WorldWideScience

Sample records for model holds promise

  1. A conceptual holding model for veterinary applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Ferrè

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial references are required when geographical information systems (GIS are used for the collection, storage and management of data. In the veterinary domain, the spatial component of a holding (of animals is usually defined by coordinates, and no other relevant information needs to be interpreted or used for manipulation of the data in the GIS environment provided. Users trying to integrate or reuse spatial data organised in such a way, frequently face the problem of data incompatibility and inconsistency. The root of the problem lies in differences with respect to syntax as well as variations in the semantic, spatial and temporal representations of the geographic features. To overcome these problems and to facilitate the inter-operability of different GIS, spatial data must be defined according to a “schema” that includes the definition, acquisition, analysis, access, presentation and transfer of such data between different users and systems. We propose an application “schema” of holdings for GIS applications in the veterinary domain according to the European directive framework (directive 2007/2/EC - INSPIRE. The conceptual model put forward has been developed at two specific levels to produce the essential and the abstract model, respectively. The former establishes the conceptual linkage of the system design to the real world, while the latter describes how the system or software works. The result is an application “schema” that formalises and unifies the information-theoretic foundations of how to spatially represent a holding in order to ensure straightforward information-sharing within the veterinary community.

  2. A mathematical model of aerosol holding chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Madsen, J; Berg, E

    1999-01-01

    A mathematical model of aerosol delivery from holding chambers (spacers) was developed incorporating tidal volume (VT), chamber volume (Vch), apparatus dead space (VD), effect of valve insufficiency and other leaks, loss of aerosol by immediate impact on the chamber wall, and fallout of aerosol...... in the chamber with time. Four different spacers were connected via filters to a mechanical lung model, and aerosol delivery during "breathing" was determined from drug recovery from the filters. The formula correctly predicted the delivery of budesonide aerosol from the AeroChamber (Trudell Medical, London......-mentioned factors, initial loss of aerosol by impact on the chamber wall is most important for the efficiency of a spacer. With a VT of 195 mL, the AeroChamber and Babyhaler were emptied in two breaths, the NebuChamber in four breaths, and the Nebuhaler in six breaths. Insufficiencies of the expiratory valves were...

  3. A mathematical model of aerosol holding chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Madsen, J; Berg, E

    1999-01-01

    A mathematical model of aerosol delivery from holding chambers (spacers) was developed incorporating tidal volume (VT), chamber volume (Vch), apparatus dead space (VD), effect of valve insufficiency and other leaks, loss of aerosol by immediate impact on the chamber wall, and fallout of aerosol...... in the chamber with time. Four different spacers were connected via filters to a mechanical lung model, and aerosol delivery during "breathing" was determined from drug recovery from the filters. The formula correctly predicted the delivery of budesonide aerosol from the AeroChamber (Trudell Medical, London......, Ontario, Canada), NebuChamber (Astra, Södirtälje, Sweden) and Nebuhaler (Astra) adapted for babies. The dose of fluticasone proportionate delivered by the Babyhaler (Glaxco Wellcome, Oxbridge, Middlesex, UK) was 80% of that predicted, probably because of incomplete priming of this spacer. Of the above...

  4. Do biological-based strategies hold promise to biofouling control in MBRs?

    KAUST Repository

    Malaeb, Lilian

    2013-10-01

    Biofouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) remains a primary challenge for their wider application, despite the growing acceptance of MBRs worldwide. Research studies on membrane fouling are extensive in the literature, with more than 200 publications on MBR fouling in the last 3 years; yet, improvements in practice on biofouling control and management have been remarkably slow. Commonly applied cleaning methods are only partially effective and membrane replacement often becomes frequent. The reason for the slow advancement in successful control of biofouling is largely attributed to the complex interactions of involved biological compounds and the lack of representative-for-practice experimental approaches to evaluate potential effective control strategies. Biofouling is driven by microorganisms and their associated extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS) and microbial products. Microorganisms and their products convene together to form matrices that are commonly treated as a black box in conventional control approaches. Biological-based antifouling strategies seem to be a promising constituent of an effective integrated control approach since they target the essence of biofouling problems. However, biological-based strategies are in their developmental phase and several questions should be addressed to set a roadmap for translating existing and new information into sustainable and effective control techniques. This paper investigates membrane biofouling in MBRs from the microbiological perspective to evaluate the potential of biological-based strategies in offering viable control alternatives. Limitations of available control methods highlight the importance of an integrated anti-fouling approach including biological strategies. Successful development of these strategies requires detailed characterization of microorganisms and EPS through the proper selection of analytical tools and assembly of results. Existing microbiological/EPS studies reveal a number of

  5. Do biological-based strategies hold promise to biofouling control in MBRs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaeb, Lilian; Le-Clech, Pierre; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S; Ayoub, George M; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2013-10-01

    Biofouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) remains a primary challenge for their wider application, despite the growing acceptance of MBRs worldwide. Research studies on membrane fouling are extensive in the literature, with more than 200 publications on MBR fouling in the last 3 years; yet, improvements in practice on biofouling control and management have been remarkably slow. Commonly applied cleaning methods are only partially effective and membrane replacement often becomes frequent. The reason for the slow advancement in successful control of biofouling is largely attributed to the complex interactions of involved biological compounds and the lack of representative-for-practice experimental approaches to evaluate potential effective control strategies. Biofouling is driven by microorganisms and their associated extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS) and microbial products. Microorganisms and their products convene together to form matrices that are commonly treated as a black box in conventional control approaches. Biological-based antifouling strategies seem to be a promising constituent of an effective integrated control approach since they target the essence of biofouling problems. However, biological-based strategies are in their developmental phase and several questions should be addressed to set a roadmap for translating existing and new information into sustainable and effective control techniques. This paper investigates membrane biofouling in MBRs from the microbiological perspective to evaluate the potential of biological-based strategies in offering viable control alternatives. Limitations of available control methods highlight the importance of an integrated anti-fouling approach including biological strategies. Successful development of these strategies requires detailed characterization of microorganisms and EPS through the proper selection of analytical tools and assembly of results. Existing microbiological/EPS studies reveal a number of

  6. Shared Curriculum Model: A Promising Practice for Education Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Liz; Gorski, Mary Sue; Sroczynski, Maureen; Farmer, Pat; Wortock, Jean

    2015-12-01

    The shared curriculum model is one of four successful models of academic progression identified through a consensus-building process facilitated by The Future of Nursing: Campaign for Action, with support from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, AARP, and the AARP Foundation. Seamless academic progression from the associate degree in nursing (ADN) to the baccalaureate degree in nursing (BSN) is achieved either by simultaneously revising both ADN and BSN curricula or by making targeted adjustments in ADN or BSN curricula to create a unified academic progression. Systematic vetting and definitive agreement on nursing prerequisites and corequisites, general education courses, nursing major content, and general degree requirements are necessary to ensure coordinated degree progression. A standardized set of expectations for beginning professional practice and for unique baccalaureate nursing knowledge ensures vital nursing content across the ADN-to-BSN continuum. Examples of state and regional ADN-to-BSN progression programs using the shared curriculum model are highlighted. The shared curriculum model is a promising practical and sustainable approach to seamless ADN-to-BSN academic progression. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Organizational suggestion system in the era of holding by developing an innovative model : the case of bonyade ta avon holding in Iran(an applied model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Ghasemi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the popular ways of taking advantage of personnel creativity is through suggestionsystems. Our main question is how to implement suggestion system in holding with conglomeratestructure. The paper presents an innovative model that were named ITFSK Model with accordanceof Bonayade Taavone (a holding that has many companies and institutions with conglomeratestructure. ITFSK is a model that explains how participation management and suggestion system isimplemented effectively in huge Enterprises (holding and this approach brings continuousimprovement (kaizen and it impacts the productivity of these enterprises.The paper is based on field research and the research in Bonyade Tavan that has 22 companies and2 institutions that activity fields of the subholdings is very varied.Our model consists of five main parts such as ideas bank, think-tank, feedback, sharing ofknowledge and kaizen that was named ITFSK.Implementation of “Suggestion system” rules has immediate and significant effects on theproductivity of activities in the jobs, thus influencing the performance of processes in the analyzedorganization. Suggestion system can result in kaizen and innovation in environment oforganization.The model was used to implement and evaluate a suggestion system of holding with conglomeratedstructure. The application of the model to evaluate the suggestion system provided some goodinsights and highlighted some areas of improvement.

  8. Medaka: a promising model animal for comparative population genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Koji

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within-species genome diversity has been best studied in humans. The international HapMap project has revealed a tremendous amount of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs among humans, many of which show signals of positive selection during human evolution. In most of the cases, however, functional differences between the alleles remain experimentally unverified due to the inherent difficulty of human genetic studies. It would therefore be highly useful to have a vertebrate model with the following characteristics: (1 high within-species genetic diversity, (2 a variety of gene-manipulation protocols already developed, and (3 a completely sequenced genome. Medaka (Oryzias latipes and its congeneric species, tiny fresh-water teleosts distributed broadly in East and Southeast Asia, meet these criteria. Findings Using Oryzias species from 27 local populations, we conducted a simple screening of nonsynonymous SNPs for 11 genes with apparent orthology between medaka and humans. We found medaka SNPs for which the same sites in human orthologs are known to be highly differentiated among the HapMap populations. Importantly, some of these SNPs show signals of positive selection. Conclusion These results indicate that medaka is a promising model system for comparative population genomics exploring the functional and adaptive significance of allelic differentiations.

  9. Comparison of a multi-breath-hold and a single breath-hold cine imaging approach for 4D guide-point modeling of the left ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmaier, C.; Schlosser, T.; Nassenstein, K.; Bruder, O.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Guide-point modeling (GPM) enables reliable and time-efficient assessment of left ventricular (LV) volumes when using sequences that allow acquisition of short- and long-axis scans within a single breath-hold. Slice misalignment may influence GPM analysis of standard multi-breath-hold images due to image acquisition in different breath-holds. Thus, our study aimed to assess if such an approach allows for reliable volumetric calculations in the clinical routine. Materials and Methods: 52 patients were examined on a 1.5 T scanner with multi-breath-hold acquisitions on the standard short- and long-axis using an SSFP (TR 3 ms, TE 1.5 ms, FA 60 ) sequence and a TPAT accelerated SSFP (TR 4.6 msec, TE 1.1msec, FA 60 , acceleration factor 3) sequence that covered the LV in 3 short- and 2 long-axis slices within a single breath-hold. For both datasets GPM was used to assess LV volumes. In addition, LV parameters were calculated by applying the summation of slices (SoS) approach (standard of reference) with the short-axis views of the multi-breath-hold dataset. Results: The post-processing times were shorter with both GPM approaches (both, p 0.97). Conclusion: Cine short- and long-axis images that had been acquired in different breath-holds can be reliably evaluated by the GPM approach. (orig.)

  10. CRISPR-Cas9 systems: versatile cancer modelling platforms and promising therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Wan-Shun; Yuan, Zhi-Min; Ma, Shi-Jie; Xu, Jiang; Yuan, Dong-Tang

    2016-03-15

    The RNA-guided nuclease CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated nuclease 9) and its variants such as nickase Cas9, dead Cas9, guide RNA scaffolds and RNA-targeting Cas9 are convenient and versatile platforms for site-specific genome editing and epigenome modulation. They are easy-to-use, simple-to-design and capable of targeting multiple loci simultaneously. Given that cancer develops from cumulative genetic and epigenetic alterations, CRISPR-Cas9 and its variants (hereafter referred to as CRISPR-Cas9 systems) hold extensive application potentials in cancer modeling and therapy. To date, they have already been applied to model oncogenic mutations in cell lines (e.g., Choi and Meyerson, Nat Commun 2014;5:3728) and in adult animals (e.g., Xue et al., Nature 2014;514:380-4), as well as to combat cancer by disabling oncogenic viruses (e.g., Hu et al., Biomed Res Int 2014;2014:612823) or by manipulating cancer genome (e.g., Liu et al., Nat Commun 2014;5:5393). Given the importance of epigenome and transcriptome in tumourigenesis, manipulation of cancer epigenome and transcriptome for cancer modeling and therapy is a promising area in the future. Whereas (epi)genetic modifications of cancer microenvironment with CRISPR-Cas9 systems for therapeutic purposes represent another promising area in cancer research. Herein, we introduce the functions and mechanisms of CRISPR-Cas9 systems in genome editing and epigenome modulation, retrospect their applications in cancer modelling and therapy, discuss limitations and possible solutions and propose future directions, in hope of providing concise and enlightening information for readers interested in this area. © 2015 UICC.

  11. Modeling ramp-hold indentation measurements based on Kelvin-Voigt fractional derivative model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; zhe Zhang, Qing; Ruan, Litao; Duan, Junbo; Wan, Mingxi; Insana, Michael F.

