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Sample records for model holds true

  1. Linear Regression Models for Estimating True Subsurface ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    47

    of the processing time and memory space required to carry out the inversion with the. 29. SCLS algorithm. ... consumption of time and memory space for the iterative computations to converge at. 54 minimum data ..... colour scale and blanking as the observed true resistivity models, for visual assessment. 163. The accuracy ...

  2. Does the Sauerbrey equation hold true for binding of peptides and globular proteins to a QCM?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean E. Sohna Sohna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The term ‘microbalance’ arose after Sauerbrey showed a mass per unit area dependence on sensor frequency change for thin, solid films on a QCM. Others have extrapolated this relationship to interactions with biological ‘soft’ matter using acoustic wave devices. We rigorously examined the relationship between QCM frequency change and the molecular weight of protein and peptide analytes on a RAP♦id 4™ system using more than 120 individual assays. A series of amino acid, peptides and proteins with molecular weight from 372 to 150,000 Da constituting a molecular weight ladder were biotinylated with a target biotin/protein ratio close to one to minimize avidity effects. Analyte concentration and contact time were chosen so as to attain near saturation of an anti-biotin antibody surface. The series resistance and resonant frequency changes (dF and dR arising from a 5-parameter fit of the imaginary component of the impedance signal were analysed, giving a linear relationship (R2 = 0.98 between frequency response and analyte molecular weight, even down to level of a single amino-acid. As predicted by theory, there was also a linear relationship between the changes in density and viscosity of the liquid in contact with the sensor and both dF and dR. The resistance and resonance frequency changes recorded for mixtures of deuterium oxide and glycerol were the sum of changes induced by each individual liquid. Hence the Sauerbrey equation for mass per unit area dependence of QCM signal does hold true for peptides and proteins in a liquid.

  3. Linear Regression Models for Estimating True Subsurface ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    47

    The objective is to minimize the processing time and computer memory required .... Survey. 65 time to acquire extra GPR or seismic data for large sites and picking the first arrival time. 66 to provide the needed datasets for the joint inversion are also .... The data utilized for the regression modelling was acquired from ground.

  4. A conceptual holding model for veterinary applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Ferrè

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial references are required when geographical information systems (GIS are used for the collection, storage and management of data. In the veterinary domain, the spatial component of a holding (of animals is usually defined by coordinates, and no other relevant information needs to be interpreted or used for manipulation of the data in the GIS environment provided. Users trying to integrate or reuse spatial data organised in such a way, frequently face the problem of data incompatibility and inconsistency. The root of the problem lies in differences with respect to syntax as well as variations in the semantic, spatial and temporal representations of the geographic features. To overcome these problems and to facilitate the inter-operability of different GIS, spatial data must be defined according to a “schema” that includes the definition, acquisition, analysis, access, presentation and transfer of such data between different users and systems. We propose an application “schema” of holdings for GIS applications in the veterinary domain according to the European directive framework (directive 2007/2/EC - INSPIRE. The conceptual model put forward has been developed at two specific levels to produce the essential and the abstract model, respectively. The former establishes the conceptual linkage of the system design to the real world, while the latter describes how the system or software works. The result is an application “schema” that formalises and unifies the information-theoretic foundations of how to spatially represent a holding in order to ensure straightforward information-sharing within the veterinary community.

  5. A mathematical model of aerosol holding chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Madsen, J; Berg, E

    1999-01-01

    A mathematical model of aerosol delivery from holding chambers (spacers) was developed incorporating tidal volume (VT), chamber volume (Vch), apparatus dead space (VD), effect of valve insufficiency and other leaks, loss of aerosol by immediate impact on the chamber wall, and fallout of aerosol...... in the chamber with time. Four different spacers were connected via filters to a mechanical lung model, and aerosol delivery during "breathing" was determined from drug recovery from the filters. The formula correctly predicted the delivery of budesonide aerosol from the AeroChamber (Trudell Medical, London......-mentioned factors, initial loss of aerosol by impact on the chamber wall is most important for the efficiency of a spacer. With a VT of 195 mL, the AeroChamber and Babyhaler were emptied in two breaths, the NebuChamber in four breaths, and the Nebuhaler in six breaths. Insufficiencies of the expiratory valves were...

  6. A mathematical model of aerosol holding chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Madsen, J; Berg, E

    1999-01-01

    A mathematical model of aerosol delivery from holding chambers (spacers) was developed incorporating tidal volume (VT), chamber volume (Vch), apparatus dead space (VD), effect of valve insufficiency and other leaks, loss of aerosol by immediate impact on the chamber wall, and fallout of aerosol...... in the chamber with time. Four different spacers were connected via filters to a mechanical lung model, and aerosol delivery during "breathing" was determined from drug recovery from the filters. The formula correctly predicted the delivery of budesonide aerosol from the AeroChamber (Trudell Medical, London......, Ontario, Canada), NebuChamber (Astra, Södirtälje, Sweden) and Nebuhaler (Astra) adapted for babies. The dose of fluticasone proportionate delivered by the Babyhaler (Glaxco Wellcome, Oxbridge, Middlesex, UK) was 80% of that predicted, probably because of incomplete priming of this spacer. Of the above...

  7. Optical Monte Carlo modeling of a true portwine stain anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Jennifer K.; Pfefer, T. Joshua; Welch, Ashley J.; Smithies, Derek J.; Nelson, Jerry; van Gemert, Martin J.

    1998-04-01

    A unique Monte Carlo program capable of accommodating an arbitrarily complex geometry was used to determine the energy deposition in a true port wine stain anatomy. Serial histologic sections taken from a biopsy of a dark red, laser therapy resistant stain were digitized and used to create the program input for simulation at wavelengths of 532 and 585 nm. At both wavelengths, the greatest energy deposition occurred in the superficial blood vessels, and subsequently decreased with depth as the laser beam was attenuated. However, more energy was deposited in the epidermis and superficial blood vessels at 532 nm than at 585 nm.

  8. True dose from incorporated activities. Models for internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breustedt, B.; Eschner, W.; Nosske, D.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of doses after incorporation of radionuclides cannot use direct measurements of the doses, as for example dosimetry in external radiation fields. The only observables are activities in the body or in excretions. Models are used to calculate the doses based on the measured activities. The incorporated activities and the resulting doses can vary by more than seven orders of magnitude between occupational and medical exposures. Nevertheless the models and calculations applied in both cases are similar. Since the models for the different applications have been developed independently by ICRP and MIRD different terminologies have been used. A unified terminology is being developed. (orig.)

  9. Still Having Her Say: More than a Decade after Becoming a Household Name, Harvard Law Professor Lani Guinier Holds True to Her Beliefs, Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the accomplishments of Lani Guinier, Bennett Boskey Professor of Law at Harvard University law school. The first and only African American woman to hold a tenured faculty position at the Harvard University law school, Guinier has put her visibility to use by speaking out on issues of race, gender and democratic…

  10. Determination of true bed thickness using folded bed model and borehole data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S.S.; Velasquillo-Martinez, L.G.; Grajales-Nishimura, J.M.; Murillo-Muneton, G. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico); Garcia-Hernandez, J. [Petroleos Mexicanos Exploracion y Produccion, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Nieto-Samaniego, A.F. [Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Univ., Veracruz (Mexico). Centro de Geociencias

    2007-11-15

    The actual thickness of a given formation perpendicular to the bedding plane is known as the true bed thickness. Petroleum engineers rely on information regarding true bed thickness, particularly in dipping beds and in deviated holes because reservoir volume and isochore maps depend on these properties and not on the measured thickness. True bed thickness can be estimated from information gathered from well logs such as the dipmeter and borehole images. However, when deviations and dips exceed 10 degrees, corrections are needed. In this paper, a folded bed model was proposed to calculate the true bed thickness in the subsurface utilizing well log data. The value of true bed thickness (t) was shown to depend on the angle and the direction of the dip of the measured formation, as well as the drift angle and azimuth of the borehole. A case study from the Cantarell oil field in the southern Gulf of Mexico, offshore Campeche, was used to test the folded bed method. The model was shown to yield more uniform spatial change of the values of t, compared to the monoclinal bed model that often overestimates the average value of t. The maximum relative deviation of t from the monoclinal bed model reached 22.3 per cent and the maximum absolute deviation of t reached 34.5 m. The key factors that influence the values of t were found to be the bed dip, the dip difference between the top and base of the bed and the deviated angle of the well. The folded bed model yielded fewer changed values of the true bed thickness. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  11. Searching for the true diet of marine predators: incorporating Bayesian priors into stable isotope mixing models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Chiaradia

    Full Text Available Reconstructing the diet of top marine predators is of great significance in several key areas of applied ecology, requiring accurate estimation of their true diet. However, from conventional stomach content analysis to recent stable isotope and DNA analyses, no one method is bias or error free. Here, we evaluated the accuracy of recent methods to estimate the actual proportion of a controlled diet fed to a top-predator seabird, the Little penguin (Eudyptula minor. We combined published DNA data of penguins scats with blood plasma δ(15N and δ(13C values to reconstruct the diet of individual penguins fed experimentally. Mismatch between controlled (true ingested diet and dietary estimates obtained through the separately use of stable isotope and DNA data suggested some degree of differences in prey assimilation (stable isotope and digestion rates (DNA analysis. In contrast, combined posterior isotope mixing model with DNA Bayesian priors provided the closest match to the true diet. We provided the first evidence suggesting that the combined use of these complementary techniques may provide better estimates of the actual diet of top marine predators- a powerful tool in applied ecology in the search for the true consumed diet.

  12. Organizational suggestion system in the era of holding by developing an innovative model : the case of bonyade ta avon holding in Iran(an applied model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Ghasemi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the popular ways of taking advantage of personnel creativity is through suggestionsystems. Our main question is how to implement suggestion system in holding with conglomeratestructure. The paper presents an innovative model that were named ITFSK Model with accordanceof Bonayade Taavone (a holding that has many companies and institutions with conglomeratestructure. ITFSK is a model that explains how participation management and suggestion system isimplemented effectively in huge Enterprises (holding and this approach brings continuousimprovement (kaizen and it impacts the productivity of these enterprises.The paper is based on field research and the research in Bonyade Tavan that has 22 companies and2 institutions that activity fields of the subholdings is very varied.Our model consists of five main parts such as ideas bank, think-tank, feedback, sharing ofknowledge and kaizen that was named ITFSK.Implementation of “Suggestion system” rules has immediate and significant effects on theproductivity of activities in the jobs, thus influencing the performance of processes in the analyzedorganization. Suggestion system can result in kaizen and innovation in environment oforganization.The model was used to implement and evaluate a suggestion system of holding with conglomeratedstructure. The application of the model to evaluate the suggestion system provided some goodinsights and highlighted some areas of improvement.

  13. Final report of the TRUE Block Scale project. 1. Characterisation and model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Peter; Byegaard, Johan; Dershowitz, Bill; Doe, Thomas; Hermanson, Jan; Meier, Peter; Tullborg, Eva-Lena; Winberg, Anders

    2002-04-01

    The general objectives of the TRUE Block Scale Project were to 1) increase understanding of tracer transport in a fracture network and to improve predictive capabilities, 2) assess the importance of tracer retention mechanisms (diffusion and sorption) in a fracture network, and 3) assess the link between flow and transport data as a means for predicting transport phenomena. During the period mid 1996 through mid 1999 a 200x250x100 m rock volume was characterised with the purpose of furnishing the basis for successful tracer experiments in a network of conductive structures in the block scale (10-100 m). In total five cored boreholes were drilled as part of the project in an iterative mode with a period of analysis following completion of characterisation, and with a strong component of inter activity with numerical modelling and experimental design, particularly towards the end of the characterisation. The combined use of pressure responses due to drilling and drilling records provided important early information/confirmation of the existence and location of a given structure. Verification of conductors identified from pressure responses was achieved through the use of various flow logging techniques. The usage of the Posiva difference flow log towards the end of the characterisation work enabled identification of discrete conductive fractures with a high resolution. Pressure responses collected during drilling were used to obtain a first assessment of connectivity between boreholes. The transient behaviour of the responses collected during cross-hole interference tests in packed-off boreholes were used to identify families of responses, which correlated well with the identified principal families of structures/fracture networks. The conductive geometry of the investigated rock block is made up of steeply dipping deterministic NW structures and NNW structures. High inflows in the boreholes were for the most part associated with geologically/geometrically identified

  14. Final report of the TRUE Block Scale project. 1. Characterisation and model development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Peter; Byegaard, Johan [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden); Dershowitz, Bill; Doe, Thomas [Golder Associates Inc., Redmond, WA (United States); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates AB (Sweden); Meier, Peter [ANDRA, Chatenay-Malabry (France); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB (Sweden); Winberg, Anders (ed.) [Conterra AB, Partille (Sweden)

    2002-04-01

    The general objectives of the TRUE Block Scale Project were to 1) increase understanding of tracer transport in a fracture network and to improve predictive capabilities, 2) assess the importance of tracer retention mechanisms (diffusion and sorption) in a fracture network, and 3) assess the link between flow and transport data as a means for predicting transport phenomena. During the period mid 1996 through mid 1999 a 200x250x100 m rock volume was characterised with the purpose of furnishing the basis for successful tracer experiments in a network of conductive structures in the block scale (10-100 m). In total five cored boreholes were drilled as part of the project in an iterative mode with a period of analysis following completion of characterisation, and with a strong component of inter activity with numerical modelling and experimental design, particularly towards the end of the characterisation. The combined use of pressure responses due to drilling and drilling records provided important early information/confirmation of the existence and location of a given structure. Verification of conductors identified from pressure responses was achieved through the use of various flow logging techniques. The usage of the Posiva difference flow log towards the end of the characterisation work enabled identification of discrete conductive fractures with a high resolution. Pressure responses collected during drilling were used to obtain a first assessment of connectivity between boreholes. The transient behaviour of the responses collected during cross-hole interference tests in packed-off boreholes were used to identify families of responses, which correlated well with the identified principal families of structures/fracture networks. The conductive geometry of the investigated rock block is made up of steeply dipping deterministic NW structures and NNW structures. High inflows in the boreholes were for the most part associated with geologically/geometrically identified

  15. Economy of scale still holds true

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The economic merits of larger generating units have been questioned and have become subject to doubt and controversy. A 1980 study by Sargent and Lundy concluded that economy of scale still held. But some of the basic factors and major assumptions used in that study have changed. An update of those results, which also looks at whether reduced load growth rates affect the study's conclusions, finds economy of scale still applies

  16. Comparison of a multi-breath-hold and a single breath-hold cine imaging approach for 4D guide-point modeling of the left ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmaier, C.; Schlosser, T.; Nassenstein, K.; Bruder, O.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Guide-point modeling (GPM) enables reliable and time-efficient assessment of left ventricular (LV) volumes when using sequences that allow acquisition of short- and long-axis scans within a single breath-hold. Slice misalignment may influence GPM analysis of standard multi-breath-hold images due to image acquisition in different breath-holds. Thus, our study aimed to assess if such an approach allows for reliable volumetric calculations in the clinical routine. Materials and Methods: 52 patients were examined on a 1.5 T scanner with multi-breath-hold acquisitions on the standard short- and long-axis using an SSFP (TR 3 ms, TE 1.5 ms, FA 60 ) sequence and a TPAT accelerated SSFP (TR 4.6 msec, TE 1.1msec, FA 60 , acceleration factor 3) sequence that covered the LV in 3 short- and 2 long-axis slices within a single breath-hold. For both datasets GPM was used to assess LV volumes. In addition, LV parameters were calculated by applying the summation of slices (SoS) approach (standard of reference) with the short-axis views of the multi-breath-hold dataset. Results: The post-processing times were shorter with both GPM approaches (both, p 0.97). Conclusion: Cine short- and long-axis images that had been acquired in different breath-holds can be reliably evaluated by the GPM approach. (orig.)

  17. A Bayesian model to estimate the true 3-D shadowing correction in sonic anemometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, J. M.; Massman, W. J.; Ewers, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    Sonic anemometers are the principal instruments used in micrometeorological studies of turbulence and ecosystem fluxes. Recent studies have shown the most common designs underestimate vertical wind measurements because they lack a correction for transducer and structural shadowing; there is no consensus describing a true correction. We introduce a novel Bayesian analysis with the potential to resolve the three-dimensional (3-D) correction by optimizing differences between anemometers mounted simultaneously vertical and horizontal. The analysis creates a geodesic grid around the sonic anemometer, defines a state variable for the 3-D correction at each point, and assigns each a prior distribution based on literature with ±10% uncertainty. We use the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method to update and apply the 3-D correction to a dataset of 20-Hz sonic anemometer measurements, calculate five-minute standard deviations of the Cartesian wind components, and compare these statistics between vertical and horizontal anemometers. We present preliminary analysis of the CSAT3 anemometer using 642 grid points (±4.5° resolution) from 423 five-minute periods (8,964,000 samples) collected during field experiments in 2011 and 2013. The 20-Hz data was not equally distributed around the grid; half of the samples occurred in just 8% of the grid points. For populous grid points (weighted by the abundance of samples) the average correction increased from prior to posterior (+5.4±10.0% to +9.1±9.5%) while for desolate grid points (weighted by the sparseness of samples) there was minimal change (+6.4±10.0% versus +6.6±9.8%), demonstrating that with a sufficient number of samples the model can determine the true correction is ~67% higher than proposed in recent literature. Future adaptions will increase the grid resolution and sample size to reduce the uncertainty in the posterior distributions and more precisely quantify the 3-D correction.

  18. Final report of the TRUE Block Scale project. 3. Modelling of flow and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poteri, Antti [VTT Processes, Helsinki (Finland); Billaux, Daniel [Itasca Consultants SA, Ecully (France); Dershowitz, William [Golder Associates Inc., Redmond, WA (United States); Gomez-Hernandez, J. Jaime [Univ. Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). Dept. of Hydrahulic and Environmental Engineering; Cvetkovic, Vladimir [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Water Resources Engineering; Hautojaervi, Aimo [Posiva Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland); Holton, David [Serco Assurance, Harwell (United Kingdom); Medina, Agustin [UPC, Barcelona (Spain); Winberg, Anders (ed.) [Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    A series of tracer experiments were performed as part of the TRUE Block Scale experiment over length scales ranging from 10 to 100 m. The in situ experimentation was preceded by a comprehensive iterative characterisation campaign - the results from one borehole was used to update descriptive models and provide the basis for continued characterisation. Apart from core drilling, various types of laboratory investigations, core logging, borehole TV imaging and various types of hydraulic tests (single hole and cross-hole) were performed. Based on the characterisation data a hydro structural model of the investigated rock volume was constructed including deterministic structures and a stochastic background fracture population, and their material properties. In addition, a generic microstructure conceptual model of the investigated structures was developed. Tracer tests with radioactive sorbing tracers performed in three flow paths were preceded by various pre-tests including tracer dilution tests, which were used to select suitable configurations of tracer injection and pumping in the established borehole array. The in situ experimentation was preceded by formulation of basic questions and associated hypotheses to be addressed by the tracer tests and the subsequent evaluation. The hypotheses included address of the validity of the hydro structural model, the effects of heterogeneity and block scale retention. Model predictions and subsequent evaluation modelling was performed using a wide variety of model concepts. These included stochastic continuum, discrete feature network and channel network models formulated in 3D, which also solved the flow problem. In addition, two 'single channel' approaches (Posiva Streamtube and LaSAR extended to the block scale) were employed. A common basis for transport was formulated. The difference between the approaches was found in how heterogeneity is accounted for, both in terms of number of different types of immobile zones

  19. An in vitro lung model to assess true shunt fraction by multiple inert gas elimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balamurugan Varadarajan

    Full Text Available The Multiple Inert Gas Elimination Technique, based on Micropore Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry, (MMIMS-MIGET has been designed as a rapid and direct method to assess the full range of ventilation-to-perfusion (V/Q ratios. MMIMS-MIGET distributions have not been assessed in an experimental setup with predefined V/Q-distributions. We aimed (I to construct a novel in vitro lung model (IVLM for the simulation of predefined V/Q distributions with five gas exchange compartments and (II to correlate shunt fractions derived from MMIMS-MIGET with preset reference shunt values of the IVLM. Five hollow-fiber membrane oxygenators switched in parallel within a closed extracorporeal oxygenation circuit were ventilated with sweep gas (V and perfused with human red cell suspension or saline (Q. Inert gas solution was infused into the perfusion circuit of the gas exchange assembly. Sweep gas flow (V was kept constant and reference shunt fractions (IVLM-S were established by bypassing one or more oxygenators with perfusate flow (Q. The derived shunt fractions (MM-S were determined using MIGET by MMIMS from the retention data. Shunt derived by MMIMS-MIGET correlated well with preset reference shunt fractions. The in vitro lung model is a convenient system for the setup of predefined true shunt fractions in validation of MMIMS-MIGET.

  20. The use of suspension models and comparison with true weightlessness. [Animal Model Workshop on Gravitational Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Ellis, S.

    1985-01-01

    A resume is presented of various papers concerning the effect of weightlessness on particular physiological and biochemical phenomena in animal model systems. Findings from weightlessness experiments on earth using suspension models are compared with results of experiments in orbit. The biological phenomena considered include muscle atrophy, changes in the endocrine system, reduction in bone formation, and changes in the cardiovascular system.

  1. [Multispectral Radiation Algorithm Based on Emissivity Model Constraints for True Temperature Measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Mei; Sun, Xiao-gang; Luan, Mei-sheng

    2015-10-01

    Temperature measurement is one of the important factors for ensuring product quality, reducing production cost and ensuring experiment safety in industrial manufacture and scientific experiment. Radiation thermometry is the main method for non-contact temperature measurement. The second measurement (SM) method is one of the common methods in the multispectral radiation thermometry. However, the SM method cannot be applied to on-line data processing. To solve the problems, a rapid inversion method for multispectral radiation true temperature measurement is proposed and constraint conditions of emissivity model are introduced based on the multispectral brightness temperature model. For non-blackbody, it can be drawn that emissivity is an increasing function in the interval if the brightness temperature is an increasing function or a constant function in a range and emissivity satisfies an inequality of emissivity and wavelength in that interval if the brightness temperature is a decreasing function in a range, according to the relationship of brightness temperatures at different wavelengths. The construction of emissivity assumption values is reduced from multiclass to one class and avoiding the unnecessary emissivity construction with emissivity model constraint conditions on the basis of brightness temperature information. Simulation experiments and comparisons for two different temperature points are carried out based on five measured targets with five representative variation trends of real emissivity. decreasing monotonically, increasing monotonically, first decreasing with wavelength and then increasing, first increasing and then decreasing and fluctuating with wavelength randomly. The simulation results show that compared with the SM method, for the same target under the same initial temperature and emissivity search range, the processing speed of the proposed algorithm is increased by 19.16%-43.45% with the same precision and the same calculation results.

  2. Modeling of transmission and DLG factors for a TrueBeam STX; Modelagem dos fatores de transmissão e DLG para um TrueBeam STX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Laís B.; Pavan, Guilherme A.; Camargo, André V.; Santoni, Letícia M.; Silva, Diego C. S. A. [Hospital de Câncer de Barretos, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    For the rounded leaf-end Multi Leaf Collimator (MLC), the Eclipse planning system (Varian) requires the measurement of the Transmission Factor (FT) and Dosimetric Leaf Gap (DLG) for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT). The use of these factors obtained by the methodology proposed by Varian may not guarantee the best agreement in quality assurance (QA) of patients, while the modeling of these factors makes it possible to obtain an 'optimal' value by reducing the differences between doses measured / calculated. The objective of this work was to measure the FT and DLG of a TrueBeam accelerator (TB) with different setups and detectors, model these parameters and validate the results applying the AAPM-TG119 methodology using the Portal Dosimetry (PD) system. To obtain FT and DLG (6MV, 6FFF, 10MV and 10FFF), DICOM plans supplied by Varian and Farmer ionization chamber and CC13 were used in different setups. For the modeling, the dose measured with the Farmer chamber was initially used in VMAT plans for prostate and head and neck. From the obtained data, interactively the values of the FT and DLG were altered by searching for a higher oil index (> 95%) in the 1% 1mm criterion using the PD. Finally, all planning of TG119 with IMRT and VMAT were measured using PD. The measured values were: 6X [(FT = 1.1% / 1.0%) (DLG = 0.044cm / 0.12cm)], 10X [(FT = 1.3% / 1.3% (FT = 0.93% / 0.4%) (DLG = 0.036cm / 0.05cm)], 10FFF [(FT = 1.14% / 1.05%) (DLG = 0.048 Cm / 0.05cm)]. The mean acceptance percentages for the gamma criterion 1% 1mm of the TG119 schedules with VMAT / IMRT after modeling were 6X: 96% / 76%; 10X: 98% / 95%; 6FFF: 97% / 87%; 10FFF: 97% / 82%. The modeling of FT and DLG is useful to improve the accuracy of patient quality assurance, but the choice of detector and the technique used (VMAT or IMRT) are determinant and lead to different results. A balance should be found according to the routine of the

  3. Modeling ramp-hold indentation measurements based on Kelvin-Voigt fractional derivative model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; zhe Zhang, Qing; Ruan, Litao; Duan, Junbo; Wan, Mingxi; Insana, Michael F.

    2018-03-01

    Interpretation of experimental data from micro- and nano-scale indentation testing is highly dependent on the constitutive model selected to relate measurements to mechanical properties. The Kelvin-Voigt fractional derivative model (KVFD) offers a compact set of viscoelastic features appropriate for characterizing soft biological materials. This paper provides a set of KVFD solutions for converting indentation testing data acquired for different geometries and scales into viscoelastic properties of soft materials. These solutions, which are mostly in closed-form, apply to ramp-hold relaxation, load-unload and ramp-load creep-testing protocols. We report on applications of these model solutions to macro- and nano-indentation testing of hydrogels, gastric cancer cells and ex vivo breast tissue samples using an atomic force microscope (AFM). We also applied KVFD models to clinical ultrasonic breast data using a compression plate as required for elasticity imaging. Together the results show that KVFD models fit a broad range of experimental data with a correlation coefficient typically R 2  >  0.99. For hydrogel samples, estimation of KVFD model parameters from test data using spherical indentation versus plate compression as well as ramp relaxation versus load-unload compression all agree within one standard deviation. Results from measurements made using macro- and nano-scale indentation agree in trend. For gastric cell and ex vivo breast tissue measurements, KVFD moduli are, respectively, 1/3-1/2 and 1/6 of the elasticity modulus found from the Sneddon model. In vivo breast tissue measurements yield model parameters consistent with literature results. The consistency of results found for a broad range of experimental parameters suggest the KVFD model is a reliable tool for exploring intrinsic features of the cell/tissue microenvironments.

  4. Accuracy Analysis of the Zero-Order Hold Model for Digital Pulsewidth Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Junpeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyzes the accuracy of the zero-order hold (ZOH) model for the digital pulsewidth modulator (DPWM) in the s-domain. The s-domain model and the exact z-domain model for the control loop of the single-phase inverter with L-type filter is elaborated for quantifying the deviation...... of the ZOH model for DPWM. The influence of the different computational delay and duty-cycle update modes on this deviation is analyzed in detail. The compensation method for this deviation of the ZOH model is proposed for accurately predicting the stability region of the control system in the s...

  5. True versus perturbed forest inventory plot locations for modeling: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston; Kurt H. Riitters; Ronald E. McRoberts; William D. Smith

    2006-01-01

    USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis plot information is widely used for timber inventories, forest health assessments, and environmental risk analyses. With few exceptions, true plot locations are not revealed; the plot coordinates are manipulated to obscure the location of field plots and thereby preserve plot integrity. The influence of perturbed plot...

  6. Model-based auralizations of violin sound trends accompanying plate-bridge tuning or holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissinger, George; Mores, Robert

    2015-04-01

    To expose systematic trends in violin sound accompanying "tuning" only the plates or only the bridge, the first structural acoustics-based model auralizations of violin sound were created by passing a bowed-string driving force measured at the bridge of a solid body violin through the dynamic filter (DF) model radiativity profile "filter" RDF(f) (frequency-dependent pressure per unit driving force, free-free suspension, anechoic chamber). DF model auralizations for the more realistic case of a violin held/played in a reverberant auditorium reveal that holding the violin greatly diminishes its low frequency response, an effect only weakly compensated for by auditorium reverberation.

  7. An insulin based model to explain changes and interactions in human breath-holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangmann, Rosita

    2015-06-01

    Until now oxygen was thought to be the leading factor of hypoxic conditions. Whereas now it appears that insulin is the key regulator of hypoxic conditions. Insulin seems to regulate the redox state of the organism and to determine the breakpoint of human breath-holding. This new hypoxia-insulin hypotheses might have major clinical relevance. Besides the clinical relevance, this hypothesis could explain, for the first time, why the training of the diaphragm, among other factors, results in an increase in breath-holding performance. Elite freedivers/apnea divers are able to reach static breath-holding times to over 6 min. Untrained persons exhibit an unpleasant feeling after more or less a minute. Breath-holding is stopped at the breakpoint. The partial oxygen pressure as well as the carbon dioxide pressure failed to directly influence the breakpoint in earlier studies. The factors that contribute to the breakpoint are still under debate. Under hypoxic conditions the organism needs more glucose, because it changes from the oxygen consuming pentose phosphate (36 ATP/glucose molecule) to the anaerobic glycolytic pathway (2ATP/glucose molecule). Hence insulin, as it promotes the absorption of glucose, is set in the center of interest regarding hypoxic conditions. This paper provides an insulin based model that could explain the changes and interactions in human breath-holding. The correlation between hypoxia and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their influence on the sympathetic nerve system and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) is dealt with. It reviews as well the direct interrelation of HIF-1α and insulin. The depression of insulin secretion through the vagus nerve activation via inspiration is discussed. Furthermore the paper describes the action of insulin on the carotid bodies and the diaphragm and therefore a possible role in respiration pattern. Freedivers that go over the breakpoint of breath-holding could exhibit seizures and thus the effect of

  8. Closed-loop model identification of cooperative manipulators holding deformable objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkathiri, A. A.; Akmeliawati, R.; Azlan, N. Z.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents system identification to obtain the closed-loop models of a couple of cooperative manipulators in a system, which function to hold deformable objects. The system works using the master-slave principle. In other words, one of the manipulators is position-controlled through encoder feedback, while a force sensor gives feedback to the other force-controlled manipulator. Using the closed-loop input and output data, the closed-loop models, which are useful for model-based control design, are estimated. The criteria for model validation are a 95% fit between the measured and simulated output of the estimated models and residual analysis. The results show that for both position and force control respectively, the fits are 95.73% and 95.88%.

  9. A true 3D physical model test study on the stability of an underground cavern group in Shuangjiangkou Hydropower Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weishen; Zhang, Lei; Li, Yong; Zhang, Qianbing

    2010-03-01

    Taking the underground caverns of Shuangjiangkou (SJK) Hydropower Station as an engineering background, a largescale true 3D physical model test is performed to study the stability of the enclosing rock masses, including the analogous material, the steel structure frame, fabrications of rock bolts and cables, development of the measuring techniques, fabrication of the physical model, excavations and the overload test. The developed steel structure can simulate the complicated circumstances just like high in-situ stress and high overburden depth. It also can apply the true 3D loading on six surfaces of the physical model. Many combinational ball sliding blocks are installed between model surface and the structural wall to reduce the friction between the contact surfaces. During the model construction, precast blocks are used and monitoring holes are predefined before the analogous material is piled up. A unique grouting technique and prestressed cables are adopted in the model test. A digital photogrammetric technique, displacement sensing bars based on Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG) technology, and mini extensometers are developed and adopted for measuring the deformation in the process of excavations. The overload tests are accomplished under the conditions of different overburden depths. The results of this research will make certain guiding significance to the practical engineering.

  10. Phase-Type Models of Channel-Holding Times in Cellular Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Kaare; Nielsen, Bo Friis; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we derive the distribution of the channel-holding time when both cell-residence and call-holding times are phase-type distributed. Furthermore, the distribution of the number of handovers, the conditional channel-holding time distributions, and the channel-holding time when cell re...... residence times are correlated are derived. All distributions are of phase type, making them very general and flexible. The channel-holding times are of importance in performance evaluation and simulation of cellular mobile communication systems....

  11. Distinguishing between a true period and its alias, and other tasks of model discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluev, Roman V.

    2012-05-01

    We consider the task of distinguishing between two different alternative models that can explain observed time-series data roughly equally, mainly focusing on the period-ambiguity case (aliasing). We propose a test for checking whether the rival models are observationally equivalent for now or are already distinguishable: the Vuong closeness test, which is based on the Kullback-Leibler information criterion. It is asymptotically normal and can work (in a certain sense) even in a misspecified case in which both proposed alternatives are actually wrong. This test is also very simple for practical use. We apply it to several known extrasolar planetary systems and find that our method often helps to resolve various model ambiguities emerging in astronomical practice, but prevents us from hasty conclusions in other cases.

  12. Purple Unicorns, True Models, and Other Things I've Never Seen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    This author has had the privilege of knowing Professor Maydeu-Olivares for almost a decade and although their paths cross only occasionally, such instances were always enjoyable and enlightening. Edwards states that Maydeu-Olivares' target article for this issue, ("Goodness-of-Fit Assessment of Item Response Theory Models") provides…

  13. The true meaning of 'exotic species' as a model for genetically engineered organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regal, P J

    1993-03-15

    The exotic or non-indigenous species model for deliberately introduced genetically engineered organisms (GEOs) has often been misunderstood or misrepresented. Yet proper comparisons of of ecologically competent GEOs to the patterns of adaptation of introduced species have been highly useful among scientists in attempting to determine how to apply biological theory to specific GEO risk issues, and in attempting to define the probabilities and scale of ecological risks with GEOs. In truth, the model predicts that most projects may be environmentally safe, but a significant minority may be very risky. The model includes a history of institutional follies that also should remind workers of the danger of oversimplifying biological issues, and warn against repeating the sorts of professional misjudgements that have too often been made in introducing organisms to new settings. We once expected that the non-indigenous species model would be refined by more analysis of species eruptions, ecological genetics, and the biology of select GEOs themselves, as outlined. But there has been political resistance to the effective regulation of GEOs, and a bureaucratic tendency to focus research agendas on narrow data collection. Thus there has been too little promotion by responsible agencies of studies to provide the broad conceptual base for truly science-based regulation. In its presently unrefined state, the non-indigenous species comparison would overestimate the risks of GEOs if it were (mis)applied to genetically disrupted, ecologically crippled GEOs, but in some cases of wild-type organisms with novel engineered traits, it could greatly underestimate the risks. Further analysis is urgently needed.

  14. True Concurrent Thermal Engineering Integrating CAD Model Building with Finite Element and Finite Difference Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panczak, Tim; Ring, Steve; Welch, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Thermal engineering has long been left out of the concurrent engineering environment dominated by CAD (computer aided design) and FEM (finite element method) software. Current tools attempt to force the thermal design process into an environment primarily created to support structural analysis, which results in inappropriate thermal models. As a result, many thermal engineers either build models "by hand" or use geometric user interfaces that are separate from and have little useful connection, if any, to CAD and FEM systems. This paper describes the development of a new thermal design environment called the Thermal Desktop. This system, while fully integrated into a neutral, low cost CAD system, and which utilizes both FEM and FD methods, does not compromise the needs of the thermal engineer. Rather, the features needed for concurrent thermal analysis are specifically addressed by combining traditional parametric surface based radiation and FD based conduction modeling with CAD and FEM methods. The use of flexible and familiar temperature solvers such as SINDA/FLUINT (Systems Improved Numerical Differencing Analyzer/Fluid Integrator) is retained.

  15. Estimating the true accuracy of diagnostic tests for dengue infection using bayesian latent class models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirichada Pan-ngum

    Full Text Available Accuracy of rapid diagnostic tests for dengue infection has been repeatedly estimated by comparing those tests with reference assays. We hypothesized that those estimates might be inaccurate if the accuracy of the reference assays is not perfect. Here, we investigated this using statistical modeling.Data from a cohort study of 549 patients suspected of dengue infection presenting at Colombo North Teaching Hospital, Ragama, Sri Lanka, that described the application of our reference assay (a combination of Dengue IgM antibody capture ELISA and IgG antibody capture ELISA and of three rapid diagnostic tests (Panbio NS1 antigen, IgM antibody and IgG antibody rapid immunochromatographic cassette tests were re-evaluated using bayesian latent class models (LCMs. The estimated sensitivity and specificity of the reference assay were 62.0% and 99.6%, respectively. Prevalence of dengue infection (24.3%, and sensitivities and specificities of the Panbio NS1 (45.9% and 97.9%, IgM (54.5% and 95.5% and IgG (62.1% and 84.5% estimated by bayesian LCMs were significantly different from those estimated by assuming that the reference assay was perfect. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for a combination of NS1, IgM and IgG cassette tests on admission samples were 87.0%, 82.8%, 62.0% and 95.2%, respectively.Our reference assay is an imperfect gold standard. In our setting, the combination of NS1, IgM and IgG rapid diagnostic tests could be used on admission to rule out dengue infection with a high level of accuracy (NPV 95.2%. Further evaluation of rapid diagnostic tests for dengue infection should include the use of appropriate statistical models.

  16. How many dinosaur species were there? Fossil bias and true richness estimated using a Poisson sampling model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrfelt, Jostein; Liow, Lee Hsiang

    2016-04-05

    The fossil record is a rich source of information about biological diversity in the past. However, the fossil record is not only incomplete but has also inherent biases due to geological, physical, chemical and biological factors. Our knowledge of past life is also biased because of differences in academic and amateur interests and sampling efforts. As a result, not all individuals or species that lived in the past are equally likely to be discovered at any point in time or space. To reconstruct temporal dynamics of diversity using the fossil record, biased sampling must be explicitly taken into account. Here, we introduce an approach that uses the variation in the number of times each species is observed in the fossil record to estimate both sampling bias and true richness. We term our technique TRiPS (True Richness estimated using a Poisson Sampling model) and explore its robustness to violation of its assumptions via simulations. We then venture to estimate sampling bias and absolute species richness of dinosaurs in the geological stages of the Mesozoic. Using TRiPS, we estimate that 1936 (1543-2468) species of dinosaurs roamed the Earth during the Mesozoic. We also present improved estimates of species richness trajectories of the three major dinosaur clades: the sauropodomorphs, ornithischians and theropods, casting doubt on the Jurassic-Cretaceous extinction event and demonstrating that all dinosaur groups are subject to considerable sampling bias throughout the Mesozoic. © 2016 The Authors.

  17. Overall evaluation of the modelling of the TRUE-1 tracer tests - Task 4. The Aespoe Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport of Solutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marschall, Paul [Nagra, Wettingen (Switzerland); Elert, Mark [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-09-01

    The Aespoe Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport of Solutes is a forum for the international organisations supporting the Aespoe HRL Project. The purpose of the Task Force is to interact in the area of conceptual and numerical modelling of groundwater flow and solute transport in fractured rock. Task 4 of the Aespoe Modelling Task Force consists of modelling exercises in support of the TRUE-1 tracer tests. The task was carried out in 1995-2000 and consisted of several modelling exercises in support of the TRUE-1 tracer tests, including predictive modelling where experimental results were not available beforehand. This report presents an overall evaluation of the achievements of Task 4. The specific objectives of the overall evaluation were to highlight innovative and successful modelling approaches developed, to assess the stages of the task which proved most beneficial for conceptual understanding of transport processes at the TRUE-1 site and to assess the success of various steering tools. A concise summary of scientific achievements is given and conclusions drawn with respect to unresolved technical issues. Recommendations are presented that can optimise the management of future modelling tasks.

  18. Where does “whichever occurs first” hold for preventive maintenance modelings?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xufeng; Liu, Hu-Chen; Nakagawa, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to observe where the classical assumption “whichever occurs first” holds for preventive maintenance (PM) modelings. We firstly take up a bivariate maintenance policy where “whichever occurs first” and the newly proposed “whichever occurs last” are respectively used. Modification of PM performance is introduced into modelings to avoid interruptions of job executions, that is, PMs are done only at the end of working cycles. From the points of performability and maintenance cost, we secondly compare the optimized “first” and “last” policies in detail and find two critical points of comparisons analytically. Further, by comparing the “first” and “last” policies with the standard maintenance, modified PM costs are obtained to observe whether it is easy to save PM cost for “whichever occurs first”. For a trivariate maintenance policy, we thirdly propose an entirely new assumption “whichever occurs middle” and give another one model that considers both assumptions of “first” and “last”. We analyze maintenance probabilities for each model and then obtain directly their expected maintenance cost rates for further studies. - Highlights: • A bivariate maintenance policy based on “whichever occurs first” is improved. • Two comparisons of “whichever occurs first and last” are made. • Modified maintenance costs are obtained to observe which policy could save more costs. • New assumption “whichever occurs middle” for the trivariate maintenances is proposed. • One policy is modeled by considering both assumptions of “first” and “last”

  19. Utilization of mathematical models to manage risk of holding cold food without temperature control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Donald W

    2013-06-01

    This document describes the development of a tool to manage the risk of the transportation of cold food without temperature control. The tool uses predictions from ComBase predictor and builds on the 2009 U.S. Food and Drug Administration Model Food Code and supporting scientific data in the Food Code annex. I selected Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes as the organisms for risk management. Salmonella spp. were selected because they are associated with a wide variety of foods and grow rapidly at temperatures >17°C. L. monocytogenes was selected because it is frequently present in the food processing environment, it was used in the original analysis contained in the Food Code Annex, and it grows relatively rapidly at temperatures supplier collected as part of this project. The resulting model-based tool will be a useful aid to risk managers and customers of wholesale cash and carry food service suppliers, as well as to anyone interested in assessing and managing the risks posed by holding cold foods out of temperature control in supermarkets, delis, restaurants, cafeterias, and homes.

  20. Evaluation of the Gauss-Eyring model to predict thermal inactivation of micro-organisms at short holding times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, R A H; Mastwijk, H C; Nierop Groot, M N; Van Boekel, M A J S

    2017-12-18

    Application of mild (non)-thermal processing technologies have received considerable interest as alternative to thermal pasteurisation, because of its shorter holding time and lower temperature aiming for an improved product quality. To understand and develop these alternative technologies, like pulsed electric fields, a proper comparison between the conventional thermal and alternative process is necessary. Up to recent, no suitable models were available to predict the inactivation of micro-organisms by a thermal process at a chosen short holding time, due to non-linearity. The recently developed Gauss-Eyring model with two variables temperature and time has the properties to be a suitable model to apply for short holding times, and was tested for this purpose. Therefore, this study aims to validate if the Gauss-Eyring model can be used to describe non-linear isothermal (a fixed temperature with varying holding time) and isotime (a fixed holding time with varying temperature) thermal inactivation data, and if it is a suitable model to predict the thermal inactivation as a function of temperature for short holding times. Inactivation data of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Lactobacillus plantarum, Salmonella Senftenberg and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in orange juice were collected via isothermal and isotime inactivation kinetics. Survival of the tested micro-organisms was modelled with the Gauss-Eyring model, which contains three parameters σ, Tr and Z. The transition of 'no inactivation' to 'inactivation' (i.e. the 'shoulder' in inactivation curves) can be characterised as the temperature-time (T,t) combination where T=Tr-Z·log 10 (t), with Tr as the reference temperature defined for 1s treatment, Z as the temperature needed for a 10-fold increase of decrease of the holding time t, and σ as the temperature width of the distribution. The Gauss-Eyring model fitted well to the experimental data, and revealed different sensitivity for the tested micro

  1. Spatiotemporal Diversification of the True Frogs (Genus Rana): A Historical Framework for a Widely Studied Group of Model Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhi-Yong; Zhou, Wei-Wei; Chen, Xin; Poyarkov, Nikolay A; Chen, Hong-Man; Jang-Liaw, Nian-Hong; Chou, Wen-Hao; Matzke, Nicholas J; Iizuka, Koji; Min, Mi-Sook; Kuzmin, Sergius L; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Cannatella, David C; Hillis, David M; Che, Jing

    2016-09-01

    True frogs of the genus Rana are widely used as model organisms in studies of development, genetics, physiology, ecology, behavior, and evolution. Comparative studies among the more than 100 species of Rana rely on an understanding of the evolutionary history and patterns of diversification of the group. We estimate a well-resolved, time-calibrated phylogeny from sequences of six nuclear and three mitochondrial loci sampled from most species of Rana, and use that phylogeny to clarify the group's diversification and global biogeography. Our analyses consistently support an "Out of Asia" pattern with two independent dispersals of Rana from East Asia to North America via Beringian land bridges. The more species-rich lineage of New World Rana appears to have experienced a rapid radiation following its colonization of the New World, especially with its expansion into montane and tropical areas of Mexico, Central America, and South America. In contrast, Old World Rana exhibit different trajectories of diversification; diversification in the Old World began very slowly and later underwent a distinct increase in speciation rate around 29-18 Ma. Net diversification is associated with environmental changes and especially intensive tectonic movements along the Asian margin from the Oligocene to early Miocene. Our phylogeny further suggests that previous classifications were misled by morphological homoplasy and plesiomorphic color patterns, as well as a reliance primarily on mitochondrial genes. We provide a phylogenetic taxonomy based on analyses of multiple nuclear and mitochondrial gene loci. [Amphibians; biogeography; diversification rate; Holarctic; transcontinental dispersal. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Longitudinal study of a mouse model of chronic pulmonary inflammation using breath hold gated micro-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaechevarria, Xabier; Perez-Martin, Daniel; Munoz-Barrutia, Arrate; Ortiz-de-Solorzano, Carlos; Blanco, David; Biurrun, Gabriel de; Montuenga, Luis M.; Torres, Juan P. de; Zulueta, Javier J.; Bastarrika, Gorka

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using automatic quantitative analysis of breath hold gated micro-CT images to detect and monitor disease in a mouse model of chronic pulmonary inflammation, and to compare image-based measurements with pulmonary function tests and histomorphometry. Forty-nine A/J mice were used, divided into control and inflammation groups. Chronic inflammation was induced by silica aspiration. Fourteen animals were imaged at baseline, and 4, 14, and 34 weeks after silica aspiration, using micro-CT synchronized with ventilator-induced breath holds. Lung input impedance was measured as well using forced oscillation techniques. Five additional animals from each group were killed after micro-CT for comparison with histomorphometry. At all time points, micro-CT measurements show statistically significant differences between the two groups, while first differences in functional test parameters appear at 14 weeks. Micro-CT measurements correlate well with histomorphometry and discriminate diseased and healthy groups better than functional tests. Longitudinal studies using breath hold gated micro-CT are feasible on the silica-induced model of chronic pulmonary inflammation, and automatic measurements from micro-CT images correlate well with histomorphometry, being more sensitive than functional tests to detect lung damage in this model. (orig.)

  3. Longitudinal study of a mouse model of chronic pulmonary inflammation using breath hold gated micro-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artaechevarria, Xabier; Perez-Martin, Daniel; Munoz-Barrutia, Arrate; Ortiz-de-Solorzano, Carlos [Center for Applied Medical Research, University of Navarra, Cancer Imaging Laboratory, Oncology Division, Pamplona (Spain); Blanco, David; Biurrun, Gabriel de; Montuenga, Luis M. [Center for Applied Medical Research, University of Navarra, Biomarkers Laboratory, Pamplona (Spain); Torres, Juan P. de; Zulueta, Javier J. [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Pneumology Department, Pamplona (Spain); Bastarrika, Gorka [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Radiology Department, Pamplona (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of using automatic quantitative analysis of breath hold gated micro-CT images to detect and monitor disease in a mouse model of chronic pulmonary inflammation, and to compare image-based measurements with pulmonary function tests and histomorphometry. Forty-nine A/J mice were used, divided into control and inflammation groups. Chronic inflammation was induced by silica aspiration. Fourteen animals were imaged at baseline, and 4, 14, and 34 weeks after silica aspiration, using micro-CT synchronized with ventilator-induced breath holds. Lung input impedance was measured as well using forced oscillation techniques. Five additional animals from each group were killed after micro-CT for comparison with histomorphometry. At all time points, micro-CT measurements show statistically significant differences between the two groups, while first differences in functional test parameters appear at 14 weeks. Micro-CT measurements correlate well with histomorphometry and discriminate diseased and healthy groups better than functional tests. Longitudinal studies using breath hold gated micro-CT are feasible on the silica-induced model of chronic pulmonary inflammation, and automatic measurements from micro-CT images correlate well with histomorphometry, being more sensitive than functional tests to detect lung damage in this model. (orig.)

  4. An inventory model of instantaneous deteriorating items with controllable deterioration rate for time dependent demand and holding cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar Mishra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper to develop an inventory model for instantaneous deteriorating items with the consideration of the facts that the deterioration rate can be controlled by using the preservation technology (PT and the holding cost & demand rate both are linear function of time which was treated as constant in most of the deteriorating inventory model. Design/methodology/approach: Developed the mathematical equation of deterministic deteriorating inventory model in which demand rate and holding cost both is linear function of time, deterioration rate is constant, backlogging rate is variable and depend on the length of the next replenishment, shortages are allowed and partially backlogged and obtain an analytical solution which optimizes the total cost of the proposed inventory model. Findings: The model can be applied for optimizing the total inventory cost of deteriorating items inventory for such business enterprises where they use the preservation technology to control the deterioration rate under other assumptions of the model. Originality/value: The inventory system for deteriorating items has been an object of study for a long time, but little is known about the effect of investing in reducing the rate of product deterioration and their significant impact in the business. The proposed model is effective as well as efficient for the business organization that uses the preservation technology to reduce the deterioration rate of the instantaneous deteriorating items of the inventory.

  5. Feasibility of single breath-hold left ventricular function with 3 Tesla TSENSE acquisition and 3D modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alistair A; Cowan, Brett R; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Wintersperger, Bernd J

    2008-05-21

    A single breath-hold evaluation of ventricular function would allow assessment in cases where scan time or patient tolerance is limited. Spatiotemporal acceleration techniques such as TSENSE decrease cardiovascular MR acquisition time, but standard slice summation analysis requires enough short axis slices to cover the left ventricle (LV). By reducing the number of short axis slices, incorporating long axis slices, and applying a 3D model based analysis, it may be possible to obtain accurate LV mass and volumes. We evaluated LV volume, mass and ejection fraction at 3.0 T using a 3D modeling analysis in 9 patients with a history of myocardial infarction and one healthy volunteer. Acquisition consisted of a standard short axis SSFP stack and a 15 heart-beat single breath-hold six slice multi-planar (4 short and 2 long axis) TSENSE SSFP protocol with an acceleration factor of R = 4. Differences (standard minus accelerated protocol mean +/- s.d.) and coefficients of variation (s.d. of differences as a percentage of the average estimate) were 7.5 +/- 9.6 mL and 6% for end-diastolic volume (p = 0.035), 0.4 +/- 5.1 mL and 7% for end-systolic volume (p = NS), 7.1 +/- 8.1 mL and 9% for stroke volume (p = 0.022), 2.2 +/- 2.8% and 5% for ejection fraction (p = 0.035), and -7.1 +/- 6.2 g and 4% for LV mass (p = 0.005), respectively. Intra- and inter-observer errors were similar for both protocols (p = NS for all measures). These results suggest that clinically useful estimates of LV function can be obtained in a TSENSE accelerated single breath-hold reduced slice acquisition at 3T using 3D modeling analysis techniques.

  6. Aggregating available soil water holding capacity data for crop yield models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seubert, C. E.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Holt, D. A.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    The total amount of water available to plants that is held against gravity in a soil is usually estimated as the amount present at -0.03 MPa average water potential minus the amount present at -1.5 MPa water potential. This value, designated available water-holding capacity (AWHC), is a very important soil characteristic that is strongly and positively correlated to the inherent productivity of soils. In various applications, including assessing soil moisture status over large areas, it is necessary to group soil types or series as to their productivity. Current methods to classify AWHC of soils consider only total capacity of soil profiles and thus may group together soils which differ greatly in AWHC as a function of depth in the profile. A general approach for evaluating quantitatively the multidimensional nature of AWHC in soils is described. Data for 902 soil profiles, representing 184 soil series, in Indiana were obtained from the Soil Characterization Laboratory at Purdue University. The AWHC for each of ten 150-mm layers in each soil was established, based on soil texture and parent material. A multivariate clustering procedure was used to classify each soil profile into one of 4, 8, or 12 classes based upon ten-dimensional AWHC values. The optimum number of classes depends on the range of AWHC in the population of oil profiles analyzed and on the sensitivity of a crop to differences in distribution of water within the soil profile.

  7. Multiphase Model of Semisolid Slurry Generation and Isothermal Holding During Cooling Slope Rheoprocessing of A356 Al Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Prosenjit; Samanta, Sudip K.; Mondal, Biswanath; Dutta, Pradip

    2018-04-01

    In the present paper, we present an experimentally validated 3D multiphase and multiscale solidification model to understand the transport processes involved during slurry generation with a cooling slope. In this process, superheated liquid alloy is poured at the top of the cooling slope and allowed to flow along the slope under the influence of gravity. As the melt flows down the slope, it progressively loses its superheat, starts solidifying at the melt/slope interface with formation of solid crystals, and eventually exits the slope as semisolid slurry. In the present simulation, the three phases considered are the parent melt as the primary phase, and the solid grains and air as secondary phases. The air phase forms a definable air/liquid melt interface as the free surface. After exiting the slope, the slurry fills an isothermal holding bath maintained at the slope exit temperature, which promotes further globularization of microstructure. The outcomes of the present model include prediction of volume fractions of the three different phases considered, grain evolution, grain growth, size, sphericity and distribution of solid grains, temperature field, velocity field, macrosegregation and microsegregation. In addition, the model is found to be capable of making predictions of morphological evolution of primary grains at the onset of isothermal coarsening. The results obtained from the present simulations are validated by performing quantitative image analysis of micrographs of the rapidly oil-quenched semisolid slurry samples, collected from strategic locations along the slope and from the isothermal slurry holding bath.

  8. Force sensor in simulated skin and neural model mimic tactile SAI afferent spiking response to ramp and hold stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Elmer K; Wellnitz, Scott A; Bourdon, Sarah M; Lumpkin, Ellen A; Gerling, Gregory J

    2012-07-23

    The next generation of prosthetic limbs will restore sensory feedback to the nervous system by mimicking how skin mechanoreceptors, innervated by afferents, produce trains of action potentials in response to compressive stimuli. Prior work has addressed building sensors within skin substitutes for robotics, modeling skin mechanics and neural dynamics of mechanotransduction, and predicting response timing of action potentials for vibration. The effort here is unique because it accounts for skin elasticity by measuring force within simulated skin, utilizes few free model parameters for parsimony, and separates parameter fitting and model validation. Additionally, the ramp-and-hold, sustained stimuli used in this work capture the essential features of the everyday task of contacting and holding an object. This systems integration effort computationally replicates the neural firing behavior for a slowly adapting type I (SAI) afferent in its temporally varying response to both intensity and rate of indentation force by combining a physical force sensor, housed in a skin-like substrate, with a mathematical model of neuronal spiking, the leaky integrate-and-fire. Comparison experiments were then conducted using ramp-and-hold stimuli on both the spiking-sensor model and mouse SAI afferents. The model parameters were iteratively fit against recorded SAI interspike intervals (ISI) before validating the model to assess its performance. Model-predicted spike firing compares favorably with that observed for single SAI afferents. As indentation magnitude increases (1.2, 1.3, to 1.4 mm), mean ISI decreases from 98.81 ± 24.73, 54.52 ± 6.94, to 41.11 ± 6.11 ms. Moreover, as rate of ramp-up increases, ISI during ramp-up decreases from 21.85 ± 5.33, 19.98 ± 3.10, to 15.42 ± 2.41 ms. Considering first spikes, the predicted latencies exhibited a decreasing trend as stimulus rate increased, as is observed in afferent recordings. Finally, the SAI afferent's characteristic response

  9. Inventory model with cash flow oriented and time-dependent holding cost under permissible delay in payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi R.P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops an inventory model for determining an optimal ordering policy for non-deteriorating items and time-dependent holding cost with delayed payments permitted by the supplier under inflation and time-discounting. The discounted cash flows approach is applied to study the problem analysis. Mathematical models have been derived under two different situations i.e. case I: The permissible delay period is less than cycle time for settling the account and case II: The permissible delay period is greater than or equal to cycle time for settling the account. An algorithm is used to obtain minimum total present value of the costs over the time horizon H. Finally, numerical example and sensitivity analysis demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the optimal cycle time and optimal payment time for an item so that annual total relevant cost is minimized.

  10. Trade in Services: Does Gravity Hold? A Gravity Model Approach to Estimating Barriers to Services Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Keith Walsh

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses the determinants of trade in services using a gravity model, with particular attention given to the role of barriers to services trade. Initially, the application of the gravity equation to services trade is examined. A variety of econometric estimators are tested and the Hausman-Taylor model is found to be the best estimator. The gravity model fits services trade flows in a similar manner to trade in goods. Wealth of countries and a common language are the most important ...

