Denmark national register database...... possible without losing the essential character of the raw data. The model produces bio-demographically reasonable forecasts of mortality rates that preserve the sub-group rankings at all ages. It also satisfies reasonableness criteria related to the term structure of correlations across ages and over time...

  9. Reactivity to addictive drugs in the methylazoxymethanol (MAM) model of schizophrenia in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruda-Kucerova, Jana; Babinska, Zuzana; Amchova, Petra; Stark, Tibor; Drago, Filippo; Sulcova, Alexandra; Micale, Vincenzo

    2017-03-01

    Patients with schizophrenia often suffer comorbid substance abuse regardless of gender. However, the vast majority of studies are only conducted in male subjects. Therefore, the aim of these experiments is to assess addictive behaviors of both sexes in a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia induced by prenatal methylazoxymethanol (MAM) acetate exposure. MAM (22 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally on gestational day 17. Two studies were performed in the offspring: (1) an alcohol-drinking procedure to assess daily intake of 20% alcohol and relapse-like behavior after a period of forced abstinence; (2) Methamphetamine (METH) intravenous self administration (IVSA) followed by forced abstinence and reinstatement phases. MAM exposure during the prenatal period did not change alcohol drinking regardless of sex. However, MAM females showed higher alcohol consumption in comparison to MAM males. The METH IVSA study revealed only a modest increase of drug consumption in MAM males, while there was no difference between the female groups. Reinstatement data showed no effect of the MAM model in either sex, but suggested increased responding in female rats. This study suggests that female sex and schizophrenia-like phenotype may work synergistically to enhance alcohol consumption. However, future research is needed to establish paradigms in which these findings would be readily assessed to test anti-addiction treatments.

  10. Infectious, inflammatory and 'autoimmune' male factor infertility: how do rodent models inform clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijak, Monika; Pilatz, Adrian; Hedger, Mark P; Nicolas, Nour; Bhushan, Sudhanshu; Michel, Vera; Tung, Kenneth S K; Schuppe, Hans-Christian; Meinhardt, Andreas

    2018-04-10

    Infection and inflammation of the reproductive tract are significant causes of male factor infertility. Ascending infections caused by sexually transmitted bacteria or urinary tract pathogens represent the most frequent aetiology of epididymo-orchitis, but viral, haematogenous dissemination is also a contributory factor. Limitations in adequate diagnosis and therapy reflect an obvious need for further understanding of human epididymal and testicular immunopathologies and their contribution to infertility. A major obstacle for advancing our knowledge is the limited access to suitable tissue samples. Similarly, the key events in the inflammatory or autoimmune pathologies affecting human male fertility are poorly amenable to close examination. Moreover, the disease processes generally have occurred long before the patient attends the clinic for fertility assessment. In this regard, data obtained from experimental animal models and respective comparative analyses have shown promise to overcome these restrictions in humans. This narrative review will focus on male fertility disturbances caused by infection and inflammation, and the usefulness of the most frequently applied animal models to study these conditions. An extensive search in Medline database was performed without restrictions until January 2018 using the following search terms: 'infection' and/or 'inflammation' and 'testis' and/or 'epididymis', 'infection' and/or 'inflammation' and 'male genital tract', 'male infertility', 'orchitis', 'epididymitis', 'experimental autoimmune' and 'orchitis' or 'epididymitis' or 'epididymo-orchitis', antisperm antibodies', 'vasectomy'. In addition to that, reference lists of primary and review articles were reviewed for additional publications independently by each author. Selected articles were verified by each two separate authors and discrepancies discussed within the team. There is clear evidence that models mimicking testicular and/or epididymal inflammation and infection

  11. Evaluation of Mid-Size Male Hybrid III Models for use in Spaceflight Occupant Protection Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, J.; Somers, J.; Wells, J.; Newby, N.; Currie-Gregg, N.; Lawrence, C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In an effort to improve occupant safety during dynamic phases of spaceflight, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has worked to develop occupant protection standards for future crewed spacecraft. One key aspect of these standards is the identification of injury mechanisms through anthropometric test devices (ATDs). Within this analysis, both physical and computational ATD evaluations are required to reasonably encompass the vast range of loading conditions any spaceflight crew may encounter. In this study the accuracy of publically available mid-size male HIII ATD finite element (FE) models are evaluated within applicable loading conditions against extensive sled testing performed on their physical counterparts. Methods: A series of sled tests were performed at the Wright Patterson Air force Base (WPAFB) employing variations of magnitude, duration, and impact direction to encompass the dynamic loading range for expected spaceflight. FE simulations were developed to the specifications of the test setup and driven using measured acceleration profiles. Both fast and detailed FE models of the mid-size male HIII were ran to quantify differences in their accuracy and thus assess the applicability of each within this field. Results: Preliminary results identify the dependence of model accuracy on loading direction, magnitude, and rate. Additionally the accuracy of individual response metrics are shown to vary across each model within evaluated test conditions. Causes for model inaccuracy are identified based on the observed relationships. Discussion: Computational modeling provides an essential component to ATD injury metric evaluation used to ensure the safety of future spaceflight occupants. The assessment of current ATD models lays the groundwork for how these models can be used appropriately in the future. Identification of limitations and possible paths for improvement aid in the development of these effective analysis tools.

  12. An Ideal Integrating Bolometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a novel detector to enable a new class of far-IR spectroscopic surveys.  The detector, the Ideal Integrating Bolometer (IIB) is able to...

  13. Spaces of ideal convergent sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mursaleen, M; Sharma, Sunil K

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we introduce some sequence spaces using ideal convergence and Musielak-Orlicz function ℳ = (M(k)). We also examine some topological properties of the resulting sequence spaces.

  14. Ideal Cardiovascular Health and Cognitive Aging in the Northern Manhattan Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardener, Hannah; Wright, Clinton B; Dong, Chuanhui; Cheung, Ken; DeRosa, Janet; Nannery, Micaela; Stern, Yaakov; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Sacco, Ralph L

    2016-03-16

    The American Heart Association defined target levels for 7 cardiovascular health (CVH) factors: smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diet, blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose. We hypothesized that a greater number of American Heart Association ideal CVH metrics would be associated with less decline in cognitive performance in our multiethnic population. A subsample from the population-based Northern Manhattan Study underwent repeated neuropsychological testing (mean interval 6±2 years). Domain-specific Z scores were derived by using factor analysis for the domains of Episodic Memory, Semantic Memory, Executive Function, and Processing Speed, based on initial performance and decline over time. Linear regression models were constructed to examine the relationship between the number of ideal CVH metrics at enrollment with later cognitive performance and decline, adjusting for sociodemographics and magnetic resonance imaging brain markers. Among 1033 participants (mean age at initial cognitive assessment 72±8 years, 39% male, 19% black, 16% white, 65% Hispanic; n=722 with repeat testing), 3% had 0 ideal factors, 15% had 1 factor, 33% had 2 factors, 30% had 3 factors, 14% had 4 factors, 4% had 5 factors, 1% had 6 factors, and 0% had 7 factors. An increasing number of ideal CVH factors was associated with better processing speed at initial assessment and less decline. The association was driven by nonsmoking and glucose. Among those with better cognitive performance at initial assessment, positive associations were observed between the number of ideal CVH factors and less decline in the domains of Executive Function and Episodic Memory. The number of ideal CVH metrics was associated with less decline in the domains of Processing Speed and, to a lesser extent, of Executive Function and Episodic Memory. Ideal CVH promotion benefits brain health and cognitive aging. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley

  15. The Masculinity of Mr. Right: Feminist Identity and Heterosexual Women's Ideal Romantic Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, Faedra R.; Mahalik, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Our study explored the relationship between feminist identity and women's report of an ideal male partner's conformity to masculine gender role norms. Heterosexual, mostly White, college women (N = 183) completed measures assessing feminist beliefs and the masculinity characteristics of an ideal male partner. Results indicated that feminist…

  16. Effect of Qiangji Jianli Yin on sex hormones in male rat models of splenoasthenic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhixi; Xu Zhiwei; Liu Xiaobin; Zhao Hui; Chen Jinyan; Li Zhiqiang; He Zanhou

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of Qiangji Jianli Yin on male rat models of splenoasthenic syndrome through changes of serum sex hormones (T, E 2 ), amylase and histologic changes of spleen, thymus, adrenals as well as to study the material foundation of spleno-renal mutual correlationship in traditional Chinese medicine. Methods: Rat models male of splenoasthenic syndrome were established with daily gavage of rhubarb decoction (2ml 2 and amylase levels were determined with RIA on d10 and d20 and the animals were sacrificed on d20 to procure spleen, thymus and adrenals for histologic study. Control rats (n=10) were given daily gavage of distilled water only. Results: Serum E 2 and T levels in the splenoasthenic syndrome models without treatment were significantly higher than those in controls rats on dl0 (P 2 levels increased further but T levels dropped markedly and were significantly lower than those in untreated group (P 2 , T on d10 were much less in the models treated with Qiangji Jianli Yin with maintenance of E 2 /T ratio. On d20 the serum E 2 levels, though increased, were much lower than those in untreated group, hence the E 2 /T ratio was also much lower than that in untreated group and differed less from that in controls. Serum amylase levels on d10 and d20 in the splenoastheic models without treatment were significantly lower than those in controls rats (P 2 might be the material foundation responsible for the spleno-renal interrelationship. Histologic changes of spleen, thymus and adrenals might be the evidence of the traditional Chinese medicine theory of 'splenoasthenic would induce renal deficiency'. (authors)

  17. Validation of artificial neural network models for predicting biochemical markers associated with male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickram, A S; Kamini, A Rao; Das, Raja; Pathy, M Ramesh; Parameswari, R; Archana, K; Sridharan, T B

    2016-08-01

    Seminal fluid is the secretion from many glands comprised of several organic and inorganic compounds including free amino acids, proteins, fructose, glucosidase, zinc, and other scavenging elements like Mg(2+), Ca(2+), K(+), and Na(+). Therefore, in the view of development of novel approaches and proper diagnosis to male infertility, overall understanding of the biochemical and molecular composition and its role in regulation of sperm quality is highly desirable. Perhaps this can be achieved through artificial intelligence. This study was aimed to elucidate and predict various biochemical markers present in human seminal plasma with three different neural network models. A total of 177 semen samples were collected for this research (both fertile and infertile samples) and immediately processed to prepare a semen analysis report, based on the protocol of the World Health Organization (WHO [2010]). The semen samples were then categorized into oligoasthenospermia (n=35), asthenospermia (n=35), azoospermia (n=22), normospermia (n=34), oligospermia (n=34), and control (n=17). The major biochemical parameters like total protein content, fructose, glucosidase, and zinc content were elucidated by standard protocols. All the biochemical markers were predicted by using three different artificial neural network (ANN) models with semen parameters as inputs. Of the three models, the back propagation neural network model (BPNN) yielded the best results with mean absolute error 0.025, -0.080, 0.166, and -0.057 for protein, fructose, glucosidase, and zinc, respectively. This suggests that BPNN can be used to predict biochemical parameters for the proper diagnosis of male infertility in assisted reproductive technology (ART) centres. AAS: absorption spectroscopy; AI: artificial intelligence; ANN: artificial neural networks; ART: assisted reproductive technology; BPNN: back propagation neural network model; DT: decision tress; MLP: multilayer perceptron; PESA: percutaneous

  18. A socio-sports model of disordered eating among Brazilian male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo; de Oliveira, Saulo Melo Fernandes; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a socio-sports model of disordered eating (DE) in Brazilian male athletes. Three hundred and twenty one athletes over 12 years of age from 18 different sports modalities were investigated. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied to evaluate DE. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) was used to evaluate athlete dissatisfaction with body fat levels. The Muscularity Concern subscale of the Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS) was used to evaluate athlete dissatisfaction with muscularity levels. To investigate the influence of sociocultural factors on body image, the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3) was applied. Body fat was estimated by skinfold measurement. Demographic data were collected (competitive level and training regimen). Structural equation modelling was conducted to analyse the relationships between research variables and the factors that mediate them. The results indicated that the sociocultural factors and body fat dissatisfaction adhered to socio-sports model of DE (X(2) = 18.50, p = .001, RMSEA = .069, GFI = .97, AGFI = .91, TLI = .93). The BSQ accurately predicted the relationship between SATAQ-3 and EAT-26 (R(2) = .08, p = 0.001) scores. A direct relationship between the SATAQ-3 and EAT-26 (R(2) = .07, p = 0.01) and BSQ (R(2) = .10, p = 0.001) scores was identified. No relationship was found between structural equation model and Muscularity Concern (R(2) = .02, p = 0.14), competitive level (R(2) = .01, p = 0.19), training regimen (R(2) = .03, p = 0.11) or body fat (R(2) = .02, p = 0.14). The results suggest that sociocultural factors and body fat dissatisfaction follow the socio-sports model of DE in Brazilian male athletes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Counseling techniques to address male communication characteristics: an application of the extended parallel process model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Puja S; Barnett, Candace W

    2011-08-01

    Evidence shows that the male ideology has a significant impact on men's health status. Men who adhere to the traditional masculine ideology may find messages regarding healthcare to be threatening. Pharmacists can use the Extended Parallel Process (EPP) Model to counsel men in a manner that reduces their feelings of fear and danger regarding their health while controlling feelings of vulnerability and susceptibility. When counseling men using the EPP Model, pharmacists are encouraged to use universal statements and open-ended questions to create patient awareness of the disease state and foster discussion. Furthermore, since men engage in limited nonverbal communication, pharmacists need to be direct and ask for feedback to gauge the patient's understanding of the counseling.

  20. The ideal science student and problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Florence R.

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine the relationship between students' social mental models of the ideal science student, science epistemological beliefs, problem solving strategies used, and problem solving ability in a robotics environment. Participants were twenty-six academically advanced eleven and twelve year old students attending the Center for Talented Youth summer camp. Survey data was collected from the students including demographic background, views of the ideal science student, and science epistemological beliefs. Students also solved a robotics challenge. This problem solving session was videotaped and students were asked to think aloud as they solved the problem. Two social mental models were identified, a traits-based social mental model and a robust social mental model. A significant association was found between social mental model group and strategy usage. The robust social mental model group is more likely to use domain specific strategies than the traits-based group. Additionally, the robust social mental model group achieved significantly higher scores on their final solution than the traits-based social mental model group. Science epistemological beliefs do not appear to be associated with students' social mental model of the ideal science student. While students with a puzzle-solver view of science were more likely to use domain specific strategies in the planning phase of the problem solving session, there was no significant difference in problem solving ability between this group and students who have a dynamic view of the nature of science knowledge. This difference in strategy usage and problem solving performance may be due to a difference in the students' views of learning and cognition. The robust social mental model group evidenced a situative view of learning and cognition. These students made excellent use of the tools available in the task environment. The traits-based social mental model group displayed an

  1. Non-Ideal Behavior in Solvent Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Zalupski

    2011-09-01

    This report presents a summary of the work performed to meet FCR&D level 3 milestone M31SW050801, 'Complete the year-end report summarizing FY11 experimental and modeling activities.' This work was carried out under the auspices of the Non-Ideality in Solvent Extraction Systems FCR&D work package. The report summarizes our initial considerations of potential influences that non-ideal chemistry may impose on computational prediction of outcomes in solvent extraction systems. The report is packaged into three separate test cases where a robustness of the prediction by SXFIT program is under scrutiny. The computational exercises presented here emphasize the importance of accurate representation of both an aqueous and organic mixtures when modeling liquid-liquid distribution systems. Case No.1 demonstrates that non-ideal behavior of HDEHP in aliphatic diluents, such as n-dodecane, interferes with the computation. Cases No.2 and No.3 focus on the chemical complexity of aqueous electrolyte mixtures. Both exercises stress the need for an improved thermodynamic model of an aqueous environment present in the europium distribution experiments. Our efforts for year 2 of this project will focus on the improvements of aqueous and non-aqueous solution models using fundamental physical properties of mixtures acquired experimentally in our laboratories.

  2. Tensor norms and operator ideals

    CERN Document Server

    Defant, A; Floret, K

    1992-01-01

    The three chapters of this book are entitled Basic Concepts, Tensor Norms, and Special Topics. The first may serve as part of an introductory course in Functional Analysis since it shows the powerful use of the projective and injective tensor norms, as well as the basics of the theory of operator ideals. The second chapter is the main part of the book: it presents the theory of tensor norms as designed by Grothendieck in the Resumé and deals with the relation between tensor norms and operator ideals. The last chapter deals with special questions. Each section is accompanied by a series of exer

  3. Idealism and materialism in perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, David; Brown, Dora

    2015-01-01

    Koenderink (2014, Perception, 43, 1-6) has said most Perception readers are deluded, because they believe an 'All Seeing Eye' observes an objective reality. We trace the source of Koenderink's assertion to his metaphysical idealism, and point to two major weaknesses in his position-namely, its dualism and foundationalism. We counter with arguments from modern philosophy of science for the existence of an objective material reality, contrast Koenderink's enactivism to his idealism, and point to ways in which phenomenology and cognitive science are complementary and not mutually exclusive.

  4. Design optimization of ideal non-imaging concentrators for solar collectors by use of yearly insolation model with frequency distribution; Dosu bunpu wo koryoshita nenkan nissha model ni yoru shunetsuyo riso hikessho shukoki no saitekika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, A. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    Optimization was carried out for the 2D-CPC (compound parabolic concentrator) known as an ideal 2-dimensional non-imaging concentrator for its application to stationary solar heat concentrators. A non-imaging optical system is a system that has an angle for incident light called an acceptance angle, and is treated as an effective tool in the field of solar energy application. Analysis was conducted from the viewpoint of energy and exergy on the presumption of constant temperature operation. For the analysis of constant temperature heat concentration, it needs to be presumed that heat concentrators are in operation only in the presence of insolation that is more than a specified level (critical insolation). When the acceptance angle is fixed for optimization, energy efficiency does not have a peak with respect to the critical probability insolation intensity (in a probability model considering frequency distribution). On the other hand, for the optimization of exergy efficiency, the half-acceptance angle should be within a 35-40{degree} range (agreeing with the optimum angle cost-wise), and the critical probability insolation should be set at 250-300W/m{sup 2} (1/4 of the maximum insolation intensity). The obtained results are low in model dependency and are sufficiently reliable. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Animal models of physiologic markers of male reproduction: genetically defined infertile mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubb, C.

    1987-10-01

    The present report focuses on novel animal models of male infertility: genetically defined mice bearing single-gene mutations that induce infertility. The primary goal of the investigations was to identify the reproductive defects in these mutant mice. The phenotypic effects of the gene mutations were deciphered by comparing the mutant mice to their normal siblings. Initially testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis were investigated. The physiologic markers for testicular steroidogenesis were steroid secretion by testes perifused in vitro, seminal vesicle weight, and Leydig cell histology. Spermatogenesis was evaluated by the enumeration of homogenization-resistant sperm/spermatids in testes and by morphometric analyses of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium. If testicular function appeared normal, the authors investigated the sexual behavior of the mice. The parameters of male sexual behavior that were quantified included mount patency, mount frequency, intromission latency, thrusts per intromission, ejaculation latency, and ejaculation duration. Females of pairs breeding under normal circumstances were monitored for the presence of vaginal plugs and pregnancies. The patency of the ejaculatory process was determined by quantifying sperm in the female reproductive tract after sexual behavior tests. Sperm function was studied by quantitatively determining sperm motility during videomicroscopic observation. Also, the ability of epididymal sperm to function within the uterine environment was analyzed by determining sperm capacity to initiate pregnancy after artificial insemination. Together, the experimental results permitted the grouping of the gene mutations into three general categories. They propose that the same biological markers used in the reported studies can be implemented in the assessment of the impact that environmental toxins may have on male reproduction.

  6. Chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC as a model of chronic psychosocial stress in male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewir D Nyuyki

    Full Text Available Chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC is an adequate and reliable mouse model of chronic psychosocial stress, resulting in reduced body weight gain, reduced thymus and increased adrenal weight, long-lasting anxiety-like behaviour, and spontaneous colitis. Furthermore, CSC mice show increased corticotrophin (ACTH responsiveness to acute heterotypic stressors, suggesting a general mechanism which allows a chronically-stressed organism to adequately respond to a novel threat. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to extend the CSC model to another rodent species, namely male Wistar rats, and to characterize relevant physiological, immunological, and behavioural consequences; placing particular emphasis on changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis responsiveness to an acute heterotypic stressor. In line with previous mouse data, exposure of Wistar rats to 19 days of CSC resulted in a decrease in body weight gain and absolute thymus mass, mild colonic barrier defects and intestinal immune activation. Moreover, no changes in stress-coping behaviour or social preference were seen; again in agreement with the mouse paradigm. Most importantly, CSC rats showed an increased plasma corticosterone response to an acute heterotypic stressor (open arm, 5 min despite displaying similar basal levels and similar basal and stressor-induced plasma ACTH levels. In contrast to CSC mice, anxiety-related behaviour and absolute, as well as relative adrenal weights remained unchanged in CSC rats. In summary, the CSC paradigm could be established as an adequate model of chronic psychosocial stress in male rats. Our data further support the initial hypothesis that adrenal hyper-responsiveness to ACTH during acute heterotypic stressors represents a general adaptation, which enables a chronically-stressed organism to adequately respond to novel challenges.

  7. Mathematical human body models representing a mid size male and a small female for frontal, lateral and rearward impact loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happee, R.; Morsink, P.L.J.; Lange, R. de; Bours, R.; Ridella, S.; Nayef, A.; Hoof, J. van

    2000-01-01

    A human body model representing a mid size male has been presented at the 1998 STAPP conference. A combination of modeling techniques was applied using rigid bodies for most segments, but describing the thorax as a deformable structure. In this paper, this modeling strategy was employed to also

  8. Using the PRECEDE Model in Understanding Determinants of Quality of Life Among Iranian Male Addicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Behzad Karami; Jalilian, Farzad; Alavijeh, Mehdi Mirzaei; Ashtarian, Hossein; Mahboubi, Mohammad; Afsar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Quality of Life (QOL) in opiate-addicted patients who are receiving methadone maintenance therapy is one of the important issues to be considered in the treatment of addiction. To determine a needs assessment using the PRECEDE model to find out factors related to QOL among Iranian male opiate addicts. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Kermanshah, Iran in 2013. A total of 762 male opiate addicts, who were referred to addiction treatment centers for receiving methadone maintenance treatment, were randomly selected to participate voluntarily in the study. SF-12, predisposing factors, enabling factors, reinforcement factors, and methadone maintenance treatment intention were used to find the related factors. Data were analyzed by the SPSS software (ver. 21.0) using the t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), bivariate correlations, and linear regression at 95% significant level. Linear regression analysis showed the determinant variable accounted for 17% of the variation in QOL. Our findings suggest, providing social support for addicts could be beneficial results for the increasing quality of life among them. PMID:25363110

  9. The black mink (Mustela vison). A natural model of immunologic male infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Breeding for fine black fur has generated a colony of mink wherein 20- 30% of the males are infertile. Two clinical groups are distinguishable: one being infertile from the start (primary infertility), and the other infertile after one or more years of fertility (secondary fertility). Although the etiology of primary infertility is unknown, the available data indicate that secondary infertility is associated with an autoimmune disease of the testis. Thus, male mink with secondary infertility have (a) higher prevalence and levels of anti-sperm antibody when compared with animals with primary infertility, and the antibody prevalence varies with fur color; (b) severe monocytic orchitis (47%) and/or aspermatogenesis (75%) with negative cultures for bacterial, fungal, mumps, or Coxsackie B viral organisms; (c) massive and extensive granular deposits of mink IgG and/or C3 (71%), typical of immune complexes, along the basal lamina of seminiferous tubules; (d) testes that when eluted with buffer or low pH yielded IgG that was 10-fold enriched in anti-sperm antibody activity as compared with serum IgG; and (e) no immunopathologic evidence of Aleutian mink disease. Although the sperm antigen-antibody complexes in the testis may be important as a pathogenetic mechanism of the testicular disease, there is no correlation between fluorescent anti- sperm antibody detection in the serum and the infertile state. The infertile black mink is a new model of infertility associated with naturally occurring autoimmune disease of the testis. PMID:6116740

  10. Varieties of Male-Sexual-Identity Development in Clinical Practice:A Neuropsychoanalytic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans eStortelder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Variations of sexual-identity development are present in all cultures, as well as in many animal species. Freud, founding father of psychoanalysis, believed that all men have an inherited, bisexual disposition, and that many varieties of love and desire are experienced as alternative pathways to intimacy.In the neuropsychoanalytic model, psychic development starts with the constitutional self. The constitutional self is comprised of the neurobiological factors which contribute to sexual-identity development. These neurobiological factors are focused on biphasic sexual organization in the prenatal phase, based on variations in genes, sex hormones, and brain circuits. This psychosocial construction of sexual identity is determined through contingent mirroring by the parents and peers of the constitutional self. The development of the self—or personal identity—is linked with the development of sexual identity, gender-role identity, and procreative identity. Incongruent mirroring of the constitutional self causes alienation in the development of the self. Such alienation can be treated within the psychoanalytic relationship.This article presents a contemporary, neuropsychoanalytic, developmental theory of male-sexual identity relating to varieties in male-sexual-identity development, with implications for psychoanalytic treatment, and is illustrated with three vugnettes from clinical practice.

  11. Effects on locomotion and memory in 2 models of cerebral hypoperfusion in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Díaz, J A; García, L I; Hernández, M E; Aranda-Abreu, G E

    2015-09-01

    Cerebral ischaemia is one of the most common neurological diseases worldwide. Its many sequelae range from motor and sensory symptoms to cognitive decline and dementia. Animal models of cerebral ischaemia/hypoperfusion elicit effects on long term memory; however, the effects of these procedures on short term memory are not clearly understood and effects induced by alternative hypoperfusion models are completely unknown. We evaluated the effects of 2 cerebral hyperperfusion models on memory in 3-month-old male rats. Episodic memory and working memory were assessed using the new object recognition test and the spontaneous alteration test, respectively. Neurological assessment was also performed, along with an open field test to evaluate locomotor activity. Rats in both hyperperfusion models displayed no cognitive changes. Rats with unilateral left-sided ligation plus temporary ligation of the right carotid tended to show slightly impaired performance on the new object recognition test on the second day after the procedure. In contrast, the group with permanent unilateral ligation tended to display alterations in working and episodic memory 9 days after the procedure, but they subsequently recovered. Despite these differences, both hypoperfusion groups displayed clear signs of motor impairment 2 days after the procedure, as reflected by their decreased locomotor activity during the open field test. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Temperature and the Ideal Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daisley, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    Presents some organized ideas in thermodynamics which are suitable for use with high school (GCE A level or ONC) students. Emphases are placed upon macroscopic observations and intimate connection of the modern definition of temperature with the concept of ideal gas. (CC)

  13. Low upper bounds of ideals

    OpenAIRE

    Kucera, Antonin; Slaman, Theodore A.

    2007-01-01

    We show that there is a low T-upper bound for the class of K-trivial sets, namely those which are weak from the point of view of algorithmic randomness. This result is a special case of a more general characterization of ideals in Δ02 T-degrees for which there is a low T-upper bound.

  14. Certain variants of multipermutohedron ideals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This sequence is called the reduced Mayer–. Vietoris sequence. Since the multigraded Betti numbers of a monomial ideal are given in terms of the dimension of reduced homology groups of the upper Koszul simplicial complex with coefficients in the field k, the Mayer–Vietoris sequence can be used to compute ˜Hi(Kb(I ...

  15. Hvid er et usynligt ideal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    Salget af hudblegecremer er eksploderet. Hvorfor drømmer så mange om at få lys hud? Hvorfor vil børn hellere lege med hvide dukker end brune? Svaret er, at hvid er et globalt ideal. Interview med Dorthe Staunæs og Les Back....

  16. Ideals in algebras of unbounded operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmermann, W.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents a continuation of investigations on ideals in algebras of unbounded operators. A general procedure is given to get ideals in L + (D) starting with ideals in B(H). A definition of the two types of ideals is given: one contains only bounded operators, the other involves both bounded and unbounded operators. Some algebraic properties of ideals Ssub(phi)(D) derived from the well-known symmetrically normed ideals Ssub(phi) are investigated. Topologies in such ideals are introduced, and some results connected with topological properties of these ideals are given

  17. Testosterone and religiosity as predictors of sexual attitudes and activity among adolescent males: a biosocial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, C T; Udry, J R; Campbell, B; Suchindran, C; Mason, G A

    1994-04-01

    A biosocial model of the effects of early adolescent testosterone levels and religiosity on adolescent males' sexual attitudes and activity over a 3-year period was examined. Using panel data for approximately 100 boys who were 12.5/13.0 years old at study entry, significant additive effects of free testosterone and frequency of attendance at religious services were demonstrated on the transition to first intercourse and other aspects of sexual behaviour and attitudes. No interactive effects of the two predictors were found. Boys with higher free testosterone levels at study entry who never or infrequently attended religious services were the most sexually active and had the most permissive attitudes. Boys with lower free testosterone who attended services once a week or more were the least active and reported the least permissive attitudes. For some behaviours, differences between free testosterone/attendance groups increased over time, resulting in substantial behavioural differences by the final round of measurement 3 years later.

  18. A stylized computational model of the head for the reference Japanese male

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, M.; Ishikawa, M.; Hoshi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Computational models of human anatomy, along with Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations, have been used by Snyder et al. [MIRD Pamphlet No. 5, revised (The Society of Nuclear Medicine, New York, 1978)], Cristy and Eckerman [ORNL/TM-8381/VI, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (1987)] and Zubal et al. [Med. Phys. 21, 299-302 (1994)] to estimate internal organ doses from internal and external radiation sources. These were created using physiological data from Caucasoid subjects but not from other races. There is a need for research to determine whether the obvious differences from the Caucasoid anatomy make these models unsuitable for estimating the absorbed dose in other races such as the Mongoloid. We used the cranial region of the adult Japanese male to represent the Mongoloid race. This region contains organs that are highly sensitive to radiation. The cranial region of a physical phantom produced by KYOTO KAGAKU Co., LTD. using numerical data from a Japanese Reference Man [Tanaka, Nippon Acta. Radiol. 48, 509-513 (1988)] was used to supply the data for the geometry of a stylized computational model. Our computational model was constructed with equations rather than voxel-based, in order to deal with as small a number of parameters as possible in the computer simulation experiment. The accuracy of our computational model was checked by comparing simulated experimental results obtained with MCNP4C with actual doses measured with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) inside the physical phantom from which our computational model was constructed. The TLDs, whose margin of error is less than ±10%, were arranged at six positions. Co-60 was used as the radiation source. The irradiated dose was 2 Gy in terms of air kerma. In the computer simulation experiments, we used our computational model and Cristy's computational model, whose component data are those of the tissue substitute materials and of the human body as published in ICRU Report 46. The

  19. Structural arrest in an ideal gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ketel, Willem; Das, Chinmay; Frenkel, Daan

    2005-04-08

    We report a molecular dynamics study of a simple model system that has the static properties of an ideal gas, yet exhibits nontrivial "glassy" dynamics behavior at high densities. The constituent molecules of this system are constructs of three infinitely thin hard rods of length L, rigidly joined at their midpoints. The crosses have random but fixed orientation. The static properties of this system are those of an ideal gas, and its collision frequency can be computed analytically. For number densities NL(3)/V>1, the single-particle diffusivity goes to zero. As the system is completely structureless, standard mode-coupling theory cannot describe the observed structural arrest. Nevertheless, the system exhibits many dynamical features that appear to be mode-coupling-like. All high-density incoherent intermediate scattering functions collapse onto master curves that depend only on the wave vector.

  20. Structural equation modeling identifies markers of damage and function in the aging male Fischer 344 rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunz-Borgmann, Elizabeth A; Nichols, LaNita A; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; Spagnoli, Sean; Trzeciakowski, Jerome P; Parrish, Alan R

    2016-06-01

    The male Fischer 344 rat is an established model to study progressive renal dysfunction that is similar, but not identical, to chronic kidney disease (CKD) in humans. These studies were designed to assess age-dependent alterations in renal structure and function at late-life timepoints, 16-24 months. Elevations in BUN and plasma creatinine were not significant until 24 months, however, elevations in the more sensitive markers of function, plasma cystatin C and proteinuria, were detectable at 16 and 18 months, respectively. Interestingly, cystatin C levels were not corrected by caloric restriction. Urinary Kim-1, a marker of CKD, was elevated as early as 16 months. Klotho gene expression was significantly decreased at 24 months, but not at earlier timepoints. Alterations in renal structure, glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, were noted at 16 months, with little change from 18 to 24 months. Tubulointerstitial inflammation was increased at 16 months, and remained similar from 18 to 24 months. A SEM (structural equation modeling) model of age-related renal dysfunction suggests that proteinuria is a marker of renal damage, while urinary Kim-1 is a marker of both damage and function. Taken together, these results demonstrate that age-dependent nephropathy begins as early as 16 months and progresses rapidly over the next 8 months. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Preventing HIV Transmission Among Partners of HIV-Positive Male Sex Workers in Mexico City: A Modeling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, João Filipe G; Marshall, Brandon D L; Escudero, Daniel; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; González, Andrea; Flanigan, Timothy; Operario, Don; Mayer, Kenneth H; Lurie, Mark N; Galárraga, Omar

    2015-09-01

    Mexico has a concentrated HIV epidemic, with male sex workers constituting a key affected population. We estimated annual HIV cumulative incidence among male sex workers' partners, and then compared incidence under three hypothetical intervention scenarios: improving condom use; and scaling up HIV treatment as prevention, considering current viral suppression rates (CVS, 60.7 %) or full viral suppression among those treated (FVS, 100 %). Clinical and behavioral data to inform model parameterization were derived from a sample (n = 79) of male sex workers recruited from street locations and Clínica Condesa, an HIV clinic in Mexico City. We estimated annual HIV incidence among male sex workers' partners to be 8.0 % (95 % CI: 7.3-8.7). Simulation models demonstrated that increasing condom use by 10 %, and scaling up HIV treatment initiation by 50 % (from baseline values) would decrease the male sex workers-attributable annual incidence to 5.2, 4.4 % (CVS) and 3.2 % (FVS), respectively. Scaling up the number of male sex workers on ART and implementing interventions to ensure adherence is urgently required to decrease HIV incidence among male sex workers' partners in Mexico City.