    2018-03-01

    Interpretation of experimental data from micro- and nano-scale indentation testing is highly dependent on the constitutive model selected to relate measurements to mechanical properties. The Kelvin-Voigt fractional derivative model (KVFD) offers a compact set of viscoelastic features appropriate for characterizing soft biological materials. This paper provides a set of KVFD solutions for converting indentation testing data acquired for different geometries and scales into viscoelastic properties of soft materials. These solutions, which are mostly in closed-form, apply to ramp-hold relaxation, load-unload and ramp-load creep-testing protocols. We report on applications of these model solutions to macro- and nano-indentation testing of hydrogels, gastric cancer cells and ex vivo breast tissue samples using an atomic force microscope (AFM). We also applied KVFD models to clinical ultrasonic breast data using a compression plate as required for elasticity imaging. Together the results show that KVFD models fit a broad range of experimental data with a correlation coefficient typically R 2  >  0.99. For hydrogel samples, estimation of KVFD model parameters from test data using spherical indentation versus plate compression as well as ramp relaxation versus load-unload compression all agree within one standard deviation. Results from measurements made using macro- and nano-scale indentation agree in trend. For gastric cell and ex vivo breast tissue measurements, KVFD moduli are, respectively, 1/3-1/2 and 1/6 of the elasticity modulus found from the Sneddon model. In vivo breast tissue measurements yield model parameters consistent with literature results. The consistency of results found for a broad range of experimental parameters suggest the KVFD model is a reliable tool for exploring intrinsic features of the cell/tissue microenvironments.

  12. Probabilistic language models in cognitive neuroscience: Promises and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armeni, Kristijan; Willems, Roel M; Frank, Stefan L

    2017-12-01

    Cognitive neuroscientists of language comprehension study how neural computations relate to cognitive computations during comprehension. On the cognitive part of the equation, it is important that the computations and processing complexity are explicitly defined. Probabilistic language models can be used to give a computationally explicit account of language complexity during comprehension. Whereas such models have so far predominantly been evaluated against behavioral data, only recently have the models been used to explain neurobiological signals. Measures obtained from these models emphasize the probabilistic, information-processing view of language understanding and provide a set of tools that can be used for testing neural hypotheses about language comprehension. Here, we provide a cursory review of the theoretical foundations and example neuroimaging studies employing probabilistic language models. We highlight the advantages and potential pitfalls of this approach and indicate avenues for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Accuracy Analysis of the Zero-Order Hold Model for Digital Pulsewidth Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Junpeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyzes the accuracy of the zero-order hold (ZOH) model for the digital pulsewidth modulator (DPWM) in the s-domain. The s-domain model and the exact z-domain model for the control loop of the single-phase inverter with L-type filter is elaborated for quantifying the deviation...... of the ZOH model for DPWM. The influence of the different computational delay and duty-cycle update modes on this deviation is analyzed in detail. The compensation method for this deviation of the ZOH model is proposed for accurately predicting the stability region of the control system in the s...

  14. Model-based auralizations of violin sound trends accompanying plate-bridge tuning or holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissinger, George; Mores, Robert

    2015-04-01

    To expose systematic trends in violin sound accompanying "tuning" only the plates or only the bridge, the first structural acoustics-based model auralizations of violin sound were created by passing a bowed-string driving force measured at the bridge of a solid body violin through the dynamic filter (DF) model radiativity profile "filter" RDF(f) (frequency-dependent pressure per unit driving force, free-free suspension, anechoic chamber). DF model auralizations for the more realistic case of a violin held/played in a reverberant auditorium reveal that holding the violin greatly diminishes its low frequency response, an effect only weakly compensated for by auditorium reverberation.

  15. An insulin based model to explain changes and interactions in human breath-holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangmann, Rosita

    2015-06-01

    Until now oxygen was thought to be the leading factor of hypoxic conditions. Whereas now it appears that insulin is the key regulator of hypoxic conditions. Insulin seems to regulate the redox state of the organism and to determine the breakpoint of human breath-holding. This new hypoxia-insulin hypotheses might have major clinical relevance. Besides the clinical relevance, this hypothesis could explain, for the first time, why the training of the diaphragm, among other factors, results in an increase in breath-holding performance. Elite freedivers/apnea divers are able to reach static breath-holding times to over 6 min. Untrained persons exhibit an unpleasant feeling after more or less a minute. Breath-holding is stopped at the breakpoint. The partial oxygen pressure as well as the carbon dioxide pressure failed to directly influence the breakpoint in earlier studies. The factors that contribute to the breakpoint are still under debate. Under hypoxic conditions the organism needs more glucose, because it changes from the oxygen consuming pentose phosphate (36 ATP/glucose molecule) to the anaerobic glycolytic pathway (2ATP/glucose molecule). Hence insulin, as it promotes the absorption of glucose, is set in the center of interest regarding hypoxic conditions. This paper provides an insulin based model that could explain the changes and interactions in human breath-holding. The correlation between hypoxia and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their influence on the sympathetic nerve system and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) is dealt with. It reviews as well the direct interrelation of HIF-1α and insulin. The depression of insulin secretion through the vagus nerve activation via inspiration is discussed. Furthermore the paper describes the action of insulin on the carotid bodies and the diaphragm and therefore a possible role in respiration pattern. Freedivers that go over the breakpoint of breath-holding could exhibit seizures and thus the effect of

  16. Closed-loop model identification of cooperative manipulators holding deformable objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkathiri, A. A.; Akmeliawati, R.; Azlan, N. Z.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents system identification to obtain the closed-loop models of a couple of cooperative manipulators in a system, which function to hold deformable objects. The system works using the master-slave principle. In other words, one of the manipulators is position-controlled through encoder feedback, while a force sensor gives feedback to the other force-controlled manipulator. Using the closed-loop input and output data, the closed-loop models, which are useful for model-based control design, are estimated. The criteria for model validation are a 95% fit between the measured and simulated output of the estimated models and residual analysis. The results show that for both position and force control respectively, the fits are 95.73% and 95.88%.

  17. Checkpoint Inhibitors Hold Promise for Rare Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with a rare form of melanoma, called desmoplastic melanoma, may be particularly likely to benefit from immune checkpoint inhibitors, a new study shows. As this Cancer Currents post explains, an NCI-sponsored clinical trial is already testing one such drug, pembrolizumab (Keytruda) in patients with this cancer.

  18. Phase-Type Models of Channel-Holding Times in Cellular Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Kaare; Nielsen, Bo Friis; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we derive the distribution of the channel-holding time when both cell-residence and call-holding times are phase-type distributed. Furthermore, the distribution of the number of handovers, the conditional channel-holding time distributions, and the channel-holding time when cell re...... residence times are correlated are derived. All distributions are of phase type, making them very general and flexible. The channel-holding times are of importance in performance evaluation and simulation of cellular mobile communication systems....

  19. Predictive Modeling of Influenza Shows the Promise of Applied Evolutionary Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Dylan H; Gostic, Katelyn M; Pompei, Simone; Bedford, Trevor; Łuksza, Marta; Neher, Richard A; Grenfell, Bryan T; Lässig, Michael; McCauley, John W

    2018-02-01

    Seasonal influenza is controlled through vaccination campaigns. Evolution of influenza virus antigens means that vaccines must be updated to match novel strains, and vaccine effectiveness depends on the ability of scientists to predict nearly a year in advance which influenza variants will dominate in upcoming seasons. In this review, we highlight a promising new surveillance tool: predictive models. Based on data-sharing and close collaboration between the World Health Organization and academic scientists, these models use surveillance data to make quantitative predictions regarding influenza evolution. Predictive models demonstrate the potential of applied evolutionary biology to improve public health and disease control. We review the state of influenza predictive modeling and discuss next steps and recommendations to ensure that these models deliver upon their considerable biomedical promise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Model validation through long-term promising sustainable maize/pigeon pea residue management in Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwale, C.D.; Kabambe, V.H.; Sakale, W.D.; Giller, K.E.; Kauwa, A.A.; Ligowe, I.; Kamalongo, D.

    2013-01-01

    In the 2005/2006 season, the Model Validation Through Long-Term Promising Sustainable Maize/Pigeon Pea Residue Management experiment was in the 11th year at Chitedze and Chitala, and in the 8th year at Makoka and Zombwe. The experiment was a split-plot design with cropping system as the main plot

  1. Cardiac spheroids as promising in vitro models to study the human heart microenvironment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polonchuk, Liudmila; Chabria, Mamta; Badi, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional in vitro cell systems are a promising alternative to animals to study cardiac biology and disease. We have generated three-dimensional in vitro models of the human heart ("cardiac spheroids", CSs) by co-culturing human primary or iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells an...

  2. Where does “whichever occurs first” hold for preventive maintenance modelings?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xufeng; Liu, Hu-Chen; Nakagawa, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to observe where the classical assumption “whichever occurs first” holds for preventive maintenance (PM) modelings. We firstly take up a bivariate maintenance policy where “whichever occurs first” and the newly proposed “whichever occurs last” are respectively used. Modification of PM performance is introduced into modelings to avoid interruptions of job executions, that is, PMs are done only at the end of working cycles. From the points of performability and maintenance cost, we secondly compare the optimized “first” and “last” policies in detail and find two critical points of comparisons analytically. Further, by comparing the “first” and “last” policies with the standard maintenance, modified PM costs are obtained to observe whether it is easy to save PM cost for “whichever occurs first”. For a trivariate maintenance policy, we thirdly propose an entirely new assumption “whichever occurs middle” and give another one model that considers both assumptions of “first” and “last”. We analyze maintenance probabilities for each model and then obtain directly their expected maintenance cost rates for further studies. - Highlights: • A bivariate maintenance policy based on “whichever occurs first” is improved. • Two comparisons of “whichever occurs first and last” are made. • Modified maintenance costs are obtained to observe which policy could save more costs. • New assumption “whichever occurs middle” for the trivariate maintenances is proposed. • One policy is modeled by considering both assumptions of “first” and “last”

  3. Utilization of mathematical models to manage risk of holding cold food without temperature control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, Donald W

    2013-06-01

    This document describes the development of a tool to manage the risk of the transportation of cold food without temperature control. The tool uses predictions from ComBase predictor and builds on the 2009 U.S. Food and Drug Administration Model Food Code and supporting scientific data in the Food Code annex. I selected Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes as the organisms for risk management. Salmonella spp. were selected because they are associated with a wide variety of foods and grow rapidly at temperatures >17°C. L. monocytogenes was selected because it is frequently present in the food processing environment, it was used in the original analysis contained in the Food Code Annex, and it grows relatively rapidly at temperatures supplier collected as part of this project. The resulting model-based tool will be a useful aid to risk managers and customers of wholesale cash and carry food service suppliers, as well as to anyone interested in assessing and managing the risks posed by holding cold foods out of temperature control in supermarkets, delis, restaurants, cafeterias, and homes.

  4. Evaluation of the Gauss-Eyring model to predict thermal inactivation of micro-organisms at short holding times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, R A H; Mastwijk, H C; Nierop Groot, M N; Van Boekel, M A J S

    2017-12-18

    Application of mild (non)-thermal processing technologies have received considerable interest as alternative to thermal pasteurisation, because of its shorter holding time and lower temperature aiming for an improved product quality. To understand and develop these alternative technologies, like pulsed electric fields, a proper comparison between the conventional thermal and alternative process is necessary. Up to recent, no suitable models were available to predict the inactivation of micro-organisms by a thermal process at a chosen short holding time, due to non-linearity. The recently developed Gauss-Eyring model with two variables temperature and time has the properties to be a suitable model to apply for short holding times, and was tested for this purpose. Therefore, this study aims to validate if the Gauss-Eyring model can be used to describe non-linear isothermal (a fixed temperature with varying holding time) and isotime (a fixed holding time with varying temperature) thermal inactivation data, and if it is a suitable model to predict the thermal inactivation as a function of temperature for short holding times. Inactivation data of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Lactobacillus plantarum, Salmonella Senftenberg and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in orange juice were collected via isothermal and isotime inactivation kinetics. Survival of the tested micro-organisms was modelled with the Gauss-Eyring model, which contains three parameters σ, Tr and Z. The transition of 'no inactivation' to 'inactivation' (i.e. the 'shoulder' in inactivation curves) can be characterised as the temperature-time (T,t) combination where T=Tr-Z·log 10 (t), with Tr as the reference temperature defined for 1s treatment, Z as the temperature needed for a 10-fold increase of decrease of the holding time t, and σ as the temperature width of the distribution. The Gauss-Eyring model fitted well to the experimental data, and revealed different sensitivity for the tested micro

  5. From the Rodent Spinal Cord Injury Model to Human Application: Promises and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Volker; Schwab, Martin E

    2017-05-01

    Repair of the spinal cord and improvement of mobility after injury has been a matter of basic and clinical research for several decades. A number of repair approaches were performed in animals, mainly rodent models of spinal cord injury (SCI). Some of these experimental therapies resulted in significant regeneration of tract fibers, formation of new connections and circuits, and associated improvement of mobility. Some clinical trials aiming at translating these approaches to the human condition of an SCI are currently on-going. The present therapy, however, remains rehabiliation: Mobility of patients with an SCI can be improved to a limited extent by the exploition of neuroplasticity. In this article the present state of the art in the field of SCI research will be discussed. Studies dealing with the promotion of spinal cord repair and those directed to improve mobility by exploition of neuroplasticity will be summarized. The promises and challenges of translational basic research in rodent SCI models will be presented.