  11. Assessing model fit in latent class analysis when asymptotics do not hold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kollenburg, Geert H.; Mulder, Joris; Vermunt, Jeroen K.

    2015-01-01

    The application of latent class (LC) analysis involves evaluating the LC model using goodness-of-fit statistics. To assess the misfit of a specified model, say with the Pearson chi-squared statistic, a p-value can be obtained using an asymptotic reference distribution. However, asymptotic p-values

  12. A partial backlogging inventory model for deteriorating items with time-varying demand and holding cost: An interval number approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis Dutta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a differential equation inventory model that incorporates partial backlogging and deterioration. Holding cost and demand rate are time dependent. Shortages are allowed and assumed to be partially backlogged. Two versions are presented, the first one with deterministic values of the parameters and the second one taking into the account the interval uncertainty of the parameters. In the crisp case, Taylor’s series expansion is used, and graphically shown that the cost function is convex. While, in the case of intervals, the interval arithmetic is used and then the problem is transformed into a multi-objective non-linear optimization problem and an interval objective function. To solve this problem, the weighted-sum method is used. The proposed procedure is validated with the help of a numerical example. Sensitivity analysis on various parameters has also been carried out.

  13. True four-dimensional analysis of thoracic aortic displacement and distension using model-based segmentation of computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Tim F; Müller, Tobias; Biesdorf, Andreas; Wörz, Stefan; Rengier, Fabian; Heye, Tobias; Holland-Letz, Tim; Rohr, Karl; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Previous analyses of aortic displacement and distension using computed tomography angiography (CTA) were performed on double-oblique multi-planar reformations and did not consider through-plane motion. The aim of this study was to overcome this limitation by using a novel computational approach for the assessment of thoracic aortic displacement and distension in their true four-dimensional extent. Vessel segmentation with landmark tracking was executed on CTA of 24 patients without evidence of aortic disease. Distension magnitudes and maximum displacement vectors (MDV) including their direction were analyzed at 5 aortic locations: left coronary artery (COR), mid-ascending aorta (ASC), brachiocephalic trunk (BCT), left subclavian artery (LSA), descending aorta (DES). Distension was highest for COR (2.3 ± 1.2 mm) and BCT (1.7 ± 1.1 mm) compared with ASC, LSA, and DES (p < 0.005). MDV decreased from COR to LSA (p < 0.005) and was highest for COR (6.2 ± 2.0 mm) and ASC (3.8 ± 1.9 mm). Displacement was directed towards left and anterior at COR and ASC. Craniocaudal displacement at COR and ASC was 1.3 ± 0.8 and 0.3 ± 0.3 mm. At BCT, LSA, and DES no predominant displacement direction was observable. Vessel displacement and wall distension are highest in the ascending aorta, and ascending aortic displacement is primarily directed towards left and anterior. Craniocaudal displacement remains low even close to the left cardiac ventricle.

  14. Your True Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jena Rausch

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Your True Freedom is about my journey teaching inmates the fundamental truths of self worth, self acceptance and self love--through writing, mindfulness meditation and emotional healing. It is a journey that continues to enlighten me and to heal and free the inmates with whom I work.

  15. Formulation of root water uptake in a multi-layer soil-plant model: does van den Honert's equation hold?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Lhomme

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The withdrawal of water from soil by vegetation, which in steady state conditions is equivalent to the transpiration rate, can be written in terms of water potential in the form of an Ohm's law analogy, known as van den Honert's equation: The difference between an effective soil water potential and the bulk canopy water potential is divided by an effective soil-plant resistance. This equation is commonly used, but little is known about the precise definition of its parameters. The issue of this paper is to bridge the gap between the bulk approach and a multi-layer description of soil-plant water transfer by interpreting the bulk parameters in terms of the characteristics of the multi-layer approach. Water flow through an elementary path within the soil or the root is assumed to follow an Ohm's law analogy, and the soil and root characterisics are allowed to vary with depth. Starting from the basic equations of the multi-layer approach, it is proved that the total rate of transpiration can also be expressed in the form of an Ohm's law analogy. This means that van den Honert's equation holds at canopy scale, insofar as the assumptions made on the physics of root water uptake hold. In the bulk formulation derived, the effective soil-plant resistance appears as a combination of the elementary resistances making up the multi-layer model; and the effective soil water potential is a weighted mean of the water potentials in each soil layer, the weighting system involving the complete set of elementary resistances. Simpler representations of soil-plant interaction leading to Ohm's law type formulations are also examined: a simplified multi-layer model, in which xylem (root axial resistance is neglected, and a bulk approach, in which soil-root interaction is represented by only one layer. Numerical simulations performed in different standard conditions show that these simpler representations do not provide accurate estimates of the transpiration rate

  16. Multimodal investigation of fMRI and fNIRS derived breath hold BOLD signals with an expanded balloon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emir, U E; Ozturk, C; Akin, A

    2008-01-01

    Multimodal investigation of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals, using both functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), may give further insight to the underlying physiological principles and the detailed transient dynamics of the vascular response. Utilizing a breath hold task (BHT), we measured deoxy-hemoglobin (HbR) and oxy-hemoglobin (HbO) changes via fNIRS and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) changes by fMRI. Measurements were taken in four volunteers asynchronously and carefully aligned for comparative analysis. In order to describe the main stimulus in BHT, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO 2 ) parameter was integrated into the balloon model as the driving function of cerebral blood flow (CBF) which led to the development of an expanded balloon model (EBM). During BHT, the increase in HbR was observed later than the BOLD peak and coincided temporally with its post-stimulus undershoot. Further investigation of these transients with a PaCO 2 integrated balloon model suggests that post-stimulus undershoot measured by fMRI is dominated by slow return of cerebral blood volume (CBV). This was confirmed by fNIRS measurements. In addition, the BOLD signal decreased with the increase of the initial level of PaCO 2 derived from EBM, indicating an effect of basal CBF level on the BOLD signal. In conclusion, a multimodal approach with an appropriate biophysical model gave a comprehensive description of the hemodynamic response during BHT

  17. Inhotim. Tunga. True Rouge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Maya Monteiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the art installation True Rouge, by the artist Tunga, from its assembly which is in Inhotim. Here there are some of the recurrent procedures, and individualities, which the artist employs in this work, in order to locate it in the corpus of the artist’s work. For this reason, beyond the formal analysis of the work itself, we studied some relationships between the triad artist - work - museum.

  18. Inhotim. Tunga. True Rouge.

    OpenAIRE

    André Maya Monteiro

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the art installation True Rouge, by the artist Tunga, from its assembly which is in Inhotim. Here there are some of the recurrent procedures, and individualities, which the artist employs in this work, in order to locate it in the corpus of the artist’s work. For this reason, beyond the formal analysis of the work itself, we studied some relationships between the triad artist - work - museum.

  19. Did true frogs 'dispersify'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kin Onn; Brown, Rafe M

    2017-08-01

    The interplay between range expansion and concomitant diversification is of fundamental interest to evolutionary biologists, particularly when linked to intercontinental dispersal and/or large scale extinctions. The evolutionary history of true frogs has been characterized by circumglobal range expansion. As a lineage that survived the Eocene-Oligocene extinction event (EOEE), the group provides an ideal system to test the prediction that range expansion triggers increased net diversification. We constructed the most densely sampled, time-calibrated phylogeny to date in order to: (i) characterize tempo and patterns of diversification; (ii) assess the impact of the EOEE; and (iii) test the hypothesis that range expansion was followed by increased net diversification. We show that late Eocene colonization of novel biogeographic regions was not affected by the EOEE and surprisingly, global expansion was not followed by increased net diversification. On the contrary, the diversification rate declined or did not shift following geographical expansion. Thus, the diversification history of true frogs contradicts the prevailing expectation that amphibian net diversification accelerated towards the present or increased following range expansion. Rather, our results demonstrate that despite their dynamic biogeographic history, true frogs diversified at a relatively constantly rate, even as they colonized the major land masses of Earth. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. A parametric model to estimate the proportion from true null using a distribution for p-values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang; Zelterman, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Microarray studies generate a large number of p-values from many gene expression comparisons. The estimate of the proportion of the p-values sampled from the null hypothesis draws broad interest. The two-component mixture model is often used to estimate this proportion. If the data are generated under the null hypothesis, the p-values follow the uniform distribution. What is the distribution of p-values when data are sampled from the alternative hypothesis? The distribution is derived for the chi-squared test. Then this distribution is used to estimate the proportion of p-values sampled from the null hypothesis in a parametric framework. Simulation studies are conducted to evaluate its performance in comparison with five recent methods. Even in scenarios with clusters of correlated p-values and a multicomponent mixture or a continuous mixture in the alternative, the new method performs robustly. The methods are demonstrated through an analysis of a real microarray dataset.

  1. SU-F-T-276: Source Modeling and VMAT Quality Assurance Referring to the TrueBeam Representative Beam Data for Eclipse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q [Beijing Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To study quality assurance (QA) of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) after the 6MV and 10MV photon beam source modeling, referring to the Varian TrueBeam representative beam data for Eclipse. Methods: The source model needs specific measured beam data, such as PDDs and profiles, diagonal profile, output factors (OFs), and MLC transmission factor (TF) and dosimetric leaf gap (DLG), et al. We downloaded the representative data from myVarian website, which includes TrueBeam 4MV-15MV photon beam data and 6MeV-22MeV electron beam data in w2CAD file format for use with Eclipse and in Excel spreadsheet format for use in data comparison. The beam data in W2CAD format can be imported into the Eclipse system and calibrated for use, as appropriate. We used PTW MP3 water tank to measure the beam data in some typical field sizes, and compared the measured data with the representative data. We found that the PDDs, profiles and OFs are similar. However according to some papers and our measurements, we decided that our MLC TF and DLG are 1.58 and 1.33 (6MV), 1.79 and 1.57 (10MV), respectively. After we had configured the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) with the representative data in Eclipse, we also have done dosimetric verification for 88 VMAT plans. Results: The end-to-end test procedures of VMAT were performed for 6MV and 10MV energy modes. The NE Farmer ion chamber mean measurements showed 1.2% (6MV, 38 cases) and 1.2% (10MV, 50 cases) between measurement and calculation; the Sun Nuclear ArcCheck mean measurements demonstrated gamma pass rates are as followings: 98.9%, 93.2%, 61.0% for 6MV, and 98.9%, 91.9%, 59.5% for 10MV, using 3%/3mm, 2%/2mm, 1%/1mm, 10% threshold criteria, respectively. Conclusion: The representative data is applicable to our TrueBeam for the VMAT plan, though our MLC factors are a little different, and its patientspecific QA is good.

  2. A heads-up no-limit Texas Hold'em poker player: Discretized betting models and automatically generated equilibrium-finding programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilpin, Andrew G.; Sandholm, Tuomas; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    We present Tartanian, a game theory-based player for heads-up no-limit Texas Hold'em poker. Tartanian is built from three components. First, to deal with the virtually infinite strategy space of no-limit poker, we develop a discretized betting model designed to capture the most important strategic...

  3. Assessment of left ventricular function with single breath-hold highly accelerated cine MRI combined with guide-point modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmaier, Christina; Nassenstein, Kai; Nielles-Vallespin, Sonia; Zuehlsdorff, Sven; Hunold, Peter; Barkhausen, Joerg

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively assess the performance of highly accelerated cine MRI in multi-orientations combined with a new guide-point modeling post-processing technique (GPM approach) for assessment of left ventricular (LV) function compared to the standard summation of slices method based on a stack of short axis views (SoS approach). Materials and methods: 33 consecutive patients were examined on a 1.5 T scanner with a standard steady state free precession (SSFP) sequence (TR, 3.0 ms; TE, 1.5 m; flip angle (FA), 60 o ; acceleration factor (AF), 2) analyzed with the SoS method and a highly accelerated, single breath-hold temporal parallel acquisition SSFP sequence (TR, 4.6 ms; TE, 1.1 ms; AF, 3) post-processed with the GPM method. LV function values were measured by two independent readers with different experience in cardiac MRI and compared by using the paired t-test and F-test. Inter- and intraobserver agreements were calculated using Bland-Altman-Plots. Results: Mean acquisition and post-processing time was significantly shorter with the GPM approach (15 s/3 min versus 360 s/6 min). For all LV function parameters interobserver agreement between the experienced and non-experienced reader was significantly improved when the GPM approach was used. However, end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were larger for the GPM technique when compared to the SoS method (P 0.121). In both readers and for all parameters variances did not differ significantly (P ≥ 0.409) and the two approaches showed an excellent linear correlation (r > 0.951). Conclusion: Due to its accurate, fast and reproducible assessment of LV function parameters highly accelerated MRI combined with the GPM technique may become the technique of first choice for assessment of LV function in clinical routine.

  4. True bursal pigmented villonodular synovitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelwahab, Ibrahim Fikry; Kenan, Samuel; Steiner, German C.; Abdul-Quader, Mohammed

    2002-01-01

    We describe two cases of pigmented villonodular synovitis affecting true bursae. This study was also designed to discuss the term ''pigmented villonodular bursitis'', not confined to true synovial bursae, sometimes creating misunderstanding. (orig.)

  5. True bursal pigmented villonodular synovitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelwahab, Ibrahim Fikry [Department of Radiology, New York Methodist Hospital, Affiliated with New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States); Kenan, Samuel [Department of Orthopedics, New York University Medical Center, NY (United States); Steiner, German C. [Department of Pathology, Hospital for Joint Diseases/Orthopedic Institute, New York, NY (United States); Abdul-Quader, Mohammed [Department of Radiology, New York Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2002-06-01

    We describe two cases of pigmented villonodular synovitis affecting true bursae. This study was also designed to discuss the term ''pigmented villonodular bursitis'', not confined to true synovial bursae, sometimes creating misunderstanding. (orig.)

  6. R23D: An innovative solution for product data conversion from paper engineering drawings to 3D true-CAD models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Chao-Hsiang [Knowledge Based Systems, Inc., College Station, TX (United States); Mayer, R.J. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Keen, A.A.; Browne, D. [Knowledge Based Systems, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The existing archives of legacy (mostly paper-based) engineering drawings are precious assets of product data in a manufacturing enterprise. However, for these assets to continue to pay dividends they must be converted to a form suitable for computer-aided applications such as CAD/CAE/CAM, simulation-based design, and virtual prototyping. Manually converting legacy engineering drawings into CAD-file format has become common practice to enable reuse of this legacy data and for maintaining it more cost effectively. However, directly reusing legacy drawings for many modem computer-aided applications is not feasible if the complete product data is not properly recovered (e.g., 3D true-CAD solid model). In this paper, a multiple-level drawing conversion methodology, R23D, is introduced to supply a complete solution to this problem. R23D, based upon semantic drawing interpretation modules, incorporates promising results in vectorization and 3D reconstruction to provide an integrated environment for drawing conversion. It is our conviction that the migration of legacy engineering drawings to 3D product data for CAD/CAE/CAM systems is possible only when the full 3D product model can be rapidly reconstructed through such intelligent and integrated drawing conversion support. This paper introduces the basic approaches, requirements, and major components of R23D.

  7. True and intentionally fabricated memories

    OpenAIRE

    Justice, L.V.; Morrison, C.M.; Conway, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the experiment reported here was to investigate the processes underlying the construction of truthful and deliberately fabricated memories. Properties of memories created to be intentionally false - fabricated memories - were compared to properties of memories believed to be true - true memories. Participants recalled and then wrote or spoke true memories and fabricated memories of everyday events. It was found that true memories were reliably more vivid than fabricated memories an...

  8. True and common balsams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana L. Custódio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Balsams have been used since ancient times, due to their therapeutic and healing properties; in the perfume industry, they are used as fixatives, and in the cosmetics industry and in cookery, they are used as preservatives and aromatizers. They are generally defined as vegetable material with highly aromatic properties that supposedly have the ability to heal diseases, not only of the body, but also of the soul. When viewed according to this concept, many substances can be considered balsams. A more modern concept is based on its chemical composition and origin: a secretion or exudate of plants that contain cinnamic and benzoic acids, and their derivatives, in their composition. The most common naturally-occurring balsams (i.e. true balsams are the Benzoins, Liquid Storaque and the Balsams of Tolu and Peru. Many other aromatic exudates, such as Copaiba Oil and Canada Balsam, are wrongly called balsam. These usually belong to other classes of natural products, such as essential oils, resins and oleoresins. Despite the understanding of some plants, many plants are still called balsams. This article presents a chemical and pharmacological review of the most common balsams.

  9. True and common balsams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana L. Custódio

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Balsams have been used since ancient times, due to their therapeutic and healing properties; in the perfume industry, they are used as fixatives, and in the cosmetics industry and in cookery, they are used as preservatives and aromatizers. They are generally defined as vegetable material with highly aromatic properties that supposedly have the ability to heal diseases, not only of the body, but also of the soul. When viewed according to this concept, many substances can be considered balsams. A more modern concept is based on its chemical composition and origin: a secretion or exudate of plants that contain cinnamic and benzoic acids, and their derivatives, in their composition. The most common naturally-occurring balsams (i.e. true balsams are the Benzoins, Liquid Storaque and the Balsams of Tolu and Peru. Many other aromatic exudates, such as Copaiba Oil and Canada Balsam, are wrongly called balsam. These usually belong to other classes of natural products, such as essential oils, resins and oleoresins. Despite the understanding of some plants, many plants are still called balsams. This article presents a chemical and pharmacological review of the most common balsams.

  10. Breath holding spell

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000967.htm Breath holding spell To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some children have breath holding spells. This is an involuntary stop in breathing ...

  11. Breath-Holding Spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Breath-Holding Spells KidsHealth / For Parents / Breath-Holding Spells What's in ... Spells Print en español Espasmos de sollozo About Breath-Holding Spells Many of us have heard stories about stubborn ...

  12. 26 CFR 1.552-1 - Definition of foreign personal holding company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definition of foreign personal holding company. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Personal Holding Companies § 1.552-1 Definition of foreign personal holding company. (a) A foreign personal holding company is any foreign...

  13. A true case story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Bjørg Walker

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Autism is not generally recognized as a condition which can be bio-medically influenced. As of today, there are no biomarkers for autism that are recognized by traditional medicine. Treating autism medically is a difficult and hopeless task according to official guidelines (even though it is seldom written in official documents. Parents of many children who have or had an ASD diagnosis have witnessed significant improvements in their children after dietary interventions as well as after interventions with vitamins, minerals and biogene substances which can be bought over the counter. The parents of individual children are their best observers. With a high degree of certainty, they are able to see which substances improve or weaken their children. Their observations are usually accurate, but their rationale for why is often wrong. Observations from parents can often be of greater importance for the child than advice from so called experts. This is a true story about a girl whose parents lost contact with her when she was only 6 months old. In her first 14 days she lost her ability to roll over, to babble and make sounds. She did not look at her parents any more – just stared up at the roof. At 9 months she did not respond to words such as, ‘look at mommy’. Through the parents own experiences with her older siblings and 4 months of frantic searching for a diet that would agree with the child, she made a remarkable journey from 10 months of age to 18 months. There is one thing worth mentioning – she refused to eat solid food throughout this time. The story does not end there. Today she is 12 years old and has had to be regulated with diet and biogene substances every day since she was 4 years old. During the last 5 months she has shown more stability and can even go a day or two without biogene substances as long as she keeps to her dietary plan. If you had just met her and spent a day with her, you would never know.

  14. A true case story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Hanne Bjørg

    2012-01-01

    Autism is not generally recognized as a condition which can be bio-medically influenced. As of today, there are no biomarkers for autism that are recognized by traditional medicine. Treating autism medically is a difficult and hopeless task according to official guidelines (even though it is seldom written in official documents). Parents of many children who have or had an ASD diagnosis have witnessed significant improvements in their children after dietary interventions as well as after interventions with vitamins, minerals and biogene substances which can be bought over the counter. The parents of individual children are their best observers. With a high degree of certainty, they are able to see which substances improve or weaken their children. Their observations are usually accurate, but their rationale for why is often wrong. Observations from parents can often be of greater importance for the child than advice from so called experts. This is a true story about a girl whose parents lost contact with her when she was only 6 months old. In her first 14 days she lost her ability to roll over, to babble and make sounds. She did not look at her parents any more - just stared up at the roof. At 9 months she did not respond to words such as, 'look at mommy'. Through the parents own experiences with her older siblings and 4 months of frantic searching for a diet that would agree with the child, she made a remarkable journey from 10 months of age to 18 months. There is one thing worth mentioning - she refused to eat solid food throughout this time. The story does not end there. Today she is 12 years old and has had to be regulated with diet and biogene substances every day since she was 4 years old. During the last 5 months she has shown more stability and can even go a day or two without biogene substances as long as she keeps to her dietary plan. If you had just met her and spent a day with her, you would never know.

  15. Evaluation of modelling of the TRUE-1 radially converging and dipole tests with conservative tracers. The Aespoe task force on modelling of groundwater flow and transport of solutes. Tasks 4C and 4D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elert, M. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-05-01

    The `Aespoe task force on modelling of groundwater flow and transport of solutes` is a forum for the international organisations supporting the Aespoe HRL Project. The purpose of the Task Force is to interact in the area of conceptual and numerical modelling of groundwater flow and solute transport in fractured rock. Task 4 of the Aespoe Modelling Task Force consists of modelling exercises in support of the TRUE-1 tracer tests. In this report, the modelling work performed within Tasks 4C and 4D is evaluated, which comprised predictive modelling of the radially converging tracer tests and dipole tracer tests performed within the TRUE-1 tests using non-sorbing tracers. The tests were performed between packed off boreholes penetrating a water-conducting geological feature with a simple structure (Feature A). These tests are to a great extent preparatory steps for the subsequent tests with sorbing radioactive tracers. In Tasks 4E and 4F of the Aespoe Modelling Task Force predictive modelling of the sorbing tracer tests is performed. Eight modelling teams representing seven organisations have performed predictive modelling using different modelling approaches and models. The modelling groups were initially given data from the site characterisation and data on the experimental set-up of the tracer tests. Based on this information model predictions were performed of drawdown, tracer mass recovery and tracer breakthrough. The performed predictions shows that the concept of Feature A as a singular well-connected feature with limited connectivity to its surroundings is quite adequate for predictions of drawdown in boreholes and conservative tracer breakthrough. Reasonable estimates were obtained using relatively simple models. However, more elaborate models with calibration or conditioning of transmissivities and transport apertures are required for more accurate predictions. The general flow and transport processes are well understood, but the methodology to derive the

  16. Estimation of flock/herd-level true Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis prevalence on sheep, beef cattle and deer farms in New Zealand using a novel Bayesian model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Cristobal; Jones, Geoff; Johnson, Wes; Wilson, Peter; Stringer, Lesley; Heuer, Cord

    2014-12-01

    The study aimed to estimate the national- and island-level flock/herd true prevalence (HTP) of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in pastoral farmed sheep, beef cattle and deer in New Zealand. A random sample of 238 single- or multi-species farms was selected from a postal surveyed population of 1940 farms. The sample included 162 sheep flocks, 116 beef cattle and 99 deer herds from seven of 16 geographical regions. Twenty animals from each species present on farm were randomly selected for blood and faecal sampling. Pooled faecal culture testing was conducted using a single pool (sheep flocks) or two pools (beef cattle/deer herds) of 20 and 10 samples per pool, respectively. To increase flock/herd-level sensitivity, sera from all 20 animals from culture negative flocks/herds were individually tested by Pourquier(®) ELISA (sheep and cattle) or Paralisa™ (deer). Results were adjusted for sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests using a novel Bayesian latent class model. Outcomes were adjusted by their sampling fractions to obtain HTP estimates at national level. For each species, the posterior probability (POPR) of HTP differences between New Zealand North (NI) and South (SI) Islands was obtained. Across all species, 69% of farms had at least one species test positive. Sheep flocks had the highest HTP estimate (76%, posterior probability interval (PPI) 70-81%), followed by deer (46%, PPI 38-55%) and beef herds (42%, PPI 35-50%). Differences were observed between the two main islands of New Zealand, with higher HTP in sheep and beef cattle flocks/herds in the NI. Sheep flock HTP was 80% in the NI compared with 70% (POPR=0.96) in the SI, while the HTP for beef cattle was 44% in the NI and 38% in the SI (POPR=0.80). Conversely, deer HTP was higher in the SI (54%) than the NI (33%, POPR=0.99). Infection with MAP is endemic at high prevalence in sheep, beef cattle and deer flocks/herds across New Zealand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B

  17. Portable hand hold device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmon, Jr., John W. (Inventor); McQueen, Donald H. (Inventor); Sanders, Fred G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A hand hold device (A) includes a housing (10) having a hand hold (14) and clamping brackets (32,34) for grasping and handling an object. A drive includes drive lever (23), spur gear (22), and rack gears (24,26) carried on rods (24a, 26a) for moving the clamping brackets. A lock includes ratchet gear (40) and pawl (42) biased between lock and unlock positions by a cantilever spring (46,48) and moved by handle (54). Compliant grip pads (32b, 34b) provide compliance to lock, unlock, and hold an object between the clamp brackets.

  18. Evaluation of modelling of the TRUE-1 radially converging tests with sorbing tracers. The Aespoe task force on modelling of groundwater flow and transport of solutes. Tasks 4E and 4F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elert, M.; Svensson, Haakan [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-05-01

    The Aespoe Task Force on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Transport of Solutes is a forum for the international organisations supporting the Aespoe HRL Project. The purpose of the Task Force is to interact in the area of conceptual and numerical modelling of groundwater flow and solute transport in fractured rock. Task 4 of the Aespoe Modelling Task Force consists of modelling exercises in support of the TRUE-1 tracer tests. In this report, the modelling work performed within Tasks 4E and 4F is evaluated, which comprised predictive modelling of the tracer tests (STT-1, STT-1b and STT-2) performed within the TRUE-1 project using sorbing and non-sorbing tracers. The tests were made between packed off boreholes penetrating a water-conducting geological feature with a simple structure (Feature A). Nine modelling teams representing eight organisations have performed predictive modelling of the tracer tests using different modelling approaches and models. The modelling groups were initially given data from the site characterisation, data from preliminary tracer tests performed with non-sorbing tracers and data on the experimental set-up of the sorbing tracer tests. Based on this information, model predictions were made of drawdown, tracer mass recovery and tracer breakthrough. For the predictions of the STT-1b and STT-2 tests results from previous tracer tests with sorbing tracer were also available. The predictions of the sorbing tracer breakthrough in the initial tracer test (STT-1) generally underestimated the breakthrough time, suggesting the need to include additional processes and evaluate the application of the laboratory data. As a result of model calibration and modification the predictions were considerably improved for the latter tracer tests (STT-1b and STT-2). Task 4E and 4F have proved to be very valuable in increasing the understanding of non-sorbing tracer transport in fractured rock. There is a general consensus on the major processes responsible for

  19. Rock Equity Holdings, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of an Administrative Penalty Assessment in the form of an Expedited Storm Water Settlement Agreement against Rock Equity Holdings, LLC, for alleged violations at The Cove at Kettlestone/98th Street Reconstruction located at 3015

  20. True constructive interference in the steady state (trueCISS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Tom; Nguyen, Damien; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Krueger, Gunnar; Kober, Tobias; Bieri, Oliver

    2018-04-01

    To introduce a novel time-efficient method, termed true constructive interference in the steady state (trueCISS), that not only solves the problem of banding artifacts for balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) but also provides its genuine, that is, true, on-resonant signal. After a compressed sensing reconstruction from a set of highly undersampled phase-cycled bSSFP scans, the local off-resonance, relaxation time ratio, and equilibrium magnetization are voxel-wise estimated using a dictionary-based fitting routine. Subsequently, on-resonant bSSFP images are generated using the previously estimated parameters. Due to the high undersampling factors used, the acquisition time is not prolonged with respect to a standard CISS acquisition. From a set of 16 phase-cycled SSFP scans in combination with an eightfold undersampling, both phantom and in vivo whole-brain experiments demonstrate that banding successfully can be removed. Additionally, trueCISS allows the derivation of synthetic bSSFP images with arbitrary flip angles, which enables image contrasts that may not be possible to acquire in practice due to safety constraints. TrueCISS offers banding-free bSSFP images with on-resonant signal intensity and without requiring additional acquisition time compared to conventional methods. Magn Reson Med 79:1901-1910, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. An integer batch scheduling model considering learning, forgetting, and deterioration effects for a single machine to minimize total inventory holding cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusriski, R.; Sukoyo; Samadhi, T. M. A. A.; Halim, A. H.

    2018-03-01

    This research deals with a single machine batch scheduling model considering the influenced of learning, forgetting, and machine deterioration effects. The objective of the model is to minimize total inventory holding cost, and the decision variables are the number of batches (N), batch sizes (Q[i], i = 1, 2, .., N) and the sequence of processing the resulting batches. The parts to be processed are received at the right time and the right quantities, and all completed parts must be delivered at a common due date. We propose a heuristic procedure based on the Lagrange method to solve the problem. The effectiveness of the procedure is evaluated by comparing the resulting solution to the optimal solution obtained from the enumeration procedure using the integer composition technique and shows that the average effectiveness is 94%.

  2. 26 CFR 1.556-3 - Illustration of computation of undistributed foreign personal holding company income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Illustration of computation of undistributed foreign personal holding company income. 1.556-3 Section 1.556-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Holding Companies § 1.556-3 Illustration of computation of undistributed foreign personal holding company...

  3. Energetics of breath-hold hunting: modeling the effects of aging on foraging success in the Weddell seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Allyson G; Horning, Markus

    2010-06-07

    A simulation model was developed to predict age-related changes in foraging energetics of individual Weddell seals, Leptonychotes weddellii. Aging in diving animals is interesting because their characteristic cyclic sequence of apneustic hunting and eupnea should elevate oxidative stress, possibly accelerating aging. Such a hypothesis can be evaluated by modeling energetics of constrained, time-partitioned activities with well-defined costs. Three possible consequences of physiological aging in divers were specified and appraised. The model examined the potential impacts of age-related decline in muscle contractile ability, increased buoyancy, and reduced aerobic dive limit, alone and in combination, on a daily energy budget. A uniform age effect evident in model outputs is reduced foraging efficiency. The components of this net effect are exacerbated for sub-optimal behavioral-response settings or environmental conditions. The model predicts that with advancing age, efficiency declines increase for aging scenarios in the following order: simulated 'young' adults; 'old' seals with increased buoyancy; 'old' seals with reduced aerobic dive limit; 'old' seals having reduced muscle contractile efficiency; and, 'old' seals with all three conditions. The model indicates narrowed behavioral options to maintain positive energy balance in older animals, suggesting that behavioral plasticity may not allow older animals to compensate for age-related performance constraints. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. AN ENTROPIC ORDER QUANTITY MODEL WITH FUZZY HOLDING COST AND FUZZY DISPOSAL COST FOR PERISHABLE ITEMS UNDER TWO COMPONENT DEMAND AND DISCOUNTED SELLING PRICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Tripathy

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A new type of replenishment policy is suggested in an entropy order quantity model for a perishable product possessing fuzzy holding cost and fuzzy disposal cost. This model represents an appropriate combination of two component demand with discounted selling price, particularly over a finite time horizon. Its main aim lies in the need for an entropic cost of the cycle time is a key feature of specific perishable product like fruits, vegetables, food stuffs, fishes etc. To handle this multiplicity of objectives in a pragmatic approach, entropic ordering quantity model with discounted selling price during pre and post deterioration of perishable items to optimize its payoff is proposed. It has been imperative to demonstrate this model by analysis, which reveals some important characteristics of discounted structure. Furthermore, numerical experiments are conducted to evaluate the difference between the crisp and fuzzy cases in EOQ and EnOQ separately. This paper explores the economy of investing in economics of lot sizing in Fuzzy EOQ, Crisp EOQ and Crisp EnOQ models. The proposed paper reveals itself as a pragmatic alternative to other approaches based on two component demand function with very sound theoretical underpinnings but with few possibilities of actually being put into practice. The results indicate that this can become a good model and can be replicated by researchers in neighbourhood of its possible extensions.

  5. Tube holding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    A tube holding rig is described for the lateral support of tubes arranged in tight parcels in a heat exchanger. This tube holding rig includes not less than two tube supporting assemblies, with a space between them, located crosswise with respect to the tubes, each supporting assembly comprising a first set of parallel components in contact with the tubes, whilst a second set of components is also in contact with the tubes. These two sets of parts together define apertures through which the tubes pass [fr

  6. Dishonest responding or true virtue?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zettler, Ingo; Hilbig, Benjamin E.; Moshagen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    management scores indeed reflect true virtues rather than dishonesty under such conditions. We found support for this idea by replicating previous correlations between impression management scores and virtue-related basic personality traits (including honesty-humility), and additionally provided conclusive...

  7. True Fibroma of Alveolar Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankargouda Patil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign fibrous overgrowths are often found in the oral cavity, almost always being reactive/irritational in nature. However, benign mesenchymal neoplasms of the fibroblasts are extremely uncommon. Here we report a case of “True Fibroma of Alveolar Mucosa” for its rarity.

  8. Representations built from a true geographic database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodum, Lars

    2005-01-01

    a representation based on geographic and geospatial principles. The system GRIFINOR, developed at 3DGI, Aalborg University, DK, is capable of creating this object-orientation and furthermore does this on top of a true Geographic database. A true Geographic database can be characterized as a database that can cover......) within the creation of Virtual Environments, what will be the next challenge within Urban simulation and modelling to overcome? It will certainly not be to create the models as real as possible or refine details in the texturing. The challenge will be to do a proper object-orientation and thereby secure...... the whole world in 3d and with a spatial reference given by geographic coordinates. Built on top of this is a customised viewer, based on the Xith(Java) scenegraph. The viewer reads the objects directly from the database and solves the question about Level-Of-Detail on buildings, orientation in relation...

  9. Do More Economists Hold Stocks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Joensen, Juanna Schröter; Rangvid, Jesper

    A unique data set enables us to test the hypothesis that more economists than otherwise identical investors hold stocks due to informational advantages. We confirm that economists have a significantly higher probability of participating in the stock market than investors with any other education......, even when controlling for several background characteristics. We make use of a large register-based panel data set containing detailed information on the educational attainments and various financial and socioeconomic variables. We model the stock market participation decision by the probit model...

  10. A feasibility study on model-based evaluation of kidney perfusion measured by means of FAIR prepared true-FISP arterial spin labeling (ASL) on a 3-T MR scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Claus; Schroth, Gerhard; Gralla, Jan; Diehm, Nico; Baumgartner, Iris; Husmann, Mare

    2009-01-01

    A feasibility study on measuring kidney perfusion by a contrast-free magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique is presented. A flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) prepared true fast imaging with steady-state precession (TrueFISP) arterial spin labeling sequence was used on a 3.0-T MR-scanner. The basis for quantification is a two-compartment exchange model proposed by Parkes that corrects for diverse assumptions in single-compartment standard models. Eleven healthy volunteers (mean age, 42.3 years; range 24-55) were examined. The calculated mean renal blood flow values for the exchange model (109 +/- 5 [medulla] and 245 +/- 11 [cortex] ml/min - 100 g) are in good agreement with the literature. Most important, the two-compartment exchange model exhibits a stabilizing effect on the evaluation of perfusion values if the finite permeability of the vessel wall and the venous outflow (fast solution) are considered: the values for the one-compartment standard model were 93 +/- 18 (medulla) and 208 +/- 37 (cortex) ml/min - 100 g. This improvement will increase the accuracy of contrast-free imaging of kidney perfusion in treatment renovascular disease.

  11. In search of true friendship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Karine de Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present text proposes a discussion on the concept of true friendship. The argument is grounded mostly on Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics, Owen Flanagan's ethics as human ecology, and on contemporary authors' works about the Greek philosopher's concept of friendship. Given that human beings flourish through 1 exercising capacities, 2 being moral, and 3 having true friendships, difficulties to establish the level of trust required by true friendships turns the search itself (for them morally valid.O presente texto propõe uma discussão sobre o conceito de amizade verdadeira. A argumentação que fundamenta o trabalho baseia-se em grande parte na Ética a Nicômaco de Aristóteles, na ética como ecologia humana de Owen Flanagan, e em autores contemporâneos sobre o conceito de amizade do filósofo grego. Considerando-se que seres humanos encontram a felicidade mediante 1 o exercício de suas capacidades, 2 ser um ente moral, e 3 ter amizades verdadeiras, as dificuldades no estabelecimento do nível de amizade requerido nas amizades verdadeiras torna a busca (por elas, por si só, algo moralmente válido.

  12. Friction coefficient and limiter load test analysis by flexibility coefficient model of Hold-Down Spring of nuclear reactor vessel internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Linjun

    2017-01-01

    The friction force between the contact surfaces of a reactor internal hold-down spring (HDS) and core barrel flanges can directly influence the axial stiffness of an HDS. However, friction coefficient cannot be obtained through theoretical analysis. This study performs a mathematical deduction of the physical model of an HDS. Moreover, a mathematical model of axial load P, displacement δ, and flexibility coefficient is established, and a set of test apparatuses is designed to simulate the preloading process of the HDS. According to the experimental research and theoretical analysis, P-δ curves and the flexibility coefficient λ are obtained in the loading processes of the HDS. The friction coefficient f of the M1000 HDS is further calculated as 0.224. The displacement limit load value (4,638 kN) can be obtained through a displacement limit experiment. With the friction coefficient considered, the theoretical load is 4,271 kN, which is relatively close to the experimental result. Thus, the friction coefficient exerts an influence on the displacement limit load P. The friction coefficient should be considered in the design analysis for HDS.

  13. Friction coefficient and limiter load test analysis by flexibility coefficient model of Hold-Down Spring of nuclear reactor vessel internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Linjun [Zhejiang Univ. of Technology, Hangzhou (China). College of Mechanical Engineering; Xue, Guohong; Zhang, Ming [Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute, Shanghai (China)

    2017-11-15

    The friction force between the contact surfaces of a reactor internal hold-down spring (HDS) and core barrel flanges can directly influence the axial stiffness of an HDS. However, friction coefficient cannot be obtained through theoretical analysis. This study performs a mathematical deduction of the physical model of an HDS. Moreover, a mathematical model of axial load P, displacement δ, and flexibility coefficient is established, and a set of test apparatuses is designed to simulate the preloading process of the HDS. According to the experimental research and theoretical analysis, P-δ curves and the flexibility coefficient λ are obtained in the loading processes of the HDS. The friction coefficient f of the M1000 HDS is further calculated as 0.224. The displacement limit load value (4,638 kN) can be obtained through a displacement limit experiment. With the friction coefficient considered, the theoretical load is 4,271 kN, which is relatively close to the experimental result. Thus, the friction coefficient exerts an influence on the displacement limit load P. The friction coefficient should be considered in the design analysis for HDS.

  14. Plastic occlusion stress test as a model to investigate the effects of skin delipidization on the stratum corneum water holding capacity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardesca, E; Herbst, R; Maibach, H

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop an in vivo model to study the effects of lipid removal on skin barrier. 16 subjects (age 41 +/- 8) were delipidized in vivo on the volar forearm using respectively ether/acetone (EA; 1:1) and chloroform/methanol (CM; 2:1). A third site served as control. Water holding capacity (WHC) was measured according to the plastic occlusion stress test (POST) procedure: the water desorption curve after removal of the occlusion was recorded in terms of skin surface water loss (SSWL) using an evaporimeter for 30 min. In the central part of the evaporation curve (bound water) the CM-treated site is significantly different from control and EA-treated sites (p rate of water from SC are higher in the CM-treated site (p evaporation of free water. We conclude that polar lipids have a key role in modulating barrier function and WHC of the stratum corneum. The POST can represent a useful in vivo model to study the effects of lipid extraction on skin function.

  15. Collective behaviors of book holding durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ren-De; Guo, Qiang; Han, Jing-Ti; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2016-10-01

    Duration can directly reflect the collective reading behaviors of library user book holding. In this paper, by introducing the burstiness and memory coefficients, we empirically investigate the collective book holding behavior of three university libraries. The statistical results show that there are similar properties among the students with different backgrounds, presenting the burstiness = - 0.2 and memory = 0.5 for three datasets, which indicates that memory and random effects coexist in student book holding durations. In addition, we analyze the behavior patterns without duplicate durations by merging a series of books borrowed and returned at the same time. The results show the average burstiness B increases to -0.16 and memory M drops to 0.16 for three datasets, which indicates that both duplicate behavior and student's preference affect the memory effect. Furthermore, we present a model which assumes student's next book holding duration follows the previous one with probability p, and with probability 1 - p, the student would hold the book independently. The experimental results show that the presented model can reproduce the burstiness and memory effect of student book holding durations when p = 0.5 for empirical datasets and p = 0.2 for de-duplicate datasets, which indicate that the student's preferential holding behavior occurs with the probability p. This work helps in deeply understanding the regularity of duration-based human behaviors.

  16. True ternary fission of 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayaraghavan, K.R.; Balasubramaniam, M.; Oertzen, W. von

    2014-01-01

    Splitting of heavy radioactive nucleus into three fragments is known as ternary fission. If the size of the fragments are almost equal it is referred to as true ternary fission. Recently, Yu. V. Pyatkov et al observed/reported the experimental observation of true ternary fission in 252 Cf. In this work, the possibilities of different true ternary fission modes of 252 Cf through potential energy surface (PES) calculations based on three cluster model (TCM) are discussed. In TCM a condition on the mass numbers of the fission fragments is implied as A 1 ≥ A 2 ≥ A 3 in order to avoid repetition of combinations. Due to this condition, the values of Z 3 vary from 0 to 36 and Z 2 vary from 16 to 51. Of the different pairs having similar (Z 2 , Z 3 ) with different potential energy, a pair possessing minimum potential energy is chosen. Thus identified favourable combinations are plotted. For the PES calculations the arrangement of the fragments is considered in the order of A 1 +A 2 +A 3 . i.e. the heavy and the lightest fragments are kept at the ends. It is seen that the deepest minimum in the PES occurs for Z 3 =2 labelled as (Z 2 ; 2) indicating He accompanied breakup as the most favourable one. Of which, the breakup with Z 2 around 46 to 48 is the least (shown by dashed (Z 1 = 50) and dotted (Z 1 = 52) lines indicating a constant Z 1 value). The other notable minima in the PES are labelled and they correspond to the (Z 2 , Z 3 ) pairs viz., (20, 20), (28, 20), (28, 28) and (32, 32). Of these four minima, the first three are associated with the magic numbers 20 and 28. For Z 3 =20, there are two minimums at (20,20) and (28,20) among them (28,20) is the lowest minimum through which the minimum-path passes, and it is the ternary decay observed by Yu. V. Pyatkov et al. The fourth minima is the most interesting due to the fact that it corresponds to true ternary fission mode with Z 2 =32, Z 3 =32 and Z 1 =34. The minimum potential energy path also goes through this true

  17. An application of structural equation modeling to detect response shifts and true change in quality of life data from cancer patients undergoing invasive surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, Frans J.; Visser, Mechteld R. M.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.

    2005-01-01

    The objective is to show how structural equation modeling can be used to detect reconceptualization, reprioritization, and recalibration response shifts in quality of life data from cancer patients undergoing invasive surgery. A consecutive series of 170 newly diagnosed cancer patients,

  18. True photographs and false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D Stephen; Hagen, Lisa; Read, J Don; Wade, Kimberley A; Garry, Maryanne

    2004-03-01

    Some trauma-memory-oriented psychotherapists advise clients to review old family photo albums to cue suspected "repressed" memories of childhood sexual abuse. Old photos might cue long-forgotten memories, but when combined with other suggestive influences they might also contribute to false memories. We asked 45 undergraduates to work at remembering three school-related childhood events (two true events provided by parents and one pseudoevent). By random assignment, 23 subjects were also given their school classes' group photos from the years of the to-be-recalled events as memory cues. As predicted, the rate of false-memory reports was dramatically higher in the photo condition than in the no-photo condition. Indeed, the rate of false-memory reports in the photo condition was substantially higher than the rate in any previously published study.

  19. Academic Dishonesty in Traditional and Online Classrooms: Does the "Media Equation" Hold True?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Erik W.; Greaser, Joe; Dawson, Kara

    2008-01-01

    Limited empirical research exists regarding the prevalence of academic dishonesty in the online classroom. This limited evidence supports the notion that factors contributing to academic dishonesty in the traditional classroom also apply to online courses. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between factors known to contribute…

  20. Rapid MR assessment of left ventricular systolic function after acute myocardial infarction using single breath-hold cine imaging with the temporal parallel acquisition technique (TPAT) and 4D guide-point modelling analysis of left ventricular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberle, Holger C.; Jensen, Christoph J.; Sabin, Georg V.; Naber, Christoph K.; Bruder, Oliver; Nassenstein, Kai; Schlosser, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We compared four-dimensional guide-point modelling left ventricular function analysis (4DVF) results of cine images in four short-axis and two long-axis slices acquired in a single breath-hold, obtained with the temporal parallel acquisition technique (TPAT), with standard left ventricular function (LVF) analysis results determined by the summation of discs method, in patients who had recently suffered myocardial infarction. Despite wall motion abnormalities, 4DVF yields results for left ventricular ejection fractions and end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes that are in excellent agreement with standard LVF analysis results in these patients. A shortened cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) protocol using single breath-hold cine image acquisition could facilitate the assessment of left ventricular function soon after myocardial infarction in critically ill patients who are unable to comply with the multiple breath-holds required for standard LVF analysis. (orig.)

  1. TRUE Block Scale Continuation Project. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Peter; Byegaard, Johan [Geosigma AB (Sweden); Billaux, Daniel [Itasca Consultants SA (France); Cvetkovic, Vladimir [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Dershowitz, William; Doe, Thomas [Golder Associates Inc. (United States); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates AB (Sweden); Poteri, Antti [VTT (Finland); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB (Sweden); Winberg, Anders [Conterra AB (SE)] (ed.)

    2007-03-15

    The TRUE Block Scale project was carried out during 1996-2002. This project focused on site characterisation and building of hydrostructural and microstructural models, sorbing tracer experiments in single structures and networks of structures over distances ranging between 1 and 100 m and also involved a unified application of various model approaches for modelling the in situ experiments. In 2002, ANDRA, Posiva, JNC and SKB decided to pursue some remaining issues in the so-called TRUE Block Scale Continuation project (TRUE BS2). The specific objectives of BS2 can be summarised as: 'Improve understanding of transport pathways at the block scale, including assessment of effects of geology and geometry, macrostructure and microstructure'. In order to cater to addressing the stated objective a series of hypotheses were formulated which explored the importance of geological information for predicting transport and retention and the possible differences between transport and retention between transport paths dominated by faults and those dominated by non-fault fractures (background fractures). In the process, prospects for carrying out experiments in fracture networks over longer distances (c 20-100 m) were explored. It was identified that experiments with sorbing tracers over these distances were prohibitive because of the time frames involved and the projected low mass recoveries. Instead the experimental locus was shifted to a geological structure previously not investigated by tracer tests in the TRUE Block Scale experiments. The lower immobile zone retention material properties assigned to background fractures compared to those assigned to the fault-type Structure 19 have been verified by means of back-calculations. The evaluated Type 1 flow path (Structure 19, Flow path I) retention material properties, as expressed by {kappa} parameter, are one order of magnitude higher than for the background fracture flow path. This finding is consistent with the

  2. Respiratory-induced 3D deformations of the renal arteries quantified with geometric modeling during inspiration and expiration breath-holds of magnetic resonance angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Ga-Young; Choi, Gilwoo; Draney, Mary T; Herfkens, Robert J; Dalman, Ronald L; Cheng, Christopher P

    2013-12-01

    To quantify renal artery deformation due to respiration using magnetic resonance (MR) image-based geometric analysis. Five males were imaged with contrast-enhanced MR angiography during inspiratory and expiratory breath-holds. From 3D models of the abdominal aorta, left and right renal arteries (LRA and RRA), we quantified branching angle, curvature, peak curve angle, axial length, and locations of branch points. With expiration, maximum curvature changes were 0.054 ± 0.025 mm(-1) (P < 0.01), and curve angle at the most proximal curvature peak increased by 8.0 ± 4.5° (P < 0.05) in the LRA. Changes in maximum curvature and curve angles were not significant in the RRA. The first renal bifurcation point translated superiorly and posteriorly by 9.7 ± 3.6 mm (P < 0.005) and 3.5 ± 2.1 mm (P < 0.05), respectively, in the LRA, and 10.8 ± 6.1 mm (P < 0.05) and 3.6 ± 2.5 mm (P < 0.05), respectively, in the RRA. Changes in branching angle, axial length, and renal ostia locations were not significant. The LRA and RRA deformed and translated significantly. Greater deformation of the LRA as compared to the RRA may be due to asymmetric anatomy and mechanical support by the inferior vena cava. The presented methodology can extend to quantification of deformation of diseased and stented arteries to help renal artery implant development. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Creating a brief rating scale for the assessment of learning disabilities using reliability and true score estimates of the scale's items based on the Rasch model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideridis, Georgios; Padeliadu, Susana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present studies was to provide the means to create brief versions of instruments that can aid the diagnosis and classification of students with learning disabilities and comorbid disorders (e.g., attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder). A sample of 1,108 students with and without a diagnosis of learning disabilities took part in study 1. Using information from modern theory methods (i.e., the Rasch model), a scale was created that included fewer than one third of the original battery items designed to assess reading skills. This best item synthesis was then evaluated for its predictive and criterion validity with a valid external reading battery (study 2). Using a sample of 232 students with and without learning disabilities, results indicated that the brief version of the scale was equally effective as the original scale in predicting reading achievement. Analysis of the content of the brief scale indicated that the best item synthesis involved items from cognition, motivation, strategy use, and advanced reading skills. It is suggested that multiple psychometric criteria be employed in evaluating the psychometric adequacy of scales used for the assessment and identification of learning disabilities and comorbid disorders.

  4. True mean rate measuring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichenlaub, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    A digital radiation-monitoring system for nuclear power plants uses digital and microprocessor circuitry to enable rapid processing of pulse information from remote radiation monitors. The pulse rates are analyzed to determine whether new pulse-rate information is statisticaly the same as that previously received and to determine the best possible averaging time, which can be changed so that the statistical error remains below a specified level while the system response time remains short. Several data modules each process the pulse-rate information from several remote radiation monitors. Each data module accepts pulse data from each radiation monitor and measures the true average or mean pulse rate of events occurring with a Poisson distribution to determine the radiation level. They then develop digital output signals which indciate the respective radiation levels and which can be transmitted via multiplexer circuits for additional processing and display. The data modules can accept signals from remote control stations or computer stations via the multiplexer circuit to change operating thresholds and alarm levels in their memories. A check module scans the various data modules to determine whether the output signals are valid. It also acts as a redundant data module and will automatically replace an inoperative unit. (DN)

  5. The true cost of burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Chris S; Maitz, Peter K M

    2012-11-01

    It is difficult to define the true cost of a burns injury, however there has always been a consensus that the costs associated with burns care are high. This study aims to achieve an accurate calculation of the cost of acute burns care in an Australian context. A retrospective review of 20 adult burn patients treated at our Centre was performed. An itemized price list was prepared based on items, services and equipment actually utilized in the care of burns patients. Case records were reviewed for a count of quantities to calculate costs for each item. Regression analysis was performed to produce a cost vs %TBSA curve for cost prediction. A cost breakdown was also performed for analysis of the most significant areas of expenditure and their trends with %TBSA. The cost calculated for an average adult burns patient was AU$71,056 (US$73,532). The total cost of all 20 patients was AU$2,449,112 (US$2,534,464). %TBSA injured was confirmed as the primary determinant of cost. Hospital length of stay, operative costs, dressings and staffing were found to be the most significant components of cost and increased most prominently with %TBSA. Compared to our findings, expenditure for prevention and education programs is minimal. There is limited conclusive evidence that changes in management protocols have had successful impact on the cost of burns treatment. Future progress in burns management may effect factors such as hospital length of stay, however until such changes, resource allocation should recognize the importance of prevention and its success at reduction of injury severity for real reductions in cost of burns care. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. True ownership of traditional medicines in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Louw

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Literature postulates that traditional medicines form an important part of modern-day South African healthcare. The belief is that the traditional healer and traditional medicine is a close-knit unit, with the traditional healer as the true owner and manufacturer of traditional medicines. Various studies also postulate that the growth and development of South African traditional medicines are restricted by the pharmaceutical industries and other role players like the medical fraternity. Aims The present study aimed to determine who holds the true ownership of traditional medicines in South Africa. Methods This is an exploratory and descriptive study that makes use of an historical approach by means of investigation and a literature review. The emphasis is on using current documentation like articles, books and newspapers as primary sources to reflect on the thinking and opinion on the true ownership of traditional medicines in South Africa. The findings are offered in narrative form. Results Many more role players are active in today’s traditional medicines manufacturing industry than merely the traditional healer and the traditional fraternity. The literature on traditional medicines fails to show the public the true meaning of traditional medicine in modern-day South Africa and to whom it really belongs. An in-depth analysis and understanding of the Regulations of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act (Act No 22, 2007, and of the definitions traditional philosophy and traditional medicines as reflected by the Act are totally missing from the literature. Such an investigation will aid in uncovering the true ownership of traditional medicines. Conclusion There is a clear differentiation between the dominant (real traditional medicines and the inferior pre-modern traditional products of the traditional healer. The title deed or card and transport of traditional medicine are held by various public and private institutions and other

  7. Gaze holding in healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bertolini

    Full Text Available Eccentric gaze in darkness evokes minor centripetal eye drifts in healthy subjects, as cerebellar control sufficiently compensates for the inherent deficiencies of the brainstem gaze-holding network. This behavior is commonly described using a leaky integrator model, which assumes that eye velocity grows linearly with gaze eccentricity. Results from previous studies in patients and healthy subjects suggest caution when this assumption is applied to eye eccentricities larger than 20 degrees. To obtain a detailed characterization of the centripetal gaze-evoked drift, we recorded horizontal eye position in 20 healthy subjects. With their head fixed, they were asked to fixate a flashing dot (50 ms every 2 sthat was quasi-stationary displacing(0.5 deg/s between ± 40 deg horizontally in otherwise complete darkness. Drift velocity was weak at all angles tested. Linearity was assessed by dividing the range of gaze eccentricity in four bins of 20 deg each, and comparing the slopes of a linear function fitted to the horizontal velocity in each bin. The slopes of single subjects for gaze eccentricities of ± 0-20 deg were, in median,0.41 times the slopes obtained for gaze eccentricities of ± 20-40 deg. By smoothing the individual subjects' eye velocity as a function of gaze eccentricity, we derived a population of position-velocity curves. We show that a tangent function provides a better fit to the mean of these curves when large eccentricities are considered. This implies that the quasi-linear behavior within the typical ocular motor range is the result of a tuning procedure, which is optimized in the most commonly used range of gaze. We hypothesize that the observed non-linearity at eccentric gaze results from a saturation of the input that each neuron in the integrating network receives from the others. As a consequence, gaze-holding performance declines more rapidly at large eccentricities.

  8. Gaze Holding in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, Giovanni; Tarnutzer, Alexander A.; Olasagasti, Itsaso; Khojasteh, Elham; Weber, Konrad P.; Bockisch, Christopher J.; Straumann, Dominik; Marti, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Eccentric gaze in darkness evokes minor centripetal eye drifts in healthy subjects, as cerebellar control sufficiently compensates for the inherent deficiencies of the brainstem gaze-holding network. This behavior is commonly described using a leaky integrator model, which assumes that eye velocity grows linearly with gaze eccentricity. Results from previous studies in patients and healthy subjects suggest caution when this assumption is applied to eye eccentricities larger than 20 degrees. To obtain a detailed characterization of the centripetal gaze-evoked drift, we recorded horizontal eye position in 20 healthy subjects. With their head fixed, they were asked to fixate a flashing dot (50 ms every 2 s)that was quasi-stationary displacing(0.5 deg/s) between ±40 deg horizontally in otherwise complete darkness. Drift velocity was weak at all angles tested. Linearity was assessed by dividing the range of gaze eccentricity in four bins of 20 deg each, and comparing the slopes of a linear function fitted to the horizontal velocity in each bin. The slopes of single subjects for gaze eccentricities of ±0−20 deg were, in median,0.41 times the slopes obtained for gaze eccentricities of ±20−40 deg. By smoothing the individual subjects' eye velocity as a function of gaze eccentricity, we derived a population of position-velocity curves. We show that a tangent function provides a better fit to the mean of these curves when large eccentricities are considered. This implies that the quasi-linear behavior within the typical ocular motor range is the result of a tuning procedure, which is optimized in the most commonly used range of gaze. We hypothesize that the observed non-linearity at eccentric gaze results from a saturation of the input that each neuron in the integrating network receives from the others. As a consequence, gaze-holding performance declines more rapidly at large eccentricities. PMID:23637824

  9. Minimal Model Theory for Log Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Fujino, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the log minimal model theory for log surfaces. We show that the log minimal model program, the finite generation of log canonical rings, and the log abundance theorem for log surfaces hold true under assumptions weaker than the usual framework of the log minimal model theory.