  2. Smoothness in Binomial Edge Ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Damadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study some geometric properties of the algebraic set associated to the binomial edge ideal of a graph. We study the singularity and smoothness of the algebraic set associated to the binomial edge ideal of a graph. Some of these algebraic sets are irreducible and some of them are reducible. If every irreducible component of the algebraic set is smooth we call the graph an edge smooth graph, otherwise it is called an edge singular graph. We show that complete graphs are edge smooth and introduce two conditions such that the graph G is edge singular if and only if it satisfies these conditions. Then, it is shown that cycles and most of trees are edge singular. In addition, it is proved that complete bipartite graphs are edge smooth.

  3. The Ideal of Moral Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marquisio Aguirre

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Some elements of the ideal of moral autonomy are discussed in this paper. Such ideal is a key assumption in social practices focused on normative imputation, particularly morality and law. First, a constructivist conception of normativity is introduced, taking reasons as an essential and non-reducible element, and focused on the conceptual features of moral reasons within the normative domain. Then, an idea of moral autonomy based on the self-constitution is developed including three key features: the possibility of responding to reasons based on shared social expectations; the responsibility for certain scope of actions, according to a set of reasons available to the individual and to their maximum extent of expansion; and the need to preserve autonomy as a purpose unifying the set of autonomous actions of moral agents.

  4. The Circuit Ideal of a Vector Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Bogart, Tristram; Thomas, Rekha

    The circuit ideal, $\\ica$, of a configuration $\\A = \\{\\a_1, ..., \\a_n\\} \\subset \\Z^d$ is the ideal generated by the binomials ${\\x}^{\\cc^+} - {\\x}^{\\cc^-} \\in \\k[x_1, ..., x_n]$ as $\\cc = \\cc^+ - \\cc^- \\in \\Z^n$ varies over the circuits of $\\A$. This ideal is contained in the toric ideal, $\\ia$, ...

  5. Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  6. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  7. Integrative rodent models for assessing male reproductive toxicity of environmental endocrine active substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Auger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present review, we first summarize the main benefits, limitations and pitfalls of conventional in vivo approaches to assessing male reproductive structures and functions in rodents in cases of endocrine active substance (EAS exposure from the postulate that they may provide data that can be extrapolated to humans. Then, we briefly present some integrated approaches in rodents we have recently developed at the organism level. We particularly focus on the possible effects and modes of action (MOA of these substances at low doses and in mixtures, real-life conditions and at the organ level, deciphering the precise effects and MOA on the fetal testis. It can be considered that the in vivo experimental EAS exposure of rodents remains the first choice for studies and is a necessary tool (together with the epidemiological approach for understanding the reproductive effects and MOA of EASs, provided the pitfalls and limitations of the rodent models are known and considered. We also provide some evidence that classical rodent models may be refined for studying the multiple consequences of EAS exposure, not only on the reproductive axis but also on various hormonally regulated organs and tissues, among which several are implicated in the complex process of mammalian reproduction. Such models constitute an interesting way of approaching human exposure conditions. Finally, we show that organotypic culture models are powerful complementary tools, especially when focusing on the MOA. All these approaches have contributed in a combinatorial manner to a better understanding of the impact of EAS exposure on human reproduction.

  8. Do the Particles of an Ideal Gas Collide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesk, Arthur M.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the collisional properties as a logically essential component of the ideal gas model since an actual intraparticle process cannot support observable anisotropic velocity distributions without collisions taken into account. (CC)

  9. Work-Life Balance and Ideal Worker Expectations for Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Kelly E.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores the work-life experiences of administrators as well as whether and how the ideal worker model affects those experiences. Departmental and supervisory differences and technology complicate administrators' work-life experiences.

  10. The Effect of Leonuri Herba alkaloids on Senile BPH (male and female hormone induced model rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingsan Miao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the pharmacological effects of Leonuri Herba alkaloids (LHA on prostate hyperplasia in older rats and the effect mechanism. Methods: Remove bilateral testes from BPH model rats, and conduct subcutaneous injection of testosterone and estradiol. At the same time, feed corresponding drugs to the rats by gastric perfusion for 30d. In the first 27d, conduct bladder fistula surgery. Three days after feeding, carry out the detection of the urine flow dynamics. Eyeball blood taking, determination of serum E2 levels, and quickly remove the prostate, thymus gland, spleen, kidney, lung, and bladder. 1/3 prostate homogenate, determine the level of PACP, T, DHT. 1/3 prostate was determined by mRNA expression in bFGF. The remaining 1/3 prostate was observed by light microscopy. Results: LHA could significantly decrease the animal prostate index, level of DHT, T, PACP, and elevate levels of E2 in the serum. It could also significantly reduce the maximum voiding pressure, intercontraction interval, and bladder resting pressure. Conclusion: LHA has good therapeutic effect on prostatic hyperplasia model rats induced by male and female hormone.

  11. On Fuzzy Ideals of BL-Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiao Long

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate further properties of fuzzy ideals of a BL-algebra. The notions of fuzzy prime ideals, fuzzy irreducible ideals, and fuzzy Gödel ideals of a BL-algebra are introduced and their several properties are investigated. We give a procedure to generate a fuzzy ideal by a fuzzy set. We prove that every fuzzy irreducible ideal is a fuzzy prime ideal but a fuzzy prime ideal may not be a fuzzy irreducible ideal and prove that a fuzzy prime ideal ω is a fuzzy irreducible ideal if and only if ω(0) = 1 and |Im⁡(ω)| = 2. We give the Krull-Stone representation theorem of fuzzy ideals in BL-algebras. Furthermore, we prove that the lattice of all fuzzy ideals of a BL-algebra is a complete distributive lattice. Finally, it is proved that every fuzzy Boolean ideal is a fuzzy Gödel ideal, but the converse implication is not true. PMID:24892085

  12. Aphrodisiac activity of polyherbal formulation in experimental models on male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Nandy, Subhangkar; Senapati, Aswini Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the aphrodisiac potential of polyherbal formulations prepared from different parts of Tribulus terrestris, Curculigo orchioides, Allium tuberosum, Cucurbita pepo, Elephant creeper, Mucuna pruriens, and Terminalia catappa in Albino rats in specified ratio as suspension. The different concentrations of prepared polyherbal formulations i.e. 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg and sildenafil citrate as standard (5 mg/kg) and vehicle (control) were administered orally to rats (n = 6 animals per group) for 3 weeks. Mating behavior parameters in male rats was monitored in first week and third week week of treatment pairing with receptive females. After termination of drug treatment, the mating performance, hormonal analysis, sperm count, and testes-body weight ratio were also evaluated. The polyherbal formulation showed a significant increase in mating behavior as well as mating performance, serum hormonal levels, sperm count, and testes-body weight ratio with dose-dependent relationship as compared to vehicle control. But the dose of 600 mg/kg of polyherbal formulation assumes closer resemblance of above parameters with the standard used. The results of the study strongly suggest that the polyherbal formulations have a good aphrodisiac activity on rats in the above experimental models, which may be an alternative weapon for various sexual dysfunctions in future.

  13. Effect of taking dietary supplement on hematological and biochemical parameters in male bodybuilders an equation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meamar, Rokhsareh; Maracy, Mohammad; Nematollahi, Shahrzad; Yeroshalmi, Shemouil; Zamani-Moghaddam, Ali; Ghazvini, Mohammad Reza Aghaye

    2015-01-01

    Background: The improved physical action following administration of supplements to bodybuilders was supported by changes in laboratory parameters. Despite the fact that these supplements are sometimes associated both advantage and side effects, this study were conducted for the purpose of evaluating the possible effects of some commonly used supplements in bodybuilders on the hematological and biochemical parameters. Materials and Methods: In this study, we included 40 male bodybuilders as cases and 40 controls in the age group of 20-40 years. They used different kinds of supplements for 1 year. In general, all the supplements used were classified into two groups: hormonal and non-hormonal. Laboratory tests were requested for evaluation of hematological and biochemical parameters. Results: In an equation model, we found that weight (P = 0.024), duration of bodybuilding (P bodybuilders. The available supplements are unchecked and not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). More studies should be designed for a better and precise administration of each supplement in athletes. PMID:26793253

  14. Application of Radial Basis Function Methods in the Development of a 95th Percentile Male Seated FEA Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavalle, Nicholas A; Schoell, Samantha L; Weaver, Ashley A; Stitzel, Joel D; Gayzik, F Scott

    2014-11-01

    Human body finite element models (FEMs) are a valuable tool in the study of injury biomechanics. However, the traditional model development process can be time-consuming. Scaling and morphing an existing FEM is an attractive alternative for generating morphologically distinct models for further study. The objective of this work is to use a radial basis function to morph the Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) average male model (M50) to the body habitus of a 95th percentile male (M95) and to perform validation tests on the resulting model. The GHBMC M50 model (v. 4.3) was created using anthropometric and imaging data from a living subject representing a 50th percentile male. A similar dataset was collected from a 95th percentile male (22,067 total images) and was used in the morphing process. Homologous landmarks on the reference (M50) and target (M95) geometries, with the existing FE node locations (M50 model), were inputs to the morphing algorithm. The radial basis function was applied to morph the FE model. The model represented a mass of 103.3 kg and contained 2.2 million elements with 1.3 million nodes. Simulations of the M95 in seven loading scenarios were presented ranging from a chest pendulum impact to a lateral sled test. The morphed model matched anthropometric data to within a rootmean square difference of 4.4% while maintaining element quality commensurate to the M50 model and matching other anatomical ranges and targets. The simulation validation data matched experimental data well in most cases.

  15. The ideal imaging AR waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, David J.

    2017-06-01

    Imaging waveguides are a key development that are helping to create the Augmented Reality revolution. They have the ability to use a small projector as an input and produce a wide field of view, large eyebox, full colour, see-through image with good contrast and resolution. WaveOptics is at the forefront of this AR technology and has developed and demonstrated an approach which is readily scalable. This paper presents our view of the ideal near-to-eye imaging AR waveguide. This will be a single-layer waveguide which can be manufactured in high volume and low cost, and is suitable for small form factor applications and all-day wear. We discuss the requirements of the waveguide for an excellent user experience. When enhanced (AR) viewing is not required, the waveguide should have at least 90% transmission, no distracting artifacts and should accommodate the user's ophthalmic prescription. When enhanced viewing is required, additionally, the waveguide requires excellent imaging performance, this includes resolution to the limit of human acuity, wide field of view, full colour, high luminance uniformity and contrast. Imaging waveguides are afocal designs and hence cannot provide ophthalmic correction. If the user requires this correction then they must wear either contact lenses, prescription spectacles or inserts. The ideal imaging waveguide would need to cope with all of these situations so we believe it must be capable of providing an eyebox at an eye relief suitable for spectacle wear which covers a significant range of population inter-pupillary distances. We describe the current status of our technology and review existing imaging waveguide technologies against the ideal component.

  16. Ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Botella, Angel [Departamento Fisica Aplicada a los Recursos Naturales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E.T.S.I. de Montes, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Vazquez, Daniel; Bernabeu, Eusebio [Departamento de Optica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Fac. CC. Fisicas, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used for producing reflective and refractive optical devices, including reverse engineering techniques. In this paper we apply photometric field theory and elliptic ray bundles method to study 3D asymmetric - without rotational or translational symmetry - concentrators, which can be useful components for nontracking solar applications. We study the one-sheet hyperbolic concentrator and we demonstrate its behaviour as ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator. (author)

  17. The neck linker of kinesin 1 seems optimally designed to approach the largest stepping velocity: a simulation study of an ideal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yao-Gen; Zhang, Xiao-Hu; Ou-Yang, Zhong-Can; Li, Ming

    2012-01-01

    The neck linker is widely believed to play a critical role in the hand-over-hand walking of conventional kinesin 1. Experiments have shown that change of the neck linker length will significantly change the stepping velocity of the motor. In this paper, we studied this length effect based on a highly simplified chemically powered ratchet model. In this model, we assume that the chemical steps (ATP hydrolysis, ADP and Pi release, ATP binding, neck linker docking) are fast enough under conditions far from equilibrium and the mechanical steps (detachment, diffusional search and re-attachment of the free head) are rate-limiting in kinesin walking. According to this model, and regarding the neck linker as a worm-like-chain polypeptide, we can calculate the steady state stepping velocity of the motor for different neck linker lengths. Our results show, under the actual values of binding energy between kinesin head and microtubule (˜15kBT) and the persistence length of neck linker (˜0.5 nm), that there is an optimal neck linker length (˜14-16 a.a.) corresponding to the maximal velocity, which implies that the length of the wild-type neck linker (˜15 a.a.) might be optimally designed for kinesin 1 to approach the largest stepping velocity.

  18. Generalized Ideal Gas Equations for Structureful Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Khan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available We have derived generalized ideal gas equations for a structureful universe consistingof all forms of matters. We have assumed a universe that contains superclusters. Superclusters arethen made of clusters. Each cluster can be further divided into smaller ones and so on. We havederived an expression for the entropy of such a universe. Our model is rather independent of thegeometry of the intermediate clusters. Our calculations are valid for a non-interacting universewithin non-relativistic limits. We suggest that structure formation can reduce the expansion rateof the universe.

  19. Finding the ideal biomaterial for aortic valve repair with ex vivo porcine left heart simulator and finite element modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toeg, Hadi Daood; Abessi, Ovais; Al-Atassi, Talal; de Kerchove, Laurent; El-Khoury, Gebrine; Labrosse, Michel; Boodhwani, Munir

    2014-10-01

    Aortic valve (AV) repair (AVr) has become an attractive alternative to AV replacement for the correction of aortic insufficiency; however, little clinical evidence exists in determining which biomaterial at AVr would be optimal. Cusp replacement in AVr has been associated with increased long-term AVr failure. We measured the hemodynamic and biomaterial properties using an ex vivo porcine AVr model with clinically relevant biomaterials and generated a finite element model to ascertain which materials would be best suited for valve repair. Porcine aortic roots with intact AVs were placed in a left heart simulator mounted with a high-speed camera for baseline valve assessment. The noncoronary cusp was excised and replaced with autologous porcine pericardium, glutaraldehyde-fixed bovine pericardial patch (Synovis), extracelluar matrix scaffold (CorMatrix), or collagen-impregnated Dacron (Hemashield). The hemodynamic parameters were measured for a range of cardiac outputs (2.5-6.5 L/min) after repair. The biomaterial properties and St Jude Medical pericardial patch were determined using pressurization experiments. Finite element models of the AV and root complex were constructed to determine the hemodynamic characteristics and leaflet stresses. The geometric orifice areas after repair were significantly reduced in the Hemashield (Pbiomaterial groups. Finite element modeling of the biomaterials displayed differences in the percentage of changes in total Von Mises stress for both replaced (noncoronary cusp) and nonreplaced left and right cusps with the St Jude Medical pericardial patch (+4%, +24%) and autologous porcine pericardium (+5, +26%), with a lower percentage of changes than for the bovine pericardial patch (+12%, +27%), Hemashield (+30%, +9%), and CorMatrix (+13%, +32%). The present study has shown that postrepair left ventricular work did not increase despite a decrease in geometric orifice areas in the Hemashield and CorMatrix groups. The autologous porcine

  20. Imagining the ideal dairy farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Clarissa S; Hötzel, Maria José; Weary, Daniel M; Robbins, Jesse A; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2016-02-01

    Practices in agriculture can have negative effects on the environment, rural communities, food safety, and animal welfare. Although disagreements are possible about specific issues and potential solutions, it is widely recognized that public input is needed in the development of socially sustainable agriculture systems. The aim of this study was to assess the views of people not affiliated with the dairy industry on what they perceived to be the ideal dairy farm and their associated reasons. Through an online survey, participants were invited to respond to the following open-ended question: "What do you consider to be an ideal dairy farm and why are these characteristics important to you?" Although participants referenced social, economic, and ecological aspects of dairy farming, animal welfare was the primary issue raised. Concern was expressed directly about the quality of life for the animals, and the indirect effect of animal welfare on milk quality. Thus participants appeared to hold an ethic for dairy farming that included concern for the animal, as well as economic, social, and environmental aspects of the dairy system. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Turkish Primary Science Teachers' Perceptions of an Ideal Teacher Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Hunkar; Altindag, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    The goals of this descriptive study were to determine Turkish pre-service science teachers' perceptions of an ideal teacher education system. The sample consisted of 137 pre-service teachers, including 74 females and 63 males. The questionnaire was based on open-ended questions and was developed to investigate ideal teacher education system…

  2. BRCAPRO 6.0 Model Validation in Male Patients Presenting for BRCA Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, Zahi I; Jackson, Michelle; Garby, Carolyn; Song, Juhee; Giordano, Sharon H; Hortobágyi, Gabriel N; Singletary, Claire N; Hashmi, S Shahrukh; Arun, Banu K; Litton, Jennifer K

    2015-06-01

    BRCAPRO is a risk assessment model to estimate the risk of carrying a BRCA mutation. BRCA mutation carriers are at higher risk of developing breast, ovarian, pancreatic, and prostate cancer. BRCAPRO was developed for women and found to be superior to other risk assessment models. The present study evaluated the validity of BRCAPRO at predicting the risk of male patients carrying a BRCA mutation. A total of 146 men who presented for genetic counseling and testing from February1997 to September 2011, and their test results were included in the present study. BRCAPRO risk assessment for all patients was calculated using the BRCAPRO clinical CancerGene assessment software. The mean age at presentation was 57 years. Of the 146 patients, 48 had breast cancer, 18 had pancreatic cancer, 39 had prostate cancer, 27 had other primary cancers, and 37 had no cancer. Fifty patients (34%) tested positive for a BRCA mutation (22 BRCA1, 27 BRCA2, and 1 BRCA1 and BRCA2). The mean BRCAPRO score for all patients was 24.96%. The BRCAPRO score was significantly higher for patients who tested positive for a BRCA mutation (46.19% vs. 13.9%, p BRCA mutation. At a cutoff point of 30.02%, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 0.74, 0.81, 0.67, and 0.86, respectively. BRCAPRO appears to be a valid risk assessment tool for determining the risk of carrying a BRCA mutation in men. Men carrying genetic mutations in the BRCA gene have a greater risk than the general population of developing certain types of cancer, including breast, pancreatic, and prostate cancer. BRCAPRO is a risk assessment model that predicts the risk of carrying a BRCA mutation. The present study aimed at validating BRCAPRO for use with men seen for genetic counseling, whether affected by cancer or not. The data available for 146 patients revealed that BRCAPRO was effective at identifying patients at risk of BRCA mutation. These findings could help in identifying a subset

  3. Comprehensive Evaluation of the Sustainable Development of Power Grid Enterprises Based on the Model of Fuzzy Group Ideal Point Method and Combination Weighting Method with Improved Group Order Relation Method and Entropy Weight Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyu Dai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As an important implementing body of the national energy strategy, grid enterprises bear the important responsibility of optimizing the allocation of energy resources and serving the economic and social development, and their levels of sustainable development have a direct impact on the national economy and social life. In this paper, the model of fuzzy group ideal point method and combination weighting method with improved group order relation method and entropy weight method is proposed to evaluate the sustainable development of power grid enterprises. Firstly, on the basis of consulting a large amount of literature, the important criteria of the comprehensive evaluation of the sustainable development of power grid enterprises are preliminarily selected. The opinions of the industry experts are consulted and fed back for many rounds through the Delphi method and the evaluation criteria system for sustainable development of power grid enterprises is determined, then doing the consistent and non dimensional processing of the evaluation criteria. After that, based on the basic order relation method, the weights of each expert judgment matrix are synthesized to construct the compound matter elements. By using matter element analysis, the subjective weights of the criteria are obtained. And entropy weight method is used to determine the objective weights of the preprocessed criteria. Then, combining the subjective and objective information with the combination weighting method based on the subjective and objective weighted attribute value consistency, a more comprehensive, reasonable and accurate combination weight is calculated. Finally, based on the traditional TOPSIS method, the triangular fuzzy numbers are introduced to better realize the scientific processing of the data information which is difficult to quantify, and the queuing indication value of each object and the ranking result are obtained. A numerical example is taken to prove that the

  4. A Model to Explain At-Risk/Problem Gambling among Male and Female Adolescents: Gender Similarities and Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Maria Anna; Chiesi, Francesca; Primi, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at testing a model in which cognitive, dispositional, and social factors were integrated into a single perspective as predictors of gambling behavior. We also aimed at providing further evidence of gender differences related to adolescent gambling. Participants were 994 Italian adolescents (64% Males; Mean age = 16.57).…

  5. The ideal mixing departure in vector meson physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epele, L.; Fanchiotti, H.; Grunfeld, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    In this work we study the departure from the ideal φ-ω mixing angle within the framework of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. In this context we show that the flavor symmetry breaking is unable to produce the shifting of the ideal mixing. We found that a nonet symmetry breaking in the neutral vector sector is necessary to regulate the non-strange content of the φ meson. The phenomenology is well described by our proposal. (orig.)

  6. The ideal restructuring of migrant families in the immigration law

    OpenAIRE

    Encarnación La Spina

    2013-01-01

    The legal configuration of kinship ties in immigration law is governed by a restrictive logic that combines a dependent and nuclear composition with mismatches in the concrete form of managing the distances, the dynamics and the times at origin and destination. The family model in immigration law has an ideal and dominant approach openly excluding other family realities in the social context. Law in an inherent tendency towards the ideal doesn’t allow a legitimate choice between autonomy and ...

  7. DTUsat the Ideal CDIO project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fléron, René

    2016-01-01

    documentation and knowledge management. The engineering education brings the student skills within mathematics, physics, specific engineering disciplines and the ability to dissolve and analyze any technical challenge. This however is only half the picture of a real life engineering job. The other half; inter...... solution is likewise challenging. The conceiving, designing, implementation and operation phases in the CDIO education aims to bring the student through a scenario simulating real life engineering. A satellite mission constitutes an ideal case for a CDIO project. Designing, building, launching...... documentation throughout the project that could drain valuable man-power resources from a student satellite project yielding the actual satellite construction impossible. From the very onset of the DTUsat-2 project we acknowledged this dilemma and chose a strategy in which we simplified and standardized both...

  8. DTUsat the Ideal CDIO project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fléron, René

    2016-01-01

    solution is likewise challenging. The conceiving, designing, implementation and operation phases in the CDIO education aims to bring the student through a scenario simulating real life engineering. A satellite mission constitutes an ideal case for a CDIO project. Designing, building, launching...... and ends with a report or more rarely a prototype the DTUsat project involved +90 students over 9 years, achieving more than 1100 ECTS and ended with an orbiting satellite. In this paper I will go through the challenges faced and our solutions to the creation of the DTUsat-2 project....... documentation throughout the project that could drain valuable man-power resources from a student satellite project yielding the actual satellite construction impossible. From the very onset of the DTUsat-2 project we acknowledged this dilemma and chose a strategy in which we simplified and standardized both...

  9. Patient pathway: the ideal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corless, Lynsey; Brew, Iain

    2018-02-07

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) can be a devastating complication of cirrhosis, affecting patients and their families. Multidisciplinary community and specialist teams must work together with patients and their families to recognise HE, identify and treat problems early, and minimise time spent unwell or in hospital. Primary care provides an ideal setting for patient education and reinforcement of the salient points on self-care. In the acute setting, the use of care pathways can ensure that the critical aspects of pharmacological, dietetic and supportive care are offered in a timely fashion to reduce morbidity and mortality. This article discusses strategies that can be used in primary and secondary care to help teams deliver excellent practice in HE management.

  10. Masculinity Ideals in a Contemporary Danish Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte; Christensen, Ann-Dorte; Jensen, Sune Qvotrup

    2015-01-01

    What are the prevailing masculinity ideals among contemporary Danish men? As one of the Nordic welfare states, Denmark has for decades focused on gender equality and changes in the gendered division of labour. Research has suggested a shift in masculinity ideals, but processes of change comprise ...... negotiations and variations between the men. Thus, the article concludes that in a Danish context we can identify authoritative masculinity ideals that do not reproduce patriarchy or support traditional masculinity ideals in an unambiguous way....

  11. Paired-organ and other selected absorbed fraction for the Korean Reference Adult Male model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. H.; Whang, J. H.; Kim, C. S.

    2006-01-01

    The authors have developed a mathematical model for calculating internal radionuclide dosimetry for the Korean Reference Adult Male, and have also derived paired-organ and other selected inter-organ photon-specific absorbed fractions for this model. Each lung, kidney and adrenal gland was set as a separate source region even though each of them shares an identical physiological function with their complementary half. The thyroid gland was also set as a source region. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) were then derived by selecting 10 photon energies from 0.02 to 4.0 MeV inclusive. For this purpose the Monte Carlo methodology was used, and the derived SAF was compared with the resulting value of MIRD Pamphlet No. 5 and ORNL TM-8381, both of which were derived on the basis of the ICRP-23 reference man. The comparison showed that MIRD No. 5 and ORNL TM-8381 resulted in a higher absorbed fraction, but the phantom created on the basis of the Korean reference man led to a higher SAF. The weight of the organs of the phantom, and the size and location of the trunk seem to account for the differences. The energy-dependent differences in the SAFs are considered to be related to the distance between the source and target regions, the composition of the intervening tissues, and the photon energies and mean free paths. Also, as a result of deriving SAFs after setting each separate lung, kidney and adrenal gland as a source region, it was found that, although they are of the same physiological function, each individual organ serves as a source region on its own. Differences were noted in SAFs exerted on the source and target organs in accordance with the location of the organs, that is, whether they were located to the left or right of the source organs. The SAF derived in this study can be used for a more accurate internal radionuclide dosimetry for Koreans and other Orientals whose physiology, lifestyle and dietary habits are similar to those of Koreans. (authors)

  12. Qualities of Ideal Teacher Educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal Tunca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Generally, the relationship between the teacher educators' qualities and the quality of teacher education has not been discussed extensively in the literature. At the same time, various studies can be found in the eastern literature examining the characteristics of faculty members at the education faculties. The effect of teacher educators over teacher candidates has not been explored, and in this sense, there is limited number of studies examining faculty members at education faculties in Turkey. Mostly employing quantitative research designs, these studies have focused on faculty members in terms of various characteristics However, which qualities that faculty members should have as a whole have not been studied. However, faculty members, as well as teachers who are a matter of debate in terms of the qualities they are supposed to have should be examined in research studies. In this context, this study aims to identify the qualities that an ideal teacher educator should have from the perspective of education faculty students as future teachers. The current research is a qualitative study in phenomenology design. The participants of the study are third and fourth year 214 pre-service teachers from the departments of Science and Technology Teaching, Pre-School Teacher Education, Classroom Teacher Education, Social Studies Teaching and Turkish Language Teaching. Criterion sampling was used for participant selection. The data gathering tool consisted of an open-ended question that would reveal the qualities that an ideal teacher educator should have based on teacher candidates’ views. Junior and senior teacher candidates’ views were asked and the data were analyzed according to content analysis approach. As a result, the qualities that an ideal teacher educator should have been gathered under five main themes including ‘professional roles and responsibilities, professional values, personal characteristics, professional ethic

  13. Extremely strict ideals in Banach spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Motivated by the notion of an ideal introduced by Godefroy {\\it et al.} ({\\it Studia Math.} {\\bf 104} (1993) 13–59), in this article, we introduce and study the notion of an extremely strict ideal. For a Poulsen simplex K , we show that the space of affine continuous functions on K is an extremely strict ideal in the space of continuous ...

  14. Extremely strict ideals in Banach spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Motivated by the notion of an ideal introduced by Godefroy et al. (Stu- dia Math. 104 (1993) 13–59), in this article, we introduce and study the notion of an extremely strict ideal. For a Poulsen simplex K, we show that the space of affine contin- uous functions on K is an extremely strict ideal in the space of continuous ...

  15. Statistical Theory of the Ideal MHD Geodynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebalin, J. V.

    2012-01-01

    A statistical theory of geodynamo action is developed, using a mathematical model of the geodynamo as a rotating outer core containing an ideal (i.e., no dissipation), incompressible, turbulent, convecting magnetofluid. On the concentric inner and outer spherical bounding surfaces the normal components of the velocity, magnetic field, vorticity and electric current are zero, as is the temperature fluctuation. This allows the use of a set of Galerkin expansion functions that are common to both velocity and magnetic field, as well as vorticity, current and the temperature fluctuation. The resulting dynamical system, based on the Boussinesq form of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, represents MHD turbulence in a spherical domain. These basic equations (minus the temperature equation) and boundary conditions have been used previously in numerical simulations of forced, decaying MHD turbulence inside a sphere [1,2]. Here, the ideal case is studied through statistical analysis and leads to a prediction that an ideal coherent structure will be found in the form of a large-scale quasistationary magnetic field that results from broken ergodicity, an effect that has been previously studied both analytically and numerically for homogeneous MHD turbulence [3,4]. The axial dipole component becomes prominent when there is a relatively large magnetic helicity (proportional to the global correlation of magnetic vector potential and magnetic field) and a stationary, nonzero cross helicity (proportional to the global correlation of velocity and magnetic field). The expected angle of the dipole moment vector with respect to the rotation axis is found to decrease to a minimum as the average cross helicity increases for a fixed value of magnetic helicity and then to increase again when average cross helicity approaches its maximum possible value. Only a relatively small value of cross helicity is needed to produce a dipole moment vector that is aligned at approx.10deg with the

  16. A full ranking for decision making units using ideal and anti-ideal points in DEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzegarinegad, A; Jahanshahloo, G; Rostamy-Malkhalifeh, M

    2014-01-01

    We propose a procedure for ranking decision making units in data envelopment analysis, based on ideal and anti-ideal points in the production possibility set. Moreover, a model has been introduced to compute the performance of a decision making unit for these two points through using common set of weights. One of the best privileges of this method is that we can make ranking for all decision making units by solving only three programs, and also solving these programs is not related to numbers of decision making units. One of the other advantages of this procedure is to rank all the extreme and nonextreme efficient decision making units. In other words, the suggested ranking method tends to seek a set of common weights for all units to make them fully ranked. Finally, it was applied for different sets holding real data, and then it can be compared with other procedures.

  17. Ideal Based Cyber Security Technical Metrics for Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. F. Boyer; M. A. McQueen

    2007-10-01

    Much of the world's critical infrastructure is at risk from attack through electronic networks connected to control systems. Security metrics are important because they provide the basis for management decisions that affect the protection of the infrastructure. A cyber security technical metric is the security relevant output from an explicit mathematical model that makes use of objective measurements of a technical object. A specific set of technical security metrics are proposed for use by the operators of control systems. Our proposed metrics are based on seven security ideals associated with seven corresponding abstract dimensions of security. We have defined at least one metric for each of the seven ideals. Each metric is a measure of how nearly the associated ideal has been achieved. These seven ideals provide a useful structure for further metrics development. A case study shows how the proposed metrics can be applied to an operational control system.

  18. Susceptibility for thin ideal media and eating styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Van Strien, Tatjana

    2008-03-01

    This study examined the relations between susceptibility for thin ideal media and restrained, emotional and external eating, directly and indirectly through body dissatisfaction. Thin ideal media susceptibility, body dissatisfaction and eating styles were measured in a sample of 163 female students. Structural equation modelling was used for analyses, controlling for BMI. Higher susceptibility for thin ideal media was directly related to higher scores on all eating styles, and indirectly related to higher restrained and emotional eating through elevated levels of body dissatisfaction. So, thin ideal media susceptibility was not only related to restraint through body dissatisfaction, but also directly. Emotional eaters might be more vulnerable for negative affect, whereas external eaters might be more sensitive to external cues in general.

  19. Lacunary ideal convergence of multiple sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipan Hazarika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An ideal I is a family of subsets of N×N which is closed under taking finite unions and subsets of its elements. In this article, the concept of lacunary ideal convergence of double sequences has been introduced. Also the relation between lacunary ideal convergent and lacunary Cauchy double sequences has been established. Furthermore, the notions of lacunary ideal limit point and lacunary ideal cluster points have been introduced and find the relation between these two notions. Finally, we have studied the properties such as solidity, monotonic.