  6. Longitudinal study of a mouse model of chronic pulmonary inflammation using breath hold gated micro-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaechevarria, Xabier; Perez-Martin, Daniel; Munoz-Barrutia, Arrate; Ortiz-de-Solorzano, Carlos; Blanco, David; Biurrun, Gabriel de; Montuenga, Luis M.; Torres, Juan P. de; Zulueta, Javier J.; Bastarrika, Gorka

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using automatic quantitative analysis of breath hold gated micro-CT images to detect and monitor disease in a mouse model of chronic pulmonary inflammation, and to compare image-based measurements with pulmonary function tests and histomorphometry. Forty-nine A/J mice were used, divided into control and inflammation groups. Chronic inflammation was induced by silica aspiration. Fourteen animals were imaged at baseline, and 4, 14, and 34 weeks after silica aspiration, using micro-CT synchronized with ventilator-induced breath holds. Lung input impedance was measured as well using forced oscillation techniques. Five additional animals from each group were killed after micro-CT for comparison with histomorphometry. At all time points, micro-CT measurements show statistically significant differences between the two groups, while first differences in functional test parameters appear at 14 weeks. Micro-CT measurements correlate well with histomorphometry and discriminate diseased and healthy groups better than functional tests. Longitudinal studies using breath hold gated micro-CT are feasible on the silica-induced model of chronic pulmonary inflammation, and automatic measurements from micro-CT images correlate well with histomorphometry, being more sensitive than functional tests to detect lung damage in this model. (orig.)

  7. Longitudinal study of a mouse model of chronic pulmonary inflammation using breath hold gated micro-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artaechevarria, Xabier; Perez-Martin, Daniel; Munoz-Barrutia, Arrate; Ortiz-de-Solorzano, Carlos [Center for Applied Medical Research, University of Navarra, Cancer Imaging Laboratory, Oncology Division, Pamplona (Spain); Blanco, David; Biurrun, Gabriel de; Montuenga, Luis M. [Center for Applied Medical Research, University of Navarra, Biomarkers Laboratory, Pamplona (Spain); Torres, Juan P. de; Zulueta, Javier J. [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Pneumology Department, Pamplona (Spain); Bastarrika, Gorka [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Radiology Department, Pamplona (Spain)

    2010-11-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of using automatic quantitative analysis of breath hold gated micro-CT images to detect and monitor disease in a mouse model of chronic pulmonary inflammation, and to compare image-based measurements with pulmonary function tests and histomorphometry. Forty-nine A/J mice were used, divided into control and inflammation groups. Chronic inflammation was induced by silica aspiration. Fourteen animals were imaged at baseline, and 4, 14, and 34 weeks after silica aspiration, using micro-CT synchronized with ventilator-induced breath holds. Lung input impedance was measured as well using forced oscillation techniques. Five additional animals from each group were killed after micro-CT for comparison with histomorphometry. At all time points, micro-CT measurements show statistically significant differences between the two groups, while first differences in functional test parameters appear at 14 weeks. Micro-CT measurements correlate well with histomorphometry and discriminate diseased and healthy groups better than functional tests. Longitudinal studies using breath hold gated micro-CT are feasible on the silica-induced model of chronic pulmonary inflammation, and automatic measurements from micro-CT images correlate well with histomorphometry, being more sensitive than functional tests to detect lung damage in this model. (orig.)

  8. Phase Behavior Modeling of Asphaltene Precipitation for Heavy Crudes: A Promising Tool Along with Experimental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli, M.; Kharrat, R.; Masihi, M.; Ghazanfari, M. H.; Fadaei, S.

    2012-12-01

    Thermodynamic modeling is known as a promising tool for phase behavior modeling of asphaltene precipitation under different conditions such as pressure depletion and CO2 injection. In this work, a thermodynamic approach is used for modeling the phase behavior of asphaltene precipitation. The precipitated asphaltene phase is represented by an improved solid model, while the oil and gas phases are modeled with an equation of state. The PR-EOS was used to perform flash calculations. Then, the onset point and the amount of precipitated asphaltene were predicted. A computer code based on an improved solid model has been developed and used for predicting asphaltene precipitation data for one of Iranian heavy crudes, under pressure depletion and CO2 injection conditions. A significant improvement has been observed in predicting the asphaltene precipitation data under gas injection conditions. Especially for the maximum value of asphaltene precipitation and for the trend of the curve after the peak point, good agreement was observed. For gas injection conditions, comparison of the thermodynamic micellization model and the improved solid model showed that the thermodynamic micellization model cannot predict the maximum of precipitation as well as the improved solid model. The non-isothermal improved solid model has been used for predicting asphaltene precipitation data under pressure depletion conditions. The pressure depletion tests were done at different levels of temperature and pressure, and the parameters of a non-isothermal model were tuned using three onset pressures at three different temperatures for the considered crude. The results showed that the model is highly sensitive to the amount of solid molar volume along with the interaction coefficient parameter between the asphaltene component and light hydrocarbon components. Using a non-isothermal improved solid model, the asphaltene phase envelope was developed. It has been revealed that at high temperatures, an

  9. An inventory model of instantaneous deteriorating items with controllable deterioration rate for time dependent demand and holding cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar Mishra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper to develop an inventory model for instantaneous deteriorating items with the consideration of the facts that the deterioration rate can be controlled by using the preservation technology (PT and the holding cost & demand rate both are linear function of time which was treated as constant in most of the deteriorating inventory model. Design/methodology/approach: Developed the mathematical equation of deterministic deteriorating inventory model in which demand rate and holding cost both is linear function of time, deterioration rate is constant, backlogging rate is variable and depend on the length of the next replenishment, shortages are allowed and partially backlogged and obtain an analytical solution which optimizes the total cost of the proposed inventory model. Findings: The model can be applied for optimizing the total inventory cost of deteriorating items inventory for such business enterprises where they use the preservation technology to control the deterioration rate under other assumptions of the model. Originality/value: The inventory system for deteriorating items has been an object of study for a long time, but little is known about the effect of investing in reducing the rate of product deterioration and their significant impact in the business. The proposed model is effective as well as efficient for the business organization that uses the preservation technology to reduce the deterioration rate of the instantaneous deteriorating items of the inventory.

  10. Mathematical modeling based on ordinary differential equations: A promising approach to vaccinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Carla Rezende Barbosa; Fernandes, Guilherme Cortes; Dos Santos, Rodrigo Weber; Lobosco, Marcelo

    2017-02-01

    New contributions that aim to accelerate the development or to improve the efficacy and safety of vaccines arise from many different areas of research and technology. One of these areas is computational science, which traditionally participates in the initial steps, such as the pre-screening of active substances that have the potential to become a vaccine antigen. In this work, we present another promising way to use computational science in vaccinology: mathematical and computational models of important cell and protein dynamics of the immune system. A system of Ordinary Differential Equations represents different immune system populations, such as B cells and T cells, antigen presenting cells and antibodies. In this way, it is possible to simulate, in silico, the immune response to vaccines under development or under study. Distinct scenarios can be simulated by varying parameters of the mathematical model. As a proof of concept, we developed a model of the immune response to vaccination against the yellow fever. Our simulations have shown consistent results when compared with experimental data available in the literature. The model is generic enough to represent the action of other diseases or vaccines in the human immune system, such as dengue and Zika virus.

  11. Large-scale multi-configuration electromagnetic induction: a promising tool to improve hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hebel, Christian; Rudolph, Sebastian; Mester, Achim; Huisman, Johan A.; Montzka, Carsten; Weihermüller, Lutz; Vereecken, Harry; van der Kruk, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Large-scale multi-configuration electromagnetic induction (EMI) use different coil configurations, i.e., coil offsets and coil orientations, to sense coil specific depth volumes. The obtained apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) maps can be related to some soil properties such as clay content, soil water content, and pore water conductivity, which are important characteristics that influence hydrological processes. Here, we use large-scale EMI measurements to investigate changes in soil texture that drive the available water supply causing crop development patterns that were observed in leaf area index (LAI) maps obtained from RapidEye satellite images taken after a drought period. The 20 ha test site is situated within the Ellebach catchment (Germany) and consists of a sand-and-gravel dominated upper terrace (UT) and a loamy lower terrace (LT). The large-scale multi-configuration EMI measurements were calibrated using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) measurements at selected transects and soil samples were taken at representative locations where changes in the electrical conductivity were observed and therefore changing soil properties were expected. By analyzing all the data, the observed LAI patterns could be attributed to buried paleo-river channel systems that contained a higher silt and clay content and provided a higher water holding capacity than the surrounding coarser material. Moreover, the measured EMI data showed highest correlation with LAI for the deepest sensing coil offset (up to 1.9 m), which indicates that the deeper subsoil is responsible for root water uptake especially under drought conditions. To obtain a layered subsurface electrical conductivity model that shows the subsurface structures more clearly, a novel EMI inversion scheme was applied to the field data. The obtained electrical conductivity distributions were validated with soil probes and ERT transects that confirmed the inverted lateral and vertical large-scale electrical

  12. Fuzzy promises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Thomas Boysen; Kappel, Klemens; Eadie, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    This article clarifies the commonplace assumption that brands make promises by developing definitions of brand promise delivery. Distinguishing between clear and fuzzy brand promises, we develop definitions of what it is for a brand to deliver on fuzzy functional, symbolic, and experiential...

  13. Feasibility of single breath-hold left ventricular function with 3 Tesla TSENSE acquisition and 3D modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alistair A; Cowan, Brett R; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Wintersperger, Bernd J

    2008-05-21

    A single breath-hold evaluation of ventricular function would allow assessment in cases where scan time or patient tolerance is limited. Spatiotemporal acceleration techniques such as TSENSE decrease cardiovascular MR acquisition time, but standard slice summation analysis requires enough short axis slices to cover the left ventricle (LV). By reducing the number of short axis slices, incorporating long axis slices, and applying a 3D model based analysis, it may be possible to obtain accurate LV mass and volumes. We evaluated LV volume, mass and ejection fraction at 3.0 T using a 3D modeling analysis in 9 patients with a history of myocardial infarction and one healthy volunteer. Acquisition consisted of a standard short axis SSFP stack and a 15 heart-beat single breath-hold six slice multi-planar (4 short and 2 long axis) TSENSE SSFP protocol with an acceleration factor of R = 4. Differences (standard minus accelerated protocol mean +/- s.d.) and coefficients of variation (s.d. of differences as a percentage of the average estimate) were 7.5 +/- 9.6 mL and 6% for end-diastolic volume (p = 0.035), 0.4 +/- 5.1 mL and 7% for end-systolic volume (p = NS), 7.1 +/- 8.1 mL and 9% for stroke volume (p = 0.022), 2.2 +/- 2.8% and 5% for ejection fraction (p = 0.035), and -7.1 +/- 6.2 g and 4% for LV mass (p = 0.005), respectively. Intra- and inter-observer errors were similar for both protocols (p = NS for all measures). These results suggest that clinically useful estimates of LV function can be obtained in a TSENSE accelerated single breath-hold reduced slice acquisition at 3T using 3D modeling analysis techniques.

  14. The Oklahoma's Promise Program: A National Model to Promote College Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Pilar; Mendez, Jesse P.

    2013-01-01

    Using a multi-method approach involving fixed effects and logistic regressions, this study examined the effect of the Oklahoma's Promise Program on student persistence in relation to the Pell and Stafford federal programs and according to socio-economic characteristics and class level. The Oklahoma's Promise is a hybrid state program that pays…

  15. Aggregating available soil water holding capacity data for crop yield models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seubert, C. E.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Holt, D. A.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    The total amount of water available to plants that is held against gravity in a soil is usually estimated as the amount present at -0.03 MPa average water potential minus the amount present at -1.5 MPa water potential. This value, designated available water-holding capacity (AWHC), is a very important soil characteristic that is strongly and positively correlated to the inherent productivity of soils. In various applications, including assessing soil moisture status over large areas, it is necessary to group soil types or series as to their productivity. Current methods to classify AWHC of soils consider only total capacity of soil profiles and thus may group together soils which differ greatly in AWHC as a function of depth in the profile. A general approach for evaluating quantitatively the multidimensional nature of AWHC in soils is described. Data for 902 soil profiles, representing 184 soil series, in Indiana were obtained from the Soil Characterization Laboratory at Purdue University. The AWHC for each of ten 150-mm layers in each soil was established, based on soil texture and parent material. A multivariate clustering procedure was used to classify each soil profile into one of 4, 8, or 12 classes based upon ten-dimensional AWHC values. The optimum number of classes depends on the range of AWHC in the population of oil profiles analyzed and on the sensitivity of a crop to differences in distribution of water within the soil profile.

  16. Multiphase Model of Semisolid Slurry Generation and Isothermal Holding During Cooling Slope Rheoprocessing of A356 Al Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Prosenjit; Samanta, Sudip K.; Mondal, Biswanath; Dutta, Pradip

    2018-04-01

    In the present paper, we present an experimentally validated 3D multiphase and multiscale solidification model to understand the transport processes involved during slurry generation with a cooling slope. In this process, superheated liquid alloy is poured at the top of the cooling slope and allowed to flow along the slope under the influence of gravity. As the melt flows down the slope, it progressively loses its superheat, starts solidifying at the melt/slope interface with formation of solid crystals, and eventually exits the slope as semisolid slurry. In the present simulation, the three phases considered are the parent melt as the primary phase, and the solid grains and air as secondary phases. The air phase forms a definable air/liquid melt interface as the free surface. After exiting the slope, the slurry fills an isothermal holding bath maintained at the slope exit temperature, which promotes further globularization of microstructure. The outcomes of the present model include prediction of volume fractions of the three different phases considered, grain evolution, grain growth, size, sphericity and distribution of solid grains, temperature field, velocity field, macrosegregation and microsegregation. In addition, the model is found to be capable of making predictions of morphological evolution of primary grains at the onset of isothermal coarsening. The results obtained from the present simulations are validated by performing quantitative image analysis of micrographs of the rapidly oil-quenched semisolid slurry samples, collected from strategic locations along the slope and from the isothermal slurry holding bath.