  10. Concept of true and perceived placebo effects.

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, E.; Resch, K. L.

    1995-01-01

    We often and wrongly equate the response seen in the placebo arm of a clinical trial with the placebo effect. In order to obtain the true placebo effect, other non-specific effects can be identified by including an untreated control group in clinical trials. A review of the literature shows that most authors confuse the perceived placebo effect with the true placebo effect. The true placebo effect is highly variable, depending on several factors that are not fully understood. A distinction be...

  11. Revealing the True Incidence of Pandemic A(H1N1)pdm09 Influenza in Finland during the First Two Seasons - An Analysis Based on a Dynamic Transmission Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubin, Mikhail; Lebedev, Artem; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Auranen, Kari

    2016-03-01

    The threat of the new pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 imposed a heavy burden on the public health system in Finland in 2009-2010. An extensive vaccination campaign was set up in the middle of the first pandemic season. However, the true number of infected individuals remains uncertain as the surveillance missed a large portion of mild infections. We constructed a transmission model to simulate the spread of influenza in the Finnish population. We used the model to analyse the two first years (2009-2011) of A(H1N1)pdm09 in Finland. Using data from the national surveillance of influenza and data on close person-to-person (social) contacts in the population, we estimated that 6% (90% credible interval 5.1 - 6.7%) of the population was infected with A(H1N1)pdm09 in the first pandemic season (2009/2010) and an additional 3% (2.5 - 3.5%) in the second season (2010/2011). Vaccination had a substantial impact in mitigating the second season. The dynamic approach allowed us to discover how the proportion of detected cases changed over the course of the epidemic. The role of time-varying reproduction number, capturing the effects of weather and changes in behaviour, was important in shaping the epidemic.

  12. DESIGN OF INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF VERTICALLY INTEGRATED AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Витальевич ШМАТКО

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an approach to the design and development of information systems for the management and optimization of the organizational structure of vertically integrated agricultural holdings. A review of the problems of building and improving the organizational structure of vertically integrated agricultural holding is made. A method of constructing a discrete model management structure agricultural holding, which minimizes the costs associated with attracting applicants to work, is proposed.

  13. Blue breath holding is benign.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, J B

    1991-01-01

    In their recent publication in this journal, Southall et al described typical cyanotic breath holding spells, both in otherwise healthy children and in those with brainstem lesions and other malformations. Their suggestions regarding possible autonomic disturbances may require further study, but they have adduced no scientific evidence to contradict the accepted view that in the intact child blue breath holding spells are benign. Those families in which an infant suffers an 'apparently life t...

  14. Bar-holding prosthetic limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Thomas W. (Inventor); Norton, William E. (Inventor); Belcher, Jewell G. (Inventor); Carden, James R. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A prosthetic device for below-the-elbow amputees is disclosed. The device has a removable effector, which is attached to the end of an arm cuff. The effector is comprised of a pair of C-shaped members that are oriented so as to face each other. Working in concert, the C-shaped members are able to hold a bar such as a chainsaw handle. A flat spring is fitted around the C-shaped members to hold them together.

  15. True pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysms: A decision analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, Hidemasa; Nojo, Takeshi; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: True pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysms are rare. No definitive study evaluating the natural history of these lesions or their preferred method of treatment has been published. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of preventive treatment of unruptured pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysms using a Markov model. Materials and methods: With the use of a Markov model, we performed a decision analysis to evaluate the outcome of preventive treatment of unruptured pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysms. The risk of rupture and the mortality of preventive treatment are unknown. Therefore, we performed sensitivity analysis using these parameters. Effectiveness was measured in life expectancy. Results: For 80-year-old patients, preventive treatment was dominated by no treatment if mortality rates of preventive treatment were greater than 1.4%, greater than 2.6%, greater than 3.8%, and greater than 4.8% at annual rupture rates of 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%, respectively. For 50-year-old patients, preventive treatment was dominated by no treatment if mortality rates of preventive treatment were greater than 3.3%, greater than 5.9%, greater than 8.0%, and greater than 9.7% at annual rupture rates of 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%, respectively. Conclusion: The effectiveness of preventive treatment of unruptured pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysms depends on the aneurysm rupture rate, mortality rate of preventive treatment, and patient age. Taking into account the effects of these parameters is important in making treatment decisions.

  16. Hold the megaphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattenberg, B

    1994-09-08

    Alarmists and neo-Malthusians can be expected to base discussion at the upcoming International Conference on Population and Development on outmoded theoretical models discredited by actual experience in the US and other developed countries. For example, although population in the US has increased 60-fold since the first census in 1790, the country wields more economic power than any other. The Malthusian insistence that population growth will outrun the food supply has also been disproven; food production has tripled since the 1950s while population has doubled. The real cause of population growth in recent decades has been increased longevity and infant survival. As people realize their children will survive, a transition toward lower fertility will follow. In fact, it is more likely that world population will peak at 7-8 billion rather than the 10-12 billion cited by conference organizers. Finally, experience in the decade since the Mexico City World Population Conference confirms the position that market-oriented economic development is the most effective approach to lowered fertility.

  17. The Economics of an Admissions Holding Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, Kraftin E; Martin, Richard

    2017-06-01

    With increasing attention to the actual cost of delivering care, return-on-investment calculations take on new significance. Boarded patients in the emergency department (ED) are harmful to clinical care and have significant financial opportunity costs. We hypothesize that investment in an admissions holding unit for admitted ED patients not only captures opportunity cost but also significantly lowers direct cost of care. This was a three-phase study at a busy urban teaching center with significant walkout rate. We first determined the true cost of maintaining a staffed ED bed for one patient-hour and compared it to alternative settings. The opportunity cost for patients leaving without being seen was then conservatively estimated. Lastly, a convenience sample of admitted patients boarding in the ED was observed continuously from one hour after decision-to-admit until physical departure from the ED to capture a record of every interaction with a nurse or physician. Personnel costs per patient bed-hour were $58.20 for the ED, $24.80 for an inpatient floor, $19.20 for the inpatient observation unit, and $10.40 for an admissions holding area. An eight-bed holding unit operating at practical capacity would free 57.4 hours of bed space in the ED and allow treatment of 20 additional patients. This could yield increased revenues of $27,796 per day and capture opportunity cost of $6.09 million over 219 days, in return for extra staffing costs of $218,650. Analysis of resources used for boarded patients was determined by continuous observation of a convenience sample of ED-boarded patients, which found near-zero interactions with both nursing and physicians during the boarding interval. Resource expense per ED bed-hour is more than twice that in non-critical care inpatient units. Despite the high cost of available resources, boarded non-critical patients receive virtually no nursing or physician attention. An admissions holding unit is remarkably effective in avoiding the

  18. Registration of global cardiac function with real-time trueFISP in one respiratory cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintersperger, B.J.; Nikolaou, K.; Huber, A.; Dietrich, O.; Reiser, M.F.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Muehling, O.; Nittka, M.; Kiefer, B.

    2004-01-01

    Real-time multislice cine techniques lead to inaccurate results in ventricular volumes based on limited temporal resolution. The purpose of the study is to evaluate a real-time cine technique with parallel imaging algorithms in comparison to standard segmented techniques. Twelve patients underwent cardiac cine MRI using real-time multislice cine trueFISP. Temporal resolution was improved using parallel acquisition techniques (iPAT) and data acquisition was performed in a single breath-hold along the patients' short axis. Evaluation of EDV, ESV, EF and myocardial mass was performed and results compared to a standard segmented single-slice cine trueFISP. Combination of real-time cine trueFISP and iPAT provided a temporal resolution of 48 ms. Results of the multislice approach showed an excellent correlation to standard single-slice trueFISP for EDV (0.94, p [de

  19. The True Gravitational Degrees Of Freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murchadha, N. o

    2011-01-01

    More than 50 years ago it was realized that General Relativity could be expressed in Hamiltonian form. Unfortunately, just like electromagnetism and Yang-Mills theory, the Einstein equations split into evolution equations and constraints which complicates matters. The 4 constraints are expressions of the gauge freedom of the theory, general covariance. One can cleanly pose initial data for the gravitational field, but this data has to satisfy the constraints. To find the independent degrees of freedom, one needs to factor the initial data by the constraints. There are many ways of doing this. I can do so in such a way as to implement the model suggested by Poincare for a well-posed dynamical system: Pick a configuration space and give the free initial data as a point of the configuration space and a tangent vector at the same point. Now, the evolution equations should give a unique curve in the same configuration space. This gives a natural definition of what I call the true gravitational degrees of freedom. (author)

  20. Responding to the Challenge of True Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallin, Carina Antonia; Andersen, Torben Juul

    We construe a conceptual framework for responding effectively to true uncertainty in the business environment. We drill down to the essential micro-foundational capabilities - sensing and seizing of dynamic capabilities - and link them to classical strategic issue management theory with suggestions...... on how to operationalize these essential capabilities. By definition true uncertainty represents environmental conditions that are hard to foresee, which can catch the unprepared by surprise while presenting opportunities to the conscious organization. We demonstrate that organizations relying...

  1. ENDOGENOUS ENERGY. A CAUSE OF BIASET/ TRUE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ENDOGENOUS ENERGY. A CAUSE OF. J.J. du Preez. Department of Poultry Scienc'e,. BIASET/ TRUE METABOLISABLE ENERGY VALUES. Receipr of MS 2l -05-81. J.P. Hayes and J.S. Duckitt. (.tn i vc r si t.y' o f S t e lle nb o sch, S t e lle nbo sc h, 7 6 0 0. (Key words: Endogenous energy, true metabolisable energ"t), ...

  2. Equations Holding in Hilbert Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayet, René

    2006-07-01

    We produce and study several sequences of equations, in the language of orthomodular lattices, which hold in the ortholattice of closed subspaces of any classical Hilbert space, but not in all orthomodular lattices. Most of these equations hold in any orthomodular lattice admitting a strong set of states whose values are in a real Hilbert space. For some of these equations, we give conditions under which they hold in the ortholattice of closed subspaces of a generalised Hilbert space. These conditions are relative to the dimension of the Hilbert space and to the characteristic of its division ring of scalars. In some cases, we show that these equations cannot be deduced from the already known equations, and we study their mutual independence. To conclude, we suggest a new method for obtaining such equations, using the tensorial product.

  3. Blue breath holding is benign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, J B

    1991-01-01

    In their recent publication in this journal, Southall et al described typical cyanotic breath holding spells, both in otherwise healthy children and in those with brainstem lesions and other malformations. Their suggestions regarding possible autonomic disturbances may require further study, but they have adduced no scientific evidence to contradict the accepted view that in the intact child blue breath holding spells are benign. Those families in which an infant suffers an 'apparently life threatening event' deserve immense understanding and help, and it behoves investigators to exercise extreme care and self criticism in the presentation of new knowledge which may bear upon their management and their morale. PMID:2001115

  4. True reference nanosensor realized with silicon nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, A; Wipf, M; Bedner, K; Kurz, J; Fu, W; Guzenko, V A; Knopfmacher, O; Stoop, R L; Calame, M; Schönenberger, C

    2012-06-26

    Conventional gate oxide layers (e.g., SiO(2), Al(2)O(3), or HfO(2)) in silicon field-effect transistors (FETs) provide highly active surfaces, which can be exploited for electronic pH sensing. Recently, great progress has been achieved in pH sensing using compact integrateable nanowire FETs. However, it has turned out to be much harder to realize a true reference electrode, which--while sensing the electrostatic potential--does not respond to the proton concentration. In this work, we demonstrate a highly effective reference sensor, a so-called reference FET, whose proton sensitivity is suppressed by as much as 2 orders of magnitude. To do so, the Al(2)O(3) surface of a nanowire FET was passivated with a self-assembled monolayer of silanes with a long alkyl chain. We have found that a full passivation can be achieved only after an extended period of self-assembling lasting several days at 80 °C. We use this slow process to measure the number of active proton binding sites as a function of time by a quantitative comparison of the measured nonlinear pH-sensitivities to a theoretical model (site-binding model). Furthermore, we have found that a partially passivated surface can sense small changes in the number of active binding sites reaching a detection limit of δN(s) ≈ 170 μm(-2) Hz(-1/2) at 10 Hz and pH 3.

  5. True polar wander on convecting planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Ian Robert

    Rotating planets are most stable when spinning around their maximum moment of inertia, and will tend to reorient themselves to achieve this configuration. Geological activity redistributes mass in the planet, making the moment of inertia a function of time. As the moment of inertia of the planet changes, the spin axis shifts with respect to a mantle reference frame in order to maintain rotational stability. This process is known as true polar wander (TPW). Of the processes that contribute to a planet's moment of inertia, convection in the mantle generates the largest and longest-period fluctuations, with corresponding shifts in the spin axis. True polar wander has been hypothesized to explain several physiographic features on planets and moons in our solar system. On Earth, TPW events have been invoked in some interpretations of paleomagnetic data. Large swings in the spin axis could have enormous ramifications for paleogeography, paleoclimate, and the history of life. Although the existence of TPW is well-verified, it is not known whether its rate and magnitude have been large enough for it to be an important process in Earth history. If true polar wander has been sluggish compared to plate tectonic speeds, then it would be difficult to detect and its consequences would be minor. I investigate rates of true polar wander on convecting planets using scaling, numerics, and inverse problems. I perform a scaling analysis of TPW on a convecting planet, identifying a minimal set of nondimensional parameters which describe the problem. The primary nondimensional numbers that control the rate of TPW are the ratio of centrifugal to gravitational forces m and the Rayleigh number Ra. The parameter m sets the size of a planet's rotational bulge, which determines the amount of work that needs to be done to move the spin axis. The Rayleigh number controls the size, distribution, and rate of change of moment of inertia anomalies, all of which affect the rate of TPW. I find that

  6. 75 FR 81405 - Portfolio Holdings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... conservatorship. One commenter suggested strategies for reengineering the nation's mortgage finance system. In... necessary reforms for the housing finance system or to the question of what form the Enterprises will take... FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1252 RIN 2590-AA22 Portfolio Holdings AGENCY: Federal...

  7. The Capability to Hold Property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, Rutger

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the question of whether a capability theory of justice (such as that of Martha Nussbaum) should accept a basic “capability to hold property.” Answering this question is vital for bridging the gap between abstract capability theories of justice and their institutional

  8. Cash Holdings Policy: a Dynamic Analysis of Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadwa Muhieddine Dahrouge

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how corporate cash holdings were adjusted over time for Brazilian companies during the crisis of 2008-2009. We adopt a dynamic model of corporate cash holdings to evaluate the main determinants for the speed of adjustment of cash holdings at the optimum level. We find evidence that: a the adjustment costs of Brazilian companies are high implying a delay in reaching the optimum level of cash; b the low speed adjustment to the optimum level is due to the limited availability of credit and the high cost of bank debt; c during crisis, the changes in working capital are positively related to the level of cash holdings providing evidence that companies prefer finance to growth with liquidity; d companies have looked for long-term financing to secure liquidity rather than investing on fixed assets, implying a negative relationship between investment and cash holding.

  9. Are Economists More Likely to Hold Stocks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Joensen, Eyðfrið Juanna Schrøter; Rangvid, Jesper

    A unique data set enables us to test the hypothesis that due to informational advantages economists are more likely to hold stocks than otherwise identical investors. Weconfirm that economists have a significantly higher probability of participating in the stockmarket than investors with any other...... education, even when controlling for several background characteristics. We make use of a large register-based panel data set containing detailed information on the educational attainments and various financial and socioeconomic variables.We model the stock market participation decision by the probit model....... The results are shown to be highly robust to various assumptions, including unobserved individual heterogeneityand instrumental variables estimation....

  10. [Depression as the sign of true self].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazette, M M

    1992-12-01

    Referring to examples from the poetry of Fernando Pessoa and Mário de Sá Carneiro, we draw attention to the narcissistic relationship between mother and baby, to the role of the mirror-image of the mother's face, and to the organization of a false self caused by a deficiency both of that function, and of the narcissistic investment of the child. The false self is a defence mechanism which protects the true self. This may appear as a depressive state with a feeling of loss and emptiness. The depression is, in such cases, a sign and a clue which may lead to the revelation of the true self.

  11. True ternary fission in 310126X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banupriya, B.; Vijayaraghavan, K.R.; Balasubramaniam, M.

    2015-01-01

    All possible combinations are minimized by the two dimensional minimization process and minimized with respect to neutron numbers and proton numbers of the fragments. Potential energy is low and Q - value is high at true ternary fission region. It shows that true ternary mode is the dominant mode in the ternary fission of superheavy nuclei. Also, the results show that the fragments with neutron magic numbers are the dominant one in the ternary fission of superheavy nuclei whereas the fragments with proton magic numbers are the dominant one in the ternary fission of heavy nuclei

  12. SPECIALIZATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Kołoszko-Chomentowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, an attempt was made to assess the sustainability of agricultural holdings with diff erent directions of production. Agricultural holdings in the Podlaskie voivodeship registered in the FADN system in 2011–2012 were investigated. Assessment accounted for agroecological indicators (share of permanent grasslands, share of cereals in crops, soil coverage with vegetation, stock density and economic indicators (profi tableness of land and labor. Analysis was conducted according to a classifi cation into agricultural holding types: fi eldcrops, dairy cattle, and granivores. Fieldcrop and granivore holdings achieved more favourable environmental sustainability indicators. Holdings specializing in dairy cattle breeding posed a threat to the natural environment, mainly due to their excessive stock density. Economic sustainability assessment showed that granivore holdings were assessed most favorably. In these holdings, holding income per full-time worker was 37% greater than in fi eldcrop holdings and 57% greater than in dairy cattle holdings.

  13. Chemical composition, true metabolisable energy content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition, true metabolisable energy content and amino acid availability of grain legumes for poultry. TS Brand, DA Brandt, CW Cruywagen. Abstract. South African Journal of Animal Science Vol.34(2) 2004: Samples of sweet yellow lupins (Lupinus luteus; n = 4), broad leaf lupins (Lupinus albus; n = 12), ...

  14. Knowledge as Fact-Tracking True Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Adams

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Drawing inspiration from Fred Dretske, L. S. Carrier, John A. Barker, and Robert Nozick, we develop a tracking analysis of knowing according to which a true belief constitutes knowledge if and only if it is based on reasons that are sensitive to the fact that makes it true, that is, reasons that wouldn’t obtain if the belief weren’t true. We show that our sensitivity analysis handles numerous Gettier-type cases and lottery problems, blocks pathways leading to skepticism, and validates the epistemic closure thesis that correct inferences from known premises yield knowledge of the conclusions. We discuss the plausible views of Ted Warfield and Branden Fitelson regarding cases of knowledge acquired via inference from false premises, and we show how our sensitivity analysis can account for such cases. We present arguments designed to discredit putative counterexamples to sensitivity analyses recently proffered by Tristan Haze, John Williams and Neil Sinhababu, which involve true statements made by untrustworthy informants and strange clocks that sometimes display the correct time while running backwards. Finally, we show that in virtue of employing the paradox-free subjunctive conditionals codified by Relevance Logic theorists instead of the paradox-laden subjunctive conditionals codified by Robert Stalnaker and David Lewis.

  15. Tzedakah: The True Religion of Spinoza's Tractatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Topolski, A.R.

    2016-01-01

    This article digs into the conceptual history of tzedakah to consider it's relationship to Spinoza's definition of true religion as justita&caritas in the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus.3 I provide a brief explanation of Hebrew and Spinoza's grammar. Next, I consider the original meaning of this

  16. On a true value of risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozin, Igor

    2018-01-01

    The paper suggests looking on probabilistic risk quantities and concepts through the prism of accepting one of the views: whether a true value of risk exists or not. It is argued that discussions until now have been primarily focused on closely related topics that are different from the topic...

  17. Multi-objective and Perishable Fuzzy Inventory Models Having Weibull Life-time With Time Dependent Demand, Demand Dependent Production and Time Varying Holding Cost: A Possibility/Necessity Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Savita; Mondal, Seema Sarkar

    2010-10-01

    A multi-objective inventory model of deteriorating item has been developed with Weibull rate of decay, time dependent demand, demand dependent production, time varying holding cost allowing shortages in fuzzy environments for non- integrated and integrated businesses. Here objective is to maximize the profit from different deteriorating items with space constraint. The impreciseness of inventory parameters and goals for non-integrated business has been expressed by linear membership functions. The compromised solutions are obtained by different fuzzy optimization methods. To incorporate the relative importance of the objectives, the different cardinal weights crisp/fuzzy have been assigned. The models are illustrated with numerical examples and results of models with crisp/fuzzy weights are compared. The result for the model assuming them to be integrated business is obtained by using Generalized Reduced Gradient Method (GRG). The fuzzy integrated model with imprecise inventory cost is formulated to optimize the possibility necessity measure of fuzzy goal of the objective function by using credibility measure of fuzzy event by taking fuzzy expectation. The results of crisp/fuzzy integrated model are illustrated with numerical examples and results are compared.

  18. Analytical model and behavioral simulation approach for a ΣΔ fractional-N synthesizer employing a sample-hold element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassia, Marco; Shah, Peter Jivan; Bruun, Erik

    2003-01-01

    A previously unknown intrinsic nonlinearity of standard SigmaDelta fractional-N synthesizers is identified. A general analytical model for SigmaDelta fractional-N phased-locked loops (PLLs) that includes the effect of the nonlinearity is derived and an improvement to the synthesizer topology is d...

  19. The Holding Company as an Instrument of Companies’ Tax-Financial Policy Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Gajewski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the holding institution as an economic and taxation solution. This article describes the holding company, indicates its advantages and disadvantages, and compares it to similar solutions. The main goal of holding companies is to change tax policies. As a result of these institutions, companies can change their tax status and economic situation. The holding institution influences the economic development of its constituent companies. The functioning of a holding company also has great importance for economic development. Establishing holdings is a worldwide trend that may be realised through various models.

  20. Neural Global Pattern Similarity Underlies True and False Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhifang; Zhu, Bi; Zhuang, Liping; Lu, Zhonglin; Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Gui

    2016-06-22

    The neural processes giving rise to human memory strength signals remain poorly understood. Inspired by formal computational models that posit a central role of global matching in memory strength, we tested a novel hypothesis that the strengths of both true and false memories arise from the global similarity of an item's neural activation pattern during retrieval to that of all the studied items during encoding (i.e., the encoding-retrieval neural global pattern similarity [ER-nGPS]). We revealed multiple ER-nGPS signals that carried distinct information and contributed differentially to true and false memories: Whereas the ER-nGPS in the parietal regions reflected semantic similarity and was scaled with the recognition strengths of both true and false memories, ER-nGPS in the visual cortex contributed solely to true memory. Moreover, ER-nGPS differences between the parietal and visual cortices were correlated with frontal monitoring processes. By combining computational and neuroimaging approaches, our results advance a mechanistic understanding of memory strength in recognition. What neural processes give rise to memory strength signals, and lead to our conscious feelings of familiarity? Using fMRI, we found that the memory strength of a given item depends not only on how it was encoded during learning, but also on the similarity of its neural representation with other studied items. The global neural matching signal, mainly in the parietal lobule, could account for the memory strengths of both studied and unstudied items. Interestingly, a different global matching signal, originated from the visual cortex, could distinguish true from false memories. The findings reveal multiple neural mechanisms underlying the memory strengths of events registered in the brain. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/366792-11$15.00/0.

  1. Frege on Truths, Truth and the True

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Künne

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The founder of modern logic and grandfather of analytic philosophy was 70 years old when he published his paper 'Der Gedanke' (The Thought in 1918. This essay contains some of Gottlob Frege's deepest and most provocative reflections on the concept of truth, and it will play a prominent role in my lectures. The plan for my lectures is as follows. What is it that is (primarily true or false? 'Thoughts', is Frege's answer. In §1, I shall explain and defend this answer. In §2, I shall briefly consider his enthymematic argument for the conclusion that the word 'true' resists any attempt at defining it. In §3, I shall discuss his thesis that the thought that things are thus and so is identical with the thought that it is true that things are thus and so. The reasons we are offered for this thesis will be found wanting. In §4, I shall comment extensively on Frege's claim that, in a non-formal language like the one I am currently trying to speak, we can say whatever we want to say without ever using the word 'true' or any of its synonyms. I will reject the propositional-redundancy claim, endorse the assertive-redundancy claim and deny the connection Frege ascribes to them. In his classic 1892 paper 'Über Sinn und Bedeutung' (On Sense and Signification Frege argues that truth-values are objects. In §5, I shall scrutinize his argument. In §6, I will show that in Frege's ideography (Begriffsschrift truth, far from being redundant, is omnipresent. The final §7 is again on truth-bearers, this time as a topic in the theory of intentionality and in metaphysics. In the course of discussing Frege's views on the objecthood, the objectivity of thoughts and the timelessness of truth(s, I will plead for a somewhat mitigated Platonism.

  2. Determining true difference between treatment groups

    OpenAIRE

    Cardinal, Lucien J.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews the P value and how it is used to determine true difference of outcome in treatment groups. P value, standard deviation, standard error of the mean, bias, and confidence interval are discussed in common language, with a minimum of jargon and with clinical examples.Keywords: P value; standard error of the mean; central limits theorem; standard deviation; normal distribution; statistics; parametric statistics; bias; randomization(Published: 17 February 2016)C...

  3. True random numbers from amplified quantum vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofre, M; Curty, M; Steinlechner, F; Anzolin, G; Torres, J P; Mitchell, M W; Pruneri, V

    2011-10-10

    Random numbers are essential for applications ranging from secure communications to numerical simulation and quantitative finance. Algorithms can rapidly produce pseudo-random outcomes, series of numbers that mimic most properties of true random numbers while quantum random number generators (QRNGs) exploit intrinsic quantum randomness to produce true random numbers. Single-photon QRNGs are conceptually simple but produce few random bits per detection. In contrast, vacuum fluctuations are a vast resource for QRNGs: they are broad-band and thus can encode many random bits per second. Direct recording of vacuum fluctuations is possible, but requires shot-noise-limited detectors, at the cost of bandwidth. We demonstrate efficient conversion of vacuum fluctuations to true random bits using optical amplification of vacuum and interferometry. Using commercially-available optical components we demonstrate a QRNG at a bit rate of 1.11 Gbps. The proposed scheme has the potential to be extended to 10 Gbps and even up to 100 Gbps by taking advantage of high speed modulation sources and detectors for optical fiber telecommunication devices.

  4. "Like Holding an Umbrella Before It Rains": Acceptability of Future Rectal Microbicides Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in India-A Modified Technology Acceptance Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Newman, Peter A; Shunmugam, Murali; Mengle, Shruta; Nelson, Ruban; Rubincam, Clara; Kumar, Pushpesh

    2017-07-01

    Topical rectal microbicides (RMs) are a new prevention technology in development that aims to reduce the risk of HIV acquisition from anal sex. We examined RM acceptability among men who have sex with men (MSM) in India. We conducted a qualitative exploratory study guided by a modified Technology Acceptance Model, with 10 focus groups ( n = 61) of MSM and 10 key informant interviews. Data were explored using framework analysis. RM acceptability was influenced by technological contexts: perceived usefulness of RMs, perceived ease of use of RM and applicator, and habits around condom and lubricant use; individual and interpersonal contexts: perceived relevance and preferences for product formulation and dosing frequency; and MSM community/social contexts: perceived social approval, RM-related stigma, social support. Implementation of RMs for MSM in India may be supported by multi-level interventions that engage community-based organizations in destigmatizing and distributing RMs, ideally gel-based products that enable on-demand use before sex.

  5. Estimating animal movement contacts between holdings of different production types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Tom; Sisson, Scott A; Lewerin, Susanna Stenberg; Wennergren, Uno

    2010-06-01

    Animal movement poses a great risk for disease transmission between holdings. Heterogeneous contact patterns are known to influence the dynamics of disease transmission and should be included in modeling. Using pig movement data from Sweden as an example, we present a method for quantification of between holding contact probabilities based on different production types. The data contained seven production types: Sow pool center, Sow pool satellite, Farrow-to-finish, Nucleus herd, Piglet producer, Multiplying herd and Fattening herd. The method also estimates how much different production types will determine the contact pattern of holdings that have more than one type. The method is based on Bayesian analysis and uses data from central databases of animal movement. Holdings with different production types are estimated to vary in the frequency of contacts as well as in what type of holding they have contact with, and the direction of the contacts. Movements from Multiplying herds to Sow pool centers, Nucleus herds to other Nucleus herds, Sow pool centers to Sow pool satellites, Sow pool satellites to Sow pool centers and Nucleus herds to Multiplying herds were estimated to be most common relative to the abundance of the production types. We show with a simulation study that these contact patterns may also be expected to result in substantial differences in disease transmission via animal movements, depending on the index holding. Simulating transmission for a 1 year period showed that the median number of infected holdings was 1 (i.e. only the index holding infected) if the infection started at a Fattening herd and 2161 if the infection started on a Nucleus herd. We conclude that it is valuable to include production types in models of disease transmission and the method presented in this paper may be used for such models when appropriate data is available. We also argue that keeping records of production types is of great value since it may be helpful in risk

  6. Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory contains measured data on holdings and transactions of allowances under the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), a...

  7. Ultrasonic methods for locating hold-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, D.N.; Olinger, C.T.

    1995-01-01

    Hold-up remains one of the major contributing factors to unaccounted for materials and can be a costly problem in decontamination and decommissioning activities. Ultrasonic techniques are being developed to noninvasively monitor hold-up in process equipment where the inner surface of such equipment may be in contact with the hold-up material. These techniques may be useful in improving hold-up measurements as well as optimizing decontamination techniques

  8. Postural Change Alters Autonomic Responses to Breath-Holding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Indu; Medow, Marvin S.; Clarke, Debbie; Ocon, Anthony; Stewart, Julian M.

    2011-01-01

    We used breath-holding during inspiration as a model to study the effect of pulmonary stretch on sympathetic nerve activity. Twelve healthy subjects (7 females, 5 males; 19–27 yrs) were tested while they performed an inspiratory breath-hold, both supine and during a 60° head-up tilt (HUT 60). Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), respiration, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), oxygen saturation (SaO2) and end tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) were recorded. Cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were calculated. While breath-holding, ETCO2 increased significantly from 41±2 to 60±2 Torr during supine (pBreath-holding results in initial reductions of MSNA, MAP and HR by the pulmonary stretch reflex followed by increased sympathetic activity related to the arterial baroreflex and chemoreflex. PMID:20012144

  9. Functional Analysis and Intervention for Breath Holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Lee; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A functional analysis of breath-holding episodes in a 7-year-old girl with severe mental retardation and Cornelia-de-Lange syndrome indicated that breath holding served an operant function, primarily to gain access to attention. Use of extinction, scheduled attention, and a picture card communication system decreased breath holding. (Author/SW)

  10. The relationship between perceived discomfort of static posture holding and posture holding time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogutu, Jack; Park, Woojin

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have investigated mathematical characteristics of the discomfort-time relationship during prolonged static posture holding (SPH) on an individual basis. Consequently, the discomfort-time relationship is not clearly understood at individual trial level. The objective of this study was to examine discomfort-time sequence data obtained from a large number of maximum-duration SPH trials to understand the perceived discomfort-posture holding time relationship at the individual SPH trial level. Thirty subjects (15 male, 15 female) participated in this study as paid volunteers. The subjects performed maximum-duration SPH trials employing 12 different wholebody static postures. The hand-held load for all the task trials was a ``generic'' box weighing 2 kg. Three mathematical functions, that is, linear, logarithmic and power functions were examined as possible mathematical models for representing individual discomfort-time profiles of SPH trials. Three different time increase patterns (negatively accelerated, linear and positively accelerated) were observed in the discomfort-time sequences data. The power function model with an additive constant term was found to adequately fit most (96.4%) of the observed discomfort-time sequences, and thus, was recommended as a general mathematical representation of the perceived discomfort-posture holding time relationship in SPH. The new knowledge on the nature of the discomfort-time relationship in SPH and the power function representation found in this study will facilitate analyzing discomfort-time data of SPH and developing future posture analysis tools for work-related discomfort control.

  11. TRUE MASSES OF RADIAL-VELOCITY EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Robert A., E-mail: rbrown@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute (United States)

    2015-06-01

    We study the task of estimating the true masses of known radial-velocity (RV) exoplanets by means of direct astrometry on coronagraphic images to measure the apparent separation between exoplanet and host star. Initially, we assume perfect knowledge of the RV orbital parameters and that all errors are due to photon statistics. We construct design reference missions for four missions currently under study at NASA: EXO-S and WFIRST-S, with external star shades for starlight suppression, EXO-C and WFIRST-C, with internal coronagraphs. These DRMs reveal extreme scheduling constraints due to the combination of solar and anti-solar pointing restrictions, photometric and obscurational completeness, image blurring due to orbital motion, and the “nodal effect,” which is the independence of apparent separation and inclination when the planet crosses the plane of the sky through the host star. Next, we address the issue of nonzero uncertainties in RV orbital parameters by investigating their impact on the observations of 21 single-planet systems. Except for two—GJ 676 A b and 16 Cyg B b, which are observable only by the star-shade missions—we find that current uncertainties in orbital parameters generally prevent accurate, unbiased estimation of true planetary mass. For the coronagraphs, WFIRST-C and EXO-C, the most likely number of good estimators of true mass is currently zero. For the star shades, EXO-S and WFIRST-S, the most likely numbers of good estimators are three and four, respectively, including GJ 676 A b and 16 Cyg B b. We expect that uncertain orbital elements currently undermine all potential programs of direct imaging and spectroscopy of RV exoplanets.

  12. Responding to the Challenge of True Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallin, Carina Antonia; Andersen, Torben Juul

    We construe a conceptual framework for responding effectively to true uncertainty in the business environment. We drill down to the essential micro-foundational capabilities - sensing and seizing of dynamic capabilities - and link them to classical strategic issue management theory with suggestions...... on aggregation of stakeholder sensing and predictions of emergent strategic issues can positively influence the two capabilities and help the firm adapt in the face of uncertainty and unpredictability. Robust measures predicating performance based on information from key stakeholders involved in the firm’s core...

  13. Benign cementoblastoma (true cementoma in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenin A Villamizar-Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 10-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was presented for assessment of a gingival mass surrounding the left maxillary third and fourth premolar teeth. The mass was surgically removed by means of a marginal rim excision, and the tissue was submitted for histological assessment. It was identified as a benign cementoblastoma (true cementoma. There was proliferation of mineralized eosinophilic material with multiple irregularly placed lacunae and reversal lines, reminiscent of cementum. The cat recovered uneventfully from the anesthesia, and there was no evidence of tumor recurrence 6 months after surgery. Relevance and novel information Cementoblastomas (true cementomas in domestic animals are rare, with just a few reports in ruminants, monogastric herbivores and rodents. Cementoblastoma is considered a benign tumor that arises from the tooth root. The slow, expansive and constant growth that characterizes these masses may be accompanied by signs of oral discomfort and dysphagia. This case report is intended to increase knowledge regarding this tumor in cats and also highlights the importance of complete excision of the neoplasm. To our knowledge, there are no previous reports in the literature of cementoblastoma in the cat.

  14. A mathematical model of aerosol holding chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Madsen, J; Berg, E

    1999-01-01

    , Ontario, Canada), NebuChamber (Astra, Södirtälje, Sweden) and Nebuhaler (Astra) adapted for babies. The dose of fluticasone proportionate delivered by the Babyhaler (Glaxco Wellcome, Oxbridge, Middlesex, UK) was 80% of that predicted, probably because of incomplete priming of this spacer. Of the above...

  15. A Mathematical Technique for Estimating True Temperature Profiles of Data Obtained from Long Time Constant Thermocouples

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Graeme

    1998-01-01

    A mathematical modeling technique is described for estimating true temperature profiles of data obtained from long time constant thermocouples, which were used in fuel fire tests designed to determine...

  16. True Versus Spurious State Dependence in Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kongsted, Hans Christian

    This paper analyzes the persistence of firms' exporting behavior in a panel of German manufacturing firms using dynamic binary choice models. We distinguish between true and spurious state dependence in exports and apply fixed effects methods that allow us to verify the robustness of our results ...... determinants. Our results, which are consistent with the findings of previous studies on firms in developing countries and in the United States, show the presence of important sunk costs in export market entry and a depreciation of knowledge and experience in export markets...

  17. True versus spurious state dependence in firm performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kongsted, Hans Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the persistence of firms' exporting behavior in a panel of German manufacturing firms using dynamic binary choice models. We distinguish between true and spurious state dependence in exports and apply fixed effects methods that allow us to verify the robustness of our results ...... determinants. Our results, which are consistent with the findings of previous studies on firms in developing countries and in the United States, show the presence of important sunk costs in export market entry and a depreciation of knowledge and experience in export markets....

  18. True Nature of Supply Network Communication Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokhman Hakim bin Osman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of world economy has altered the definition of organizational structure. Global supply chain can no longer be viewed as an arm-length structure. It has become more complex. The complexity demands deeper research and understanding. This research analyzed a structure of supply network in an attempt to elucidate the true structure of the supply network. Using the quantitative Social Network Analysis methodology, findings of this study indicated that, the structure of the supply network differs depending on the types of network relations. An important implication of these findings would be a more focus resource management upon network relationship development that is based on firms’ positions in the different network structure. This research also contributes to the various strategies of effective and efficient supply chain management.

  19. In Search of the True Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwit, Martin

    2014-01-01

    1. The nineteenth century's last five years; Part I. The Import of Theoretical Tools: 2. An overview; 3. Conclusions based on principles; 4. Conclusions based on a premise; 5. Conclusions based on calculations; 6. Asking the right questions, accepting limited answers; Part II. A National Plan Shaping the Universe We Perceive: 7. A new order and the new universe it produced; 8. Where did the chemical elements arise?; 9. Landscapes; 10. The evolution of astrophysical theory after 1960; 11. Turmoils of leadership; 12. Cascades and shocks that shape astrophysics; 13. Astrophysical discourse and persuasion; Part III. The Cost of Discerning the True Universe: 14. Organization and functioning of the astronomical community; 15. Language and astrophysical stability; 16. An economically viable astronomical program; Epilogue.

  20. True or False Customer Engagement Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haurum, Helle; Beckmann, Suzanne C.

    2014-01-01

    Customers’ engagement behaviours are considered an important source of value to the company. So far, the discussion has mainly been conceptual and focused on the company’s perspective. By adopting the customer’s perspective we investigated how customers perceive their service relationship...... encounters with a company, using in-depth interviews. We found the following key factors driving and explaining customers’ engagement behaviours: (1) transactions matter and inconsistent engagement behaviours are a reality, (2) mundane products and services are still highly relevant for customers, and (3......) different degrees of customer experience alignment with services and products exist. Moreover, the distinction between true and false engagement behaviours we suggest indeed is relevant and we could establish their mediating capabilities....

  1. True Visions The Emergence of Ambient Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Aarts, Emile

    2006-01-01

    Ambient intelligence (AI) refers to a developing technology that will increasingly make our everyday environment sensitive and responsive to our presence. The AI vision requires technology invisibly embedded in our everyday surroundings, present whenever we need it that will lead to the seamless integration of lighting, sounds, vision, domestic appliances, and personal healthcare products to enhance our living experience. Written for the non-specialist seeking an authoritative but accessible overview of this interdisciplinary field, True Visions explains how the devices making up the AI world will operate collectively using information and intelligence hidden in the wireless network connecting them. Expert contributions address key AI components such as smart materials and textiles, system architecture, mobile computing, broadband communication, and underlying issues of human-environment interactions. It seeks to unify the perspectives of scientists from diverse backgrounds ranging from the physics of materia...

  2. ALICE Holds Up to Challenge

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    ALICE's main austenitic stainless steel support structure (the Space Frame) has recently gone through many tests that proved quite challenging: insuring the structure is sound and lowering it horizontally into the ALICE cavern. This structure is constructed to hold the large volume detectors, such as the Time Projection Chamber, Transition Radiation Detector and Time of Flight inside the ALICE solenoid magnet. After the final assembly at CERN, two large mobile cranes were needed for the job of lifting and turning the 14 tonne frame onto its side. Once shifted, it was placed in Building SX2, one of the surface assembly areas designated for ALICE. The structure, which is 8 m in diameter and 7 m long, underwent many tests in its new position. Geometric control tests were performed by measuring each of the 18 cells and placing wooden or metal samples constructed to the same dimensions as the real thing inside the structure. The most important check was the movement of the real Time Projection Chamber from its s...

  3. On-line Learning of Unlearnable True Teacher through Mobile Ensemble Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirama, Takeshi; Hukushima, Koji

    2008-09-01

    The on-line learning of a hierarchical learning model is studied by a method based on statistical mechanics. In our model, a student of a simple perceptron learns from not a true teacher directly, but ensemble teachers who learn from a true teacher with a perceptron learning rule. Since the true teacher and ensemble teachers are expressed as nonmonotonic and simple perceptrons, respectively, the ensemble teachers go around the unlearnable true teacher with the distance between them fixed in an asymptotic steady state. The generalization performance of the student is shown to exceed that of the ensemble teachers in a transient state, as was shown in similar ensemble-teachers models. Furthermore, it is found that moving the ensemble teachers even in the steady state, in contrast to the fixed ensemble teachers, is efficient for the performance of the student.

  4. A Case Study of True and Fair View Override in Financial Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Horace

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents a case study of true and fair view override in financial reporting by a multinational firm subject to International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs. The 2009 Interim Report of HSBC Holdings plc states that HSBC departed from the requirements of IAS 32 Financial Instruments: Presentation (IAS 32. Notwithstanding its noncompliance with the IFRSs, HSBC (2009 concluded that “the interim consolidated financial statements prepared on this basis presented fairly, and gave a true and fair view of the Group’s financial position, financial performance and cash flows” (p. 2. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate critically the accounting treatment in light of the relevant requirements of the IFRSs and the implications for professional accounting standards arising from this departure.

  5. Measuring the true success of laparoscopic pyeloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynes, Lincoln J; Levin, Brian M; Webster, Todd M; Baldwin, Duane; Herrell, S Duke

    2008-06-01

    Laparoscopic pyeloplasty (LP) is a highly successful minimally invasive management option for ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) with success rates equaling or surpassing open repair. Definitions of success have varied greatly among reports of series in the literature. We propose that true success or failure be strictly defined by resolution of obstruction on objective physiologic testing (diuretic renography or Whitaker testing) and accordingly present our results. We prospectively gathered data on all LP from December 2001 to November 2006. Ninety-two patients have matured to follow-up testing (> 3 months). Primary uncomplicated procedures were completed in 62/92 (67%) while secondary and/or complex repairs were performed in 30/92 (33%). Rigorous follow-up with physiologic testing was performed postoperatively. Patients with equivocal diuretic renal scans were evaluated with Whitaker pressure-flow studies. The subjective symptom score was assessed for our first 47 patients using a visual analog scale (VAS). Treatment in patients who lacked objective evidence of resolution of UPJO was considered a failure. The mean age of the cohort was 39 years (range 18-69 yrs). Average operating room time was 250 minutes (range 138-488 min), and estimated blood loss was 63 mL (range 10-500 mL). Average hospital length of stay was 1.2 days (range 1-6 d). Crossing vessels were identified in 47/92 (51%) patients. Overall mean follow-up was 13 months (range 2-54 months). There were no intraoperative complications and three perioperative complications. Overall, 85/92 (92%) patients were found to have resolution of UPJO on postoperative physiologic testing. The primary uncomplicated cohort success rate was 98%, while that for the secondary or complex repair cohort was 80%. The mean overall VAS pain score was 84%. Objective physiologic testing should be used as the measurement of true success after LP. A uniform definition of success will allow improved comparison of results

  6. Placebo: the lie that comes true?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justman, Stewart

    2013-04-01

    Over the decades of experimentation on the placebo effect, it has become clear that it is driven largely by expectation, and that strong expectations of efficacy are more likely to give rise to the experience of benefit. No wonder the placebo effect has come to resemble a self-fulfilling prophecy. However, this resemblance is considerably exaggerated. The placebo effect does not work as strongly as it is advertised to do in some efforts to elicit it. Half-truths about the placebo effect are now in circulation, reinforced by a number of other equivocations that it seems to attract. As the deceptive use of placebos has fallen into discredit, the use of half-truths and exaggerations-neither of which is technically a deception-becomes an ever more inviting possibility. However, there are risks and costs associated with the half-truth that the doctor possesses the power to make his or her words come true by the alchemy of the placebo effect.

  7. A distribution-free newsvendor problem with nonlinear holding cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Brojeswar; Sankar Sana, Shib; Chaudhuri, Kripasindhu

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we analyse a single-period newsvendor model to determine the optimal order quantity where the customers' balking occurs.This scenario occurs when the customers are opposed to buy a product for various reasons, such as decreasing quality of product, product is not as good as fresh when it reaches under a threshold level, etc. The model is investigated by assuming that the holding cost function depends on order quantity and the inventory level at which customer balking occurs depends on holding cost. The model allows partial backlogging and permits part of the backlogged shortages to turn into lost sales. We develop the model without taking any specific distributional form of demand, only assuming the mean and the variance of the distribution of demand. Finally, we illustrate the model by numerical examples and compare our distribution-free model with the specific distributional form of demand.

  8. Course holding by cyclists and moped riders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godthelp, J. & Wouters, P.I.J.

    1980-01-01

    Course holding by cyclists and moped riders includes both steering alongside a course and stabilising the vehicle. Inability to hold course may lead to conflicts with other road users. To design safe bicycle and moped facilities and to consider the safety of those existing, knowledge about

  9. 9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Compliance With Standards and Holding Period § 2.101 Holding period. (a) Any live dog... considered to have acquired a dog or cat which is sold through the auction sale. (1) That any live dog or cat...

  10. 'TrueCoinc' software utility for calculation of the true coincidence correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudar, S.

    2002-01-01

    The true coincidence correction plays an important role in the overall accuracy of the γ ray spectrometry especially in the case of present-day high volume detectors. The calculation of true coincidence corrections needs detailed nuclear structure information. Recently these data are available in computerized form from the Nuclear Data Centers through the Internet or on a CD-ROM of the Table of Isotopes. The aim has been to develop software for this calculation, using available databases for the levels data. The user has to supply only the parameters of the detector to be used. The new computer program runs under the Windows 95/98 operating system. In the framework of the project a new formula was prepared for calculating the summing out correction and calculation of the intensity of alias lines (sum peaks). The file converter for reading the ENDSF-2 type files was completed. Reading and converting the original ENDSF was added to the program. A computer accessible database of the X rays energies and intensities was created. The X ray emissions were taken in account in the 'summing out' calculation. Calculation of the true coincidence 'summing in' correction was done. The output was arranged to show independently two types of corrections and to calculate the final correction as multiplication of the two. A minimal intensity threshold can be set to show the final list only for the strongest lines. The calculation takes into account all the transitions, independently of the threshold. The program calculates the intensity of X rays (K, L lines). The true coincidence corrections for X rays were calculated. The intensities of the alias γ lines were calculated. (author)

  11. True-Randomness and Pseudo-Randomness in Ring Oscillator-Based True Random Number Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Bochard, Nathalie; Bernard, Florent; Fischer, Viktor; Valtchanov, Boyan

    2010-01-01

    12 pages; International audience; The paper deals with true random number generators employing oscillator rings, namely, with the one proposed by Sunar et al. in 2007 and enhanced by Wold and Tan in 2009. Our mathematical analysis shows that both architectures behave identically when composed of the same number of rings and ideal logic components. However, the reduction of the number of rings, as proposed by Wold and Tan, would inevitably cause the loss of entropy. Unfortunately, this entropy...

  12. Estimating the true energy value of a wind farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, J.

    1995-01-01

    To assess the true energy yield of a wind farm taking into account real-world effects such as control losses in individual turbines, losses in the distribution network and wake and topographic effects, this report from the Energy Technology Support Unit, has developed a more appropriate methodology for making economic assessments of wind farm projects. Simulations of wind turbines are used to enable control losses to be quantified, and long term performance data from wind turbines in operational United Kingdom wind farms adds to the accuracy of assessment. A model has also been used to estimate performance of a power distribution system for a wind farm, to enable losses associated with wind turbine, wind speed and various distribution layouts to be predicted. Data on wake effects are drawn from a separate study. All these are drawn into an economic simulation model which predicts a wind farm's likely achievement of its target energy yield, thus demonstrating the risk factors involved. (UK)

  13. Control of cooperative manipulators in holding deformable objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkathiri, A. A.; Azlan, N. Z.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the implementation of a control system to control cooperative manipulators to hold deformable objects. The aim is to hold the deformable object without having information on the shape and stiffness of the deformable object beforehand. The prototype of a pair of manipulators has been designed and built to test the controller. A force sensor and a rotary encoder are used to give feedback to the controller, which controls the DC motor actuators accordingly. A position proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller technique has been applied for one of the manipulators and a PID force control technique is applied to the other. Simulations and experimental tests have been conducted on models and the controller has been implemented on the real plant. Both simulation and test results prove that the implemented control technique has successfully provided the desired position and force to hold the deformable object with maximum experimental errors of 0.34mm and 50mN respectively.

  14. Internationalization and Corporate Cash Holdings: Evidence from Brazil and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Arata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research expands on previous studies of cash holdings and their determinants by studying the relationship between the degree of internationalization and the level of corporate cash holdings. We used a sample of nonfinancial, publicly traded companies from Brazil and Mexico for the period from 2006 to 2010. Our results suggest that the degree of internationalization is a determinant of cash, and that cash holding increases quadratically as the degree of company internationalization grows. Such behavior was different from the North American company studies in Chiang and Wang (2011. Similar to previous studies, both Trade-off and Pecking Order predictions are relevant control variables in our model. Finally, companies held less cash on their balance sheets during the precrisis period.

  15. Achieving true sustainability of zoo populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    For the last 30 years, cooperative management of irreplaceable animal populations in zoos and aquariums has focused primarily on the goal of minimizing genetic decay within defined time frames, and large advances have been made in technologies to optimize genetic management of closed populations. However, recent analyses have shown that most zoo programs are not projected to meet their stated goals. This has been described as a lack of achieving "sustainability" of the populations, yet by definition a goal of managed decay is not a plan for sustainability. True sustainability requires management of the resource in manner that does not deplete its value for the future. Achieving such sustainability for many managed populations may require changing from managing isolated populations to managing populations that are part of a broader metapopulation, with carefully considered exchange between populations across a spectrum of ex situ to in situ. Managing zoo populations as components of comprehensive conservation strategies for the species will require research on determinants of various kinds of genetic, physiological, behavioral, and morphological variation and their roles in population viability, development of an array of management techniques and tools, training of population managers in metapopulation management and integrated conservation planning, and projections of impacts of management strategies on the viability of the captive populations and all populations that are interactively managed or affected. Such a shift in goals and methods would result in zoo population management being an ongoing part of species conservation rather than short-term or isolated from species conservation. Zoo Biol. 32:19-26, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The recurrent true umbilical cord knots: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Naghi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: True umbilical cord knot is one of the abnormalities of the umbilical cord. Active fetal movements create cord knotting. True umbilical cord knots are rare but may be associated with fetal distress and stillbirth. True umbilical cord knots are capable of impeding blood flow to the fetus.Case presentation: A 26-year old primigravid woman was first treated for genital herpes simplex virus (HSV type 2 at 36 weeks of gestational age. She received oral acyclovir (400 mg three times daily for 10 days. At the gestational age of 38 weeks and 5 days, fetal activity decreased and NST was nonreactive. She was delivered by cesarean section and a true umbilical cord knot was found. Four years later, in her second pregnancy, another true knot was seen.Conclusion: Excessively long umbilical cords are more likely to be associated with true knots. Genetics has an important role in determining cord length and occurrence of true knots.

  17. Noise distribution of a peak track and hold circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seller, Paul; Hardie, Alec L.; Morrissey, Quentin

    2012-12-01

    Noise in linear electronic circuits is well characterised in terms of power spectral density in the frequency domain and the Normal probability density function in the time domain. For instance a charge preamplifier followed by a simple time independent pulse shaping circuit produces an output with a predictable, easily calculated Normal density function. By the Ergodic Principle this is true if the signal is sampled randomly in time or the experiment is run many times and measured at a fixed time after the circuit is released from reset. Apart from well defined cases, the time of the sample after release of reset does not affect the density function. If this signal is then passed through a peak track-and-hold circuit the situation is very different. The probability density function of the sampled signal is no longer Normal and the function changes with the time of the sample after release of reset. This density function can be classified by the Gumbel probability density function which characterises the Extreme Value Distribution of a defined number of Normally distributed values. The number of peaks in the signal is an important factor in the analysis. This issue is analysed theoretically and compared with a time domain noise simulation programme. This is then related to a real electronic circuit used for low-noise X-ray measurements and shows how the low-energy resolution of this system is significantly degraded when using a peak track-and-hold.

  18. 26 CFR 1.1092(b)-2T - Treatment of holding periods and losses with respect to straddle positions (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Treatment of holding periods and losses with respect to straddle positions (temporary). 1.1092(b)-2T Section 1.1092(b)-2T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Wash Sales of...

  19. Median Hetero-Associative Memories Applied to the Categorization of True-Color Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Roberto A.; Sossa, Humberto

    Median associative memories (MED-AMs) are a special type of associative memory based on the median operator. This type of associative model has been applied to the restoration of gray scale images and provides better performance than other models, such as morphological associative memories, when the patterns are altered with mixed noise. Despite of his power, MED-AMs have not been applied in problems involving true-color patterns. In this paper we describe how a median hetero-associative memory (MED-HAM) could be applied in problems that involve true-color patterns. A complete study of the behavior of this associative model in the restoration of true-color images is performed using a benchmark of 14400 images altered by different type of noises. Furthermore, we describe how this model can be applied to an image categorization problem.

  20. Breath-holding spells in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ran D

    2015-02-01

    I have children in my clinic who experience seizurelike episodes in which they cry and hold their breath to the point of cyanosis and loss of consciousness. Their examination or investigation findings are normal and referral to a pediatric specialist results in no further investigation. Are breath-holding spells common, and what type of investigation is needed? A breath-holding spell is a benign paroxysmal nonepileptic disorder occurring in healthy children 6 to 48 months of age. The episodes start with a provocation such as emotional upset or minor injury, and might progress to breath holding, cyanosis, and syncope. The episodes are extremely frightening to watch but have benign consequences. Once a clinical diagnosis is made, it is recommended to conduct an electrocardiogram and to rule out anemia, but no further investigation or referral is warranted. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  1. Surface Hold Advisor Using Critical Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Caleb Hoi Kei (Inventor); Hsiao, Thomas Kun-Lung (Inventor); Mittler, Nathan C. (Inventor); Couluris, George J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The Surface Hold Advisor Using Critical Sections is a system and method for providing hold advisories to surface controllers to prevent gridlock and resolve crossing and merging conflicts among vehicles traversing a vertex-edge graph representing a surface traffic network on an airport surface. The Advisor performs pair-wise comparisons of current position and projected path of each vehicle with other surface vehicles to detect conflicts, determine critical sections, and provide hold advisories to traffic controllers recommending vehicles stop at entry points to protected zones around identified critical sections. A critical section defines a segment of the vertex-edge graph where vehicles are in crossing or merging or opposite direction gridlock contention. The Advisor detects critical sections without reference to scheduled, projected or required times along assigned vehicle paths, and generates hold advisories to prevent conflicts without requiring network path direction-of-movement rules and without requiring rerouting, rescheduling or other network optimization solutions.

  2. Pengaruh krisis keuangan global dan karakteristik perusahaan terhadap cash holding perusahaan di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sutrisno

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the effect of the global financial crisis and firm characteristics on corporate cash holdings in Indonesia. A total of 101 manufacturing firms listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2005 to 2014 are examined. This study employs panel regression with fixed effect model. The results show that Indonesia firms hold more cash during the global financial crisis than in the normal times. Investment opportunities set and divident payment have positive effect on cash holding, meanwhile firm size, capital expenditure, liquid assets substitutes, and leverage have negative effect on cash holding

  3. A Real-Time Holding Decision Rule Accounting for Passenger Travel Cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laskaris,; Cats, O.; Jenelius, E; Viti, F

    2016-01-01

    Holding has been extensively investigated as a strategy to mitigate the inherently stochastic nature of public transport operations. Holding focuses on either regulating vehicle headways using a rule-based approach or minimizing passenger travel cost by employing optimization models. This paper

  4. Involuntary Psychiatric Holds in Preadolescent Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Santillanes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Little is known about the use of involuntary psychiatric holds in preadolescent children. The primary objective was to characterize patients under the age of 10 years on involuntary psychiatric holds. Methods: This was a two-year retrospective study from April 2013 – April 2015 in one urban pediatric emergency department (ED. Subjects were all children under the age of 10 years who were on an involuntary psychiatric hold at any point during their ED visit. We collected demographic data including age, gender, ethnicity and details about living situation, child protective services involvement and prior mental health treatment, as well as ED disposition. Results: There were 308 visits by 265 patients in a two-year period. Ninety percent of involuntary psychiatric holds were initiated in the prehospital setting. The following were common characteristics: male (75%, in custody of child protective services (23%, child protective services involvement (42%, and a prior psychiatric hospitalization (32%. Fifty-six percent of visits resulted in discharge from the ED, 42% in transfer to a psychiatric hospital and 1% in admission to the pediatric medical ward. Median length of stay was 4.7 hours for discharged patients and 11.7 hours for patients transferred to psychiatric hospitals. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this study presents the first characterization of preadolescent children on involuntary psychiatric holds. Ideally, mental health screening and services could be initiated in children with similar high-risk characteristics before escalation results in placement of an involuntary psychiatric hold. Furthermore, given that many patients were discharged from the ED, the current pattern of utilization of involuntary psychiatric holds in young children should be reconsidered.