  20. Nonlinear stability of ideal fluid equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, D.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Lyapunov method for establishing stability is related to well- known energy principles for nondissipative dynamical systems. A development of the Lyapunov method for Hamiltonian systems due to Arnold establishes sufficient conditions for Lyapunov stability by using the energy plus other conserved quantities, together with second variations and convexity estimates. When treating the stability of ideal fluid dynamics within the Hamiltonian framework, a useful class of these conserved quantities consists of the Casimir functionals, which Poisson-commute with all functionals of the dynamical fluid variables. Such conserved quantities, when added to the energy, help to provide convexity estimates that bound the growth of perturbations. These convexity estimates, in turn, provide norms necessary for establishing Lyapunov stability under the nonlinear evolution. In contrast, the commonly used second variation or spectral stability arguments only prove linearized stability. As ideal fluid examples, in these lectures we discuss planar barotropic compressible fluid dynamics, the three-dimensional hydrostatic Boussinesq model, and a new set of shallow water equations with nonlinear dispersion due to Basdenkov, Morosov, and Pogutse[1985]. Remarkably, all three of these samples have the same Hamiltonian structure and, thus, possess the same Casimir functionals upon which their stability analyses are based. We also treat stability of modified quasigeostrophic flow, a problem whose Hamiltonian structure and Casimirs closely resemble Arnold's original example. Finally, we discuss some aspects of conditional stability and the applicability of Arnold's development of the Lyapunov technique. 100 refs

  1. Factors affecting the career development of male nurses: a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jiunn-Horng; Yu, Hsing-Yi; Chen, Sheng-Hwang

    2010-04-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to test a theory of the relations of emotional labour and professional empowerment to nursing career development. Nurses are required to show high emotional labour, but this can bring about excessive pressure and emotional exhaustion. Male nurses usually perceive societal expectations in line with a more traditionally masculine role. Greater professional empowerment might assist them in attaining promotion and career success. The study had a cross-sectional correlational design. Data were collected in 2007 using a mailed questionnaire. We used a database published by the National Union of Nurses' Associations, Republic of China, to find medical care institutions at which male nurses were working. A convenience sample of male nurses (308) working at clinical nursing centres completed the mailed questionnaires. Emotional labour was not statistically significantly related to nursing career development, but was statistically significantly related to professional empowerment. Professional empowerment was statistically significantly related to nursing career development. Professional empowerment a mediating factor in the influence of emotional labour on nursing career development. We found that 75% of the variance in nursing career development could be explained by emotional labour and professional empowerment. The expected result, that emotional labour has a direct effect on nursing career development, was not supported by the analyses. Emotional labour has only an indirect effect on nursing career development. Professional empowerment was directly linked to nursing career development. Male nurses who perceived higher professional empowerment had better career development.

  2. Functional Relationship between Obesity and Male Reproduction: from Humans to Animal Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerds, K.J.; Rooij, de D.G.; Keijer, J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increase in the incidence of obesity has a substantial societal health impact. Contrasting reports have been published on whether overweight and obesity affect male fertility. To clarify this, we have reviewed published data on the relation between overweight/obesity, semen

  3. Emasculation Blues: Black Male Teachers' Perspectives on Gender and Power in the Teaching Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockenbrough, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Over the past decade, a growing chorus of educational stakeholders has called for the recruitment of more Black men into the American teaching profession, casting these men as ideal surrogate father figures for Black youth who may lack adult male role models in their families or communities. Although a small body of scholarly…

  4. Materialised Ideals Sizes and Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Laitala

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Today’s clothing industry is based on a system where clothes are made in ready-to-wear sizes and meant to fit most people. Studies have pointed out that consumers are discontent with the use of these systems: size designations are not accurate enough to find clothing that fits, and different sizes are poorly available. This article discusses in depth who these consumers are, and which consumer groups are the most dissatisfied with today’s sizing systems. Results are based on a web survey where 2834 Nordic consumers responded, complemented with eight in-depth interviews, market analysis on clothing sizes and in-store trouser size measurements. Results indicate that higher shares of the consumers who have a body out of touch with the existing beauty ideals express discontentment with the sizing systems and the poor selection available. In particular, large women, very large men, and thin, short men are those who experience less priority in clothing stores and have more difficulties in finding clothes that fit. Consumers tend to blame themselves when the clothes do not fit their bodies, while our study points out that the industry is to blame as they do not produce clothing for all customers.

  5. Ideal proportions in full face front view, contemporary versus antique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommaerts, M Y; Moerenhout, B A M M L

    2011-03-01

    To compare the facial proportions of contemporary harmonious faces with those of antiquity, to validate classical canons and to determine new ones useful in orthofacial surgery planning. Contemporary beautiful faces were retrieved from yearly polls of People Magazine and FHM. Selected B/W frontal facial photographs of 31 men and 74 women were ranked by 20 patients who had to undergo orthofacial surgery. The top-15 female faces and the top-10 male faces were analyzed with Scion Image software. The classical facial index, the Bruges facial index, the ratio lower facial height/total facial height and the vertical tri-partite of the lower face were calculated. The same analysis was done on pictures of classical sculptures representing seven goddesses and 12 gods. Harmonious contemporary female faces have a significantly lower classical facial index, indicating that facial height is less or facial width is larger than in male and even than in antique female faces. The Bruges index indicates a similar difference between ideal contemporary female and male faces. The contemporary male has a higher lower face (48%) compared to total facial height than the contemporary female (45%), although this is statistically not significant (P=0.08). The lower facial thirds index remained quite stabile for 2500 years, without gender difference. A good canon for both sexes today is stomion-gnathion being 70% of subnasale-stomion. The average ideal contemporary female face is shorter than the male face, given the fact that interpupillary distance is similar. The Vitruvian thirds in the lower face have to be adjusted to a 30% upper lip, 70% lower lip-chin proportion. The contemporary ideal ratios are suitable to be implemented in an orthofacial planning concept. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: New Mathematical Models for Strategic Demand Creation Prioritizing Subpopulations by Age and Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Catherine; Warren, Mitchell; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Over 11 million voluntary medical male circumcisions (VMMC) have been performed of the projected 20.3 million needed to reach 80% adult male circumcision prevalence in priority sub-Saharan African countries. Striking numbers of adolescent males, outside the 15-49-year-old age target, have been accessing VMMC services. What are the implications of overall progress in scale-up to date? Can mathematical modeling provide further insights on how to efficiently reach the male circumcision coverage levels needed to create and sustain further reductions in HIV incidence to make AIDS no longer a public health threat by 2030? Considering ease of implementation and cultural acceptability, decision makers may also value the estimates that mathematical models can generate of immediacy of impact, cost-effectiveness, and magnitude of impact resulting from different policy choices. This supplement presents the results of mathematical modeling using the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), the Actuarial Society of South Africa (ASSA2008) model, and the age structured mathematical (ASM) model. These models are helping countries examine the potential effects on program impact and cost-effectiveness of prioritizing specific subpopulations for VMMC services, for example, by client age, HIV-positive status, risk group, and geographical location. The modeling also examines long-term sustainability strategies, such as adolescent and/or early infant male circumcision, to preserve VMMC coverage gains achieved during rapid scale-up. The 2016-2021 UNAIDS strategy target for VMMC is an additional 27 million VMMC in high HIV-prevalence settings by 2020, as part of access to integrated sexual and reproductive health services for men. To achieve further scale-up, a combination of evidence, analysis, and impact estimates can usefully guide strategic planning and funding of VMMC services and related demand-creation strategies in priority countries. Mid-course corrections

  7. Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: New Mathematical Models for Strategic Demand Creation Prioritizing Subpopulations by Age and Geography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hankins

    Full Text Available Over 11 million voluntary medical male circumcisions (VMMC have been performed of the projected 20.3 million needed to reach 80% adult male circumcision prevalence in priority sub-Saharan African countries. Striking numbers of adolescent males, outside the 15-49-year-old age target, have been accessing VMMC services. What are the implications of overall progress in scale-up to date? Can mathematical modeling provide further insights on how to efficiently reach the male circumcision coverage levels needed to create and sustain further reductions in HIV incidence to make AIDS no longer a public health threat by 2030? Considering ease of implementation and cultural acceptability, decision makers may also value the estimates that mathematical models can generate of immediacy of impact, cost-effectiveness, and magnitude of impact resulting from different policy choices. This supplement presents the results of mathematical modeling using the Decision Makers' Program Planning Tool Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0, the Actuarial Society of South Africa (ASSA2008 model, and the age structured mathematical (ASM model. These models are helping countries examine the potential effects on program impact and cost-effectiveness of prioritizing specific subpopulations for VMMC services, for example, by client age, HIV-positive status, risk group, and geographical location. The modeling also examines long-term sustainability strategies, such as adolescent and/or early infant male circumcision, to preserve VMMC coverage gains achieved during rapid scale-up. The 2016-2021 UNAIDS strategy target for VMMC is an additional 27 million VMMC in high HIV-prevalence settings by 2020, as part of access to integrated sexual and reproductive health services for men. To achieve further scale-up, a combination of evidence, analysis, and impact estimates can usefully guide strategic planning and funding of VMMC services and related demand-creation strategies in priority countries. Mid

  8. Students’ Perception on Ideal Age of Marriage and Childbearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanambehai Subranmiam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early-age marriage is still common in Indonesia, especially in the rural areas. There are many negative effects of the marriage; the young brides may get lower education, lower social status, minimum reproduction control, higher maternal mortality, higher domestic violence rate and others. Thus, this study is conducted to identify the students’ perception on the ideal age of marriage and childbearing. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from June to September 2013 in Jatinangor using secondary data from Jatinangor Cohort Survey Team. The data comprised two hundred and twenty students from Jatinangor Senior High School and PGRI Vocational School. A hundred and ten males and a hundred and ten females were chosen by random sampling. Questionnaires were given after the written informed consent was obtained from the students. Results: The results showed 74.55% of the students chose 19¬–24 years old as the ideal age of marriage for a woman and 68.64% students chose 25–30 years old as the ideal age of marriage for a man. Moreover, for childbearing, 25–30 years old was chosen to be the ideal age for both man and woman. The percentage of students agreed to this was 74.55% and 54.09% respectively. Conclusions: Majority of the students agreed on 19–24 years old and 25–30 years old as the ideal age of marriage for woman and man respectively. For childbearing, 25–30 years old was concluded as the ideal age for both genders.

  9. Symmetry transforms for ideal magnetohydrodynamics equilibria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoyavlenskij, Oleg I

    2002-11-01

    A method for constructing ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equilibria is introduced. The method consists of the application of symmetry transforms to any known MHD equilibrium [ O. I. Bogoyavlenskij, Phys. Rev. E. 62, 8616, (2000)]. The transforms break the geometrical symmetries of the field-aligned solutions and produce continuous families of the nonsymmetric MHD equilibria. The method of symmetry transforms also allows to obtain MHD equilibria with current sheets and exact solutions with noncollinear vector fields B and V. A model of the nonsymmetric astrophysical jets outside of their accretion disks is developed. The total magnetic and kinetic energy of the jet is finite in any layer c(1)ball lightning with dynamics of plasma inside the fireball.

  10. Male Wistar rats show individual differences in an animal model of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolles, Jolle W; de Visser, Leonie; van den Bos, Ruud

    2011-09-01

    Conformity refers to the act of changing one's behaviour to match that of others. Recent studies in humans have shown that individual differences exist in conformity and that these differences are related to differences in neuronal activity. To understand the neuronal mechanisms in more detail, animal tests to assess conformity are needed. Here, we used a test of conformity in rats that has previously been evaluated in female, but not male, rats and assessed the nature of individual differences in conformity. Male Wistar rats were given the opportunity to learn that two diets differed in palatability. They were subsequently exposed to a demonstrator that had consumed the less palatable food. Thereafter, they were exposed to the same diets again. Just like female rats, male rats decreased their preference for the more palatable food after interaction with demonstrator rats that had eaten the less palatable food. Individual differences existed for this shift, which were only weakly related to an interaction between their own initial preference and the amount consumed by the demonstrator rat. The data show that this conformity test in rats is a promising tool to study the neurobiology of conformity.

  11. Disruption of the glutamate-glutamine cycle involving astrocytes in an animal model of depression for males and females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Rappeneau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women are twice as likely as men to develop major depression (MD. The brain mechanisms underlying this sex disparity are not clear. Disruption of the glutamate-glutamine cycle has been implicated in psychiatric disturbances. This study identifies sex-based impairments in the glutamate-glutamine cycle involving astrocytes using an animal model of depression. Methods: Male and female adult Long-Evans rats were exposed to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS for 21 days, using a modified resident-intruder paradigm. Territorial aggression was used for males and maternal aggression was used for females to induce depressive-like deficits for intruders. The depressive-like phenotype was assessed with intake for saccharin solution, weight gain, estrous cycle, and corticosterone (CORT. Behaviors displayed by the intruders during daily encounters with residents were characterized. Rats with daily handling were used as controls for each sex. Ten days after the last encounter, both the intruders and controls were subjected to a no-net-flux in vivo microdialysis to assess glutamate accumulation and extracellular glutamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc. The contralateral hemispheres were used for determining changes in astrocytic markers, including glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1. Results: Both male and female intruders reduced saccharin intake over the course of CSDS, compared to their pre-stress period and to their respective controls. Male intruders exhibited submissive/defensive behaviors to territorial aggression by receiving sideways threats and bites. These males showed reductions in striatal GLT-1 and spontaneous glutamine in the NAc, compared to controls. Female intruders exhibited isolated behaviors to maternal aggression, including immobility, rearing, and self-grooming. Their non-reproductive days were extended. Also, they showed reductions in prefrontal and accumbal GFAP+ cells and prefrontal GLT

  12. An ideal sealed source life-cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tompkins, Joseph Andrew

    2009-01-01

    we have today. This regulation created a new regulatory framework seen as promising at the time. However, now they recognize that, despite the good intentions, the NIJWP/85 has not solved any source disposition problems. The answer to these sealed source disposition problems is to adopt a philosophy to correct these regulatory issues, determine an interim solution, execute that solution until there is a minimal backlog of sources to deal with, and then let the mechanisms they have created solve this problem into the foreseeable future. The primary philosophical tenet of the ideal sealed source life cycle follows. You do not allow the creation (or importation) of any source whose use cannot be justified, which cannot be affordably shipped, or that does not have a well-delinated and affordable disposition pathway. The path forward dictates that we fix the problem by embracing the Ideal Source Life cycle. In figure 1, we can see some of the elements of the ideal source life cycle. The life cycle is broken down into four portions, manufacture, use, consolidation, and disposition. These four arbitrary elements allow them to focus on the ideal life cycle phases that every source should go through between manufacture and final disposition. As we examine the various phases of the sealed source life cycle, they pick specific examples and explore the adoption of the ideal life cycle model.

  13. ESTABLISHMENT OF DETAILED EYE MODEL OF ADULT CHINESE MALE AND DOSE CONVERSION COEFFICIENTS CALCULATION UNDER NEUTRON EXPOSURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongyu; Qiu, Rui; Wu, Zhen; Ren, Li; Li, Chunyan; Zhang, Hui; Li, Junli

    2017-12-01

    The human eye lens is sensitive to radiation. ICRP-118 publication recommended a reduction of the occupational annual equivalent dose limit from 150 to 20 mSv, averaged over defined periods of 5 y. Therefore, it is very important to build a detailed eye model for the accurate dose assessment and radiation risk evaluation of eye lens. In this work, a detailed eye model was build based on the characteristic anatomic parameters of the Chinese adult male. This eye model includes seven main structures, which are scleral, choroid, lens, iris, cornea, vitreous body and aqueous humor. The lens was divided into sensitive volume and insensitive volume based on different cell populations. The detailed eye model was incorporated into the converted polygon-mesh version of the Chinese reference adult male whole-body surface model. After the incorporation, dose conversion coefficients for the eye lens were calculated for neutron exposure at AP, PA and LAT geometries with Geant4, the neutron energies were from 0.001 eV to 10 MeV. The calculated lens dose coefficients were compared with those of ICRP-116 publication. Significant differences up to 97.47% were found at PA geometry. This could mainly be attributed to the different geometry characteristic of eye model and parameters of head in different phantom between the present work and ICRP-116 publication. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Establishment of detailed eye model of adult chinese male and dose conversion coefficients calculation under neutron exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Hongyu; Qiu, Rui; Ren, Li; Zhang, Hui; Li, Junli; Wu, Zhen; Li, Chunyan

    2017-01-01

    The human eye lens is sensitive to radiation. ICRP-118 publication recommended a reduction of the occupational annual equivalent dose limit from 150 to 20 mSv, averaged over defined periods of 5 y. Therefore, it is very important to build a detailed eye model for the accurate dose assessment and radiation risk evaluation of eye lens. In this work, a detailed eye model was build based on the characteristic anatomic parameters of the Chinese adult male. This eye model includes seven main structures, which are scleral, choroid, lens, iris, cornea, vitreous body and aqueous humor. The lens was divided into sensitive volume and insensitive volume based on different cell populations. The detailed eye model was incorporated into the converted polygon-mesh version of the Chinese reference adult male whole-body surface model. After the incorporation, dose conversion coefficients for the eye lens were calculated for neutron exposure at AP, PA and LAT geometries with Geant4, the neutron energies were from 0.001 eV to 10 MeV. The calculated lens dose coefficients were compared with those of ICRP-116 publication. Significant differences up to 97.47% were found at PA geometry. This could mainly be attributed to the different geometry characteristic of eye model and parameters of head in different phantom between the present work and ICRP-116 publication. (authors)

  15. Improved Classification of Mammograms Following Idealized Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsby, Adam N.; Love, Bradley C.

    2014-01-01

    People often make decisions by stochastically retrieving a small set of relevant memories. This limited retrieval implies that human performance can be improved by training on idealized category distributions (Giguère & Love, 2013). Here, we evaluate whether the benefits of idealized training extend to categorization of real-world stimuli, namely classifying mammograms as normal or tumorous. Participants in the idealized condition were trained exclusively on items that, according to a norming study, were relatively unambiguous. Participants in the actual condition were trained on a representative range of items. Despite being exclusively trained on easy items, idealized-condition participants were more accurate than those in the actual condition when tested on a range of item types. However, idealized participants experienced difficulties when test items were very dissimilar from training cases. The benefits of idealization, attributable to reducing noise arising from cognitive limitations in memory retrieval, suggest ways to improve real-world decision making. PMID:24955325

  16. Changing Masculinity Ideals in a Danish Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte; Christensen, Ann-Dorte

    The purpose of this paper is to localize and discuss different masculinity ideals in a Danish context, and how these are overlapping and competing. The paper is based primarily on results from five focus group interviews with higher and lower educated men, respectively (n=50). This qualitative...... of the paper is an empirical analysis of different masculinity ideals in contemporary Danish society (the emotional man, the ideal masculine worker, and the involved father). The analysis indicates that dominant masculinity ideals in Denmark are relatively oriented towards families and towards gender equality...

  17. Male Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiess, Wieland; Wagner, Isabel V; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Körner, Antje

    2015-12-01

    Many cross-sectional analyses and longitudinal studies have examined the association between adiposity and pubertal development. In addition, the impact of an increased fat mass on reproduction and fertility in human obese men and in male animal models of obesity has been studied. A trend toward earlier pubertal development and maturation in both sexes has been shown, and the notion that obese boys might progress to puberty at a slower pace than their nonobese peers can no longer be substantiated. Impaired fertility markers and reduced reproductive functions have been observed in obesity. Obesity affects both pubertal development and fertility in men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Potential for control of Cadra cautella (Walker) by release of fully or partially sterile males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brower, J.H.; Tilton, E.W.

    1975-01-01

    Modifications of the sterile-male release technique appear to offer promise for the control of post-harvest lepidopteran pest populations within storage structures. Theoretical models of release strategies for Cadra cautella showed that each method has an 'ideal' flooding ratio. This ratio represents the best balance between extinction in a few generations and minimization of the total number of insects released. From data reported concerning the population dynamics of Cadra cautella in the field an ideal flooding ratio for fully sterile (S) males to fertile (F) males of 97:1 would achieve extinction in 3 generations. Total numbers of males released per 100 native insects that would be needed to achieve extinction at these flooding ratios would be 14,850, 14,900 and 18,500, respectively. (author)

  19. Influence of non-ideality on aerosol growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compernolle, S.; Ceulemans, K.; Müller, J.-F.

    2008-09-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is a complex mixture of water and organic molecules. Its composition is determined by the presence of semi-volatile or non-volatile compounds, their vapor pressure and activity coefficient. The activity coefficient is a non-ideality effect and is a complex function of SOA composition. In a previous publication, the detailed chemical mechanism (DCM) for α-pinene oxidation and subsequent aerosol formation BOREAM was presented. In this work, we investigate with this DCM the impact of non-ideality by simulating smog chamber experiments for α-pinene degradation and aerosol formation. Several versions of the UNIFAC method are tested for this purpose, and missing parameters for e.g. hydroperoxides and nitrates are inferred from fittings to activity coefficient data generated using the SPARC model. It turns out that for most experiments, non-ideality has only a limited impact on the interaction between the organic molecules, and therefore on SOA yields and composition, when water uptake is ignored. Still, for ozonolysis experiments with low amounts of volatile organic carbon (low-VOC), the UNIFAC parameterization of Raatikainen et al. leads to significantly higher SOA yields (by up to a factor 1.6) compared to the ideal case and to other parameterizations. Water uptake is model dependent, in the order: ideal>UNIFAC-Raatikainen>UNIFAC-Peng>UNIFAC-Hansen≍UNIFAC-Magnussen≍UNIFAC-Ming. In the absence of salt dissolution, phase splitting from pure SOA is unlikely.

  20. Establishing Reproductive Health Education and Counseling in Military Services: The Turkish Model for Male Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Brigitte Albrectsen

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Ministry of Health, Mother and Child Health and Family Planning General Directorate; Turkey Field Office of UNFPA, and Gulhane Military Medical Academy (GMMA of Turkish Armed Forces have been conducting a program to increase male concern and participation in sexual and reproductive health in a positive and supporting way. Specialist physicians and nurses from military hospitals were trained by Ministry of Health as trainers (October 2002- September 2003 by one-week courses on interactive training skills. Primary physicians, nurses and medical petty officers were trained as field trainers and counselors (March 2003-April 2004. Training rooms with standardized training material were established in all of the military garrisons. Soldiers were given the one-day participatory course. Trained medical staff also provided individual counseling and services. All training rooms were coded and connected to Reproductive Health Network established within the Intranet of Army. Reproductive Health activities were included in the regular supervision scheme of the army. Since April 2004 740.000 soldiers were given the one-day course. A total of 4000 military medical staff was educated as Trainers. A total of 580 training rooms were established. Twenty of Military Hospitals became a center of reproductive health training and service delivery. Since large-scale intervention is necessary to reach male population, the army seems to be the best possible venue in Turkey. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 97-106

  1. Identifying personality subtypes based on the five-factor model dimensions in male prisoners: implications for psychopathy and criminal offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Laurence; Tavernier, Geert; Roose, Annelore; Bijttebier, Patricia; Smith, Sarah Francis; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2014-01-01

    The current study was designed to identify personality subtypes on the basis of the five-factor model dimensions in male prisoners. Participants included 110 Flemish male prisoners assessed by means of the Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness Five Factor Inventory and different symptom, personality, and coping measures. We found two clusters: an emotionally stable/resilient cluster and an aggressive/undercontrolled cluster. Prisoners within the aggressive/undercontrolled cluster scored significantly higher on almost all Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 basic scales, (in)direct aggression measures, and depressive coping scales compared with resilients. They also scored higher on drug abuse and committed more sexual offenses than resilient prisoners. These two personality subtypes bear theoretically and practically important implications for psychopathy subtypes and different pathways to criminal offenses.

  2. Heterosexual Male Carriers Could Explain Persistence of Homosexuality in Men: Individual-Based Simulations of an X-Linked Inheritance Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaladze, Giorgi

    2016-10-01

    Homosexuality has been documented throughout history and is found in almost all human cultures. Twin studies suggest that homosexuality is to some extent heritable. However, from an evolutionary perspective, this poses a problem: Male homosexuals tend to have on average five times fewer children than heterosexual males, so how can a phenomenon associated with low reproductive success be maintained at relatively stable frequencies? Recent findings of increased maternal fecundity of male homosexuals suggest that the genes responsible for homosexuality in males increase fecundity in the females who carry them. Can an increase in maternal fecundity compensate for the fecundity reduction in homosexual men and produce a stable polymorphism? In the current study, this problem was addressed with an individual-based modeling (IBM) approach. IBM suggests that male homosexuality can be maintained in a population at low and stable frequencies if roughly more than half of the females and half of the males are carriers of genes that predispose the male to homosexuality.

  3. Evalution of the castrated male Sprague-Dawley rat as a model of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, B; Raun, K; Svendsen, O; Fledelius, C; Golozoubova, V

    2006-08-01

    Low testosterone levels have been shown to be predictive for the development of the metabolic syndrome in men. The aim of this study was to describe effects of testosterone deficiency on metabolic syndrome-related parameters in male rats in order to evaluate the rat as a model for the human metabolic syndrome related to low testosterone levels. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were castrated or sham operated at 16 weeks of age and fed either a standard or a high energy diet. Measured parameters were: food intake, body weight, fat distribution, energy expenditure, physical activity and blood/plasma parameters related to glucose and lipid metabolism. Castration led to an increase in the amount of subcutaneous fat, but did not result in any changes in the visceral fat. Fasting blood glucose levels were increased and free fatty acids concentration decreased in the castrated rats from 2 weeks after castration and throughout the study, whereas no significant differences between the groups were found in any of the other parameters measured. A high-energy diet did not change the response to castration in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Compared to humans rats respond differently to testosterone deficiency. Only few of the features typical for the human metabolic syndrome were observed in castrated male Sprague-Dawley rats. Therefore, we conclude that with the present experimental setup the castrated rat is not an optimal model for studies on the influence of testosterone deficiency on body fat distribution and the development of other central components of the metabolic syndrome.

  4. In-situ electric field and current density in Japanese male and female models for uniform magnetic field exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, A.; Wake, K.; Watanabe, S.; Taki, M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study quantified the in situ electric field and induced current density in anatomically based numeric Japanese male and female models for exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields. A quasi-static FDTD method was applied to analyse this problem. The computational results obtained herein reveal that the 99. percentile value of the in situ electric field in the nerve tissue and the current density averaged over an area of 1 cm 2 of the nerve tissue (excluding non-nerve tissues in the averaging region) in the female models were less than 35 and 25%, respectively. These induced quantities in the Japanese models were smaller than those for European models reported in a previous study, which is mainly due to the difference in cross-sectional area of the body. (authors)

  5. Evaluating human enhancements: the importance of ideals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roduit, Johann A R; Baumann, Holger; Heilinger, Jan-Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Is it necessary to have an ideal of perfection in mind to identify and evaluate true biotechnological human "enhancements", or can one do without? To answer this question we suggest employing the distinction between ideal and non-ideal theory, found in the debate in political philosophy about theories of justice: the distinctive views about whether one needs an idea of a perfectly just society or not when it comes to assessing the current situation and recommending steps to increase justice. In this paper we argue that evaluating human enhancements from a non-ideal perspective has some serious shortcomings, which can be avoided when endorsing an ideal approach. Our argument starts from a definition of human enhancement as improvement, which can be understood in two ways. The first approach is backward-looking and assesses improvements with regard to a status quo ante. The second, a forward-looking approach, evaluates improvements with regard to their proximity to a goal or according to an ideal. After outlining the limitations of an exclusively backward-looking view (non-ideal theory), we answer possible objections against a forward-looking view (ideal theory). Ultimately, we argue that the human enhancement debate would lack some important moral insights if a forward-looking view of improvement is not taken into consideration.

  6. Maintaining ideal body weight counseling sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brammer, S.H.

    1980-10-09

    The purpose of this program is to provide employees with the motivation, knowledge and skills necessary to maintain ideal body weight throughout life. The target audience for this program, which is conducted in an industrial setting, is the employee 40 years of age or younger who is at or near his/her ideal body weight.

  7. Toric ideals and diagonal 2-minors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Katsampekis (Anargyros)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractLet $G$ be a simple graph on the vertex set ${1,\\ldots,n}$. An algebraic object attached to $G$ is the ideal $P_G$ generated by diagonal 2-minors of an $n \\times n$ matrix of variables. In this paper we first provide some general results concerning the ideal $P_G$. It is also proved that

  8. Modeling Costs and Impacts of Introducing Early Infant Male Circumcision for Long-Term Sustainability of the Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Stegman, Peter; Kripke, Katharine; Mugurungi, Owen; Ncube, Gertrude; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Hatzold, Karin; Christensen, Alice; Stover, John

    2016-01-01

    Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) has been shown to be an effective prevention strategy against HIV infection in males [1-3]. Since 2007, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has supported VMMC programs in 14 priority countries in Africa. Today several of these countries are preparing to transition their VMMC programs from a scale-up and expansion phase to a maintenance phase. As they do so, they must consider the best approaches to sustain high levels of male circumcision in the population. The two alternatives under consideration are circumcising adolescents 10-14 years old over the long term or integrating early infant male circumcision (EIMC) into maternal and child health programs. The paper presents an analysis, using the Decision Makers Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0), of the estimated cost and impact of introducing EIMC into existing VMMC programs in several countries in eastern and southern Africa. Limited cost data exist for the implementation of EIMC, but preliminary studies, such as the one detailed in Mangenah, et al. [4-5], suggest that the cost of EIMC may be less than that of adolescent and adult male circumcision. If this is the case, then adding EIMC to the VMMC program will increase the number of circumcisions that need to be performed but will not increase the total cost of the program over the long term. In addition, we found that a delayed or slow start-up of EIMC would not substantially reduce the impact of adding it to the program or increase cumulative long-term costs, which should make introduction of EIMC more feasible and attractive to countries contemplating such a program innovation.

  9. Softened food reduces weight loss in the streptozotocin-induced male mouse model of diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Sisse A; Sand, Fredrik W; Sørensen, Dorte B

    2018-01-01

    these issues, we hypothesized that supplementing STZ-induced diabetic mice with water-softened chow in addition to normal chow would reduce weight loss, lower the need for supportive treatment, and reduce the number of mice reaching the humane endpoint of 20% weight loss. In a 15 week STZ-induced DN study we...... without this supplement reached this humane endpoint ( p = 0.0027). Excretion of corticosterone metabolites in faeces was reduced in diabetic mice on softened chow ( p = 0.0007), suggesting lower levels of general stress. Finally, it was demonstrated that the water-softened chow supplement did...... demonstrated that diabetic male mice receiving softened chow had reduced acute weight loss following STZ treatment ( p = 0.045) and additionally fewer mice were euthanized due to weight loss. By supplementing the diabetic mice with softened chow, no mice reached 20% weight loss whereas 37.5% of the mice...

  10. Longitudinal Study in Male Swimmers: A Hierachical Modeling of Energetics and Biomechanical Contributions for Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário J. Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the pooled and individual response of male swimmers over two consecutive years of training and identify the energetic and biomechanical factors that most contributed for the final performance. Nine competitive swimmers (20.0 ± 3.54 years old; 10.1 ± 3.41 years of training experience; 1.79 ± 0.07 m of height; 71.34 ± 8.78 kg of body mass; 22.35 ± 2.02 kg·m-2 of body mass index; 1.86 ± 0.07 m of arm span; 116.22 ± 4.99 s of personal record in the 200 m long course freestyle event performed an incremental test in six occasions to obtain the velocity at 4 mmol of blood lactate (V4 and the peak blood lactate concentrations (Lapeak as energetics, and the stroke frequency (SF, stroke length (SL, stroke index and swim efficiency as biomechanical variables. Performance was determined based on official time’s lists of 200 m freestyle event. Slight non-significant improvements in performance were determined throughout the two season period. All energetic and biomechanical factors also presented slight non-significant variations with training. Swimmers demonstrat-ed high inter-individual differences in the annual adaptations. The best performance predictors were the V4, SF and SL. Each unit of change V4, SF and SL represented an enhancement of 0.11 s, 1.21 s and 0.36 s in performance, respectively. The results show that: (i competitive male swimmers need at least two consecutive seasons to have slight improvements in performance, energetics and biomechanical profiles; (ii major improvements in competition performance can be accomplished by improving the V4, SF and SL based on the individual background.

  11. Non-ideal dust acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konefka, F; Contreras, J P; Puerta, J; Castro, E; MartIn, P

    2008-01-01

    The dispersion relation for dust acoustic waves (DA waves) functionally depends on the state equation for the charged dust grains. The ideal gas equation is usually used for studying the effect of temperature on this dispersion relation. However, since the space occupied by the grains can be important in high-density plasmas, the non-ideal effects can be important in this case. This paper analyses the dispersion relation for DA waves, when more precise state equations are used as those described for Pade approximants. The correction to the usual wave equation has been determined and the break point in density, where the ideal gas-state equation has been found. The non-ideal effects are more important for short wavelength ones, and the limits where those effects become important are also studied. Since there are several experimental results for these kinds of waves, the importance of the non-ideal effects in these cases is analysed in detail.

  12. Weinhold'length in an isentropic Ideal and quasi-Ideal Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Santoro, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we study thermodynamic length of an isentropic Ideal and quasi-Ideal Gas using Weinhold metric in a two-dimensional state space. We give explicit relation between length at constant entropy and work.

  13. Redefining RA: The Ideal Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Neal

    2009-01-01

    Libraries are not so unlike market giants Netflix, Amazon, and Pandora. Despite their significantly different business models and missions, they share an interest in facilitating the search for information, including what to read, view, and listen to next. Librarians, too, want their patrons to be able to use their tools to make connections among…

  14. Graham's law of diffusion: Quantum analogy and non-ideality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We focus attention on two equivalent forms of Graham's law of diffusion that is valid for an ideal gas mixture. This equivalence is shown to be lost by the empirical equations of state in presence of an attractive nonideality. The modified forms are noted. We then construct a simple quantum mechanical model to simulate these ...