  17. Force sensor in simulated skin and neural model mimic tactile SAI afferent spiking response to ramp and hold stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Elmer K; Wellnitz, Scott A; Bourdon, Sarah M; Lumpkin, Ellen A; Gerling, Gregory J

    2012-07-23

    The next generation of prosthetic limbs will restore sensory feedback to the nervous system by mimicking how skin mechanoreceptors, innervated by afferents, produce trains of action potentials in response to compressive stimuli. Prior work has addressed building sensors within skin substitutes for robotics, modeling skin mechanics and neural dynamics of mechanotransduction, and predicting response timing of action potentials for vibration. The effort here is unique because it accounts for skin elasticity by measuring force within simulated skin, utilizes few free model parameters for parsimony, and separates parameter fitting and model validation. Additionally, the ramp-and-hold, sustained stimuli used in this work capture the essential features of the everyday task of contacting and holding an object. This systems integration effort computationally replicates the neural firing behavior for a slowly adapting type I (SAI) afferent in its temporally varying response to both intensity and rate of indentation force by combining a physical force sensor, housed in a skin-like substrate, with a mathematical model of neuronal spiking, the leaky integrate-and-fire. Comparison experiments were then conducted using ramp-and-hold stimuli on both the spiking-sensor model and mouse SAI afferents. The model parameters were iteratively fit against recorded SAI interspike intervals (ISI) before validating the model to assess its performance. Model-predicted spike firing compares favorably with that observed for single SAI afferents. As indentation magnitude increases (1.2, 1.3, to 1.4 mm), mean ISI decreases from 98.81 ± 24.73, 54.52 ± 6.94, to 41.11 ± 6.11 ms. Moreover, as rate of ramp-up increases, ISI during ramp-up decreases from 21.85 ± 5.33, 19.98 ± 3.10, to 15.42 ± 2.41 ms. Considering first spikes, the predicted latencies exhibited a decreasing trend as stimulus rate increased, as is observed in afferent recordings. Finally, the SAI afferent's characteristic response

  18. Inventory model with cash flow oriented and time-dependent holding cost under permissible delay in payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi R.P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops an inventory model for determining an optimal ordering policy for non-deteriorating items and time-dependent holding cost with delayed payments permitted by the supplier under inflation and time-discounting. The discounted cash flows approach is applied to study the problem analysis. Mathematical models have been derived under two different situations i.e. case I: The permissible delay period is less than cycle time for settling the account and case II: The permissible delay period is greater than or equal to cycle time for settling the account. An algorithm is used to obtain minimum total present value of the costs over the time horizon H. Finally, numerical example and sensitivity analysis demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the optimal cycle time and optimal payment time for an item so that annual total relevant cost is minimized.

  19. Trade in Services: Does Gravity Hold? A Gravity Model Approach to Estimating Barriers to Services Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Keith Walsh

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses the determinants of trade in services using a gravity model, with particular attention given to the role of barriers to services trade. Initially, the application of the gravity equation to services trade is examined. A variety of econometric estimators are tested and the Hausman-Taylor model is found to be the best estimator. The gravity model fits services trade flows in a similar manner to trade in goods. Wealth of countries and a common language are the most important ...

  20. Assessing model fit in latent class analysis when asymptotics do not hold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kollenburg, Geert H.; Mulder, Joris; Vermunt, Jeroen K.

    2015-01-01

    The application of latent class (LC) analysis involves evaluating the LC model using goodness-of-fit statistics. To assess the misfit of a specified model, say with the Pearson chi-squared statistic, a p-value can be obtained using an asymptotic reference distribution. However, asymptotic p-values

  1. In vitro psoriasis models with focus on reconstructed skin models as promising tools in psoriasis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Eline; Ramadhas, Anesh; Lambert, Jo; Van Gele, Mireille

    2017-06-01

    Psoriasis is a complex chronic immune-mediated inflammatory cutaneous disease associated with the development of inflammatory plaques on the skin. Studies proved that the disease results from a deregulated interplay between skin keratinocytes, immune cells and the environment leading to a persisting inflammatory process modulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of T cells. However, a major hindrance to study the pathogenesis of psoriasis more in depth and subsequent development of novel therapies is the lack of suitable pre-clinical models mimicking the complex phenotype of this skin disorder. Recent advances in and optimization of three-dimensional skin equivalent models have made them attractive and promising alternatives to the simplistic monolayer cultures, immunological different in vivo models and scarce ex vivo skin explants. Moreover, human skin equivalents are increasing in complexity level to match human biology as closely as possible. Here, we critically review the different types of three-dimensional skin models of psoriasis with relevance to their application potential and advantages over other models. This will guide researchers in choosing the most suitable psoriasis skin model for therapeutic drug testing (including gene therapy via siRNA molecules), or to examine biological features contributing to the pathology of psoriasis. However, the addition of T cells (as recently applied to a de-epidermized dermis-based psoriatic skin model) or other immune cells would make them even more attractive models and broaden their application potential. Eventually, the ultimate goal would be to substitute animal models by three-dimensional psoriatic skin models in the pre-clinical phases of anti-psoriasis candidate drugs. Impact statement The continuous development of novel in vitro models mimicking the psoriasis phenotype is important in the field of psoriasis research, as currently no model exists that completely matches the in vivo psoriasis

  2. A partial backlogging inventory model for deteriorating items with time-varying demand and holding cost: An interval number approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debashis Dutta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a differential equation inventory model that incorporates partial backlogging and deterioration. Holding cost and demand rate are time dependent. Shortages are allowed and assumed to be partially backlogged. Two versions are presented, the first one with deterministic values of the parameters and the second one taking into the account the interval uncertainty of the parameters. In the crisp case, Taylor’s series expansion is used, and graphically shown that the cost function is convex. While, in the case of intervals, the interval arithmetic is used and then the problem is transformed into a multi-objective non-linear optimization problem and an interval objective function. To solve this problem, the weighted-sum method is used. The proposed procedure is validated with the help of a numerical example. Sensitivity analysis on various parameters has also been carried out.

  3. Formulation of root water uptake in a multi-layer soil-plant model: does van den Honert's equation hold?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Lhomme

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The withdrawal of water from soil by vegetation, which in steady state conditions is equivalent to the transpiration rate, can be written in terms of water potential in the form of an Ohm's law analogy, known as van den Honert's equation: The difference between an effective soil water potential and the bulk canopy water potential is divided by an effective soil-plant resistance. This equation is commonly used, but little is known about the precise definition of its parameters. The issue of this paper is to bridge the gap between the bulk approach and a multi-layer description of soil-plant water transfer by interpreting the bulk parameters in terms of the characteristics of the multi-layer approach. Water flow through an elementary path within the soil or the root is assumed to follow an Ohm's law analogy, and the soil and root characterisics are allowed to vary with depth. Starting from the basic equations of the multi-layer approach, it is proved that the total rate of transpiration can also be expressed in the form of an Ohm's law analogy. This means that van den Honert's equation holds at canopy scale, insofar as the assumptions made on the physics of root water uptake hold. In the bulk formulation derived, the effective soil-plant resistance appears as a combination of the elementary resistances making up the multi-layer model; and the effective soil water potential is a weighted mean of the water potentials in each soil layer, the weighting system involving the complete set of elementary resistances. Simpler representations of soil-plant interaction leading to Ohm's law type formulations are also examined: a simplified multi-layer model, in which xylem (root axial resistance is neglected, and a bulk approach, in which soil-root interaction is represented by only one layer. Numerical simulations performed in different standard conditions show that these simpler representations do not provide accurate estimates of the transpiration rate

  4. Multimodal investigation of fMRI and fNIRS derived breath hold BOLD signals with an expanded balloon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emir, U E; Ozturk, C; Akin, A

    2008-01-01

    Multimodal investigation of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals, using both functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), may give further insight to the underlying physiological principles and the detailed transient dynamics of the vascular response. Utilizing a breath hold task (BHT), we measured deoxy-hemoglobin (HbR) and oxy-hemoglobin (HbO) changes via fNIRS and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) changes by fMRI. Measurements were taken in four volunteers asynchronously and carefully aligned for comparative analysis. In order to describe the main stimulus in BHT, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO 2 ) parameter was integrated into the balloon model as the driving function of cerebral blood flow (CBF) which led to the development of an expanded balloon model (EBM). During BHT, the increase in HbR was observed later than the BOLD peak and coincided temporally with its post-stimulus undershoot. Further investigation of these transients with a PaCO 2 integrated balloon model suggests that post-stimulus undershoot measured by fMRI is dominated by slow return of cerebral blood volume (CBV). This was confirmed by fNIRS measurements. In addition, the BOLD signal decreased with the increase of the initial level of PaCO 2 derived from EBM, indicating an effect of basal CBF level on the BOLD signal. In conclusion, a multimodal approach with an appropriate biophysical model gave a comprehensive description of the hemodynamic response during BHT

  5. Melanin, a promising radioprotector: Mechanisms of actions in a mice model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunwar, A., E-mail: amitbio@rediffmail.com [Radiation and Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Adhikary, B. [Radiation and Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Jayakumar, S. [Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Barik, A. [Radiation and Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Chattopadhyay, S. [Bio-Organic Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Raghukumar, S. [Myko Tech Private Limited, Dona Paula, Goa‐403004 (India); Priyadarsini, K.I., E-mail: kindira@barc.gov.in [Radiation and Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2012-10-15

    The radioprotective effect of extracellular melanin, a naturally occurring pigment, isolated from the fungus Gliocephalotrichum simplex was examined in BALB/C mice, and the probable mechanism of action was established. At an effective dose of 50 mg/kg body weight, melanin exhibited both prophylactic and mitigative activities, increasing the 30-day survival of mice by 100% and 60%, respectively, after exposure to radiation (7 Gy, whole body irradiation (WBI)). The protective activity of melanin was primarily due to inhibition of radiation-induced hematopoietic damages as evidenced by improvement in spleen parameters such as index, total cellularity, endogenous colony forming units, and maintenance of circulatory white blood cells and platelet counts. Melanin also reversed the radiation-induced decrease in ERK phosphorylation in splenic tissue, which may be the key feature in its radioprotective action. Additionally, our results indicated that the sustained activation of AKT, JNK and P38 proteins in splenic tissue of melanin pre-treated group may also play a secondary role. This was also supported by the fact that melanin could prevent apoptosis in splenic tissue by decreasing BAX/Bcl-XL ratio, and increasing the expressions of the proliferation markers (PCNA and Cyclin D1), compared to the radiation control group. Melanin also reduced the oxidative stress in hepatic tissue and abrogated immune imbalance by reducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL6 and TNFα). In conclusion, our results confirmed that fungal melanin is a very effective radioprotector against WBI and the probable mechanisms of radioprotection are due to modulation in pro-survival (ERK) signaling, prevention of oxidative stress and immunomodulation. -- Highlights: ► Melanin showed promising radioprotection under pre and post irradiation condition. ► Melanin protects the hematopoietic system from radiation induced damage. ► Melanin modulates pro-survival pathways, immune system

  6. A heads-up no-limit Texas Hold'em poker player: Discretized betting models and automatically generated equilibrium-finding programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilpin, Andrew G.; Sandholm, Tuomas; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    We present Tartanian, a game theory-based player for heads-up no-limit Texas Hold'em poker. Tartanian is built from three components. First, to deal with the virtually infinite strategy space of no-limit poker, we develop a discretized betting model designed to capture the most important strategic...

  7. Chronic Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer’s Disease: New Perspectives on Animal Models and Promising Candidate Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Millington

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic neuroinflammation is now considered one of the major factors in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, the most widely used transgenic AD models (overexpressing mutated forms of amyloid precursor protein, presenilin, and/or tau do not demonstrate the degree of inflammation, neurodegeneration (particularly of the cholinergic system, and cognitive decline that is comparable with the human disease. Hence a more suitable animal model is needed to more closely mimic the resulting cognitive decline and memory loss in humans in order to investigate the effects of neuroinflammation on neurodegeneration. One of these models is the glial fibrillary acidic protein-interleukin 6 (GFAP-IL6 mouse, in which chronic neuroinflammation triggered constitutive expression of the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6 in astrocytes. These transgenic mice show substantial and progressive neurodegeneration as well as a decline in motor skills and cognitive function, starting from 6 months of age. This animal model could serve as an excellent tool for drug discovery and validation in vivo. In this review, we have also selected three potential anti-inflammatory drugs, curcumin, apigenin, and tenilsetam, as candidate drugs, which could be tested in this model.