  5. Material Properties Test to Determine Ultimate Strain and True Stress-True Strain Curves for High Yield Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.R. Arpin; T.F. Trimble

    2003-04-01

    This testing was undertaken to develop material true stress-true strain curves for elastic-plastic material behavior for use in performing transient analysis. Based on the conclusions of this test, the true stress-true strain curves derived herein are valid for use in elastic-plastic finite element analysis for structures fabricated from these materials. In addition, for the materials tested herein, the ultimate strain values are greater than those values cited as the limits for the elastic-plastic strain acceptance criteria for transient analysis.

  6. Empirical atom model of Vegard's law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Shichun

    2014-02-01

    Vegard's law seldom holds true for most binary continuous solid solutions. When two components form a solid solution, the atom radii of component elements will change to satisfy the continuity requirement of electron density at the interface between component atom A and atom B so that the atom with larger electron density will expand and the atom with the smaller one will contract. If the expansion and contraction of the atomic radii of A and B respectively are equal in magnitude, Vegard's law will hold true. However, the expansion and contraction of two component atoms are not equal in most situations. The magnitude of the variation will depend on the cohesive energy of corresponding element crystals. An empirical atom model of Vegard's law has been proposed to account for signs of deviations according to the electron density at Wigner-Seitz cell from Thomas-Fermi-Dirac-Cheng model.

  7. Empirical atom model of Vegard's law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Shichun

    2014-01-01

    Vegard's law seldom holds true for most binary continuous solid solutions. When two components form a solid solution, the atom radii of component elements will change to satisfy the continuity requirement of electron density at the interface between component atom A and atom B so that the atom with larger electron density will expand and the atom with the smaller one will contract. If the expansion and contraction of the atomic radii of A and B respectively are equal in magnitude, Vegard's law will hold true. However, the expansion and contraction of two component atoms are not equal in most situations. The magnitude of the variation will depend on the cohesive energy of corresponding element crystals. An empirical atom model of Vegard's law has been proposed to account for signs of deviations according to the electron density at Wigner–Seitz cell from Thomas–Fermi–Dirac–Cheng model

  8. True beam commissioning experience at Nordland Hospital Trust, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daci, Lulzime; Malkaj, Partizan

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the measured of all photon beam data of first Varian True Beam version 2.0 slim model, recently commissioned at Nordland Hospital Trust, Bodø. To compare and evaluate the possibility of beam matching with the Clinac2300, for the energies of 6MV and 15 MV. Materials/Methods: Measurements of PDD, OAR, and Output factors were realized with the IBA Blue-phantom with different detectors and evaluated between them for all photon energies: 6MV, 15MV, 6MV FFF and 10MV FFF. The ionization chambers used were Pin Point CC01, CC04, Semiflex CC13 and photon diode by Iba dosimetry. The data were processed using Beizer algorithm with a resolution of 1 mm. The measured depth dose curves, diagonals, OAR, and output factors were imported into Eclipse in order to calculate beam data for the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA version 10.0.28) for both the dataset measured with CC04 and CC13 and compared. The model head of 23EX was selected as the most near model to True Beam as a restriction of our version of Aria. It was seen that better results were achieved with the CC04 measured data as a result of better resolution. For the biggest field after 10 cm depth a larger difference is seen between measured and calculated for both dataset, but it is within the criteria for acceptance. Results: The Beam analysis criteria of 2 mm at 50% dose is achieved for all the fields accept for 40x40 that is within 3%. Depth difference at maximum dose is within 1 mm for all the fields and dose difference at 100 mm and 200 mm is lower than 1% for or all the fields. The PDD between two machines for all the fields differ after Dmax with less than 1%. For profiles in the field zone and outside field the difference is within 1% for all the fields. In the penumbra region the difference is from 2% up to 12% for big fields. As for diagonals they differ as a result of the head construction at the edge of the field and the penumbra region. The output factors differ for big fields within 5% and

  9. Estimation of true intestinal digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    True intestinal digestibility of dry matter (DM), rumen-undegraded dietary protein (UDP) and amino acids of cowpea, silverleaf desmodium and Brachystegia spiciformis (musasa) were estimated. The true intestinal digestibility was calculated as the difference between the content of a bag that was preincubated in the rumen ...

  10. True and False Memories, Parietal Cortex, and Confidence Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgolites, Zhisen J.; Smith, Christine N.; Squire, Larry R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have asked whether activity in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the neocortex can distinguish true memory from false memory. A frequent complication has been that the confidence associated with correct memory judgments (true memory) is typically higher than the confidence associated with incorrect memory judgments (false memory).…

  11. Adults' Memories of Childhood: True and False Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianjian; Ogle, Christin M.; Goodman, Gail S.

    2008-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors examined factors that, according to the source-monitoring framework, might influence false memory formation and true/false memory discernment. In Experiment 1, combined effects of warning and visualization on false childhood memory formation were examined, as were individual differences in true and false childhood…

  12. Comparing recollective experience in true and false autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaps, C M; Nash, M

    2001-07-01

    This study investigated whether true autobiographical memories are qualitatively distinct from false autobiographical memories using a variation of the interview method originally reported by E. F. Loftus and J. Pickrell (1995). Participants recalled events provided by parents on 3 separate occasions and were asked to imagine true and false unremembered events. True memories were rated by both participants and observers as more rich in recollective experience and were rated by participants as more important, more emotionally intense, as having clearer imagery, and as less typical than false memories. Rehearsal frequency was used as a covariate, eliminating these effects. Imagery in true memories was most often viewed from the field perspective, whereas imagery in false memories was most often viewed from the observer perspective. More information was communicated in true memories, and true memories contained more information concerning the consequences of described events. Results suggest repeated remembering can make false memories more rich in recollective experience and more like true memories. Differences between true and false memories suggest some potentially distinct characteristics of false memories and provide insight into the process of false memory creation.

  13. True versus apparent shapes of bow shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarango-Yong, Jorge A.; Henney, William J.

    2018-03-01

    Astrophysical bow shocks are a common result of the interaction between two supersonic plasma flows, such as winds or jets from stars or active galaxies, or streams due to the relative motion between a star and the interstellar medium. For cylindrically symmetric bow shocks, we develop a general theory for the effects of inclination angle on the apparent shape. We propose a new two-dimensional classification scheme for bow shapes, which is based on dimensionless geometric ratios that can be estimated from observational images. The two ratios are related to the flatness of the bow's apex, which we term planitude and the openness of its wings, which we term alatude. We calculate the expected distribution in the planitude-alatude plane for a variety of simple geometrical and physical models: quadrics of revolution, wilkinoids, cantoids, and ancantoids. We further test our methods against numerical magnetohydrodynamical simulations of stellar bow shocks and find that the apparent planitude and alatude measured from infrared dust continuum maps serve as accurate diagnostics of the shape of the contact discontinuity, which can be used to discriminate between different physical models. We present an algorithm that can determine the planitude and alatude from observed bow shock emission maps with a precision of 10 to 20%.

  14. Neural processing associated with true and false memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okado, Yoko; Stark, Craig

    2003-12-01

    We investigated the neural bases for false memory with fMRI by examining neural activity during retrieval processes that yielded true or false memories. We used a reality monitoring paradigm in which participants saw or imagined pictures of concrete objects. (A subsequent misinformation task was also used to increase false memory rates.) At test, fMRI data were collected as the participants determined whether they had seen or had only imagined the object at study. True memories were of seen pictures accurately endorsed as seen, and for false memories were of imagined pictures falsely endorsed as seen. Three distinct patterns of activity were observed: Left frontal and parietal activity was not different for true and for false memories, whereas activity was greater for true than for false memories in occipital visual regions and posterior portions of the parahippocampal gyrus, and activity was greater for false than for true memories in right anterior cingulate gyrus. Possible interpretations are discussed.

  15. An investigation on inter-individual variation in perceived discomfort of static posture holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogutu, Jack; Park, Woojin; Son, Minseok

    2015-01-01

    Realizing population-level discomfort evaluation and control of common static posture holding tasks requires an understanding of the inter-individual variation in discomfort perception. However, little research is available. This study aimed to determine the types of mathematical probability distribution suitable for modeling population discomfort distributions of various static posture holding tasks and characterize how the magnitude of inter-individual variation in perceived discomfort varies across static posture holding tasks. Ten male and ten female subjects participated. The participants conducted static posture holding for a set of 180 short-duration (20-second-long) static posture holding tasks and subjectively rated the overall perceived discomfort for each task using the Borg CR-10 discomfort scale. Statistical analyses were conducted according to the study objectives. The static posture holding tasks exhibited multifarious discomfort distribution patterns. Probability distribution identification analyses indicated that no single distribution type could represent population discomfort distributions universally across different static posture holding tasks. Sample standard deviation of discomfort ratings data quantifying the magnitude of inter-individual variation in discomfort perception varied considerably across static posture holding tasks. It seemed to have a positive relationship with sample mean within the range of the experimental conditions. Population-level evaluation of discomforts associated with static posture holding tasks must be based on careful examinations of empirical discomfort distributions.

  16. Fault Rock Zones Characterisation - Final report. TRUE-1 Continuation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winberg, Anders (ed.) (Conterra AB (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    At the conclusion of the TRUE-1 and TRUE Block Scale experimental programmes at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory one remaining identified uncertainty was the in situ internal structure of conductive structures, and in particular the in situ material properties of unconsolidated fault gouge of such conductive structures. With the aim of reducing these uncertainties an experimental program has been conducted at depth in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Four conductive structures in the immediate vicinity of the Aespoe tunnel were identified for further study. Following basic geometrical and geological modelling based on tunnel observations, geological/ mineralogical and hydrogeological investigations in four boreholes at each site, epoxy resin was injected in selected packed off borehole sections containing the structure. Following a sufficient time for curing of the epoxy, the injected borehole 72 mm sections were overcored with a 300 mm core barrel. Customised techniques were employed to section the core in the borehole and for its retrieval out of the borehole. Following basic geological mapping, selected overcores were sectioned and were subject to image analysis to assess the pore structure using a variety of different descriptive geometrical attributes. In addition, an attempt was made to infer the porosity of the fault rock (including fault gouge) using binary images. Since analysis has been made on multiple slices of impregnated rock it is also possible to crudely map the 3D variability of a given entity. It was furthermore identified that porosity estimates, which range from some 10-70% are, apart from being dependent on the penetration of the epoxy, dependent on the resolution of the given image, the size of the averaging window, and the porosity components contained therein. The obtained quantifications of porosity can therefore only be regarded as ball-park relative porosities of a complete fault rock zones. It does not, however, provide firm

  17. Fault Rock Zones Characterisation - Final report. TRUE-1 Continuation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winberg, Anders

    2010-11-01

    At the conclusion of the TRUE-1 and TRUE Block Scale experimental programmes at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory one remaining identified uncertainty was the in situ internal structure of conductive structures, and in particular the in situ material properties of unconsolidated fault gouge of such conductive structures. With the aim of reducing these uncertainties an experimental program has been conducted at depth in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Four conductive structures in the immediate vicinity of the Aespoe tunnel were identified for further study. Following basic geometrical and geological modelling based on tunnel observations, geological/ mineralogical and hydrogeological investigations in four boreholes at each site, epoxy resin was injected in selected packed off borehole sections containing the structure. Following a sufficient time for curing of the epoxy, the injected borehole 72 mm sections were overcored with a 300 mm core barrel. Customised techniques were employed to section the core in the borehole and for its retrieval out of the borehole. Following basic geological mapping, selected overcores were sectioned and were subject to image analysis to assess the pore structure using a variety of different descriptive geometrical attributes. In addition, an attempt was made to infer the porosity of the fault rock (including fault gouge) using binary images. Since analysis has been made on multiple slices of impregnated rock it is also possible to crudely map the 3D variability of a given entity. It was furthermore identified that porosity estimates, which range from some 10-70% are, apart from being dependent on the penetration of the epoxy, dependent on the resolution of the given image, the size of the averaging window, and the porosity components contained therein. The obtained quantifications of porosity can therefore only be regarded as ball-park relative porosities of a complete fault rock zones. It does not, however, provide firm

  18. How Fuzzy-Trace Theory Predicts True and False Memories for Words, Sentences, and Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F; Corbin, Jonathan C; Weldon, Rebecca B; Brainerd, Charles J

    2016-03-01

    Fuzzy-trace theory posits independent verbatim and gist memory processes, a distinction that has implications for such applied topics as eyewitness testimony. This distinction between precise, literal verbatim memory and meaning-based, intuitive gist accounts for memory paradoxes including dissociations between true and false memory, false memories outlasting true memories, and developmental increases in false memory. We provide an overview of fuzzy-trace theory, and, using mathematical modeling, also present results demonstrating verbatim and gist memory in true and false recognition of narrative sentences and inferences. Results supported fuzzy-trace theory's dual-process view of memory: verbatim memory was relied on to reject meaning-consistent, but unpresented, sentences (via recollection rejection). However, verbatim memory was often not retrieved, and gist memory supported acceptance of these sentences (via similarity judgment and phantom recollection). Thus, mathematical models of words can be extended to explain memory for complex stimuli, such as narratives, the kind of memory interrogated in law.

  19. PERFORMANCE OF FINANCIAL HOLDING COMPANIES IN TAIWAN: AN APPLICATION OF NETWORK DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Yueh-Chiang Lee; Yao-Hung Yang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we adopt the network data envelopment analysis model in lieu of the multi-stage data envelopment analysis model to evaluate the operational efficiency of financial holding companies and their subsidiaries; the advantage of the network data envelopment analysis model is that it fully captures the synergies of cross selling undertaken by subsidiaries. In this study, conducted in 2012, we find synergistic effects associated with the merger of four financial holding companies, Hua ...

  20. Characteristics of true versus false allegations of sexual offences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, Eric; van der Sleen, Jannie

    2005-10-01

    The goal of the study was to establish whether false allegations of sexual offences with an unknown perpetrator can be distinguished from accurate allegations. Case files of 27 true allegations of sexual offences with an unknown perpetrator were compared to those of 14 false allegations. The comparison was guided by a list of 43 criteria that are hypothesized to differentiate between true and false allegations of sexual assault. Analyses indicated the employed criteria differentiated true from false allegations to a certain extent. However, the discriminative strength of some criteria appeared to be stronger than that of others. Research is required to assess further the discriminative power of these criteria.

  1. A Case of True Hermaphroditism Presenting as a Testicular Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Ceci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available True hermaphroditism represents only 5% cases of all of disorders of sexual differentiation (DSD and usually present in early childhood with ambiguous genitalia. Occasionally, cases might present later on in adolescence with problems of sexual maturation. Our case report presents a true hermaphrodite with normal male phenotype that presented as a left testicular mass, two years after being diagnosed with Sertoli cell only syndrome in the contralateral testis. Histological examination of the left testis showed ovarian, fallopian tube, myometrial, endometrial, and epididymal tissue. This combination of findings is found in approximately one-third of true hermaphrodites, but it is very rare to present clinically as an inguinoscrotal mass.

  2. True Orthophoto Generation from Aerial Frame Images and LiDAR Data: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Gharibi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Image spectral and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR positional information can be related through the orthophoto generation process. Orthophotos have a uniform scale and represent all objects in their correct planimetric locations. However, orthophotos generated using conventional methods suffer from an artifact known as the double-mapping effect that occurs in areas occluded by tall objects. The double-mapping problem can be resolved through the commonly known true orthophoto generation procedure, in which an occlusion detection process is incorporated. This paper presents a review of occlusion detection methods, from which three techniques are compared and analyzed using experimental results. The paper also describes a framework for true orthophoto production based on an angle-based occlusion detection method. To improve the performance of the angle-based technique, two modifications to this method are introduced. These modifications, which aim at resolving false visibilities reported within the angle-based occlusion detection process, are referred to as occlusion extension and radial section overlap. A weighted averaging approach is also proposed to mitigate the seamline effect and spectral dissimilarity that may appear in true orthophoto mosaics. Moreover, true orthophotos generated from high-resolution aerial images and high-density LiDAR data using the updated version of angle-based methodology are illustrated for two urban study areas. To investigate the potential of image matching techniques in producing true orthophotos and point clouds, a comparison between the LiDAR-based and image-matching-based true orthophotos and digital surface models (DSMs for an urban study area is also presented in this paper. Among the investigated occlusion detection methods, the angle-based technique demonstrated a better performance in terms of output and running time. The LiDAR-based true orthophotos and DSMs showed higher qualities compared to their

  3. Emulsifying salt increase stability of cheese emulsions during holding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anni Bygvrå; Sijbrandij, Anna G.; Varming, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    of sodium and phosphate in foods makes production of cheese powder without or with minimal amounts of emulsifying salts desirable. The present work uses a centrifugation method to characterize stability of model cheese feeds. Stability of cheese feed with emulsifying salt increased with holding time at 60°C......In cheese powder production, cheese is mixed and melted with water and emulsifying salt to form an emulsion (cheese feed) which is required to remain stable at 60°C for 1h and during further processing until spray drying. Addition of emulsifying salts ensures this, but recent demands for reduction......, especially when no stirring was applied. No change in stability during holding was observed in cheese feeds without emulsifying salt. This effect is suggested to be due to continued exerted functionality of the emulsifying salt, possibly through reorganizations of the mineral balance....

  4. CASH HOLDING, GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND FIRM VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prana Wahyu Nisasmara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to understand the influence of profitability, capital structure, cash holding, and GCG (Good Corporate Governance on firm value.  The samples of this study were the property sector and real estate companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX in the period of 2008-2013. The data used from the annual report company. The methods of data analysis were multiple regression models and analyzed using IBM SPSS software. The results of this study are profitability has no influence on firm value, capital structure has positive influence on firm value, cash holding has no influence on firm value and GCG a has a positive influence on firm value.

  5. 12 CFR 1732.7 - Record hold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Banking OFFICE OF FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS RECORD RETENTION Record Retention Program § 1732.7 Record hold. (a) Definition. For... Enterprise or OFHEO that the Enterprise is to retain records relating to a particular issue in connection...

  6. Empowerment Amongst Teachers Holding Leadership Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidov-Ungar, Orit; Friedman, Izhak; Olshtain, Elite

    2014-01-01

    This study used semi-structured in-depth interviews to explore empowerment patterns among teachers who hold leadership positions in school. Our qualitative analysis presents a hierarchical ladder with three types of empowerment amongst these teachers, ranging from limited empowerment through rewarding empowerment to change-enhancing empowerment.…

  7. Biosketch Ashok Venkitaraman holds the Ursula Zoellner ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ashok

    Ashok Venkitaraman holds the Ursula Zoellner Professorship of Cancer Research at the University of Cambridge, and is the Director of the Medical Research Council. (MRC) Cancer Cell Unit there. He learnt and practiced medicine at the Christian. Medical College, Vellore, before completing his Ph.D. at University College ...

  8. Towards a classification of weak hand holds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimmelman, V.; Sáfár, A.; Crasborn, O.

    2016-01-01

    The two symmetrical manual articulators (the hands) in signed languages are a striking modalityspecific phonetic property. The weak hand can maintain the end position of an articulation while the other articulator continues to produce additional signs. This weak hand spreading (hold) has been

  9. 47 CFR 73.7005 - Holding period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., utilities, music licensing fees, etc.). Any successive applicants proposing to assign or transfer the... receiving a decisive preference for fair distribution of service is required to construct and operate... preference is based for a period of four years of on-air operations. (c) The holding period in this section...

  10. Three Dimensional Stress-Strain Behavior of Soils Tested in the Danish Rigid Boundary True Triaxial Apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praastrup, U.

    carried out. Obviously, the papers are related to the true triaxial apparatus, but they should actually be seen as steps towards the development of a cross-anisotropic constitutive model. The constitutive model has not been fully developed and it has not been published in any papers. The constitutive......Primarily, the Ph.D.-thesis "Three Dimensional Stress-Strain Behaviour of Soils Tested in the Danish Rigid Boundary True Triaxial Apparatus" deals with the improvement of the true triaxial apparatus designed and constructed at Aalborg University in Denmark. The thesis is published as a collection...

  11. High-speed true random number generation based on paired memristors for security electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Teng; Yin, Minghui; Xu, Changmin; Lu, Xiayan; Sun, Xinhao; Yang, Yuchao; Huang, Ru

    2017-11-01

    True random number generator (TRNG) is a critical component in hardware security that is increasingly important in the era of mobile computing and internet of things. Here we demonstrate a TRNG using intrinsic variation of memristors as a natural source of entropy that is otherwise undesirable in most applications. The random bits were produced by cyclically switching a pair of tantalum oxide based memristors and comparing their resistance values in the off state, taking advantage of the more pronounced resistance variation compared with that in the on state. Using an alternating read scheme in the designed TRNG circuit, the unbiasedness of the random numbers was significantly improved, and the bitstream passed standard randomness tests. The Pt/TaO x /Ta memristors fabricated in this work have fast programming/erasing speeds of ∼30 ns, suggesting a high random number throughput. The approach proposed here thus holds great promise for physically-implemented random number generation.

  12. The True Self: A Psychological Concept Distinct From the Self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohminger, Nina; Knobe, Joshua; Newman, George

    2017-07-01

    A long tradition of psychological research has explored the distinction between characteristics that are part of the self and those that lie outside of it. Recently, a surge of research has begun examining a further distinction. Even among characteristics that are internal to the self, people pick out a subset as belonging to the true self. These factors are judged as making people who they really are, deep down. In this paper, we introduce the concept of the true self and identify features that distinguish people's understanding of the true self from their understanding of the self more generally. In particular, we consider recent findings that the true self is perceived as positive and moral and that this tendency is actor-observer invariant and cross-culturally stable. We then explore possible explanations for these findings and discuss their implications for a variety of issues in psychology.

  13. Knowledge and True Belief in Early Analytic Philosophy | Martens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. I argue that the sufficiency of true belief for knowledge was accepted by some principal figures in the early history of analytic philosophy, including Russell, Schlick, McTaggart, and Moore, among others.

  14. Operational implications of accepting and denying whether a true value of risk exists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozin, Igor

    It is suggested to look on probabilistic risk quantities and concepts through the prism of accepting one of the views: whether a true value of risk exists or not. It will be argued that discussions until now have been primarily focused on closely related topics that are different from the suggested...... one. In general, the values of risks are not known precisely and the analyst has the option to consider that convergence to a precise value of risk is possible in the limit. That is, the true value exists but due to limited time, resources or other limitations in assessing probabilities...... mathematical exercise. In fact, accepting the true-value view does not make the adherent use only a single probability distribution as a model of uncertainty. One can introduce a class of distributions in which a particular member is considered a plausible candidate to be an ideal distribution. Then, a risk...

  15. The "True and fair view" concept in Lithuanian accounting regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Rudžionienė, Kristina; Christauskas, Česlovas

    2010-01-01

    The "true and fair view" concept is very popular in the professional accountants’ language. After theoretical analysis of the "true and fair view" concept it was made research how understanding of this concept was created in Lithuanian accounting regulation. The stated purpose of financial statements is taken from the United Kingdom, and is different in the particular formulation. Additionally, it is not explained anywhere what it is and how to reach it. There are not specifically defined qua...

  16. FAIR true-FISP perfusion imaging of the kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martirosian, Petros; Klose, Uwe; Mader, Irina; Schick, Fritz

    2004-02-01

    Most arterial spin labeling (ASL) techniques apply echoplanar imaging (EPI) because this strategy provides relatively high SNR in short measuring times. Unfortunately, those techniques are very susceptible to static magnetic field inhomogeneities and perfusion signals from organs with fast transverse relaxation might decrease due to the exchange of water molecules in capillaries and organ tissue combined with relatively long echo times of EPI sequences. To overcome these problems a novel imaging technique, FAIR True-FISP, was developed. It combines a FAIR (flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery) perfusion preparation and a true fast imaging with steady precession (True-FISP) data acquisition strategy. True-FISP was chosen since this sequence type does not show the mentioned disadvantages of EPI, but provides a similar SNR per measuring time. An important problem of this approach is that True-FISP sequences usually work in a steady state which is independent of a previous preparation of magnetization. For this reason a sequence structure had to be developed which keeps the advantages of True-FISP and makes the signal intensity sensitive to the FAIR preparation. Breathhold and nonbreathhold examinations of kidneys are presented and possible strategies to quantitative flow measurements are reported. It is shown that correction of spatially inhomogeneous receiver coil characteristics is easily feasible and leads to clinically valuable perfusion examinations of kidneys without application of potentially nephrotoxic contrast media. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. [On true and apparent Michaelis constants in enzymology. I. Differences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakhim, S A

    2011-01-01

    Differences between both true and apparent rate constants and Michaelis constants have been examined. Rate constants of elementary stages of real mechanisms are true ones. True Michaelis constant Km is expressed by equation Km = (k(-1) + k2)/k. True constants may be determined for reliable mechanism only for which the equation of initial rate was obtained which displays physical sense of these constants and permits to find the method of their calculation. The true constant values are independent of concentration of reactants, activators, inhibitors, extraneous agents and pH. The apparent rate constants are such constants of the composite reaction which are observed when this reaction is described by the equation of simple reaction. Michaelis constant calculated by a half of the ultimate constant is an apparent constant. The apparent constants may be functions of several true rate constants and/or concentrations of reacting substances. The evident physical sense of apparent constants being absent, only formal relation between the reaction rate and reactant concentration independent of the investigated mechanism is provided.

  18. A comparison of true and premodulated interferential currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, John; Ward, Alex R; Robertson, Valma J

    2004-03-01

    To compare true and premodulated interferential currents (IFCs) in terms of sensory, motor, and pain thresholds; maximum electrically induced torque (MEIT); and comfort. Repeated-measures design. Laboratory setting. University student and staff volunteers. Participants were exposed to 4 different conditions, chosen to evaluate 2 fundamental differences between true and premodulated IFCs. The conditions were different combinations of (1) premodulated or constant-amplitude currents applied at the skin and (2) crossed or parallel current paths. Sensory, motor, and pain thresholds; MEIT; and subjective reports of relative discomfort were recorded for each of the 4 conditions. Motor to sensory threshold ratios were subsequently calculated to assess depth efficiency of stimulation. The major findings were that crossed currents (true IFC) had no advantage over parallel currents (premodulated IFC) in terms of motor to sensory threshold ratio, MEIT, or comfort, and that premodulated currents produced higher torque values and less discomfort than constant-amplitude currents (true IFC). These results contradict the claimed superiority of true IFC. The findings indicate that premodulated IFC, delivered via 2 large electrodes, may be clinically more effective than the traditional true IFC arrangement in terms of depth efficiency, torque production, and patient comfort.

  19. TOOLS OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT OF A HOLDING COMPANY AND ITS SUB-SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai N. Samoilenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept and essence of intellectual property management are considered in the article, as well as the models, the methods and the tools of intellectual property management of holding structures. In particular, the life cycle of object of intellectual property is described, the concept "intellectual property management" is created, the most effective models of intellectual property management are revealed, and also the instruments of intellectual property management of a holding company and its sub-systems are defined.

  20. 12 CFR 225.124 - Foreign bank holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign bank holding companies. 225.124 Section... SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.124 Foreign bank holding companies. (a) Effective December 1, 1971, the...

  1. 12 CFR 1252.1 - Enterprise portfolio holding criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. 1252.1 Section 1252.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS § 1252.1 Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. The Enterprises are required to comply with the portfolio holdings...

  2. Registration of global cardiac function with real-time trueFISP in one respiratory cycle; Erfassung der globalen Herzfunktion mit Real-time-trueFISP in einer Atemphase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintersperger, B.J. [Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen - Standort Grosshadern (Germany); Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen - Standort Grosshadern, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377, Muenchen (Germany); Nikolaou, K.; Huber, A.; Dietrich, O.; Reiser, M.F.; Schoenberg, S.O. [Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen - Standort Grosshadern (Germany); Muehling, O. [Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik I, Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen - Standort Grosshadern (Germany); Nittka, M.; Kiefer, B. [Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen (Germany)

    2004-02-01

    Real-time multislice cine techniques lead to inaccurate results in ventricular volumes based on limited temporal resolution. The purpose of the study is to evaluate a real-time cine technique with parallel imaging algorithms in comparison to standard segmented techniques. Twelve patients underwent cardiac cine MRI using real-time multislice cine trueFISP. Temporal resolution was improved using parallel acquisition techniques (iPAT) and data acquisition was performed in a single breath-hold along the patients' short axis. Evaluation of EDV, ESV, EF and myocardial mass was performed and results compared to a standard segmented single-slice cine trueFISP. Combination of real-time cine trueFISP and iPAT provided a temporal resolution of 48 ms. Results of the multislice approach showed an excellent correlation to standard single-slice trueFISP for EDV (0.94, p <0.001), ESV (0.97, p <0.001) EF (0.99, p <0.001) and myocardial mass (0.93, p <0.001). No significant differences could be found. The use of parallel acquisition techniques (PAT) allow for a substantial improvement of temporal resolution in real-time cine MRI (<50 ms). Therefore these techniques enable an accurate and exact quantification of global ventricular function. (orig.) [German] Durch die begrenzte zeitliche Aufloesung kommt es bei Real-time-Multischicht-cine-Techniken zu Ungenauigkeiten bei der Bestimmung kardialer Volumina. Ziel dieser Studie ist die Implementierung einer Real-time-cine-trueFISP-Technik mit paralleler Bildgebung und der Vergleich mit Standardtechniken. Bei 12 Patienten erfolgte eine Funktions-MRT des Herzens mit Real-time-Multischicht-cine-trueFISP. Zur Verbesserung der zeitlichen Aufloesung wurde die Aufnahmetechnik mit parallelen Akquisitionstechniken (iPAT) kombiniert. Bei jedem Patienten erfolgte die Akquisition eines Schichtstapels in kurzer Herzachse in einer Atemanhaltephase. Die Bestimmung von EDV, ESV, EF und Myokardmasse erfolgte im Vergleich zu einer segmentierten cine-true

  3. True dreams: Encounter of the worlds in Islamic philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halilović Tehran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available True dreams that explicitly or symbolically reveal the events of the past and the future, in the ontological sense tell more than just about the content of a dream because they bespeak the supratemporal dimension of human beings and represent man's ability to connect to different worlds, and respectively multitudinous forms and levels of being. In this paper, without going into the psychological or physiological analysis of dreams, we try to clarify the ontological significance and position of true dreams in existing worlds. In Islamic philosophy, the underlying cognitive basis for the description of the ontological level of true dreams was established by the founder of Illuminative Philosophy, Shaykh al-Ishraq (1155-1191, and it was expanded by the founder of Transcendental Philosophy, Mulla Sadra Shirazi (1572-1640. Shaykh al-Ishraq explained in detail existential position of supramaterial beings that on the one hand are above the world of matter and in a direct active contact with it, and on the other hand, are under the dominant world of intellect. He called these creatures Midworld (Barzakh and, for the first time in Islamic philosophy, stated that it is a separate world of imagination that is different from the material and intelligible one. True dreams are one of the many indications that man has a supratemporal dimension that exposes supramaterial and temporally unlimited worlds to him. Apart from true dreams, most important signs of supramaterial worlds in human life are the prophetic revelation, as well as revelations and mystical-gnostic intuition. Unlike the last two examples, true dreams are known and accessible to all people, both from their immediate experience and from the stories of the ones close to them. For this reason, in this paper we explain how true dreams represent a blend of worlds in human life.

  4. Saskatchewan Energy Holdings Ltd. consolidated financial statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The consolidated financial statements of Saskatchewan Energy Holdings Ltd. (formerly Saskatchewan Energy Corporation) as of December 31, 1990, and the consolidated statements of earnings and retained earnings and changes in cash position for the year are presented. Data include an inventory of supplies, natural gas in storage, property, plant and equipment. Financial statements are also presented for the year ending December 31, 1989, with comparative figures for the seven months ending December 31, 1988

  5. A confirmatory holding time study for purgeable VOCs in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, O.R.; Bayne, C.K.; Siegrist, R.L.; Holden, W.H.; Bottrell, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    Analyte stability during pre-analytical storage is essential to the accurate quantification contaminants in environmental samples. This is particularly true for volatile organic compounds (VOCS) which can easily volatilize and/or degrade during sample storage. Recognizing this, regulatory agencies require water samples be collected in vials without headspace and stored at 4 degrees C, and that analyses be conducted within 14 days, 2048 even if samples are acid-preserved. Since the selection of a 14-day holding time was largely arbitrary, the appropriateness of this requirement must be re-evaluated. The goal of the study described here was to provide regulatory agencies with the necessary data to extend the maximum holding time for properly preserved VOC water samples to 28 days

  6. Model Ziegler-type hydrogenation catalyst precursors, [(1,5-COD)M(mu-O2C8H15)]2 (M = Ir and Rh): synthesis, characterization, and demonstration of catalytic activity en route to identifying the true industrial hydrogenation catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, William M; Girard, Chase W; Ozkar, Saim; Finke, Richard G

    2009-02-02

    The compounds [(1,5-COD)M(mu-O2C8H15)]2 (COD = cyclooctadiene, M = Ir (1) or Rh (2), O2C8H15 = 2-ethylhexanoate) were synthesized by addition of Bu3NH(2-ethylhexanoate) or Na(2-ethylhexanoate) to acetone suspensions of [(1,5-COD)Ir(mu-Cl)]2 or [(1,5-COD)Rh(mu-Cl)]2, respectively. The synthesis of such well-defined second and third row model precursors is key to determining the true nature of commercial Ziegler-type hydrogenation catalysts (i.e., catalysts made from the combination of a non-zerovalent, group 8-10 transition metal precatalyst and a trialkylaluminum cocatalyst), an unsolved, approximately 40 year old problem. The characterizations of 1 and 2 were accomplished by elemental analysis, melting point, FAB-MS, FT-IR, UV-vis, NMR spectroscopy, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The complexes, C32H54Ir2O4 and C32H54O4Rh2, are isostructural: monoclinic, P2(1)/n, Z = 4. The lattice constants for 1 are a = 15.7748(5) A, b = 9.8962(3) A, c = 20.8847(7) A, beta = 108.408(2) degrees. The lattice constants for 2 are a = 15.7608(4) A, b = 9.9032(3) A, c = 20.8259(5) A, beta = 108.527(1) degrees. Complexes 1 and 2 are dimeric, bridged by the 2-ethylhexanoates, and with one 1,5-COD ligand bound to each metal. The formally 16 electron metal atoms are in square ligand planes with dihedral angles between the planes of 56.5 degrees for 1 and 58.1 degrees for 2. The M-M distances of 3.2776(2) and 3.3390(4) A for 1 and 2, respectively, fall in the range of similar structures thought to have some M-M interaction despite the lack of a formal M-M bond. Demonstration that active Ziegler-type hydrogenation catalysts are made when 1 or 2 combine with AlEt3 is provided, results that open the door to the use of 1 and 2 as well-defined third and second row congeners, respectively, of Ziegler-type hydrogenation catalysts. These compounds have proven important in addressing the previously unsolved problem of the true nature of the catalyst in industrial Ziegler-type hydrogenation

  7. The true cost of electric power. Summary for policymakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtraw, Dallas; Knupnick, Alan [Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States). Center for Energy Economics and Policy

    2012-06-15

    This report examines the various methods that have been used to measure 'true' costs of electricity generation technologies and looks at how such estimates can be used in company decision-making and public policy to ensure that investments are directed at the electricity generation methods with the lowest true costs to investors and society. In some geographic areas, adequate data and methods exist to make a solid estimate of the total social costs of energy production. In those places where the data or methods (or both) are less robust, it is possible to use a benefits transfer approach that still gives stakeholders important guidance about the scale of the true costs of their investments and to get started in formulating policies to incorporate those costs into the market price.

  8. Noncontact true temperature measurement. [of levitated sample using laser pyrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mark C.; Allen, James L.

    1987-01-01

    A laser pyrometer has been developed for acquiring the true temperature of a levitated sample. The laser beam is first expanded to cover the entire cross-sectional surface of the target. For calibration of such a system, the reflectivity signal of an ideal 0.95 cm diameter gold-coated sphere (reflectivity = 0.99) is used as the reference for any other real targets. The emissivity of the real target can then be calculated. The overall system constant is obtained by passively measuring the radiance of a blackbody furnace (emissivity = 1.0) at a known, arbitrary temperature. Since the photo sensor used is highly linear over the entire operating temperature range, the true temperature of the target can then be computed. Preliminary results indicate that true temperatures thus obtained are in excellent correlation with thermocouple measured temperatures.

  9. A Postmodernist Reading of Sam Shepard’s True West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol Hossein Joodaki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to render some vivid postmodernist features in Shepard’s True West (1980, which is inspired by myths of American life and popular culture. Shepard’s True West suggests so many interesting postmodern elements. With a departure from conventional norms of character, dialogue and narrative; the elements of pastiche, subjective irony, and savage humor have become hallmarks of most of his works. These features and some of the basic traces of postmodern literature, including Lyotard’s theory of the end of meta-narratives and language game, Derrida’s deconstruction and Baudrillard’s simulation, as well as language fragmentation, uncertainty and duality,  altogether, have given Shepard’s True West a postmodern atmosphere.

  10. Inefficient Job Destructions and Training with Hold-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chéron, Arnaud; Rouland, Benedicte

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops an equilibrium search model with endogenous job destructions and where firms decide at the time of job entry how much to invest in match-specific human capital. We first show that job destruction and training investment decisions are strongly complementary. It is possible...... that there are no firings at equilibrium. Further, training investments are confronted to a hold-up problem making the decentralized equilibrium always inefficient. We show therefore that both training subsidies and firing taxes must be implemented to bring back efficiency....

  11. Software for determining the true displacement of faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Fuentes, R.; Nieto-Samaniego, Á. F.; Xu, S.-S.; Alaniz-Álvarez, S. A.

    2014-03-01

    One of the most important parameters of faults is the true (or net) displacement, which is measured by restoring two originally adjacent points, called “piercing points”, to their original positions. This measurement is not typically applicable because it is rare to observe piercing points in natural outcrops. Much more common is the measurement of the apparent displacement of a marker. Methods to calculate the true displacement of faults using descriptive geometry, trigonometry or vector algebra are common in the literature, and most of them solve a specific situation from a large amount of possible combinations of the fault parameters. True displacements are not routinely calculated because it is a tedious and tiring task, despite their importance and the relatively simple methodology. We believe that the solution is to develop software capable of performing this work. In a previous publication, our research group proposed a method to calculate the true displacement of faults by solving most combinations of fault parameters using simple trigonometric equations. The purpose of this contribution is to present a computer program for calculating the true displacement of faults. The input data are the dip of the fault; the pitch angles of the markers, slickenlines and observation lines; and the marker separation. To prevent the common difficulties involved in switching between operative systems, the software is developed using the Java programing language. The computer program could be used as a tool in education and will also be useful for the calculation of the true fault displacement in geological and engineering works. The application resolves the cases with known direction of net slip, which commonly is assumed parallel to the slickenlines. This assumption is not always valid and must be used with caution, because the slickenlines are formed during a step of the incremental displacement on the fault surface, whereas the net slip is related to the finite slip.

  12. Let's just hold a real vote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gareth

    2017-04-12

    The planned RCN consultation to gauge how nurses feel about balloting on industrial action is a step in the right direction, but for heaven's sake why don't we just hold a real vote? No one is interested in a test vote - not the media, not members. A real vote would be headline news and RCN members would be enthused and motivated. As it is, we are just kicking the ball into the long grass yet again. There will be a low turnout and we will end up shrugging our shoulders and saying 'There's nothing to be done'. Jeremy Hunt must be laughing his socks off.

  13. Hold-down device for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclercq, J.; Bonnamour, M.

    1984-01-01

    The present device can be used in nuclear reactors and more particularly in pressurized water reactors consisting of coupled fuel assemblies, certain of which are equipped with non-displaceable elements carried by an unsertable member. The device comprises the unsertable member provided with at least two sets of springs which transmit the load of an upper structure common to the fuel assemblies ajacent that which supports the unsertable member. The device is used to hold-down fuel assemblies which are subjected to the forces of circulating coolant [fr

  14. Optimizing functional parameter accuracy for breath-hold DCE-MRI of liver tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orton, Matthew R; Miyazaki, Keiko; Koh, Dow-Mu; Collins, David J; Leach, Martin O; Hawkes, David J; Atkinson, David

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is a valuable tool for assessing treatment response to novel cancer therapeutics. With appropriate data acquisition, quantitative functional parameter estimates can be obtained by fitting a model to the data. This research focuses on applying a dual-input single-compartment pharmacokinetic model to breath-hold DCE-MRI imaging of the liver. In this paper, the use of two breath-holds, providing greater temporal information, is compared with a single breath-hold approach. Computer simulations are used to assess the accuracy, precision and sensitivity to input function errors obtained for parameters estimated from the two imaging protocols. Data from ten patients were analysed to assess the noise statistics obtained from the two breath-hold protocols. The noise statistics were used with a pharmacokinetic liver model to simulate data, from which the estimation accuracy, precision and sensitivity for the two protocols were assessed. Data from the ten patients were also analysed, and the estimates were compared with literature values. This work demonstrates the feasibility of obtaining functional liver perfusion estimates over a 3D volume using a sequential breath-hold protocol. The simulation results show that the protocol consisting of two images per breath-hold is to be preferred as it requires identical patient co-operation, but provides parameter estimates that have superior accuracy and precision.

  15. BMI may underestimate the socioeconomic gradient in true obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, G.; van Eijsden, M.; Vrijkotte, T. G. M.; Gemke, R. J. B. J.

    2013-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) does not make a distinction between fat mass and lean mass. In children, high fat mass appears to be associated with low maternal education, as well as low lean mass because maternal education is associated with physical activity. Therefore, BMI might underestimate true obesity

  16. MR-Venography Using High Resolution True-FISP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spuentrup, E. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Medicine; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Buecker, A.; Guenther, R.W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Stuber, M. [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Medicine; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Philips Med. Syst., Best (Netherlands)

    2001-08-01

    A new fast MR-venography approach using a high resolution True-FISP imaging sequence was investigated in 20 patients suffering from 23 deep vein thromboses. Diagnosis was proven by X-ray venography, CT or ultrasound examination. The presented technique allowed for clear thrombus visualization with a high contrast to the surrounding blood pool even in calf veins. Acquisition time was less than 10 minutes for imaging the pelvis and the legs. No contrast media was needed. The presented high resolution True-FISP MR-veography is a promising non-invasive, fast MR-venography approach for detection of deep venous thrombosis. (orig.) [German] Eine neue schnelle, oertlich hochaufgeloeste MR-Phlebographietechnik mit einer axialen True-FISP Bildgebungssequenz wurde an 20 Patienten mit 23 nach-gewiesenen tiefen Beinvenenthrombosen untersucht. Die Befunde wurden mit einer konventionellen Roentgenphlebographie, einer CT oder einer Sonographie gesichert. Die vorgestellte Technik erlaubte in allen Faellen eine Thrombusdarstellung mit hohem Kontrast zum umgebenden venoesen Blut, wobei aufgrund der hohen Ortsaufloesung auch die Unterschenkelvenen beurteilt werden konnten. Die Datenaufnahmezeit zur Untersuchung des Beckens und der Beine betrug weniger als 10 Minuten. Kontrastmittel wurde nicht benoetigt. Die vorgestellte MR-Phlebographietechnik unter Verwendung einer oertlich hochauf-geloesten True-FISP Sequenz ist eine neue, vielversprechende, nicht-invasive Technik zur Diagnostik der tiefen Bein- und Beckenvenenthrombose. (orig.)

  17. True Umbilical Cord Knot Leading to Fetal Demise

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ikechebelu, et al.: True umbilical cord knot. 156. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Jul-Aug 2014 | Vol 4 | Special Issue 2 | non‑reactive. She tested negative to Human immune‑deficiency virus I and II. The fasting blood sugar and 2 h post prandial were normal. She received two courses, each of intermittent.

  18. True and Fair View: Incentive or Inhibitor for Creative Accounting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciocan Claudia-Cătălina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of accounting is to present information about the financial position, changes forthe financial position and performance of an economic entity and the financial statements mustpresent a true and fair view of the economic reality for the enterprise concerned. Creativeaccounting is a present issue, a phenomenon that increases users mistrust in financial statements,being considered a manipulation of figures in order to obtain a favorable image, far from beingtrue. In order to address this issue, we analyzed several definitions and forms of this concept, andfollowed how they relate to the objective of the true and fair view. The paper points out that theinteraction between creative accounting and true and fair view can be regarded in a double way:on one side, taking into account the influence of creative accounting on the objective of the trueand fair view, and, on the other side, considering the influence of the perception of the true and fairview on the choice of these techniques.

  19. Differentiating true and false schematic memories in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Christina E; Dennis, Nancy A

    2018-02-06

    While schemas aid memory for schematically related information, the gist induced by the schema can also lead to high rates of false memories, especially in older adults. The neural mechanisms that support and differentiate true and false memories in aging are not well understood. The current study sought to clarify this, using a novel scene paradigm to investigate the role of schemas on true and false memories in older adults. Healthy older adults encoded schematic scenes (e.g., bathroom). At retrieval, participants were tested on their memory for both schematic and non-schematic targets and lures while fMRI data was collected. Results indicate that true memories were supported by the typical retrieval network, and activity in this network was greater for true than false memories. Schema specific retrieval was supported by mPFC, extending this common finding to aging. While no region differentiated false memories compared to correct rejections, results showed that individual differences in false memory rates were associated with variability in neural activity. The findings underscore the importance of elucidating the neural basis of cognition within older adults, as well as the specific contribution of individual differences to the neural basis of memory errors in aging. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Activation of Imaginal Information on True and False Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sau Hou; Pierce, Benton H.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the activation of imaginal information on true and false memories. Participants studied a series of concrete objects in pictures or words. The imagery group (n = 96) was instructed to form images and the control group (n = 96) was not instructed to do so. Both groups were then given a standard recognition memory test and…

  1. Neural correlates underlying true and false associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Nancy A; Johnson, Christina E; Peterson, Kristina M

    2014-07-01

    Despite the fact that associative memory studies produce a large number of false memories, neuroimaging analyses utilizing this paradigm typically focus only on neural activity mediating successful retrieval. The current study sought to expand on this prior research by examining the neural basis of both true and false associative memories. Though associative false memories are substantially different than those found in semantic or perceptual false memory paradigms, results suggest that associative false memories are mediated by similar neural mechanisms. Specifically, we found increased frontal activity that likely represents enhanced monitoring and evaluation compared to that needed for true memories and correct rejections. Results also indicated that true, and not false associative memories, are mediated by neural activity in the MTL, specifically the hippocampus. Finally, while activity in early visual cortex distinguished true from false memories, a lack of neural differences between hits and correct rejections failed to support previous findings suggesting that activity in early visual cortex represents sensory reactivation of encoding-related processing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Using Story Contexts to Bias Children's True and False Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.; Wilkinson, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    The effects of embedding standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists into stories whose context biased interpretation either toward or away from the overall themes of the DRM lists on both true and false recognition were investigated with 7- and 11-year-olds. These biased story contexts were compared with the same children's susceptibility to…

  3. Largest recorded non-invasive true intrathoracic desmoid tumour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Largest recorded non-invasive true intrathoracic desmoid tumour. G R Alexander. Abstract. Intrathoracic desmoid tumours are rare soft-tissue neoplasms arising from fascial or musculo-aponeurotic structures, accounting for less than 0.03% of all neoplasms. Most cases in fact represent intrathoracic extension of chest wall ...

  4. A true ectopic, locally vascularized spleen: a very rare anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darius, T; Tollens, T; Aelvoet, Chr; Vanrykel, J P

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to a wandering or ectopic spleen which is vascularized by the original splenic vessels this case describes a true ectopic, locally vascularized spleen in the pelvis. To our knowledge this anomaly has never been described in the literature before.

  5. Apparent and true resistant hypertension: definition, prevalence and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, E; Calhoun, D A

    2014-08-01

    Resistant hypertension, defined as blood pressure (BP) remaining above goal despite the use of > or =3 antihypertensive medications at maximally tolerated doses (one ideally being a diuretic) or BP that requires > or =4 agents to achieve control, has received more attention with increased efforts to improve BP control rates and the emergence of device-based therapies for hypertension. This classically defined resistant group consists of patients with true resistant hypertension, controlled resistant hypertension and pseudo-resistant hypertension. In studies where pseudo-resistant hypertension cannot be excluded (for example, 24-h ambulatory BP not obtained), the term apparent resistant hypertension has been used to identify 'apparent' lack of control on > or =3 medications. Large, well-designed studies have recently reported the prevalence of resistant hypertension. Pooling prevalence data from these studies and others within North America and Europe with a combined sample size of >600,000 hypertensive participants, the prevalence of resistant hypertension is 14.8% of treated hypertensive patients and 12.5% of all hypertensives. However, the prevalence of true resistant hypertension, defined as uncontrolled both by office and 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring with confirmed medication adherence, may be more meaningful in terms of identifying risk and estimating benefit from newer therapies like renal denervation. Rates of cardiovascular events and mortality follow mean 24-h ambulatory BPs in patients with resistant hypertension, and true resistant hypertension represents the highest risk. The prevalence of true resistant hypertension has not been directly measured in large trials; however, combined data from smaller studies suggest that true resistant hypertension is present in half of the patients with resistant hypertension who are uncontrolled in the office. Our pooled analysis shows prevalence rates of 10.1% and 7.9% for uncontrolled resistant hypertension among

  6. SITUATION OF REGULATIONS FOR HOLDING COMPANIES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Filofteia Braga

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the tax facilities applicable to Romania on holding companies, ranking of the first 20 countries that investing in our country, their activities field and the necessity to approve the law holding company.

  7. Reliable quantification of BOLD fMRI cerebrovascular reactivity despite poor breath-hold performance☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Molly G.; Murphy, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) can be mapped using BOLD fMRI to provide a clinical insight into vascular health that can be used to diagnose cerebrovascular disease. Breath-holds are a readily accessible method for producing the required arterial CO2 increases but their implementation into clinical studies is limited by concerns that patients will demonstrate highly variable performance of breath-hold challenges. This study assesses the repeatability of CVR measurements despite poor task performance, to determine if and how robust results could be achieved with breath-holds in patients. Twelve healthy volunteers were scanned at 3T. Six functional scans were acquired, each consisting of 6 breath-hold challenges (10, 15, or 20 s duration) interleaved with periods of paced breathing. These scans simulated the varying breath-hold consistency and ability levels that may occur in patient data. Uniform ramps, time-scaled ramps, and end-tidal CO2 data were used as regressors in a general linear model in order to measure CVR at the grey matter, regional, and voxelwise level. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) quantified the repeatability of the CVR measurement for each breath-hold regressor type and scale of interest across the variable task performances. The ramp regressors did not fully account for variability in breath-hold performance and did not achieve acceptable repeatability (ICC  0.4). Further analysis of intra-subject CVR variability across the brain (ICCspatial and voxelwise correlation) supported the use of end-tidal CO2 data to extract robust whole-brain CVR maps, despite variability in breath-hold performance. We conclude that the incorporation of end-tidal CO2 monitoring into scanning enables robust, repeatable measurement of CVR that makes breath-hold challenges suitable for routine clinical practice. PMID:23845426

  8. Iron and zinc levels in breath-holding spells

    OpenAIRE

    DEDA, Gülhis; AKAR, M. Nejat; CİN, Şükrü; GENÇGÖNÜL, Handan

    2002-01-01

    Breath-Holding spells are a dramatic and commonly observed clinical phenomenon in childhood. The underlyingpathophysiologic mechanisms in breath-holding spells are result from autonomic nervous system dysregulation.Cerebral anoxia is the ultimate factor responsible for the loss of consciousness observed in the severe forms of breath-holding spells.It’s known that, there is relationbetween breath-holding spells and iron-deficiency anemia, and the spells resolve after oral iron supplemantation....

  9. Volumetric analysis demonstrates that true and false lumen remodeling persists for 12 months after thoracic endovascular aortic repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ga-Young Suh, PhD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A 62-year-old man underwent an elephant trunk procedure followed by thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR. Computed tomography angiography-based models were built to quantify volume of the whole aorta and true and false lumens preoperatively, before TEVAR, after TEVAR, and at follow-up at 3, 6, and 12 months. With TEVAR, descending aortic true lumen volume increased by 54%, then increased additionally by 60% during 12 months. The descending aortic false lumen volume regressed continuously for 12 months following TEVAR, with the most rapid rate from 6 to 12 months at 16 cm3/month. TEVAR immediately increased true lumen volume and continued to remodel the true and false lumens throughout the following 12 months.

  10. Free to be me: The relationship between the true self, rejection sensitivity, and use of online dating sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hance, Margaret A; Blackhart, Ginette; Dew, Megan

    2017-10-12

    Prior research (Blackhart et al., 2014) found that rejection-sensitive individuals are more likely to use online dating sites. The purpose of the current research was to explain the relationship between rejection sensitivity and online dating site usage. Study 1 examined whether true self mediated the relation between rejection sensitivity and online dating. Study 2 sought to replicate the findings of Study 1 and to examine whether self-disclosure moderated the relationship between true self and online dating in the mediation model. Results replicated those found by Blackhart et al. and also found that true self mediated the relationship between rejection sensitivity and online dating site usage. These findings suggest that rejection-sensitive individuals feel they can more easily represent their "true" selves in online environments, such as online dating sites, which partially explains why they are more likely to engage in online dating.

  11. Validation of Tendril TrueHome Using Software-to-Software Comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeffrey B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, Scott G [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Moore, Nathan [Tendril, Boulder, CO (United States); Sullivan, Patrick [Tendril, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This study performed comparative evaluation of EnergyPlus version 8.6 and Tendril TrueHome, two physics-based home energy simulation models, to identify differences in energy consumption predictions between the two programs and resolve discrepancies between them. EnergyPlus is considered a benchmark, best-in-class software tool for building energy simulation. This exercise sought to improve both software tools through additional evaluation/scrutiny.

  12. Slow light in a semiconductor waveguide for true-time delay applications in microwave photonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip; Yvind, Kresten; Mørk, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the slowand fast light properties of a semiconductor waveguide device employing concatenated gain and absorber sections. This letter presents the experimental results as well as theoretical modeling. A large phase shift of 110 and a true-time delay of more than 150 ps are dem...... are demonstrated. The combination of amplitude and phase control of the modulated signal shows great promise for applications within microwave photonics....

  13. Network analysis of pig movements: Loyalty patterns and contact chains of different holding types in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Jana; Boklund, Anette; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2017-01-01

    -going contact chains. Our results reflect the pyramidal structure of the underlying network. Based on the considered disease, the time frame for the calculation of network measurements needs to be adapted. Using these adapted values for loyalty and contact chains might help to identify holdings with high......Understanding animal movements is an important factor for the development of meaningful surveillance and control programs, but also for the development of disease spread models. We analysed the Danish pig movement network using static and temporal network analysis tools to provide deeper insight......, the number of registered movements and the number of pigs moved. To identify holdings and holding types with potentially higher risk for introduction or spread of diseases via pig movements, we determined loyalty patterns, annual network components and contact chains for the 24 registered holding types...

  14. 42 CFR 412.344 - Hold-harmless payment methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hold-harmless payment methodology. 412.344 Section...-Related Costs § 412.344 Hold-harmless payment methodology. (a) General. A hospital paid under the hold-harmless payment methodology receives a payment per discharge based on the higher of: (1) 85 percent of...

  15. 49 CFR 178.338-9 - Holding time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Holding time. 178.338-9 Section 178.338-9... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.338-9 Holding time. (a) “Holding time” is the time, as determined by testing, that will elapse from loading until the pressure of the contents...

  16. Comparison of true metabolisable energy and true amino acid availability between normal maize and quality protein maize (Shandan 17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Li Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A precision-fed assay was conducted to determine true metabolisable energy and true amino acid digestibility in Chinese quality protein maize (QPM compared with normal maize (NM. Thirty adult roosters, kept in individual cages, were made to fast for 48h and then tub-fed 50g QPM or NM per bird and their excreta was colleted for the subsequent 48h. Additional fifteen roosters were made to fast in order to estimate endogenous losses of energy and amino acids (AA in excreta. Gross energy of the two types of maize were similar; the lysine content in NM and QPM were 0.27% and 0.41% (DM basis, respectively. True metabolisable energy (TME and true metabolisable energy nitrogen corrected (TMEn values of QPM and NM were not significantly different (P>0.05. Digestibility of some AA, including lysine and methionine, in QPM were higher than those in NM (P<0.05. The results of this study indicated that the nutritive value of QPM might be higher than that of NM.