  15. Shock wave structure in an ideal dissociating gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K. H.

    1975-01-01

    Composition changes within the shock layer due to chemical reactions are considered. The Lighthill ideal dissociating gas model was used in an effort to describe the oxygen type molecule. First, the two limiting cases, when the chemical reaction rates are very slow and very fast in comparison to local convective rates, are investigated. Then, the problem is solved for arbitrary chemical reaction rates.

  16. Graham's law of diffusion: Quantum analogy and non-ideality

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. We focus attention on two equivalent forms of Graham's law of diffusion that is valid for an ideal gas mixture. This equivalence is shown to be lost by the empirical equations of state in presence of an attractive nonideality. The modified forms are noted. We then construct a simple quantum mechanical model to ...

  17. Vibrations of stretched damped beams under non-ideal boundary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stretched beam vibrations; non-ideal boundary conditions; method of multiple time scales. 1. Introduction. Beams are frequently used as design models for vibration analysis. In such analysis, types of support conditions are important and have direct effect on the solutions and natural fre- quencies. Different types of supports ...

  18. Anharmonic Vibrations of an "Ideal" Hooke's Law Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomchick, John; McKelvey, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a model describing the vibrations of a mass connected to fixed supports by "ideal" Hooke's law springs which may serve as a starting point in the study of the properties of irons in a crystal undergoing soft mode activated transition. (SL)

  19. Electronic Markets Ontology: ideal architecture for global capital market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Khalil

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available When approaching electronic capital market design and microstructure with the focus of analysing and improving existing markets with end-state analysis, it is necessary to name an ideal objective. This serves the purposes of technology evaluation and the development of a standard framework for structural measurement in modeling and language paradigm design. An ideal capital market architecture is presented in this paper that is feasible with current technology based on the end-to-end functionality of existing capital markets including internal requirements of participants. Various architectural and ethical issues are introduced and discussed sketching a framework for further work in quantifying electronic markets.

  20. Similar response in male and female B10.RIII mice in a murine model of allergic airway inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matheu, Victor; Barrios, Ysamar; Arnau, Maria-Rosa

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several reports have been published on the gender differences associated with allergies in mice. GOAL: In the present study we investigate the influence of gender on allergy response using a strain of mice, B10.RIII, which is commonly used in the collagen-induced arthritis murine model....... METHODS: Both male and female B10.RIII young mice were immunized with OVA and challenged four times with OVA intranasally. Samples were taken 24 h after the last challenge, and eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and parenchyma, Th-2 cytokines in BAL, total and antigen-specific IgE in sera...

  1. Longitudinal study in male swimmers: a hierachical modeling of energetics and biomechanical contributions for performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Mário J; Bragada, José A; Marinho, Daniel A; Lopes, Vitor P; Silva, António J; Barbosa, Tiago M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the pooled and individual response of male swimmers over two consecutive years of training and identify the energetic and biomechanical factors that most contributed for the final performance. Nine competitive swimmers (20.0 ± 3.54 years old; 10.1 ± 3.41 years of training experience; 1.79 ± 0.07 m of height; 71.34 ± 8.78 kg of body mass; 22.35 ± 2.02 kg·m(-2) of body mass index; 1.86 ± 0.07 m of arm span; 116.22 ± 4.99 s of personal record in the 200 m long course freestyle event) performed an incremental test in six occasions to obtain the velocity at 4 mmol of blood lactate (V4) and the peak blood lactate concentrations (Lapeak) as energetics, and the stroke frequency (SF), stroke length (SL), stroke index and swim efficiency as biomechanical variables. Performance was determined based on official time's lists of 200 m freestyle event. Slight non-significant improvements in performance were determined throughout the two season period. All energetic and biomechanical factors also presented slight non-significant variations with training. Swimmers demonstrat-ed high inter-individual differences in the annual adaptations. The best performance predictors were the V4, SF and SL. Each unit of change V4, SF and SL represented an enhancement of 0.11 s, 1.21 s and 0.36 s in performance, respectively. The results show that: (i) competitive male swimmers need at least two consecutive seasons to have slight improvements in performance, energetics and biomechanical profiles; (ii) major improvements in competition performance can be accomplished by improving the V4, SF and SL based on the individual background. Key PointsElite swimmers are able to demonstrate slight changes in performance, energetic and biomechanical characteristics at least during two seasons of training;Additional improvements in competition performance can be accomplished by manipulating the V4, SF and SL based on the individual background.Each unit of change V4

  2. Neuropsychiatric Symptom Modeling in Male and Female C57BL/6J Mice after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Laura B.; Burke, John F.; Fu, Amanda H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Psychiatric symptoms such as anxiety and depression are frequent and persistent complaints following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Modeling these symptoms in animal models of TBI affords the opportunity to determine mechanisms underlying behavioral pathologies and to test potential therapeutic agents. However, testing these symptoms in animal models of TBI has yielded inconsistent results. The goal of the current study was to employ a battery of tests to measure multiple anxiety- and depressive-like symptoms following TBI in C57BL/6J mice, and to determine if male and female mice are differentially affected by the injury. Following controlled cortical impact (CCI) at a parietal location, neither male nor female mice showed depressive-like symptoms as measured by the Porsolt forced-swim test and sucrose preference test. Conclusions regarding anxiety-like behaviors were dependent upon the assay employed; CCI-induced thigmotaxis in the open field suggested an anxiogenic effect of the injury; however, results from the elevated zero maze, light-dark box, and marble-burying tests indicated that CCI reduced anxiety-like behaviors. Fewer anxiety-like behaviors were also associated with the female sex. Increased levels of activity were also measured in female mice and injured mice in these tests, and conclusions regarding anxiety should be taken with caution when experimental manipulations induce changes in baseline activity. These results underscore the irreconcilability of results from studies attempting to model TBI-induced neuropsychiatric symptoms. Changes in injury models or better attempts to replicate the clinical syndrome may improve the translational applicability of rodent models of TBI-induced anxiety and depression. PMID:27149139

  3. Second Order Ideal-Ward Continuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipan Hazarika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to introduce a concept of second order ideal-ward continuity in the sense that a function f is second order ideal-ward continuous if I-limn→∞Δ2f(xn=0 whenever I-limn→∞Δ2xn=0 and a concept of second order ideal-ward compactness in the sense that a subset E of R is second order ideal-ward compact if any sequence x=(xn of points in E has a subsequence z=(zk=(xnk of the sequence x such that I-limk→∞Δ2zk=0 where Δ2zk=zk+2-2zk+1+zk. We investigate the impact of changing the definition of convergence of sequences on the structure of ideal-ward continuity in the sense of second order ideal-ward continuity and compactness of sets in the sense of second order ideal-ward compactness and prove related theorems.

  4. Role models and occupational ambitions of in-school male adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail Ahmad Azmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A role model is perceived as worthy of imitation, their selection can indicate significant elements of psychosocial health and self-projection in adolescents. Patterns of behavior and lifestyle choices established during adolescence can have immediate and lasting effects on health. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was undertaken in the schools of Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India. The sample frame was 2347, out of which a sample of 390 students was studied. Data collected were entered and analyzed by SPSS for Windows version 10%. Results: Majority (62.7% of adolescents revealed that their role models were Film Star (34.8% and their Teachers (27.9%, Parents (14.3%, Sportsman (12.0%. Politicians as the role models were opted by least proportion (1.2%. Desire of future occupation was Businessmen (27.9%, Doctor (18.6, and Engineer (14.4%. Conclusion: Nearly all adolescents had a role model. There is greater impact of cinema on the minds of adolescents, which resulted in choosing film actors as their role model. Aspiration of future occupation was not related to the characteristics of the role model.

  5. Body Image Disorder in Adolescent Males: Strategies for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Eric J.; Frame, Marsha Wiggins

    2004-01-01

    In recent decades, men have been bombarded with images in society that depict the "ideal" male: strong, muscular, lean, with perfect features. What many adolescents do not realize is that most of the male bodies that they idealize can be acquired only with the use of anabolic steroids. Thus, many adolescent boys find themselves pursuing a body…

  6. An image-based skeletal dosimetry model for the ICRP reference adult male-internal electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hough, Matthew; Johnson, Perry; Bolch, Wesley; Rajon, Didier; Jokisch, Derek; Lee, Choonsik

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a comprehensive electron dosimetry model of the adult male skeletal tissues is presented. The model is constructed using the University of Florida adult male hybrid phantom of Lee et al (2010 Phys. Med. Biol. 55 339-63) and the EGSnrc-based Paired Image Radiation Transport code of Shah et al (2005 J. Nucl. Med. 46 344-53). Target tissues include the active bone marrow, associated with radiogenic leukemia, and total shallow marrow, associated with radiogenic bone cancer. Monoenergetic electron emissions are considered over the energy range 1 keV to 10 MeV for the following sources: bone marrow (active and inactive), trabecular bone (surfaces and volumes), and cortical bone (surfaces and volumes). Specific absorbed fractions are computed according to the MIRD schema, and are given as skeletal-averaged values in the paper with site-specific values reported in both tabular and graphical format in an electronic annex available from http://stacks.iop.org/0031-9155/56/2309/mmedia. The distribution of cortical bone and spongiosa at the macroscopic dimensions of the phantom, as well as the distribution of trabecular bone and marrow tissues at the microscopic dimensions of the phantom, is imposed through detailed analyses of whole-body ex vivo CT images (1 mm resolution) and spongiosa-specific ex vivo microCT images (30 μm resolution), respectively, taken from a 40 year male cadaver. The method utilized in this work includes: (1) explicit accounting for changes in marrow self-dose with variations in marrow cellularity, (2) explicit accounting for electron escape from spongiosa, (3) explicit consideration of spongiosa cross-fire from cortical bone, and (4) explicit consideration of the ICRP's change in the surrogate tissue region defining the location of the osteoprogenitor cells (from a 10 μm endosteal layer covering the trabecular and cortical surfaces to a 50 μm shallow marrow layer covering trabecular and medullary cavity surfaces). Skeletal

  7. Developmental Idealism: The Cultural Foundations of World Development Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Arland; Dorius, Shawn F; Swindle, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends theory and research concerning cultural models of development beyond family and demographic matters to a broad range of additional factors, including government, education, human rights, daily social conventions, and religion. Developmental idealism is a cultural model-a set of beliefs and values-that identifies the appropriate goals of development and the ends for achieving these goals. It includes beliefs about positive cause and effect relationships among such factors as economic growth, educational achievement, health, and political governance, as well as strong values regarding many attributes, including economic growth, education, small families, gender equality, and democratic governance. This cultural model has spread from its origins among the elites of northwest Europe to elites and ordinary people throughout the world. Developmental idealism has become so entrenched in local, national, and global social institutions that it has now achieved a taken-for-granted status among many national elites, academics, development practitioners, and ordinary people around the world. We argue that developmental idealism culture has been a fundamental force behind many cultural clashes within and between societies, and continues to be an important cause of much global social change. We suggest that developmental idealism should be included as a causal factor in theories of human behavior and social change.

  8. Surface dependency in thermodynamics of ideal gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisman, Altug

    2004-01-01

    The Casimir-like size effect rises in ideal gases confined in a finite domain due to the wave character of atoms. By considering this effect, thermodynamic properties of an ideal gas confined in spherical and cylindrical geometries are derived and compared with those in rectangular geometry. It is seen that an ideal gas exhibits an unavoidable quantum surface free energy and surface over volume ratio becomes a control variable on thermodynamic state functions in microscale. Thermodynamics turns into non-extensive thermodynamics and geometry difference becomes a driving force since the surface over volume ratio depends on the geometry

  9. Predicting film genres with implicit ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McGregor Olney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new approach to defining film genre based on implicit ideals. When viewers rate the likability of a film, they indirectly express their ideal of what a film should be. Across six studies we investigate the category structure that emerges from likability ratings and the category structure that emerges from the features of film. We further compare these data-driven category structures with human annotated film genres. We conclude that film genres are structured more around ideals than around features of film. This finding lends experimental support to the notion that film genres are set of shifting, fuzzy, and highly contextualized psychological categories.

  10. Predicting film genres with implicit ideals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Andrew McGregor

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach to defining film genre based on implicit ideals. When viewers rate the likability of a film, they indirectly express their ideal of what a film should be. Across six studies we investigate the category structure that emerges from likability ratings and the category structure that emerges from the features of film. We further compare these data-driven category structures with human annotated film genres. We conclude that film genres are structured more around ideals than around features of film. This finding lends experimental support to the notion that film genres are set of shifting, fuzzy, and highly contextualized psychological categories.

  11. Toward the Ideal Signing Avatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Adamo-Villani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses ongoing research on the effects of a signing avatar's modeling/rendering features on the perception of sign language animation. It reports a recent study that aimed to determine whether a character's visual style has an effect on how signing animated characters are perceived by viewers. The stimuli of the study were two polygonal characters presenting two different visual styles: stylized and realistic. Each character signed four sentences. Forty-seven participants with experience in American Sign Language (ASL viewed the animated signing clips in random order via web survey. They (1 identified the signed sentences (if recognizable, (2 rated their legibility, and (3 rated the appeal of the signing avatar. Findings show that while character's visual style does not have an effect on subjects' perceived legibility of the signs and sign recognition, it has an effect on subjects' interest in the character. The stylized signing avatar was perceived as more appealing than the realistic one.

  12. Examining a Dual-Process Model of Desensitization and Hypersensitization to Community Violence in African American Male Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K; Bai, Grace J; Simic, Dusan

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine a dual-process model of reactivity to community violence exposure in African American male adolescents from urban communities. The model focused on desensitization and hypersensitization effects as well as desensitization and hypersensitization as predictors of aggressive behavior. Participants were 133 African American male high school students, mean age = 15.17 years, SD = 0.96. Participants completed measures of exposure to community violence, depressive symptoms, hyperarousal symptoms, aggressive beliefs, and aggressive behaviors at two time points. Community violence exposure predicted changes in aggression, β = .25, p = .004, and physiological arousal, β = .22, p = .010, over time, but not aggressive beliefs. The curvilinear association between community violence exposure and changes in depression over time was not significant, β = .42, p = .083, but there was a significant linear association between the exposure to community violence (ECV) and changes in levels of depression over time, β = .21, p = .014. Results indicated a significant mediation effect for hyperarousal on the association between community violence exposure and aggressive behavior, B = 0.20, 95% CI = [0.04, 0.54]. Results showed support for physiological hypersensitization, with hypersensitization increasing the risk for aggressive behavior. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  13. O ideal em questão The Ideal on focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hoffmann

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Partindo da formulação lacaniana segundo a qual "em todo psicanalisante, há um discípulo de Aristóteles", o artigo pretende abordar o impasse atual no governo de si e dos outros articulando-o à servidão voluntária ao ideal platônico do filósofo-rei. Propondo pensar a questão de como sair dessa servidão, o autor versa sobre as críticas de Aristóteles, Arendt e Leo Strauss a uma política elaborada com base no modelo da família.Based on the Lacanian formulation that "in every psychoanalysand, there is a disciple of Aristotle", the article aims to address the current impasse in the government of self and others linking it to voluntary servitude to the platonic ideal of the philosopher-king. Proposing to consider the question of how to get out of this bondage, the author discusses the criticism of Aristotle, Arendt and Leo Strauss to a policy which is based on the family model.

  14. The direct effect of thin ideal focused adult television on young girls' ideal body figure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Van Strien, Tatjana; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-01-01

    The present study tested the direct effect of watching thin-ideal focused television aimed at (young) adults on body dissatisfaction in preadolescent girls (9-12 years old). A within-subject design was used in which the girls (N=60) were tested three times. They watched three movie clips in random order that were either focused explicitly (thin-ideal program) or indirectly (soap opera) on the thin ideal or were neutral in content. Afterwards, they filled out questionnaires concerning their body dissatisfaction. Only older preadolescent girls (11-12 years old) showed greater body dissatisfaction after watching the thin-ideal focused television clip than after watching the neutral television clip. After watching thin-ideal focused television, they desired a thinner body figure than after watching neutral television. The findings imply that watching (adult) thin-ideal television directly affects the ideal body figure in older preadolescent girls. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Identifying, affirming, and building upon male strengths: the positive psychology/positive masculinity model of psychotherapy with boys and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselica, Mark S; Englar-Carlson, Matt

    2010-09-01

    The bulk of the extant literature on the psychology of boys, men and masculinity has been focused on the important challenges of: a) creating an awareness about the detrimental effects of constricted forms of masculinity on boys and men and their relationships with others; and b) developing remedial approaches to psychotherapy that are designed to help boys and men recover from dysfunctional masculinity. The purpose of this article is to expand this literature by introducing the positive psychology/positive masculinity (PPPM) framework, which emphasizes male strengths as the starting point for psychotherapy with boys and men. The central principles of the PPPM framework are described, and the application of the PPPM model with an adult man in psychotherapy is presented. The implications of the PPPM model for future practice and research pertaining to boys, men, and masculinity are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. A Mediational Model Explaining the Connection Between Religiosity and Anti-Homosexual Attitudes in Italy: The Effects of Male Role Endorsement and Homosexual Stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piumatti, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to better understand the relationship between religiosity and anti-homosexual attitudes in Italy by examining the mediation effects of male role endorsement and homosexual stereotyping. A sample of 5,522 Italian residents (age range = 18-74) was drawn from a cross-sectional national representative survey carried out in 2011. Measures included general religiosity, male role endorsement, homosexual stereotyping, social acceptance of homosexuality, and homosexual rights endorsement. Structural equation modeling was used to test the mediational effects of male role endorsement and homosexual stereotyping on the relationship between general religiosity and attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Results showed that both male role endorsement and homosexual stereotyping partially mediated the relationship. In a model where religiosity and both mediators positively explained anti-homosexual attitudes, male role endorsement was the strongest mediator. Endorsement of gender role beliefs and homosexual stereotyping may thus exacerbate the connection between religiosity and anti-homosexual attitudes among Italians.

  17. Neutrosophic Crisp Points & Neutrosophic Crisp Ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Salama

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to define the so called "neutrosophic crisp points" and "neutrosophic crisp ideals", and obtain their fundamental properties. Possible application to GIS topology rules are touched upon.

  18. Professional ideals and daily practice in journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl-Thingvad, Signe

    2015-01-01

    Professional ideals are crucial in terms of guiding and committing journalists in modern media organizations. But what happens if there are discrepancies between the journalists’ professional ideals and their daily working practice? Research suggests negative consequences, such as withdrawal of c...... it examines the journalists’ reactions to discrepancies in relation to their organizational commitment. The results suggest that discrepancies do have a negative impact on journalists’ commitment. Further implications for research and practice of the findings are discussed.......Professional ideals are crucial in terms of guiding and committing journalists in modern media organizations. But what happens if there are discrepancies between the journalists’ professional ideals and their daily working practice? Research suggests negative consequences, such as withdrawal...

  19. Medical learning curves and the Kantian ideal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Morvan, P; Stock, B

    2005-09-01

    A hitherto unexamined problem for the "Kantian ideal" that one should always treat patients as ends in themselves, and never only as a means to other ends, is explored in this paper. The problem consists of a prima facie conflict between this Kantian ideal and the reality of medical practice. This conflict arises because, at least presently, medical practitioners can only acquire certain skills and abilities by practising on live, human patients, and given the inevitability and ubiquity of learning curves, this learning requires some patients to be treated only as a means to this end. A number of ways of attempting to establish the compatibility of the Kantian Ideal with the reality of medical practice are considered. Each attempt is found to be unsuccessful. Accordingly, until a way is found to reconcile them, we conclude that the Kantian ideal is inconsistent with the reality of medical practice.

  20. Ideal Gas Laws: Experiments for General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Walter J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a series of experiments designed to verify the various relationships implicit in the ideal gas equation and shows that the success of the Graham's law effusion experiments can be explained by elementary hydrodynamics. (GS)

  1. Mellem bureaukrati, klient og professionelle idealer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholm Larsen, Niels; Johnsen, Helle; Larsen, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Between Bureaucracy, Clients and Professional Ideals – a Sociological Approach to Midwifes Experiences Monitoring Fetal Heartbeat Using Different Technologies. This article examines professionals’ perspectives on shifts in status of technologies. The article builds on data from focus group interv...

  2. Extremely strict ideals in Banach spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the space of regular Borel measures, it is easy to see that with respect to the projection μ → μ|(0, 1), M is an extremely strict ideal in C([0, 1]) but as the Lebesgue measure is non-atomic, M. ∗. 1 is not the norm closed ..... (Grenoble) 28 (1978) 35–65. [10] Rao T S S R K, On ideals in Banach spaces, Rocky Mountain J. Math.

  3. Ideals as Anchors for Relationship Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Frye, Margaret; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Research on young-adult sexuality in sub-Saharan Africa typically conceptualizes sex as an individual-level risk behavior. We introduce a new approach that connects the conditions surrounding the initiation of sex with subsequent relationship well-being, examines relationships as sequences of interdependent events, and indexes relationship experiences to individually held ideals. New card-sort data from southern Malawi capture young women’s relationship experiences and their ideals in a seque...

  4. Childlessness Intentions and Ideals in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miettinen, Anneli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Using data from Eurobarometer Surveys 2001–2011 we examine trends and correlates of childlessness intentions and ideals across Europe over the past decade. We distinguish childlessness as a personal preference (personal ideal number of children is zero from intended childlessness (intention to have no children as these reflect somewhat different dimensions of childlessness as a conscious decision. We find that, on average, childlessness as a personal preference is relatively rare in Europe, although in some western European countries a sizeable proportion of young adults express a desire to have no children. Intentional childlessness is slightly more common than ideal childlessness is, since about 11% of currently childless young adults aged 18 to 40 years in Europe intend to have no children. We analyse factors related to childlessness intentions and ideals on the individual and country levels. A weaker individual socioeconomic position influences the intention to remain childless through various channels, such as unemployment or low socioeconomic status. Associations between individual’s social position and ideal childlessness are less clear. Results also indicate that macro-economic conditions do not have a direct impact on intentional childlessness, whereas a higher prevalence of traditional family values in a country is related to a lower likelihood of individuals considering childlessness to be their ideal family form.

  5. Implementing two nurse practitioner models of service at an Australian male prison: A quality assurance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ides; Wright, Eryn; Santomauro, Damian; How, Raquel; Leary, Christopher; Harris, Meredith

    2018-01-01

    To examine the quality and safety of nurse practitioner services of two newly implemented nurse practitioner models of care at a correctional facility. Nurse practitioners could help to meet the physical and mental health needs of Australia's growing prison population; however, the nurse practitioner role has not previously been evaluated in this context. A quality assurance study conducted in an Australian prison where a primary health nurse practitioner and a mental health nurse practitioner were incorporated into an existing primary healthcare service. The study was guided by Donabedian's structure, processes and outcomes framework. Routinely collected information included surveys of staff attitudes to the implementation of the nurse practitioner models (n = 21 staff), consultation records describing clinical processes and time use (n = 289 consultations), and a patient satisfaction survey (n = 29 patients). Data were analysed descriptively and compared to external benchmarks where available. Over the two-month period, the nurse practitioners provided 289 consultations to 208 prisoners. The presenting problems treated indicated that most referrals were appropriate. A significant proportion of consultations involved medication review and management. Both nurse practitioners spent more than half of their time on individual patient-related care. Overall, multidisciplinary team staff agreed that the nurse practitioner services were necessary, safe, met patient need and reduced treatment delays. Findings suggest that the implementation of nurse practitioners into Australian correctional facilities is acceptable and feasible and has the potential to improve prisoners' access to health services. Structural factors (e.g., room availability and limited access to prisoners) may have reduced the efficiency of the nurse practitioners' clinical processes and service implementation. Results suggest that nurse practitioner models can be successfully integrated into a

  6. The effects of simulating a realistic eye model on the eye dose of an adult male undergoing head computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Parisa; Ebrahimi-Khankook, Atiyeh; Vejdani-Noghreiyan, Alireza

    2017-05-01

    In head computed tomography, radiation upon the eye lens (as an organ with high radiosensitivity) may cause lenticular opacity and cataracts. Therefore, quantitative dose assessment due to exposure of the eye lens and surrounding tissue is a matter of concern. For this purpose, an accurate eye model with realistic geometry and shape, in which different eye substructures are considered, is needed. To calculate the absorbed radiation dose of visual organs during head computed tomography scans, in this study, an existing sophisticated eye model was inserted at the related location in the head of the reference adult male phantom recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Then absorbed doses and distributions of energy deposition in different parts of this eye model were calculated and compared with those based on a previous simple eye model. All calculations were done using the Monte Carlo code MCNP4C for tube voltages of 80, 100, 120 and 140 kVp. In spite of the similarity of total dose to the eye lens for both eye models, the dose delivered to the sensitive zone, which plays an important role in the induction of cataracts, was on average 3% higher for the sophisticated model as compared to the simple model. By increasing the tube voltage, differences between the total dose to the eye lens between the two phantoms decrease to 1%. Due to this level of agreement, use of the sophisticated eye model for patient dosimetry is not necessary. However, it still helps for an estimation of doses received by different eye substructures separately.

  7. Automatic multiorgan segmentation in CT images of the male pelvis using region-specific hierarchical appearance cluster models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dengwang; Zang, Pengxiao; Chai, Xiangfei; Cui, Yi; Li, Ruijiang; Xing, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Accurate segmentation of pelvic organs in CT images is of great importance in external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer. The aim of this studying is to develop a novel method for automatic, multiorgan segmentation of the male pelvis. The authors' segmentation method consists of several stages. First, a pretreatment includes parameterization, principal component analysis (PCA), and an established process of region-specific hierarchical appearance cluster (RSHAC) model which was executed on the training dataset. After the preprocessing, online automatic segmentation of new CT images is achieved by combining the RSHAC model with the PCA-based point distribution model. Fifty pelvic CT from eight prostate cancer patients were used as the training dataset. From another 20 prostate cancer patients, 210 CT images were used for independent validation of the segmentation method. In the training dataset, 15 PCA modes were needed to represent 95% of shape variations of pelvic organs. When tested on the validation dataset, the authors' segmentation method had an average Dice similarity coefficient and mean absolute distance of 0.751 and 0.371 cm, 0.783 and 0.303 cm, 0.573 and 0.604 cm for prostate, bladder, and rectum, respectively. The automated segmentation process took on average 5 min on a personal computer equipped with Core 2 Duo CPU of 2.8 GHz and 8 GB RAM. The authors have developed an efficient and reliable method for automatic segmentation of multiple organs in the male pelvis. This method should be useful for treatment planning and adaptive replanning for prostate cancer radiotherapy. With this method, the physicist can improve the work efficiency and stability.

  8. Male Asian international students' perceived racial discrimination, masculine identity, and subjective masculinity stress: a moderated mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y Joel; Tsai, Pei-Chun; Liu, Tao; Zhu, Qingqing; Wei, Meifen

    2014-10-01

    This study examined male Asian international college students' perceptions of racial discrimination, subjective masculinity stress, centrality of masculine identity, and psychological distress by testing a moderated mediation model. Participants were 160 male Asian international college students from 2 large public universities. Participants' perceived racial discrimination was positively related to their subjective masculinity stress only at high (but not low) levels of masculine identity centrality. Additionally, subjective masculinity stress was positively related to psychological distress, although this association was stronger among those who reported high levels of masculine identity centrality. The authors also detected a moderated mediation effect in which subjective masculinity stress mediated the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress only at high (but not low) levels of masculine identity centrality. These findings contribute to the counseling psychology literature by highlighting the connections between race- and gender-related stressors as well as the relevance of masculine identity to an understanding of men's mental health. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Sensible biological models to be exposed to VDT (Video Display Terminal) radiations in human male reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritto, J.; North, M.-O.; Laverdure, A.M.; Surbeck, J.

    1999-01-01

    Temperature and environmental effects, particularly endocrine disrupters and EMF radiations, are actively investigated in human and non-human reproduction experimental models. Sensitivity and specificity of the different cell types of the testes seminiferous tubules in animals and in human are evaluated, showing a specific responsiveness of spermatogonia (SPG) and resting pachytene spermatocytes (SPC). At 32 o C the 24 h short-term cultures of biopsies of normal human testis show an expected low occurrence of apoptotic SPG (1 %) that increases to 3,4 % in peer samples exposed to VDT for the same period, with the appearance of apoptotic SPC (4,6 %). In samples from a thermically-impaired testis of the same subject the apoptotic occurrence of SPG is 2,6 % with 15,4 % for SPC after 24 h cultures. After 24 h exposure to VDT the apoptotic score is 7,6 % for SPG and 18,5 % for SPC in thermically impaired peer samples. With EMF-bioshields the apoptotic score for SPG is 0,8 % in normal 2,2 % for SPG and 13,8 % for SPC in T-impaired peer-samples. NMRS of the cultures fluids show a proportional production of lactate, corresponding to the different degrees of histopathological impairment of the samples. IVOS (Integrated Visual Optic System) analysis of sperm samples from thermically-impaired, not-repaired and repaired testes exposed to VDT shows sensible variations on straightness (STR), linearity (LIN) and lateral head displacement (LHD) parameters. To evaluate the thermic and non-thermic potential bioeffects of VDT on human spermatogenesis the specificity, the sensitivity and the reproducibility of the biological models on one side and the specificity of the methodologies on the other side must be provided. (author)

  10. Examining the DSM-5 alternative personality disorder model operationalization of antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy in a male correctional sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wygant, Dustin B; Sellbom, Martin; Sleep, Chelsea E; Wall, Tina D; Applegate, Kathryn C; Krueger, Robert F; Patrick, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    For decades, it has been known that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) is a nonadequate operationalization of psychopathy (Crego & Widiger, 2015). The DSM-5 alternative model of personality disorders provides an opportunity to rectify some of these long held concerns. The current study compared the Section III alternative model's trait-based conception of ASPD with the categorical model from the main diagnostic codes section of DSM-5 in terms of associations with differing models of psychopathy. We also evaluated the validity of the trait-based conception more broadly in relation to measures of antisocial tendencies as well as psychopathy. Participants were 200 male inmates who were administered a battery of self-report and interview-based researcher rating measures of relevant constructs. Analyses showed that Section III ASPD outperformed Section II ASPD in predicting scores on Hare's (2003) Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; r = .88 vs. .59). Additionally, aggregate scores for Section III ASPD performed well in capturing variance in differing ASPD and psychopathy measures. Finally, we found that the Section III ASPD impairment criteria added incrementally to the Section III ASPD traits in predicting PCL-R psychopathy and SCID-II ASPD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Ideal strength of bcc molybdenum and niobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Weidong; Roundy, D.; Cohen, Marvin L.; Morris, J. W.

    2002-09-01

    The behavior of bcc Mo and Nb under large strain was investigated using the ab initio pseudopotential density-functional method. We calculated the ideal shear strength for the {211} and {011} slip systems and the ideal tensile strength in the direction, which are believed to provide the minimum shear and tensile strengths. As either material is sheared in either of the two systems, it evolves toward a stress-free tetragonal structure that defines a saddle point in the strain-energy surface. The inflection point on the path to this tetragonal ``saddle-point'' structure sets the ideal shear strength. When either material is strained in tension along , it initially follows the tetragonal, ``Bain,'' path toward a stress-free fcc structure. However, before the strained crystal reaches fcc, its symmetry changes from tetragonal to orthorhombic; on continued strain it evolves toward the same tetragonal saddle point that is reached in shear. In Mo, the symmetry break occurs after the point of maximum tensile stress has been passed, so the ideal strength is associated with the fcc extremum as in W. However, a Nb crystal strained in becomes orthorhombic at tensile stress below the ideal strength. The ideal tensile strength of Nb is associated with the tetragonal saddle point and is caused by failure in shear rather than tension. In dimensionless form, the ideal shear and tensile strengths of Mo (τ*=τm/G111=0.12, σ*=σm/E100=0.078) are essentially identical to those previously calculated for W. Nb is anomalous. Its dimensionless shear strength is unusually high, τ*=0.15, even though the saddle-point structure that causes it is similar to that in Mo and W, while its dimensionless tensile strength, σ*=0.079, is almost the same as that of Mo and W, even though the saddle-point structure is quite different.

  12. EDUCATIONAL IDEAL OF UKRAINIAN ETHNOPEDAGOGIES: CARPATHIAN VECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Lysenko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Educational ideal, methods, forms and means of folk-educational influence on its formation, starting from the first years of baby’s life are topical problems for researchers. The main element is an aim. The aim is an ideal image of the expecting result which is regarded as a guide for the educational activity of a certain ethnic community. The content of the notion of educational ideal is the imagery about the most important qualities of a personality, their manners, culture of relationship in the society, behavior. Ukrainian mentality is practicality, rationality, generosity, intellect in general. It is fully reflected in the pedagogical aim. At the same time mental means spiritual. That is something in thoughts and intents of a person. It is important to emphasize that Ukrainian ethos was formed on the basis of several groups, not only having formed a nation, but also having synthesized the temperament, traditions and customs, clothes and everyday life, culture in general. Hutsul, Boyko, Lemko (121 ethnic groups all together differ by the uniqueness of the appearance. At the same time their internal essence, that is educational ideal, world view, ethic morals, are unchangeable. Educational ideal is historically determined. Esthetic strategies, formation of creativity, development of the abilities by the means of folk crafts and trades, upbringing of a host pierce through the educational ideal of nowadays Ukrainians. The people aim to bring up their children as true citizens: good kids mean quiet old age, while with evil children old age becomes a hell. Thus, the educational ideal of the Ukrainians should be considered as a basis for modern educational technologies projection.