  8. Animal models of ischemia-reperfusion-induced intestinal injury: progress and promise for translational research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Liara M.; Moeser, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Research in the field of ischemia-reperfusion injury continues to be plagued by the inability to translate research findings to clinically useful therapies. This may in part relate to the complexity of disease processes that result in intestinal ischemia but may also result from inappropriate research model selection. Research animal models have been integral to the study of ischemia-reperfusion-induced intestinal injury. However, the clinical conditions that compromise intestinal blood flow in clinical patients ranges widely from primary intestinal disease to processes secondary to distant organ failure and generalized systemic disease. Thus models that closely resemble human pathology in clinical conditions as disparate as volvulus, shock, and necrotizing enterocolitis are likely to give the greatest opportunity to understand mechanisms of ischemia that may ultimately translate to patient care. Furthermore, conditions that result in varying levels of ischemia may be further complicated by the reperfusion of blood to tissues that, in some cases, further exacerbates injury. This review assesses animal models of ischemia-reperfusion injury as well as the knowledge that has been derived from each to aid selection of appropriate research models. In addition, a discussion of the future of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion research is provided to place some context on the areas likely to provide the greatest benefit from continued research of ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:25414098

  9. Assessment of left ventricular function with single breath-hold highly accelerated cine MRI combined with guide-point modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmaier, Christina; Nassenstein, Kai; Nielles-Vallespin, Sonia; Zuehlsdorff, Sven; Hunold, Peter; Barkhausen, Joerg

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively assess the performance of highly accelerated cine MRI in multi-orientations combined with a new guide-point modeling post-processing technique (GPM approach) for assessment of left ventricular (LV) function compared to the standard summation of slices method based on a stack of short axis views (SoS approach). Materials and methods: 33 consecutive patients were examined on a 1.5 T scanner with a standard steady state free precession (SSFP) sequence (TR, 3.0 ms; TE, 1.5 m; flip angle (FA), 60 o ; acceleration factor (AF), 2) analyzed with the SoS method and a highly accelerated, single breath-hold temporal parallel acquisition SSFP sequence (TR, 4.6 ms; TE, 1.1 ms; AF, 3) post-processed with the GPM method. LV function values were measured by two independent readers with different experience in cardiac MRI and compared by using the paired t-test and F-test. Inter- and intraobserver agreements were calculated using Bland-Altman-Plots. Results: Mean acquisition and post-processing time was significantly shorter with the GPM approach (15 s/3 min versus 360 s/6 min). For all LV function parameters interobserver agreement between the experienced and non-experienced reader was significantly improved when the GPM approach was used. However, end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were larger for the GPM technique when compared to the SoS method (P 0.121). In both readers and for all parameters variances did not differ significantly (P ≥ 0.409) and the two approaches showed an excellent linear correlation (r > 0.951). Conclusion: Due to its accurate, fast and reproducible assessment of LV function parameters highly accelerated MRI combined with the GPM technique may become the technique of first choice for assessment of LV function in clinical routine.

  10. Promises from Afar: A Model of International Student Psychological Contract in Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordia, Sarbari; Bordia, Prashant; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite their significant presence in western business schools, the needs and experiences of international students have not been adequately reflected in the business education literature. We draw upon psychological contract theory--used to understand employer-employee relationships--to develop a novel theoretical model on the international…

  11. Embryonic chicken transplantation is a promising model for studying the invasive behaviour of melanoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna eJayachandran

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is a hallmark event in the metastatic cascade conferring invasive ability to tumor cells. There are ongoing efforts to replicate the physiological events occurring during mobilization of tumor cells in model systems. However, few systems are able to capture these complex in vivo events. The embryonic chicken transplantation model has emerged as a useful system to assess melanoma cells including functions that are relevant to the metastatic process, namely invasion and plasticity. The chicken embryo represents an accessible and economical 3-dimensional in vivo model for investigating melanoma cell invasion as it exploits the ancestral relationship between melanoma and its precursor neural crest cells. We describe a methodology which enables the interrogation of melanoma cell motility within the developing avian embryo. This model involves the injection of melanoma cells into the neural tube of chicken embryos. Melanoma cells are labelled using fluorescent tracker dye, Vybrant DiO, then cultured as hanging drops for 24 hours to aggregate the cells. Groups of approximately 700 cells are placed into the neural tube of chicken embryos prior to the onset of neural crest migration at the hindbrain level (embryonic day 1.5 or trunk level (embryonic day 2.5. Chick embryos are reincubated and analysed after 48 hours for the location of melanoma cells using fluorescent microscopy on whole mounts and cross-sections of the embryos. Using this system, we compared the in vivo invasive behavior of epithelial-like and mesenchymal-like melanoma cells. We report that the developing embryonic microenvironment confers motile abilities to both types of melanoma cells. Hence the embryonic chicken transplantation model has potential to become a valuable tool for in vivo melanoma invasion studies. Importantly, it may provide novel insights into and reveal previously unknown mediators of the metastatic steps of invasion and

  12. A critical examination of the youth foyer model for alleviating homelessness: Strengthening a promising evidence base

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Iris; Borlagdan, Joseph; Mallett, Shelley; Ben, Jehonathan

    2017-01-01

    This article assesses the quality of 15 primary studies that examined the effectiveness of youth foyer or foyer-like programs on the lives of young homeless people. The youth foyer model provides an integrated approach to tackling youth homelessness, connecting affordable accommodation to training and employment. In Australia, there is growing support from government for the development and funding of foyer programs. However to date, there has been very limited development and investment in t...

  13. A brief look at model-based dose calculation principles, practicalities, and promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloboda, Ron S; Morrison, Hali; Cawston-Grant, Brie; Menon, Geetha V

    2017-02-01

    Model-based dose calculation algorithms (MBDCAs) have recently emerged as potential successors to the highly practical, but sometimes inaccurate TG-43 formalism for brachytherapy treatment planning. So named for their capacity to more accurately calculate dose deposition in a patient using information from medical images, these approaches to solve the linear Boltzmann radiation transport equation include point kernel superposition, the discrete ordinates method, and Monte Carlo simulation. In this overview, we describe three MBDCAs that are commercially available at the present time, and identify guidance from professional societies and the broader peer-reviewed literature intended to facilitate their safe and appropriate use. We also highlight several important considerations to keep in mind when introducing an MBDCA into clinical practice, and look briefly at early applications reported in the literature and selected from our own ongoing work. The enhanced dose calculation accuracy offered by a MBDCA comes at the additional cost of modelling the geometry and material composition of the patient in treatment position (as determined from imaging), and the treatment applicator (as characterized by the vendor). The adequacy of these inputs and of the radiation source model, which needs to be assessed for each treatment site, treatment technique, and radiation source type, determines the accuracy of the resultant dose calculations. Although new challenges associated with their familiarization, commissioning, clinical implementation, and quality assurance exist, MBDCAs clearly afford an opportunity to improve brachytherapy practice, particularly for low-energy sources.

  14. Kind discipline: Developing a conceptual model of a promising school discipline approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Jennifer L; Walsh, Michele E; de Blois, Madeleine; Maré, Jeannette; Carvajal, Scott C

    2017-06-01

    This formative evaluation develops a novel conceptual model for a discipline approach fostering intrinsic motivation and positive relationships in schools. We used concept mapping to elicit and integrate perspectives on kind discipline from teachers, administrators, and other school staff. Three core themes describing kind discipline emerged from 11 identified clusters: (1) proactively developing a positive school climate, (2) responding to conflict with empathy, accountability, and skill, and (3) supporting staff skills in understanding and sharing expectations. We mapped the identified components of kind discipline onto a social ecological model and found that kind discipline encompasses all levels of that model including the individual, relational, environmental/structural, and even community levels. This contrasts with the dominant individual-behavioral discipline approaches that focus on fewer levels and may not lead to sustained student and staff motivation. The findings illustrate the importance of setting and communicating clear expectations and the need for them to be collaboratively developed. Products of the analysis and synthesis reported here are operationalized materials for teachers grounded in a "be kind" culture code for classrooms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A critical examination of the youth foyer model for alleviating homelessness: Strengthening a promising evidence base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Levin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the quality of 15 primary studies that examined the effectiveness of youth foyer or foyer-like programs on the lives of young homeless people. The youth foyer model provides an integrated approach to tackling youth homelessness, connecting affordable accommodation to training and employment. In Australia, there is growing support from government for the development and funding of foyer programs. However to date, there has been very limited development and investment in the evidence base on the effectiveness of this model in Australia or internationally. Following an extensive literature search, we argue that there is a need to lift the standard of the evidence base of youth foyer effectiveness. We discuss two main issues: the difficulty studies had validating claims of foyer effectiveness, and limitations of research design and methodology. The implications of the lack of rigour in the research reviewed are three-fold. Firstly, youth foyer evaluation study quality could be improved by: clearer methodological and model documentation; post intervention follow-up design; comparison of data to non-randomised comparison groups; and a pre-publication peer-review process. This would be supported with clearer expectations from the research community regarding the production and assessment of grey literature. Secondly, while the standard of reporting needs to be raised, the ‘gold standard’ (i.e. randomised controlled trials of research design in the scientific community is not a relevant benchmark in the field of homelessness research. This is due to the complexity of homelessness interventions and the inadequate funding of the homelessness research field. Greater investment in robust research and evaluation should accompany the substantial investment in youth foyer programs in order to accurately appraise the effectiveness of the youth foyer model. Thirdly, the lack of rigour in the studies reviewed suggests gaps in the service

  16. Translating the WHO 25×25 goals into a UK context: the PROMISE modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobiac, Linda J; Scarborough, Peter

    2017-04-04

    Model the impact of targets for obesity, diabetes, raised blood pressure, tobacco use, salt intake, physical inactivity and harmful alcohol use, as outlined in the Global Non-Communicable Disease Action Plan 2013-2020, on mortality and morbidity in the UK population. Dynamic population modelling study. UK population. Not available. Mortality and morbidity (years lived with disability) from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) that are averted or delayed. Probability of achieving a 25% reduction in premature mortality from NCDs by 2025 (current WHO target) and a 33% reduction by 2030 (proposed target). The largest improvements in mortality would be achieved by meeting the obesity target and the largest improvements in morbidity would be achieved by meeting the diabetes target. The UK could achieve the 2025 and 2030 targets for reducing premature mortality with only a little additional preventive effort compared with current practice. Achieving all 7 risk targets could avert a total of 300 000 deaths (95% uncertainty interval 250 000 to 350 000) and 1.3 million years lived with disability (1.2-1.4 million) from NCDs by 2025, with the majority of health gains due to reduced mortality and morbidity from heart disease and stroke, and reduced morbidity from diabetes. Potential reductions in morbidity from depression and in morbidity and mortality from dementia at older ages are also substantial. The global premature mortality targets are a potentially achievable goal for countries such as the UK that can capitalise on many decades of effort in prevention and treatment. High morbidity diseases and diseases in later life are not addressed in the Global NCD Action Plan and targets, but must also be considered a priority for prevention in the UK where the population is ageing and the costs of health and social care are rising. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Translating the WHO 25×25 goals into a UK context: the PROMISE modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobiac, Linda J; Scarborough, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Objective Model the impact of targets for obesity, diabetes, raised blood pressure, tobacco use, salt intake, physical inactivity and harmful alcohol use, as outlined in the Global Non-Communicable Disease Action Plan 2013–2020, on mortality and morbidity in the UK population. Design Dynamic population modelling study. Setting UK population. Participants Not available. Main outcome measures Mortality and morbidity (years lived with disability) from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) that are averted or delayed. Probability of achieving a 25% reduction in premature mortality from NCDs by 2025 (current WHO target) and a 33% reduction by 2030 (proposed target). Results The largest improvements in mortality would be achieved by meeting the obesity target and the largest improvements in morbidity would be achieved by meeting the diabetes target. The UK could achieve the 2025 and 2030 targets for reducing premature mortality with only a little additional preventive effort compared with current practice. Achieving all 7 risk targets could avert a total of 300 000 deaths (95% uncertainty interval 250 000 to 350 000) and 1.3 million years lived with disability (1.2–1.4 million) from NCDs by 2025, with the majority of health gains due to reduced mortality and morbidity from heart disease and stroke, and reduced morbidity from diabetes. Potential reductions in morbidity from depression and in morbidity and mortality from dementia at older ages are also substantial. Conclusions The global premature mortality targets are a potentially achievable goal for countries such as the UK that can capitalise on many decades of effort in prevention and treatment. High morbidity diseases and diseases in later life are not addressed in the Global NCD Action Plan and targets, but must also be considered a priority for prevention in the UK where the population is ageing and the costs of health and social care are rising. PMID:28377390

  18. Land holds promise of peace in Colombia | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-11-08

    Nov 8, 2011 ... Research has become a driving force behind upcoming land restitution efforts in Colombia, where for decades peasants have lost land by violent means. The initiative is especially important for women, who have also built new networks in pursuit of a broad range of social goals.