  17. 78 FR 23162 - Supervision and Regulation Assessments for Bank Holding Companies and Savings and Loan Holding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... mentioned above, only top-tier foreign banking organizations with financial holding company status file Part... Nonbank Financial Companies Supervised by the Federal Reserve AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal... financial companies designated for Board supervision by the Financial Stability Oversight Council (Council...

  18. 78 FR 31590 - Sears Holdings Management Corporation, A Division Of Sears Holdings Corporation, Hoffman Estates...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... (``My position at Sears had nothing to do with Analytics or space Management. I worked in Marketing... firm clarified that one petitioner supplied print marketing management services, another petitioner... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-81,253] Sears Holdings Management...

  19. Should we Hold the Obese Responsible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Andersen, Martin Marchman

    2014-01-01

    holding the obese responsible will have positive consequences. Taking these two conceptions of responsibility into account, the authors turn their analysis toward examining the relevant moral considerations to be taken into account when public policies regarding obesity rely on such a conception......It is a common belief that obesity is wholly or partially a question of personal choice and personal responsibility. It is also widely assumed that when individuals are responsible for some unfortunate state of affairs, society bears no burden to compensate them. This article focuses on two...... conceptualizations of responsibility: backward-looking and forward-looking conceptualizations. When ascertaining responsibility in a backward-looking sense, one has to determine how that state of affairs came into being or where the agent stood in relation to it. In contrast, a forward-looking conceptualization...

  20. 12 CFR 225.82 - How does a bank holding company elect to become a financial holding company?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... financial holding company, or enforcing compliance with applicable law. ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does a bank holding company elect to become a financial holding company? 225.82 Section 225.82 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...

  1. Content Adaptive True Motion Estimator for H.264 Video Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kulla

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Content adaptive true motion estimator for H.264 video coding is a fast block-based matching estimator with implemented multi-stage approach to estimate motion fields between two image frames. It considers the theory of 3D scene objects projection into 2D image plane for selection of motion vector candidates from the higher stages. The stages of the algorithm and its hierarchy are defined upon motion estimation reliability measurement (image blocks including two different directions of spatial gradient, blocks with one dominant spatial gradient and blocks including minimal spatial gradient. Parameters of the image classification into stages are set adaptively upon image structure. Due to search strategy are the estimated motion fields more corresponding to a true motion in an image sequence as in the case of conventional motion estimation algorithms that use fixed sets of motion vector candidates from tight neighborhood.

  2. Radiographic features of a giant true cyst of pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, K.

    1980-02-01

    Case report of a 48 year old female patient with a large abdominal mass, found to be a true cyst of the pancreas following surgical removal. Plain film findings were a large soft tissue mass in the abdomen to the left of the midline, displacement of small bowel and colon descendens with splenic flexure to the right, and upward displacement of stomach and left kidney. A renal scan showed decreased uptake in the area of the lower pole of the left kidney. Angiography demonstrated the mass to be of cystic nature with the cyst wall getting its blood supply from two left renal arteries. Celiac and mesenteric arteries were displaced to the right. The origin of the cyst was in the tail of the pancreas; and its wall had true epithelial lining. Special emphasis is made on the value of checking for amylase in the work-up of cystic abdominal masses.

  3. Drained True Triaxial Tests on Aalborg University Sand No 0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praastrup, U.

    and installation techniques for testing sand in the apparatus. The tests have also formed the basis for implementing, testing and modifying a quite complex data collection and control software package. Moreover, some of tests were designed to investigate the anisotropy of the specimens. The optimised techniques......The paper presents the first series of true triaxial tests carried out on air-pluviated unfrozen and frozen specimens of Aalborg University Sand No O. The specimens have been tested in the newly improved version of the Danish rigid boundary true triaxial apparatus to optimise the preparation...... used for preparing the unfrozen and frozen sand specimens are together with the installation of the specimens into the apparatus outlined in terms of a photo gallery. Furthermore, the gallery includes photos showing how to install frozen specimens into a conventional triaxial apparatus....

  4. Electrically tunable photonic true-time-delay line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmenkov, Yuri O; Cruz, José Luis; Díez, Antonio; Andrés, Miguel V

    2010-08-16

    We present a new application of the acousto-optic superlattice modulation of a fiber Bragg grating based on the dynamic phase and group delay properties of this fiber-optic component. We demonstrate a tunable photonic true-time-delay line based on the group delay change of the light reflected from the grating sidebands. The delay is electrically tuned by adjusting the voltage applied to a piezoelectric transducer that generates the acoustic wave propagating along the grating. In our experiments, a true-time delay of 400 ps is continuously adjusted (300 ps within the 3 dB amplitude range of the first sideband), using a 12 cm long uniform grating.

  5. An Explanation of True Dreams: Aristotle and Jung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sanai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The naturalistic explanation of realized dream (or dreams that come true means that this phenomen will be explained regardless of supernatural agents. Aristotle in Parva naturalia and Jung in his works explained dream visionary. In this article by scrutiny on these thinkers’ theory, we will indicate the naturalistic approach to dream that is far- fetched for followers of metaphysics. In spite of this fact that Aristotle and Jung both belongs to different historical contexts, they have common aspects in terms of naturalistic method; in the universal or broad sense of word, but in terms of content both explain the true dream by the term “coincidence” or accidental conformity between objective events and psychological affairs. It also seems that the notion of Neutral monism in Jung is adaptive to Hylomorphism in Aristotle psychology, and this, provides a path for naturalistic approach to dream as one forms of consciousness.

  6. Spontaneous isolated true aneurysms of the brachial artery in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer A. Hirji

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Upper extremity peripheral artery aneurysms are rare, and have been previously reported in children to be associated with congenital malformations and infectious or inflammatory processes. In this case series, we present two unique cases of spontaneous isolated true aneurysms of the brachial artery in two children. Both cases were incidentally found on examination, diagnosed by ultrasonography, and successfully managed by surgical excision and micro-vascular repair with vein grafting.

  7. True Crime: Forbrydelse, fortælling og dom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtofte, Thomas Enemark

    2016-01-01

    De seneste år har budt på en række opsigtsvækkende dokumentarkrimiserier, der har udfordret det amerikanske retssystem. Serierne inviterer os til at tage stilling til skyldsspørgsmål og blande os i debatten om retfærdighed. Angiveligt som følge af true crime-serien Making a Murderer (2015) bliver...

  8. Apparent and true resistant hypertension: definition, prevalence and outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Judd, E; Calhoun, DA

    2014-01-01

    Resistant hypertension, defined as blood pressure (BP) remaining above goal despite the use of ≥3 antihypertensive medications at maximally tolerated doses (one ideally being a diuretic) or BP that requires ≥4 agents to achieve control, has received more attention with increased efforts to improve BP control rates and the emergence of device-based therapies for hypertension. This classically defined resistant group consists of patients with true resistant hypertension, controlled resistant hy...

  9. SEARCHING FOR THE TRUE SELF: THE WAY OF NONDUAL WISDOM

    OpenAIRE

    Danylova, T. V.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. This paper attempts at analyzing the phenomenon of the human self in the Western and Eastern traditions, its dissociation and alienation in the contemporary world, and meditation as a way to the True Self. Methodology. The author used anthropological integrative approach, philosophical hermeneutics, along with transpersonal approach. Theoretical basis and results. To overcome the feelings of loneliness, isolation, and alienation, modern individuals need to break through to the spirit...

  10. Wing motion measurement and aerodynamics of hovering true hoverflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Xiao Lei; Liu, Yan Peng; Sun, Mao

    2011-09-01

    Most hovering insects flap their wings in a horizontal plane (body having a large angle from the horizontal), called `normal hovering'. But some of the best hoverers, e.g. true hoverflies, hover with an inclined stroke plane (body being approximately horizontal). In the present paper, wing and body kinematics of four freely hovering true hoverflies were measured using three-dimensional high-speed video. The measured wing kinematics was used in a Navier-Stokes solver to compute the aerodynamic forces of the insects. The stroke amplitude of the hoverflies was relatively small, ranging from 65 to 85 deg, compared with that of normal hovering. The angle of attack in the downstroke (∼50 deg) was much larger that in the upstroke (∼20 deg), unlike normal-hovering insects, whose downstroke and upstroke angles of attack are not very different. The major part of the weight-supporting force (approximately 86%) was produced in the downstroke and it was contributed by both the lift and the drag of the wing, unlike the normal-hovering case in which the weight-supporting force is approximately equally contributed by the two half-strokes and the lift principle is mainly used to produce the force. The mass-specific power was 38.59-46.3 and 27.5-35.4 W kg(-1) in the cases of 0 and 100% elastic energy storage, respectively. Comparisons with previously published results of a normal-hovering true hoverfly and with results obtained by artificially making the insects' stroke planes horizontal show that for the true hoverflies, the power requirement for inclined stroke-plane hover is only a little (<10%) larger than that of normal hovering.

  11. Precursor experiment for an active true airspeed sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahm, S

    2001-03-15

    The feasibility of an active optical true airspeed sensor was demonstrated with a coherent short-range Doppler lidar. Even at the long wavelength of 10.6 mum , aerosol events at the high altitude of 12, 000 m were measured. A comparison of the line-of-sight velocity obtained by lidar measurements with a conventional five-hole probe on an aircraft showed an excellent coincidence in the average value, although the lidar detected turbulence effects much more sensitively.

  12. True ownership of traditional medicines in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Louw; André Duvenhage

    2017-01-01

    Background Literature postulates that traditional medicines form an important part of modern-day South African healthcare. The belief is that the traditional healer and traditional medicine is a close-knit unit, with the traditional healer as the true owner and manufacturer of traditional medicines. Various studies also postulate that the growth and development of South African traditional medicines are restricted by the pharmaceutical industries and other role players...

  13. Why does the power law for stock price hold?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaizoji, Taisei; Miyano, Michiko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain why the power law for stock price holds. We first show that the complementary cumulative distributions of stock prices follow a power law using a large database assembled from the balance sheets and stock prices of a number of worldwide companies for the period 2004 through 2013. Secondly, we estimate company fundamentals from a simple cross-sectional regression model using three financial indicators-dividends per share, cash flow per share, and book value per share—as explanatory variables for stock price. Thirdly, we demonstrate that the complementary cumulative distributions of fundamentals follow a power law. We find that the power laws for stock prices and for fundamentals hold for the 10-year period of our study, and that the estimated values of the power law exponents are close to unity. Furthermore, we illustrate that the tail distribution of fundamentals closely matches the tail distribution of stock prices. On these grounds, we conclude that the power law for stock price is caused by the power law behavior of the fundamentals.

  14. A Haptic Guided Robotic System for Endoscope Positioning and Holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabuk, Burak; Ceylan, Savas; Anik, Ihsan; Tugasaygi, Mehtap; Kizir, Selcuk

    2015-01-01

    To determine the feasibility, advantages, and disadvantages of using a robot for holding and maneuvering the endoscope in transnasal transsphenoidal surgery. The system used in this study was a Stewart Platform based robotic system that was developed by Kocaeli University Department of Mechatronics Engineering for positioning and holding of endoscope. After the first use on an artificial head model, the system was used on six fresh postmortem bodies that were provided by the Morgue Specialization Department of the Forensic Medicine Institute (Istanbul, Turkey). The setup required for robotic system was easy, the time for registration procedure and setup of the robot takes 15 minutes. The resistance was felt on haptic arm in case of contact or friction with adjacent tissues. The adaptation process was shorter with the mouse to manipulate the endoscope. The endoscopic transsphenoidal approach was achieved with the robotic system. The endoscope was guided to the sphenoid ostium with the help of the robotic arm. This robotic system can be used in endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery as an endoscope positioner and holder. The robot is able to change the position easily with the help of an assistant and prevents tremor, and provides a better field of vision for work.

  15. FAIR true-FISP perfusion imaging of the thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraml, Christina; Boss, Andreas; Martirosian, Petros; Schwenzer, Nina F; Claussen, Claus D; Schick, Fritz

    2007-07-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of quantitative perfusion MRI of the thyroid gland using an arterial spin labeling (ASL) method. An ASL technique with flow-sensitive alternating inversion-recovery (FAIR) spin preparation and a true fast imaging in the steady state (TrueFISP) signal readout strategy was implemented on a 1.5T whole-body unit. Anatomical and perfusion imaging of the thyroid gland was performed in eight healthy volunteers and one patient with functioning adenoma. Quantitative perfusion maps were calculated using the extended Bloch equations. In all subjects the perfusion images showed diagnostic image quality. The mean examination time was 24 minutes for multiplanar perfusion imaging of the entire thyroid gland. Individual perfusion values ranged between 341 +/- 91 and 640 +/- 90 mL/100 g/minute, with a mean perfusion of 461 +/- 90 mL/100 g/minute. The functioning adenoma showed markedly reduced perfusion compared to normal thyroidal parenchyma. No perfusion was noticeable inside four detected thyroid cysts. Quantitative ASL perfusion imaging of the thyroid gland using a FAIR-TrueFISP sequence leads to perfusion maps that may provide important information for assessing thyroid gland pathologies and monitoring therapeutic treatment. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Key Ecological Roles for Zoosporic True Fungi in Aquatic Habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Frank H; Scholz, Bettina; Jephcott, Thomas G; van Ogtrop, Floris F; Henderson, Linda; Lilje, Osu; Kittelmann, Sandra; Macarthur, Deborah J

    2017-03-01

    The diversity and abundance of zoosporic true fungi have been analyzed recently using fungal sequence libraries and advances in molecular methods, such as high-throughput sequencing. This review focuses on four evolutionary primitive true fungal phyla: the Aphelidea, Chytridiomycota, Neocallimastigomycota, and Rosellida (Cryptomycota), most species of which are not polycentric or mycelial (filamentous), rather they tend to be primarily monocentric (unicellular). Zoosporic fungi appear to be both abundant and diverse in many aquatic habitats around the world, with abundance often exceeding other fungal phyla in these habitats, and numerous novel genetic sequences identified. Zoosporic fungi are able to survive extreme conditions, such as high and extremely low pH; however, more work remains to be done. They appear to have important ecological roles as saprobes in decomposition of particulate organic substrates, pollen, plant litter, and dead animals; as parasites of zooplankton and algae; as parasites of vertebrate animals (such as frogs); and as symbionts in the digestive tracts of mammals. Some chytrids cause economically important diseases of plants and animals. They regulate sizes of phytoplankton populations. Further metagenomics surveys of aquatic ecosystems are expected to enlarge our knowledge of the diversity of true zoosporic fungi. Coupled with studies on their functional ecology, we are moving closer to unraveling the role of zoosporic fungi in carbon cycling and the impact of climate change on zoosporic fungal populations.

  17. How Fuzzy-Trace Theory Predicts True and False Memories for Words, Sentences, and Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Corbin, Jonathan C.; Weldon, Rebecca B.; Brainerd, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    Fuzzy-trace theory posits independent verbatim and gist memory processes, a distinction that has implications for such applied topics as eyewitness testimony. This distinction between precise, literal verbatim memory and meaning-based, intuitive gist accounts for memory paradoxes including dissociations between true and false memory, false memories outlasting true memories, and developmental increases in false memory. We provide an overview of fuzzy-trace theory, and, using mathematical modeling, also present results demonstrating verbatim and gist memory in true and false recognition of narrative sentences and inferences. Results supported fuzzy-trace theory's dual-process view of memory: verbatim memory was relied on to reject meaning-consistent, but unpresented, sentences (via recollection rejection). However, verbatim memory was often not retrieved, and gist memory supported acceptance of these sentences (via similarity judgment and phantom recollection). Thus, mathematical models of words can be extended to explain memory for complex stimuli, such as narratives, the kind of memory interrogated in law. PMID:27042402

  18. Assessment of reproducibility and stability of different breath-hold maneuvres by dynamic MRI: comparison between healthy adults and patients with pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plathow, Christian; Ley, Sebastian; Zaporozhan, Julia; Puderbach, Michael; Eichinger, Monika; Zuna, Ivan; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Schoebinger, Max; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Gruenig, Ekkehard

    2006-01-01

    To assess the stability and reproducibility of different breath-hold levels in healthy volunteers and patients using dynamic MRI (dMRI). In ten healthy volunteers and ten patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) and normal lung function craniocaudal intrathoracic distances (CCD) were measured during inspiratory and expiratory breath-hold (15 s) (in healthy volunteers additionally at a self-chosen mid-inspiratory breath-hold) using dMRI (trueFISP, three images/s). To evaluate stability and intraobserver reproducibility of the different breath-hold levels, CCDs, time-distance curves, confidence intervals (CIs), Mann-Witney U test and regression equations were calculated. In healthy volunteers there was a substantial decrease of the CCD during the inspiratory breath-hold in contrast to the expiratory breath-hold. The CI at inspiration was 2.84±1.28 in the right and 2.1±0.68 in the left hemithorax. At expiration the CI was 2.54±1.18 and 2.8±1.48. Patients were significantly less able to hold their breath at inspiration than controls (P<0.05). In patients CI was 4.53±4.06 and 3.46±2.21 at inspiration and 4.45±4.23 and 4.76±3.73 at expiration. Intraobserver variability showed no significant differences either in patients or in healthy subjects. Reproducibility was significantly lower at a self-chosen breath-hold level of the healthy volunteers. DMRI is able to differentiate stability and reproducibility of different breath-hold levels. Expiratory breath-hold proved to be more stable than inspiratory breath-hold in healthy volunteers and patients. (orig.)

  19. Assessment of reproducibility and stability of different breath-hold maneuvres by dynamic MRI: comparison between healthy adults and patients with pulmonary hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plathow, Christian [German Cancer Research Center Heidelberg, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Ley, Sebastian; Zaporozhan, Julia; Puderbach, Michael; Eichinger, Monika; Zuna, Ivan; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [German Cancer Research Center Heidelberg, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Schoebinger, Max; Meinzer, Hans-Peter [German Cancer Research Center Heidelberg, Department of Medical and Biological Informatics, Heidelberg (Germany); Gruenig, Ekkehard [University of Heidelberg, Department of Internal Medicine III, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-01-01

    To assess the stability and reproducibility of different breath-hold levels in healthy volunteers and patients using dynamic MRI (dMRI). In ten healthy volunteers and ten patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) and normal lung function craniocaudal intrathoracic distances (CCD) were measured during inspiratory and expiratory breath-hold (15 s) (in healthy volunteers additionally at a self-chosen mid-inspiratory breath-hold) using dMRI (trueFISP, three images/s). To evaluate stability and intraobserver reproducibility of the different breath-hold levels, CCDs, time-distance curves, confidence intervals (CIs), Mann-Witney U test and regression equations were calculated. In healthy volunteers there was a substantial decrease of the CCD during the inspiratory breath-hold in contrast to the expiratory breath-hold. The CI at inspiration was 2.84{+-}1.28 in the right and 2.1{+-}0.68 in the left hemithorax. At expiration the CI was 2.54{+-}1.18 and 2.8{+-}1.48. Patients were significantly less able to hold their breath at inspiration than controls (P<0.05). In patients CI was 4.53{+-}4.06 and 3.46{+-}2.21 at inspiration and 4.45{+-}4.23 and 4.76{+-}3.73 at expiration. Intraobserver variability showed no significant differences either in patients or in healthy subjects. Reproducibility was significantly lower at a self-chosen breath-hold level of the healthy volunteers. DMRI is able to differentiate stability and reproducibility of different breath-hold levels. Expiratory breath-hold proved to be more stable than inspiratory breath-hold in healthy volunteers and patients. (orig.)

  20. On the form of species–area relationships in habitat islands and true islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthews, Thomas J.; Guilhaumon, François; Triantis, Kostas A.

    2016-01-01

    and c vary between different island types. Location: Global. Methods: We used an information theoretic approach to compare the fit of 20 ISAR models to 207 habitat island datasets. Model performance was ranked according to pre-set criteria, including metrics of generality and efficiency. We also fitted......, and was the highest ranked model overall. In general, the more complex models performed badly. Average z-values were significantly lower for habitat island datasets than for true islands, and were higher for mountaintop and urban habitat islands than for other habitat island types. Average c-values were significantly...... multimodel comparisons demonstrated the nonlinear implementation of the power model to be the best overall model and thus to be a sensible choice for general use. As the z-value of the log–log power model varied in relation to ecological and geographical properties of the study systems, caution should...

  1. Within-holding prevalence of sheep classical scrapie in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Río Vilas Víctor J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from the Compulsory Scrapie Flocks Scheme (CSFS, part of the compulsory eradication measures for the control of scrapie in the EU, have been used to estimate the within-holding prevalence of classical scrapie in Great Britain (GB. Specifically data from one of the testing routes within the CSFS have been used; the initial cull (IC, whereby two options can be applied: the whole flock cull option by which the entire flock is depopulated, and the genotyping and cull of certain genotypes. Results Between April 2005 and September 2007, 25,316 suitable samples, submitted from 411 flocks in 213 scrapie-affected holdings in Great Britain, were tested for scrapie. The predicted within-holding prevalence for the initial cull was 0.65% (95% CI: 0.55–0.75. For the whole cull option was 0.47% (95% CI: 0.32–0.68 and for the genotype and cull or mixed option (both options applied in different flocks of the same holding, the predicted within-holding prevalence was 0.7% (95% CI: 0.6–0.83. There were no significant differences in the within-flock prevalence between countries (England, Scotland and Wales or between CSFS holdings by the surveillance stream that detected the index case. The number of CSFS flocks on a holding did not affect the overall within-holding prevalence of classical scrapie. Conclusion These estimates are important in the discussion of the epidemiological implications of the current EU testing programme of scrapie-affected flocks and to inform epidemiological and mathematical models. Furthermore, these estimates may provide baseline data to assist the design of future surveillance activities and control policies with the aim to increase their efficiency.

  2. True or Not True.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Joyce I.

    1993-01-01

    Ascertained seven- and eight-year-olds' understanding of advertising, the role of the buyer and seller, and the role of real estate agents. Interviewed an experimental group of students who had been exposed, and a control group of students who had not been exposed, to classroom presentations concerning these topics. (MDM)

  3. True to Yourself Leading a Values-Based Business

    CERN Document Server

    Albion, Mark

    2006-01-01

    How do you build the kind of company you've always wanted to work in--one that serves people and the planet while being financially successful, too? What do you do when you believe that business should serve the common good, but everyday business pressures--meeting payroll, battling competition, keeping customers and investors happy--are at a fever pitch? Leading a small business when you measure success more broadly than with a single financial bottom line is no easy task. True to Yourself is a practical guide to doing just that. It provides tools you can use to combine profit with purpose, m

  4. Arendt on Hobbes as the true philosopher of the bourgeoisie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Correia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In The Origins of Totalitarianism, when examine the elements and origins of total domination, Hannah Arendt devotes special attention to the political emancipation of the bourgeoisie. For Arendt imperialism is the truth of the bourgeois understanding of politics, according to which politics should not be more than a well-organized police force. The truth of bourgeois politics is the reduction of politics to mere force. Our purpose is to reconstruct this movement from the vantage point of arendtian appropriation of Hobbes, "the true philosopher of the bourgeoisie."

  5. Holding back, intimacy, and psychological and relationship outcomes among couples coping with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon L; Kissane, David; Zaider, Talia; Kashy, Deborah; Lee, David; Heckman, Carolyn; Virtue, Shannon Myers

    2015-10-01

    The present study evaluated intimacy as a mechanism for the effects of holding back sharing concerns about cancer on couples' psychological distress, well-being, and marital satisfaction using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM), and evaluated 2 possible moderators of these associations: the number of patient and spouse cancer concerns. We had 139 men treated for localized prostate cancer in the past year and their spouses complete surveys about holding back sharing cancer concerns, intimacy, distress, and relationship satisfaction, as well as patient and spouse cancer concerns. APIM-indicated that the association between holding back sharing concerns, and patient and spouse distress, well-being, and relationship satisfaction could be partially accounted for by their influence on patient and spouse perceptions of relationship intimacy. The number of cancer concerns did not moderate the mediational model. Holding back has strong associations with both partners' well-being and distress. Holding back sharing concerns was particularly detrimental for couples' intimacy and relationship satisfaction. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Sports-related lung injury during breath-hold diving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Mijacika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of people practising recreational breath-hold diving is constantly growing, thereby increasing the need for knowledge of the acute and chronic effects such a sport could have on the health of participants. Breath-hold diving is potentially dangerous, mainly because of associated extreme environmental factors such as increased hydrostatic pressure, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypothermia and strenuous exercise. In this article we focus on the effects of breath-hold diving on pulmonary function. Respiratory symptoms have been reported in almost 25% of breath-hold divers after repetitive diving sessions. Acutely, repetitive breath-hold diving may result in increased transpulmonary capillary pressure, leading to noncardiogenic oedema and/or alveolar haemorrhage. Furthermore, during a breath-hold dive, the chest and lungs are compressed by the increasing pressure of water. Rapid changes in lung air volume during descent or ascent can result in a lung injury known as pulmonary barotrauma. Factors that may influence individual susceptibility to breath-hold diving-induced lung injury range from underlying pulmonary or cardiac dysfunction to genetic predisposition. According to the available data, breath-holding does not result in chronic lung injury. However, studies of large populations of breath-hold divers are necessary to firmly exclude long-term lung damage.

  7. True resistance to local anesthetics, a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noyan Ashraf M.A

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: We report a case with apparent resistance to local anesthetics. While regional anesthetics failure are often attributed to technical failure, the clinical presentation and medical history of this patient suggests a true resistance to local anesthetics. Case report: A 28 years old man was scheduled for elective orthopedic surgery for right sided tibial bone fracture, and decision of spinal anesthesia was made. There was a questionable history of multiple prior episodes of local anesthetic unresponsiveness (Interscalan block, local infiltration for lipoma resection and dental surgery. Spinal anesthesia was performed and sensory or motor blockade was not obtained despite any evidence of technical problems. The surgical procedure performed under general anesthesia and skin analgesia (local infiltration of lidocaine 2% and bupivacaine 0.5% to forearm, did not achieve, the day after surgery. Conclusion: While the failure rate of spinal anesthesia has been shown range from 4 to 13% and is often attributed to technical failure, this particular case showed a true resistance to local anesthetics.

  8. [Intel random number generator-based true random number generator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Shen, Hong

    2004-09-01

    To establish a true random number generator on the basis of certain Intel chips. The random numbers were acquired by programming using Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 via register reading from the random number generator (RNG) unit of an Intel 815 chipset-based computer with Intel Security Driver (ISD). We tested the generator with 500 random numbers in NIST FIPS 140-1 and X(2) R-Squared test, and the result showed that the random number it generated satisfied the demand of independence and uniform distribution. We also compared the random numbers generated by Intel RNG-based true random number generator and those from the random number table statistically, by using the same amount of 7500 random numbers in the same value domain, which showed that the SD, SE and CV of Intel RNG-based random number generator were less than those of the random number table. The result of u test of two CVs revealed no significant difference between the two methods. Intel RNG-based random number generator can produce high-quality random numbers with good independence and uniform distribution, and solves some problems with random number table in acquisition of the random numbers.

  9. Achieving moral, high quality, affordable medical care in America through a true free market

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKalip, David

    2016-01-01

    The basis of a just and moral economic model for health care is examined in the context of Catholic social teaching. The performance of the current model of “central economic planning” in medicine is evaluated in terms of the core principles of the social doctrine of the Catholic Church and compared to freedom-based economic models. It is clear that the best way to respect and serve human dignity, the common good, subsidiarity, and solidarity in medicine is through the establishment of a true, free-market health economy. Lay Summary: This article reviews the impact of recent healthcare reforms as well as traditional “third party payment” models for healthcare financing in America (insurance). Impact on patients and doctors are evaluated in the context of Catholic social doctrine and the Catechism. The many shortcomings and negative consequences of an economy planned centrally by government are compared to the benefits of a true free-market medical economy with empowered individuals. The analysis shows that interference in the patient–physician relationship and the centrally planned medical economy itself violates Catholic teachings, harms patients and doctors, and create morally evil outcomes and economic structures. PMID:28392591

  10. How Important Is a Reproducible Breath Hold for Deep Inspiration Breath Hold Breast Radiation Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiant, David; Wentworth, Stacy; Liu, Han; Sintay, Benjamin

    2015-11-15

    Deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) for left-sided breast cancer has been shown to reduce heart dose. Surface imaging helps to ensure accurate breast positioning, but it does not guarantee a reproducible breath hold (BH) at DIBH treatments. We examine the effects of variable BH positions for DIBH treatments. Twenty-five patients who underwent free breathing (FB) and DIBH scans were reviewed. Four plans were created for each patient: FB, DIBH, FB_DIBH (the DIBH plans were copied to the FB images and recalculated, and image registration was based on breast tissue), and P_DIBH (a partial BH with the heart shifted midway between the FB and DIBH positions). The FB_DIBH plans give a "worst-case" scenario for surface imaging DIBH, where the breast is aligned by surface imaging but the patient is not holding their breath. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were used to compare the dose metrics. The DIBH plans gave lower heart dose and comparable breast coverage versus FB in all cases. The FB_DIBH plans showed no significant difference versus FB plans for breast coverage, mean heart dose, or maximum heart dose (P≥.10). The mean heart dose differed between FB_DIBH and FB by <2 Gy for all cases, and the maximum heart dose differed by <2 Gy for 21 cases. The P_DIBH plans showed significantly lower mean heart dose than FB (P<.01). The mean heart doses for the P_DIBH plans were

  11. Brain responses to emotional stimuli during breath holding and hypoxia: an approach based on the independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menicucci, Danilo; Artoni, Fiorenzo; Bedini, Remo; Pingitore, Alessandro; Passera, Mirko; Landi, Alberto; L'Abbate, Antonio; Sebastiani, Laura; Gemignani, Angelo

    2014-11-01

    Voluntary breath holding represents a physiological model of hypoxia. It consists of two phases of oxygen saturation dynamics: an initial slow decrease (normoxic phase) followed by a rapid drop (hypoxic phase) during which transitory neurological symptoms as well as slight impairment of integrated cerebral functions, such as emotional processing, can occur. This study investigated how breath holding affects emotional processing. To this aim we characterized the modulation of event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by emotional-laden pictures as a function of breath holding time course. We recorded ERPs during free breathing and breath holding performed in air by elite apnea divers. We modeled brain responses during free breathing with four independent components distributed over different brain areas derived by an approach based on the independent component analysis (ICASSO). We described ERP changes during breath holding by estimating amplitude scaling and time shifting of the same components (component adaptation analysis). Component 1 included the main EEG features of emotional processing, had a posterior localization and did not change during breath holding; component 2, localized over temporo-frontal regions, was present only in unpleasant stimuli responses and decreased during breath holding, with no differences between breath holding phases; component 3, localized on the fronto-central midline regions, showed phase-independent breath holding decreases; component 4, quite widespread but with frontal prevalence, decreased in parallel with the hypoxic trend. The spatial localization of these components was compatible with a set of processing modules that affects the automatic and intentional controls of attention. The reduction of unpleasant-related ERP components suggests that the evaluation of aversive and/or possibly dangerous situations might be altered during breath holding.

  12. Influence of the hold period on the fuel rod behaviour during a power ramp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourreau, S.; Lansiart, S.; Couffin, P.; Verdeau, C.; Decroix, G.M.; Grandjean, M.-C.; Hugot, H.; Mermaz, F.; Van Schel, E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents three examples of power ramp tests performed in the OSIRIS experimental reactor, located at Saclay (France). The rods tested during these experiments stem from the same segmented 'mother' rod, pre-irradiated for two cycles in a French PWR. They underwent very similar power transient conditions, except for the hold time at Ramp Terminal Level (RTL) - respectively 41.5 kW/m (J12/2), 40.7 kW/m (J12/4) and 39.5 kW/m (J12/5) for RTL, but zero (J12/2), 16 minutes (J12/4) and 12 hours (J12/5) for the hold time at RTL. No failure was detected for any of the three experiments despite the relatively high mechanical stress applied to the cladding in the case of J12/2. Moreover, although no hold time was maintained at RTL, a permanent deformation clearly appeared on the clad during the power transient. An analysis of the cladding deformation has also been undertaken concerning the J12/2, J12/4 and J12/5 experiments. This study was realized by carrying out post-calculations of the three experiments with a 2D fuel modelling code using the finite element method. The computations satisfactorily reproduce the influence of hold time on the cladding deformation during the power transients, especially for the J12/2 and J12/4 experiments with hold times enclosing the failure times experimentally observed for power ramp tests. For the hold time of 12 hours, the micrographic observations of the fuel, compared to the case of the 16 minutes hold time, support the hypothesis of weak but noticeable gaseous swelling. (author)

  13. Physiology of static breath holding in elite apneists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Anthony R; Drvis, Ivan; Dujic, Zeljko; MacLeod, David B; Ainslie, Philip N

    2018-03-07

    What is the topic of this review? This review provides an up-to-date assessment of the physiology involved with extreme static dry-land breath holding in trained apneists. What advances does it highlight? We specifically highlight the recent findings involved with the cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and metabolic function during a maximal breath hold in elite apneists. Breath hold related activities have been performed for centuries, but only recently within the last ∼30 years has it emerged as an increasingly popular competitive sport. In apnea sport, people compete in disciplines relating to underwater distances or simply maximal breath hold duration - with the current (oxygen un-supplemented) static breath hold record at 11:35 min. Remarkably, many ultra-elite apneists are able to supress respiratory urges to the point where consciousness fundamentally limits a breath hold duration. Here, arterial oxygen saturations as low as ∼50% have been reported. In such cases, oxygen conservation to maintain cerebral functioning is critical, where responses ascribed to the mammalian dive reflex - e.g., sympathetically mediated peripheral vaconstriction, and vagally mediated bradycardia - are central. In defence of maintaining global cerebral oxygen delivery during prolonged breath holds, the cerebral blood flow may increase by ∼100% from resting values. Interestingly, near the termination of prolonged dry static breath holds, recent studies also indicate that reductions in the cerebral oxidative metabolism can occur, likely attributable to the extreme hypercapnia and irrespective of the hypoxemia. In this review we highlight and discuss the recent data on the cardiovascular, metabolic and particularly cerebrovascular function in competitive apneists performing maximal static breath holds. The physiological adaptation and maladaptation with regular breath hold training are also summarized, and future research areas in this unique physiological field are highlighted

  14. Multiple true-false items: a comparison of scoring algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Felicitas-Maria; Lörwald, Andrea Carolin; Bauer, Daniel; Nouns, Zineb Miriam; Krebs, René; Guttormsen, Sissel; Fischer, Martin R; Huwendiek, Sören

    2017-11-30

    Multiple true-false (MTF) items are a widely used supplement to the commonly used single-best answer (Type A) multiple choice format. However, an optimal scoring algorithm for MTF items has not yet been established, as existing studies yielded conflicting results. Therefore, this study analyzes two questions: What is the optimal scoring algorithm for MTF items regarding reliability, difficulty index and item discrimination? How do the psychometric characteristics of different scoring algorithms compare to those of Type A questions used in the same exams? We used data from 37 medical exams conducted in 2015 (998 MTF and 2163 Type A items overall). Using repeated measures analyses of variance (rANOVA), we compared reliability, difficulty and item discrimination of different scoring algorithms for MTF with four answer options and Type A. Scoring algorithms for MTF were dichotomous scoring (DS) and two partial credit scoring algorithms, PS 50 where examinees receive half a point if more than half of true/false ratings were marked correctly and one point if all were marked correctly, and PS 1/n where examinees receive a quarter of a point for every correct true/false rating. The two partial scoring algorithms showed significantly higher reliabilities (α PS1/n  = 0.75; α PS50  = 0.75; α DS  = 0.70, α A  = 0.72), which corresponds to fewer items needed for a reliability of 0.8 (n PS1/n  = 74; n PS50  = 75; n DS  = 103, n A  = 87), and higher discrimination indices (r PS1/n  = 0.33; r PS50  = 0.33; r DS  = 0.30; r A  = 0.28) than dichotomous scoring and Type A. Items scored with DS tend to be difficult (p DS  = 0.50), whereas items scored with PS 1/n become easy (p PS1/n  = 0.82). PS 50 and Type A cover the whole range, from easy to difficult items (p PS50  = 0.66; p A  = 0.73). Partial credit scoring leads to better psychometric results than dichotomous scoring. PS 50 covers the range from easy to difficult items better than PS 1/n

  15. A Reactive and Cycle-True IP Emulator for MPSoC Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahadevan, Shankar; Angiolini, Federico; Sparsø, Jens

    2008-01-01

    The design of MultiProcessor Systems-on-Chip (MPSoC) emphasizes intellectual-property (IP)-based communication-centric approaches. Therefore, for the optimization of the MPSoC interconnect, the designer must develop traffic models that realistically capture the application behavior as executing...... on the IP core. In this paper, we introduce a Reactive IP Emulator (RIPE) that enables an effective emulation of the IP-core behavior in multiple environments, including bit and cycle-true simulation. The RIPE is built as a multithreaded abstract instruction-set processor, and it can generate reactive...

  16. Feedback-controlled diffusion: From self-trapping to true self-avoiding walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, B.M.; Trimper, S.; Schulz, M.

    2005-01-01

    We study the asymptotic behavior of a Brownian particle under the influence of a dynamical feedback by numerical simulations and analytical considerations. The feedback is controlled by a memory coupling of strength λ. Whereas a negative memory strength yields a true self avoiding walk, a positive memory leads to a self-trapping of the particle. The localization is manifested by a constant mean square displacement in the long time limit which appears after an initial diffusive regime. The probability distribution function of the trapping distance shows an exponential decay. The numerical simulations are compared with an analytical modeling

  17. Thermodynamic imbalance, surface energy, and segregation reveal the true origin of nanotube synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, S Noor

    2012-03-02

    Extensive analyses of thermodynamic imbalance, surface energy, and segregation of nanotubes on nanoparticle surfaces are performed. A model for surface energy i developed. In addition, nanotube growth both by vapor-phase and solid-phase mechanisms is described. Segregation of the nanotube species to the periphery of the nanoparticle, the creation of an amorphous shell at this periphery, a droplet created in this shell, and the mediation of this droplet for supersaturation and nucleation of the nanotube species may be the true causes of nanotube growth. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. From sincerity to authenticity: adolescents' views of the "true self".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, C

    1987-12-01

    This study examined age-related trends in adolescents' view of sincerity and of honesty towards oneself. Subjects were 84 high school students in grades 8 to 12 (age range 12-18). Semistructured interviews with preplanned probes were used and analyzed using content categories reflecting different emphases on disclosing "facts" versus internal events (for sincerity) and on recognizing conflicts with others versus recognizing internal divisions (for honesty towards oneself). Results indicate clear age trends on these two dimensions and a close association between them. The age trends suggest that for the younger adolescent, being "genuine" consists mainly in disclosing facts that are in principle accessible to others. For the older adolescent, being genuine more frequently implies recognizing and expressing one's "true" nature. The findings are discussed both in light of recent research on the development of self-understanding and as challenging traditional paradigms of studying the self.

  19. The hyponatramia of multiple myeloma is true and not pseudohyponatramia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Jeffrey; Fredman, Brian

    2006-01-01

    The hyponatremia found in multiple myeloma and which is associated with a reduced anion gap (ag) is considered to be pseudohyponatremia due to the displacement of water by the high globulin content in the blood. Serum proteins participate in acid-base balance. Stewart and other authors in their approach to acid-base interpretation acknowledge electrical neutrality as a fundamental characteristic of body fluids. Furthermore, they have shown that both the strong ion difference (SID) and protein, specifically, negatively-charged albumin affect hydrogen ion concentration (H(+)) in the body--i.e., for example an increase in SID leads to a decrease in H(+) and a decrease in albumin leads to a similar effect. The M proteins of multiple myeloma are positively charged. As a result they cause a decrease in sodium levels and the anion gap and thus a true hyponatremia.

  20. Contact Eczema Caused by True Teak (Tectona grandis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, H. K.

    1964-01-01

    A follow-up study of a previous epidemiological investigation in a furniture factory concerning allergic contact eczema caused by true teak (Tectona grandis) clearly shows that a good educational campaign associated with specific and general prophylactic measures are able to control occupational dermatoses. At the first investigation 20·5% of the workers had allergic contact eczema and/or severe itching whereas only 8·3% suffered from the same complaints on re-examination. The different prophylactic measures previously recommended had been taken. Patch tests with various teak extracts were made on 13 workers sensitized to teak; these showed that lapachol (a derivative of naphthoquinone) is one of the sensitizing agents in teak wood. Furthermore, allergic reactions were obtained in seven of these workers when Jacaranda wood dust containing lapachol was used as the test substance. PMID:14106137

  1. Evaluation Method of Collision Risk by Using True Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayama Imazu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to develop a useful application to use big data like as AIS for safety and efficiency of ship operation. AIS is very useful system to collect targets information, but this information is not effective use yet. The evaluation method of collision risk is one of the cause disturb. Usually the collision risk of ship is evaluated by the value of the Closest Point of Approach (CPA which is related to a relative motion. So, it becomes difficult to find out a safety pass in a congested water. Here, Line of Predicted Collision (LOPC and Obstacle Zone by Target (OZT for evaluation of collision risk are introduced, these values are related to a true motion and it became visible of dangerous place, so it will make easy to find out a safety pass in a congested water.

  2. Holdings of the Federal German Government in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The report provides an overview of the direct and more important indirect holdings of the Federal German Government and its special assets ERP, Compensation Fund, Federal Mail and Federal Railway. Part A provides a total survey of the number of government holdings. For the direct holdings of the Federal Government and its special assets the shares in nominal capital and registered foundation capital, number of employees and dividend on profits are presented. In Parts B to M, the narrative parts, the most important holdings are reported on more in detail (sphere of activities, economic development, composition of the corporate bodies). The listing order does not reflect any order of importance. The following part N contains alphabetic indexes. Indexes I and II list all the direct holdings of the Federal Government and its special assets irrespective of the nominal capital volume and share of holdings. In index III, are listed only companies with corporate activites and a nominal capital of at least 100.000 German Marks of which the Federal Government and/or its special assets hold directly or indirectly at least 25 percent. Holdings of these undertakings of which the Federal Government does not have majority ownership, and which are not dependent on it under the regulations governing shareholdings either, are not considered. (orig.) [de

  3. Acute effects of cannabis on breath-holding duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Metrik, Jane

    2016-08-01

    Distress intolerance (an individual's perceived or actual inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states) is associated with cannabis use. It is unknown whether a biobehavioral index of distress intolerance, breath-holding duration, is acutely influenced (increased or decreased) by cannabis. Such information may further inform understanding of the expression of psychological or physiological distress postcannabis use. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7%-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed duration of breath holding. Participants (n = 88; 65.9% male) were nontreatment-seeking frequent cannabis users who smoked placebo or active THC cigarette on two separate study days and completed a breath-holding task postsmoking. Controlling for baseline breath-holding duration and participant sex, THC produced significantly shorter breath-holding durations relative to placebo. There was a significant interaction of drug administration × frequency of cannabis use, such that THC decreased breath-holding time among less frequent but not among more frequent users. Findings indicate that cannabis may exacerbate distress intolerance (via shorter breath-holding durations). As compared to less frequent cannabis users, frequent users display tolerance to cannabis' acute effects including increased ability to tolerate respiratory distress when holding breath. Objective measures of distress intolerance are sensitive to contextual factors such as acute drug intoxication, and may inform the link between cannabis use and the expression of psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. A pacemaker for asystole in breath-holding spells

    OpenAIRE

    Legge, Leah M; Kantoch, Michal J; Seshia, Shashi S; Soni, Reeni

    2002-01-01

    Two cases of young children with frequent severe breath-holding spells complicated by prolonged asystole and seizures are reported. A ventricular pacemaker was implanted in each child, and both have subsequently remained free of syncope, although they continue to exhibit breath-holding behaviour.

  5. Korean Investment in EU through Holding Companies: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Bong Lee

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available When transnational enterprises set subsidiary companies in certain area, their major aim is to invest indirectly through the holding companies which hold invested share. Especially, because of the geographical neighborhood and economic integration, investing by holding companies is common in Europe. In Europe, taking full advantage of holding company is out of the following two reasons. Firstly, the efficiency and flexibility of the manage strategy of a group could be elevated by making full use of the holding company. Secondly, the transnational enterprises have the possibility of flexible management at the tax strategy level. Recently, the Korean companies are making the best use of holding companies when they are Marching into the EU. In the year 1996, group K purchased 8 enterprises of a certain industry section of B, a German company, setting holding companies in Germany. The analysis result of the case shows that the manage efficiency could be risen and the taxation could be reduced by way of making use of holding companies. As to the Korean investment efficiency of overseas indirect investment in EU, this thesis brought forward a blueprint about integrating the local companies.

  6. PBL og de sammensatte hold på kandidatuddannelser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engen, Mie; Fallov, Mia Arp; Jensen, Rune Hagel Skaarup

    Denne rapport omhandler pædagogiske udfordringer og muligheder i Aalborgs Problembaserede Læringstilgang (PBL), når den omsættes til pædagogisk og didaktisk handling på kandidatuddannelser med sammensatte hold. Sammensatte hold betyder i denne sammenhæng kandidatuddannelser, hvor de optagne stude...

  7. Course holding by cyclists and moped riders. (Revised version).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godhelp, J. & Wouters, P.I.J.

    1980-01-01

    Course holding by cyclists and moped riders includes both steering alongside a course and stabilising the vehicle. Inability to hold course may lead to conflicts with other road users. To design safe bicycle and moped facilities and to consider the safety of those existing, knowledge about

  8. Evaluation of Manometric Measures during Tongue-Hold Swallows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Witte, Ulrike; Gumbley, Freya; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Based on visual inspection, prior research documented increased movement of the posterior pharyngeal wall in healthy volunteers during tongue-hold swallows. This manometric study investigated the immediate effects of the tongue-hold maneuver on pharyngeal peak pressure generation, duration of pressure generation, and pressure slope…

  9. 12 CFR 925.22 - Adjustments in stock holdings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustments in stock holdings. 925.22 Section... ASSOCIATES MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.22 Adjustments in stock holdings. (a) Adjustment in general. A Bank may from time to time increase or decrease the amount of stock any member is required to...

  10. A pacemaker for asystole in breath-holding spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, Leah M; Kantoch, Michal J; Seshia, Shashi S; Soni, Reeni

    2002-01-01

    Two cases of young children with frequent severe breath-holding spells complicated by prolonged asystole and seizures are reported. A ventricular pacemaker was implanted in each child, and both have subsequently remained free of syncope, although they continue to exhibit breath-holding behaviour. PMID:20046299

  11. 7 CFR 981.52 - Holding requirement and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Holding requirement and delivery. 981.52 Section 981.52 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... delivery. Each handler shall, at all times, hold in his possession or under his control, in proper storage...

  12. 7 CFR 993.57 - Holding requirement and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Holding requirement and delivery. 993.57 Section 993... delivery. Each handler shall at all times, hold, in his possession or under his control, in proper storage... require that such delivery consist of natural condition prunes or it may arrange for such delivery to...

  13. The True Ponte Osteotomy: By the One Who Developed It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, Alberto; Orlando, Giuseppe; Siccardi, Gian Luigi

    2018-01-01

    Technique and applications. To define the anatomy, biomechanics, indications, and surgical technique of the true Ponte osteotomy. The Ponte osteotomy, originally developed for thoracic kyphosis, was the first one to obtain posterior shortening of the thoracic spine, maintaining the anterior column load-sharing capacity. It has become a widely applied technique in various types of spine deformities and a frequent topic of presentations at meetings and in scientific articles. Several of them offer unquestionable evidence of an incorrect execution, with consequently distorted outcomes and erroneous conclusions. A clearing up became essential. Our original experience is based on a series of 240 patients with thoracic hyperkyphosis operated in the years 1969-2015, at first with a standard posterior Harrington technique and then by using the Ponte osteotomy with different instrumentations. A series of 78 of them, operated in the years 1987-1997, who had Ponte osteotomies at every level, is presented. The average preoperative kyphosis has been corrected from 80° (range 61°-102°) to 31° (range 15°-50°) by a substantial posterior shortening. A number of publications use the term Ponte osteotomy loosely for by far incomplete resections and mixing it up with Smith-Petersen's osteotomy. The true Ponte osteotomy is capable of producing marked flexibility in extension, flexion and rotation, justifying its wide use in thoracic deformities, mainly in scoliosis. An exact performance of the osteotomy with adequate bony resections, including the laminae, is an absolute condition to take full advantage of its properties. Level IV, therapeutic study. Copyright © 2017 Scoliosis Research Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid True Polar Wander Oscillations Preserved In Continuous Orosirian Strata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, R. N.; Hoffman, P. F.; Brenner, A.; Xu, X.; Evans, D. A.; Bowring, S. A.; Bleeker, W.

    2014-12-01

    Previous paleomagnetic study of the Orosirian (2050-1800 Ma) Great Slave Supergroup, well exposed on islands in Great Slave Lake on the southeastern margin of the Slave craton, revealed evidence of a regularly reversing, or oscillatory, apparent polar wander path. The paleogeographic utility of paleopoles from the Great Slave Supergroup has been brought into question owing to the possibility of vertical-axis rotations associated with the McDonald transcurrent fault array, but structural corrections can be applied. In a high-resolution paleomagnetic re-sampling of portions of the Great Slave Supergroup, concentrating on the Pethei and Christie Bay Groups in particular, we demonstrate systematic and correlative shifts in declination within structurally uniform homoclinal sections. Positive fold tests further substantiate the primary nature of the paleomagnetic oscillations. Smooth, albeit rapid, declination changes preserved within and between our Great Slave Supergroup sections cannot be trivially explained by structural rotation. True polar wander oscillations (expressed as declination variation locally) may be used to correlate Orosirian strata regionally and globally. Geochronological refinement of the Great Slave Supergroup, both directly and indirectly, should help facilitate any such correlations and those with intrusive rocks both locally and globally. Unconformably overlain by the Et-Then Group that is contemporaneous with the McDonald Fault system, the Great Slave basin and intrusive Compton laccoliths pre-date transcurrent faulting. Increased precision achieved using modern U-Pb (zircon) geochronologic methods on the ca. 1865 Ma Compton laccoliths calibrates the minimum age constraint for Great Slave deposition. Additionally, magnetic susceptibility of a ~350 m-thick section of the Pethei Group reveals a hierarchy of cycles. If interpreted as astronomical cycles, possibly expressed through the effects of insolation on biogenic carbonate precipitation

  15. Neuroanatomical substrates involved in true and false memories for face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iidaka, Tetsuya; Harada, Tokiko; Kawaguchi, Jun; Sadato, Norihiro

    2012-08-01

    We often mistake an unknown person for a familiar person because of the similarities in facial features. This phenomenon, known as false memory, has been investigated mainly using words, pictures, and shapes. Previous neuroimaging studies on false memory have shown that both true and false memories trigger a similar activation in the medial temporal lobe, suggesting that it plays a common role in both. However, no study to date has investigated neural substrates of false memories for faces. In the present fMRI study, we applied a modified version of the standard false memory paradigm, using morphed pictures of faces, to induce false memory in an MRI environment. We found that activity in the amygdala and orbital cortices was associated with the degree of familiarity of items. In particular, false responses to "lure" items evoked a level of activity in the amygdala between that evoked for correct or incorrect responses to "true" items. This indicates a possible role of the amygdala in false memory. A specific region in the anterior cingulate cortex was involved in false recognition; the activity being correlated to reaction times for the response types. These results suggest that the amygdala is involved in determining the relevance of items; therefore, ambiguousness of lure items in terms of familiarity and novelty may be related to decreased activity in the amygdala. The anterior cingulate activity in false memory may be caused not only by increased effort and motor demand but also by higher mnemonic processing of lure items. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Uniaxial tension test on Rubber at constant true strain rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourne H.L.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Elastomers are widely used for damping parts in different industrial contexts because of their remarkable dissipation properties. Indeed, they can undergo severe mechanical loading conditions, i.e., high strain rates and large strains. Nevertheless, the mechanical response of these materials can vary from purely rubber-like to glassy depending on the strain rate undergone. Classically, uniaxial tension tests are made in order to find a relation between the stress and the strain in the material at various strain rates. However, even if the strain rate is searched to be constant, it is the nominal strain rate that is considered. Here we develop a test at constant true strain rate, i.e. the strain rate that is experienced by the material. In order to do such a test, the displacement imposed by the machine is an exponential function of time. This test has been performed with a high speed hydraulic machine for strain rates between 0.01/s and 100/s. A specific specimen has been designed, yielding a uniform strain field (and so a uniform stress field. Furthermore, an instrumented aluminum bar has been used to take into account dynamic effects in the measurement of the applied force. A high speed camera enables the determination of strain in the sample using point tracking technique. Using this method, the stress-strain curve of a rubber-like material during a loading-unloading cycle has been determined, up to a stretch ratio λ = 2.5. The influence of the true strain rate both on stiffness and on dissipation of the material is then discussed.

  17. True disciples, nature and leiturgia: Preservation of the earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marumo, Phemelo Olifile

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available God created man in his image (imago Dei and to be a disciple of God. Being a disciple man must look after, use and care for the earth as part of his leiturgia. It is a clear indication that God speaks to us through nature and as such we must heed the call of creation in our worship services. The Fall, however, resulted in a disregard for worshipping God, living with him and taking care of the earth. Instead, the earth has been subject to exploitation ever since. This exploitation is in sharp contrast to Matthew 28:20; where Jesus instructed the disciples to go and teach the nations to observe all his commands, whatever they may be, one of which was to “care for and subdue” the earth. Global warming is gradually ravaging the environment and has affected how we pray. Much has been said by religious bodies, governments as well as organisations advocating the preservation of the environment, to no avail. Leiturgia and discipleship have been replaced by conferences and seminars on the environment. Nature is at the centre of debate, but nothing ever comes of it and true discipleship has been pushed aside as though it never existed. The earth is facing imminent destruction. This paper addresses the above by firstly highlighting the historical background of discipleship as core of the mission to preserve the earth, then presents the action taken at present to attend to the earth’s destruction. Thirdly the paper demonstrates how leiturgia and nature could serve to remind all to care for the earth. Part of true discipleship is glorifying God in accordance to the missio Dei.

  18. Deposition of micrometer particles in pulmonary airways during inhalation and breath holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Yohsuke; Miki, Takahito; Ishikawa, Takuji; Aoki, Takayuki; Yamaguchi, Takami

    2012-06-26

    We investigated how breath holding increases the deposition of micrometer particles in pulmonary airways, compared with the deposition during inhalation period. A subject-specific airway model with up to thirteenth generation airways was constructed from multi-slice CT images. Airflow and particle transport were simulated by using GPU computing. Results indicate that breath holding effectively increases the deposition of 5μm particles for third to sixth generation (G3-G6) airways. After 10s of breath holding, the particle deposition fraction increased more than 5 times for 5μm particles. Due to a small terminal velocity, 1μm particles only showed a 50% increase in the most efficient case. On the other hand, 10μm particles showed almost complete deposition due to high inertia and high terminal velocity, leading to an increase of 2 times for G3-G6 airways. An effective breath holding time for 5μm particle deposition in G3-G6 airways was estimated to be 4-6s, for which the deposition amount reached 75% of the final deposition amount after 10s of breath holding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Translating product specifications into environmental evidence - Carbon Footprint Models explained on the example of a netbook, a consumer laptop and an ultrabook

    OpenAIRE

    Schischke, Karsten; Nissen, Nils; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

    2014-01-01

    In a complex industry such as the electronics sector Life Cycle Assessments are still challenging. This holds true in particular for small and medium-sized enterprises with rarely any knowledge in LCA and limited resources to undertake comprehensive LCA studies. This paper describes the approach of the FP7 funded project LCA to go, which developed simplified online tools for SMEs to assess products from a selection of sectors on their own. The webtools build on embedded LCA data models and a ...