  13. Influence of non-ideality on condensation to aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compernolle, S.; Ceulemans, K.; Müller, J.-F.

    2009-02-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is a complex mixture of water and organic molecules. Its composition is determined by the presence of semi-volatile or non-volatile compounds, their saturation vapor pressure and activity coefficient. The activity coefficient is a non-ideality effect and is a complex function of SOA composition. In a previous publication, the detailed chemical mechanism (DCM) for α-pinene oxidation and subsequent aerosol formation BOREAM was presented. In this work, we investigate with this DCM the impact of non-ideality by simulating smog chamber experiments for α-pinene degradation and aerosol formation and taking the activity coefficient into account of all molecules in the aerosol phase. Several versions of the UNIFAC method are tested for this purpose, and missing parameters for e.g. hydroperoxides and nitrates are inferred from fittings to activity coefficient data generated using the SPARC model. Alternative approaches to deal with these missing parameters are also tested, as well as an activity coefficient calculation method based on Hansen solubility parameters (HSP). It turns out that for most experiments, non-ideality has only a limited impact on the interaction between the organic molecules, and therefore on SOA yields and composition, when water uptake is ignored. The reason is that often, the activity coefficient is on average close to 1 and, specifically for high-VOC experiments, partitioning is not very sensitive on the activity coefficient because the equilibrium is shifted strongly towards condensation. Still, for ozonolysis experiments with low amounts of volatile organic carbon (low-VOC), the UNIFAC parameterization of Raatikainen et al. leads to significantly higher SOA yields (by up to a factor 1.6) compared to the ideal case and to other parameterizations. Water uptake is model dependent, in the order: ideal > UNIFAC-Raatikainen > UNIFAC-Peng > UNIFAC-Hansen ≍ UNIFAC-Magnussen ≍ UNIFAC-Ming. In the absence of salt

  14. Influence of non-ideality on condensation to aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Compernolle

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Secondary organic aerosol (SOA is a complex mixture of water and organic molecules. Its composition is determined by the presence of semi-volatile or non-volatile compounds, their saturation vapor pressure and activity coefficient. The activity coefficient is a non-ideality effect and is a complex function of SOA composition. In a previous publication, the detailed chemical mechanism (DCM for α-pinene oxidation and subsequent aerosol formation BOREAM was presented. In this work, we investigate with this DCM the impact of non-ideality by simulating smog chamber experiments for α-pinene degradation and aerosol formation and taking the activity coefficient into account of all molecules in the aerosol phase. Several versions of the UNIFAC method are tested for this purpose, and missing parameters for e.g. hydroperoxides and nitrates are inferred from fittings to activity coefficient data generated using the SPARC model. Alternative approaches to deal with these missing parameters are also tested, as well as an activity coefficient calculation method based on Hansen solubility parameters (HSP. It turns out that for most experiments, non-ideality has only a limited impact on the interaction between the organic molecules, and therefore on SOA yields and composition, when water uptake is ignored. The reason is that often, the activity coefficient is on average close to 1 and, specifically for high-VOC experiments, partitioning is not very sensitive on the activity coefficient because the equilibrium is shifted strongly towards condensation. Still, for ozonolysis experiments with low amounts of volatile organic carbon (low-VOC, the UNIFAC parameterization of Raatikainen et al. leads to significantly higher SOA yields (by up to a factor 1.6 compared to the ideal case and to other parameterizations. Water uptake is model dependent, in the order: ideal > UNIFAC-Raatikainen > UNIFAC-Peng > UNIFAC-Hansen ≈ UNIFAC-Magnussen ≈ UNIFAC-Ming. In the absence

  15. Modelling the public health impact of male circumcision for HIV prevention in high prevalence areas in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J.D. Nagelkerke (Nico); S. Moses (Stephen); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); R.C. Bailey (Robert)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Recent clinical trials in Africa, in combination with several observational epidemiological studies, have provided evidence that male circumcision can reduce HIV female-to-male transmission risk by 60% or more. However, the public health impact of large-scale male

  16. Modeling elite male athletes' peripheral bone mass, assessed using regional dual x-ray absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, A M; Holder, R L; Stewart, A D

    2003-01-01

    There is still considerable debate as to whether bone mineral content (BMC) increases in proportion to the projected bone area, A(p), or an estimate of the skeletal bone volume, (A(p))(3/2), being assessed. The results from this study suggest that the bone mass acquisition of elite athletes' arms and legs increases in proportion to the projected bone area, A(p), having simultaneously controlled/removed the effect of the confounding variables of body mass and body fat. Although this supports the use of the traditional bone mineral density ratio (BMD=BMC/A(p)), it also highlights the dangers of overlooking the effect of known confounding variables. Ignoring the effect of such confounding variables, athletic groups whose activities involve upper body strength (rugby, rock climbing, kayaking, weight lifting) had the highest arm BMD, while runners were observed to have the lowest arm BMD (lower than that of the controls). Similarly, leg BMD was highest in rugby players, whose activities included both running and strength training. However, the rugby players were also observed to have the greatest body mass. When the important determinants of body mass, body fat, as well as projected bone area, A(p), were incorporated as covariates into a proportional allometric ANCOVA model for BMC, different conclusions were obtained. The introduction of these covariates had the effect of reducing the sporting differences on adjusted arm BMC, although the "sport" by "side" interaction still identified racket players as the only group with a greater dominant arm BMC (P benefits of activity on peripheral bone mass as being site-specific but reinforce the dangers of making generalizations about the relative benefits of different exercises ignoring the effects of known confounding variables, such as body size, body composition, and age.

  17. Ultrasonic vocalizations during male-female interaction in the mouse model of Down syndrome Ts65Dn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampieri, Bruna L; Fernandez, Fabian; Pearson, Jennifer N; Stasko, Melissa R; Costa, Alberto C S

    2014-04-10

    Down syndrome (DS) is the leading cause of genetically defined intellectual disability. Although speech and language impairments are salient features of this disorder, the nature of these phenotypes and the degree to which they are exacerbated by concomitant oromotor dysfunction and/or hearing deficit are poorly understood. Mouse models like Ts65Dn, the most extensively used DS animal model, have been critical to understanding the genetic and developmental mechanisms that contribute to intellectual disability. In the present study, we characterized the properties of the ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) emitted by Ts65Dn males during courtship episodes with female partners. USVs emitted by mice in this setting have been proposed to have some basic correlation to human speech. Data were collected and analyzed from 22 Ts65Dn mice and 22 of their euploid littermates. We found that both the minimum and maximum peak frequencies of Ts65Dn calls were lower than those produced by euploid mice, whereas the mean individual duration of "down" and "complex" syllable types was significantly longer. Peak, minimal and maximal, and the fundamental frequencies of short syllables generated by Ts65Dn mice were lower compared to those by euploid mice. Finally, Ts65Dn males made fewer multiple jumps calls during courtship and the mean total duration of their "arc", "u", and "complex" syllables was longer. We discuss the human correlates to these findings, their translational potential, and the limitations of this approach. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of differences between adult Ts65Dn and euploid control mice with respect to USVs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sclerostin Antibody Reverses Bone Loss by Increasing Bone Formation and Decreasing Bone Resorption in a Rat Model of Male Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaodong; Ominsky, Michael S; Villasenor, Kelly S; Niu, Qing-Tian; Asuncion, Frank J; Xia, Xuechun; Grisanti, Mario; Wronski, Thomas J; Simonet, W Scott; Ke, Hua Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) restored bone mass and strength in the ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Increased bone mineral density (BMD) and decreased skeletal fragility fracture risk have been reported in postmenopausal osteoporotic women receiving Scl-Ab. In males, loss of androgen leads to rapid decreases in BMD and an increased risk of fragility fractures. We hypothesized that Scl-Ab could reverse the loss of bone mass and strength caused by androgen ablation in the orchiectomized (ORX) rat model of male osteoporosis. We treated 9-month-old ORX Sprague Dawley rats (3 months after ORX) subcutaneously twice weekly with vehicle or Scl-Ab (5 or 25 mg/kg) for 6 weeks (n = 10 per group). Both doses of Scl-Ab fully reversed the BMD deficit in the lumbar spine and femur and tibia in ORX rats. Microcomputed tomography showed that the bone mass in the fifth lumbar vertebral body, femur diaphysis, and femoral neck were dose-dependently restored by Scl-Ab. The bone strength at these sites increased significantly with Scl-Ab to levels matching those of sham-operated controls and correlated positively with improvements in bone mineral content, demonstrating bone quality maintenance. Dynamic histomorphometry of the tibial diaphysis and second lumbar vertebral body demonstrated that Scl-Ab significantly increased bone formation on periosteal, endocortical, and trabecular surfaces and significantly decreased bone resorption on endocortical and trabecular surfaces. The effects of Scl-Ab on increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption led to restoration of bone mass and strength in androgen-deficient rats. These findings support the ongoing evaluation of Scl-Ab as a potential therapeutic agent for osteoporosis in men. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  19. Effects of body habitus on internal radiation dose calculations using the 5-year-old anthropomorphic male models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tianwu; Kuster, Niels; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-08-01

    Computational phantoms are commonly used in internal radiation dosimetry to assess the amount and distribution pattern of energy deposited in various parts of the human body from different internal radiation sources. Radiation dose assessments are commonly performed on predetermined reference computational phantoms while the argument for individualized patient-specific radiation dosimetry exists. This study aims to evaluate the influence of body habitus on internal dosimetry and to quantify the uncertainties in dose estimation correlated with the use of fixed reference models. The 5-year-old IT’IS male phantom was modified to match target anthropometric parameters, including body weight, body height and sitting height/stature ratio (SSR), determined from reference databases, thus enabling the creation of 125 5-year-old habitus-dependent male phantoms with 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th percentile body morphometries. We evaluated the absorbed fractions and the mean absorbed dose to the target region per unit cumulative activity in the source region (S-values) of F-18 in 46 source regions for the generated 125 anthropomorphic 5-year-old hybrid male phantoms using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended general purpose Monte Carlo transport code and calculated the absorbed dose and effective dose of five 18F-labelled radiotracers for children of various habitus. For most organs, the S-value of F-18 presents stronger statistical correlations with body weight, standing height and sitting height than BMI and SSR. The self-absorbed fraction and self-absorbed S-values of F-18 and the absorbed dose and effective dose of 18F-labelled radiotracers present with the strongest statistical correlations with body weight. For 18F-Amino acids, 18F-Brain receptor substances, 18F-FDG, 18F-L-DOPA and 18F-FBPA, the mean absolute effective dose differences between phantoms of different habitus and fixed reference models are 11.4%, 11.3%, 10.8%, 13.3% and 11.4%, respectively. Total body

  20. Thermodynamic modeling of non-ideal mineral-fluid equilibria in the system Si-Al-Fe-Mg-Ca-Na-K-H-O-Cl at elevated temperatures and pressures: Implications for hydrothermal mass transfer in granitic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolejš, David; Wagner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of thermodynamic modeling of fluid-rock interaction in the system Si-Al-Fe-Mg-Ca-Na-H-O-Cl using the GEM-Selektor Gibbs free energy minimization code. Combination of non-ideal mixing properties in solids with multicomponent aqueous fluids represents a substantial improvement and it provides increased accuracy over existing modeling strategies. Application to the 10-component system allows us to link fluid composition and speciation with whole-rock mineralogy, mass and volume changes. We have simulated granite-fluid interaction over a wide range of conditions (200-600 °C, 100 MPa, 0-5 m Cl and fluid/rock ratios of 10-2-104) in order to explore composition of magmatic fluids of variable salinity, temperature effects on fluid composition and speciation and to simulate several paths of alteration zoning. At low fluid/rock ratios (f/r) the fluid composition is buffered by the silicate-oxide assemblage and remains close to invariant. This behavior extends to a f/r of 0.1 which exceeds the amount of exsolved magmatic fluids controlled by water solubility in silicate melts. With increasing peraluminosity of the parental granite, the Na-, K- and Fe-bearing fluids become more acidic and the oxidation state increases as a consequence of hydrogen and ferrous iron transfer to the fluid. With decreasing temperature, saline fluids become more Ca- and Na-rich, change from weakly acidic to alkaline, and become significantly more oxidizing. Large variations in Ca/Fe and Ca/Mg ratios in the fluid are a potential geothermometer. The mineral assemblage changes from cordierite-biotite granites through two-mica granites to chlorite-, epidote- and zeolite-bearing rocks. We have carried out three rock-titration simulations: (1) reaction with the 2 m NaCl fluid leads to albitization, chloritization and desilication, reproducing essential features observed in episyenites, (2) infiltration of a high-temperature fluid into the granite at 400 °C leads to hydrolytic

  1. A novel antioxidant formulation designed to treat male infertility associated with oxidative stress: promising preclinical evidence from animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharagozloo, P; Gutiérrez-Adán, A; Champroux, A; Noblanc, A; Kocer, A; Calle, A; Pérez-Cerezales, S; Pericuesta, E; Polhemus, A; Moazamian, A; Drevet, J R; Aitken, R J

    2016-02-01

    Does a novel antioxidant formulation designed to restore redox balance within the male reproductive tract, reduce sperm DNA damage and increase pregnancy rates in mouse models of sperm oxidative stress? Oral administration of a novel antioxidant formulation significantly reduced sperm DNA damage in glutathione peroxidase 5 (GPX5), knockout mice and restored pregnancy rates to near-normal levels in mice subjected to scrotal heat stress. Animal and human studies have documented the adverse effect of sperm DNA damage on fertilization rates, embryo quality, miscarriage rates and the transfer of de novo mutations to offspring. Semen samples of infertile men are known to be deficient in several key antioxidants relative to their fertile counterparts. Antioxidants alone or in combination have demonstrated limited efficacy against sperm oxidative stress and DNA damage in numerous human clinical trials, however these studies have not been definitive and an optimum combination has remained elusive. The efficacy of the antioxidant formulation was evaluated in two well-established mouse models of oxidative stress, scrotal heating and Gpx5 knockout (KO) mice, (n = 12 per experimental group), by two independent laboratories. Mice were provided the antioxidant product in their drinking water for 2-8 weeks and compared with control groups for sperm DNA damage and pregnancy rates. In the Gpx5 KO model, oxidative DNA damage was monitored in spermatozoa by immunocytochemical detection of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG). In the scrotal heat stress model, male fertility was tested by partnering with three females for 5 days. The percentage of pregnant females, number of vaginal plugs, resorptions per litter, and litter size were recorded. Using immunocytochemical detection of 8OHdG as a biomarker of DNA oxidation, analysis of control mice revealed that around 30% of the sperm population was positively stained. This level increased to about 60% in transgenic mice deficient in the

  2. Hybrid computational phantoms of the male and female newborn patient: NURBS-based whole-body models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Hasenauer, Deanna; Williams, Jonathan L.; Lee, Choonik; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2007-07-01

    phantom is performed in three steps: polygonization of the voxel phantom, organ modeling via NURBS surfaces and phantom voxelization. Two 3D graphic tools, 3D-DOCTOR™ and Rhinoceros™, were utilized to polygonize the newborn voxel phantom and generate NURBS surfaces, while an in-house MATLAB™ code was used to voxelize the resulting NURBS model into a final computational phantom ready for use in Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations. A total of 126 anatomical organ and tissue models, including 38 skeletal sites and 31 cartilage sites, were described within the hybrid phantom using either NURBS or polygon surfaces. A male hybrid newborn phantom was constructed following the development of the female phantom through the replacement of female-specific organs with male-specific organs. The outer body contour and internal anatomy of the NURBS-based phantoms were adjusted to match anthropometric and reference newborn data reported by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in their Publication 89. The voxelization process was designed to accurately convert NURBS models to a voxel phantom with minimum volumetric change. A sensitivity study was additionally performed to better understand how the meshing tolerance and voxel resolution would affect volumetric changes between the hybrid-NURBS and hybrid-voxel phantoms. The male and female hybrid-NURBS phantoms were constructed in a manner so that all internal organs approached their ICRP reference masses to within 1%, with the exception of the skin (-6.5% relative error) and brain (-15.4% relative error). Both hybrid-voxel phantoms were constructed with an isotropic voxel resolution of 0.663 mm—equivalent to the ICRP 89 reference thickness of the newborn skin (dermis and epidermis). Hybrid-NURBS phantoms used to create their voxel counterpart retain the non-uniform scalability of stylized phantoms, while maintaining the anatomic realism of segmented voxel phantoms with respect to organ shape, depth and

  3. Hybrid computational phantoms of the male and female newborn patient: NURBS-based whole-body models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Hasenauer, Deanna; Williams, Jonathan L; Lee, Choonik; Bolch, Wesley E

    2007-01-01

    phantom is performed in three steps: polygonization of the voxel phantom, organ modeling via NURBS surfaces and phantom voxelization. Two 3D graphic tools, 3D-DOCTOR(TM) and Rhinoceros(TM), were utilized to polygonize the newborn voxel phantom and generate NURBS surfaces, while an in-house MATLAB(TM) code was used to voxelize the resulting NURBS model into a final computational phantom ready for use in Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations. A total of 126 anatomical organ and tissue models, including 38 skeletal sites and 31 cartilage sites, were described within the hybrid phantom using either NURBS or polygon surfaces. A male hybrid newborn phantom was constructed following the development of the female phantom through the replacement of female-specific organs with male-specific organs. The outer body contour and internal anatomy of the NURBS-based phantoms were adjusted to match anthropometric and reference newborn data reported by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in their Publication 89. The voxelization process was designed to accurately convert NURBS models to a voxel phantom with minimum volumetric change. A sensitivity study was additionally performed to better understand how the meshing tolerance and voxel resolution would affect volumetric changes between the hybrid-NURBS and hybrid-voxel phantoms. The male and female hybrid-NURBS phantoms were constructed in a manner so that all internal organs approached their ICRP reference masses to within 1%, with the exception of the skin (-6.5% relative error) and brain (-15.4% relative error). Both hybrid-voxel phantoms were constructed with an isotropic voxel resolution of 0.663 mm-equivalent to the ICRP 89 reference thickness of the newborn skin (dermis and epidermis). Hybrid-NURBS phantoms used to create their voxel counterpart retain the non-uniform scalability of stylized phantoms, while maintaining the anatomic realism of segmented voxel phantoms with respect to organ shape, depth and

  4. On the union of graded prime ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uregen Rabia Nagehan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate graded compactly packed rings, which is defined as; if any graded ideal I of R is contained in the union of a family of graded prime ideals of R, then I is actually contained in one of the graded prime ideals of the family. We give some characterizations of graded compactly packed rings. Further, we examine this property on h – Spec(R. We also define a generalization of graded compactly packed rings, the graded coprimely packed rings. We show that R is a graded compactly packed ring if and only if R is a graded coprimely packed ring whenever R be a graded integral domain and h – dim R = 1.

  5. The Decisions of Elementary School Principals: A Test of Ideal Type Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, John T.

    Interviews with 25 Georgia elementary school principals provided data that could be used to test an application of Max Weber's ideal type methodology to decision-making. Alfred Schuetz's model of the rational act, based on one of Weber's ideal types, was analyzed and translated into describable acts and behaviors. Interview procedures were…

  6. Development of pitanga nectar with different sweeteners by sensory analysis: ideal pulp dilution, ideal sweetness, and sweetness equivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírian Luisa Faria Freitas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop pitanga nectar formulations in which sucrose was replaced with different sweeteners. Consumer tests were conducted with 50 fruit juice consumers, and a just-about-right scale was used to determine the ideal pulp dilution and ideal sweetness with sucrose. Furthermore, the adequate concentrations of six sweeteners were determined to obtain the equivalent sweetness of sucrose using relative to these concentrations the magnitude estimation model with 19 selected assessors. The ideal dilution test resulted in 25% pulp, and the ideal sweetness test, 10% sucrose. Sweetener concentrations to replace sucrose were 0.0160%, 0.0541%, 0.1000%, 0.0999%, 0.0017%, and 0.0360%, respectively, for sucralose, aspartame, stevia 40% rebaudioside A, stevia 95% rebaudioside A, neotame, and a 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend. These results can be used to prepare pitanga nectar with different sweeteners and obtain the same sweetness intensity in less caloric products than that of nectar prepared with sucrose.

  7. Publishing to become an 'ideal academic'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    over a two-year period in a recently merged Finnish university. I focus specifically on how a translocal discourse of competitive performance measurement and standards of academic excellence are accomplished in the local construction of the “ideal academic” as a person who publishes articles in A level......In this paper I offer an Institutional Ethnography, from the standpoint of female academics, of the construction of the “ideal academic” and quality journal publications as a central feature in this construct. I draw on interview transcripts, field notes, texts and artefacts produced and collected...

  8. Betti numbers of powers of ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioia Failla

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Let A=K[x1, ..... ,xn] be a standard graded polynomial ring over a field K, let M = (x_1, .... , x_n be the graded maximal ideal and I a graded ideal of A. For each i the Betti numbers b_i(I^k of I^k are polynomial functions for k>>0. We show that if I is M-primary, then these polynomial functions have the same degree for all i .

  9. Pre-ideals of Basic Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krňávek, Jan; Kühr, Jan

    2011-12-01

    Basic algebras are a generalization of MV-algebras, also including orthomodular lattices and lattice effect algebras. A pre-ideal of a basic algebra is a non-empty subset that is closed under the addition ⊕ and downwards closed with respect to the underlying order. In this paper, we study the pre-ideal lattices of algebras in a particular subclass of basic algebras which are closer to MV-algebras than basic algebras in general. We also prove that finite members of this subclass are exactly finite MV-algebras.

  10. On power idealization filter topologies of lattice implication algebras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shi-Zhong; Wu, Xiu-Yun

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce power idealization filter topologies with respect to filter topologies and power ideals of lattice implication algebras, and to investigate some properties of power idealization filter topological spaces and their quotient spaces.

  11. Predictors of male microchimerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2012-01-01

    confounding and reverse causation. To address the issue of confounding, we conducted an analysis of predictors of male microchimerism in 272 female participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Buffy coat DNA was tested for Y chromosome presence as a marker of male microchimerism. First, we used...... logistic regression and thereafter random forest modeling to evaluate the ability of a range of reproductive, lifestyle, hospital or clinic visit history, and other variables to predict whether women tested positive for male microchimerism. We found some indication that current use of contraceptive pills...... and hormone replacement therapy reduced the odds of testing positive for male microchimerism. However, prediction of male microchimerism presence was poor based on the available variables. Studies of the possible role of male microchimerism in maternal health and disease are therefore unlikely to be heavily...

  12. Real and Ideal Home Representations as Moderators of the Positive Person’s Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nartova-Bochaver S.K.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Real and ideal home representations as moderators of positive person’s functioning are investigated. The sample consisted of 222 students (177 females, 45 males, Мage = 20,9. The following questionnaires were used: The Functionality of home environment developed by authors, The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS by R. Tennant et al., The Authenticity scale by A. Wood et al. Descriptive statistics, correlation and multiregression analyses were used. There have been found: the all positive functioning scores are higher in the ideal home representation; there are more correlations between home representations and positive functioning in females as compared to males; the real home representation impacts on the positive person’s functioning much more than the ideal home representation.

  13. Simple correlation for predicting detonation velocity of ideal and non-ideal explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Mohammad Hossein

    2009-07-30

    This paper describes a simple method for prediction of detonation velocity of ideal and non-ideal explosives. A non-ideal aluminized and nitrated explosive can have Chapman-Jouguet detonation velocity significantly different from that expected from existing thermodynamic computer codes for equilibrium and steady-state calculations. Detonation velocity of explosives with general formula C(a)H(b)N(c)O(d)Al(e) can be predicted only from values of a, b, c, d, e and a specific structural parameter without using any assumed detonation products, heat of formation and experimental data. Predicted detonation velocities by this procedure for ideal and non-ideal explosives show good agreement with respect to experimental values as compared to computed results of BKWR and BKWS equations of state.

  14. Mathematics and geometry towards ideality in «Domus»’s ideal houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Chiodo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1942 and 1943 the editor of the journal «Domus» invited the most important Italian architects to design their ideal houses: fifteen projects designed by seventeen architects were published. They are most instructive to try to understand, firstly, what the philosophical notion of ideal means and, secondly, why mathematical and geometric tools are extensively used to work on ideality, namely, to design ideal houses. The first part of the article focuses on the philosophical foundations of ideality and, after an overview of the fifteen projects, on the use of the golden ratio in two particularly meaningful cases. The second part of the article focuses on the cases in which there is a hidden use of the golden ratio, on the use of the modulus and on the use of the number 2.

  15. Non-imidazole-based histamine H3 receptor antagonists with anticonvulsant activity in different seizure models in male adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadek B

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bassem Sadek,1 Ali Saad,1 Gniewomir Latacz,2 Kamil Kuder,2 Agnieszka Olejarz,2 Tadeusz Karcz,2 Holger Stark,3 Katarzyna Kieć-Kononowicz2 1Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates; 2Department of Technology and Biotechnology of Drugs, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland; 3Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Institute of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany Abstract: A series of twelve novel non-imidazole-based ligands (3–14 was developed and evaluated for its in vitro binding properties at the human histamine H3 receptor (hH3R. The novel ligands were investigated for their in vivo protective effects in different seizure models in male adult rats. Among the H3R ligands (3–14 tested, ligand 14 showed significant and dose-dependent reduction in the duration of tonic hind limb extension in maximal electroshock (MES-induced seizure model subsequent to acute systemic administration (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, whereas ligands 4, 6, and 7 without appreciable protection in MES model were most promising in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ model. Moreover, the protective effect observed for ligand 14 in MES model was lower than that observed for the reference drug phenytoin and was entirely abrogated when rats were co-administered with the brain-penetrant H1R antagonist pyrilamine (PYR but not the brain-penetrant H2R antagonist zolantidine (ZOL, demonstrating that histaminergic neurotransmission by activation of postsynaptically located H1Rs seems to be involved in the protective action. On the contrary, PYR and ZOL failed to abrogate the full protection provided by 4 in PTZ model and the moderate protective effect by 14 in strychnine (STR model. Moreover, the experimental and in silico estimation of properties such as metabolism was

  16. Ideal clocks—a convenient fiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorek, Krzysztof; Dragan, Andrzej; Louko, Jorma

    2015-01-01

    We show that no device built according to the rules of quantum field theory can measure proper time along its path. Highly accelerated quantum clocks experience the Unruh effect, which inevitably influences their time rate. This contradicts the concept of an ideal clock, whose rate should only depend on the instantaneous velocity. (paper)

  17. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and ... also important applications in nonlinear analysis [2]. The theory was brought to ..... for each t > 0 since each set on the right-hand side of the relation (3.1) belongs to I. Thus, by Definition 2.11 and the ...

  18. Collective excitations of harmonically trapped ideal gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Schaeybroeck, B.; Lazarides, A.

    2009-01-01

    We theoretically study the collective excitations of an ideal gas confined in an isotropic harmonic trap. We give an exact solution to the Boltzmann-Vlasov equation; as expected for a single-component system, the associated mode frequencies are integer multiples of the trapping frequency. We show

  19. Quantization of an Ideal Monoatomic Gas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 1. Quantization of an Ideal Monoatomic Gas. E Fermi. Classics Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 82-96. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/01/0082-0096. Author Affiliations.

  20. Ideal related K-theory with coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilers, Soren; Restorff, Gunnar; Ruiz, Efren

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we define an invariant, which we believe should be the substitute for total K-theory in the case when there is one distinguished ideal. Moreover, some diagrams relating the new groups to the ordinary K-groups with coefficients are constructed. These diagrams will in most cases help...

  1. Joint Custody: A Viable and Ideal Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Douglas F.; Weinstein, Jeffrey

    1977-01-01

    Defines and restructures custodial rights and remedies of parents involved in a divorce proceeding. Conveys an alternative to custodial awards as they exist today and points toward joint custody as an ideal solution and viable alternative that cries out for acceptance. (Author)

  2. Water: The Ideal Early Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    Bathtubs and swimming pools provide the ideal learning environment for people with special needs. For young preschool children, the activities that take place through water can help them develop physical fitness, facilitate motor development, reinforce perceptual-motor ability, encourage social development, and enhance self-esteem and confidence.…

  3. Principal ideal languages and synchronizing automata

    OpenAIRE

    Gusev, Vladimir V.; Maslennikova, Marina I.; Pribavkina, Elena V.

    2013-01-01

    We study ideal languages generated by a single word. We provide an algorithm to construct a strongly connected synchronizing automaton for which such a language serves as the language of synchronizing words. Also we present a compact formula to calculate the syntactic complexity of this language.

  4. Quantum cryptography with an ideal local relay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spedalieri, Gaetana; Ottaviani, Carlo; Braunstein, Samuel L.

    2015-01-01

    We consider two remote parties connected to a relay by two quantum channels. To generate a secret key, they transmit coherent states to the relay, where the states are subject to a continuous-variable (CV) Bell detection. We study the ideal case where Alice's channel is lossless, i.e., the relay ...

  5. Maximally differential ideals in regular local rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    may either be maximally differential under a set of derivations or a set of higher derivations,. i.e, Hasse–Schmidt derivations. We also extend our result (Theorem 4 of [7]) about the structure of a maximally differ- ential ideal in positive characteristic to unequal characteristic case. 2. Results. By a ring we mean a commutative ...

  6. How Is the Ideal Gas Law Explanatory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Andrea I.

    2013-01-01

    Using the ideal gas law as a comparative example, this essay reviews contemporary research in philosophy of science concerning scientific explanation. It outlines the inferential, causal, unification, and erotetic conceptions of explanation and discusses an alternative project, the functional perspective. In each case, the aim is to highlight…

  7. Consumer satisfaction - an unattainable ideal? | Erasmus | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Verbruikerstevredenheid, 'n na-aankoopevaluering dat 'n gekose produk aan 'n verbruiker se verwagtinge voldoen of dit oortref (Engel et al, 1995), word algemeen as die ideale uitkoms van verbruikersbesluitneming voorgehou. Verbruikerstevredenheid verlig die interne spanningstoestand (kognitiewe dissonansie) wat ...

  8. Derivation of the Ideal Gas Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugier, Alexander; Garai, Jozsef

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate and graduate physics and chemistry books usually state that combining the gas laws results in the ideal gas law. Leaving the derivation to the students implies that this should be a simple task, most likely a substitution. Boyle's law, Charles's law, and the Avogadro's principle are given under certain conditions; therefore, direct…

  9. Ideal family population In a rural Tswana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-04-09

    Apr 9, 1983 ... It is a matter of concern that family-planning advice is often given without consideration of the cultural norms which influence the client. A questionnaire was used to discover what 350 rural Tswanas believed the ideal number of children to be; results were tabulated according to age and sex. It appears·.

  10. Reduction of a family of ideals

    OpenAIRE

    Rodak, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    In the paper we prove that there exists a simultaneous reduction of one-parameter family of $\\mathfrak{m}_{n}$-primary ideals in the ring of germs of holomorphic functions. As a corollary we generalize the result of A. P\\l{}oski \\cite{ploski} on the semicontinuity of the \\L{}ojasiewicz exponent in a multiplicity-constant deformation.

  11. The Body Electric: Thin-Ideal Media and Eating Disorders in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kristen

    2000-01-01

    Finds that exposure to fat-character television, thin-ideal magazines, and sports magazines predicted eating-disorder symptomatology for adolescent females, especially older ones; exposure to fat-character television also predicted body dissatisfaction for younger males; and that relationships remain significant when selective exposure based on…

  12. Dwarf males, large hermaphrodites and females in marine species: a dynamic optimization model of sex allocation and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Sachi; Sawada, Kota; Yusa, Yoichi; Iwasa, Yoh

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we investigate the evolutionarily stable schedule of growth and sex allocation for marine benthic species that contain dwarf males. We consider a population in an ephemeral microhabitat that receives a constant supply of larvae. Small individuals can immediately reproduce as a dwarf male or remain immature and grow. Large individuals allocate reproductive resources between male and female functions. The fraction c of newly settled individuals who remain immature and the sex allocation of large individuals m are quantities to evolve. In the stationary ESS, if the relative reproductive success of dwarf males is greater than the survivorship of immature individuals until they reach a mature size, then the population is a mixture of females and dwarf males. If the opposite inequality holds, the population is dominated by hermaphrodites and lacks dwarf males. There is no case in which a mixture of hermaphrodites and dwarf males to be the ESS in the stationary solution. The ESS can be solved by dynamic programming when the strategies depend on the age of the microhabitat (c(t) and m(t)). Typically, the ESS schedule begins with a population composed only of hermaphrodites, which is replaced by a mixture of dwarf males and hermaphrodites and then by a mixture of dwarf males and pure females. The relative importance of these three phases depends on multiple parameters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The developmental effects of media-ideal internalization and self-objectification processes on adolescents' negative body-feelings, dietary restraint, and binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Carrà, Giuseppe; Calogero, Rachel; Fida, Roberta; Clerici, Massimo; Zanetti, Maria Assunta; Riva, Giuseppe

    2015-08-01

    Despite accumulated experimental evidence of the negative effects of exposure to media-idealized images, the degree to which body image, and eating related disturbances are caused by media portrayals of gendered beauty ideals remains controversial. On the basis of the most up-to-date meta-analysis of experimental studies indicating that media-idealized images have the most harmful and substantial impact on vulnerable individuals regardless of gender (i.e., "internalizers" and "self-objectifiers"), the current longitudinal study examined the direct and mediated links posited in objectification theory among media-ideal internalization, self-objectification, shame and anxiety surrounding the body and appearance, dietary restraint, and binge eating. Data collected from 685 adolescents aged between 14 and 15 at baseline (47 % males), who were interviewed and completed standardized measures annually over a 3-year period, were analyzed using a structural equation modeling approach. Results indicated that media-ideal internalization predicted later thinking and scrutinizing of one's body from an external observer's standpoint (or self-objectification), which then predicted later negative emotional experiences related to one's body and appearance. In turn, these negative emotional experiences predicted subsequent dietary restraint and binge eating, and each of these core features of eating disorders influenced each other. Differences in the strength of these associations across gender were not observed, and all indirect effects were significant. The study provides valuable information about how the cultural values embodied by gendered beauty ideals negatively influence adolescents' feelings, thoughts and behaviors regarding their own body, and on the complex processes involved in disordered eating. Practical implications are discussed.