  19. Promise(s of mesenchymal stem cells as an in vitro model system to depict pre-diabetic/diabetic milieu in WNIN/GR-Ob mutant rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soundarya L Madhira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Development of model systems have helped to a large extent, in bridging gap to understand the mechanism(s of disease including diabetes. Interestingly, WNIN/GR-Ob rats (Mutants, established at National Centre for Laboratory Animals (NCLAS of National Institute of Nutrition (NIN, form a suitable model system to study obesity with Type 2 diabetes (T2D demonstrating several secondary complications (cataract, cardiovascular complications, infertility, nephropathy etc. The present study has been carried out to explore the potent application(s of multipotent stem cells such as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs, to portray features of pre-diabetic/T2D vis-à-vis featuring obesity, with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, hyperinsulinemia (HI and insulin resistance (IR seen with Mutant rats akin to human situation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Primary cultures of BM-MSCs (third passage from Mutants, its lean littermate (Lean and parental control (Control were characterized for: proliferation markers, disease memory to mark obesity/T2D/HI/IR which included phased gene expression studies for adipogenic/pancreatic lineages, inflammatory markers and differentiation ability to form mature adipocytes/Insulin-like cellular aggregates (ILCAs. The data showed that BM-MSCs from Mutant demonstrated a state of disease memory, depicted by an upregulated expression of inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNFα; increased stem cell recruitment (Oct-4, Sox-2 and proliferation rates (CD90+/CD29+, PDA, 'S' phase of cell cycle by FACS and BrdU incorporation; accelerated preadipocyte induction (Dact-1, PPARγ2 with a quantitative increase in mature adipocyte formation (Leptin; ILCAs, which were non-responsive to high glucose did confer the Obese/T2D memory in Mutants. Further, these observations were in compliance with the anthropometric data. CONCLUSIONS: Given the ease of accessibility and availability of MSCs, the present study form the basis to report for

  20. Cameroon mid-level providers offer a promising public health dentistry model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achembong Leo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Oral health services are inadequate and unevenly distributed in many developing countries, particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa. Rural areas in these countries and poorer sections of the population in urban areas often do not have access to oral health services mainly because of a significant shortage of dentists and the high costs of care. We reviewed Cameroon’s experience with deploying a mid-level cadre of oral health professionals and the feasibility of establishing a more formal and predictable role for these health workers. We anticipate that a task-shifting approach in the provision of dental care will significantly improve the uneven distribution of oral health services particularly in the rural areas of Cameroon, which is currently served by only 3% of the total number of dentists. Methods The setting of this study was the Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Board (BCHB, which has four dentists and 42 mid-level providers. De-identified data were collected manually from the registries of 10 Baptist Convention clinics located in six of Cameroon’s 10 regions and then entered into an Excel format before importing into STATA. A retrospective abstraction of all entries for patient visits starting October 2010, and going back in time until 1500 visits were extracted from each clinic. Results This study showed that mid-level providers in BCHB clinics are offering a full scope of dental work across the 10 clinics, with the exception of treatment for major facial injuries. Mid-level providers alone performed 93.5% of all extractions, 87.5% of all fillings, 96.5% of all root canals, 97.5% of all cleanings, and 98.1% of all dentures. The dentists also typically played a teaching role in training the mid-level providers. Conclusions The Ministry of Health in Cameroon has an opportunity to learn from the BCHB model to expand access to oral health care across the country. This study shows the benefits of using a simple, workable, low

  1. Breath holding spell

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000967.htm Breath holding spell To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some children have breath holding spells. This is an involuntary stop in breathing ...

  2. Breath-Holding Spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Breath-Holding Spells KidsHealth / For Parents / Breath-Holding Spells What's in ... Spells Print en español Espasmos de sollozo About Breath-Holding Spells Many of us have heard stories about stubborn ...

  3. Acute and chronic sensitivity to copper of a promising ecotoxicological model species, the annual killifish Nothobranchius furzeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Charlotte; Grégoir, Arnout F; Janssens, Lizanne; Pinceel, Tom; De Boeck, Gudrun; Brendonck, Luc

    2017-10-01

    Nothobranchius furzeri is a promising model for ecotoxicological research due to the species' short life cycle and the production of drought-resistant eggs. Although the species is an emerging vertebrate fish model for several fundamental as well as applied research domains, its potential for ecotoxicological research has not yet been tested. The aim of this study was to characterise the acute and chronic sensitivity of this species to copper as compared to other model organisms. Effects of both acute and chronic copper exposure were tested on survival, life history and physiological traits. We report a 24h-LC 50 of 53.93µg Cu/L, which is situated within the sensitivity range of other model species such as Brook Trout, Fathead Minnow and Rainbow Trout. Moreover, in the full life cycle exposure, we show that an exposure concentration of 10.27µg/L did not cause acute adverse effects (96h), but did cause mortality after prolonged exposure (3-4 weeks). Also chronic, sublethal effects were observed, such as a reduction in growth rate, delayed maturation and postponed reproduction. Based on our results, we define the NOEC at 6.68µg Cu/L, making N. furzeri more sensitive to copper as compared to Brook Trout and Fathead Minnow. We found stimulatory effects on peak fecundity at subinhibitory levels of copper concentrations (hormesis). Finally, we found indications for detoxifying and copper-excreting mechanisms, demonstrating the ability of the fish to cope with this essential metal, even when exposed to stressful amounts. The successful application of current ecotoxicological protocols on N. furzeri and its sensitivity range comparable to that of other model organisms forms the basis to exploit this species in further ecotoxicological practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Modeling heterogeneity in the pluripotent state: A promising strategy for improving the efficiency and fidelity of stem cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa Angarica, Vladimir; Del Sol, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Pluripotency can be considered a functional characteristic of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) populations and their niches, rather than a property of individual cells. In this view, individual cells within the population independently adopt a variety of different expression states, maintained by different signaling, transcriptional, and epigenetics regulatory networks. In this review, we propose that generation of integrative network models from single cell data will be essential for getting a better understanding of the regulation of self-renewal and differentiation. In particular, we suggest that the identification of network stability determinants in these integrative models will provide important insights into the mechanisms mediating the transduction of signals from the niche, and how these signals can trigger differentiation. In this regard, the differential use of these stability determinants in subpopulation-specific regulatory networks would mediate differentiation into different cell fates. We suggest that this approach could offer a promising avenue for the development of novel strategies for increasing the efficiency and fidelity of differentiation, which could have a strong impact on regenerative medicine. © 2016 The Authors. BioEssays Published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Portable hand hold device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmon, Jr., John W. (Inventor); McQueen, Donald H. (Inventor); Sanders, Fred G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A hand hold device (A) includes a housing (10) having a hand hold (14) and clamping brackets (32,34) for grasping and handling an object. A drive includes drive lever (23), spur gear (22), and rack gears (24,26) carried on rods (24a, 26a) for moving the clamping brackets. A lock includes ratchet gear (40) and pawl (42) biased between lock and unlock positions by a cantilever spring (46,48) and moved by handle (54). Compliant grip pads (32b, 34b) provide compliance to lock, unlock, and hold an object between the clamp brackets.

  6. Rock Equity Holdings, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of an Administrative Penalty Assessment in the form of an Expedited Storm Water Settlement Agreement against Rock Equity Holdings, LLC, for alleged violations at The Cove at Kettlestone/98th Street Reconstruction located at 3015

  7. Fluorodopa is a Promising Fluorine-19 MRI Probe for Evaluating Striatal Dopaminergic Function in a Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Daijiro; Oda, Keisuke; Inden, Masatoshi; Morikawa, Shigehiro; Inubushi, Toshiro; Taniguchi, Takashi; Hijioka, Masanori; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2017-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra projecting to the striatum. It has been estimated that approximately 80% of the striatal dopamine and 50% of nigral dopaminergic neurons are lost before the onset of typical motor symptoms, indicating that early diagnosis of PD using noninvasive imaging is feasible. Fluorine-19 ( 19 F) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents a highly sensitive, easily available, low-background, and cost-effective approach to evaluate dopaminergic function using non-radioactive fluorine-containing dopaminergic agents. The aim of this study was to find a potent 19 F MRI probe to evaluate dopaminergic presynaptic function in the striatum. To select candidates for 19 F MRI probes, we investigated the following eight non-radioactive fluorine-containing dopaminergic agents: fluorodopa (F-DOPA), F-tyrosine, haloperidol, GBR13069 duhydrochloride, GBR12909 duhydrochloride, 3-bis-(4-fluorophenyl) methoxytropane hydrochloride, flupenthixol, and fenfluramine. In 19 F nuclear magnetic resonance measurements, F-tyrosine and F-DOPA displayed a relatively higher signal-to-noise ratio value in brain homogenates than in others. F-DOPA, but not F-tyrosine, induced the rotational behavior in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced hemiparkinsonian rat model. In addition, a significantly high amount of F-DOPA accumulated in the ipsilateral striatum of hemiparkinsonian rats after the injection. We performed 19 F MRI in PC12 cells and isolated rat brain using a 7T MR scanner. Our findings suggest that F-DOPA is a promising 19 F MRI probe for evaluating dopaminergic presynaptic function in the striatum of hemiparkinsonian rats. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. An integer batch scheduling model considering learning, forgetting, and deterioration effects for a single machine to minimize total inventory holding cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusriski, R.; Sukoyo; Samadhi, T. M. A. A.; Halim, A. H.

    2018-03-01

    This research deals with a single machine batch scheduling model considering the influenced of learning, forgetting, and machine deterioration effects. The objective of the model is to minimize total inventory holding cost, and the decision variables are the number of batches (N), batch sizes (Q[i], i = 1, 2, .., N) and the sequence of processing the resulting batches. The parts to be processed are received at the right time and the right quantities, and all completed parts must be delivered at a common due date. We propose a heuristic procedure based on the Lagrange method to solve the problem. The effectiveness of the procedure is evaluated by comparing the resulting solution to the optimal solution obtained from the enumeration procedure using the integer composition technique and shows that the average effectiveness is 94%.

  9. Energetics of breath-hold hunting: modeling the effects of aging on foraging success in the Weddell seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Allyson G; Horning, Markus

    2010-06-07

    A simulation model was developed to predict age-related changes in foraging energetics of individual Weddell seals, Leptonychotes weddellii. Aging in diving animals is interesting because their characteristic cyclic sequence of apneustic hunting and eupnea should elevate oxidative stress, possibly accelerating aging. Such a hypothesis can be evaluated by modeling energetics of constrained, time-partitioned activities with well-defined costs. Three possible consequences of physiological aging in divers were specified and appraised. The model examined the potential impacts of age-related decline in muscle contractile ability, increased buoyancy, and reduced aerobic dive limit, alone and in combination, on a daily energy budget. A uniform age effect evident in model outputs is reduced foraging efficiency. The components of this net effect are exacerbated for sub-optimal behavioral-response settings or environmental conditions. The model predicts that with advancing age, efficiency declines increase for aging scenarios in the following order: simulated 'young' adults; 'old' seals with increased buoyancy; 'old' seals with reduced aerobic dive limit; 'old' seals having reduced muscle contractile efficiency; and, 'old' seals with all three conditions. The model indicates narrowed behavioral options to maintain positive energy balance in older animals, suggesting that behavioral plasticity may not allow older animals to compensate for age-related performance constraints. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. AN ENTROPIC ORDER QUANTITY MODEL WITH FUZZY HOLDING COST AND FUZZY DISPOSAL COST FOR PERISHABLE ITEMS UNDER TWO COMPONENT DEMAND AND DISCOUNTED SELLING PRICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Tripathy

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A new type of replenishment policy is suggested in an entropy order quantity model for a perishable product possessing fuzzy holding cost and fuzzy disposal cost. This model represents an appropriate combination of two component demand with discounted selling price, particularly over a finite time horizon. Its main aim lies in the need for an entropic cost of the cycle time is a key feature of specific perishable product like fruits, vegetables, food stuffs, fishes etc. To handle this multiplicity of objectives in a pragmatic approach, entropic ordering quantity model with discounted selling price during pre and post deterioration of perishable items to optimize its payoff is proposed. It has been imperative to demonstrate this model by analysis, which reveals some important characteristics of discounted structure. Furthermore, numerical experiments are conducted to evaluate the difference between the crisp and fuzzy cases in EOQ and EnOQ separately. This paper explores the economy of investing in economics of lot sizing in Fuzzy EOQ, Crisp EOQ and Crisp EnOQ models. The proposed paper reveals itself as a pragmatic alternative to other approaches based on two component demand function with very sound theoretical underpinnings but with few possibilities of actually being put into practice. The results indicate that this can become a good model and can be replicated by researchers in neighbourhood of its possible extensions.

  11. Tube holding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    A tube holding rig is described for the lateral support of tubes arranged in tight parcels in a heat exchanger. This tube holding rig includes not less than two tube supporting assemblies, with a space between them, located crosswise with respect to the tubes, each supporting assembly comprising a first set of parallel components in contact with the tubes, whilst a second set of components is also in contact with the tubes. These two sets of parts together define apertures through which the tubes pass [fr

  12. Do More Economists Hold Stocks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Joensen, Juanna Schröter; Rangvid, Jesper

    A unique data set enables us to test the hypothesis that more economists than otherwise identical investors hold stocks due to informational advantages. We confirm that economists have a significantly higher probability of participating in the stock market than investors with any other education......, even when controlling for several background characteristics. We make use of a large register-based panel data set containing detailed information on the educational attainments and various financial and socioeconomic variables. We model the stock market participation decision by the probit model...

  13. Legal implications of translational promises of unproven stem cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The promise stem cell therapy holds for curing diseases for which no therapy currently exists is often translated as fact. Unfortunately, enforced misconceptions between fact and promise often also translate into exploitation and harming of patients. This article aims to clear up misconceptions about the biological promise ...

  14. Promising change, delivering continuity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens Friis; Sungusia, Eliezeri; Mabele, Mathew Bukhi

    2017-01-01

    that compares the emergence of REDD+ in Tanzania with that of a previous forest-policy model called Participatory Forest Management. Our study describes how the advent of REDD+ implies change at the discursive level, but also continuity and repetitiveness in terms of the initial promises and expectations...... leading to substantial donor financing, pilot project activities, and policy development and implementation processes. In both epochs, these have achieved little in terms of changing actual forest management and use on the ground outside selected pilot project sites, but have sustained the livelihoods...