  20. TrueAllele casework on Virginia DNA mixture evidence: computer and manual interpretation in 72 reported criminal cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W Perlin

    Full Text Available Mixtures are a commonly encountered form of biological evidence that contain DNA from two or more contributors. Laboratory analysis of mixtures produces data signals that usually cannot be separated into distinct contributor genotypes. Computer modeling can resolve the genotypes up to probability, reflecting the uncertainty inherent in the data. Human analysts address the problem by simplifying the quantitative data in a threshold process that discards considerable identification information. Elevated stochastic threshold levels potentially discard more information. This study examines three different mixture interpretation methods. In 72 criminal cases, 111 genotype comparisons were made between 92 mixture items and relevant reference samples. TrueAllele computer modeling was done on all the evidence samples, and documented in DNA match reports that were provided as evidence for each case. Threshold-based Combined Probability of Inclusion (CPI and stochastically modified CPI (mCPI analyses were performed as well. TrueAllele's identification information in 101 positive matches was used to assess the reliability of its modeling approach. Comparison was made with 81 CPI and 53 mCPI DNA match statistics that were manually derived from the same data. There were statistically significant differences between the DNA interpretation methods. TrueAllele gave an average match statistic of 113 billion, CPI averaged 6.68 million, and mCPI averaged 140. The computer was highly specific, with a false positive rate under 0.005%. The modeling approach was precise, having a factor of two within-group standard deviation. TrueAllele accuracy was indicated by having uniformly distributed match statistics over the data set. The computer could make genotype comparisons that were impossible or impractical using manual methods. TrueAllele computer interpretation of DNA mixture evidence is sensitive, specific, precise, accurate and more informative than manual

  1. Reproducibility of BOLD signal change induced by breath holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magon, Stefano; Basso, Gianpaolo; Farace, Paolo; Ricciardi, Giuseppe Kenneth; Beltramello, Alberto; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2009-04-15

    Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) contrast is influenced by some physiological factors such as blood flow and blood volume that can be a source of variability in fMRI analysis. Previous studies proposed to use the cerebrovascular response data to normalize or calibrate BOLD maps in order to reduce variability of fMRI data both among brain areas in single subject analysis and across subjects. Breath holding is one of the most widely used methods to investigate the vascular reactivity. However, little is known about the robustness and reproducibility of this procedure. In this study we investigated three different breath holding periods. Subjects were asked to hold their breath for 9, 15 or 21 s in three separate runs and the fMRI protocol was repeated after 15 to 20 days. Our data show that the BOLD response to breath holding after inspiration results in a complex shape due to physiological factors that influence the signal variation with a timing that is highly reproducible. Nevertheless, the reproducibility of the magnitude of the cerebrovascular response to CO(2), expressed as amplitude of BOLD signal and number of responding voxels, strongly depends on duration of breath holding periods. Breath holding period of 9 s results in high variability of the magnitude of the response while longer breath holding durations produce more robust and reproducible BOLD responses.

  2. Use of TrueBeam developer mode for imaging QA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Gilmer; Morin, Olivier; Valenciaga, Yanisley; Kirby, Niel; Pouliot, Jean; Chuang, Cynthia

    2015-07-08

    The purpose of this study was to automate regular Imaging QA procedures to become more efficient and accurate. Daily and monthly imaging QA for SRS and SBRT protocols were fully automated on a Varian linac. A three-step paradigm where the data are automatically acquired, processed, and analyzed was defined. XML scripts were written and used in developer mode in a TrueBeam linac to automatically acquire data. MATLAB R013B was used to develop an interface that could allow the data to be processed and analyzed. Hardware was developed that allowed the localization of several phantoms simultaneously on the couch. 14 KV CBCTs from the Emma phantom were obtained using a TrueBeam onboard imager as example of data acquisition and analysis. The images were acquired during two months. Artifacts were artificially introduced in the images during the reconstruction process using iTool reconstructor. Support vector machine algorithms to automatically identify each artifact were written using the Machine Learning MATLAB R2011 Toolbox. A daily imaging QA test could be performed by an experienced medical physicist in 14.3 ± 2.4 min. The same test, if automated using our paradigm, could be performed in 4.2 ± 0.7 min. In the same manner, a monthly imaging QA could be performed by a physicist in 70.7 ± 8.0 min and, if fully automated, in 21.8 ± 0.6 min. Additionally, quantitative data analysis could be automatically performed by Machine Learning Algorithms that could remove the subjectivity of data interpretation in the QA process. For instance, support vector machine algorithms could correctly identify beam hardening, rings and scatter artifacts. Traditional metrics, as well as metrics that describe texture, are needed for the classification. Modern linear accelerators are equipped with advanced 2D and 3D imaging capabilities that are used for patient alignment, substantially improving IGRT treatment accuracy. However, this extra complexity exponentially increases the number of QA

  3. True Detective Stories: Media Textuality and the Anthology Format between Remediation and Transmedia Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Demaria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the analysis of the recent HBO first season TV series True Detective (2014-, the essays focuses on the renewed anthology format of contemporary seriality as a way to inscribe the form of the novel in the transmedia imagination and its narrative models. While the first part of the essay concentrates on Media and Literary Studies’ debates on the statute of media texts, their materiality and the transformations of their contents in the participatory and convergent culture of prosumers, the second part is devoted to an in-depth reading of some of the main features of True Detective’s first season: from the ways it remediates many other genres and media, to how – as an audiovisual sychretyc text -  it plays with dialogues, cinematography, music and its temporal, spatial and seeing enunciative strategies and positions in order to construct a (quasidystopic narrative of America as an after-image, or, better, a post-collapse America and its Southern Gothic landscapes. In the lst paragraph, this writing briefly engages with how this particular format of TV series helps developing narrative models that fan we bpages and fanfic archives are still struggling not so much to comprehend, but to actually transform into an expanded textuality  able to tell a more ‘true’ story.

  4. Progress and prospect of true steady state operation with RF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquinot Jean

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Operation of fusion confinement experiments in full steady state is a major challenge for the development towards fusion energy. Critical to achieving this goal is the availability of actively cooled plasma facing components and auxiliary systems withstanding the very harsh plasma environment. Equally challenging are physics issues related to achieving plasma conditions and current drive efficiency required by reactor plasmas. RF heating and current drive systems have been key instruments for obtaining the progress made until today towards steady state. They hold all the records of long pulse plasma operation both in tokamaks and in stellarators. Nevertheless much progress remains to be made in particular for integrating all the requirements necessary for maintaining in steady state the density and plasma pressure conditions of a reactor. This is an important stated aim of ITER and of devices equipped with superconducting magnets. After considering the present state of the art, this review will address the key issues which remain to be solved both in physics and technology for reaching this goal. They constitute very active subjects of research which will require much dedicated experimentation in the new generation of superconducting devices which are now in operation or becoming close to it.

  5. TRUE AND FAIR VIEW – THE SUPREM TRUTH IN ACCOUNTING?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria MARCULESCU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Acting in a social and economic environment in a continuous movement and transformation, accounting is experiencing with new situations, in its attempt to answer all functions and information users that it generates, making it an important arbitration instrument in the game of those involved in business world. The main characteristic of accounting is represented by providing useful information retrodictive and predictive in an efficient and economic decision process regarding the economic entity's financial position and accounting performance. Under these circumstances, the information must not contain significant errors, is not biased, and users can be confident that it accurately represents what they proposed to represent, or what is expected, in a reasonably manner to be. Fair and true view seen as an ideal to which any professional accountant should aim, seems to be more difficult to achieve under the current conditions, in which fiscal pressure is more and more unbearable and top management is more and more willing to make compromises that sometimes are at a legal limit. In theory, it is well known that registrations and accounting reports must provide a clear image, honest, fair and full on the assets, financial position and results of the entity. In practice, contrary to ethical principles, more and more "servants" of the accounting profession are either willing, or forced to submit distorted accounting information giving the impression of calmness to a disastrous situation.

  6. Phylogenetic relationships among the true porpoises (Cetacea:Phocoenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosel, P E; Haygood, M G; Perrin, W F

    1995-12-01

    Portions of the cytochrome b gene and control region of the mitochondrial DNA molecule were sequenced to investigate systematic relationships among the six extant species of true porpoises, (Cetacea: Phocoenidae). Phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences support a close relationship between Burmeister's porpoise, Phocoena spinipinnis, and the vaquita, Phocoena sinus, and the association of these two species with the spectacled porpoise, Australophocaena dioptrica. The latter result is not in concordance with a recent morphological reclassification which groups A. dioptrica with Dall's porpoise, Phocoenoides dalli, in the subfamily Phocoenoidinae. The molecular analysis found no support for this grouping. A. dioptrica was originally described as a member of the genus Phocoena, and our results support returning it to that genus at this time. Finally, the data suggest that the tropical species Neophocaena phocaenoides, the finless porpoise, may represent the most basal member of the family. The control region sequences corroborated the relationships among the closely related taxa P. sinus, P. spinipinnis, and A. dioptrica, but were unable to resolve the deeper branches of the tree, probably as a result of a high level of saturation of these sequences.

  7. Two Cases of True Uterine Artery Aneurysms Diagnosed during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlütter, Jacob Mørup; Johansen, Gry; Helmig, Rikke Bek; Petersen, Olav Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    We report 2 cases of true uterine artery aneurysms diagnosed during pregnancy. Both cases presented with nonspecific symptoms such as urethral obstruction, minimal vaginal bleeding and lower abdominal pain in the 2nd trimester. Both aneurysms were diagnosed by color Doppler ultrasound. In the first case labor was induced at 37 + 4 weeks of gestation. However, due to sudden fetal distress and maternal abdominal pain, an emergency Caesarean section was performed during labor, and 3 liters of intra-peritoneal blood were encountered upon laparotomy, secondary to a ruptured uterine artery aneurysm. In the second case, an elective Caesarean section was scheduled at 38 + 3 weeks of gestation, and the delivery and postpartum period were uncomplicated. Albeit a rare condition, a uterine artery aneurysm should be among the differential diagnosis considered in pregnant women who present with pelvic and vaginal masses, vague bladder symptoms or radiating pelvic pain. The diagnosis is readily made by color Doppler imaging. Elective Caesarean section should be the preferred mode of delivery to avoid rupture of the aneurysm during labor. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. [Maternity in adolescence: a dream come true and future expectation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Paula Rosenberg; Ribeiro, Circéa Amalia; Ohara, Conceição Vieira da Silva

    2009-12-01

    This qualitative study aimed at describing the reasons that motivate an adolescent to get pregnant and her expectations about the future after the child's birth. Symbolic Interactionism was used as theoretical framework and Grounded Theory as the methodological one. Eight adolescent mothers aged between 15 and 19 years who lived the experience of caring for their children took part in the study. Data collection tools were observant participation and semi-structured interviews. Data analysis revealed that becoming a mother is an experience that might be desired and even planned. Furthermore, data showed that after the child's birth, the adolescent continues to have expectations of self-realization in order to provide a better future for herself and for her child, as revealed by the categories: Making a dream come true and Having expectations about the future. The full understanding of this experience will contribute to the practice of all professionals that provide assistance to pregnant and adolescent mothers at different levels of healthcare.

  9. Solution-Processed Carbon Nanotube True Random Number Generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviria Rojas, William A; McMorrow, Julian J; Geier, Michael L; Tang, Qianying; Kim, Chris H; Marks, Tobin J; Hersam, Mark C

    2017-08-09

    With the growing adoption of interconnected electronic devices in consumer and industrial applications, there is an increasing demand for robust security protocols when transmitting and receiving sensitive data. Toward this end, hardware true random number generators (TRNGs), commonly used to create encryption keys, offer significant advantages over software pseudorandom number generators. However, the vast network of devices and sensors envisioned for the "Internet of Things" will require small, low-cost, and mechanically flexible TRNGs with low computational complexity. These rigorous constraints position solution-processed semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as leading candidates for next-generation security devices. Here, we demonstrate the first TRNG using static random access memory (SRAM) cells based on solution-processed SWCNTs that digitize thermal noise to generate random bits. This bit generation strategy can be readily implemented in hardware with minimal transistor and computational overhead, resulting in an output stream that passes standardized statistical tests for randomness. By using solution-processed semiconducting SWCNTs in a low-power, complementary architecture to achieve TRNG, we demonstrate a promising approach for improving the security of printable and flexible electronics.

  10. Ethics in medicine: students' opinions on disclosure of true diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulanić, Drazen; Vrazić, Hrvoje; Cuk, Mario; Petrovecki, Mladen

    2002-02-01

    To determine students opinions about diagnosis disclosure to the patient and other interested parties. During 2000/2001 academic year, an anonymous survey was conducted among the first-year (200 questionnaires) and sixth-year medical students (200 questionnaires) at the Zagreb University School of Medicine. Students were asked what they would say about the diagnosis to the patient, patients family, friend, employer, colleague from work, health insurance agent, another physician, or medical student, if the diagnosis was inoperable lung carcinoma in a 20- and 66-year-old patient vs bacterial pneumonia in patients of the same age. The possibilities were to tell the truth, lie, or refuse to disclose the diagnosis. The response rate was 55%. Students would disclose the true diagnosis to the patient, patients family, friend, and employer in case of benign disease more often than in case of malignant disease (pemployer, and rarely to the patient's colleague from work. First-year students would generally tell the truth more often than sixth-year students (pethical issues should be discussed during the studies.

  11. True metabolizable energy of moist-soil seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkett, J.M.; Drobney, R.D.; Petrie, M.J.; Graber, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Habitat objectives for migrating and wintering waterfowl are often established by converting population energy demands into an equivalent measure of foraging habitat. In some areas, seeds produced from moist-soil plants provide a significant proportion of the energy available to waterfowl. To accurately establish habitat objectives for migrating and wintering waterfowl, managers must estimate seed production from moist-soil plants and have information on metabolizable energy (ME) of moist-soil seeds. Although methods for estimating seed production have been developed, ME has been determined for few natural seeds. We determined true metabolizable energy (TME) of 10 moist-soil seeds commonly consumed by wintering and migrating ducks. TME estimates were similar (P>0.05) for hairy crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis; 3.09 kcal/g), little hairy crabgrass (D. ischaemum; 3.10 kcal/g), pigweed (Amaranthus spp.; 2.97 kcal/g), yellow foxtail (Setaria lutescens; 2.88 kcal/g), fall panicum (Panicum dichotomiflorum; 2.75 kcal/g), curly dock (Rumex crispus; 2.68 kcal/g), and wild millet (Echinochloa crusgalli; 2.61 kcal/g), but less (P<0.05) for beakrush (Rynchospora corniculata; 1.86 kcal/g), paspalum (Paspalum laeve; 1.57 kcal/g), and nodding or curltop ladysthumb smartweed (Polygonum lapathifolium; 1.52 kcal/g). TME values determined for moist-soil seeds in this study will allow managers to accurately estimate carrying capacity of waterfowl habitats.

  12. FPGA Implementation of Metastability-Based True Random Number Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Hisashi; Ichikawa, Shuichi

    True random number generators (TRNGs) are important as a basis for computer security. Though there are some TRNGs composed of analog circuit, the use of digital circuits is desired for the application of TRNGs to logic LSIs. Some of the digital TRNGs utilize jitter in free-running ring oscillators as a source of entropy, which consume large power. Another type of TRNG exploits the metastability of a latch to generate entropy. Although this kind of TRNG has been mostly implemented with full-custom LSI technology, this study presents an implementation based on common FPGA technology. Our TRNG is comprised of logic gates only, and can be integrated in any kind of logic LSI. The RS latch in our TRNG is implemented as a hard-macro to guarantee the quality of randomness by minimizing the signal skew and load imbalance of internal nodes. To improve the quality and throughput, the output of 64-256 latches are XOR'ed. The derived design was verified on a Xilinx Virtex-4 FPGA (XC4VFX20), and passed NIST statistical test suite without post-processing. Our TRNG with 256 latches occupies 580 slices, while achieving 12.5Mbps throughput.

  13. Type I restriction endonucleases are true catalytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Piero R; Xu, Cuiling; Chi, Min

    2009-06-01

    Type I restriction endonucleases are intriguing, multifunctional complexes that restrict DNA randomly, at sites distant from the target sequence. Restriction at distant sites is facilitated by ATP hydrolysis-dependent, translocation of double-stranded DNA towards the stationary enzyme bound at the recognition sequence. Following restriction, the enzymes are thought to remain associated with the DNA at the target site, hydrolyzing copious amounts of ATP. As a result, for the past 35 years type I restriction endonucleases could only be loosely classified as enzymes since they functioned stoichiometrically relative to DNA. To further understand enzyme mechanism, a detailed analysis of DNA cleavage by the EcoR124I holoenzyme was done. We demonstrate for the first time that type I restriction endonucleases are not stoichiometric but are instead catalytic with respect to DNA. Further, the mechanism involves formation of a dimer of holoenzymes, with each monomer bound to a target sequence and, following cleavage, each dissociates in an intact form to bind and restrict subsequent DNA molecules. Therefore, type I restriction endonucleases, like their type II counterparts, are true enzymes. The conclusion that type I restriction enzymes are catalytic relative to DNA has important implications for the in vivo function of these previously enigmatic enzymes.

  14. Imaging diagnosis--positive contrast peritoneographic features of true diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jihye; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Mieun; Yoon, Junghee

    2009-01-01

    A true diaphragmatic hernia is a congenital diaphragmatic malformation that can appear identical to a peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia (PPDH). True diaphragmatic hernias are rare in dogs. Herein we describe the use of positive contrast peritoneography for diagnosis of a true diaphragmatic hernia in two dogs.

  15. First TRUE Stage - Transport of solutes in an interpreted single fracture. Proceedings from the 4th international seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-08-01

    The First Stage of the Tracer Retention Understanding Experiments (TRUE-1) was initiated in 1994 and the experimental activities were officially concluded in December 1998 with the termination of the final test with radioactive sorbing tracers. The programme also included a laboratory programme focused on both generic (Aespoe HRL) and site-specific (Feature A) geological material. Modelling, both scopings, predictions and evaluation of the final tests with sorbing tracers has been performed parallel to the experimental work. The work and conclusions of the SKB TRUE project team have been published in a SKB technical report. The TRUE-1 experiments have also been subject to blind prediction and evaluation by an international group of modelling teams within the auspices of the Aespoe Task Force on Groundwater on Modelling of Groundwater Flow and Solute Transport. A list of relevant reports and publications related to the First TRUE Stage are presented in Appendix A. The present seminar provides a venue to present and discuss the results of the TRUE-1 experiments in terms of identified transport and retention processes and concepts/approaches used to model. However, given the fact that may international programs, including that of SKB, are either underway or preparing for site characterisation programs, the seminar provides a possibility to discuss research priorities and the specific data needs for development of a geological repository. In his opening address, the director of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory emphasised the need to carefully integrate available experience from other research sites, e.g. Grimsel (Switzerland), Stripa (Sweden) and El Berrocal (Spain). The two important questions to be asked are; What do we know? What is the way forward? For the subsequent discussions four different discussion themes were identified; 1. Identification of transport processes. 2. Model concepts. 3. Site-specific data needs for a geological repository. 4. Research priorities

  16. SU-F-T-644: Reproducibility of Target Position Using Moderate Voluntary Breath- Hold During Liver Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, G; Trakul, N; Chang, E; Shiu, A [University Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the reproducibility of target position using moderate voluntary breath-hold during liver stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). Methods: Two patients who underwent liver SABR on a Varian TrueBeam STx linac were used for this study. Fiducial markers were placed in and around the target in the liver as surrogates for the target position and motion. GTVs were contoured by assessing tumor extent on contrast enhanced CT. The PTV was created from the GTV by adding 2 mm margins to account for the residual motion during breath-holds. A portable biofeedback system was used to facilitate the breath-hold to a reproducible position. The Varian RPM system was used for gating the linac. Proceeding each treatment, orthogonal kV pairs were taken, and alignment to nearby bony anatomy was performed. Then the breath-hold CBCT was acquired to align the fiducial markers. On-line fluoroscopy was used to fine-tune the breath-hold gating thresholds to correlate with the positions of the fiducial markers. The inter-fraction reproducibility of the target was evaluated by the offsets of the daily breath-hold CBCTs from the paired kV matches as a direct measure of the target position relative to the bony anatomy. The intra-fraction reproducibility of the target position was assessed by the gated window of the RPM marker block for each fraction. Results: The absolute mean offsets between the CBCT and paired kV matches in the vertical, longitudinal, and lateral directions were 0.06 cm, 0.10 cm, and 0.06 cm for patient 1, and 0.37 cm, 0.62 cm, and 0.09 cm for patient 2. The gated window of the RPM marker block for the breath-hold for each fraction was within 0.63 ± 0.16 cm and 0.59 ± 0.12 cm for patients 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusion: Moderate voluntary breath-hold showed good inter- and intra-fraction reproducibility of target position during liver SABR.

  17. Effect of holding office on the behavior of politicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enemark, Daniel; Gibson, Clark C.; McCubbins, Mathew D.; Seim, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Reciprocity is central to our understanding of politics. Most political exchanges—whether they involve legislative vote trading, interbranch bargaining, constituent service, or even the corrupt exchange of public resources for private wealth—require reciprocity. But how does reciprocity arise? Do government officials learn reciprocity while holding office, or do recruitment and selection practices favor those who already adhere to a norm of reciprocity? We recruit Zambian politicians who narrowly won or lost a previous election to play behavioral games that provide a measure of reciprocity. This combination of regression discontinuity and experimental designs allows us to estimate the effect of holding office on behavior. We find that holding office increases adherence to the norm of reciprocity. This study identifies causal effects of holding office on politicians’ behavior. PMID:27856736

  18. Rock Equity Holdings, LLC - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of an Administrative Penalty Assessment in the form of an Expedited Storm Water Settlement Agreement against Rock Equity Holdings, LLC, for alleged violations at The Cove at Kettlestone/98th Street Reconstruction located at 3015

  19. 29 CFR 452.40 - Prior office holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Candidacy for Office; Reasonable Qualifications § 452.40 Prior office holding. A.... 26 26 Wirtz v. Hotel, Motel and Club Employees Union, Local 6, 391 U.S. 492 at 504. The Court stated...

  20. Bank holding companies' participation in credit insurance underwriting

    OpenAIRE

    Paul R. Watro

    1982-01-01

    A discussion of the public and corporate benefits associated with credit insurance underwriting by bank holding companies in the Fourth Federal Reserve District, featuring rate reduction guidelines, performance ratios, and earnings comparisons.

  1. Effect of holding office on the behavior of politicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enemark, Daniel; Gibson, Clark C; McCubbins, Mathew D; Seim, Brigitte

    2016-11-29

    Reciprocity is central to our understanding of politics. Most political exchanges-whether they involve legislative vote trading, interbranch bargaining, constituent service, or even the corrupt exchange of public resources for private wealth-require reciprocity. But how does reciprocity arise? Do government officials learn reciprocity while holding office, or do recruitment and selection practices favor those who already adhere to a norm of reciprocity? We recruit Zambian politicians who narrowly won or lost a previous election to play behavioral games that provide a measure of reciprocity. This combination of regression discontinuity and experimental designs allows us to estimate the effect of holding office on behavior. We find that holding office increases adherence to the norm of reciprocity. This study identifies causal effects of holding office on politicians' behavior.

  2. Corporate Cash Holding Behavior and Financial Environment: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir, Muhammad Sohail; Alifiah, Mohammad Norfian

    2015-01-01

    Research on corporate liquidity management practices has mainly focused on the trade-off between the potential costs and benefits of holding cash. However, in order to improve the firm financial performance, much remained to be understood, particularly, the cash holding behavior of firms. Furthermore, this study reveals that contemporary literature in the area of cash management may overlook the industry and institutional context of firms at sector level. In addition, sectors are important to...

  3. Cembrit Holding A/S: At the crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2017-01-01

    This is a Teaching Note (product number: 8B17M008) for the "Cembrit Holding A/S: At the crossroads" case (product number - 9B17M008) published by Ivey Publishing.......This is a Teaching Note (product number: 8B17M008) for the "Cembrit Holding A/S: At the crossroads" case (product number - 9B17M008) published by Ivey Publishing....

  4. Impact of breath holding on cardiovascular respiratory and cerebrovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujic, Zeljko; Breskovic, Toni

    2012-06-01

    Human underwater breath-hold diving is a fascinating example of applied environmental physiology. In combination with swimming, it is one of the most popular forms of summer outdoor physical activities. It is performed by a variety of individuals ranging from elite breath-hold divers, underwater hockey and rugby players, synchronized and sprint swimmers, spear fishermen, sponge harvesters and up to recreational swimmers. Very few data currently exist concerning the influence of regular breath holding on possible health risks such as cerebrovascular, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. A literature search of the PubMed electronic search engine using keywords 'breath-hold diving' and 'apnoea diving' was performed. This review focuses on recent advances in knowledge regarding possibly harmful physiological changes and/or potential health risks associated with breath-hold diving. Available evidence indicates that deep breath-hold dives can be very dangerous and can cause serious acute health problems such a collapse of the lungs, barotrauma at descent and ascent, pulmonary oedema and alveolar haemorrhage, cardiac arrest, blackouts, nitrogen narcosis, decompression sickness and death. Moreover, even shallow apnoea dives, which are far more frequent, can present a significant health risk. The state of affairs is disturbing as athletes, as well as recreational individuals, practice voluntary apnoea on a regular basis. Long-term health risks of frequent maximal breath holds are at present unknown, but should be addressed in future research. Clearly, further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms related to the possible development or worsening of different clinical disorders in recreational or competitive breath holding and to determine the potential changes in training/competition regimens in order to prevent these adverse events.

  5. The carbon holdings of northern Ecuador's mangrove forests

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Stuart E.; Lovette, John; Borbor, Mercy; Millones, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Within a GIS environment, we combine field measures of mangrove diameter, mangrove species distribution, and mangrove density with remotely sensed measures of mangrove location and mangrove canopy cover to estimate the mangrove carbon holdings of northern Ecuador. We find that the four northern estuaries of Ecuador contain approximately 7,742,999 t (plus or minus 15.47 percent) of standing carbon. Of particular high carbon holdings are the Rhizophora mangle dominated mangrove stands found in-...

  6. True RGB line scan camera for color machine vision applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemstrom, Guy F.

    1994-11-01

    In this paper a true RGB 3-chip color line scan camera is described. The camera was mainly developed for accurate color measuring in industrial applications. Due to the camera's modularity it's also possible to use it as a B/W-camera. The color separation is made with a RGB-beam splitter. The CCD linear arrays are fixed with a high accuracy to the beam splitters output in order to match the pixels of the three different CCDs on each other. This makes the color analyses simple compared to color line arrays where line or pixel matching has to be done. The beam splitter can be custom made to separate spectral components other than standard RGB. The spectral range is from 200 to 1000 nm for most CCDs and two or three spectral areas can be separately measured with the beam splitter. The camera is totally digital and has a 16-bit parallel computer interface to communicate with a signal processing board. Because of the open architecture of the camera it's possible for the customer to design a board with some special functions handling the preprocessing of the data (for example RGB - HSI conversion). The camera can also be equipped with a high speed CPU-board with enough local memory to do some image processing inside the camera before sending the data forward. The camera has been used in real industrial applications and has proven that its high resolution and high dynamic range can be used to measure color differences of small amounts to separate or grade objects such as minerals, food or other materials that can't be measured with a black and white camera.

  7. Using Shakespeare's Sotto Voce to Determine True Identity From Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kernot

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Little is known of the private life of William Shakespeare, but he is famous for his collection of plays and poems, even though many of the works attributed to him were published anonymously. Determining the identity of Shakespeare has fascinated scholars for 400 years, and four significant figures in English literary history have been suggested as likely alternatives to Shakespeare for some disputed works: Bacon, de Vere, Stanley, and Marlowe. A myriad of computational and statistical tools and techniques have been used to determine the true authorship of his works. Many of these techniques rely on basic statistical correlations, word counts, collocated word groups, or keyword density, but no one method has been decided on. We suggest that an alternative technique that uses word semantics to draw on personality can provide an accurate profile of a person. To test this claim, we analyse the works of Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe, and Elizabeth Cary. We use Word Accumulation Curves, Hierarchical Clustering overlays, Principal Component Analysis, and Linear Discriminant Analysis techniques in combination with RPAS, a multi-faceted text analysis approach that draws on a writer's personality, or self to identify subtle characteristics within a person's writing style. Here we find that RPAS can separate the known authored works of Shakespeare from Marlowe and Cary. Further, it separates their contested works, works suspected of being written by others. While few authorship identification techniques identify self from the way a person writes, we demonstrate that these stylistic characteristics are as applicable 400 years ago as they are today and have the potential to be used within cyberspace for law enforcement purposes.

  8. Medicinal properties of 'true' cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum): a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Pigera, Shehani; Premakumara, G A Sirimal; Galappaththy, Priyadarshani; Constantine, Godwin R; Katulanda, Prasad

    2013-10-22

    In traditional medicine Cinnamon is considered a remedy for respiratory, digestive and gynaecological ailments. In-vitro and in-vivo studies from different parts of the world have demonstrated numerous beneficial medicinal effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ). This paper aims to systematically review the scientific literature and provide a comprehensive summary on the potential medicinal benefits of CZ. A comprehensive systematic review was conducted in the following databases; PubMed, Web of Science, SciVerse Scopus for studies published before 31st December 2012. The following keywords were used: "Cinnamomum zeylanicum", "Ceylon cinnamon", "True cinnamon" and "Sri Lankan cinnamon". To obtain additional data a manual search was performed using the reference lists of included articles. The literature search identified the following number of articles in the respective databases; PubMed=54, Web of Science=76 and SciVerse Scopus=591. Thirteen additional articles were identified by searching reference lists. After removing duplicates the total number of articles included in the present review is 70. The beneficial health effects of CZ identified were; a) anti-microbial and anti-parasitic activity, b) lowering of blood glucose, blood pressure and serum cholesterol, c) anti-oxidant and free-radical scavenging properties, d) inhibition of tau aggregation and filament formation (hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease), e) inhibitory effects on osteoclastogenesis, f) anti-secretagogue and anti-gastric ulcer effects, g) anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, h) wound healing properties and i) hepato-protective effects. The studies reported minimal toxic and adverse effects. The available in-vitro and in-vivo evidence suggests that CZ has many beneficial health effects. However, since data on humans are sparse, randomized controlled trials in humans will be necessary to determine whether these effects have public health implications.

  9. Hydrodynamic perception in true seals (Phocidae) and eared seals (Otariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Wolf; Wieskotten, Sven; Marshall, Christopher; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2013-06-01

    Pinnipeds, that is true seals (Phocidae), eared seals (Otariidae), and walruses (Odobenidae), possess highly developed vibrissal systems for mechanoreception. They can use their vibrissae to detect and discriminate objects by direct touch. At least in Phocidae and Otariidae, the vibrissae can also be used to detect and analyse water movements. Here, we review what is known about this ability, known as hydrodynamic perception, in pinnipeds. Hydrodynamic perception in pinnipeds developed convergently to the hydrodynamic perception with the lateral line system in fish and the sensory hairs in crustaceans. So far two species of pinnipeds, the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) representing the Phocidae and the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) representing the Otariidae, have been studied for their ability to detect local water movements (dipole stimuli) and to follow hydrodynamic trails, that is the water movements left behind by objects that have passed by at an earlier point in time. Both species are highly sensitive to dipole stimuli and can follow hydrodynamic trails accurately. In the individuals tested, California sea lions were clearly more sensitive to dipole stimuli than harbour seals, and harbour seals showed a superior trail following ability as compared to California sea lions. Harbour seals have also been shown to derive additional information from hydrodynamic trails, such as motion direction, size and shape of the object that caused the trail (California sea lions have not yet been tested). The peculiar undulated shape of the harbour seals' vibrissae appears to play a crucial role in trail following, as it suppresses self-generated noise while the animal is swimming.

  10. Does urban sprawl hold down upward mobility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, R.; Hamidi, Shima; Grace, James B.; Wei, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to the general perception, the United States has a much more class-bound society than other wealthy countries. The chance of upward mobility for Americans is just half that of the citizens of the Denmark and many other European countries. In addition to other influences, the built environment may contribute to the low rate of upward mobility in the U.S. This study tests the relationship between urban sprawl and upward mobility for commuting zones in the U.S. We examine potential pathways through which sprawl may have an effect on mobility. We use structural equation modeling to account for both direct and indirect effects of sprawl on upward mobility. We find that upward mobility is significantly higher in compact areas than sprawling areas. The direct effect, which we attribute to better job accessibility in more compact commuting zones, is stronger than the indirect effects. Of the indirect effects, only one, through the mediating variable income segregation, is significant.

  11. Single breath-hold MR imaging of liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Jeong; Kim, Seong Hee; Kim, Sun Hee; Chae, Yoo Soon; Chung, Chun Phil; Kim, Yang Sook

    1993-01-01

    Single breath-hold gradient echo images with Small Tip Angle Gradient Echo (STAGE) were evaluated in the study of liver in 16 patients (4 normal liver, 5 hepatoma, 5 cholangiocarcinoma, 1 hemangioma, 1 cavernous transformation of portal vein). We obtained one slice of gradient echo during single breath-hold at the level of pathology defined on conventional spin echo image. Single breath-hold gradient echo images were compared with spin echo images for image quality and artifacts. Single breath-hold gradient image showed improved resolution of vascular detail and excellent contrast between lesion and adjacent normal liver in hepatoma. Cholangiocarcinoma showed decreased contrast between lesion and biliary trees but improved contrast between lesion and blood vessel. Cavernous transformation of portal vein was noted as tortuous vessel of high signal intensity. Single breath-hold gradient echo scan increased vascular artifact, but decreased respiratory artifact leading to improved image quality. Single breath-hold technique can reduce imaging time and improve image quality and may be used as complementary method to the spin echo scan

  12. Brain metabolite values in children with breath-holding spells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calik M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mustafa Calik,1 Dilek Sen Dokumaci,2 Suna Sarikaya,3 Mahmut Demir,4 Ilhan Isik,5 Halil Kazanasmaz,4 Cemil Kaya,4 Hasan Kandemir6 1Department of Pediatric Neurology, 2Department of Radiology, 3Department of Neurology, 4Department of Pediatrics, Harran University School of Medicine, 5Department of Pediatric Neurology, Eyyubiye Training and Research Hospital, 6Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Harran University School of Medicine, Sanliurfa, Turkey Abstract: Breath-holding spells are benign, paroxysmal events with apnea and postural tone changes after a crying episode in infants. The objective of this study was to investigate the pathologies in brain metabolite values in the absence of seizure in children with breath-holding spells by using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. Brain MRS examination was performed on 18 children with breath-holding spells and 13 neurologically normal children who were included as the control group. There was no significant difference in terms of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, choline (Cho, creatine (Cr, and myoinositol (mI levels and also in terms of NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and mI/Cr ratios between the patients and the control group (all P>0.05. Our study suggested that there is no permanent neuronal damage in patients with breath-holding spells. This result confirms the previous studies, which reported no permanent neuronal damage in patients with breath-holding spells. Keywords: brain metabolite, children, breath holding, magnetic resonance spectroscopy 

  13. Leverage, Asymmetric Information, Firm Value, and Cash Holdings in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldea Mita Cheryta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to analyze the effect of leverage and asymmetry information on the firm value through cash holding as mediation variable. The populations of this research were all the firms which listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange since 2012 – 2015. A sample of this research was saturated sample and census, consisted 56 firms related the population criteria. This research used secondary data from the firm financial report through path analysis method. This research showed that leverage had a negative effect on the cash holdings, asymmetry information had a negative effect on the firm value through cash holding, and cash holding had a negative effect on the firm value. With leverage and effect on cash, holding cannot affect the firm value, due to investor risk-averse, investor risk seeker, and neutral investor has their own point of view in assessing the company. Cash holdings can lead to asymmetric information that can lead to agency a conflict that can affect a company’s performance, so that indirectly, with the existence of asymmetry, information had an effect on the declining the firm value.

  14. Optimisiation of The Total Weighed Holding Time in A P2P Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naors Y Anad Alsaleem

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of working out of mathematical model in networks of peer-to-peer communication is that the formulation of a problem of optimisation of the total weighed holding time must be given. Optimization of the mathematical model constructed оn the theory of schedules. The common system decision is received, allowing to optimise a P2P network holding time. The practical importance is the described models and methods of the theory of schedules allow to display adequately the structure and the function of a P2P network and to consider their dynamics, restriction of previous information, shifts, interruptions and other typical technological decisions that can be used to increase the productivity of a network and quality of granting of services QoS, QoE

  15. The value of true-FISP sequence added to conventional gadolinium-enhanced MRA of abdominal aorta and its major branches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iozzelli, Andrea [University of Milan School of Medicine, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Radiology Unit, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, via Morandi 30, 20097 San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy)], E-mail: andrea.iozzelli@poste.it; D' Orta, Giovanni [University of Milan School of Medicine, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Radiology Unit, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, via Morandi 30, 20097 San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy)], E-mail: ammos@tiscali.it; Aliprandi, Alberto [University of Milan School of Medicine, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Radiology Unit, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, via Morandi 30, 20097 San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy)], E-mail: a.aliprandi@grupposandonato.it; Secchi, Francesco [University of Milan School of Medicine, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Radiology Unit, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, via Morandi 30, 20097 San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy)], E-mail: francisecchi@virgilio.it; Di Leo, Giovanni [University of Milan School of Medicine, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Radiology Unit, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, via Morandi 30, 20097 San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy)], E-mail: gianni.dileo77@virgilio.it; Sardanelli, Francesco [University of Milan School of Medicine, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Radiology Unit, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, via Morandi 30, 20097 San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy)], E-mail: f.sardanelli@grupposandonato.it

    2009-12-15

    To test true-fast imaging with steady-state precession (true-FISP) added to gadolinium-based MR angiography (Gd-MRA) for imaging abdominal aorta and major abdominal vessels, 35 consecutive patients (age 67 {+-} 11 years) with known or suspected abdominal and/or peripheral vascular disease were studied with sagittal and axial 2D true-FISP during free breathing and coronal 3D fast low-angle shot (FLASH) Gd-MRA (breath-holding, 0.2 mmol/kg of Gd-DOTA at 2 ml/s). We evaluated: suprarenal aorta, celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery, right renal artery, left renal artery, infrarenal aorta, inferior mesenteric artery, aortic bifurcation/common iliac arteries, lumbar arteries and aortic atheromasia. The possible presence of accessory renal arteries, collateral vasculature and vascular prosthesis/stent was evaluated. A quality four-point score was assigned to each item on both sequences, from 0 (not visible) to 3 (good-to-excellent image quality) and Wilcoxon test was used. Main diagnoses resulted: normal or atheromasic aorta (n = 25); aortic aneurysm (n = 2); patent aorto-iliac surgical prosthesis (n = 2); patent vascular iliac stent (n = 2); aneurysm of iliac artery (n = 1); patent aortic endovascular prosthesis (n = 1); patent aorto-femural bypass (n = 1) and aorto-iliac surgical prosthesis endoleak (n = 1). We also found three patients with accessory renal arteries, two with collateral circulation, and three with surgical aorto-iliac prosthesis. The score of true-FISP (25.9 {+-} 4.1, median 27) was significantly higher (p = 0.003) than that of Gd-MRA (23.9 {+-} 3.6, median 24). True-FISP was superior for visualizing inferior mesenteric artery (score 2.5 {+-} 1.1 vs. 1.0 {+-} 1.4; p < 0.001) and atheromasic plaques (2.5 {+-} 1.1 vs. 1.2 {+-} 1.1; p < 0.001). One collateral vasculature was demonstrated only with Gd-MRA. Summarizing, true-FISP is a power and fast non-breath-hold sequence to be added to Gd-MRA, obtaining an information increase.

  16. Can We Forget What We Know in a False-Belief Task? An Investigation of the True-Belief Default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Fernández, Paula

    2017-01-01

    It has been generally assumed in the Theory of Mind literature of the past 30 years that young children fail standard false-belief tasks because they attribute their own knowledge to the protagonist (what Leslie and colleagues called a "true-belief default"). Contrary to the traditional view, we have recently proposed that the children's bias is task induced. This alternative view was supported by studies showing that 3 year olds are able to pass a false-belief task that allows them to focus on the protagonist, without drawing their attention to the target object in the test phase. For a more accurate comparison of these two accounts, the present study tested the true-belief default with adults. Four experiments measuring eye movements and response inhibition revealed that (a) adults do not have an automatic tendency to respond to the false-belief question according to their own knowledge and (b) the true-belief response need not be inhibited in order to correctly predict the protagonist's actions. The positive results observed in the control conditions confirm the accuracy of the various measures used. I conclude that the results of this study undermine the true-belief default view and those models that posit mechanisms of response inhibition in false-belief reasoning. Alternatively, the present study with adults and recent studies with children suggest that participants' focus of attention in false-belief tasks may be key to their performance. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  17. Characterization plan for the waste holding basin (3513 impoundment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stansfield, R.G.; Francis, C.W.

    1986-09-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are required to comply fully with all federal and state regulations. In response to this requirement, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has established the remedial action program, to provide comprehensive management of areas where past research, development, and waste management activities have been conducted and have resulted in residual contamination of facilities or the environment. One of the objectives of this program is to define the extent of contamination at these sites. The intent is to document the known environmental characteristics of the sites and identify the additional actions, such as sampling, analytical measurements, and modeling, necessary to confirm contamination and the possible migration of contaminants from the sites. One of these sites is the waste holding basin (3513 impoundment). The 3513 impoundment is an unlined waste settling basin constructed in 1944 for collection of ORNL wastewater before its discharge into White Oak Creek. Operation of the facility ceased in 1976 when a new process waste treatment plant came into operation. Considerable site-specific environmental information has been developed over the years relative to the type and quantities of radionuclides and hazardous substances contained in the pond water and sediment. The concentrations and patterns of distribution for many of the radionuclides in the aquatic biota as well as for the terrestrial plants growing on the berm of the impoundment have been determined by DOE ecological studies. Recently, some data were collected that evaluate the extent of contaminant movement to the groundwater. Results from these studies are summarized in this report. Also included in this report is an outline of additional tasks needed to obtain the necessary information to model the transport and dose pathways of hazardous substances from the site

  18. Characterization plan for the waste holding basin (3513 impoundment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stansfield, R.G.; Francis, C.W.

    1986-09-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are required to comply fully with all federal and state regulations. In response to this requirement, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has established the remedial action program, to provide comprehensive management of areas where past research, development, and waste management activities have been conducted and have resulted in residual contamination of facilities or the environment. One of the objectives of this program is to define the extent of contamination at these sites. The intent is to document the known environmental characteristics of the sites and identify the additional actions, such as sampling, analytical measurements, and modeling, necessary to confirm contamination and the possible migration of contaminants from the sites. One of these sites is the waste holding basin (3513 impoundment). The 3513 impoundment is an unlined waste settling basin constructed in 1944 for collection of ORNL wastewater before its discharge into White Oak Creek. Operation of the facility ceased in 1976 when a new process waste treatment plant came into operation. Considerable site-specific environmental information has been developed over the years relative to the type and quantities of radionuclides and hazardous substances contained in the pond water and sediment. The concentrations and patterns of distribution for many of the radionuclides in the aquatic biota as well as for the terrestrial plants growing on the berm of the impoundment have been determined by DOE ecological studies. Recently, some data were collected that evaluate the extent of contaminant movement to the groundwater. Results from these studies are summarized in this report. Also included in this report is an outline of additional tasks needed to obtain the necessary information to model the transport and dose pathways of hazardous substances from the site.

  19. Stress corrosion cracking life estimation of hold-down spring screw for nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    Hold-down spring screw fractures due to primary water stress corrosion cracking were observed in nuclear fuel assemblies. The screw fastens hold-down springs that are required to maintain the nuclear fuel assembly in contact with upper core plate and permit thermal and irradiation-induced length changes. In order to investigate the primary causes of the screw fractures, the finite element stress analysis and fracture mechanics analysis were performed on the hold-down spring assembly. The elastic-plastic finite element analysis showed that the local stresses at the critical regions of head-shank fillet and thread root significantly exceeded the yield strength of the screw material, resulting in local plastic deformation. Preloading on the screw applied for tightening had beneficial effects on the screw strength by reducing the stress level at the critical regions, compared to the screw without preload. Calculated deflections and strains at the hold-down springs using the finite element analysis were in very close agreements with the experimentally measured deflections and strains. Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) life of the Inconel 600 screw was predicted by integrating the Scott's model and resulted in a life of 1.42 years, which was fairly close to the field experience. Cracks were expected to originate at the threaded region of the screw and propagated to the opposite side of the spring, which was confirmed by the fractographic analysis of the fractured screws. (orig.)

  20. Self-organization without conservation: true or just apparent scale-invariance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonachela, Juan A.; Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2009-09-01

    The existence of true scale-invariance in slowly driven models of self-organized criticality without a conservation law, such as forest-fires or earthquake automata, is scrutinized in this paper. By using three different levels of description—(i) a simple mean field, (ii) a more detailed mean-field description in terms of a (self-organized) branching processes, and (iii) a full stochastic representation in terms of a Langevin equation—it is shown on general grounds that non-conserving dynamics does not lead to bona fide criticality. Contrary to the case for conserving systems, a parameter, which we term the 're-charging' rate (e.g. the tree-growth rate in forest-fire models), needs to be fine-tuned in non-conserving systems to obtain criticality. In the infinite-size limit, such a fine-tuning of the loading rate is easy to achieve, as it emerges by imposing a second separation of timescales but, for any finite size, a precise tuning is required to achieve criticality and a coherent finite-size scaling picture. Using the approaches above, we shed light on the common mechanisms by which 'apparent criticality' is observed in non-conserving systems, and explain in detail (both qualitatively and quantitatively) the difference with respect to true criticality obtained in conserving systems. We propose to call this self-organized quasi-criticality (SOqC). Some of the reported results are already known and some of them are new. We hope that the unified framework presented here will help to elucidate the confusing and contradictory literature in this field. In a forthcoming paper, we shall discuss the implications of the general results obtained here for models of neural avalanches in neuroscience for which self-organized scale-invariance in the absence of conservation has been claimed.

  1. True Polar Wander of Enceladus From Topographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeddine, Radwan; Soderlund, Krista M.; Thomas, Peter C.; Helfenstein, Paul; Hedman, Matthew M.; Burns, Joseph A.; Schenk, Paul M.

    2016-10-01

    Besides the relative motion of lithospheric plates, the Earth as a whole moves with respect to its rotation pole, as shown by paleomagnetic, astrometric and geodetic measurements [1]. Such so-called true polar wander (TPW) occurs because our planet's moments of inertia change temporally owing to internal thermal convection and to the redistribution of surficial mass during ice ages. Thus, to conserve angular momentum while losing rotational energy, Earth's axis of maximum moment of inertia aligns with its spin axis. Theoreticians suspect similar reorientations of other celestial bodies but supporting evidence is fragmentary, at best [2]. Here we report the discovery of a global series of topographic lows on Saturn's satellite Enceladus indicating that this synchronously locked moon has undergone reorientation by ~55°. We use improved topographic data from spherical harmonic expansion of Cassini limb [3,4,5] and stereogrammetric [5,6,7] measurements to characterize regional topography over the surface of Enceladus. We identify a group of nearly antipodal basins orthogonal to a topographic basin chain tracing a non-equatorial circumglobal belt across Enceladus' surface. We argue that the belt and the antipodal regions are fossil remnants of old equator and poles, respectively. These lows are argued to arise from isostasic compensation [7,8] with their pattern reflecting variations in internal dynamics of the ice shell. Our hypothesis is consistent with many geological features visible in Cassini images [9].References:[1] Mitrovica, J.X. & Wahr, Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 39, 577-616 (2011).[2] Matsuyama, I. et al. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 42, 605-634 (2014).[3] Thomas, P.C. et al. Icarus, 190, 573-584 (2007).[4] Thomas, P.C. Icarus, 208, 395-401 (2010).[5] Thomas, P.C. et al. Icarus, 264, 37-47 (2016).[6] Edwards, K. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 53, 1219-1222 (1987).[7] Schenk, P.M. & McKinnon, W. B

  2. 12 CFR 225.81 - What is a financial holding company?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies § 225.81 What is a financial holding company? (a) Definition. A financial holding... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is a financial holding company? 225.81...

  3. Effect of iron supplementation in children with breath holding spells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rahul; Omanakuttan, Divin; Singh, Amitabh; Jajoo, Mamta

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of iron supplementation in children with breath holding spells, irrespective of their iron status and study the factors associated with the response. This was a prospective interventional study. Study population comprised of patients aged 6-36 months, attending a paediatric outpatient department with recurrent episodes (more than three in last 4 weeks) of breath holding spells. Children with loss of consciousness or convulsive movements associated with breath holding spells were considered as severe. After baseline investigations, all enrolled patients were given elemental iron at the dose of 3 mg/kg/day as a single daily dose. Four weekly follow-ups were done until 3 months after initiation of the intervention. At 12 weeks, investigations were repeated and outcome assessed for remission or decrease in severity of breath holding episodes. A total of 100 children with breath holding spells received iron supplementation. Almost 73% of children showed complete response, with another 23% showing greater than 50% reduction in frequency. Frequency of spells at diagnosis and intolerance to oral iron were significantly associated with poor response to iron supplementation. Other factors such as age at onset, age at presentation, severity of spells, anaemia and serum iron parameters had no significant association with the response. Of the 27 children without iron deficiency (serum ferritin ≥ 30 µg/L), 77.7% responded completely to iron supplementation, similar to the iron-deficient group. Iron supplementation is effective in the management of breath holding spells. Non-anaemic and iron-replete children with breath holding spells also respond well to iron supplementation. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  4. Statistical Mechanics of On-line Learning When a Moving Teacher Goes around an Unlearnable True Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakami, Masahiro; Miyoshi, Seiji; Okada, Masato

    2007-04-01

    In the framework of on-line learning, a learning machine might move around a teacher due to the differences in structures or output functions between the teacher and the learning machine. In this paper we analyze the generalization performance of a new student supervised by a moving machine. A model composed of a fixed true teacher, a moving teacher, and a student is treated theoretically using statistical mechanics, where the true teacher is a nonmonotonic perceptron and the others are simple perceptrons. Calculating the generalization errors numerically, we show that the generalization errors of a student can temporarily become smaller than that of a moving teacher and can reach the lowest value, even if the student only uses examples from the moving teacher. However, the generalization error of the student eventually becomes the same value with that of the moving teacher. This behavior is qualitatively different from that of a linear model.

  5. Iron supplementation for breath-holding attacks in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehetner, Anthony A; Orr, Nigel; Buckmaster, Adam; Williams, Katrina; Wheeler, Danielle M

    2010-05-12

    Breath-holding attacks are common during childhood. Iron supplementation has been claimed to reduce the frequency or severity, or both, of breath-holding attacks in children. To assess the effect of iron supplementation on the frequency and severity of breath-holding attacks in children. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (up to April 2009). We scanned references of included trials. Pharmaceutical companies manufacturing oral iron supplements and some trial authors were contacted for any unpublished data or trials. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing iron supplementation with placebo or no therapy in children breath-holding episodes. These were reported by an observer. The primary outcome was reduction in the frequency (number over time) or severity (leading to cessation of loss of consciousness or convulsive movements), or both, of breath-holding attacks. Two authors (AZ and NO) independently selected studies and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for missing data, where necessary. Risk of bias was assessed using domain-based evaluation. In the presence of low heterogeneity, a fixed-effect meta-analysis was performed with pooled results presented as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Two trials (87 children) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In these trials, iron supplementation significantly reduced the frequency of breath-holding attacks in children (OR 76.48; 95% CI 15.65 to 373.72; P breath-holding attacks maintained this significance (OR 53.43; 95% CI 6.57 to 434.57; P = 0.0002). Iron supplementation (at 5 mg/kg/day of elemental iron for 16 weeks) appears to be useful in reducing the frequency and severity of breath-holding attacks. Supplementation is of particular benefit in children with iron deficiency anaemia, responses correlating with the improvements in haemoglobin

  6. Brain metabolite values in children with breath-holding spells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calik, Mustafa; Sen Dokumaci, Dilek; Sarikaya, Suna; Demir, Mahmut; Isik, Ilhan; Kazanasmaz, Halil; Kaya, Cemil; Kandemir, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Breath-holding spells are benign, paroxysmal events with apnea and postural tone changes after a crying episode in infants. The objective of this study was to investigate the pathologies in brain metabolite values in the absence of seizure in children with breath-holding spells by using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Brain MRS examination was performed on 18 children with breath-holding spells and 13 neurologically normal children who were included as the control group. There was no significant difference in terms of N -acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), and myoinositol (mI) levels and also in terms of NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and mI/Cr ratios between the patients and the control group (all P >0.05). Our study suggested that there is no permanent neuronal damage in patients with breath-holding spells. This result confirms the previous studies, which reported no permanent neuronal damage in patients with breath-holding spells.

  7. True and measured outgassing rates of a vacuum chamber with a reversibly adsorbed phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaishi, K.; Nakasuga, M.; Funato, Y.

    2000-03-01

    A pump down model for a vacuum chamber with a reversibly adsorbed phase is presented. The outgassing equation which predicts the variation of coverage at the wall surface of a vacuum chamber with time is derived. Then the measured and the true outgassing rates are defined. The theoretical measured outgassing rate shows only a very weak dependence for pumping speed. This prediction is opposite to the experimental result that the measured outgassing rate depends significantly on pumping speed. It is discussed that the experimental measured outgassing rate must be described as the product of the effective pumping speed and the measured pressure in the pumped chamber, in which the measured pressure is equivalent to the equilibrium pressure of the wall surface described by the equilibrium adsorption isotherm as a function of the shifted surface coverage θ-Δθ by a small coverage Δθ from the coverage of a pumping point Δ. (author)

  8. True and False Liberty. Instructions for a Sovereign Pope (1589 : Camillo Paleotti's De Repubblica bononiensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela De Benedictis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible to be a free citizen and the subject of a sovereign contemporaneously? In 1589, Camillo Paleotti, a Bolognese senator and the city's ambassador to Rome, sought to explain how in a treatise directed to Pope Sixtus V. Until his election, the pope had implemented a policy seeking to nullify Bolognàs libertas and the liberties exercised by its citizens in the governance of the res publica. Paleotti composed a brief manuscript treatise, De Repubblica, that is divided into two parts. The first treats the definition of the term res publica, the models of the ancient republics, and the problem of the best regime. The second considers Bolognàs status within the Papal State, as well as traditional Bolognese customs. My paper centers on the distinction between false and true libertas made by Paleotti in addressing the question of whether Bolognese libertas is compatible with subjection to the pope.

  9. Robot off-line programming and simulation as a true CIME-subsystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L.F; Trostmann, S; Trostmann, Erik

    1992-01-01

    A robot off-line programming and real-time simulation system, ROPSIM, which is based on the neutral interface concept and features simulation of the dynamics of both the controller and robot arm, has been developed. To avoid dependency on dedicated robot models, ROPSIM is based on generic models ...... model definition data and robot program definition data with systems of other origin or different functionality......A robot off-line programming and real-time simulation system, ROPSIM, which is based on the neutral interface concept and features simulation of the dynamics of both the controller and robot arm, has been developed. To avoid dependency on dedicated robot models, ROPSIM is based on generic models...... describing the robot controller, robot arm geometry, and the robot and arm kinetics. The software was developed using the C++ programming language. The key modules are discussed. The system is a true computer-integrated manufacturing and engineering subsystem which facilitates the exchange and reuse of robot...

  10. Gusev Rocks Solidified from Lava (Approximate True Color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    features investigated by Spirit during the Chinese New Year celebration period. In ancient Chinese myth, FuYi was the first great emperor and lived in the east. He explained the theory of 'Yin' and 'Yang' to his people, invented the net to catch fish, was the first to use fire to cook food, and invented a musical instrument known as the 'Se' to accompany his peoples' songs and dances. Other rocks and features are being informally named for Chinese gods, warriors, inventors, and scientists, as well as rivers, lakes, and mountains. Spirit took this image on the rover's Martian day, or sol, 731 (Jan. 23, 2006). This is an approximate true color rendering combining images taken with the Pancam's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  11. Agreement and repeatability of vascular reactivity estimates based on a breath-hold task and a resting state scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipp, Ilona; Murphy, Kevin; Caseras, Xavier; Wise, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    FMRI BOLD responses to changes in neural activity are influenced by the reactivity of the vasculature. By complementing a task-related BOLD acquisition with a vascular reactivity measure obtained through breath-holding or hypercapnia, this unwanted variance can be statistically reduced in the BOLD responses of interest. Recently, it has been suggested that vascular reactivity can also be estimated using a resting state scan. This study aimed to compare three breath-hold based analysis approaches (block design, sine–cosine regressor and CO2 regressor) and a resting state approach (CO2 regressor) to measure vascular reactivity. We tested BOLD variance explained by the model and repeatability of the measures. Fifteen healthy participants underwent a breath-hold task and a resting state scan with end-tidal CO2 being recorded during both. Vascular reactivity was defined as CO2-related BOLD percent signal change/mm Hg change in CO2. Maps and regional vascular reactivity estimates showed high repeatability when the breath-hold task was used. Repeatability and variance explained by the CO2 trace regressor were lower for the resting state data based approach, which resulted in highly variable measures of vascular reactivity. We conclude that breath-hold based vascular reactivity estimations are more repeatable than resting-based estimates, and that there are limitations with replacing breath-hold scans by resting state scans for vascular reactivity assessment. PMID:25795342

  12. C-14/I-29 Preservation and Hold Time Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitchen, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-04-08

    Preservation and hold time of radionuclides must account for both nuclear half-lives and nonnuclear loss mechanisms, but variations in the latter are often neglected. Metals-based defaults are inappropriate for long-lived non-metals C-14 and I-129, which are vulnerable to chemical and biological volatilization. Non-acidification is already widely practiced for them. Recommended addition measures from radiological and chemical literature include glass containers where possible, water filtration where possible, headspace minimization, light shielding, cold (4°C) storage and unfiltered water hold time of 28 days. Soil hold time may need to be shortened when water-logged, excessively sandy, or still adjusting to significant new contamination.