  14. Predictors of condom use behaviour among male street labourers in urban Vietnam using a modified Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Huy, Nguyen; P Dunne, Michael; Debattista, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    HIV risk in vulnerable groups such as itinerant male street labourers is often examined via a focus on individual determinants. This study provides a test of a modified Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model to predict condom use behaviour among male street workers in urban Vietnam. In a cross-sectional survey using a social mapping technique, 450 male street labourers from 13 districts of Hanoi, Vietnam were recruited and interviewed. Collected data were first examined for completeness; structural equation modelling was then employed to test the model fit. Condoms were used inconsistently by many of these men, and usage varied in relation to a number of factors. A modified IMB model had a better fit than the original IMB model in predicting condom use behaviour. This modified model accounted for 49% of the variance, versus 10% by the original version. In the modified model, the influence of psychosocial factors was moderately high, whilst the influence of HIV prevention information, motivation and perceived behavioural skills was moderately low, explaining in part the limited level of condom use behaviour. This study provides insights into social factors that should be taken into account in public health planning to promote safer sexual behaviour among Asian male street labourers.

  15. A Reasoned Action Model of Male Client Involvement in Commercial Sex Work in Kibera, A Large Informal Settlement in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Eric Abella; Ngugi, Elizabeth; Benoit, Cecilia; Jansson, Mikael; Hallgrimsdottir, Helga

    2014-01-01

    Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) are epidemiologically important because they can form bridge groups linking high- and low-risk subpopulations. However, because male clients are hard to locate, they are not frequently studied. Recent research emphasizes searching for high-risk behavior groups in locales where new sexual partnerships form and the threat of HIV transmission is high. Sub-Saharan Africa public drinking venues satisfy these criteria. Accordingly, this study developed and implemented a rapid assessment methodology to survey men in bars throughout the large informal settlement of Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya, with the goal of delineating cultural and economic rationales associated with male participation in commercial sex. The study sample consisted of 220 male patrons of 110 bars located throughout Kibera's 11 communities. Logistic regression analysis incorporating a modified Reasoned Action Model indicated that a social norm condoning commercial sex among male peers and the cultural belief that men should practice sex before marriage support commercial sex involvement. Conversely, lacking money to drink and/or pay for sexual services were barriers to male commercial sex involvement. Results are interpreted in light of possible harm reduction programs focusing on FSWs' male clients.

  16. Condoms - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prophylactics; Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... Contact your health care provider or pharmacy about emergency contraception ("morning-after pills"). PROBLEMS WITH CONDOM USE ...

  17. Male Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an abnormality affecting other hormonal systems including the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal glands. Low testosterone (male ... Testosterone replacement therapy, long-term anabolic steroid use, cancer medications (chemotherapy), certain antifungal medications, some ulcer drugs ...

  18. The influence of family context on life, educational and occupational ideal among middle school students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Benxian; Zhang, Ling; Zhen, Rui; Zhou, Xiao

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between family context of middle school students on their educational and occupational ideals. Middle school students (N = 2000) responded to questions assessing family location, family structure, parental educational level and family economic status, as well as to the Middle School Students' Ideals Questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that life, educational and occupational ideals of female students and students in lower grades were higher than that of male students and students in higher grades. Regression analysis indicated that paternal education level have a positive association with educational and occupational ideals, but not life ideals, and family economic status have a positive relation to life ideals, but not educational and occupational ideals. Moreover, the interaction between family economic status and family location has a negative association with students' life, educational and occupational ideals. These results suggest that different factors predicted different ideals of adolescents, and that family economic status had a negative moderating effect on the relationship between family location and ideals of students. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  19. Male contraception

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Vivek; Bantwal, Ganapathi

    2012-01-01

    Contraception is an accepted route for the control of population explosion in the world. Traditionally hormonal contraceptive methods have focused on women. Male contraception by means of hormonal and non hormonal methods is an attractive alternative. Hormonal methods of contraception using testosterone have shown good results. Non hormonal reversible methods of male contraception like reversible inhibition of sperm under guidanceare very promising. In this article we have reviewed the curren...

  20. The ideal restructuring of migrant families in the immigration law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encarnación La Spina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The legal configuration of kinship ties in immigration law is governed by a restrictive logic that combines a dependent and nuclear composition with mismatches in the concrete form of managing the distances, the dynamics and the times at origin and destination. The family model in immigration law has an ideal and dominant approach openly excluding other family realities in the social context. Law in an inherent tendency towards the ideal doesn’t allow a legitimate choice between autonomy and individual freedom in order to define or not the family project and own relationships. In this paper I discuss from a critical approach the inconsistencies presented by the current Spanish immigration law to restructure households in the family reunification scheme because of Law doesn’t secure a suitable degree of equality and justice.

  1. Ideal and conventional feedback systems for RWM suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pustovitov, V.D.

    2002-01-01

    Feedback suppression of resistive wall modes (RWM) is studied analytically using a model based on a standard cylindrical approximation. Two feedback systems are compared: 'ideal', creating only the field necessary for RMW suppression, and 'conventional', like that used in the DIII-D tokamak and considered as a candidate for ITER. The widespread opinion that the feedback with poloidal sensors is better than that with radial sensors is discussed. It is shown that the 'conventional' feedback with radial sensors can be effective only in a limited range, while using the input signal from internal poloidal sensors allows easy fulfilment of the stability criterion. This is a property of the 'conventional' feedback, but the 'ideal' feedback would stabilise RWM in both cases. (author)

  2. A Retrospective Analysis of Nursing Students' Clinical Experience in an All-Male Maximum Security Prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchaud, Mary T; Brooks, Madeline; Swan, Beth Ann

    2017-10-05

    Prisons provide an ideal learning experience to prepare prelicensure students with the knowledge and skill set needed for practice in the 21st century. Beginning descriptive evidence demonstrates that correctional health is an innovative community resource to educate nursing students in today's changing model of health care delivery and practice. This article shares results from a retrospective analysis of the perceptions and experiences of nursing students during their community clinical rotation in an all-male maximum security prison.

  3. A Darker Shade of Love: Machiavellianism and Positive Assortative Mating Based on Romantic Ideals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ináncsi, Tamás; Láng, András; Bereczkei, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    Machiavellianism is a personality trait that is characterized by manipulative and exploitative attitude toward others, lack of empathy, and a cynical view of human nature. In itself or as part of the Dark Triad it has been the target of several studies investigating romantic relations. Nevertheless, the relationship between Machiavellianism and romantic ideals has not been revealed yet. An undergraduate sample of 143 (92 females) with an average age of 19.83 years (SD = 1.51 years) filled out self-report measures of Machiavellianism (Mach-IV Scale) and romantic ideals (Ideal Standards Scale and NEO-FFI-IDEAL). According to our results, Machiavellianism correlated negatively with the importance of partner’s warmth-trustworthiness, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and with the importance of intimacy and loyalty in their ideal relationships. Machiavellianism correlated positively with the ideal partner’s possession over status and resources. Explorative factor analysis revealed three components of ideal partner’s characteristics. Machiavellianism loaded significantly on two out of three components. Results are discussed with regard to Ideal Standards Model and the Big Five model of personality. PMID:27247697

  4. Effect of personality item writing on psychometric properties of ideal-point and likert scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jialin; Mead, Alan D

    2014-12-01

    The present study was designed to investigate personality item-writing practices and their effect on the psychometric properties of personality items and scales. Personality items were developed based on ideal-point and dominance models, analyzed using the generalized graded unfolding model, and empirically classified as having an ideal-point or dominance form. Results suggested that writing dominance items were slightly easier (more successful) than writing ideal-point items, but this varied slightly by personality dimensions. Of 3 ideal-point item writing tactics, the "neutral" tactic was least successful; success writing "double-barreled" and "average" ideal-point items was comparable to that of dominance items. Three personality scales were then constructed using successful ideal-point and dominance items. Scales constructed using ideal-point items had substantially inferior psychometric properties, including lower score reliability, lower correlations with important criteria, and mixed test information results. However, lower predictive validity of ideal-point scale scores may be due to lower reliability of the scores. Practical and methodological implications were also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Combined Effects of Eurycoma longifolia and Testosterone on Androgen-Deficient Osteoporosis in a Male Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halimatun Saadiah Abdul Razak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgen-deficient osteoporosis in men is treated with testosterone therapy, which is associated with side effects. Eurycoma longifolia (EL is known to possess androgenic properties and has been reported to protect bone from androgen-deficient osteoporosis in experimental animal models. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of combination therapy of EL and testosterone (T in treating androgen-deficient osteoporosis. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into: sham-operated (SHAM, orchidectomized-control (ORX, orchidectomized with testosterone (ORX + T, orchidectomized with EL (ORX + EL, and orchidectomized with combined T and EL therapy (ORX + T + EL. EL was administered via oral gavages daily at the dose of 15 mg/kg. T was injected intramuscularly at 8 mg/kg and 4 mg/kg for the ORX + T and ORX + T + EL groups, respectively. Following 6 weeks of treatment, the osteocalcin levels of ORX + T and ORX + T + EL groups were significantly lower than the SHAM group (P<0.05. The posttreatment CTX levels of ORX + T and ORX + T + EL groups were significantly lower than their pretreatment levels (P<0.05. Biomechanically, the strain parameter of the ORX + T + EL group was significantly higher than the ORX group (P<0.05. Thus, the combination therapy of EL and low-dose T has potential for treatment of androgen-deficient osteoporosis. The lower T dose is beneficial in reducing the sideeffects of testosterone therapy.

  6. Mutual optical intensity propagation through non-ideal mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangyu; Shi, Xianbo; Wang, Yong; Reininger, Ruben; Assoufid, Lahsen; Tai, Renzhong

    2017-09-01

    The mutual optical intensity (MOI) model is extended to include the propagation of partially coherent radiation through non-ideal mirrors. The propagation of the MOI from the incident to the exit plane of the mirror is realised by local ray tracing. The effects of figure errors can be expressed as phase shifts obtained by either the phase projection approach or the direct path length method. Using the MOI model, the effects of figure errors are studied for diffraction-limited cases using elliptical cylinder mirrors. Figure errors with low spatial frequencies can vary the intensity distribution, redistribute the local coherence function and distort the wavefront, but have no effect on the global degree of coherence. The MOI model is benchmarked against HYBRID and the multi-electron Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) code. The results show that the MOI model gives accurate results under different coherence conditions of the beam. Other than intensity profiles, the MOI model can also provide the wavefront and the local coherence function at any location along the beamline. The capability of tuning the trade-off between accuracy and efficiency makes the MOI model an ideal tool for beamline design and optimization.

  7. A New Perspective on Classical Ideal Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Philippe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The ideal-gas barometric and pressure laws are derived from the Democritian concept of independent corpuscles moving in vacuum, plus a principle of simplicity, namely that these laws are independent of the kinetic part of the Hamiltonian. A single corpuscle in contact with a heat bath in a cylinder and submitted to a constant force (weight is considered. The paper importantly supplements a previously published paper: First, the stability of ideal gases is established. Second, we show that when walls separate the cylinder into parts and are later removed, the entropy is unaffected. We obtain full agreement with Landsberg’s and others’ (1994 classical thermodynamic result for the entropy of a column of gas submitted to gravity.

  8. Extra-Training I-deals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgoibar, Patricia; Lindholst, Morten

    2016-01-01

    illustrates the negotiation process between a team manager at TNK - a leading multinational software development company- and one of his team members. The employee is willing to negotiate an I-deal with the objective of attending a training course abroad. This case is a two-party employment deal......-making exercise. The roles in this exercise are: a) the employee who initiates the I-deal; and b) the manager. The case could be used also as a three-party exercise, including the role of the facilitator. The case aims are twofold: a) engage students in exploring a win-win-win-win agreement; and b) demonstrating...... agreements of a nonstandard nature that individual employees negotiate with their employer regarding terms which benefit each party (Rousseau, 2000). The key question is to find the way in which these agreements are beneficial to the company, the manager, the employee and the co-workers. This case...

  9. Short and fast vs long and slow: age changes courtship in male orb-web spiders ( Argiope keyserlingi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, James C.; Wignall, Anne E.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2018-02-01

    Male reproductive performance can vary with condition, age and future reproductive opportunities. Web-building spiders are ideal models to examine the effects of senescence on fitness-related behaviours due to strong selection on male courtship to reduce pre-copulatory sexual cannibalism. Argiope keyserlingi spiders generate courtship vibrations, or `shudders', that reduce female aggression. We found that male A. keyserlingi courtship slowed with chronological age. Older males took longer to travel across the courtship thread, and overall number of shudders increased. Males retained some ability to modulate courtship quality (shudder duration and number of rocks within each shudder) in response to female quality. A change in courtship performance over time, despite strong selection for repeatability, indicates that ageing in male A. keyserlingi may have direct impacts on reproductive performance.

  10. Linear ideal MHD stability calculations for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, J.T.

    1988-01-01

    A survey of MHD stability limits has been made to address issues arising from the MHD--poloidal field design task of the US ITER project. This is a summary report on the results obtained to date. The study evaluates the dependence of ballooning, Mercier and low-n ideal linear MHD stability on key system parameters to estimate overall MHD constraints for ITER. 17 refs., 27 figs

  11. Magnetic stresses in ideal MHD plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, V.O.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of magnetic stresses in ideal MHD plasma theory is reviewed and revisited with the aim of demonstrating its advantages as a basis for calculating and understanding plasma equilibria. Expressions are derived for the various stresses that transmit forces in a magnetized plasma and it is...... and the Shafranov shift. The method had pedagogical merits as it simplifies the calculations, improves the physical understanding and facilitates an assessment of the approximations made in the calculations....

  12. Note on the ideal frame formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Martin

    2017-09-01

    An implementation of the ideal frame formulation of perturbed Keplerian motion is presented which only requires the integration of a differential system of dimension 7, contrary to the 8 variables traditionally integrated with this approach. The new formulation is based on the integration of a scaled version of the Eulerian set of redundant parameters and slightly improves runtime performance with respect to the 8-dimensional case while retaining comparable accuracy.

  13. The Ideal Man and Woman According to University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Laverghetta, Antonio V.; Peterson, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study determined if the ideal man has changed over the years and who and what the ideal woman is. We asked students at Cameron University to rate the importance of character traits that define the ideal man and woman. Subjects also provided examples of famous people exemplifying the ideal, good, average, and inferior man and woman. We…

  14. Neutrosophic Commutative N -Ideals in BCK-Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Zun Song

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The notion of a neutrosophic commutative N -ideal in BCK-algebras is introduced, and several properties are investigated. Relations between a neutrosophic N-ideal and a neutrosophic commutative N-ideal are discussed. Characterizations of a neutrosophic commutative N-ideal are considered.

  15. Soft ideal topological space and mixed fuzzy soft ideal topological space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manash Borah

    2019-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce fuzzy soft ideal and mixed fuzzy soft ideal topological spaces and some properties of this space. Also we introduce fuzzy soft $I$-open set, fuzzy soft $\\alpha$-$I$-open set, fuzzy soft pre-$I$-open set, fuzzy soft semi-$I$-open set and fuzzy soft $\\beta$-$I$-open set and discuss some of their properties.

  16. Construct validity evidence for the Male Role Norms Inventory-Short Form: A structural equation modeling approach using the bifactor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levant, Ronald F; Hall, Rosalie J; Weigold, Ingrid K; McCurdy, Eric R

    2016-10-01

    The construct validity of the Male Role Norms Inventory-Short Form (MRNI-SF) was assessed using a latent variable approach implemented with structural equation modeling (SEM). The MRNI-SF was specified as having a bifactor structure, and validation scales were also specified as latent variables. The latent variable approach had the advantages of separating effects of general and specific factors and controlling for some sources of measurement error. Data (N = 484) were from a diverse sample (38.8% men of color, 22.3% men of diverse sexualities) of community-dwelling and college men who responded to an online survey. The construct validity of the MRNI-SF General Traditional Masculinity Ideology factor was supported for all 4 of the proposed latent correlations with: (a) Male Role Attitudes Scale; (b) general factor of Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory-46; (c) higher-order factor of Gender Role Conflict Scale; and (d) Personal Attributes Questionnaire-Masculinity Scale. Significant correlations with relevant other latent factors provided concurrent validity evidence for the MRNI-SF specific factors of Negativity toward Sexual Minorities, Importance of Sex, Restrictive Emotionality, and Toughness, with all 8 of the hypothesized relationships supported. However, 3 relationships concerning Dominance were not supported. (The construct validity of the remaining 2 MRNI-SF specific factors-Avoidance of Femininity and Self-Reliance through Mechanical Skills was not assessed.) Comparisons were made, and meaningful differences noted, between the latent correlations emphasized in this study and their raw variable counterparts. Results are discussed in terms of the advantages of an SEM approach and the unique characteristics of the bifactor model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. On (m, n)-absorbing ideals of commutative rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with respect to various ring theoretic constructions and study (m, n)-absorbing ideals in several commutative rings. For example, in a Bézout ring or a Boolean ring, an ideal is an (m, n)-absorbing ideal if and only if it is an n-absorbing ideal, and in an almost. Dedekind domain every (m, n)-absorbing ideal is a product of at ...

  18. The ideal strength and mechanical hardness of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krenn, Christopher Robert [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-04-01

    Relationships between intrinsic mechanical hardness and atomic-scale properties are reviewed, Hardness scales closely and linearly with shear modulus for a given class of material (covalent, ionic or metallic). A two-parameter fit and a Peierls-stress model produce a more universal scaling relationship, but no model can explain differences in hardness between the transition metal carbides and nitrides. Calculations of ''ideal strength'' (defined by the limit of elastic stability of a perfect crystal) are proposed. The ideal shear strengths of fcc aluminum and copper are calculated using ab initio techniques and allowing for structural relaxation of all five strain components other than the imposed strain. The strengths of Al and Cu are similar (8-9% of the shear modulus), but the geometry of the relaxations in Al and Cu is very different. The relaxations are consistent with experimentally measured third-order elastic constants. The general thermodynamic conditions of elastic stability that set the upper limits of mechanical strength are derived. The conditions of stability are shown for cubic (hydrostatic), tetragonal (tensile) and monoclinic (shear) distortions of a cubic crystal. The implications of this stability analysis to first-principles calculations of ideal strength are discussed, and a method to detect instabilities orthogonal to the direction of the applied stress is identified. The relaxed ideal shear and tensile strengths of bcc tungsten are also calculated using ab initio techniques and are favorably compared to recent nano-indentation measurements. The {100} tensile strength (29.5 GPa) is governed by the Bain instability. The shear strengths in the weak directions on {110}, {112}, and {123} planes are very nearly equal (~ 18 GPa) and occur at approximately the same strain (17-18%). This isotropy is a function of the linear elastic isotropy for shear in directions containing <111> in bcc and of the atomic configurations of

  19. Increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hypothalamus of diabetic male mice in the insulin receptor substrate-2 knockout model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquedano, Eva; Burgos-Ramos, Emma; Canelles, Sandra; González-Rodríguez, Agueda; Chowen, Julie A; Argente, Jesús; Barrios, Vicente; Valverde, Angela M; Frago, Laura M

    2016-05-01

    Insulin receptor substrate-2-deficient (IRS2(-/-)) mice are considered a good model to study the development of diabetes because IRS proteins mediate the pleiotropic effects of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and insulin on metabolism, mitogenesis and cell survival. The hypothalamus might play a key role in the early onset of diabetes, owing to its involvement in the control of glucose homeostasis and energy balance. Because some inflammatory markers are elevated in the hypothalamus of diabetic IRS2(-/-) mice, our aim was to analyze whether the diabetes associated with the absence of IRS2 results in hypothalamic injury and to analyze the intracellular mechanisms involved. Only diabetic IRS2(-/-) mice showed increased cell death and activation of caspase-8 and -3 in the hypothalamus. Regulators of apoptosis such as FADD, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and p53 were also increased, whereas p-IκB and c-FLIPL were decreased. This was accompanied by increased levels of Nox-4 and catalase, enzymes involved in oxidative stress. In summary, the hypothalamus of diabetic IRS2(-/-) mice showed an increase in oxidative stress and inflammatory markers that finally resulted in cell death via substantial activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Conversely, non-diabetic IRS2(-/-) mice did not show cell death in the hypothalamus, possibly owing to an increase in the levels of circulating IGF-I and in the enhanced hypothalamic IGF-IR phosphorylation that would lead to the stimulation of survival pathways. In conclusion, diabetes in IRS2-deficient male mice is associated with increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hypothalamus. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Citalopram attenuated neurobehavioral, biochemical, and metabolic alterations in transient middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sangeetha; Upadhayay, Deepti; Sharma, Uma; Jagannathan, Naranamangalam R; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2018-04-15

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are implicated as cardinal mechanisms of neuronal death following stroke. In the present study citalopram (Cit) was investigated in a 2 h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) model of stroke in male Wistar rats. Pretreatment, posttreatment (Post Cit) and pre plus posttreatment (Pre + Post Cit) with Cit were evaluated for its neuroprotective effect. In pretreatment protocol, effect of Cit at three doses (2, 4, and 8 mg/kg) administered i.p., 1 h prior to MCAo was evaluated using neurological deficit score (NDS), motor deficit paradigms, and cerebral infarction 24 h post-MCAo. In posttreatment and pre plus posttreatment protocol, the effective dose of Cit (4 mg/kg) was administered i.p., 0.5 h post-reperfusion (Post Cit) only, and 1 h prior to MCAo and again at 0.5 h post-reperfusion (Pre + Post Cit), respectively. These two groups were assessed for NDS and cerebral infarction. Though NDS was significantly reduced in both Post Cit and Pre + Post Cit groups, significant reduction in cerebral infarction was evident only in Pre + Post Cit group. Infarct volume assessed by magnetic resonance imaging was significantly attenuated in Pre + Post Cit group (10.6 ± 1.1%) compared to MCAo control group (18.5 ± 3.0%). Further, Pre + Post Cit treatment significantly altered 17 metabolites along with attenuation of malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, matrix metalloproteinases, and apoptotic markers as compared to MCAo control. These results support the neuroprotective effect of Cit, mediated through amelioration of oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and altered metabolic profile. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Male circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Male circumcision consists of the surgical removal of some, or all, of the foreskin (or prepuce) from the penis. It is one of the most common procedures in the world. In the United States, the procedure is commonly performed during the newborn period. In 2007, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) convened a multidisciplinary workgroup of AAP members and other stakeholders to evaluate the evidence regarding male circumcision and update the AAP's 1999 recommendations in this area. The Task Force included AAP representatives from specialty areas as well as members of the AAP Board of Directors and liaisons representing the American Academy of Family Physicians, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Task Force members identified selected topics relevant to male circumcision and conducted a critical review of peer-reviewed literature by using the American Heart Association's template for evidence evaluation. Evaluation of current evidence indicates that the health benefits of newborn male circumcision outweigh the risks; furthermore, the benefits of newborn male circumcision justify access to this procedure for families who choose it. Specific benefits from male circumcision were identified for the prevention of urinary tract infections, acquisition of HIV, transmission of some sexually transmitted infections, and penile cancer. Male circumcision does not appear to adversely affect penile sexual function/sensitivity or sexual satisfaction. It is imperative that those providing circumcision are adequately trained and that both sterile techniques and effective pain management are used. Significant acute complications are rare. In general, untrained providers who perform circumcisions have more complications than well-trained providers who perform the procedure, regardless of whether the former are physicians, nurses, or traditional religious providers. Parents are entitled to factually correct

  2. Increased body satisfaction after exposure to thin ideal children's television in young girls showing thin ideal internalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Van Strien, Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the direct effect of watching thin ideal children's television on body satisfaction in preadolescent girls (6-8 years old). A within-subject design was used in which girls (N = 51) were tested three times. They watched television clips in random order containing either (1) thin ideal animated characters or (2) animated characters with no thin ideal features or (3) 'real' human actors with no thin ideal features. After watching, their state body satisfaction was measured. Girls with higher levels of thin ideal internalisation showed higher body satisfaction after exposure to the thin ideal characters than after exposure to animated or real characters featuring no thin ideal features. No differences on body satisfaction between the exposure conditions were found in girls with lower levels of thin ideal internalisation. The results might suggest that young girls who internalised the thin ideal are inspired by thin ideal characters in children's media.

  3. Comparison of the validity of the use of the spontaneously hypertensive rat as a model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, Daniel W; Perez, Maria C; Daniel, Jill M

    2015-06-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a commonly used and well-studied rodent model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sex differences in the cognitive symptoms of ADHD are reported. However, the female SHR rat is much less studied than its male counterpart. The goal of the current study was to assess the validity of the SHR rodent model of ADHD by examining attentional performance, inhibitory control, and hyperactivity in both male and female SHR rats. Adult SHR and control Wistar-Kyoto rats were trained on the 5-choice serial reaction time task, a self-paced test of attention and inhibitory control. This task requires animals to identify the location of a brief light stimulus among five possible locations under several challenging conditions. Analyses of percent correct revealed that attentional performance in SHR females was not significantly different from control females, whereas attentional performance in SHR males was significantly different from control males. Analyses of the number of premature responses revealed that SHR rats made more inhibitory control errors than did control rats and that this decrease in inhibitory control was present in both SHR males and females. Analyses of activity in the open field revealed that SHR rats were more hyperactive than were control rats and that this increased hyperactivity was present in both SHR males and females. The current findings have implications for the study of sex differences in ADHD and for the use of SHR rats as a model of ADHD in females. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Constraints on the central density and chemical composition of the white dwarf RX J0648.0-4418 with a record period of rotation in a model with the equation of state of an ideal degenerate electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheev, S. A.; Tsvetkov, V. P.

    2016-07-01

    A system of equations and inequalities that allows one to determine the constraints on central density ρ c and the chemical composition, which is governed by parameter μ e , of the white dwarf RX J0648.0- 4418 with a record short period of rotation T = 13.18s and mass m = (1.28 ± 0.05) m⊙, has been derived. The analysis of numerical solutions of this system reveal a complex dependence of μ e on ρ c . The intervals of variation of μ e and ρ c are as follows: 1.09 ≤ μ e ≤ 1.21 and 9.04 ≤ μ e /ρ0 ≤ 103 (ρ0 = 0.98 × 106 g/cm3). This range of μ e values suggests that the white dwarf RX J0648.0-4418 is not made of pure hydrogen and should contain 9-21% of heavy elements. Calculations have been performed with the equation of state of an ideal degenerate electron gas. Approximate analytic expressions (with an accuracy of 10-3) for the minimum period T min and mass m of the white dwarf are obtained. It is demonstrated that the white-dwarf mass is almost doubled (compared to the case of no rotation at a fixed central density) as period T approaches T min.

  5. Dimensional analysis using toric ideals: primitive invariants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Atherton

    Full Text Available Classical dimensional analysis in its original form starts by expressing the units for derived quantities, such as force, in terms of power products of basic units [Formula: see text] etc. This suggests the use of toric ideal theory from algebraic geometry. Within this the Graver basis provides a unique primitive basis in a well-defined sense, which typically has more terms than the standard Buckingham approach. Some textbook examples are revisited and the full set of primitive invariants found. First, a worked example based on convection is introduced to recall the Buckingham method, but using computer algebra to obtain an integer [Formula: see text] matrix from the initial integer [Formula: see text] matrix holding the exponents for the derived quantities. The [Formula: see text] matrix defines the dimensionless variables. But, rather than this integer linear algebra approach it is shown how, by staying with the power product representation, the full set of invariants (dimensionless groups is obtained directly from the toric ideal defined by [Formula: see text]. One candidate for the set of invariants is a simple basis of the toric ideal. This, although larger than the rank of [Formula: see text], is typically not unique. However, the alternative Graver basis is unique and defines a maximal set of invariants, which are primitive in a simple sense. In addition to the running example four examples are taken from: a windmill, convection, electrodynamics and the hydrogen atom. The method reveals some named invariants. A selection of computer algebra packages is used to show the considerable ease with which both a simple basis and a Graver basis can be found.

  6. Hamiltonian description of the ideal fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Fluid mechanics is examined from a Hamiltonian perspective. The Hamiltonian point of view provides a unifying framework; by understanding the Hamiltonian perspective, one knows in advance (within bounds) what answers to expect and what kinds of procedures can be performed. The material is organized into five lectures, on the following topics: rudiments of few-degree-of-freedom Hamiltonian systems illustrated by passive advection in two-dimensional fluids; functional differentiation, two action principles of mechanics, and the action principle and canonical Hamiltonian description of the ideal fluid; noncanonical Hamiltonian dynamics with examples; tutorial on Lie groups and algebras, reduction-realization, and Clebsch variables; and stability and Hamiltonian systems.

  7. Ideal Magnetohydrodynamic Stability of the NCSX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Guo Yong; Isaev, Maxim Yu; Ku, Long-Poe; Mikhailov, M.; Redi, M.H; Sanchez, Raul; Subbotin, A; Hirshman, Steven Paul; Cooper, W. Anthony; Monticello, D.; Reiman, A.H.; Zarnstorff, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is extensively analyzed using the most advanced three-dimensional MHD codes. It is shown that the NCSX is stable to finite-n MHD modes, including the vertical mode, external kink modes and ballooning modes. However, high-n external kink modes that peak near the plasma edge are found to be weakly unstable. A global calculation shows that finite-n ballooning modes are significantly more stable than the local infinite-n modes

  8. Ideal quantum reading of optical memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'Arno, Michele; Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Quantum reading is the art of exploiting the quantum properties of light to retrieve classical information stored in an optical memory with low energy and high accuracy. Focusing on the ideal scenario where noise and loss are negligible, we review previous works on the optimal strategies for minimal-error retrieving of information (ambiguous quantum reading) and perfect but probabilistic retrieving of information (unambiguous quantum reading). The optimal strategies largely overcome the optimal coherent protocols (reminiscent of common CD readers), further allowing for perfect discrimination. Experimental proposals for optical implementations of optimal quantum reading are provided.

  9. Kant y el ideal del sabio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Molina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza la posible influencia del estoicismo en algunos aspectos precisos de la ética kantiana. Se intenta defender la tesis de que, aunque Kant critica muchas veces la ética estoica y en especial su eudemonismo, también adopta en su ética algunas de las posiciones estoicas y las incorpora en ciertos aspectos clave de su propia Doctrina de la virtud. En especial, se intenta mostrar cómo adopta Kant el ideal del sabio estoico y una de sus características más notables: la apatía.

  10. Ideal functional outcomes for amputation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Robert H; Melton, Danielle

    2014-02-01

    This article provides a generalized overview of amputation classifications and the idealized outcomes for upper and lower amputations at their respective levels. The following levels are discussed: above knee/transfemoral, below knee/transtibial, above elbow/transhumeral, below elbow/transradial, and bilateral for upper and lower extremities. This classification defines a framework for clinicians to share with patients so that they understand the potential for their expected functional outcomes regarding mobility and activities of daily living, both with and without a prosthesis. Moreover, it addresses some of the vocational and avocational needs of the individual regarding amputation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Computations of ideal and real gas high altitude plume flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiereisen, William J.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    1988-01-01

    In the present work, complete flow fields around generic space vehicles in supersonic and hypersonic flight regimes are studied numerically. Numerical simulation is performed with a flux-split, time asymptotic viscous flow solver that incorporates a generalized equilibrium chemistry model. Solutions to generic problems at various altitude and flight conditions show the complexity of the flow, the equilibrium chemical dissociation and its effect on the overall flow field. Viscous ideal gas solutions are compared against equilibrium gas solutions to illustrate the effect of equilibrium chemistry. Improved solution accuracy is achieved through adaptive grid refinement.

  12. An Inverse Almost Ideal Demand System for Mussels in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien

    2012-01-01

    This study used monthly data on ex-farm prices and quantities of mussels from five major mussel-producing countries in Europe to estimate a nonlinear Inverse Almost Ideal Demand System (IAIDS). The model specification fits well with monthly data from 2002-2008. Uncompensated own-price flexibilities...... for farmed mussels from Spain, France, Italy, and the Netherlands are inflexible, while demand for Denmark's wild stock mussels is flexible. Dutch mussels are deemed a luxury food, while preferences for mussels from other countries appear independent of the level of total expenditure (i.e., homothetic...... preferences). The results also show weak substitution relationships between mussels from these countries....

  13. Prosexual Effect of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae), False Damiana, in a Model of Male Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Reyes, R.; Ferreyra-Cruz, O. A.