  15. Big data in nephrology: promises and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Girish N; Coca, Steven G; Wyatt, Christina M

    2016-08-01

    Data from the electronic health records hold great promise for nephrology research. However, due to significant limitations, reporting guidelines have been formulated for analyses conducted using electronic health records data. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Friction coefficient and limiter load test analysis by flexibility coefficient model of Hold-Down Spring of nuclear reactor vessel internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Linjun

    2017-01-01

    The friction force between the contact surfaces of a reactor internal hold-down spring (HDS) and core barrel flanges can directly influence the axial stiffness of an HDS. However, friction coefficient cannot be obtained through theoretical analysis. This study performs a mathematical deduction of the physical model of an HDS. Moreover, a mathematical model of axial load P, displacement δ, and flexibility coefficient is established, and a set of test apparatuses is designed to simulate the preloading process of the HDS. According to the experimental research and theoretical analysis, P-δ curves and the flexibility coefficient λ are obtained in the loading processes of the HDS. The friction coefficient f of the M1000 HDS is further calculated as 0.224. The displacement limit load value (4,638 kN) can be obtained through a displacement limit experiment. With the friction coefficient considered, the theoretical load is 4,271 kN, which is relatively close to the experimental result. Thus, the friction coefficient exerts an influence on the displacement limit load P. The friction coefficient should be considered in the design analysis for HDS.

  17. Friction coefficient and limiter load test analysis by flexibility coefficient model of Hold-Down Spring of nuclear reactor vessel internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Linjun [Zhejiang Univ. of Technology, Hangzhou (China). College of Mechanical Engineering; Xue, Guohong; Zhang, Ming [Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute, Shanghai (China)

    2017-11-15

    The friction force between the contact surfaces of a reactor internal hold-down spring (HDS) and core barrel flanges can directly influence the axial stiffness of an HDS. However, friction coefficient cannot be obtained through theoretical analysis. This study performs a mathematical deduction of the physical model of an HDS. Moreover, a mathematical model of axial load P, displacement δ, and flexibility coefficient is established, and a set of test apparatuses is designed to simulate the preloading process of the HDS. According to the experimental research and theoretical analysis, P-δ curves and the flexibility coefficient λ are obtained in the loading processes of the HDS. The friction coefficient f of the M1000 HDS is further calculated as 0.224. The displacement limit load value (4,638 kN) can be obtained through a displacement limit experiment. With the friction coefficient considered, the theoretical load is 4,271 kN, which is relatively close to the experimental result. Thus, the friction coefficient exerts an influence on the displacement limit load P. The friction coefficient should be considered in the design analysis for HDS.

  18. Plastic occlusion stress test as a model to investigate the effects of skin delipidization on the stratum corneum water holding capacity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardesca, E; Herbst, R; Maibach, H

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop an in vivo model to study the effects of lipid removal on skin barrier. 16 subjects (age 41 +/- 8) were delipidized in vivo on the volar forearm using respectively ether/acetone (EA; 1:1) and chloroform/methanol (CM; 2:1). A third site served as control. Water holding capacity (WHC) was measured according to the plastic occlusion stress test (POST) procedure: the water desorption curve after removal of the occlusion was recorded in terms of skin surface water loss (SSWL) using an evaporimeter for 30 min. In the central part of the evaporation curve (bound water) the CM-treated site is significantly different from control and EA-treated sites (p rate of water from SC are higher in the CM-treated site (p evaporation of free water. We conclude that polar lipids have a key role in modulating barrier function and WHC of the stratum corneum. The POST can represent a useful in vivo model to study the effects of lipid extraction on skin function.

  19. Collective behaviors of book holding durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ren-De; Guo, Qiang; Han, Jing-Ti; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2016-10-01

    Duration can directly reflect the collective reading behaviors of library user book holding. In this paper, by introducing the burstiness and memory coefficients, we empirically investigate the collective book holding behavior of three university libraries. The statistical results show that there are similar properties among the students with different backgrounds, presenting the burstiness = - 0.2 and memory = 0.5 for three datasets, which indicates that memory and random effects coexist in student book holding durations. In addition, we analyze the behavior patterns without duplicate durations by merging a series of books borrowed and returned at the same time. The results show the average burstiness B increases to -0.16 and memory M drops to 0.16 for three datasets, which indicates that both duplicate behavior and student's preference affect the memory effect. Furthermore, we present a model which assumes student's next book holding duration follows the previous one with probability p, and with probability 1 - p, the student would hold the book independently. The experimental results show that the presented model can reproduce the burstiness and memory effect of student book holding durations when p = 0.5 for empirical datasets and p = 0.2 for de-duplicate datasets, which indicate that the student's preferential holding behavior occurs with the probability p. This work helps in deeply understanding the regularity of duration-based human behaviors.

  20. In vivo imaging of alkaline phosphatase in tumor-bearing mouse model by a promising near-infrared fluorescent probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Wen; Hu, Xiao-Xiao; Zhu, Longmin; Li, Ke; Rong, Qiming; Yuan, Lin; Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Tan, Weihong

    2017-12-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), one of the important hydrolases, is associated with the progress of many diseases as a well-defined biomarker. Fluorescence imaging of ALP in living organisms is of great importance for biological studies. However, in vivo detection of ALP remains a great challenge because current fluorescent probes show short excitation and emission wavelength, which are not desired for in vivo fluorescence imaging. Herein we reported a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probe (NALP) for turn-on trapping of ALP activity in living cancer cells and tumors. NALP was composed of a NIR-emitting fluorophore as a reporter and phosphate as a triggered moiety. Phosphate group was directly tethered to the hydroxyl group of fluorophore, which prohibited the fluorescence. The probe exhibited a high selectivity and remarkable fluorescence turn-on response to ALP in aqueous solutions with a detection limit of 0.28U/L. Benefiting from NIR excitation and emission, high contrast on the imaging signal could be achieved in response to endogenous ALP activity. Impressively, not only we successfully used NALP for imaging of endogenous ALP activity in cancer cells, but also, applied it for fluorescence imaging of ALP in tumor tissues and living tumor xenograft in nude mice for the first time. The probe was expected to be promising tool for practical application in disease diagnosis on the roles of ALP in disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Photons, photosynthesis, and high-performance computing: challenges, progress, and promise of modeling metabolism in green algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C H; Graf, P; Alber, D M; Kim, K; Murray, G; Posewitz, M; Seibert, M

    2008-01-01

    The complexity associated with biological metabolism considered at a kinetic level presents a challenge to quantitative modeling. In particular, the relatively sparse knowledge of parameters for enzymes with known kinetic responses is problematic. The possible space of these parameters is of high-dimension, and sampling of such a space typifies a combinatorial explosion of possible dynamic states. However, with sufficient quantitative transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics data at hand, these challenges could be met by high-performance software with sampling, fitting, and optimization capabilities. With this in mind, we present the High-Performance Systems Biology Toolkit HiPer SBTK, an evolving software package to simulate, fit, and optimize metabolite concentrations and fluxes within the space of rate and binding parameters associated with detailed enzyme kinetic models. We present our chosen modeling paradigm for the formulation of metabolic pathway models, the means to address the challenge of representing such models in a precise and persistent fashion using the standardized Systems Biology Markup Language, and our second-generation model of H2-associated Chlamydomonas metabolism. Processing of such models for hierarchically parallelized simulation and optimization, job specification by the user through a GUI interface, software capabilities and initial scaling data, and the mapping of the computation to biological questions is also discussed. Moreover, we present near-term future software and model development goals

  2. Elicited vs. voluntary promises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismayilov, H.; Potters, Jan

    2017-01-01

    We set up an experiment with pre-play communication to study the impact of promise elicitation by trustors from trustees on trust and trustworthiness. When given the opportunity a majority of trustors solicits a promise from the trustee. This drives up the promise making rate by trustees to almost

  3. Using euhalophytes to understand salt tolerance and to develop saline agriculture: Suaeda salsa as a promising model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jie; Wang, Baoshan

    2015-02-01

    As important components in saline agriculture, halophytes can help to provide food for a growing world population. In addition to being potential crops in their own right, halophytes are also potential sources of salt-resistance genes that might help plant breeders and molecular biologists increase the salt tolerance of conventional crop plants. One especially promising halophyte is Suaeda salsa, a euhalophytic herb that occurs both on inland saline soils and in the intertidal zone. The species produces dimorphic seeds: black seeds are sensitive to salinity and remain dormant in light under high salt concentrations, while brown seeds can germinate under high salinity (e.g. 600 mm NaCl) regardless of light. Consequently, the species is useful for studying the mechanisms by which dimorphic seeds are adapted to saline environments. S. salsa has succulent leaves and is highly salt tolerant (e.g. its optimal NaCl concentration for growth is 200 mm). A series of S. salsa genes related to salt tolerance have been cloned and their functions tested: these include SsNHX1, SsHKT1, SsAPX, SsCAT1, SsP5CS and SsBADH. The species is economically important because its fresh branches have high value as a vegetable, and its seed oil is edible and rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Because it can remove salts and heavy metals from saline soils, S. salsa can also be used in the restoration of salinized or contaminated saline land. Because of its economic and ecological value in saline agriculture, S. salsa is one of the most important halophytes in China. In this review, the value of S. salsa as a source of food, medicine and forage is discussed. Its uses in the restoration of salinized or contaminated land and as a source of salt-resistance genes are also considered. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The Vietnamese pig as a translational animal model to evaluate tissue engineered heart valves: promising early experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Michele; Poser, Helen; Bottio, Tommaso; Bonetti, Antonella; Franci, Paolo; Naso, Filippo; Buratto, Edward; Zanella, Fabio; Perona, Giovanni; Dal Lin, Carlo; Bianco, Roberto; Spina, Michele; Busetto, Roberto; Marchini, Maurizio; Ortolani, Fulvia; Iop, Laura; Gerosa, Gino

    2017-05-09

    Several animal models are currently used for the surgical implantation of either biologic or biopolymeric scaffolds in order to provide in vivo assessment of tissue-engineered heart valves. The Vietnamese pig (VP) is herein proposed as a suitable recipient to test the function of novel bioengineered valve substitutes, in the reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). This review aims to provide a complete and exhaustive panel of physiological parameters and methodological information for preclinical studies of tissue-engineered heart valves in the VP animal model.

  5. Is the promise of methadone Kenya’s solution to managing HIV and addiction? A mixed-method mathematical modelling and qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Tim; Guise, Andy; Ndimbii, James; Strathdee, Steffanie; Ngugi, Elizabeth; Platt, Lucy; Kurth, Ann; Cleland, Charles; Vickerman, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Promoted globally as an evidence-based intervention in the prevention of HIV and treatment of heroin addiction among people who inject drugs (PWID), opioid substitution treatment (OST) can help control emerging HIV epidemics among PWID. With implementation in December 2014, Kenya is the third Sub-Saharan African country to have introduced OST. We combine dynamic mathematical modelling with qualitative sociological research to examine the ‘promise of methadone’ to Kenya. Methods, setting and participants We model the HIV prevention impact of OST in Nairobi, Kenya, at different levels of intervention coverage. We draw on thematic analyses of 109 qualitative interviews with PWID, and 43 with stakeholders, to chart their narratives of expectation in relation to the promise of methadone. Results The modelled impact of OST shows relatively slight reductions in HIV incidence (5–10%) and prevalence (2–4%) over 5 years at coverage levels (around 10%) anticipated in the planned roll-out of OST. However, there is a higher impact with increased coverage, with 40% coverage producing a 20% reduction in HIV incidence, even when accounting for relatively high sexual transmissions. Qualitative findings emphasise a culture of ‘rationed expectation’ in relation to access to care and a ‘poverty of drug treatment opportunity’. In this context, the promise of methadone may be narrated as a symbol of hope—both for individuals and community—in relation to addiction recovery. Conclusions Methadone offers HIV prevention potential, but there is a need to better model the effects of sexual HIV transmission in mediating the impact of OST among PWID in settings characterised by a combination of generalised and concentrated epidemics. We find that individual and community narratives of methadone as hope for recovery coexist with policy narratives positioning methadone primarily in relation to HIV prevention. Our analyses show the value of mixed

  6. Rapid MR assessment of left ventricular systolic function after acute myocardial infarction using single breath-hold cine imaging with the temporal parallel acquisition technique (TPAT) and 4D guide-point modelling analysis of left ventricular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberle, Holger C.; Jensen, Christoph J.; Sabin, Georg V.; Naber, Christoph K.; Bruder, Oliver; Nassenstein, Kai; Schlosser, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We compared four-dimensional guide-point modelling left ventricular function analysis (4DVF) results of cine images in four short-axis and two long-axis slices acquired in a single breath-hold, obtained with the temporal parallel acquisition technique (TPAT), with standard left ventricular function (LVF) analysis results determined by the summation of discs method, in patients who had recently suffered myocardial infarction. Despite wall motion abnormalities, 4DVF yields results for left ventricular ejection fractions and end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes that are in excellent agreement with standard LVF analysis results in these patients. A shortened cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) protocol using single breath-hold cine image acquisition could facilitate the assessment of left ventricular function soon after myocardial infarction in critically ill patients who are unable to comply with the multiple breath-holds required for standard LVF analysis. (orig.)