  13. Magnetic insulation to improve voltage holding in electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, L. R.

    2009-01-01

    Voltage holding in high voltage electrostatic accelerators is a longstanding problem which limits the practically obtainable performance of most systems. This paper proposes an idea for improving the voltage holding in electrostatic accelerators by suppressing breakdowns between successive stages of an accelerator. The idea consists of flowing electric currents along the accelerator electrodes to produce magnetic fields which envelope each electrode and its support structure, so as to prevent very low energy electrons from leaving the surfaces of electrodes and subsequently picking up energy from the electric field. In order to be useful in some applications, this magnetic insulation would only need to produce modest gains in voltage holding capability, and its utility can be easily tested experimentally as described herein.

  14. Holding Pressure and Its Influence on Quality in PIM Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Petera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The PIM (powder injection molding process consists of several steps in which faults can occur. The quality of the part that is produced usually cannot be seen until the end of the process. It is therefore necessary to find a way to discover the fault earlier in the process. The cause of defects is very often “phase separation” (inhomogeneity in powder distribution, which can also be influenced by the holding pressure. This paper evaluates the powder distribution with a new method based on density measurement. Measurements were made using various holding pressure values.

  15. The Effect of Holding a Research Chair on Scientists’ Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirnezami, S.R.; Beaudry, C.

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines the effect of holding Canada Research Chair (CRC) on a scientist’s number of citations as a measure of research impact, based on an econometric analysis with combined data on Quebec scientists’ funding and journal publication. Using Generalized Least Square (GLS) method for regression analysis, the results show that holding either tier-1 or tier- 2 of CRC significantly and positively results in conducting research with higher impact. This finding, however, does not necessarily imply that the others are the lesser scientists. (Author)

  16. Having one's cake and eating it, too: combining true experiments with regression discontinuity designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Marvin B

    2008-10-01

    Both true experiments and regression discontinuity (RD) designs produce unbiased estimates of effects. However, true experiments are, of course, often criticized on equity grounds, whereas RD designs entail sacrifices in terms of statistical precision. In this article, a hybrid of true experiments and RD designs is considered. This hybrid entails smaller sacrifices in statistical efficiency than RD designs and also is likely to be judged as being considerably more fair than true experiments and possible even RD designs. Moreover, unlike pure RD designs, the hybrid design considered here can be employed in situations in which the variable on which assignment to treatment condition is based takes on only a discrete set of values.

  17. THE CONFLICT BETWEEN THE TRUE AND FAIR VIEW AND THE PRUDENCE IN ROMANIAN ACCOUNTING

    OpenAIRE

    Violeta Isai; Simona Anca Cozma

    2015-01-01

    In the accounts of Romania, the principle of true and fair view and the prudence principle are in a relationship of mutual conditioning. True and fair view has its origins in Anglo-Saxon accounting, the British, and English translation of the expression is "true and fair view". In the context of Romania's national, a first reference to the concept of true and fair view a we identify in the root Accounting Law No 82/1991 which lays down that objective accounting- ensuring accurate image, clear...

  18. Studies on the true coincidence correction in measuring filter samples by gamma spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Lian Qi; Chang Yong Fu; Xia Bing

    2002-01-01

    The true coincidence correction in measuring filter samples has been studied by high efficiency HPGe gamma detectors. The true coincidence correction for a specific three excited levels de-excitation case has been analyzed, and the typical analytical expressions of true coincidence correction factors have been given. According to the measured relative efficiency on the detector surface with 8 'single' energy gamma emitters and efficiency of filter samples, the peak and total efficiency surfaces are fitted. The true coincidence correction factors of sup 6 sup 0 Co and sup 1 sup 5 sup 2 Eu calculated by the efficiency surfaces agree well with experimental results

  19. True and false DRM memories: differences detected with an implicit task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddalena eMarini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Memory is prone to illusions. When people are presented with lists of words associated with a non-presented critical lure, they produce a high level of false recognitions (false memories for non-presented related stimuli indistinguishable, at the explicit level, from presented words (DRM paradigm. We assessed whether true and false DRM memories can be distinguished at the implicit level by using the autobiographical IAT (aIAT, a novel method based on indirect measures that permits to detect true autobiographical events encoded in the respondent's mind/brain. In our experiment, after a DRM task participants performed two aIATs: the first aimed at testing implicit memory for presented words (true-memories aIAT and the second aimed at evaluating implicit memory for critical lures (false-memories aIAT. Specifically, the two aIATs assessed the association of presented words and critical lures with the logical dimension true. Results showed that the aIAT detected a greater association of presented words than critical lures with the logical dimension true. This result indicates that although true and false DRM memories are indistinguishable at the explicit level a different association of the true and false DRM memories with the logical dimension true can be detected at the implicit level, and suggests that the aIAT may be a sensitive instrument to detect differences between true and false DRM memories.

  20. True and False DRM Memories: Differences Detected with an Implicit Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Maddalena; Agosta, Sara; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Barba, Gianfranco Dalla; Sartori, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Memory is prone to illusions. When people are presented with lists of words associated with a non-presented critical lure, they produce a high level of false recognitions (false memories) for non-presented related stimuli indistinguishable, at the explicit level, from presented words (DRM paradigm). We assessed whether true and false DRM memories can be distinguished at the implicit level by using the autobiographical IAT (aIAT), a novel method based on indirect measures that permits to detect true autobiographical events encoded in the respondent's mind/brain. In our experiment, after a DRM task participants performed two aIATs: the first aimed at testing implicit memory for presented words (true-memories aIAT) and the second aimed at evaluating implicit memory for critical lures (false-memories aIAT). Specifically, the two aIATs assessed the association of presented words and critical lures with the logical dimension "true." Results showed that the aIAT detected a greater association of presented words than critical lures with the logical dimension "true." This result indicates that although true and false DRM memories are indistinguishable at the explicit level a different association of the true and false DRM memories with the logical dimension "true" can be detected at the implicit level, and suggests that the aIAT may be a sensitive instrument to detect differences between true and false DRM memories.

  1. Delineation of the anatomical relationship of innominate artery and trachea by respiratory-gated MR imaging with true FISP sequence in patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Yoshinao; Sato, Noriko; Sugai, Kenji; Endo, Yusaku; Matsufuji, Hiroki; Oomi, Tsuyoshi; Honzawa, Shiho; Sasaki, Masayuki

    2008-01-01

    Tracheoinnominate artery fistula is a well-known complication that arises on using a cannula. Therefore, routine examination of the anatomical relationship of the innominate artery and trachea should be carried out. We evaluated the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging in 5 patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities (SMID) using a combination of true-fast imaging of steady-state precession (true-FISP) sequences and two-dimensional prospective acquisition correction (2D-PACE). For all patients, the trachea and the innominate artery were identified without sedation and contrast media. In one patient, the innominate artery was observed to be pressing on the trachea. In three patients, the trachea and innominate artery were brought very close each other, and in the other patient the anatomical relationship of the trachea and surrounding structure was delineated before tracheotomy. The validity of true-FISP sequences combined with the respiratory-gated technique was confirmed useful for the patients who are difficult to lie quietly and to hold their breath voluntarily. (author)

  2. Final report of the TRUE Block Scale project. 2. Tracer tests in the block scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Peter; Byegaard, Johan; Winberg, Anders

    2002-05-01

    The tracer test programme of the TRUE Block Scale Project involved 14 tracer tests campaigns, including performance of 32 tracer injections in 16 different combinations of source and sink sections (flow paths) varying in length between 10 to 130 metres, and involving one or more structures. Average, travel times varied between 1.5 and >2000 hours. Tracer dilution tests performed in conjunction with cross-hole hydraulic pumping tests were found to be a very important part of the pre-tests, where the results were used to identify and screen among possible injection points, and to verify the hydrostructural model valid at a given time. The main problem faced in the block scale tests was to select a test geometry, which gave a sufficiently high mass recovery, and at the same time enabled performance of cross-hole sorbing tracer tests within reasonable time frames. Three different injection methods were applied during the test programme; decaying pulse, finite pulse and forced pulse (unequal dipole). During the later phases of the tracer test programme it was identified that forced injection had to be employed in order to enable detection of tracer at the sink due to strong dilution, and also to avoid problems with artificially induced tailing in the injection signal. Sorbing (reactive) tracers were selected among the radioactive isotopes of the alkali and alkaline earth metals previously used in the TRUE- 1 experiments. It was decided that at least one slightly sorbing tracer and one strongly sorbing tracer should be used in each injection. Non-sorbing tracers were used for conservative reference, e.g., 82 Br - , 186 ReO 4 , HTO (tritiated water) and 131 I - . In two of the injections the radioactive non-sorbing tracers were rather short-lived and Uranine and Naphthionate were used as complementary conservative tracers. Surface distribution coefficients, K a , were evaluated from TRUE-1 and TRUE Block Scale data, making use of the retardation noted in the injection

  3. SU-F-P-30: Clinical Assessment of Auto Beam-Hold Triggered by Fiducial Localization During Prostate RapidArc Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, P; Chen, Q [Flower Hospital, Sylvania, OH (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the clinical efficacy of auto beam hold during prostate RapidArc delivery, triggered by fiducial localization on kV imaging with a Varian True Beam. Methods: Prostate patients with four gold fiducials were candidates in this study. Daily setup was accomplished by aligning to fiducials using orthogonal kV imaging. During RapidArc delivery, a kV image was automatically acquired with a momentary beam hold every 60 degrees of gantry rotation. The position of each fiducial was identified by a search algorithm and compared to a predetermined 1.4 cm diameter target area. Treatment continued if all the fiducials were within the target area. If any fiducial was outside the target area the beam hold was not released, and the operators determined if the patient needed re-alignment using the daily setup method. Results: Four patients were initially selected. For three patients, the auto beam hold performed seamlessly. In one instance, the system correctly identified misaligned fiducials, stopped treatment, and the patient was re-positioned. The fourth patient had a prosthetic hip which sometimes blocked the fiducials and caused the fiducial search algorithm to fail. The auto beam hold was disabled for this patient and the therapists manually monitored the fiducial positions during treatment. Average delivery time for a 2-arc fraction was increased by 59 seconds. Phantom studies indicated the dose discrepancy related to multiple beam holds is <0.1%. For a plan with 43 fractions, the additional imaging increased dose by an estimated 68 cGy. Conclusion: Automated intrafraction kV imaging can effectively perform auto beam holds due to patient movement, with the exception of prosthetic hip patients. The additional imaging dose and delivery time are clinically acceptable. It may be a cost-effective alternative to Calypso in RapidArc prostate patient delivery. Further study is warranted to explore its feasibility under various clinical conditions.

  4. Update-in-Place Analysis for True Multidimensional Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Fitzgerald

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Applicative languages have been proposed for defining algorithms for parallel architectures because they are implicitly parallel and lack side effects. However, straightforward implementations of applicative-language compilers may induce large amounts of copying to preserve program semantics. The unnecessary copying of data can increase both the execution time and the memory requirements of an application. To eliminate the unnecessary copying of data, the Sisal compiler uses both build-in-place and update-in-place analyses. These optimizations remove unnecessary array copy operations through compile-time analysis. Both build-in-place and update-in-place are based on hierarchical ragged arrays, i.e., the vector-of-vectors array model. Although this array model is convenient for certain applications, many optimizations are precluded, e.g., vectorization. To compensate for this deficiency, new languages, such as Sisal 2.0, have extended array models that allow for both high-level array operations to be performed and efficient implementations to be devised. In this article, we introduce a new method to perform update-in-place analysis that is applicable to arrays stored either in hierarchical or in contiguous storage. Consequently, the array model that is appropriate for an application can be selected without the loss of performance. Moreover, our analysis is more amenable for distributed memory and large software systems.

  5. Effects of Sulpiride on True and False Memories of Thematically Related Pictures and Associated Words in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Regina V; Ribeiro, Rafaela L; de Souza, Altay A Lino; Galduróz, José Carlos F; Covolan, Luciene; Bueno, Orlando F A

    2016-01-01

    Episodic memory, working memory, emotional memory, and attention are subject to dopaminergic modulation. However, the potential role of dopamine on the generation of false memories is unknown. This study defined the role of the dopamine D2 receptor on true and false recognition memories. Twenty-four young, healthy volunteers ingested a single dose of placebo or 400 mg oral sulpiride, a dopamine D2-receptor antagonist, just before starting the recognition memory task in a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial. The sulpiride group presented more false recognitions during visual and verbal processing than the placebo group, although both groups had the same indices of true memory. These findings demonstrate that dopamine D2 receptors blockade in healthy volunteers can specifically increase the rate of false recognitions. The findings fit well the two-process view of causes of false memories, the activation/monitoring failures model.

  6. Finite element analysis of container ship's cargo hold using ANSYS and POSEIDON software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanny, Tania Tamiz; Akter, Naznin; Amin, Osman Md.

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays ship structural analysis has become an integral part of the preliminary ship design providing further support for the development and detail design of ship structures. Structural analyses of container ship's cargo holds are carried out for the balancing of their safety and capacity, as those ships are exposed to the high risk of structural damage during voyage. Two different design methodologies have been considered for the structural analysis of a container ship's cargo hold. One is rule-based methodology and the other is a more conventional software based analyses. The rule based analysis is done by DNV-GL's software POSEIDON and the conventional package based analysis is done by ANSYS structural module. Both methods have been applied to analyze some of the mechanical properties of the model such as total deformation, stress-strain distribution, Von Mises stress, Fatigue etc., following different design bases and approaches, to indicate some guidance's for further improvements in ship structural design.

  7. 12 CFR 575.14 - Subsidiary holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... company. The consideration for the shares shall be cash, tangible or intangible property (to the extent... debts and liabilities of the MHC subsidiary holding company, to receive the remaining assets of the MHC.... Beneficial Ownership Limitation. No person may directly or indirectly offer to acquire or acquire the...

  8. 49 CFR 176.145 - Segregation in single hold vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Segregation in single hold vessels. 176.145 Section 176.145 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Segregation § 176.145 Segregation in...

  9. Board of visitors committee to hold planning retreat

    OpenAIRE

    Hincker, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    The Academic Affairs Committees of the Virginia Tech Board of Visitors will hold a planning retreat in open session on Saturday, Sept 13 from 9:30 a.m. to noon in the Duck Pond Room at the Inn at Virginia Tech.

  10. Carbon Dioxide Changes in Hyperventilation and Breath-hold Diving

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-01-05

    Jan 5, 1974 ... South Africa. S. Afr. Med. l., 48, 18 (1974). Under conditions of normal atmospheric pressure, breath- holding results in important changes in the mechanism whereby the CO, is transported ... haemoglobin in the face of falling CO, output to the ... Hong,' in a field study of Korean diving women, noted that they ...

  11. Implementing the South African water policy: holding the vision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementing the South African water policy: holding the vision while exploring an uncharted mountain. HM MacKay, KH Rogers, DJ Roux. Abstract. This paper discusses the long-term implementation of the South African National Water Policy of 1997, and addresses some of the difficult issues of the management and ...

  12. Brain damage in commercial breath-hold divers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyotaka Kohshi

    Full Text Available Acute decompression illness (DCI involving the brain (Cerebral DCI is one of the most serious forms of diving-related injuries which may leave residual brain damage. Cerebral DCI occurs in compressed air and in breath-hold divers, likewise. We conducted this study to investigate whether long-term breath-hold divers who may be exposed to repeated symptomatic and asymptomatic brain injuries, show brain damage on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.Our study subjects were 12 commercial breath-hold divers (Ama with long histories of diving work in a district of Japan. We obtained information on their diving practices and the presence or absence of medical problems, especially DCI events. All participants were examined with MRI to determine the prevalence of brain lesions.Out of 12 Ama divers (mean age: 54.9±5.1 years, four had histories of cerebral DCI events, and 11 divers demonstrated ischemic lesions of the brain on MRI studies. The lesions were situated in the cortical and/or subcortical area (9 cases, white matters (4 cases, the basal ganglia (4 cases, and the thalamus (1 case. Subdural fluid collections were seen in 2 cases.These results suggest that commercial breath-hold divers are at a risk of clinical or subclinical brain injury which may affect the long-term neuropsychological health of divers.

  13. Voluntary breath holding affects spontaneous brain activity measured by magnetoencephalography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, N. A.; Reits, D.

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity was measured by multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG) during voluntary breath holds. Significant changes in the activity are limited to the alpha rhythm: 0.25 Hz frequency increase and narrowing of the peak. The area of alpha activity shifts slightly toward (fronto-)

  14. Considerable pancreatic tumor motion during breath-holding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, Eelco; van der Horst, Astrid; Versteijne, Eva; Bel, Arjan; van Tienhoven, Geertjan

    2016-01-01

    Breath-holding (BH) is often used to reduce abdominal organ motion during radiotherapy. However, for inhale BH, abdominal tumor motion during BH has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to quantify tumor motion during inhale BH and tumor position variations between consecutive inhale

  15. P Wave Dispersion in Children with Breath-holding Spells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahsin Gider

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A breath-holding spell (BHS is a clinical feature frequently seen in infancy and early childhood and generally bringing children to pediatric cardiology outpatient clinics with the suspicion of cardiac disease. In this study, P wave dispersion (PWD, which is a marker of regional differences in atrial depolarization in electrocardiography and has been demonstrated to be beneficial in defining the risk of supraventricular tachycardia in various patient groups, was studied in children who presented with breath-holding spells. Materials and Methods: Forty-seven patients with breath-holding spells and 36 healthy children as a control group were included in this study. We performed electrocardiography and transthoracic echocardiography on patients and controls. PWD, which is defined as the difference between maximum and minimum p wave duration, was also calculated. Statistical analysis in the study was performed using SPSS version 22.0 and p<0.05 was accepted as significant. Results: Our study indicated that there were no statistically significant differences between the patients and controls in minimum, maximum p wave duration and PWD. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that atrial conduction is probably unaffected in children with breath-holding spells.

  16. 31 CFR 223.16 - List of certificate holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false List of certificate holding companies. 223.16 Section 223.16 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE SURETY COMPANIES DOING BUSINESS...

  17. Analysis of breath holding for lung CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuda, Toshizo; Eiho, Shigeru; Kuroda, Chikazumi; Hashimoto, Tsutomu

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: Movement artifact during lung CT can degrade image quality and, particularly in the case of computer aided diagnosis, make diagnosis inaccurate. In this study, diaphragmatic movement during full arrested inspiration in lung CT was evaluated to identify the optimum time after commencement of breath holding for image acquisition. Methods: For analysis two lung areas were used in this study. These areas, on two images from different time periods after breath holding on the same slice, were evaluated in 47 patients. Results: In approximately 74% of the patients 1 s after commencement of breath holding diaphragm motion was noted to be in the cranial direction. A comparison of the lung areas after 30 s and those after 1 s and 4 s showed significant differences. Those after 7 s showed no significant difference. Conclusions: The results show that the lung base should be scanned at 7 s from the commencement of breath holding. Also, the lungs should also be scanned from the base to apex

  18. Physiological alterations in UV-irradiated cells: liquid holding recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragao, B.R.

    1980-01-01

    The biochemical and physiological alterations that occur in ultraviolet irradiated cells, during liquid holding have been studied. Incubation in buffer acts not to interfer directly with the mechanic repairs but by promoting metabolic alterations that would block some irreversible and lethal physiological responses. (L.M.J.) [pt

  19. The myth of the early aviation patent hold-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katznelson, Ron D; Howells, John

    2015-01-01

    The prevailing historical accounts of the formation of the U.S. aircraft “patent pool” in 1917 assume the U.S. Government necessarily intervened to alleviate a patent hold-up among private aircraft manufacturers. We show these accounts to be inconsistent with the historical facts. We show that de...

  20. 76 FR 54717 - Supervised Securities Holding Companies Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... changes can the Board incorporate to make the regulation easier to understand? IV. Administrative Law... of foreign law that such company be subject to comprehensive consolidated supervision. Taking these... OO; Docket No. R-1430] RIN 7100-AD 81 Supervised Securities Holding Companies Registration AGENCY...

  1. 77 FR 32881 - Supervised Securities Holding Company Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ...), The Report of Foreign Banking Organizations (FR Y-7), The Consolidated Financial Statements for Bank... Y-9ES), The Supplement to the Consolidated Financial Statements for Bank Holding Companies (FR Y-9CS... comprehensive consolidated supervision by a foreign regulator, a nonbank financial company supervised by the...

  2. Joint moments required to hold a posture while somersaulting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikl, Joanne

    2018-02-01

    A pure somersault is a key skill in diving and gymnastics, and involves rotation about the transverse axis of the body. As the rotational speed increases the effort required to maintain a specified posture increases. This paper derives equations for the joint moments required for an athlete to hold three sport specific postures as a function of rotational speed. The joint moment is related to the isometric muscular strength and is the limiting factor of an athlete in their ability to hold a fixed posture while somersaulting. One inertial property data set was used to explore the joint moments required for three sport specific postures -tuck, pike and layout-. Even though the joint moments are proportional to the square of angular velocity, the constant of proportionality differs for each joint, and so greater isometric strength is required at some joints; especially the hips and through the torso. The situation when the hands were allowed to hold the legs and when they did not has been considered. It was found that the arms holding an observed point on the lower legs could reduce the joint moments required through the legs and torso. The direction of the pull of the hands against the legs is critical for effectiveness. For the tuck this included a large component tangential to the shank and so emphasises the need to maximise friction between the shank and hands. For the pike the pull normal to the shank was more important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Automated Inventory Control System for Nigeria Power Holding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... Automated Inventory Control System for Nigeria Power Holding. Ekechukwu Boniface. 1. , Henry Nwokoye. 1. , Abara Josiah Chukwuemeka. 2. 1Department of Computer Science, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, PMB5025 Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria boni_eke@yahoo.com. 2Department of Physics, Federal ...

  4. 26 CFR 25.2701-6 - Indirect holding of interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Special Valuation Rules § 25.2701-6..., an individual is treated as holding an equity interest to the extent the interest is held indirectly through a corporation, partnership, estate, trust, or other entity. If an equity interest is treated as...

  5. Water holding capacity and enzymatic modification of pressed potato fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramasamy, U.

    2014-01-01

    Cell wall polysaccharides (CWPs) contribute to the water holding capacity (WHC) of fibre rich feeds, such as pressed potato fibres (PPF). However, the role of CWPs on the WHC of PPF was unidentified so far.

    PPF was characterized to be abundant in arabinogalactan (AG) linked

  6. 33 CFR 100.30 - Approval required for holding event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... event. 100.30 Section 100.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... holding event. (a) An event for which application is required under § 100.15(a) shall be held only after approval of such event by the District Commander, except that applications referred to a State under § 100...

  7. Extracting Buildings from True Color Stereo Aerial Images Using a Decision Making Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eufemia Tarantino

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The automatic extraction of buildings from true color stereo aerial imagery in a dense built-up area is the main focus of this paper. Our approach strategy aimed at reducing the complexity of the image content by means of a three-step procedure combining reliable geospatial image analysis techniques. Even if it is a rudimentary first step towards a more general approach, the method presented proved useful in urban sprawl studies for rapid map production in flat area by retrieving indispensable information on buildings from scanned historic aerial photography. After the preliminary creation of a photogrammetric model to manage Digital Surface Model and orthophotos, five intermediate mask-layers data (Elevation, Slope, Vegetation, Shadow, Canny, Shadow, Edges were processed through the combined use of remote sensing image processing and GIS software environments. Lastly, a rectangular building block model without roof structures (Level of Detail, LoD1 was automatically generated. System performance was evaluated with objective criteria, showing good results in a complex urban area featuring various types of building objects.

  8. Ultrasound lung "comets" increase after breath-hold diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, Kate; Germonpré, Peter; Charbel, Brian; Cialoni, Danilo; Musimu, Patrick; Sponsiello, Nicola; Marroni, Alessandro; Pastouret, Frédéric; Balestra, Costantino

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the ultrasound lung comets (ULCs) variation, which are a sign of extra-vascular lung water. Forty-two healthy individuals performed breath-hold diving in different conditions: dynamic surface apnea; deep variable-weight apnea and shallow, face immersed without effort (static maximal and non-maximal). The number of ULCs was evaluated by means of an ultrasound scan of the chest, before and after breath-hold diving sessions. The ULC score increased significantly from baseline after dynamic surface apnea (p = 0.0068), after deep breath-hold sessions (p = 0.0018), and after static maximal apnea (p = 0.031). There was no statistically significant difference between the average increase of ULC scores after dynamic surface apnea and deep breath-hold diving. We, therefore, postulate that extravascular lung water accumulation may be due to other factors than (deep) immersion alone, because it occurs during dynamic surface apnea as well. Three mechanisms may be responsible for this. First, the immersion-induced hydrostatic pressure gradient applied on the body causes a shift of peripheral venous blood towards the thorax. Second, the blood pooling effect found during the diving response Redistributes blood to the pulmonary vascular bed. Third, it is possible that the intense involuntary diaphragmatic contractions occurring during the "struggle phase" of the breath-hold can also produce a blood shift from the pulmonary capillaries to the pulmonary alveoli. A combination of these factors may explain the observed increase in ULC scores in deep, shallow maximal and shallow dynamic apneas, whereas shallow non-maximal apneas seem to be not "ULC provoking".

  9. Consistent Belief in a Good True Self in Misanthropes and Three Interdependent Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Freitas, Julian; Sarkissian, Hagop; Newman, George E; Grossmann, Igor; De Brigard, Felipe; Luco, Andres; Knobe, Joshua

    2017-06-06

    People sometimes explain behavior by appealing to an essentialist concept of the self, often referred to as the true self. Existing studies suggest that people tend to believe that the true self is morally virtuous; that is deep inside, every person is motivated to behave in morally good ways. Is this belief particular to individuals with optimistic beliefs or people from Western cultures, or does it reflect a widely held cognitive bias in how people understand the self? To address this question, we tested the good true self theory against two potential boundary conditions that are known to elicit different beliefs about the self as a whole. Study 1 tested whether individual differences in misanthropy-the tendency to view humans negatively-predict beliefs about the good true self in an American sample. The results indicate a consistent belief in a good true self, even among individuals who have an explicitly pessimistic view of others. Study 2 compared true self-attributions across cultural groups, by comparing samples from an independent country (USA) and a diverse set of interdependent countries (Russia, Singapore, and Colombia). Results indicated that the direction and magnitude of the effect are comparable across all groups we tested. The belief in a good true self appears robust across groups varying in cultural orientation or misanthropy, suggesting a consistent psychological tendency to view the true self as morally good. © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. Thine Own Self: True Self-Concept Accessibility and Meaning in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Rebecca J.; Hicks, Joshua A.; Arndt, Jamie; King, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    A number of philosophical and psychological theories suggest the true self is an important contributor to well-being. The present research examined whether the cognitive accessibility of the true self-concept would predict the experience of meaning in life. To ensure that any observed effects were due to the true self-concept rather than the self-concept more generally, we utilized actual self-concept accessibility as a control variable in all studies. True and actual self-concepts were defined as including those traits which are enacted around close others versus most others (Studies 1 through 3) or as traits that refer to “who you really are” vs. “who you are during most of your activities” (Studies 4 and 5), respectively. Studies 1 and 2 showed that individual differences in true self-concept accessibility, but not differences in actual self-concept accessibility, predicted meaning in life. Study 3 showed that priming traits related to the true self led to enhanced meaning in life. Studies 4 and 5 provided correlational and experimental support for the role of true self-concept accessibility in meaning in life, even when traits were defined without reference to social relationships and when state self-esteem and self-reported authenticity were controlled. Implications for the study of the true self-concept and authenticity are discussed. PMID:19159144

  11. Measuring True Sales and Underreporting with Matched Firm-Level Survey and Tax-Office Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, F.; Oostendorp, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses firm-level survey data matched with official tax records to estimate the unobserved true sales of formal firms in Mongolia. Taking into account firm-level incentives to comply with taxes and a production function technology linking unobserved true sales with observable firm-level

  12. Penalties in multiple-choice and true-false questions | Koeslag ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In multiple-choice and true-false (T-F) questions a student expresses his ignorance by leaving questions unanswered, guessing randomly, answering according to some predetermined formula or, in T-F tests, by marking all those which are unknown as 'true' or all as 'false'. Each of these no-knowledge strategies should, ...

  13. Developmentally Invariant Dissociations in Children's True and False Memories: Not All Relatedness Is Created Equal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.

    2006-01-01

    The role of categorical versus associative relations in 5-, 7-, and 11-year-old children's true and false memories was examined using the Deese--Roediger--McDermott (DRM) paradigm and categorized lists of pictures or words with or without category labels as primes. For true items, recall increased with age and categorized lists were better…

  14. Penalties true-false in multiple-choice questIons and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary. In multiple-choice and true-false (T-F) questions a student expresses his ignorance by leaving ques- tions unanswered, guessing randomly, answering according to some predetermined formul~ or, in. T-F tests, by marking all those which are unknown as 'true' or all as 'false'. Each of these no-knowledge.

  15. Filing false vice reports: Distinguishing true from false allegations of rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zutter, A.; Horselenberg, R.; van Koppen, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    False allegations constitute a problem since they may cause harm. To study the difference between true and false allegations we used a quasi-experimental approach. In the control condition likely true allegations were retrieved from criminal files. The victims, all female, were between the ages of

  16. THE CONFLICT BETWEEN THE TRUE AND FAIR VIEW AND THE PRUDENCE IN ROMANIAN ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Isai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the accounts of Romania, the principle of true and fair view and the prudence principle are in a relationship of mutual conditioning. True and fair view has its origins in Anglo-Saxon accounting, the British, and English translation of the expression is "true and fair view". In the context of Romania's national, a first reference to the concept of true and fair view a we identify in the root Accounting Law No 82/1991 which lays down that objective accounting- ensuring accurate image, clear, and complete heritage of the financial situation and the results. Prudence is to be found in sincerity (in the direction of the present in the financial statements facts which might influence the recipient information and should serve the concept of true and fair view.

  17. 78 FR 64596 - Celerity Partners IV, LLC, Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... Delaware. Applicants currently control two carriers, Hotard Coaches, Inc. (Coaches) and Industrial Bus Lines, Inc. d/b/a All Aboard America! (Industrial).\\2\\ Coaches and Industrial hold authority from the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) as motor carriers of passengers (license nos. MC...

  18. ANALISIS BEBERAPA FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI HOLDING PERIOD SAHAM BIASA PADA PERUSAHAAN GO PUBLIC YANG TERCATAT DALAM INDEX LQ45

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinus - Maulina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   There are many factors influencing the decision making of investors in holding their possession on security especially common stock. Monetary crisis condition has proved to be able to influence the investors’ attitude in Jakarta Stock Market in investing their capital especially about the long/short of holding a security. This study is conducted based on the differentiation of conclusion/result of study from previous studies about decision to hold security in the long/short term. The aim of this study is to analyze variables influencing holding period of common stock on public firm listed in LQ 45 Index, that are firms generally have good performance assessed based on both market performance and firm fundamental, then analyzing the dominance influencing variable. This study is conducted in Jakarta Stock Exchange with population of stocks listed in LQ 45 index in period of 2000 – 2001 with the total of 64 firms. The Sample Taking Method is purposive sampling with the criteria that the firms at least listed twice in LQ45 index on the study period. The analysis method used to analyze independent variables: spread, market value, variance return, and dividend pay out ratio and dependent variable: holding period is two stage least squares multiple regression model,  since there is possibility that the correlation of bid-ask spread from the current period and bid-ask spread and holding period from the previous period for every stock take place simultaneously. Results of the study showed that, partially, bid-ask spread variable that constitutes the different value between the highest price provided paid by buyer with the lowest price offered by seller has significance positive correlation on holding period of common stock and there is inverse correlation/significance negative between variance return variable that reflect the risk rate from stock effected by fluctuation of stock price and holding period of common stock. While

  19. Fast and Accurate Prediction of Stratified Steel Temperature During Holding Period of Ladle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deodhar, Anirudh; Singh, Umesh; Shukla, Rishabh; Gautham, B. P.; Singh, Amarendra K.

    2017-04-01

    Thermal stratification of liquid steel in a ladle during the holding period and the teeming operation has a direct bearing on the superheat available at the caster and hence on the caster set points such as casting speed and cooling rates. The changes in the caster set points are typically carried out based on temperature measurements at the end of tundish outlet. Thermal prediction models provide advance knowledge of the influence of process and design parameters on the steel temperature at various stages. Therefore, they can be used in making accurate decisions about the caster set points in real time. However, this requires both fast and accurate thermal prediction models. In this work, we develop a surrogate model for the prediction of thermal stratification using data extracted from a set of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, pre-determined using design of experiments technique. Regression method is used for training the predictor. The model predicts the stratified temperature profile instantaneously, for a given set of process parameters such as initial steel temperature, refractory heat content, slag thickness, and holding time. More than 96 pct of the predicted values are within an error range of ±5 K (±5 °C), when compared against corresponding CFD results. Considering its accuracy and computational efficiency, the model can be extended for thermal control of casting operations. This work also sets a benchmark for developing similar thermal models for downstream processes such as tundish and caster.

  20. A Comparison of the Physiological Responses to Underwater Arm Cranking and Breath Holding Between Synchronized Swimmers and Breath Holding Untrained Women

    OpenAIRE

    Alentejano, Teresa C.; Bell, Gordon J.; Marshall, Dru

    2012-01-01

    Exercise and breath holding in the water such as that performed in the sport of synchronized swimming may evoke the physiological consequences of the diving response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of breath holding during underwater arm cranking in synchronized swimmers who are trained in breath holding and compare these responses to untrained women. Each participant performed 6 breath holding periods in the water (2 ? 10s, 2 ? 20s and 2 ? 25s) with ...

  1. A comparison of the physiological responses to underwater arm cranking and breath holding between synchronized swimmers and breath holding untrained women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alentejano, Teresa C; Bell, Gordon J; Marshall, Dru

    2012-05-01

    Exercise and breath holding in the water such as that performed in the sport of synchronized swimming may evoke the physiological consequences of the diving response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of breath holding during underwater arm cranking in synchronized swimmers who are trained in breath holding and compare these responses to untrained women. Each participant performed 6 breath holding periods in the water (2 × 10s, 2 × 20s and 2 × 25s) with 2 minutes of normal breathing in between, in either an ascending or descending order while performing arm crank exercise. The intensity of arm crank exercise was set below the individual ventilatory threshold. Both synchronized swimmers and controls were matched on sitting height and then randomly divided into 2 groups: one group started breath holding with the longest (25s) breath holding periods while the other group began breath holding with the shortest (10s) breath holding periods. The synchronized swimmers experienced a significant decrease in heart rate while breath holding for 20 and 25s but the changes in heart rate for the control group was not consistent between subgroups. Full recovery from breath holding was identified for minute ventilation after 25s of recovery from breath holding for all groups. Results suggest synchronized swimmers exhibited a better adaptation to breath holding while exercising underwater.

  2. Hobbes on natural philosophy as "True Physics" and mixed mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Marcus P

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, I offer an alternative account of the relationship of Hobbesian geometry to natural philosophy by arguing that mixed mathematics provided Hobbes with a model for thinking about it. In mixed mathematics, one may borrow causal principles from one science and use them in another science without there being a deductive relationship between those two sciences. Natural philosophy for Hobbes is mixed because an explanation may combine observations from experience (the 'that') with causal principles from geometry (the 'why'). My argument shows that Hobbesian natural philosophy relies upon suppositions that bodies plausibly behave according to these borrowed causal principles from geometry, acknowledging that bodies in the world may not actually behave this way. First, I consider Hobbes's relation to Aristotelian mixed mathematics and to Isaac Barrow's broadening of mixed mathematics in Mathematical Lectures (1683). I show that for Hobbes maker's knowledge from geometry provides the 'why' in mixed-mathematical explanations. Next, I examine two explanations from De corpore Part IV: (1) the explanation of sense in De corpore 25.1-2; and (2) the explanation of the swelling of parts of the body when they become warm in De corpore 27.3. In both explanations, I show Hobbes borrowing and citing geometrical principles and mixing these principles with appeals to experience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of breath holding at low and high lung volumes on amount of exhaled particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Helene; Gerth, Emilie; Ljungström, Evert; Larsson, Per; Almstrand, Ann-Charlotte; Bake, Björn; Olin, Anna-Carin

    2013-01-15

    Exhaled breath contains particles originating from the respiratory tract lining fluid. The particles are thought to be generated during inhalation, by reopening of airways closed in the preceding expiration. The aim here was to explore processes that control exhaled particle concentrations. The results show that 5 and 10s breath holding at residual volume increased the median concentration of particles in exhaled air by 63% and 110%, respectively, averaged over 10 subjects. An increasing number of closed airways, developing on a timescale of seconds explains this behaviour. Breath holds of 5, 10 and 20s at total lung capacity decreased the concentration to 63%, 45% and 28% respectively, of the directly exhaled concentration. The decrease in particle concentration after breath holding at total lung capacity is caused by gravitational settling in the alveoli and associated bronchioles. The geometry employed here when modelling the deposition is however not satisfactory and ways of improving the description are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimal Control of Holding Motion by Nonprehensile Two-Cooperative-Arm Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changan Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, more researchers have focused on nursing-care assistant robot and placed their hope on it to solve the shortage problem of the caregivers in hospital or nursing home. In this paper, a nonprehensile two-cooperative-arm robot is considered to realize holding motion to keep a two-rigid-link object (regarded as a care-receiver stable on the robot arms. By applying Newton-Euler equations of motion, dynamic model of the object is obtained. In this model, for describing interaction behavior between object and robot arms in the normal direction, a viscoelastic model is employed to represent the normal forces. Considering existence of friction between object and robot arms, LuGre dynamic model is applied to describe the friction. Based on the obtained model, an optimal regulator is designed to control the holding motion of two-cooperative-arm robot. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, simulation results are shown.

  5. Understanding the True Stimulated Reservoir Volume in Shale Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Maaruf

    2017-06-06

    Successful exploitation of shale reservoirs largely depends on the effectiveness of hydraulic fracturing stimulation program. Favorable results have been attributed to intersection and reactivation of pre-existing fractures by hydraulically-induced fractures that connect the wellbore to a larger fracture surface area within the reservoir rock volume. Thus, accurate estimation of the stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) becomes critical for the reservoir performance simulation and production analysis. Micro-seismic events (MS) have been commonly used as a proxy to map out the SRV geometry, which could be erroneous because not all MS events are related to hydraulic fracture propagation. The case studies discussed here utilized a fully 3-D simulation approach to estimate the SRV. The simulation approach presented in this paper takes into account the real-time changes in the reservoir\\'s geomechanics as a function of fluid pressures. It is consisted of four separate coupled modules: geomechanics, hydrodynamics, a geomechanical joint model for interfacial resolution, and an adaptive re-meshing. Reservoir stress condition, rock mechanical properties, and injected fluid pressure dictate how fracture elements could open or slide. Critical stress intensity factor was used as a fracture criterion governing the generation of new fractures or propagation of existing fractures and their directions. Our simulations were run on a Cray XC-40 HPC system. The studies outcomes proved the approach of using MS data as a proxy for SRV to be significantly flawed. Many of the observed stimulated natural fractures are stress related and very few that are closer to the injection field are connected. The situation is worsened in a highly laminated shale reservoir as the hydraulic fracture propagation is significantly hampered. High contrast in the in-situ stresses related strike-slip developed thereby shortens the extent of SRV. However, far field nature fractures that were not connected to

  6. Temperamental traits of breath holding children: A case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarayan, A.; Ganesan, B.; Anbumani; Jayanthini

    2008-01-01

    Background: Clinical observation and few anecdotal reports suggest that the children with breath holding spells (BHS) have certain temperamental traits, which predispose them to behave in certain way. They seem to have low frustration tolerance, which leads to adamant behavior. Vigorous crying, through various mechanisms, precipitates BHS. Materials and Methods: We assessed the temperamental traits of 30 children with BHS and compared them with 30 normal children after matching for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Temperament was measured using ‘Temperament measurement Schedule’. Results: The data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. The following temperamental traits, threshold of responsiveness (Pbreath holders. Conclusions: Significantly differing temperamental traits in breath holders suggests that these could influence the behavioral pattern exhibited by them. Breath holding spells can act as an easy marker for difficult temperamental traits, which gives an early opportunity to shape their difficult behavior. PMID:19742234

  7. Usefulness of true FISP cine MR imaging in patients with poor cardiac function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, Toshiharu; Yamada, Naoaki; Motooka, Makoto; Enomoto, Naoyuki; Maeshima, Isamu; Matsuda, Kazuhide; Urayama, Shinichi; Ikeo, Miki [National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2002-01-01

    This study was done to assess the value of True FISP cine in patients with poor cardiac function. True FISP cine and FLASH cine imaging were performed on a 1.5 T machine. Both short axis and horizontal long axis imaging sections were used. The imaging sections used a Matrix (120 x 128), FOV (24 x 32 cm), and had a slice thickness of 8 mm. The imaging time for True FISP cine was 8 heart beats and 17 heart beats for FLASH cine. The contrast-to-noise ratio between the blood and myocardium (CNR) was measured at enddiastole and endsystole. The subjects in the study were 10 healty volunteers (average age 26.5{+-}3.2 years) and 12 patients with hypofunction (average age 53.9{+-}13.2 years). In the volunteers, the CNR of the short axis imaging was similar in both True FISP (24.6{+-}3.7) and FLASH (23.4{+-}5.9). In the patients with poor cardiac function however, the CNR of True FISP was larger than FLASH in both the short and long axis. In the short axis (22.7{+-}6.1 vs. 17.9{+-}5.3, P<0.01) and in the long axis (17.4{+-}4.3 vs. 9.3{+-}4.0, P<0.01). We conclude that True FISP cine has a higher contrast in a shorter imaging time than FLASH cine. True FISP cine is especially useful in patients with poor cardiac function. (author)

  8. Inferring the shallow phylogeny of true salamanders (Salamandra) by multiple phylogenomic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Ariel; Burgon, James D; Lyra, Mariana; Irisarri, Iker; Baurain, Denis; Blaustein, Leon; Göçmen, Bayram; Künzel, Sven; Mable, Barbara K; Nolte, Arne W; Veith, Michael; Steinfartz, Sebastian; Elmer, Kathryn R; Philippe, Hervé; Vences, Miguel

    2017-10-01

    The rise of high-throughput sequencing techniques provides the unprecedented opportunity to analyse controversial phylogenetic relationships in great depth, but also introduces a risk of being misinterpreted by high node support values influenced by unevenly distributed missing data or unrealistic model assumptions. Here, we use three largely independent phylogenomic data sets to reconstruct the controversial phylogeny of true salamanders of the genus Salamandra, a group of amphibians providing an intriguing model to study the evolution of aposematism and viviparity. For all six species of the genus Salamandra, and two outgroup species from its sister genus Lyciasalamandra, we used RNA sequencing (RNAseq) and restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) to obtain data for: (1) 3070 nuclear protein-coding genes from RNAseq; (2) 7440 loci obtained by RADseq; and (3) full mitochondrial genomes. The RNAseq and RADseq data sets retrieved fully congruent topologies when each of them was analyzed in a concatenation approach, with high support for: (1) S. infraimmaculata being sister group to all other Salamandra species; (2) S. algira being sister to S. salamandra; (3) these two species being the sister group to a clade containing S. atra, S. corsica and S. lanzai; and (4) the alpine species S. atra and S. lanzai being sister taxa. The phylogeny inferred from the mitochondrial genome sequences differed from these results, most notably by strongly supporting a clade containing S. atra and S. corsica as sister taxa. A different placement of S. corsica was also retrieved when analysing the RNAseq and RADseq data under species tree approaches. Closer examination of gene trees derived from RNAseq revealed that only a low number of them supported each of the alternative placements of S. atra. Furthermore, gene jackknife support for the S. atra - S. lanzai node stabilized only with very large concatenated data sets. The phylogeny of true salamanders thus provides a

  9. De-sportization of fighting contests. The Origins and Dynamics of No Holds Barred Events and the Theory of Sportization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johan Heilbron; Drs. Maarten van Bottenburg

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of an empirical analysis of the recent emergence, spread and transformation of No Holds Barred fighting contests, it is argued that Norbert Elias's model of sportization provides a fruitful but insufficiently differentiated framework for understanding the development of sports and

  10. De-sportization of fighting contests : The Origins and Dynamics of No Holds Barred Events and the Theory of Sportization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bottenburg, M.; Heilbron, Johan

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of an empirical analysis of the emergence, spread and transformation of No Holds Barred fighting contests during the 1990s, we argue that Norbert Elias’s model of sportization represents a fruitful but not sufficiently differentiated framework for understanding the recent development of

  11. Hair Water Content and Water Holding Capacity Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, P; Bontozoglou, C; Ciortea, LI; Imhof, RE

    2016-01-01

    We present our latest study on human hair water content and water holding capacity measurements by using capacitive contact imaging and condense-TEWL method. Previous studies showed that capacitive contact imaging based fingerprint sensors, originally designed for biometric applications, can be used for skin hydration imaging, skin surface analysis, 3D skin surface profiles, skin micro-relief as well as solvent penetration measurements. Through calibration, we can also measure the absolute di...

  12. Nuclear and BIO-CCS hold energy and environment answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, B.

    2010-01-01

    Australia's degraded soils could hold the key to solving Australia's carbon dioxide (C O2 ) emissions problems, according to John White. Increasing soil carbon is one of the few proven, large-scale possibilities - and arguably the best and most sustainable way - to remove existing atmospheric C O2 in the short-term and, at the same time, make soils more fertile and drought and salinity-resistant, providing enhanced food security and quality.

  13. P Wave Dispersion in Children with Breath-holding Spells

    OpenAIRE

    Tahsin Gider; Bülent Koca; Mustafa Çalık; Ali Yıldırım; Savaş Demirpençe

    2016-01-01

    Objective: A breath-holding spell (BHS) is a clinical feature frequently seen in infancy and early childhood and generally bringing children to pediatric cardiology outpatient clinics with the suspicion of cardiac disease. In this study, P wave dispersion (PWD), which is a marker of regional differences in atrial depolarization in electrocardiography and has been demonstrated to be beneficial in defining the risk of supraventricular tachycardia in various patient groups, was studied in childr...

  14. Clinical and Laboratory Findings of Patients with Breath Holding Spells

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem Özdemir; Serpil Çalışkan Can; Evren Semizel; Mehmet S. Okan

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics; physical findings, cardiological, hematological and neurological problems; treatment approaches; and the prognosis of children with breath holding spells.Materials and Method: Seventhy patients were included in this study. All patients were evaluated with detailed history and physical examination. Complete blood count, serum iron and iron binding capacity were studied; cardiological (telecardiography, electro...

  15. Business Politics-Incorporating Factor of Slovenske Zeleznice Holding in European Traffic Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Pirš

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The joining of the Republic of Slovenia in the EuropeanUnion gives special significance to the economic subjects becausethe past market and competition are open directly for theSlovenian economic subjects. It means that competition will increasefor the market of transport service. There will be morepossibilities for the enterprises to move faster towards culmination,the phase of degeneration - crisis. Since the business crisisendangers the future existence and development of the Slovenskeieleznice Holding, it has become very important to be ableto control it. In order to avoid this, the Slovenske ielezniceHolding needs clear and methodical business politics whichmeans common interconnections and interacting influence ofelements (rules, criteria, measures and activities, which constantlymove, change and develop. The business politics givesaims and feedback as a condition for the existence and functioningof everything, so it cannot be regarded only as a globalprogramme of development, but rather as a very complex anddynamic system.The elements of the business politics model- incorporatingfactor to the European traffic flows are the sub-politics of thebusiness politics which influence its realisation; production,staff, marketing, finances and development sub-politics. Theevaluation of the elements of the model has taken into considerationtheir condition and meaning in the realisation of the businesspolitics in 2003 and their expected values in 2008, whensimple transmission of achievements is expected in the railwaytraffic in the European Union and in the year 2012 when a repeatedenlargement of the European Union is foreseen.The model of business politics -factor of integration of theSlovenske ieleznice Holding into the European traffic flows isan experiment to restore the collaborating relation between certainelements of the model.

  16. Designing Sustainable Public Transportation: Integrated Optimization of Bus Speed and Holding Time in a Connected Vehicle Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing public transportation and giving priority to buses is a feasible solution for improving the level of public transportation service, which facilitates congestion alleviation and prevention, and contributes to urban development and city sustainability. This paper presents a novel bus operation control strategy including both holding control and speed control to improve the level of service of transit systems within a connected vehicle environment. Most previous work focuses on optimization of signal timing to decrease the bus signal delay by assuming that holding control is not applied; the speed of buses is given as a constant input and the acceleration and deceleration processes of buses can be neglected. This paper explores the benefits of a bus operation control strategy to minimize the total cost, which includes bus signal delay, bus holding delay, bus travel delay, acceleration cost due to frequent stops and intense driving. A set of formulations are developed to explicitly capture the interaction between bus holding control and speed control. Experimental analysisand simulation tests have shown that the proposed integrated operational model outperforms the traditional control, speed control only, or holding control only strategies in terms of reducing the total cost of buses. The sensitivity analysis has further demonstrated the potential effectiveness of the proposed approach to be applied in a real-time bus operation control system under different levels of traffic demand, bus stop locations, and speed limits.

  17. Understanding why the volume of suboxic waters does not increase over centuries of global warming in an Earth System Model

    OpenAIRE

    A. Gnanadesikan; J. P. Dunne; J. John

    2012-01-01

    Global warming is expected to reduce oxygen solubility and vertical exchange in the ocean, changes which would be expected to result in an increase in the volume of hypoxic waters. A simulation made with a full Earth System model with dynamical atmosphere, ocean, sea ice and biogeochemical cycling (the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's Earth System Model 2.1) shows that this holds true if the condition for hypoxia is set relatively high. However, the volume of the most hypoxic (i.e., su...

  18. Evaluation of QT Dispersion in Children with Breath Holding Spells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedian, Amir Hosein; Heidarzadeh Arani, Marzieh; Motaharizad, Davood; Mousavi, Gholam Abbas; Mosayebi, Ziba

    2016-01-01

    Breath holding spells (BHS) are common involuntary reflexes in infancy and early childhood. Differential diagnosis should embrace Long QT Syndrome (LQTS) and paroxysmal abnormalities of rhythm. The aim of this study was to compare QT dispersion (QTd) in children with breath holding spells and normal controls. QT dispersion and Corrected QT(QTc) dispersion were measured in 12 lead surface electrocardiograms in 56 patients with BHS and compared with healthy children of the same age referred to the clinic for regular checkup visits. The most common type of BHS was cyanotic (83.9%). Seven patients (12.5%) had pallid and two patients (3.5%) had mixed spells. There was a history of breath holding spells in 33.9% of the children. QT dispersion was 61.6± 22.5 and 47.1±18.8 ms in patient and control groups, respectively. QTc dispersion (QTcd) was 104 ± 29.6 and 71.9 ±18.2 ms, respectively. There was a significant difference between patient and control groups in terms of QTd and QTcd (P<0.001). QTd and QTcd were increased in children with BHS. Therefore, the evaluation of EKG for early diagnosis of rhythm abnormalities seems reasonable in these children.

  19. Non-syndromic occurrence of true generalized microdontia with mandibular mesiodens - a rare case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargale, Seema D; Kiran, Shital D P

    2011-10-28

    Abnormalities in size of teeth and number of teeth are occasionally recorded in clinical cases. True generalized microdontia is rare case in which all the teeth are smaller than normal. Mesiodens is commonly located in maxilary central incisor region and uncommon in the mandible. In the present case a 12 year-old boy was healthy; normal in appearance and the medical history was noncontributory. The patient was examined and found to have permanent teeth that were smaller than those of the average adult teeth. The true generalized microdontia was accompanied by mandibular mesiodens. This is a unique case report of non-syndromic association of mandibular hyperdontia with true generalized microdontia.

  20. Is Justified True Belief Knowledge? / ¿Una creencia verdadera justificada es conocimiento?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund L. Gettier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available [ES] En este breve trabajo, se presenta una edición bilingüe de Is Justified True Belief Knowledge? (1963, de Edmund L. Gettier, donde se presentan contraejemplos a la definición de «conocimiento» como «creencia verdadera justificada». [ES] In this brief text, a bilingual edition of Is Justified True Belief Knowledge?, (1963 by Edmund L. Gettier, some counterexamples are presented to the definition of «knowledge» as «justified true belief».

  1. Probe-holding apparatus for holding a probe for checking steam generator tubes particularly in a nuclear reactor installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamowski, A.; Gagny; Gallet, G.; Lhermitte, J.; Monne, M.; Vautherot, G.

    1984-01-01

    Probe-holding apparatus for holding a probe for checking steam generator tubes particularly in a nuclear reactor installation. The apparatus comprises a telescopic arm supported via a ball and socket joint from a support mounted in or near an access aperture in a chamber at one end of the steam generator. A probe guide is carried by a carriage pivotally mounted at the other end of the telescopic arm. The carriage includes an endless belt having a series of spaced projections which engage into the ends of the tubes, the projections being spaced by a distance equal to the tube pitch or a multiple thereof. The belt is driven by a stepping motor in order to move the carriage and place the probe guide opposite different ones of the tubes

  2. Using publically available forest inventory data in climate-based modes of tree species distribution: Examining effects of true versus altered location coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob Gibson; Gretchen Moisen; Tracey Frescino; Thomas C. Edwards

    2013-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) were built with US Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) publicly available plot coordinates, which are altered for plot security purposes, and compared with SDMs built with true plot coordinates. Six species endemic to the western US, including four junipers (Juniperus deppeana var. deppeana, J. monosperma, J. occidentalis, J....

  3. Tunable true-time delay of a microwave photonic signal realized by cross gain modulation in a semiconductor waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Mørk, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the realization of a tunable true-time delay for microwave signals by exploiting cross gain modulation among counter-propagating optical beams in a semiconductor optical amplifier. Broadband operation from ∼5 to ∼35 GHz is observed. The physical effect originates from...... the combination of carrier dynamics and propagation effects, and the experimental results are well accounted for by a numerical model. We find that, in contrast to the case of the co-propagating beams, the bandwidth is not limited by the lifetime of excited carriers. The trade-off between the magnitude...

  4. Ultimate DWDM format in fiber-true bit-parallel solitons on WDM beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, C.; Bergman, L. A.

    2000-01-01

    Whether true solitons can exist on WDM beams (and in what form) is a question that is generally unknown. This paper will discuss an answer to this question and a demonstration of the bit-parallel WDM transmission.

  5. Feeling like you know who you are: perceived true self-knowledge and meaning in life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Rebecca J; Hicks, Joshua A; King, Laura A; Arndt, Jamie

    2011-06-01

    The essence of who a person really is has been labeled the "true self," and an emerging area of research suggests that this self-concept plays an important role in the creation of a fulfilling existence. Three studies investigate the role of the subjective feeling that one possesses knowledge of one's true self in meaning in life judgments. Consistently, the perception of availability of true self-knowledge (operationalized as the metacognitive experience of ease in describing one's true self) predicted meaning in life judgments over and above other potentially related constructs such as mood and self-esteem. Conversely, the subjective availability of knowledge of how one actually behaves (i.e., one's actual self) was unrelated to meaning in life judgments. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  6. A True Human Tail in a Neonate; Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh K. Pillai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A true human tail is a benign vestigial caudal cutaneous structure composed of adipose, connective tissue, muscle, vessels, nerves and mechanoreceptors. A true human tail can be distinguished from a pseudotail as the latter is commonly associated with underlying spinal dysraphism, which requires specialised management. True human tails are very rare, with fewer than 40 cases reported to date. We report a healthy one-day-old male newborn who was referred to the Bharath Hospital, Kottayam, Kerala, India, in 2014 with a cutaneous appendage arising from the lumbosacral region. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine ruled out spinal dysraphism. The appendage was removed by simple surgical excision. Clinicians should emphasise use of ‘true tail’ and ‘pseudotail’ as specific disparate terms as the clinical, radiological and histological findings of these conditions differ significantly, along with management strategies and outcomes.

  7. Bayesian Estimation of the True Prevalence and of the Diagnostic Test Sensitivity and Specificity of Enteropathogenic Yersinia in Finnish Pig Serum Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Vilar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bayesian analysis was used to estimate the pig’s and herd’s true prevalence of enteropathogenic Yersinia in serum samples collected from Finnish pig farms. The sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic test were also estimated for the commercially available ELISA which is used for antibody detection against enteropathogenic Yersinia. The Bayesian analysis was performed in two steps; the first step estimated the prior true prevalence of enteropathogenic Yersinia with data obtained from a systematic review of the literature. In the second step, data of the apparent prevalence (cross-sectional study data, prior true prevalence (first step, and estimated sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic methods were used for building the Bayesian model. The true prevalence of Yersinia in slaughter-age pigs was 67.5% (95% PI 63.2–70.9. The true prevalence of Yersinia in sows was 74.0% (95% PI 57.3–82.4. The estimates of sensitivity and specificity values of the ELISA were 79.5% and 96.9%.