    2016-01-01

    Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae) and Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae) are employed in traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs; however, there is no scientific evidence supporting the prosexual properties of C. mexicana. The aim of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of C. mexicana (Cm) stimulates rat male sexual behavior in the sexual exhaustion paradigm. Sexually exhausted (SExh) male rats were treated with Cm (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg), an aqueous extract of T. diffusa (Td), or yohimbine. The sexual exhaustion state in the control group was characterized by a low percentage of males exhibiting mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations and no males demonstrating mating behavior after ejaculation. Cm (320 mg/kg), Td, or yohimbine significantly increased the proportion of SExh rats that ejaculated and resumed copulation after ejaculation. In males that exhibited reversal of sexual exhaustion, Cm (320 mg/kg) improved sexual performance by reducing the number of intromissions and shrinking ejaculation latency. The effects of treatments on sexual behavior were not related with alterations in general locomotion. In conclusion, the prosexual effects of Cm, as well as those of Td, are established at a central level, which supports the traditional use of C. mexicana for stimulating sexual activity. PMID:27656650

  14. Prosexual Effect of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae, False Damiana, in a Model of Male Sexual Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Estrada-Reyes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae and Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae are employed in traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs; however, there is no scientific evidence supporting the prosexual properties of C. mexicana. The aim of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of C. mexicana (Cm stimulates rat male sexual behavior in the sexual exhaustion paradigm. Sexually exhausted (SExh male rats were treated with Cm (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg, an aqueous extract of T. diffusa (Td, or yohimbine. The sexual exhaustion state in the control group was characterized by a low percentage of males exhibiting mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations and no males demonstrating mating behavior after ejaculation. Cm (320 mg/kg, Td, or yohimbine significantly increased the proportion of SExh rats that ejaculated and resumed copulation after ejaculation. In males that exhibited reversal of sexual exhaustion, Cm (320 mg/kg improved sexual performance by reducing the number of intromissions and shrinking ejaculation latency. The effects of treatments on sexual behavior were not related with alterations in general locomotion. In conclusion, the prosexual effects of Cm, as well as those of Td, are established at a central level, which supports the traditional use of C. mexicana for stimulating sexual activity.

  15. Emotional reactions following exposure to idealized bodies predict unhealthy body change attitudes and behaviors in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Sara; Mussap, Alexander J

    2007-06-01

    We explored the extent to which changes in emotional states following exposure to images of idealized bodies predict unhealthy body change attitudes and behaviors in women and men, and whether particular psychological traits mediate these effects. One hundred thirty-three women and 93 men were assessed for unhealthy attitudes and behaviors related to body weight and muscles using the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), the Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire, and the strategies to increase muscles subscale of the Body Change Inventory. Psychological traits assessed included body dissatisfaction (EDI-2), internalization of the thin/athletic ideal (Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3), body comparison (Body Comparison Scale), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory), depression (Beck Depression Inventory-II), and identity confusion (Self-Concept Clarity Scale). Participants were then exposed to photographs of thin female models and muscular male models, and visual analogue scales were used to measure changes in postexposure state body dissatisfaction, anger, anxiety, and depression. Postexposure increases in state anger, anxiety, depression, and body dissatisfaction correlated with drive for thinness and disordered eating symptomatology in women, while postexposure increases in state body dissatisfaction correlated with muscle development in men. Analyses revealed that internalization and body comparison mediated these relationships, with trait body dissatisfaction, trait depression, self-esteem, and self-concept/identity confusion serving as mediators for women only. These results are indicative of gender differences in: (a) reactions to idealized bodies; (b) psychological traits that predispose individuals to experience these reactions; and (c) types of body change behavior that are associated with these reactions.

  16. Rectal Lactobacillus species and their influence on the vaginal microflora: a model of male-to-female transsexual women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petricevic, Ljubomir; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Domig, Konrad J; Kraler, Manuel; Marschalek, Julian; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Kiss, Herbert

    2014-11-01

    Based on Lactobacillus species co-colonizing the vagina and rectum, it has been hypothesized that the rectum may be an important reservoir for vaginal colonization by lactobacilli. There are no data on this issue in male-to-female transsexual women. We undertook this observational study to characterize the Lactobacillus species present in the neovagina and rectum of male-to-female transsexual women and to determine the degree of neovaginal-rectal co-colonization in order to gain a better understanding of the potential role of the gut as a reservoir for genital lactobacilli. Sixty-one male-to-female transsexual women with penile skin lined neovagina without clinical signs of infection were recruited on an ongoing basis from among male-to-female transsexual outpatients. Neovaginal and rectal smears were taken for molecular Lactobacillus species profiling by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Matching Lactobacillus species between neovagina and rectum. Forty-three of the 61 male-to-female transsexual women (70.5%) simultaneously harbored the same lactobacilli in both the neovagina and rectum. We found 276 neovaginal and 258 rectal DGGE bands representing 11 Lactobacillus species, with 201 matches of the same Lactobacillus species in neovagina and rectum. 37 of the 61 women (61%) had two or more matching Lactobacillus species. These data support the hypothesis that the rectum may play an important role as source of Lactobacillus species that colonies neovagina of male-to-female transsexual women. In view of the specific anatomical circumstances of the study population, these findings may be extended to the general population of women. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  17. Tv nyheder: Journalistiske Idealer er under Pres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Line Hassall

    2013-01-01

    som tv-journalisterne ville ønske det. Tv-journalister har mange store idealer om god journalistik og public service. Men de vilkår journalisterne arbejder under gør idealerne nærmest umulige at opnå i dagligdagen. I dag er det ikke de journalistiske idealer men markedskræfterne der driver de...... Journalist” inside Public Service TV Newsrooms in the UK and Denmark’. Under ph.d.- studiet har jeg tilbragt halvandet år med deltager-observation på de fire største tv-redaktioner i England og Danmark. Jeg har observeret og deltaget i det daglige arbejde på redaktionerne hos TV Avisen og TV2 Nyhederne og i...... licensfinansieret tv-station. Men der tog jeg fejl. Jeg ledte efter forskelligheder, men fandt ligheder. Efterhånden som feltstudiet tog fat gik det op for mig at journalisterne på de fire forskellige tv-stationer arbejdede og tænkte ens. Derudover gik det op for mig at mange af journalisterne på de forskelligt...

  18. A civil engineering approach to ideal MHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, V.O.

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that a magnetic field can be conceived as a medium where an isotropic compressive stress, B 2 /2μ 0 , is superimposed on a tensile stress, B 2 /μ 0 , parallel to the lines of force. When a stationary ideal MHD plasma is present in the magnetic field, the particle pressure adds to the magnetic stresses to form a combined stress tensor. Calculations of plasma equilibria based on this concept are very similar to calculations in civil engineering of static structures based on compressive, tensile, and shear stresses. Therefore the very simple physical pictures known from civil engineering when used in plasma physics provide simple physical understanding and facilitate the physical interpretation of the results. In an earlier paper the concept was used to derive and discuss the equilibrium equations for θ-, Z-, and screw pinches and the Grad-Shafranov shift in a tokamak plasma with circular cross sections of the flux surfaces. Here the concept is used to discuss the virial theorem and to obtain a simple physical interpretation of this theorem. We also reconsider the Grad-Shafranov shift in a tokamak plasma and show that a situation where all flux surfaces have circular cross sections cannot be an exact solution to the ideal MHD equations. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs

  19. Prerequisites of ideal safety-critical organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Michiru; Hikono, Masaru; Matsui, Yuko; Goto, Manabu; Sakuda, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the prerequisites of ideal safety-critical organizations, marshalling arguments of 4 areas of organizational research on safety, each of which has overlap: a safety culture, high reliability organizations (HROs), organizational resilience, and leadership especially in safety-critical organizations. The approach taken in this study was to retrieve questionnaire items or items on checklists of the 4 research areas and use them as materials of abduction (as referred to in the KJ method). The results showed that the prerequisites of ideal safety-oriented organizations consist of 9 factors as follows: (1) The organization provides resources and infrastructure to ensure safety. (2) The organization has a sharable vision. (3) Management attaches importance to safety. (4) Employees openly communicate issues and share wide-ranging information with each other. (5) Adjustments and improvements are made as the organization's situation changes. (6) Learning activities from mistakes and failures are performed. (7) Management creates a positive work environment and promotes good relations in the workplace. (8) Workers have good relations in the workplace. (9) Employees have all the necessary requirements to undertake their own functions, and act conservatively. (author)

  20. The Evolving Puzzle of Autosomal Versus Y-linked Male Determination in Musca domestica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Ronda L.; Meisel, Richard P.; Scott, Jeffrey G.

    2014-01-01

    Sex determination is one of the most rapidly evolving developmental pathways, but the factors responsible for this fast evolution are not well resolved. The house fly, Musca domestica, is an ideal model for studying sex determination because house fly sex determination is polygenic and varies considerably between populations. Male house flies possess a male-determining locus, the M factor, which can be located on the Y or X chromosome or any of the five autosomes. There can be a single M or multiple M factors present in an individual male, in heterozygous or homozygous condition. Males with multiple copies of M skew the sex ratio toward the production of males. Potentially in response to these male-biased sex ratios, an allele of the gene transformer, Md-traD, promotes female development in the presence of one or multiple M factors. There have been many studies to determine the linkage and frequency of these male determining factors and the frequency of Md-traD chromosomes in populations from around the world. This review provides a summary of the information available to date regarding the patterns of distribution of autosomal, X-linked and Y-linked M factors, the relative frequencies of the linkage of M, the changes in frequencies found in field populations, and the fitness of males with autosomal M factors vs. Y-linked M. We evaluate this natural variation in the house fly sex determination pathway in light of models of the evolution of sex determination. PMID:25552607

  1. Decomposition of fuzzy continuity and fuzzy ideal continuity via fuzzy idealization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, A.M.; Abbas, S.E.; Abd El-baki, S.A.; Saber, Y.M.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, El-Naschie has shown that the notion of fuzzy topology may be relevant to quantum paretical physics in connection with string theory and E-infinity space time theory. In this paper, we study the concepts of r-fuzzy semi-I-open, r-fuzzy pre-I-open, r-fuzzy α-I-open and r-fuzzy β-I-open sets, which is properly placed between r-fuzzy openness and r-fuzzy α-I-openness (r-fuzzy pre-I-openness) sets regardless the fuzzy ideal topological space in Sostak sense. Moreover, we give a decomposition of fuzzy continuity, fuzzy ideal continuity and fuzzy ideal α-continuity, and obtain several characterization and some properties of these functions. Also, we investigate their relationship with other types of function.

  2. [Masculinity and femininity in self-perceptions and ideals of registered nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kada, Olivia; Brunner, Eva

    2010-08-01

    Despite of intensive professionalisation efforts and changed legal frameworks the public image of nursing is still full of gender-stereotypes. This study investigates to what extend public stereotypes of "typically female" and "typically male" are reflected in the self-concept and ideals of nurses. Using a cross-sectional research design 174 female nurses were surveyed regarding their sex-role orientation and ideals (femininity and masculinity) using a standardized questionnaire (BSRI). Contrary to stereotypes the respondents indentified more with masculine traits. Masculine attributes predominated especially in ideas about the ideal nurse. No differences between nurses who work in different areas could be revealed. In all endeavors regarding autonomy and masculinity the significance of the feminine function of "caring" must not be forgotten. Teachers in healthcare and nursing play a central role in sensibilising students for gender issues.

  3. Role Models without Guarantees: Corrective Representations and the Cultural Politics of a Latino Male Teacher in the Borderlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Michael V.

    2018-01-01

    In recent years mentorship has become a popular 'solution' for struggling boys of color and has led to the recruitment of more male of color teachers. While not arguing against the merits of mentorship, this article critiques what the author deems 'corrective representations.' Corrective representations are the imagined embodiment of proper and…

  4. Brain activation upon ideal-body media exposure and peer feedback in late adolescent girls

    OpenAIRE

    van der Meulen, Mara; Veldhuis, Jolanda; Braams, Barbara R.; Peters, Sabine; Konijn, Elly A.; Crone, Eveline A.

    2017-01-01

    Media?s prevailing thin-body ideal plays a vital role in adolescent girls? body image development, but the co-occurring impact of peer feedback is understudied. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test media imagery and peer feedback combinations on neural activity related to thin-body ideals. Twenty-four healthy female late adolescents rated precategorized body sizes of bikini models (too thin or normal), directly followed by ostensible peer feedback (too t...

  5. Can a charged decaying particle serve as an ideal clock in the presence of a magnetic field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierini, Roberto; Turzyński, Krzysztof; Dragan, Andrzej

    2018-02-01

    We investigate a model of a supposedly ideal clock based on the decay rate of a charged particle in circular motion in a constant magnetic field. We show that the time measured by an ideal clock depends on the acceleration. However, the effect becomes visible at an order of magnitude of 1 028 g , therefore confirming the validity of the ideal clock hypothesis for realistic accelerations.

  6. Thermodynamics of a classical ideal gas at arbitrary temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Palash B.

    2002-01-01

    We propose a fundamental relation for a classical ideal gas that is valid at all temperatures with remarkable accuracy. All thermodynamical properties of classical ideal gases can be deduced from this relation at arbitrary temperature.

  7. Individual deals within teams: Investigating the role of relative i-deals for employee performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidyarthi, Prajya R; Singh, Satvir; Erdogan, Berrin; Chaudhry, Anjali; Posthuma, Richard; Anand, Smriti

    2016-11-01

    The authors extend i-deals theory to an individual-within-a-team context. Drawing upon social comparison theory, they contend that individuals will react to their own i-deals within the context of group members' i-deals. Therefore, they examine the role of relative i-deals (an individual's i-deals relative to the team's average) in relation to employee performance. Furthermore, integrating social comparison theory with social identity theory the authors assert that the behavioral outcomes of relative i-deals are influenced by the team's social and structural attributes of team orientation and task interdependence. Finally, they contend that the perceptions of one's relative standing with the leader, or leader-member exchange social comparison (LMXSC), mediate the i-deals-outcome relationship in groups with low team orientation and task interdependence. Results of multilevel modeling using time-lagged data from 321 employees nested in 46 teams demonstrated that the positive relationship between relative i-deals and employee performance was stronger in groups with low team orientation and task interdependence, and the mediation effect of LMXSC was stronger in teams with low rather than high team orientation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Association of ideal cardiovascular health metrics and cognitive functioning: the APAC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N; Yang, Y; Wang, A; Cao, Y; Li, J; Yang, Y; Zhang, K; Zhang, W; Wu, S; Wang, Z; Zhu, M; Zhang, Y; Wu, S; Wang, C; Zhao, X

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the components of ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics are related to dementia. This study aimed to investigate the overall effects of ideal CVH metrics on cognitive functioning. Information was collected on the seven ideal CVH metrics (smoking, body mass index, dietary intake, physical activity, blood pressure, total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose) from the Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities Community study, and cognitive functioning was assessed by the score of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Multivariate logistic regression and linear regression models were used to assess the relationships between ideal CVH metrics and cognitive functioning. A total of 3260 (56.7% men) patients were included in this study. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the associations between the number or score of ideal CVH metrics and cognitive impairment remained significant [odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval) 0.773 (0.664-0.928) and 0.904 (0.831-0.983), respectively]. In addition, there were significant linear relationships between the number or score of CVH metrics and the score of the MMSE (β = 0.211 and 0.134 respectively, P < 0.001). A clear inverse association was observed between the number or score of ideal CVH metrics and cognitive impairment in a Chinese population, supporting the importance of ideal CVH metrics in prevention of dementia. © 2016 EAN.

  9. Approximations, idealizations and 'experiments' at the physics-biology interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbottom, Darrell P

    2011-06-01

    This paper, which is based on recent empirical research at the University of Leeds, the University of Edinburgh, and the University of Bristol, presents two difficulties which arise when condensed matter physicists interact with molecular biologists: (1) the former use models which appear to be too coarse-grained, approximate and/or idealized to serve a useful scientific purpose to the latter; and (2) the latter have a rather narrower view of what counts as an experiment, particularly when it comes to computer simulations, than the former. It argues that these findings are related; that computer simulations are considered to be undeserving of experimental status, by molecular biologists, precisely because of the idealizations and approximations that they involve. The complexity of biological systems is a key factor. The paper concludes by critically examining whether the new research programme of 'systems biology' offers a genuine alternative to the modelling strategies used by physicists. It argues that it does not. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Engaging distortions: are we idealizing marriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds-Raacke, J M; Bearden, E S; Carriere, N J; Anderson, E M; Nicks, S D

    2001-03-01

    The present study was an investigation of the premarital status of engagement in terms of relationship satisfaction and marital expectations using the Evaluation and Nurturing Relationship Issues, Communication and Happiness (ENRICH) Marital Satisfaction Scale (EMS) and its two subscales of Idealistic Distortion (ID) and Marital Satisfaction (MS) (D. G. Fournier, D. H. Olson, & J. M. Druckman, 1983). There were 104 students (23 men and 81 women), of which 15 were married, 19 were engaged, and 70 had extended dating relationships. On average, participants had been in the relationship for 3.8 years, and the mean age was 22 years. Results demonstrated that individuals engaged to be married had significantly higher idealistic distortion scores (M = 86.89) than did either married individuals (M = 56.67) or those in extended dating relationships (M = 61.19). Finally, a negative relation was found between length of relationships and marital satisfaction subscores. Results are discussed in light of factors contributing to such idealized thinking.

  11. An ideal characterization of the Clifford operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinholt, J. M.

    2014-08-01

    The Clifford operators are an important and well-studied subset of quantum operations, in both the qubit and higher-dimensional qudit cases. While there are many ways to characterize this set, this paper aims to provide an ideal characterization, in the sense that it has the same characterization in every finite dimension, is characterized by a minimal set of gates, is constructive, and does not make any assumptions about non-Clifford operations or resources (such as the use of ancillas or the ability to make measurements). While most characterizations satisfy some of these properties, this appears to be the first characterization satisfying all of the above. As an application, we use these results to briefly analyze characterizations of Clifford embeddings, that is, the action of logical Clifford operations acting on qunits embedded in higher-dimensional qudits, inside the qudit Clifford framework.

  12. Body dissatisfaction and disordered eating among Portuguese and Spanish adolescents: The role of individual characteristics and internalisation of sociocultural ideals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Rita; Espinoza, Paola; González, Marcela L; Penelo, Eva; Mora, Marisol; Rosés, Rocío; Raich, Rosa M

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the differences in patterns of risk factors for body dissatisfaction and disordered eating attitudes in both female and male adolescents from Portugal and Spain. The sample included 455 adolescents aged 12-16 years (M = 13.28, SD = 0.65) from two urban areas of each country. Body mass index, self-reported self-esteem, perfectionism, internalisation of sociocultural ideals, body dissatisfaction and disordered eating attitudes were assessed. Path analyses provided partial support for a cross-cultural model of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in Western countries due to the presence of certain differences in the patterns of relationships across sex and country. The findings suggest the importance not only of identifying cultural specificities, even in "neighbouring" countries, but also of developing a global and comprehensive preventive approach that focuses on the influence of the ideal of beauty transmitted by Western societies. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The direct effect of thin ideal focused adult television on young girls' ideal body figure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Spruijt-Metz, D.; Strien, T. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The present study tested the direct effect of watching thin ideal focused television aimed at (young) adults on body dissatisfaction in preadolescent girls (9-12 years old). A within-subject design was used in which the girls (N=60) were tested three times. They watched three movie clips in random

  14. The direct effect of thin ideal focused adult television on young girls' ideal body figure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Spruijt-Metz, D.; van Strien, T.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The present study tested the direct effect of watching thin-ideal focused television aimed at (young) adults on body dissatisfaction in preadolescent girls (9-12 years old). A within-subject design was used in which the girls (N=60) were tested three times. They watched three movie clips in random

  15. The direct effect of thin ideal focused adult television on young girls' ideal body figure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; van Strien, Tatjana; Engels, Rutger C M E

    The present study tested the direct effect of watching thin-ideal focused television aimed at (young) adults on body dissatisfaction in preadolescent girls (9-12 years old). A within-subject design was used in which the girls (N=60) were tested three times. They watched three movie clips in random

  16. Thought-shape fusion in young healthy females appears after vivid imagination of thin ideals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyssen, Andrea; Coelho, Jennifer S; Wilhelm, Peter; Zimmermann, Grégoire; Munsch, Simone

    2016-09-01

    It has been shown that exposure to female thin ideals in media has minimal to moderate direct effects on body image satisfaction (BIS), mood and dysfunctional eating in healthy young women. Evidence has been found for several intervening variables such as social comparison processes. Accordingly it is assumed, that cognitive processing (rather than mere media exposure) is crucial. Consequently, vivid imagination of thin ideals after exposure to a fashion magazine was induced in order to trigger cognitive processes. Changes in mood, BIS and resulting bodyrelated cognitive distortions (Thought-Shape Fusion Body, TSF-B) were assessed. A total of 91 healthy women (mean age 21.9 years, SD = 2.0) were exposed to either a fashion magazine (thin-ideal group) or a nature magazine (control group) in a waiting room design. Afterwards they were instructed to vividly imagine either the thin ideals or landscapes. When exposed to thin ideals, a significant decrease in mood and BIS emerged after vivid imagination, but not after mere magazine exposure. Imagining thin ideals triggered body-related cognitive distortions (TSF-B). A higher degree of eating disorder (ED) symptomatology amplified this effect. These findings apply to young healthy females and cannot be generalized to samples with obesity, EDs or males. Internal validity is limited since the intensity of the exposure has not been systematically controlled. Vivid imagination of thin ideals promoted by magazines results in impaired mood and BIS and moreover in body-related cognitive distortions (TSF-B) in healthy women, especially, for those with stronger ED symptomatology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gender differences in body image and preferences for an ideal silhouette among Brazilian undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laus, Maria Fernanda; Costa, Telma Maria Braga; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the accuracy of body size estimation and body dissatisfaction among Brazilian undergraduates and their relationships with perceptions of the ideal body silhouettes that would be selected by same-gender and opposite-gender peers. A total of 159 undergraduates (79 males) from a public University in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil, participated in the study. They completed a Figure Rating Scale and indicated the figure that best describes the size of their own body (actual), their desired body, the body they judged would be ideal to same-gender peers, and the body they judged would be ideal to opposite-gender peers. The results showed that women were less precise in estimating their actual size and more dissatisfied. The mean Body Mass Index (BMI) that was selected as “current” by women was significantly higher than their desired and ideal BMIs, whereas the mean BMIs that were selected by men were practically the same. Men and women selected ideal silhouettes for their own gender that were the same as those that were selected as ideal by the opposite gender. The mean BMIs that were actually chosen by men and women as desired and ideal were closer to the upper end of normal weight and lower end of overweight, respectively. Such results contradict what has been assumed to be a normative characteristic of men and women in several countries, raising some doubts regarding the role of beliefs about judgments of the opposite gender in the development of body image disturbances.

  18. Moral Identity as Moral Ideal Self: Links to Adolescent Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Sam A.; Walker, Lawrence J.; Olsen, Joseph A.; Woodbury, Ryan D.; Hickman, Jacob R.

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to conceptualize moral identity as moral ideal self, to develop a measure of this construct, to test for age and gender differences, to examine links between moral ideal self and adolescent outcomes, and to assess purpose and social responsibility as mediators of the relations between moral ideal self and outcomes.…

  19. Promoting Spiritual Ideals through Design Thinking in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charlene; Wong, Yew-Leong

    2012-01-01

    Against a backdrop of the debates on religious education in public or state schools, we argue for the introduction of "spiritual ideals" into the public school curriculum. We distinguish our notion of spiritual ideals from "religious ideals" as conceptualised by De Ruyter and Merry. While we agree with De Ruyter and Merry that…

  20. Characterization of Distributive and Standard Ideals in Semilattices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    introduced and studied by Hashimoto (1952); and Gratzer and Schmidt (1961). Properties of distributive ideals of Birkhoff (1967) are considered in our work. In this paper we studied the notion of distributive (dually) ideal and standard ideal in a semilattice of Gratzer (1978) and produced a characterization theorem of ...

  1. A novel psychophysiological model of the effect of alcohol use on academic performance of male medical students of Belarusian State Medical University

    OpenAIRE

    Menizibeya O. Welcome; Elena V. Pereverzeva; Vladimir A. Pereverzev

    2010-01-01

    Background: The blood glucose concentration might determine the degree of academic performance. Decrease in the glucose concentration leads to a lowering of cognitive functions. Objectives: To produce a model of students’ alcohol use based on glucose homeostasis control and cognitive functions.Methods: The study involved 13 male volunteers (8 moderate alcohol users and 5 non-alcohol users) – medical students and took 6.5 hours on fasting. Selection criteria were based on a screening survey co...

  2. The effects of stereotypes of women's performance in male-dominated hierarchies: Stereotype threat activation and reduction through role models

    OpenAIRE

    Latu, V.; Schmid Mast, M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent progress in increasing gender equality in organizations, workplace hierarchies remain male-dominated in most domains. We discuss how gender stereotypes contribute to holding women back in leadership and workplace domains and how we can reduce the negative effects of gender stereotypes. In the first part of the chapter we discuss how awareness of negative stereotypes of women in leadership can decrease women's performance and self-related cognitions in leadership tasks such as m...

  3. Pubertal timing and sexual risk behaviors among rural African American male youth: testing a model based on life history theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Steven M; Cho, Junhan; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Allen, Kimberly A; Beach, Steven R H; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2015-04-01

    Life History Theory (LHT), a branch of evolutionary biology, describes how organisms maximize their reproductive success in response to environmental conditions. This theory suggests that challenging environmental conditions will lead to early pubertal maturation, which in turn predicts heightened risky sexual behavior. Although largely confirmed among female adolescents, results with male youth are inconsistent. We tested a set of predictions based on LHT with a sample of 375 African American male youth assessed three times from age 11 to age 16. Harsh, unpredictable community environments and harsh, inconsistent, or unregulated parenting at age 11 were hypothesized to predict pubertal maturation at age 13; pubertal maturation was hypothesized to forecast risky sexual behavior, including early onset of intercourse, substance use during sexual activity, and lifetime numbers of sexual partners. Results were consistent with our hypotheses. Among African American male youth, community environments were a modest but significant predictor of pubertal timing. Among those youth with high negative emotionality, both parenting and community factors predicted pubertal timing. Pubertal timing at age 13 forecast risky sexual behavior at age 16. Results of analyses conducted to determine whether environmental effects on sexual risk behavior were mediated by pubertal timing were not significant. This suggests that, although evolutionary mechanisms may affect pubertal development via contextual influences for sensitive youth, the factors that predict sexual risk behavior depend less on pubertal maturation than LHT suggests.

  4. Lipolysis of emulsion models of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins is altered in male patients with abdominal aorta aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Hosni

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of the lipid metabolism may play a role in the genesis of abdominal aorta aneurysm. The present study examined the intravascular catabolism of chylomicrons, the lipoproteins that carry the dietary lipids absorbed by the intestine in the circulation in patients with abdominal aorta aneurysm. Thirteen male patients (72 ± 5 years with abdominal aorta aneurysm with normal plasma lipid profile and 13 healthy male control subjects (73 ± 5 years participated in the study. The method of chylomicron-like emulsions was used to evaluate this metabolism. The emulsion labeled with 14C-cholesteryl oleate and ³H-triolein was injected intravenously in both groups. Blood samples were taken at regular intervals over 60 min to determine the decay curves. The fractional clearance rate (FCR of the radioactive labels was calculated by compartmental analysis. The FCR of the emulsion with ³H-triolein was smaller in the aortic aneurysm patients than in controls (0.025 ± 0.017 vs 0.039 ± 0.019 min-1; P < 0.05, but the FCR of14C-cholesteryl oleate of both groups did not differ. In conclusion, as indicated by the triglyceride FCR, chylomicron lipolysis is diminished in male patients with aortic aneurysm, whereas the remnant removal which is traced by the cholesteryl oleate FCR is not altered. The results suggest that defects in the chylomicron metabolism may represent a risk factor for development of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  5. From the ideal market to the ideal clinic: constructing a normative standard of fairness for human subjects research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Trisha

    2011-02-01

    Preventing exploitation in human subjects research requires a benchmark of fairness against which to judge the distribution of the benefits and burdens of a trial. This paper proposes the ideal market and its fair market price as a criterion of fairness. The ideal market approach is not new to discussions about exploitation, so this paper reviews Wertheimer's inchoate presentation of the ideal market as a principle of fairness, attempt of Emanuel and colleagues to apply the ideal market to human subjects research, and Ballantyne's criticisms of both the ideal market and the resulting benchmark of fairness. It argues that the criticism of this particular benchmark is on point, but the rejection of the ideal market is mistaken. After presenting a complete account of the ideal market, this paper proposes a new method for applying the ideal market to human subjects research and illustrates the proposal by considering a sample case.

  6. Scaling up ideals to freedom: are densities of red knots across western Europe consistent with ideal free distribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaintenne, Gwenaël; van Gils, Jan A; Bocher, Pierrick; Dekinga, Anne; Piersma, Theunis

    2011-09-22

    Local studies have shown that the distribution of red knots Calidris canutus across intertidal mudflats is consistent with the predictions of an ideal distribution, but not a free distribution. Here, we scale up the study of feeding distributions to their entire wintering area in western Europe. Densities of red knots were compared among seven wintering sites in The Netherlands, UK and France, where the available mollusc food stocks were also measured and from where diets were known. We tested between three different distribution models that respectively assumed (i) a uniform distribution of red knots over all areas, (ii) a uniform distribution across all suitable habitat (based on threshold densities of harvestable mollusc prey), and (iii) an ideal and free distribution (IFD) across all suitable habitats. Red knots were not homogeneously distributed across the different European wintering areas, also not when considering suitable habitats only. Their distribution was best explained by the IFD model, suggesting that the birds are exposed to interference and have good knowledge about their resource landscape at the spatial scale of NW Europe, and that the costs of movement between estuaries, at least when averaged over a whole winter, are negligible. This journal is © 2011 The Royal Society

  7. Is an Ideal Sense of Humor Gendered? A Cross-National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Sümeyra; Faghihi, Nafiseh; Vaid, Jyotsna

    2018-01-01

    To explore lay conceptions of characteristics of an ideal sense of humor as embodied in a known individual, our study examined elicited written narratives by male and female participants from three different countries of origin: United States, Iran, and Turkey. As reported in an earlier previous study with United States-based participants (Crawford and Gressley, 1991), our study also found that the embodiment of an ideal sense of humor was predominantly a male figure. This effect was more pronounced for male than for female participants but did not differ by country. Relative mention of specific humor characteristics differed by participant gender and by country of origin. Whereas all groups mentioned creativity most often as a component of an ideal sense of humor, this attribute was mentioned significantly more often by Americans than by the other two groups; hostility/sarcasm was also mentioned significantly more often by Americans than Turkish participants who mentioned it more often than Iranian participants. Caring was mentioned significantly more often by Americans and Iranians than by Turkish participants. These findings show a shared pattern of humor characteristics by gender but group differences in the relative prominence given to specific humor characteristics. Further work is needed to corroborate the group differences observed and to pinpoint their source.

  8. Fuel switching in Harare: An almost ideal demand system approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambwera, Muyeye; Folmer, Henk

    2007-01-01

    In urban areas several energy choices are available and the amount of (a given type of) fuel consumed is based on complex household decision processes. This paper analyzes urban fuel (particularly firewood) demand in an energy mix context by means of an Almost Ideal Demand System based on a survey carried out among 500 households in Harare in 2003. Using a multi-stage budgeting approach, the model estimates the share of energy in total household expenditure and the shares of firewood, electricity and kerosene in total energy expenditure. Using the model results simulations show that the main policy handles to reduce the demand for firewood and to mitigate environmental degradation such as deforestation include decreasing prices of alternative fuels, notably kerosene. Moreover, in the long run sound economic policy will positively impact on the energy budget whereas education and the degree of electrification will contribute to a reduction of the use of firewood

  9. Small metal particles and the ideal Fermi gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barma, Mustanpir

    1991-01-01

    Kubo's theoretical model of a small metal particle consists of a number of noninteraction electrons (an ideal Fermi gas) confined to a finite volume. By 'small' it meant that the size of the particle is intermediate between that of a few atoms cluster and the bulk solid, the radius of the particle being 5 to 50 Angstroms. The model is discussed and size dependence of various energy scales is studied. For a fermi gas confined in a sphere or a cube, two size-dependent energy scales are important. The inner scale δ is the mean spacing between successive energy levels. It governs the very low temperature behaviour. The outer scale Δ is associated with the shell structure when δ ≤T<Δ, thermodynamic properties show an oscillatory fluctuations around a smooth background as the size or energy is varied. (M.G.B.) 23 refs

  10. Evulvalution: the portrayal of women's external genitalia and physique across time and the current barbie doll ideals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Vanessa R; Rima, Brandi N; Calabrese, Sarah K

    2011-01-01

    Media images of the female body commonly represent reigning appearance ideals of the era in which they are published. To date, limited documentation of the genital appearance ideals in mainstream media exists. Analysis 1 sought to describe genital appearance ideals (i.e., mons pubis and labia majora visibility, labia minora size and color, and pubic hair style) and general physique ideals (i.e., hip, waist, and bust size, height, weight, and body mass index [BMI]) across time based on 647 Playboy Magazine centerfolds published between 1953 and 2007. Analysis 2 focused exclusively on the genital appearance ideals embodied by models in 185 Playboy photographs published between 2007 and 2008. Taken together, results suggest the perpetuation of a "Barbie Doll" ideal characterized by a low BMI, narrow hips, a prominent bust, and hairless, undefined genitalia resembling those of a prepubescent female.

  11. The cyclicity of a cubic system with nonradical Bautin ideal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levandovskyy, Viktor; Romanovski, Valery G.; Shafer, Douglas S.