  8. Occlusion Detection by Height Gradient for True Orthophoto Generation, Using LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, H. C.; Galo, M.

    2013-05-01

    Nowadays, the use of orthophoto in urban areas has become common. It is known that in most parts of urban areas there are a great number of tall buildings which can cause occlusion regions during image acquisition. These occlusions appear both in aerial images and in the orthophotos generated from these images. It happens due to perspective projection of the imaging sensor, and also if digital models that represent only relief is used in the orthorectification process, instead of the Digital Surface Model (DSM) that takes into account the relief and all objects on the surface. Considering this context, the aim of this article is to introduce an alternative procedure for occlusion detection in aerial images, using LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) data, aiming at the generation of true orthophotos. The presented method for occlusion detection is based on height gradient computation applied to a DSM of the region, instead of the building model that is considered in some approaches. These height gradients computed in radial directions are important for the identification of the beginning of the occlusions in these directions. The final limits of the occlusions are obtained from the projection of these initial points in the DSM. To evaluate the proposed method, both simulated and real data were considered. The simulated data correspond to an ideal urban area, without noise, and this experiment was only used to validate the implementation method. The real data set is composite by digital aerial images and LiDAR data. The LiDAR data available has the average density of 8 points/m2. As preliminary results, the occlusion areas were detected and highlighted in the orthorectified images. To accomplish the evaluation of the proposed method, besides a visual analysis, a numerical evaluation based on index of completeness was computed, using as reference a manual detection of occlusion. It is possible to observe the potential of the proposed occlusion detection method

  9. OCCLUSION DETECTION BY HEIGHT GRADIENT FOR TRUE ORTHOPHOTO GENERATION, USING LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Oliveira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the use of orthophoto in urban areas has become common. It is known that in most parts of urban areas there are a great number of tall buildings which can cause occlusion regions during image acquisition. These occlusions appear both in aerial images and in the orthophotos generated from these images. It happens due to perspective projection of the imaging sensor, and also if digital models that represent only relief is used in the orthorectification process, instead of the Digital Surface Model (DSM that takes into account the relief and all objects on the surface. Considering this context, the aim of this article is to introduce an alternative procedure for occlusion detection in aerial images, using LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging data, aiming at the generation of true orthophotos. The presented method for occlusion detection is based on height gradient computation applied to a DSM of the region, instead of the building model that is considered in some approaches. These height gradients computed in radial directions are important for the identification of the beginning of the occlusions in these directions. The final limits of the occlusions are obtained from the projection of these initial points in the DSM. To evaluate the proposed method, both simulated and real data were considered. The simulated data correspond to an ideal urban area, without noise, and this experiment was only used to validate the implementation method. The real data set is composite by digital aerial images and LiDAR data. The LiDAR data available has the average density of 8 points/m2. As preliminary results, the occlusion areas were detected and highlighted in the orthorectified images. To accomplish the evaluation of the proposed method, besides a visual analysis, a numerical evaluation based on index of completeness was computed, using as reference a manual detection of occlusion. It is possible to observe the potential of the proposed occlusion

  10. TRUE METABOLIZABLE ENERGY AND DIGESTIBILITY OF FIVE Vigna unguiculata VARIETIES IN CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Armando Sarmiento-Franco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of heat-treatment on grain true metabolizable energy (TME, dry matter and gross energy digestibilities of five Vigna unguiculata varieties: H82, T782, TM97, C666 y XL. The grain of the former three varieties were heat-treated, and offered raw or cooked, whereas grain of the late two varieties were used only row, resulting in a total of eight treatments. The heat treatment consisted of watering the grains with boiling water for 30 minutes and drying at 60°C.  Forty-five Hubbard male chickens (2.1 ± 0.2 kg housed in individual wire pens were used to evaluate the treatments. Five chickens from each treatment were fed 40 g of treated grain in mash form, using the force-feeding technique. Additionally, five fasted chickens were used to calculate the endogenous energy and DM losses. The data were submitted to an analysis of variance according to the randomized statistical model; to evaluate the effect of heat treatment orthogonal contrasts were performed. There were no significant differences in all the variables neither among varieties nor between heat treatments (P>0.05. TME values in this study were similar to those found in the literature and equivalent to the TME value of soybean meal, a conventional feedstuff used in the poultry industry.

  11. Stress and emotional valence effects on children's versus adolescents' true and false memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quas, Jodi A; Rush, Elizabeth B; Yim, Ilona S; Edelstein, Robin S; Otgaar, Henry; Smeets, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable interest in understanding how stress influences memory accuracy and errors, particularly in children, methodological limitations have made it difficult to examine the effects of stress independent of the effects of the emotional valence of to-be-remembered information in developmental populations. In this study, we manipulated stress levels in 7-8- and 12-14-year-olds and then exposed them to negative, neutral, and positive word lists. Shortly afterward, we tested their recognition memory for the words and false memory for non-presented but related words. Adolescents in the high-stress condition were more accurate than those in the low-stress condition, while children's accuracy did not differ across stress conditions. Also, among adolescents, accuracy and errors were higher for the negative than positive words, while in children, word valence was unrelated to accuracy. Finally, increases in children's and adolescents' cortisol responses, especially in the high-stress condition, were related to greater accuracy but not false memories and only for positive emotional words. Findings suggest that stress at encoding, as well as the emotional content of to-be-remembered information, may influence memory in different ways across development, highlighting the need for greater complexity in existing models of true and false memory formation.

  12. European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP): the path towards a true partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matee, Mecky I; Manyando, Christine; Ndumbe, Peter M; Corrah, Tumani; Jaoko, Walter G; Kitua, Andrew Y; Ambene, Herman Pa; Ndounga, Mathieu; Zijenah, Lynn; Ofori-Adjei, David; Agwale, Simon; Shongwe, Steven; Nyirenda, Thomas; Makanga, Michael

    2009-07-20

    lead to a sustainable programme. Current data shows that the number of projects supported by EDCTP is increasing. DCCC proposes that this success story of true partnership should be used as model by partners involved in the fight against other infectious diseases of public health importance in the region.

  13. 4D and Doppler sonography in the diagnosis and surveillance of a true cord knot

    OpenAIRE

    Scioscia, Marco; Fornalè, Mariangela; Bruni, Francesco; Peretti, Daniela; Trivella, Giamberto

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Prenatal diagnosis of a true knot of the umbilical cord is very often an incidental observation at ultrasound with a difficult differential diagnosis between true and false knots. Furthermore, very little is known about the optimal management of these cases. We report the importance of color Doppler and four-dimensional ultrasound for the differential diagnosis in case of suspect of cord knot and the impact of Doppler flow velocimetry in the longitudinal management of such...

  14. The cortical basis of true memory and false memory for motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanian, Jessica M; Slotnick, Scott D

    2014-02-01

    Behavioral evidence indicates that false memory, like true memory, can be rich in sensory detail. By contrast, there is fMRI evidence that true memory for visual information produces greater activity in earlier visual regions than false memory, which suggests true memory is associated with greater sensory detail. However, false memory in previous fMRI paradigms may have lacked sufficient sensory detail to recruit earlier visual processing regions. To investigate this possibility in the present fMRI study, we employed a paradigm that produced feature-specific false memory with a high degree of visual detail. During the encoding phase, moving or stationary abstract shapes were presented to the left or right of fixation. During the retrieval phase, shapes from encoding were presented at fixation and participants classified each item as previously "moving" or "stationary" within each visual field. Consistent with previous fMRI findings, true memory but not false memory for motion activated motion processing region MT+, while both true memory and false memory activated later cortical processing regions. In addition, false memory but not true memory for motion activated language processing regions. The present findings indicate that true memory activates earlier visual regions to a greater degree than false memory, even under conditions of detailed retrieval. Thus, the dissociation between previous behavioral findings and fMRI findings do not appear to be task dependent. Future work will be needed to assess whether the same pattern of true memory and false memory activity is observed for different sensory modalities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Microwave photonic true time delay based on cross gain modulation in semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Weiqi; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate microwave time delays in a semiconductor optical amplifier by cross gain modulation. In the counter-propagation configuration, ~10.5ps tunable true time delay over a microwave bandwidth of several tens of GHz is obtained.......We experimentally demonstrate microwave time delays in a semiconductor optical amplifier by cross gain modulation. In the counter-propagation configuration, ~10.5ps tunable true time delay over a microwave bandwidth of several tens of GHz is obtained....

  16. Is the allegiance effect an epiphenomenon of true efficacy differences between treatments? A meta-analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Munder T.; Flückiger C.; Gerger H.; Wampold B. E.; Barth J.

    2012-01-01

    Many meta analyses of comparative outcome studies found a substantial association of researcher allegiance (RA) and relative treatment effects. Therefore RA is regarded as a biasing factor in comparative outcome research (RA bias hypothesis). However the RA bias hypothesis has been criticized as causality might be reversed. That is RA might be a reflection of true efficacy differences between treatments (true efficacy hypothesis). Consequently the RA–outcome association would not be indicativ...

  17. True but not false memories are associated with the HTR2A gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bi; Chen, Chuansheng; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Moyzis, Robert K; Dong, Qi; Lin, Chongde

    2013-11-01

    Previous research reported that serotonin receptor 2A gene (HTR2A) polymorphisms were associated with memory. However, it is unknown whether these genetic variants were associated with both true and false memories. The current study of 336 Han Chinese subjects tested 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the HTR2A gene for potential associations with true and false memories. False memories were assessed using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, in which people falsely remember semantically related (but unpresented) words. We found that 11 SNPs within the HTR2A gene were associated with true memory (p=0.000076-0.043). The associations between true memory and seven adjacent SNPs (i.e., rs1923888, rs1745837, rs9567739, rs3742279, rs655888, rs655854, and rs2296972) were still significant after multiple testing corrections. Haplotype-based association analysis revealed that, true memory was positively associated with haplotype A-C-C-G-C-T-A for these seven adjacent SNPs (p=0.000075), which was still significant after multiple testing correction. Only one SNP rs655854 was associated with false memory (p=0.023), and it was not significant after multiple testing correction. This study replicates, in an Asian population, that genetic variation in HTR2A is associated with episodic memory, and also suggests that this association is restricted to true memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reduced breath holding index in patients with chronic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün, Hakan; Taşdemir, Serdar; Ulaş, Ümit Hıdır; Alay, Semih; Çetiz, Ahmet; Yücel, Mehmet; Öz, Oğuzhan; Odabaşı, Zeki; Demirkaya, Şeref

    2015-09-01

    Migraine is a neurovascular disorder characterized by autonomic nervous system dysfunction and severe headache attacks. Studies have shown that changes in the intracranial vessels during migraine have an important role in the pathophysiology. Many studies have been conducted on the increased risk of stroke in patients with migraine, but insufficient data are available on the mechanism underlying the increase. This study aimed to evaluate basal cerebral blood flow velocity and vasomotor reactivity in patients with chronic migraine. We evaluated 38 patients with chronic migraine. Three of them were excluded because they had auras and four of them were excluded because of their use of medication that can affect cerebral blood flow velocity and breath holding index (beta or calcium channel blockers). Our study population consisted of 31 patients with chronic migraine without aura and 29 age- and gender-matched healthy individuals who were not taking any medication. The mean blood flow velocity and breath holding index were measured on both sides from the middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery, with temporal window insonation. The breath holding index for middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery was significantly lower in the migraine group compared to that of the control group (p < 0.05).The vasomotor reactivity indicates the dilatation potential of a vessel, and it is closely related to autoregulation. According to our results, the vasodilator response of cerebral arterioles to hypercapnia was lower in patients with chronic migraine. These findings showed the existence of impairments in the harmonic cerebral hemodynamic mechanisms in patients with chronic migraine. This finding also supports the existing idea of an increased risk of stroke in patients with chronic migraine due to impaired vasomotor reactivity.

  19. Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935: 1935--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-15

    This report provides an economic and legislative history and analysis of the Public Utilities Holding Company Act (PUHCA) of 1935. This Act was substantially amended for the first time in 1992 by passage of the Energy Policy Act (EPACT). The report also includes a discussion of the issues which led to the amendment of PUHCA and projections of the impact of these changes on the electric industry. The report should be of use to Federal and State regulators, trade associations, electric utilities, independent power producers, as well as decision-makers in Congress and the Administration.

  20. A True-Color Sensor and Suitable Evaluation Algorithm for Plant Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittmann, Oliver; Schulze Lammers, Peter

    2017-08-08

    Plant-specific herbicide application requires sensor systems for plant recognition and differentiation. A literature review reveals a lack of sensor systems capable of recognizing small weeds in early stages of development (in the two- or four-leaf stage) and crop plants, of making spraying decisions in real time and, in addition, are that are inexpensive and ready for practical use in sprayers. The system described in this work is based on free cascadable and programmable true-color sensors for real-time recognition and identification of individual weed and crop plants. The application of this type of sensor is suitable for municipal areas and farmland with and without crops to perform the site-specific application of herbicides. Initially, databases with reflection properties of plants, natural and artificial backgrounds were created. Crop and weed plants should be recognized by the use of mathematical algorithms and decision models based on these data. They include the characteristic color spectrum, as well as the reflectance characteristics of unvegetated areas and areas with organic material. The CIE-Lab color-space was chosen for color matching because it contains information not only about coloration (a- and b-channel), but also about luminance (L-channel), thus increasing accuracy. Four different decision making algorithms based on different parameters are explained: (i) color similarity (ΔE); (ii) color similarity split in ΔL, Δa and Δb; (iii) a virtual channel 'd' and (iv) statistical distribution of the differences of reflection backgrounds and plants. Afterwards, the detection success of the recognition system is described. Furthermore, the minimum weed/plant coverage of the measuring spot was calculated by a mathematical model. Plants with a size of 1-5% of the spot can be recognized, and weeds in the two-leaf stage can be identified with a measuring spot size of 5 cm. By choosing a decision model previously, the detection quality can be increased

  1. Efficacy of a typing scheme for Campylobacter based on the combination of true and questionable CRISPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cárdenas, Inés; Fernández-Garayzábal, José F; de la Cruz, María-Luisa; Domínguez, Lucas; Ugarte-Ruiz, María; Gómez-Barrero, Susana

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluates an improved scheme for Campylobacter genotyping based on the combination of true and questionable CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) elements. A total of 180 Campylobacter strains (Campylobacter jejuni n=93 and Campylobacter coli n=87), isolated from neck skin and caecal content of broilers, poultry meat and sewage water were analysed. Another 97 C. jejuni DNA samples from cases of human campylobacteriosis were assessed. Sixty-three genotypes were found in C. jejuni considering only true CRISPR, and 16 additional genotypes were identified when questionable CRISPR were also taken into account. Likewise in C. coli the number of genotypes increased from eight for only true CRISPR to 14 after including questionable CRISPR elements. The number of typeable C. jejuni and C. coli isolates was 115 (60.5%) and 17 (19.5%) respectively considering only true CRISPR. These percentages increased to 92.7% (n=176) and 39.1% (n=34) respectively when both true and questionable CRISPR were considered. 60.9% of the C. coli isolates were non-typeable by CRISPR due to the lack of any PCR amplifiable CRISPR loci, which raises questions about CRISPR analysis as an appropriate method for C. coli typing. However the assessment of true and questionable CRISPR has proved to be fairly useful for typing C. jejuni due to its high discriminatory power (Simpson's index=0.960) and typeability (92.7%) values. The results of the present work show that our genotyping method based on the combination of true and questionable CRISPR elements may be used as a suitable complementary tool to existing C. jejuni genotyping methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Visualization of swallowing using real-time TrueFISP MR fluoroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkhausen, Joerg; Goyen, Mathias; Lauenstein, Thomas; Debatin, Joerg F. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Essen (Germany); Winterfeld, F. von; Arweiler-Harbeck, Diana [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Hospital Essen (Germany)

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of different real-time true fast imaging with steady precession (TrueFISP) sequences regarding their ability to depict the swallowing process and delineate oropharyngeal pathologies in patients with dysphagia. Real-time TrueFISP visualization of swallowing was performed in 8 volunteers and 6 patients with dysphagia using a 1.5 T scanner (Magnetom Sonata, Siemens, Erlangen Germany) equipped with high-performance gradients (amplitude 40 mT/m). Image quality of four different real-time TrueFISP sequences (TR 2.2-3.0 ms, TE 1.1-1.5 ms, matrix 63 x 128-135 x 256, field of view 250 mm{sup 2}, acquisition time per image 139-405 ms) was evaluated. Water, yoghurt, and semolina pudding were assessed as oral contrast agents. Functional exploration of the oropharyngeal apparatus was best possible using the fastest real-time TrueFISP sequence (TR 2.2 ms, TE 1.1 ms, matrix 63 x 128). Increased acquisition time resulted in blurring of anatomical structures. As the image contrast of TrueFISP sequences depends on T2/T1 properties, all tested foodstuff were well suited as oral contrast agents, but image quality was best using semolina pudding. Real-time visualization of swallowing is possible using real-time TrueFISP sequences in conjunction with oral contrast agents. For the functional exploration of swallowing high temporal resolution is more crucial than spatial resolution. (orig.)

  3. Usefulness of true FISP cine MR imaging in patients with poor cardiac function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Toshiharu; Yamada, Naoaki; Motooka, Makoto; Enomoto, Naoyuki; Maeshima, Isamu; Matsuda, Kazuhide; Urayama, Shinichi; Ikeo, Miki

    2002-01-01

    This study was done to assess the value of True FISP cine in patients with poor cardiac function. True FISP cine and FLASH cine imaging were performed on a 1.5 T machine. Both short axis and horizontal long axis imaging sections were used. The imaging sections used a Matrix (120 x 128), FOV (24 x 32 cm), and had a slice thickness of 8 mm. The imaging time for True FISP cine was 8 heart beats and 17 heart beats for FLASH cine. The contrast-to-noise ratio between the blood and myocardium (CNR) was measured at enddiastole and endsystole. The subjects in the study were 10 healty volunteers (average age 26.5±3.2 years) and 12 patients with hypofunction (average age 53.9±13.2 years). In the volunteers, the CNR of the short axis imaging was similar in both True FISP (24.6±3.7) and FLASH (23.4±5.9). In the patients with poor cardiac function however, the CNR of True FISP was larger than FLASH in both the short and long axis. In the short axis (22.7±6.1 vs. 17.9±5.3, P<0.01) and in the long axis (17.4±4.3 vs. 9.3±4.0, P<0.01). We conclude that True FISP cine has a higher contrast in a shorter imaging time than FLASH cine. True FISP cine is especially useful in patients with poor cardiac function. (author)

  4. Calculating the true level of predictors significance when carrying out the procedure of regression equation specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita A. Moiseev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to a new randomization method that yields unbiased adjustments of p-values for linear regression models predictors by incorporating the number of potential explanatory variables, their variance-covariance matrix and its uncertainty, based on the number of observations. This adjustment helps to control type I errors in scientific studies, significantly decreasing the number of publications that report false relations to be authentic ones. Comparative analysis with such existing methods as Bonferroni correction and Shehata and White adjustments explicitly shows their imperfections, especially in case when the number of observations and the number of potential explanatory variables are approximately equal. Also during the comparative analysis it was shown that when the variance-covariance matrix of a set of potential predictors is diagonal, i.e. the data are independent, the proposed simple correction is the best and easiest way to implement the method to obtain unbiased corrections of traditional p-values. However, in the case of the presence of strongly correlated data, a simple correction overestimates the true pvalues, which can lead to type II errors. It was also found that the corrected p-values depend on the number of observations, the number of potential explanatory variables and the sample variance-covariance matrix. For example, if there are only two potential explanatory variables competing for one position in the regression model, then if they are weakly correlated, the corrected p-value will be lower than when the number of observations is smaller and vice versa; if the data are highly correlated, the case with a larger number of observations will show a lower corrected p-value. With increasing correlation, all corrections, regardless of the number of observations, tend to the original p-value. This phenomenon is easy to explain: as correlation coefficient tends to one, two variables almost linearly depend on each

  5. Hold-up monitoring system for plutonium process tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Rongbao; Jin Huimin; Tan Yajun

    1994-01-01

    The development of hold-up monitoring system for plutonium process tanks and a calculation method for α activities deposited in containers and inner walls of pipe are described. The hardware of monitoring system consists of a portable HPGe detector, a φ50 mm x 60 mm NaI(Tl) detector, γ-ray tungsten collimators, ORTEC92X Spectrum Master and an AST-286 computer. The software of system includes Maestro Tm for Window3 and a PHOUP1 hold-up application software for user. The Monte-Carlo simulation calculation supported by MCNP software is performed for the probability calculation of all the unscattering γ-rays reaching to the detection positions from the source terms deposited in the complicated tanks. A measurement mean value for different positions is used to minimize the effect of heterogeneous distribution of source term. The sensitivity is better than 3.7 x 10 6 Bq/kg (steel) for a plutonium simulation source on a 3-8 mm thick steel plate surrounded by 0.8 x 10 -10 C/kg·s γ field from long-life fission products

  6. Breath holding during the turn in competitive swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, A B

    1986-08-01

    Breath holding times were measured during competition and averaged 5.0 sec in the breaststroke events, 4.3 sec in freestyle, 3.7 sec in butterfly, and 3.3 sec in backstroke. These times represented approximately 30% of the total time of swimming breaststroke and freestyle races but only 20% of the time of backstroke and butterfly events. Pulmonary gas exchanges of O2 and CO2 were studied in eight male swimmers during the first turn after the start of a swim and during the third turn after continuous swimming. It was concluded that biomechanical considerations of optimizing a turn are in most circumstances not limited by the increased PCO2 and the decreased PO2 in the alveoli related to the brief period of breath holding. In turns which last longer than about 5.5 s, the swimmers may experience a strong urge to breathe. This "breaking point" sensation is brief and need not compromise the conclusion of a well-executed turn.

  7. Clinical Efficacy of Piracetam on Breath Holding Spells in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ashrafzadeh

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Breath holding spells (BHS is a type of syncope in children , most commonly encontered in the early years of life. Although these athacks don't damage the brain , if these are frequent or prolonged cause , parents frighten , so physician should intervent. In this study we evaluated clinical efficacy of piracetam on B.H.S of children in Mashhad Ghaem Hospital during 2001-2002.In this double blind placebo control study , piracetam or placebo on a randomized basis was administered to children with 40 mg/kg/day in 2 divided doses for 2 months. From the 41 children that were enrolled , 21 cases received piracetam and 20 cases received placebo. Parents denoted the numbers of spells two months before and two months after taking drug. Control of breath holding spells were observed in 90.5% of patients in the group taking piracetam as compared with 40% in the group taking placebo (P = 0.002. Of the all patients 10 cases had iron deficiency anemia so they had taken elemental Fe too. The side effects were the same in these two groups. The results of this study indicated that piracetam was efficient for the treatment of children with B.H.S without greater incidence adverse effects than placebo.

  8. How Important Is a Reproducible Breath Hold for Deep Inspiration Breath Hold Breast Radiation Therapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiant, David; Wentworth, Stacy; Liu, Han; Sintay, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) for left-sided breast cancer has been shown to reduce heart dose. Surface imaging helps to ensure accurate breast positioning, but it does not guarantee a reproducible breath hold (BH) at DIBH treatments. We examine the effects of variable BH positions for DIBH treatments. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five patients who underwent free breathing (FB) and DIBH scans were reviewed. Four plans were created for each patient: FB, DIBH, FB_DIBH (the DIBH plans were copied to the FB images and recalculated, and image registration was based on breast tissue), and P_DIBH (a partial BH with the heart shifted midway between the FB and DIBH positions). The FB_DIBH plans give a “worst-case” scenario for surface imaging DIBH, where the breast is aligned by surface imaging but the patient is not holding their breath. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were used to compare the dose metrics. Results: The DIBH plans gave lower heart dose and comparable breast coverage versus FB in all cases. The FB_DIBH plans showed no significant difference versus FB plans for breast coverage, mean heart dose, or maximum heart dose (P≥.10). The mean heart dose differed between FB_DIBH and FB by <2 Gy for all cases, and the maximum heart dose differed by <2 Gy for 21 cases. The P_DIBH plans showed significantly lower mean heart dose than FB (P<.01). The mean heart doses for the P_DIBH plans were

  9. How Important Is a Reproducible Breath Hold for Deep Inspiration Breath Hold Breast Radiation Therapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiant, David, E-mail: David.wiant@conehealth.com; Wentworth, Stacy; Liu, Han; Sintay, Benjamin

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) for left-sided breast cancer has been shown to reduce heart dose. Surface imaging helps to ensure accurate breast positioning, but it does not guarantee a reproducible breath hold (BH) at DIBH treatments. We examine the effects of variable BH positions for DIBH treatments. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five patients who underwent free breathing (FB) and DIBH scans were reviewed. Four plans were created for each patient: FB, DIBH, FB-DIBH (the DIBH plans were copied to the FB images and recalculated, and image registration was based on breast tissue), and P-DIBH (a partial BH with the heart shifted midway between the FB and DIBH positions). The FB-DIBH plans give a “worst-case” scenario for surface imaging DIBH, where the breast is aligned by surface imaging but the patient is not holding their breath. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were used to compare the dose metrics. Results: The DIBH plans gave lower heart dose and comparable breast coverage versus FB in all cases. The FB-DIBH plans showed no significant difference versus FB plans for breast coverage, mean heart dose, or maximum heart dose (P≥.10). The mean heart dose differed between FB-DIBH and FB by <2 Gy for all cases, and the maximum heart dose differed by <2 Gy for 21 cases. The P-DIBH plans showed significantly lower mean heart dose than FB (P<.01). The mean heart doses for the P-DIBH plans were

  10. Characterization of the exradin A18 chamber ionization according to the IEC70631 standards. This work aims at the characterization of the Exradin model (Standard Imaging) A18 ionization chamber, according to the international standard IEC 607311. Intends to use the camera Exradin A18 for the quality control of a linear accelerator VARIAN model TrueBeam with capacity to produce beams of photons of high energy, unfiltered flatter (in later FFF) with high dose absorbed by pulse rate, why is verified, according to the mentioned standard IEC 60731, even under conditions of high dose absorbed by pulse rate, the efficiency of ion collection from this camera is within tolerances; Caracterizacion de la camara de ionizacion exradin A18 segun el estandar IEC70631. Estudio para haces de fotones sin filtro aplanador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onses Segarra, A.; Puxeu Vaque, J.; Sancho Kolster, I.; Lizuain Arroyo, M. C.; Picon Olmos, C.

    2013-07-01

    This work aims at the characterization of the Exradin model (Standard Imaging) A18 ionization chamber, according to the international standard IEC 607311. Intends to use the camera Exradin A18 for the quality control of a linear accelerator VARIAN model TrueBeam with capacity to produce beams of photons of high energy, unfiltered flatter (in later FFF) with high dose absorbed by pulse rate, why is verified, according to the mentioned standard IEC 60731, even under conditions of high dose absorbed by pulse rate, the efficiency of ion collection from this camera is within tolerances. (Author)

  11. Chemical composition, true nutrient digestibility, and true metabolizable energy of novel pet food protein sources using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, P; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M; Hancock, L; Swanson, K S

    2016-08-01

    A wide variety of animal protein-based ingredients is commonly used in the pet food products. The raw ingredients and processing procedures used may greatly affect protein quality. Testing the quality of alternative protein sources is necessary and contributes to the sustainability of pet foods. The objective of this study was to test the chemical composition of 8 protein sources intended for use in dog and cat foods (calamari meal, pork peptone, alligator meal, lamb meal, venison meal, chicken meal, and 2 duck meals), and evaluate their true nutrient digestibility and nitrogen-corrected true ME (TMEn) using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay. Calamari meal and pork peptone had lower ash (4.4 and 3.6% of DM, respectively) but greater CP (88.1 and 80.5% of DM, respectively) and either greater or similar GE (5.6 and 5.3 kcal/g of DM, respectively) compared with alligator, lamb, venison, chicken, and duck meals (11.8 to 24.5% ash, 58.7 to 65.9% CP, and 4.6 to 5.3 kcal GE/g). Acid-hydrolyzed fat (AHF) was lower in calamari meal (8.7% of DM) compared with the other proteins tested (15.5-22.1% of DM). True nutrient digestibility was variable among the protein sources (52 to 79% of DM, 60 to 83% of OM, 78 to 92% of AHF, and 70 to 89% of GE) with pork peptone having the highest DM, AHF, and GE digestibility and calamari meal having the highest OM digestibility. True indispensable AA digestibility was highest for calamari meal, with all AA having a digestibility greater than 90%. Except for histidine, all indispensable AA had a digestibility over 85% for pork peptone. In contrast, true indispensable AA digestibility was lowest for lamb meal, with histidine having digestibility less than 70% and the other entire indispensable AA having digestibility between 72 and 88%. The TMEn of calamari meal (4.82 kcal/g DM and 86.9% of GE) was greater ( foods and justifies further in vivo testing of novel protein sources.

  12. Monte Carlo study of holding forces for tank cars on grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    This paper describes a numerical procedure to examine the holding forces needed to secure a cut of railroad tank cars staged on a grade during loading and unloading operations. Holding forces are created by applying emergency brake systems and blocki...

  13. The impact of a belief in life after death on health-state preferences: True difference or artifact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubczyk, Michał; Golicki, Dominik; Niewada, Maciej

    2016-12-01

    In most religions, the preservation of one's own, God-given, life is considered obligatory, while the time trade-off method (TTO) forces one to voluntarily forego life years. We sought to verify how this conflict impacts TTO-results among the religious. We used the data from the only EQ-5D valuation in Poland (2008, three-level, 321 respondents, 23 states each)-a very religious, mostly Catholic country. We measured the religiosity with the belief in afterlife question on two levels: strong (definitely yes) and some (also rather yes), both about a third of the sample. The religious more often are non-traders, unwilling to give up any time in exchange for quality of life: odds ratio (OR) equal to 1.97 (strong religiosity), OR 1.55 (some religiosity); and less often consider a state worse than death: OR 0.67 (strong), OR 0.81 (some). These associations are statistically significant ([Formula: see text]) and hold when controlling for possible demographic confounders. Strong religiosity abates the utility loss: in the additive approach by 0.14, in the multiplicative approach by the factor of 2.1 (both [Formula: see text]), especially among the older. Removing the effect of religiosity from the value set reduces the utility by 0.05 on average. The results may stem from a true difference in preferences or be a TTO-artifact and would vanish for other elicitation methods. Juxtaposing our findings with comments from respondents in other studies suggests the latter. Therefore, this Weltanschauung effect should be removed in cost-utility analysis.

  14. A Study on the Holding Capacity Safety Factors for Torpedo Anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís V. S. Sagrilo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of powerful numerical tools based on the finite-element method has been improving the prediction of the holding capacity of fixed anchors employed by the offshore oil industry. One of the main achievements of these tools is the reduction of the uncertainty related to the holding capacity calculation of these anchors. Therefore, it is also possible to reduce the values of the associated design safety factors, which have been calibrated relying on models with higher uncertainty, without impairing the original level of structural safety. This paper presents a study on the calibration of reliability-based safety factors for the design of torpedo anchors considering the statistical model uncertainty evaluated using results from experimental tests and their correspondent finite-element-based numerical predictions. Both working stress design (WSD and load and resistance factors design (LRFD design methodologies are investigated. Considering the WSD design methodology, the single safety is considerably lower than the value typically employed in the design of torpedo anchors. Moreover, a LRFD design code format for torpedo anchors is more appropriate since it leads to designs having less-scattered safety levels around the target value.

  15. Improvement of a Pneumatic Control Valve with Self-Holding Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohta, Shujiro; Akagi, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Wataru; Shimooka, So; Masago, Yusuke

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a small-sized, lightweight and low-cost control valve with low energy consumption and to apply it to the assistive system. We have developed some control valves; a tiny on/off valve using a vibration motor, and an on/off valve with self-holding function. We have also proposed and tested the digital servo valve with self-holding function using permanent magnets and a small-sized servo motor. In this paper, in order to improve the valve, an analytical model of the digital servo valve is proposed. And the simulated results by using the analytical model and identified parameters were compared with the experimental results. Then, the improved digital servo valve was designed based on the calculated results and tested. As a result, we realized the digital servo valve that can control the flow rate more precisely while maintaining its volume and weight compared with the previous valve. As an application of the improved valve, a position control system of rubber artificial muscle was built and the position control was performed successfully.

  16. Priming children's and adults' analogical problem solutions with true and false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L; Threadgold, Emma; Norbury, Jenna; Garner, Sarah; Ball, Linden J

    2013-09-01

    We investigated priming of analogical problem solutions with true and false memories. Children and adults were asked to solve nine verbal proportional analogies, three of which had been primed by Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists where the critical lure (and problem solution) was presented as the initial word in the list (true memory priming), three of which were primed by DRM lists whose critical lures were the solution to the verbal proportional analogies (false memory priming), and three of which were unprimed. We controlled for age differences in solution rates (knowledge base) in order to examine developmental differences in speed of processing. As anticipated, the results showed that adults completed the problems significantly faster than children. Furthermore, both children and adults solved problems primed with false memories significantly faster than either those primed with true memories or unprimed problems. For both age groups, there was no significant difference between solution times for unprimed and true primed problems. These findings demonstrate that (a) priming of problem solutions extends to verbal proportional analogies, (b) false memories are more effective at priming problem solutions than true memories, and (c) there are clear positive consequences to the production of false memories. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental and ecological conditions at Arctic breeding sites have limited effects on true survival rates of adult shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Emily L.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Brown, Stephen C.; Gates, H. River; Bentzen, Rebecca L.; Bêty, Joël; Boldenow, Megan L.; English, Willow B.; Franks, Samantha E.; Koloski, Laura; Kwon, Eunbi; Lamarre, Jean-Francois; Lank, David B.; Liebezeit, Joseph R.; McKinnon, Laura; Nol, Erica; Rausch, Jennie; Saalfeld, Sarah T.; Senner, Nathan R.; Ward, David H.; Woodard, Paul F.; Sandercock, Brett K.

    2018-01-01

    Many Arctic shorebird populations are declining, and quantifying adult survival and the effects of anthropogenic factors is a crucial step toward a better understanding of population dynamics. We used a recently developed, spatially explicit Cormack–Jolly–Seber model in a Bayesian framework to obtain broad-scale estimates of true annual survival rates for 6 species of shorebirds at 9 breeding sites across the North American Arctic in 2010–2014. We tested for effects of environmental and ecological variables, study site, nest fate, and sex on annual survival rates of each species in the spatially explicit framework, which allowed us to distinguish between effects of variables on site fidelity versus true survival. Our spatially explicit analysis produced estimates of true survival rates that were substantially higher than previously published estimates of apparent survival for most species, ranging from S = 0.72 to 0.98 across 5 species. However, survival was lower for the arcticolasubspecies of Dunlin (Calidris alpina arcticola; S = 0.54), our only study taxon that migrates through the East Asian–Australasian Flyway. Like other species that use that flyway, arcticola Dunlin could be experiencing unsustainably low survival rates as a result of loss of migratory stopover habitat. Survival rates of our study species were not affected by timing of snowmelt or summer temperature, and only 2 species showed minor variation among study sites. Furthermore, although previous reproductive success, predator abundance, and the availability of alternative prey each affected survival of one species, no factors broadly affected survival across species. Overall, our findings of few effects of environmental or ecological variables suggest that annual survival rates of adult shorebirds are generally robust to conditions at Arctic breeding sites. Instead, conditions at migratory stopovers or overwintering sites might be driving adult survival rates and should be the

  18. 12 CFR 225.101 - Bank holding company's subsidiary banks owning shares of nonbanking companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.101 Bank holding... company and do not have a value greater than 5 percent of the value of the bank holding company's total... prohibition of the Act against retention of nonbanking interests applies to indirect as well as direct...

  19. 26 CFR 301.6501(f)-1 - Personal holding company tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Personal holding company tax. 301.6501(f)-1... Collection § 301.6501(f)-1 Personal holding company tax. If a corporation which is a personal holding company... time during the last half of such taxable year, more than 50 percent in value of the outstanding...

  20. Ten years of Dutch loss compensation regime for holding and financing companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobeldijk, A.C.P.; Braeken, B.

    2014-01-01

    Dutch holding and financing companies are subject to a specific tax loss compensation regime, the so-called holding company loss rule. In short, the purpose of this rule is the prevention of the compensation of losses resulting from holding and financing activities with profits from operational

  1. Automated daily breath hold stability measurements by real-time imaging in radiotherapy of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, Hans C J; Van Den Bongard, Desirée J G; van Asselen, B

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Breath hold is increasingly used for cardiac sparing in left-sided breast cancer irradiation. We have developed a fast automated method to verify breath hold stability in each treatment fraction. Material and methods We evaluated 504 patients treated with breath hold. Moderate

  2. Changes in quality of life from a homelessness intervention: true change, response shift, or random variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Guido Antonio; Adair, Carol E; Streiner, David L; Mayo, Nancy; Latimer, Eric

    2017-07-01

    Participants experiencing homelessness and mental illness who received housing and support through the At Home/Chez Soi trial showed modest gains in quality of life (QOL) compared to treatment as usual participants. Participants' QOL ratings over time may have been affected by either response shift triggered by new life circumstances or by random variation in the meaning of QOL ratings. This study seeks to identify both phenomena to estimate the intervention's effect on true change in QOL. Using the residuals from a regression model of the global item of Lehman's 20-item quality of life interview (QOLI-20), latent trajectory analysis was used to identify response shift, while a measure of overall variability in residuals identified random variation of QOL. The latter was used to adjust group comparisons of QOLI-20 total scores and the global item. Equivalent distributions of both groups' participants across latent trajectory classes (χ 2  = 2.97, p = .397) suggest that the intervention did not trigger response shift. However, random variation interacted significantly with the treatment effect on global item ratings. For every increase of one standard deviation of residuals, treatment odds ratios decreased by a factor of 0.70 (SE 1.18, p = .036, 95% CI 0.50-0.98). Measuring random variation in QOL ratings from the standard deviation of residuals offers the ability to approximate, although indirectly, how participants' QOL is truly affected by a housing intervention. Specifically, we found that QOL improvement is more evident when QOL ratings have a consistent meaning over time.

  3. Non-syndromic occurrence of true generalized microdontia with mandibular mesiodens - a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Shital DP

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Abnormalities in size of teeth and number of teeth are occasionally recorded in clinical cases. True generalized microdontia is rare case in which all the teeth are smaller than normal. Mesiodens is commonly located in maxilary central incisor region and uncommon in the mandible. In the present case a 12 year-old boy was healthy; normal in appearance and the medical history was noncontributory. The patient was examined and found to have permanent teeth that were smaller than those of the average adult teeth. The true generalized microdontia was accompanied by mandibular mesiodens. This is a unique case report of non-syndromic association of mandibular hyperdontia with true generalized microdontia.

  4. Quantitative lung perfusion mapping at 0.2 T using FAIR True-FISP MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martirosian, Petros; Boss, Andreas; Fenchel, Michael; Deimling, Michael; Schäfer, Jürgen; Claussen, Claus D; Schick, Fritz

    2006-05-01

    Perfusion measurements in lung tissue using arterial spin labeling (ASL) techniques are hampered by strong microscopic field gradients induced by susceptibility differences between the alveolar air and the lung parenchyma. A true fast imaging with steady precession (True-FISP) sequence was adapted for applications in flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) lung perfusion imaging at 0.2 Tesla and 1.5 Tesla. Conditions of microscopic static field distribution were assessed in four healthy volunteers at both field strengths using multiecho gradient-echo sequences. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) values of the frequency distribution for 180-277 Hz at 1.5 Tesla were more than threefold higher compared to 39-109 Hz at 0.2 Tesla. The influence of microscopic field inhomogeneities on the True-FISP signal yield was simulated numerically. Conditions allowed for the development of a FAIR True-FISP sequence for lung perfusion measurement at 0.2 Tesla, whereas at 1.5 Tesla microscopic field inhomogeneities appeared too distinct. Perfusion measurements of lung tissue were performed on eight healthy volunteers and two patients at 0.2 Tesla using the optimized FAIR True-FISP sequence. The average perfusion rates in peripheral lung regions in transverse, sagittal, and coronal slices of the left/right lung were 418/400, 398/416, and 370/368 ml/100 g/min, respectively. This work suggests that FAIR True-FISP sequences can be considered appropriate for noninvasive lung perfusion examinations at low field strength. Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. False memory for context and true memory for context similarly activate the parahippocampal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanian, Jessica M; Slotnick, Scott D

    2017-06-01

    The role of the parahippocampal cortex is currently a topic of debate. One view posits that the parahippocampal cortex specifically processes spatial layouts and sensory details (i.e., the visual-spatial processing view). In contrast, the other view posits that the parahippocampal cortex more generally processes spatial and non-spatial contexts (i.e., the general contextual processing view). A large number of studies have found that true memories activate the parahippocampal cortex to a greater degree than false memories, which would appear to support the visual-spatial processing view as true memories are typically associated with greater visual-spatial detail than false memories. However, in previous studies, contextual details were also greater for true memories than false memories. Thus, such differential activity in the parahippocampal cortex may have reflected differences in contextual processing, which would challenge the visual-spatial processing view. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we employed a source memory paradigm to investigate the functional role of the parahippocampal cortex during true memory and false memory for contextual information to distinguish between the visual-spatial processing view and the general contextual processing view. During encoding, abstract shapes were presented to the left or right of fixation. During retrieval, old shapes were presented at fixation and participants indicated whether each shape was previously on the "left" or "right" followed by an "unsure", "sure", or "very sure" confidence rating. The conjunction of confident true memories for context and confident false memories for context produced activity in the parahippocampal cortex, which indicates that this region is associated with contextual processing. Furthermore, the direct contrast of true memory and false memory produced activity in the visual cortex but did not produce activity in the parahippocampal cortex. The present

  6. Holding the Project Accountable: Research Governance, Ethics, and Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leese, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    This paper seeks to address research governance by highlighting the notion of public accountability as a complementary tool for the establishment of an ethical resonance space for emerging technologies. Public accountability can render development and design process of emerging technologies transparent through practices of holding those in charge of research accountable for their actions, thereby fostering ethical engagement with their potential negative consequences or side-effects. Through practices such as parliamentary questions, audits, and open letters emerging technologies could be effectively rendered transparent and opened up to broader levels of scrutiny and debate, thereby contributing to a greater adherence of emerging technologies to ethics and moral consensus. Fundamental democratic practices could thus not only lead to better informed choices in design and development processes, but also contribute to more morally substantive outcomes.

  7. A Hold-down Margin Assessment using Statistical Method for the PWR Fuel Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, S. Y.; Park, N. K.; Lee, K. S.; Kim, H. K.

    2007-01-01

    The hold-down springs provide an acceptable hold down force against hydraulic uplift force absorbing the length change of the fuel assembly relative to the space between the upper and lower core plates in PWR. These length changes are mainly due to the thermal expansion, irradiation growth and creep down of the fuel assemblies. There are two kinds of hold-down springs depending on the different design concept of the reactor internals of the PWR in Korea, one is a leaf-type hold down spring for Westinghouse type plants and the other is a coil-type hold-down spring for OPR1000 (Optimized Power Reactor 1000). There are four sets of hold-down springs in each fuel assembly for leaf type hold-down spring and each set of the hold-down springs consists of multiple tapered leaves to form a cantilever leaf spring set. The length, width and thickness of the spring leaves are selected to provide the desired spring constant, deflection range, and hold down force. There are four coil springs in each fuel assembly for coil-type hold-down spring. In this study, the hold-down forces and margins were calculated for the leaf-type and coil-type hold-down springs considering geometrical data of the fuel assembly and its components, length changes of the fuel assembly due to thermal expansion, irradiation growth, creep, and irradiation relaxation. The hold-down spring forces were calculated deterministically and statistically to investigate the benefit of the statistical calculation method in view of hold-down margin. The Monte-Carlo simulation method was used for the statistical hold down force calculation

  8. Reproduction Biology of True Percula Clown Fish Amphiprion Percula in Hatchery

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawati, Ketut Maha; Gunawan, Gunawan; Hutapea, Jhon Harianto

    2012-01-01

    True percula clown fish (Amphiprion percula) is one of marine ornamental fish with high economic value and can spawn throughout the year in an aquarium. The aims of this research were to understand reproduction aspects of true percula clown fish broodstock in an aquarium. A pair of broodstock used in this experiment were 4-9 cm in total length and maintained in an aquarium of 60x40x30 cm3 dimension. Numbers of brrodstock were 18 pairs and each aquarium filled with one pair of broodstock. Duri...

  9. a Method for True Orthophoto Generation Based on Projection and Iteration Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Xie, J.

    2012-07-01

    The conventional orthophotos always suffer from the problems of building lean and double mapping, due to the occluding of the buildings. This paper proposed a new occlusion detection method for true orthophoto generation. This method adopts the way of projecting roof and wall polygons to the ground horizontal planes, and obtains the occlusions by iteration strategy. Experiments with the color aerial image data of the city of Kunming shows that comparing to other two representative methods, this method can obtain more accurate results. Additionally, the neighboring images are used for occlusion compensation, and finally the true orthophoto is generated.

  10. Considerable pancreatic tumor motion during breath-holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, Eelco; van der Horst, Astrid; Versteijne, Eva; Bel, Arjan; van Tienhoven, Geertjan

    2016-11-01

    Breath-holding (BH) is often used to reduce abdominal organ motion during radiotherapy. However, for inhale BH, abdominal tumor motion during BH has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to quantify tumor motion during inhale BH and tumor position variations between consecutive inhale BHs in pancreatic cancer patients. Twelve patients with intratumoral fiducials were included and asked to perform three consecutive 30-second inhale BHs on each of three measurement days. During BH, lateral fluoroscopic movies were obtained and a two-dimensional (2D) image correlation algorithm was used to track the fiducials and the diaphragm, yielding the tumor and diaphragm motion during each BH. The tumor position variation between consecutive BHs was obtained from the difference in initial tumor position between consecutive BHs on a single measurement day. We observed tumor motion during BH with a mean absolute maximum displacement over all BHs of 4.2 mm (range 1.0-11.0 mm) in inferior-superior (IS) direction and 2.7 mm (range 0.5-8.0 mm) in anterior-posterior (AP) direction. We found only a moderate correlation between tumor and diaphragm motion in the IS direction (Pearson's correlation coefficient |r|>0.6 in 45 of 76 BHs). The mean tumor position variation between consecutive BHs was 0.2 [standard deviation (SD) 1.7] mm in the inferior direction and 0.5 (SD 0.8) mm in the anterior direction. We observed substantial pancreatic tumor motion during BH as well as considerable position variation between consecutive BHs on a single day. We recommend further quantifying these uncertainties before introducing breath-hold during radiation treatment of pancreatic cancer patients. Also, the diaphragm cannot be used as a surrogate for pancreatic tumor motion.

  11. Fatigue crack growth control in pressure vessel using single peak overload and load hold at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ling; Nakamura, Haruo; Kobayashi, Hideo

    1995-01-01

    Pressure vessels are periodically subjected to a proof test to assure structural integrity. During that period, it may be possible to control the fatigue crack growth by simultaneous heating globally or locally around a crack tip. From this viewpoint, retardation behavior of a fatigue crack due to a single peak overload at a high temperature (∼300degC) was examined in an A 533 B-1 steel. Parameters investigated were overload ratio, applied temperature, hold time at higher temperature, and unloading temperature of overload. The higher the applied temperature, the greater the effect of retardation especially when unloading of the overload is done at lower temperatures. Also, the hold time at maximum load promotes oxide-film-induced crack closure. To evaluate those effects, a simple model is proposed based on the Dugdale model. (author)

  12. A Bayesian procedure for estimating the causal effects of nursing home bed-hold policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Roee; Intrator, Orna; Lancaster, Tony

    2017-10-03

    Nursing home bed-hold policies provide continuity of care for Medicaid beneficiaries by paying nursing homes to reserve beds so residents can return to their facility of occupancy following an acute hospitalization. In 2001, Michigan implemented bed-hold policies in nursing homes. We investigated the impact of these policies on mortality and hospitalizations using 1999-2004 quarterly data from nursing homes in Michigan and nursing homes in 11 states that did not implement such policies. Synthetic Control has been used to estimate the effects of policies by accounting for changes over time unrelated to the intervention. Synthetic Control is intended for scalar continuous outcome at each period, and assumes a single treated unit and multiple control units. We propose a Bayesian procedure to overcome these limitations. It imputes the outcomes of nursing homes in Michigan if they were not exposed to the policy by matching to non-exposed nursing homes that are associated with the exposed ones in the pre-policy period. Because sampling from a Bayesian model is computationally challenging, we describe an approximation procedure that can be implemented using existing software. Our approach can be applied to other studies that examine the impact of policies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. SU-E-J-62: Breath Hold for Left-Sided Breast Cancer: Visually Monitored Deep Inspiration Breath Hold Amplitude Evaluated Using Real-Time Position Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conroy, L; Quirk, S; Smith, WL; Yeung, R; Phan, T; Hudson, A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We used Real-Time Position Management (RPM) to evaluate breath hold amplitude and variability when gating with a visually monitored deep inspiration breath hold technique (VM-DIBH) with retrospective cine image chest wall position verification. Methods: Ten patients with left-sided breast cancer were treated using VM-DIBH. Respiratory motion was passively collected once weekly using RPM with the marker block positioned at the xiphoid process. Cine images on the tangent medial field were acquired on fractions with RPM monitoring for retrospective verification of chest wall position during breath hold. The amplitude and duration of all breath holds on which treatment beams were delivered were extracted from the RPM traces. Breath hold position coverage was evaluated for symmetric RPM gating windows from ± 1 to 5 mm centered on the average breath hold amplitude of the first measured fraction as a baseline. Results: The average (range) breath hold amplitude and duration was 18 mm (3–36 mm) and 19 s (7–34 s). The average (range) of amplitude standard deviation per patient over all breath holds was 2.7 mm (1.2–5.7 mm). With the largest allowable RPM gating window (± 5 mm), 4 of 10 VM-DIBH patients would have had ≥ 10% of their breath hold positions excluded by RPM. Cine verification of the chest wall position during the medial tangent field showed that the chest wall was greater than 5 mm from the baseline in only 1 out of 4 excluded patients. Cine images verify the chest wall/breast position only, whether this variation is acceptable in terms of heart sparing is a subject of future investigation. Conclusion: VM-DIBH allows for greater breath hold amplitude variability than using a 5 mm gating window with RPM, while maintaining chest wall positioning accuracy within 5 mm for the majority of patients

  14. From creativity to perception: The conditions of possibility for a true biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazalis, Roland

    2015-12-01

    The phenomenologist Renaud Barbaras defends an alternative conception of life against the well-known proposals that view life as self-preserving or seeking to replicate its own means of replication in the form of repetition instead of creation or accomplishment as Barbaras proposes. Indeed, he criticizes the reductive nature of scientific inquiry which tries to define life solely on the basis of the internal constraints, which leads to an impossible true biology. Barbaras' conception is rooted in Husserl and Merleau-Ponty who conceives perception as a subjective act by which the subject enters a relationship with the world. This leads the subject to overcome the Husserlian resources to reach the originary link of the organism with itself and the exteriority. This originary link is expressed in the ambiguity of the verb "to live" in French which designates both being alive and the experience of something. According to Barbaras, desire as life is the infinite exploration of the external world. The movement is due to the nature of perception itself, inasmuch as infinite exploration is in the very nature of the perceptive movement itself, which opens an unfulfillable absence within the exterior world. Then, life as desire is the desire of the world. Life is accomplished only as an unfolding of the world. Then, Barbaras' model seems to preserve the unity of the organism that allows the phenomenal level or the lived experience, the indefinite engagement with exteriority and the positivity of absence created by the movement through its activity. From this, we propose to complement Barbaras' insights on negativity and the expressions of desire with our approach concerning three main points. In the first place, we interpret Barbaras' notion of life as accomplishment within the Whiteheadian framework of creativity, thereby granting the thermodynamic reality of living systems. Secondly, we clarify the meaning of the couple movement/manifestation so that these concepts are as

  15. True and false splenic artery aneurysm on endoscopic ultrasonography: Two-case analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silina, T; Butkevich, Ð; Shpitonkov, A; Brovkin, A; Nalivaiskyi, A; Filatov, A; Kutuzov, T; Lukyanov, A; Mostovoy, I; Koshelev, M; Gordeev, S; Ostretsov, R

    2014-04-01

    The etiology of true and false splenic artery aneurysm is different, but the differential X-ray contrast diagnosis could be difficult. Purpose - to detect endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) diagnostic capability for false and true splenic artery aneurysm by considering two clinical cases: With suspected stomach and pancreatic lesions. Patient, female, 50-year-old with suspected stomach lesion, complicated by gastric bleeding. Endoscopy - acute gastric ulcer. X-ray - submucosal gastric tumor. The patient was sent to the EUS with fine-needle aspiration. Patient, male, 73-year-old with suspected pancreatic neoplasm. Ultrasound - pancreatic cysts. Computed tomography (CT) - neoplasm of the pancreas body. Celiacography - splenic artery aneurysm. The patient was sent to the EUS to clarify the diagnosis. First patient EUS - anechoic rounded lesion with thick wall close to the stomach. Stomach wall layers were not differentiated above the lesion. Doppler - turbulent blood flow. EUS excluded submucosal lesion and proved the presence of aneurysm. CT confirmed the aneurysm. Post-operative histology - splenic artery pseudoaneurysm, destruction of the stomach wall and pancreatic parenchyma. Second patient EUS - ovoid solid-cystic lesion with thin hyperechoic "capsule." Doppler in cystic part - arterial blood flow. EUS suspected saccular splenic artery aneurysm with the neck and the residual lumen. Post-operative histology - true splenic artery aneurysm with thrombotic masses near the wall, pancreatic parenchyma was intact. EUS can reliably differentiate splenic artery aneurysm from gastric submucosal lesion and differentiate true and false aneurysm with high probability.

  16. Definition of apparent, true, and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, H.H.; Fuller, M.F.; Moughan, P.J.; Seve, B.; Mosenthin, R.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Fernandez, J.A.; Lange, de C.F.M.

    2007-01-01

    Measures of ileal digestibility (ID) are used routinely as estimates of amino acid (AA) bio-availability in pig feed ingredients. Values for ID may be expressed as apparent (AID), standardized (SID), or true (TID). Values for AID are calculated by deducting the total ileal outflow of AA (the sum of

  17. Coarsening and pattern formation during true morphological phase separation in unstable thin films under gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Avanish; Narayanam, Chaitanya; Khanna, Rajesh; Puri, Sanjay

    2017-12-01

    We address in detail the problem of true morphological phase separation (MPS) in three-dimensional or (2 +1 )-dimensional unstable thin liquid films (>100 nm) under the influence of gravity. The free-energy functionals of these films are asymmetric and show two points of common tangency, which facilitates the formation of two equilibrium phases. Three distinct patterns formed by relative preponderance of these phases are clearly identified in "true MPS". Asymmetricity induces two different pathways of pattern formation, viz., defect and direct pathway for true MPS. The pattern formation and phase-ordering dynamics have been studied using statistical measures such as structure factor, correlation function, and growth laws. In the late stage of coarsening, the system reaches into a scaling regime for both pathways, and the characteristic domain size follows the Lifshitz-Slyozov growth law [L (t ) ˜t1 /3] . However, for the defect pathway, there is a crossover of domain growth behavior from L (t ) ˜t1 /4→t1 /3 in the dynamical scaling regime. We also underline the analogies and differences behind the mechanisms of MPS and true MPS in thin liquid films and generic spinodal phase separation in binary mixtures.

  18. Logging damage in thinned, young-growth true fir stands in California and recommendations for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Aho; Gary Fiddler; Mike. Srago

    1983-01-01

    Logging-damage surveys and tree-dissection studies were made in commercially thinned, naturally established young-growth true fir stands in the Lassen National Forest in northern California. Significant damage occurred to residual trees in stands logged by conventional methods. Logging damage was substantially lower in stands thinned using techniques designed to reduce...

  19. Devil-nets of clues: True Detective and the search for meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybjerg, Casper

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the first season of the hit television series True Detective (2014) with respect to the claim that it deliberately adopted a form fitting the new world of digital television. The article argues that this embrace is less than complete: the show seeks an immersive, novelistic ...

  20. Apparent and true amino acid digestibility of artemia meal in broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apparent and true amino acid digestibility of artemia meal in broiler chicks (Short communication) ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... to determine the amino acid digestibility of artemia meal, five-week old male broiler chicks were given a semi-purified diet in which artemia meal was the sole source of protein.