    We present a method for investigating the cyclicity of an elementary focus or center of a polynomial system of differential equations by means of complexification of the system and application of algorithms of computational algebra, showing an approach to treating the case that the Bautin ideal B of focus quantities is not a radical ideal (more precisely, when the ideal B is not radical, where B is the ideal generated by the shortest initial string of focus quantities that, like the Bautin ideal, determines the center variety). We illustrate the method with a family of cubic systems.

  12. Estimation of the Ideal Binary Mask using Directional Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldt, Jesper; Kjems, Ulrik; Pedersen, Michael Syskind

    2008-01-01

    The ideal binary mask is often seen as a goal for time-frequency masking algorithms trying to increase speech intelligibility, but the required availability of the unmixed signals makes it difficult to calculate the ideal binary mask in any real-life applications. In this paper we derive the theory...... and the requirements to enable calculations of the ideal binary mask using a directional system without the availability of the unmixed signals. The proposed method has a low complexity and is verified using computer simulation in both ideal and non-ideal setups showing promising results....

  13. The effect of priming materialism on women's responses to thin-ideal media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashikali, Eleni-Marina; Dittmar, Helga

    2012-12-01

    Consumer culture is characterized by two prominent ideals: the 'body perfect' and the material 'good life'. Although the impact of these ideals has been investigated in separate research literatures, no previous research has examined whether materialism is linked to women's responses to thin-ideal media. Data from several studies confirm that the internalization of materialistic and body-ideal values is positively linked in women. After developing a prime for materialism (N = 50), we present an experimental examination (N = 155) of the effects of priming materialism on women's responses to thin-ideal media, using multiple outcome measures of state body dissatisfaction. Priming materialism affects women's body dissatisfaction after exposure to thin media models, but differently depending on the dimension of body image measured. The two main novel findings are that (1) priming materialism heightens the centrality of appearance to women's self-concept and (2) priming materialism influences the activation of body-related self-discrepancies (BRSDs), particularly for highly materialistic women. Exposure to materialistic media has a clear influence on women's body image, with trait materialism a further vulnerability factor for negative exposure effects in response to idealized, thin media models. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Ideal Cardiovascular Health Metrics Are Associated with Disability Independently of Vascular Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravana Devulapalli

    Full Text Available Vascular risk factors may be associated with disability independently of vascular events. We examined whether the American Heart Association's 7 ideal cardiovascular health (CVH metrics were independently associated with disability in a nationally representative cohort.Adults age ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2012 were included. Ideal CVH was calculated as a composite of 7 measures, each scored 0-2. Primary predictors were number of ideal CVH metrics and score of CVH metrics. The outcome was a dichotomous score from 20 activities of daily living (ADL and instrumental ADLs. Unadjusted and adjusted weighted logistic models estimated associations between ideal CVH and disability. The data were analyzed in 2015.Among 22692 participants, mean age was 46.9 years. Cardiac disease and stroke were present in 6.6% and 2.8%; 90.3% had poor physical activity and 89.9% poor diet. Among 3975 individuals with full CVH data, in fully adjusted models, OR for disability was 0.90 (95% CI 0.83-0.98 per point increase in ideal CVH score, and 0.84 (0.73-0.97 per additional number of ideal CVH metrics.CVH metrics were strongly and significantly associated with reduced odds of disability independently of vascular and non-vascular conditions. Poorer CVH may cause subclinical vascular disease resulting in disability.

  15. Host Nectin-1 Promotes Chlamydial Infection in the Female Mouse Genital Tract, but Is Not Required for Infection in a Novel Male Murine Rectal Infection Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Slade

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted pathogen, but more than 70% of patients fail to seek treatment due to the asymptomatic nature of these infections. Women suffer from numerous complications from chronic chlamydial infections, which include pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. We previously demonstrated in culture that host cell nectin-1 knockdown significantly reduced chlamydial titers and inclusion size. Here, we sought to determine whether nectin-1 was required for chlamydial development in vivo by intravaginally infecting nectin-1-/- mice with Chlamydia muridarum and monitoring chlamydial shedding by chlamydial titer assay. We observed a significant reduction in chlamydial shedding in female nectin-1-/- mice compared to nectin-1+/+ control mice, an observation that was confirmed by PCR. Immunohistochemical staining in mouse cervical tissue confirmed that there are fewer chlamydial inclusions in Chlamydia-infected nectin-1-/- mice. Notably, anorectal chlamydial infections are becoming a substantial health burden, though little is known regarding the pathogenesis of these infections. We therefore established a novel male murine model of rectal chlamydial infection, which we used to determine whether nectin-1 is required for anorectal chlamydial infection in male mice. In contrast to the data from vaginal infection, no difference in rectal chlamydial shedding was observed when male nectin-1+/+ and nectin-1-/- mice were compared. Through the use of these two models, we have demonstrated that nectin-1 promotes chlamydial infection in the female genital tract but does not appear to contribute to rectal infection in male mice. These models could be used to further characterize tissue and sex related differences in chlamydial infection.

  16. Negotiated media effects. Peer feedback modifies effects of media's thin-body ideal on adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Jolanda; Konijn, Elly A; Seidell, Jacob C

    2014-02-01

    The present study introduces a theoretical framework on negotiated media effects. Specifically, we argue that feedback of peers on thin-body ideal media images and individual dispositions guide effects on adolescent girls' psychosocial responses to media exposure. Therefore, we examined the thin-body ideal as portrayed in media and peers' feedback on such thin-ideal images in their combined effects on adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction, objectified body consciousness, and social comparison with media models. Hence, media models and peer comments were systematically combined as incorporated entities in YouTube-formats. Hypotheses were tested in a 3 (media models: extremely thin vs. thin vs. normal weight)×3 (peer comments: 6kg-underweight vs. 3kg-underweight vs. normal-weight)×2 (appearance schematicity: lower vs. higher) between-subjects design (N=216). Results showed that peer comments indicating that a media model was 'only 3kg-underweight' exerted most negative responses, particularly in girls who strongly process appearance relevant information. Peer feedback interacts with media models in guiding perceptions of what is considered an 'ideal' body shape. Results highlight the important role of peers as well as individual predispositions in view of understanding how thin-ideal media images may impact adolescent girls' body image concerns. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. PENGEMBANGAN PERANGKAT PEMBELAJARAN TEOREMA PYTHAGORAS DENGAN PENDEKATAN IDEAL BERBANTUAN GEOGEBRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulan Fitriyani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan tingkat kevalidan, kepraktisan, dan keefektifan hasil pengembangan perangkat pembelajaran Teorema Pythagoras dengan pendekatan IDEAL berbantuan GeoGebra ditinjau dari prestasi dan motivasi belajar matematika siswa. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian dan pengembangan dengan model 4-D dari Thiagarajan, Semmel, & Semmel. Tahapannya meliputi define, design, develop, dan disseminate. Penelitian dilakukan pada siswa kelas VIII SMP Negeri 3 Pati dengan satu kelas uji coba yang dipilih secara acak. Data dikumpulkan melalui tes kemampuan penyelesaian masalah (TKPM, angket motivasi, lembar validasi, dan lembar penilaian guru dan siswa. Instrumen TKPM digunakan untuk mengetahui prestasi dan daya serap siswa, angket motivasi untuk mengetahui skor motivasi belajar matematika siswa, lembar validasi untuk mengetahui kevalidan produk yang dikembangkan, dan lembar penilaian oleh guru dan siswa untuk mengetahui tingkat kepraktisan produk yang dikembangkan. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis secara deskriptif kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa: (1 produk perangkat pembelajaran yang dikembangkan dalam penelitian ini berupa silabus, RPP, dan LKS sangat valid; (2 produk perangkat pembelajaran yang dikembangkan sangat praktis bagi guru dan siswa; dan (3 produk perangkat pembelajaran telah memenuhi kriteria sangat efektif ditinjau dari prestasi dan motivasi belajar siswa, sebanyak 83,33% siswa berhasil mencapai KKM yang ditetapkan dan 87,5% siswa memiliki motivasi belajar matematika yang tinggi. Kata Kunci: Teorema Pythagoras, IDEAL, GeoGebra

  18. Noise Production of an Idealized Two-Dimensional Fish School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenhoffer, Nathan; Moored, Keith; Jaworski, Justin

    2017-11-01

    The analysis of quiet bio-inspired propulsive concepts requires a rapid, unified computational framework that integrates the coupled fluid-solid dynamics of swimmers and their wakes with the resulting noise generation. Such a framework is presented for two-dimensional flows, where the fluid motion is modeled by an unsteady boundary element method with a vortex-particle wake. The unsteady surface forces from the potential flow solver are then passed to an acoustic boundary element solver to predict the radiated sound in low-Mach-number flows. The coupled flow-acoustic solver is validated against canonical vortex-sound problems. A diamond arrangement of four airfoils are subjected to traveling wave kinematics representing a known idealized pattern for a school of fish, and the airfoil motion and inflow values are derived from the range of Strouhal values common to many natural swimmers. The coupled flow-acoustic solver estimates and analyzes the hydrodynamic performance and noise production of the idealized school of swimmers.

  19. Comparison between male and female rats in a model of self-administration of a chocolate-flavored beverage: Behavioral and neurochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contini, Andrea; Sanna, Fabrizio; Maccioni, Paola; Colombo, Giancarlo; Argiolas, Antonio

    2018-05-15

    The existence of sex differences was studied in a rat model of operant self-administration of a chocolate-flavored beverage (CFB), which possesses strong reinforcing properties and is avidly consumed by rats. Whether these differences occurred concomitantly to changes in extracellular dopamine in the dialysate obtained from the nucleus accumbens, was assessed by intracerebral microdialysis. Male, ovariectomized and intact female rats showed similar self-administration profiles, with minor differences in both acquisition and maintenance phases. Intact females self-administered larger amounts of CFB, when expressed per body weight, than males and ovariectomized females, in spite of similar values of lever-responding, latency to the first lever-response and consumption efficiency (a measure of rat's licking effectiveness) in males, ovariectomized and intact females and no difference in breakpoint value and number of lever-responses emerged when males, ovariectomized and intact females were exposed to a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Intracerebral microdialysis revealed a slight but significant increase in dopamine activity in the shell of the nucleus accumbens of male rats when compared to intact female rats during CFB self-administration. The above differences may be caused by the hormonal (mainly estradiol) fluctuations that occur during the estrus cycle in intact females. Accordingly, in intact females CFB self-administration and dopamine activity were found to fluctuate across the estrus cycle, with lower parameters of CFB self-administration and lower dopamine activity in the Proestrus and Estrus phases vs. the Metestrus and Diestrus phases of the cycle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. In the ideal condition an experimental study on migration of radon and its daughters in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Bing; Zhang Jinzhao; Wang Qing

    2010-01-01

    According to the relevant theory of thermodynamics, this presentation which based on the radon migration of the cluster theory has deduced ordinarily the ideal velocity period and displacement. The purpose was to establish the theoretical model of migration of radon and its daughters in the atmosphere in the ideal case, which would provide a underlying theoretical basis for the further research. (authors)

  1. Ideal glass transitions by random pinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammarota, Chiara; Biroli, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    We study the effect of freezing the positions of a fraction c of particles from an equilibrium configuration of a supercooled liquid at a temperature T. We show that within the random first-order transition theory pinning particles leads to an ideal glass transition for a critical fraction c = cK(T) even for moderate supercooling; e.g., close to the Mode-Coupling transition temperature. First we derive the phase diagram in the T - c plane by mean field approximations. Then, by applying a real-space renormalization group method, we obtain the critical properties for |c - cK(T)| → 0, in particular the divergence of length and time scales, which are dominated by two zero-temperature fixed points. We also show that for c = cK(T) the typical distance between frozen particles is related to the static point-to-set length scale of the unconstrained liquid. We discuss what are the main differences when particles are frozen in other geometries and not from an equilibrium configuration. Finally, we explain why the glass transition induced by freezing particles provides a new and very promising avenue of research to probe the glassy state and ascertain, or disprove, the validity of the theories of the glass transition. PMID:22623524

  2. [Tuberculosis and the modern ideal of living].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, T C

    2003-08-20

    Sunlight and fresh air belong to the everyday life's myths. It has influenced our times and personal lives as much as industrialization. Today we are hardly aware of the multiple and omnipresent consequences of this myth. The modern movement with all its facets including modern architecture is barely conceivable without it. What is the link between this triad with all its effects and tuberculosis, the oldest and most important infectious disease which still claims more than 3 million deaths per year worldwide? Tuberculosis was treated by sunlight and fresh air at all times. This treatment was at its zenith during the second half of the 19th century after Hermann Brehmer had initiated this treatment within sanatoria in 1862. The sanatorium vogue lasted until the middle of the last century when streptomycin was isolated by Selman Waksman 1943. A new type of hospital was necessary for treating the patients with sunlight and fresh air: the sanatorium with its wide windows, sheltered open balconies, terraces and "Liegehallen". In return, this airy type of building was the forrunner of a new architectural style, called "Neues Bauen". The latter has profoundly influenced our modern ideal of living since Le Corbusiier built the Villa Savoye, one of the architectural highlights of the 20th century.

  3. Axisymmetric ideal magnetohydrodynamic equilibria with incompressible flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasso, H.; Throumoulopoulos, G.N.

    1997-12-01

    It is shown that the ideal MHD equilibrium states of an axisymmetric plasma with incompressible flows are governed by an elliptic partial differential equation for the poloidal magnetic flux function ψ containing five surface quantities along with a relation for the pressure. Exact equilibria are constructed including those with non vanishing poloidal and toroidal flows and differentially varying radial electric fields. Unlike the case in cylindrical incompressible equilibria with isothermal magnetic surfaces which should have necessarily circular cross sections [G. N. Throumoulopoulos and H. Tasso, Phys. Plasmas 4, 1492 (1997)], no restriction appears on the shapes of the magnetic surfaces in the corresponding axisymmetric equilibria. The latter equilibria satisfy a set of six ordinary differential equations which for flows parallel to the magnetic field B can be solved semianalytically. In addition, it is proved the non existence of incompressible axisymmetric equilibria with (a) purely poloidal flows and (b) non-parallel flows with isothermal magnetic surfaces and vertical stroke B vertical stroke = vertical stroke B vertical stroke (ψ) (omnigenous equilibria). (orig.)

  4. Field topologies in ideal and near-ideal magnetohydrodynamics and vortex dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, B. C.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic field topology frozen in ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and its breakage in near-ideal MHD are reviewed in two parts, clarifying and expanding basic concepts. The first part gives a physically complete description of the frozen field topology derived from magnetic flux conservation as the fundamental property, treating four conceptually related topics: Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions of three dimensional (3D) MHD, Chandrasekhar-Kendall and Euler-potential field representations, magnetic helicity, and inviscid vortex dynamics as a fluid system in physical contrast to ideal MHD. A corollary of these developments clarifies the challenge of achieving a high degree of the frozen-in condition in numerical MHD. The second part treats field-topology breakage centered around the Parker Magnetostatic Theorem on a general incompatibility of a continuous magnetic field with the dual demand of force-free equilibrium and an arbitrarily prescribed, 3D field topology. Preserving field topology as a global constraint readily results in formation of tangential magnetic discontinuities, or, equivalently, electric current-sheets of zero thickness. A similar incompatibility is present in the steady force-thermal balance of a heated radiating fluid subject to an anisotropic thermal flux conducted strictly along its frozen-in magnetic field in the low- β limit. In a weakly resistive fluid the thinning of current sheets by these general incompatibilities inevitably results in sheet dissipation, resistive heating and topological changes in the field notwithstanding the small resistivity. Strong Faraday induction drives but also macroscopically limits this mode of energy dissipation, trapping or storing free energy in self-organized ideal-MHD structures. This property of MHD turbulence captured by the Taylor hypothesis is reviewed in relation to the Sun's corona, calling for a basic quantitative description of the breakdown of flux conservation in the low-resistivity limit

  5. The antidepressant-like effect of Mentha spicata essential oil in animal models of depression in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Jedi-Behnia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Previous researches have revealed analgesic and sedative properties of Mentha spicata (MS. The aim of present study was to evaluate the antidepressant effects of MS essential oil in forced swim test (FST and tail suspension test (TST in male mice. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study, 84 male mice were randomly divided into 14 groups of 6: Negative control groups received normal saline (10 ml/kg,i.p., positive control groups received fluoxetine (20mg/kg, i.p. and imipramine (30mg/kg and treatment groups received MS essential oil (30, 60,120 and 240 mg/kg i.p.. In FST, immobility time, swimming time and climbing time and immobility time in TST were recorded in six minutes. Results: Findings indicated that essential oil at doses of 120 and 240 mg/kg, fluoxetine and imipramine reduced immobility time compared to control group in FST and TST (p0.05. In contrast, imipramine increased climbing time without any significant change in swimming time (p>0.05. Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study, MS essential oil has antidepressant-like activity similar to fluoxetine and probably their compounds (especially carvone with serotonergic mechanism induced their effect. However, further studies are needed to determine the precise mechanism of its action.

  6. Application of the ideal profile method to identify an ideal sufu for nonregular consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan Ping; Chung, Hau Yin

    2018-02-06

    Sufu is a fermented soybean food with unique odor, flavor, and texture, which might not be appreciated by nonregular consumers. To identify the attributes that nonregular consumers appreciated, 12 commercial products bought from a Hong Kong market were tested by 113 consumers according to the ideal profile method (IPM), and rated on 22 attributes. Data provided from nonregular consumers were consistent at both panel and consumer levels. The predicted ideal profile received a higher hedonic score (7.0) than the tested products (6.0). Compared with commercial samples, the ideal sufu has low intensity in the attributes of fermented (aroma and flavor), moldy (aroma), and hard (texture), but high intensity in the soybean-like (aroma and flavor) and sesame oil-like (aroma and flavor) attributes. IPM could be used as an alternative approach to collect sensory profiles and preference data directly from consumers for product characterization. It could also be applied to identify the attributes that nonregular consumers appreciated. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. O ideal de Baudelaire por Walter Benjamin Baudelaire's ideal by Walter Benjamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Ferreira Gatti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo examina a interpretação feita por Walter Benjamin dos poemas de Charles Baudelaire marcados pela noção de ideal, a qual se opõe ao spleen. Benjamin encontra aí o esforço de rememoração de uma experiência plena, a qual constituiria, por sua vez, um elemento essencial à compreensão da modernidade como impossibilidade desta forma de experiência. Com as noções de beleza e de aura, o artigo busca ainda salientar a importância da categoria da distância para a configuração desta forma de experiência.This paper examines the interpretation made by Walter Benjamin of Baudelaire's poems determined by the notion of Ideal, which is opposed to the concept of spleen. The Ideal is identified by Benjamin as the effort of remembrance of a full experience, which constitutes an essential element to the understanding of modernity as the impossibility of such kind of experience. At last the explanation of the concepts of beauty and aura is introduced to emphasize the importance of the category of distance to the configuration of this form of experience.

  8. Love as a regulative ideal in surrogate decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonestreet, Erica Lucast

    2014-10-01

    This discussion aims to give a normative theoretical basis for a "best judgment" model of surrogate decision making rooted in a regulative ideal of love. Currently, there are two basic models of surrogate decision making for incompetent patients: the "substituted judgment" model and the "best interests" model. The former draws on the value of autonomy and responds with respect; the latter draws on the value of welfare and responds with beneficence. It can be difficult to determine which of these two models is more appropriate for a given patient, and both approaches may seem inadequate for a surrogate who loves the patient. The proposed "best judgment" model effectively draws on the values incorporated in each of the traditional standards, but does so because these values are important to someone who loves a patient, since love responds to the patient as the specific person she is. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Reconstruction of head-to-knee voxel model for Syrian adult male of average height and weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashira Taleb

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Comparisons with SAFs data of Zubal model accentuated the fact that the organ masses and the specific anatomy have a significant effect on SAFs. SyrMan model can be considered as the first model built in the Middle East region, and it is an important step toward the Syrian Reference Man.

  10. Targeting HIV services to male migrant workers in southern Africa would not reverse generalized HIV epidemics in their home communities: a mathematical modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Daniel J; Eckhoff, Philip A; Bershteyn, Anna

    2015-03-01

    Migrant populations such as mine workers contributed to the spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. We used a mathematical model to estimate the community-wide impact of targeting treatment and prevention to male migrants. We augmented an individual-based network model, EMOD-HIV v0.8, to include an age-dependent propensity for males to migrate. Migrants were exposed to HIV outside their home community, but continued to participate in HIV transmission in the community during periodic visits. Migrant-targeted interventions would have been transformative in the 1980s to 1990s, but post-2015 impacts were more modest. When targetable migrants comprised 2% of adult males, workplace HIV prevention averted 3.5% of community-wide infections over 20 years. Targeted treatment averted 8.5% of all-cause deaths among migrants. When migrants comprised 10% of males, workplace prevention averted 16.2% of infections in the community, one-quarter of which were among migrants. Workplace prevention and treatment acted synergistically, averting 17.1% of community infections and 11.6% of deaths among migrants. These estimates do not include prevention of secondary spread of HIV or tuberculosis at the workplace. Though cost-effective, targeting migrants cannot collapse generalized epidemics in their home communities. Such a strategy would only have been possible prior to the early 1990s. However, migrant-targeted interventions synergize with general-population expansion of HIV services. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. A New Look at Genetic and Environmental Architecture on Lipids Using Non-Normal Structural Equation Modeling in Male Twins: The NHLBI Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sheng-Hui; Ozaki, Koken; Reed, Terry; Krasnow, Ruth E; Dai, Jun

    2017-07-01

    This study examined genetic and environmental influences on the lipid concentrations of 1028 male twins using the novel univariate non-normal structural equation modeling (nnSEM) ADCE and ACE models. In the best fitting nnSEM ADCE model that was also better than the nnSEM ACE model, additive genetic factors (A) explained 4%, dominant genetic factors (D) explained 17%, and common (C) and unique (E) environmental factors explained 47% and 33% of the total variance of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The percentage of variation explained for other lipids was 0% (A), 30% (D), 34% (C) and 37% (E) for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C); 30, 0, 31 and 39% for total cholesterol; and 0, 31, 12 and 57% for triglycerides. It was concluded that additive and dominant genetic factors simultaneously affected HDL-C concentrations but not other lipids. Common and unique environmental factors influenced concentrations of all lipids.

  12. Association of thin-ideal media exposure, body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors among adolescents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Lee, Ching-Mei; Chen, Ping-Hung; Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Pan, Yun-Chieh; Huang, Tzu-Fu

    2013-08-01

    The present study examined the relationships between thin-ideal media exposure, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating behaviors among adolescents in Taiwan. A total of 2992 students in the 10th grade were recruited from 26 high schools in Taipei, Taiwan to complete a questionnaire in 2010. The results showed that the adolescents were exposed to thin-ideal messages a few times a week. Females had higher levels of thin-ideal media exposure, media pressure to be thin, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating behaviors than males. Multivariate logistic regression results indicated that media pressure and thin-deal internalization significantly increased the likelihood of body dissatisfaction, while media pressure and body dissatisfaction contributed to both restrained eating and unhealthy weight control behaviors, when all other variables were controlled for. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A validated age-related normative model for male total testosterone shows increasing variance but no decline after age 40 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Li, Lucy Q; Mitchell, Rod T; Whelan, Ashley; Anderson, Richard A; Wallace, W Hamish B

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of hypogonadism in human males includes identification of low serum testosterone levels, and hence there is an underlying assumption that normal ranges of testosterone for the healthy population are known for all ages. However, to our knowledge, no such reference model exists in the literature, and hence the availability of an applicable biochemical reference range would be helpful for the clinical assessment of hypogonadal men. In this study, using model selection and validation analysis of data identified and extracted from thirteen studies, we derive and validate a normative model of total testosterone across the lifespan in healthy men. We show that total testosterone peaks [mean (2.5-97.5 percentile)] at 15.4 (7.2-31.1) nmol/L at an average age of 19 years, and falls in the average case [mean (2.5-97.5 percentile)] to 13.0 (6.6-25.3) nmol/L by age 40 years, but we find no evidence for a further fall in mean total testosterone with increasing age through to old age. However we do show that there is an increased variation in total testosterone levels with advancing age after age 40 years. This model provides the age related reference ranges needed to support research and clinical decision making in males who have symptoms that may be due to hypogonadism.

  14. [Relationship between 'ideal' cardiovascular behaviors and factors and the incidence of hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caifeng; Shi, Jihong; Huang, Zhe; Li, Huiying; Wei, Xiaoming; Lin, Liming; Xing, Aijun; Chen, Shuohua; Wu, Shouling

    2014-05-01

    To explore the relationship between 'ideal' cardiovascular behaviors and factors and the incidence of hypertension. A prospective cohort study including 52 133 workers who had participated in the 2006-2007 Kailuan health examination without history of cerebral infraction, myocardial infarction or hypertension but with complete data, was carried out. All workers were followed on their occurrence of hypertension. According to the AHA definition of 'ideal' cardiovascular health behaviors and factors, the cumulative incidence rates of hypertension in different groups were calculated under the life table method, and compared by Log-rank test, Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the hazard rations and 95% confidence intervals for baseline behaviors and factors. The cumulative incidence rates of hypertension according 0-1, 2, 3, 4, 5-7 ideal cardiovascular health behaviors and factors were 65.72%, 59.14%, 54.59%, 50.24% and 34.22%, respectively in the 0-1, 2, 3, 4, 5-7 groups. Data from the Cox proportional hazards model showed that after adjusting for age, education level and family history of hypertension, the ones who had 2, 3, 4, 5-7 ideal cardiovascular behaviors/factors were 0.75, 0.69, 0.63, 0.36 times more than those who had 0-1 ideal behaviors. The incidence of hypertension and risk reduced along with the increase of ideal cardiovascular health behaviors and factors.

  15. The predictive validity of ideal partner preferences: a review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwick, Paul W; Luchies, Laura B; Finkel, Eli J; Hunt, Lucy L

    2014-05-01

    A central element of interdependence theory is that people have standards against which they compare their current outcomes, and one ubiquitous standard in the mating domain is the preference for particular attributes in a partner (ideal partner preferences). This article reviews research on the predictive validity of ideal partner preferences and presents a new integrative model that highlights when and why ideals succeed or fail to predict relational outcomes. Section 1 examines predictive validity by reviewing research on sex differences in the preference for physical attractiveness and earning prospects. Men and women reliably differ in the extent to which these qualities affect their romantic evaluations of hypothetical targets. Yet a new meta-analysis spanning the attraction and relationships literatures (k = 97) revealed that physical attractiveness predicted romantic evaluations with a moderate-to-strong effect size (r = ∼.40) for both sexes, and earning prospects predicted romantic evaluations with a small effect size (r = ∼.10) for both sexes. Sex differences in the correlations were small (r difference = .03) and uniformly nonsignificant. Section 2 reviews research on individual differences in ideal partner preferences, drawing from several theoretical traditions to explain why ideals predict relational evaluations at different relationship stages. Furthermore, this literature also identifies alternative measures of ideal partner preferences that have stronger predictive validity in certain theoretically sensible contexts. Finally, a discussion highlights a new framework for conceptualizing the appeal of traits, the difference between live and hypothetical interactions, and the productive interplay between mating research and broader psychological theories.

  16. Media-portrayed idealized images, self-objectification, and eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, Fiona J; Huon, Gail F

    2006-11-01

    This study examined the effects of media-portrayed idealized images on young women's eating behavior. The study compared the effects for high and low self-objectifiers. 72 female university students participated in this experiment. Six magazine advertisements featuring idealized female models were used as the experimental stimuli, and the same six advertisements with the idealized body digitally removed became the control stimuli. Eating behavior was examined using a classic taste test that involved both sweet and savory food. Participants' restraint status was assessed. We found that total food intake after exposure was the same in the body present and absent conditions. There were also no differences between high and low self-objectifiers' total food intake. However, for the total amount of food consumed and for sweet food there were significant group by condition interaction effects. High self-objectifiers ate more food in the body present than the body absent condition. In contrast, low self-objectifiers ate more food in the body absent than in the body present condition. Restraint status was not found to moderate the relationship between exposure to idealized images the amount of food consumed. Our results indicate that exposure to media-portrayed idealized images can lead to changes in eating behavior and highlight the complexity of the association between idealized image exposure and eating behavior. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for the prevention of dieting-related disorders.

  17. When and why do ideal partner preferences affect the process of initiating and maintaining romantic relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwick, Paul W; Finkel, Eli J; Eagly, Alice H

    2011-11-01

    Three studies explored how the traits that people ideally desire in a romantic partner, or ideal partner preferences, intersect with the process of romantic relationship initiation and maintenance. Two attraction experiments in the laboratory found that, when participants evaluated a potential romantic partner's written profile, they expressed more romantic interest in a partner whose traits were manipulated to match (vs. mismatch) their idiosyncratic ideals. However, after a live interaction with the partner, the match vs. mismatch manipulation was no longer associated with romantic interest. This pattern appeared to have emerged because participants reinterpreted the meaning of the traits as they applied to the partner, a context effect predicted by classic models of person perception (S. E. Asch, 1946). Finally, a longitudinal study of middle-aged adults demonstrated that participants evaluated a current romantic partner (but not a partner who was merely desired) more positively to the extent that the partner matched their overall pattern of ideals across several traits; the match in level of ideals (i.e., high vs. low ratings) was not relevant to participants' evaluations. In general, the match between ideals and a partner's traits may predict relational outcomes when participants are learning about a partner in the abstract and when they are actually in a relationship with the partner, but not when considering potential dating partners they have met in person.

  18. Toward an ideal animal model to trace donor cell fates after stem cell therapy: production of stably labeled multipotent mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow of transgenic pigs harboring enhanced green fluorescence protein gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, F S H; Lian, W S; Lin, S P; Lin, C J; Lin, Y S; Cheng, E C H; Liu, C W; Cheng, C C; Cheng, P H; Ding, S T; Lee, K H; Kuo, T F; Cheng, C F; Cheng, W T K; Wu, S C

    2011-11-01

    The discovery of postnatal mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) with their general multipotentiality has fueled much interest in the development of cell-based therapies. Proper identification of transplanted MSC is crucial for evaluating donor cell distribution, differentiation, and migration. Lack of an efficient marker of transplanted MSC has precluded our understanding of MSC-related regenerative studies, especially in large animal models such as pigs. In the present study, we produced transgenic pigs harboring an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. The pigs provide a reliable and reproducible source for obtaining stable EGFP-labeled MSC, which is very useful for donor cell tracking after transplantation. The undifferentiated EGFP-tagged MSC expressed a greater quantity of EGFP while maintaining MSC multipotentiality. These cells exhibited homogeneous surface epitopes and possessed classic trilineage differentiation potential into osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages, with robust EGFP expression maintained in all differentiated progeny. Injection of donor MSC can dramatically increase the thickness of infarcted myocardium and improve cardiac function in mice. Moreover, the MSC, with their strong EGFP expression, can be easily distinguished from the background autofluorescence in myocardial infarcts. We demonstrated an efficient, effective, and easy way to identify MSC after long-term culture and transplantation. With the transgenic model, we were able to obtain stem or progenitor cells in earlier passages compared with the transfection of traceable markers into established MSC. Because the integration site of the transgene was the same for all cells, we lessened the potential for positional effects and the heterogeneity of the stem cells. The EGFP-transgenic pigs may serve as useful biomedical and agricultural models of somatic stem cell biology.

  19. Koers and the ideal of Christian scholarship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniël F.M. Strauss

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Commemorating the 75-year existence of the journal Koers is connected to the Reformational tradition, from Calvin to Kuyper, Stoker, Dooyeweerd and Vollenhoven – all thinkers who realised that the biblical starting point of life indeed touches the heart, the religious root, of humankind and therefore cannot remain restricted to church life and religion in its narrow sense, but must come to expression in all walks of life. This awareness was a fruit of the Christian worldview and lifeview which currently is confronted by the Big Bang claims and by neo-Darwinism – both movements taking on cultic dimensions with an intolerance towards everyone who does not accept their perspective. Their attitude generated serious reactions on two websites, the impact of which was discussed in this article. Some problems entailed in Darwinism and physicalistic materialism were highlighted, before attention was given to the status of natural laws and normative principles. Particular attention was given to the elimination of God’s law and the way in which modern Humanism explored the two cornerstones of modern nominalism, up to the point where human understanding was elevated to become the a priori formal law-giver of nature. This legacy was continued both by the later developments within the Baden school of neo-Kantian thought and Postmodernism,which is placed within the context of the three succeeding epistemic ideals of the past three centuries. Rationality can only fulfil its true calling when it accounts for the cohering diversity within reality without becoming a victim of any form of reductionism – and by following this guiding star, Koers will continue to strengthen its invaluable contribution to the advancement of Christian scholarship.

  20. White noise excited non-ideal elasto-plastic oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Tarp-Johansen, Niels Jacob

    1997-01-01

    , and are in file available for analysis. The column connection between the two top traverses were made of aluminum with a linear-elastic non-ideal plastic behavior, and the columns were therefore renewed after each experiment. The two other connections were made of steel with a purely linear-elastic behavior...... of the plastic displacement process. This paper presents a determination of the experimentally estimated statistical properties of the plastic response by use of Slepian model process theory as the basis for a numerical simulation algorithm. Solely the given defining parameters of the experimental flame are used...... on an oscillator of more than one degree of freedom. Applied to the experimental frame the calculations give excellent predictions of the main distributional properties of the plastic displacement process....