  7. Comparison and evaluation of experimental mediastinitis models: precolonized foreign body implants and bacterial suspension inoculation seems promising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kose Necmi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-sternotomy mediastinitis (PSM is a devastating surgical complication affecting 1–3% of patients that undergo cardiac surgery. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most commonly encountered bacterial pathogen cultured from mediastinal samples obtained from patients with PSM. A component of the membrane of the gram positive bacteria, lipoteichoic acid, stimulates the blood monocytes and macrophages to secrete cytokines, radicals and nitrogen species leading to oxido-inflammatory damage. This seems to be responsible for the high mortality rate in PSM. For the evaluation of the pathogenesis of infection or for the investigation of alternative treatment models in infection, no standard model of mediastinitis seems to be available. In this study, we evaluated four mediastinitis models in rats. Methods The rats were divided into four groups to form different infection models. Group A: A suspension of 1 × 107 colony-forming units Staphylococcus aureus in 0,5 mL was inoculated from the right second intercostal space into the mediastinum. Group B: A hole was created in the right second intercostal space and a piece of stainless-steel implant with a length of 0.5 cm was inserted into the mediastinum and a suspension of 1 × 107 cfu bacteria in 0,5 mL was administered via the tail vein. Group C: Precolonized stainless-steel implant was inserted into the mediastinum. Group D: Precolonized stainless-steel implant was inserted into the mediastinum and the bacteria suspension was also injected into the mediastinum. On the 10th day, rats were sacrificed and the extension of infection in the mediastenae was evaluated by quantitative cultures. Myeloperoxidase activity (MPO and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were determined in the sera to evaluate the neutrophil activation and assess the inflammatory oxidation. Results The degree of infection in group C and D were 83.3% and 100% respectively (P P Conclusion Infected implants and high

  8. A novel antioxidant formulation designed to treat male infertility associated with oxidative stress: promising preclinical evidence from animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharagozloo, P; Gutiérrez-Adán, A; Champroux, A; Noblanc, A; Kocer, A; Calle, A; Pérez-Cerezales, S; Pericuesta, E; Polhemus, A; Moazamian, A; Drevet, J R; Aitken, R J

    2016-02-01

    Does a novel antioxidant formulation designed to restore redox balance within the male reproductive tract, reduce sperm DNA damage and increase pregnancy rates in mouse models of sperm oxidative stress? Oral administration of a novel antioxidant formulation significantly reduced sperm DNA damage in glutathione peroxidase 5 (GPX5), knockout mice and restored pregnancy rates to near-normal levels in mice subjected to scrotal heat stress. Animal and human studies have documented the adverse effect of sperm DNA damage on fertilization rates, embryo quality, miscarriage rates and the transfer of de novo mutations to offspring. Semen samples of infertile men are known to be deficient in several key antioxidants relative to their fertile counterparts. Antioxidants alone or in combination have demonstrated limited efficacy against sperm oxidative stress and DNA damage in numerous human clinical trials, however these studies have not been definitive and an optimum combination has remained elusive. The efficacy of the antioxidant formulation was evaluated in two well-established mouse models of oxidative stress, scrotal heating and Gpx5 knockout (KO) mice, (n = 12 per experimental group), by two independent laboratories. Mice were provided the antioxidant product in their drinking water for 2-8 weeks and compared with control groups for sperm DNA damage and pregnancy rates. In the Gpx5 KO model, oxidative DNA damage was monitored in spermatozoa by immunocytochemical detection of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG). In the scrotal heat stress model, male fertility was tested by partnering with three females for 5 days. The percentage of pregnant females, number of vaginal plugs, resorptions per litter, and litter size were recorded. Using immunocytochemical detection of 8OHdG as a biomarker of DNA oxidation, analysis of control mice revealed that around 30% of the sperm population was positively stained. This level increased to about 60% in transgenic mice deficient in the

  9. Three-Dimensional Patient-Derived In Vitro Sarcoma Models: Promising Tools for Improving Clinical Tumor Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Gaebler

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the development of new targeted therapeutics directed against specific molecular pathways involved in tumor cell proliferation and survival has allowed an essential improvement in carcinoma treatment. Unfortunately, the scenario is different for sarcomas, a group of malignant neoplasms originating from mesenchymal cells, for which the main therapeutic approach still consists in the combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. The lack of innovative approaches in sarcoma treatment stems from the high degree of heterogeneity of this tumor type, with more that 70 different histopathological subtypes, and the limited knowledge of the molecular drivers of tumor development and progression. Currently, molecular therapies are available mainly for the treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumor, a soft-tissue malignancy characterized by an activating mutation of the tyrosine kinase KIT. Since the first application of this approach, a strong effort has been made to understand sarcoma molecular alterations that can be potential targets for therapy. The low incidence combined with the high level of histopathological heterogeneity makes the development of clinical trials for sarcomas very challenging. For this reason, preclinical studies are needed to better understand tumor biology with the aim to develop new targeted therapeutics. Currently, these studies are mainly based on in vitro testing, since cell lines, and in particular patient-derived models, represent a reliable and easy to handle tool for investigation. In the present review, we summarize the most important models currently available in the field, focusing in particular on the three-dimensional spheroid/organoid model. This innovative approach for studying tumor biology better represents tissue architecture and cell–cell as well as cell–microenvironment crosstalk, which are fundamental steps for tumor cell proliferation and survival.

  10. Respiratory-induced 3D deformations of the renal arteries quantified with geometric modeling during inspiration and expiration breath-holds of magnetic resonance angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Ga-Young; Choi, Gilwoo; Draney, Mary T; Herfkens, Robert J; Dalman, Ronald L; Cheng, Christopher P

    2013-12-01

    To quantify renal artery deformation due to respiration using magnetic resonance (MR) image-based geometric analysis. Five males were imaged with contrast-enhanced MR angiography during inspiratory and expiratory breath-holds. From 3D models of the abdominal aorta, left and right renal arteries (LRA and RRA), we quantified branching angle, curvature, peak curve angle, axial length, and locations of branch points. With expiration, maximum curvature changes were 0.054 ± 0.025 mm(-1) (P < 0.01), and curve angle at the most proximal curvature peak increased by 8.0 ± 4.5° (P < 0.05) in the LRA. Changes in maximum curvature and curve angles were not significant in the RRA. The first renal bifurcation point translated superiorly and posteriorly by 9.7 ± 3.6 mm (P < 0.005) and 3.5 ± 2.1 mm (P < 0.05), respectively, in the LRA, and 10.8 ± 6.1 mm (P < 0.05) and 3.6 ± 2.5 mm (P < 0.05), respectively, in the RRA. Changes in branching angle, axial length, and renal ostia locations were not significant. The LRA and RRA deformed and translated significantly. Greater deformation of the LRA as compared to the RRA may be due to asymmetric anatomy and mechanical support by the inferior vena cava. The presented methodology can extend to quantification of deformation of diseased and stented arteries to help renal artery implant development. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. 3D brain Organoids derived from pluripotent stem cells: promising experimental models for brain development and neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Ting; Bendriem, Raphael M; Wu, Wells W; Shen, Rong-Fong

    2017-08-20

    Three-dimensional (3D) brain organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), appear to recapitulate the brain's 3D cytoarchitectural arrangement and provide new opportunities to explore disease pathogenesis in the human brain. Human iPSC (hiPSC) reprogramming methods, combined with 3D brain organoid tools, may allow patient-derived organoids to serve as a preclinical platform to bridge the translational gap between animal models and human clinical trials. Studies using patient-derived brain organoids have already revealed novel insights into molecular and genetic mechanisms of certain complex human neurological disorders such as microcephaly, autism, and Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, the combination of hiPSC technology and small-molecule high-throughput screening (HTS) facilitates the development of novel pharmacotherapeutic strategies, while transcriptome sequencing enables the transcriptional profiling of patient-derived brain organoids. Finally, the addition of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing provides incredible potential for personalized cell replacement therapy with genetically corrected hiPSCs. This review describes the history and current state of 3D brain organoid differentiation strategies, a survey of applications of organoids towards studies of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders, and the challenges associated with their use as in vitro models of neurological disorders.

  12. Methods of modeling TCO residential real estate in the life cycles of buildings as a promising energy efficiency management tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulakov Kirill

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Building and developing an affordable housing market is a huge challenge for Russia’s national economy. Today, the housing construction industry finds itself in a situation torn by a conflict caused by the simultaneous needs to minimize the housing construction costs in order to make housing more affordable for Russians and to increase the energy efficiency of the housing projects, which is associated with additional costs for developers. To find solutions to this contradictory situation, one needs new theoretical and practical approaches and economic tools. The global economic trend of managing goods and services on the basis of the value of goods and services over the life cycle is also manifested in the construction industry in Russia. The problem of forming a new economic thinking in the housing sector predetermines the perception of the value of housing not only as the price of purchased real estate, but as the equivalent of the total cost of ownership of real estate throughout its life cycle. This approach allows to compensate the initial rise in the cost of construction resulting from the introduction of energy-efficient technologies by savings in the operational phase of the life cycle of the property. In this regard, management of the total cost of real estate ownership based on energy modeling is of high research and practical relevance.

  13. Is the promise of methadone Kenya's solution to managing HIV and addiction? A mixed-method mathematical modelling and qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Tim; Guise, Andy; Ndimbii, James; Strathdee, Steffanie; Ngugi, Elizabeth; Platt, Lucy; Kurth, Ann; Cleland, Charles; Vickerman, Peter

    2015-03-06

    Promoted globally as an evidence-based intervention in the prevention of HIV and treatment of heroin addiction among people who inject drugs (PWID), opioid substitution treatment (OST) can help control emerging HIV epidemics among PWID. With implementation in December 2014, Kenya is the third Sub-Saharan African country to have introduced OST. We combine dynamic mathematical modelling with qualitative sociological research to examine the 'promise of methadone' to Kenya. We model the HIV prevention impact of OST in Nairobi, Kenya, at different levels of intervention coverage. We draw on thematic analyses of 109 qualitative interviews with PWID, and 43 with stakeholders, to chart their narratives of expectation in relation to the promise of methadone. The modelled impact of OST shows relatively slight reductions in HIV incidence (5-10%) and prevalence (2-4%) over 5 years at coverage levels (around 10%) anticipated in the planned roll-out of OST. However, there is a higher impact with increased coverage, with 40% coverage producing a 20% reduction in HIV incidence, even when accounting for relatively high sexual transmissions. Qualitative findings emphasise a culture of 'rationed expectation' in relation to access to care and a 'poverty of drug treatment opportunity'. In this context, the promise of methadone may be narrated as a symbol of hope-both for individuals and community-in relation to addiction recovery. Methadone offers HIV prevention potential, but there is a need to better model the effects of sexual HIV transmission in mediating the impact of OST among PWID in settings characterised by a combination of generalised and concentrated epidemics. We find that individual and community narratives of methadone as hope for recovery coexist with policy narratives positioning methadone primarily in relation to HIV prevention. Our analyses show the value of mixed methods approaches to investigating newly-introduced interventions. Published by the BMJ Publishing

  14. Promise Zones for Applicants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool assists applicants to HUD's Promise Zone initiative prepare data to submit with their application by allowing applicants to draw the exact location of the...

  15. Gaze holding in healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bertolini

    Full Text Available Eccentric gaze in darkness evokes minor centripetal eye drifts in healthy subjects, as cerebellar control sufficiently compensates for the inherent deficiencies of the brainstem gaze-holding network. This behavior is commonly described using a leaky integrator model, which assumes that eye velocity grows linearly with gaze eccentricity. Results from previous studies in patients and healthy subjects suggest caution when this assumption is applied to eye eccentricities larger than 20 degrees. To obtain a detailed characterization of the centripetal gaze-evoked drift, we recorded horizontal eye position in 20 healthy subjects. With their head fixed, they were asked to fixate a flashing dot (50 ms every 2 sthat was quasi-stationary displacing(0.5 deg/s between ± 40 deg horizontally in otherwise complete darkness. Drift velocity was weak at all angles tested. Linearity was assessed by dividing the range of gaze eccentricity in four bins of 20 deg each, and comparing the slopes of a linear function fitted to the horizontal velocity in each bin. The slopes of single subjects for gaze eccentricities of ± 0-20 deg were, in median,0.41 times the slopes obtained for gaze eccentricities of ± 20-40 deg. By smoothing the individual subjects' eye velocity as a function of gaze eccentricity, we derived a population of position-velocity curves. We show that a tangent function provides a better fit to the mean of these curves when large eccentricities are considered. This implies that the quasi-linear behavior within the typical ocular motor range is the result of a tuning procedure, which is optimized in the most commonly used range of gaze. We hypothesize that the observed non-linearity at eccentric gaze results from a saturation of the input that each neuron in the integrating network receives from the others. As a consequence, gaze-holding performance declines more rapidly at large eccentricities.

  16. Gaze Holding in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, Giovanni; Tarnutzer, Alexander A.; Olasagasti, Itsaso; Khojasteh, Elham; Weber, Konrad P.; Bockisch, Christopher J.; Straumann, Dominik; Marti, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Eccentric gaze in darkness evokes minor centripetal eye drifts in healthy subjects, as cerebellar control sufficiently compensates for the inherent deficiencies of the brainstem gaze-holding network. This behavior is commonly described using a leaky integrator model, which assumes that eye velocity grows linearly with gaze eccentricity. Results from previous studies in patients and healthy subjects suggest caution when this assumption is applied to eye eccentricities larger than 20 degrees. To obtain a detailed characterization of the centripetal gaze-evoked drift, we recorded horizontal eye position in 20 healthy subjects. With their head fixed, they were asked to fixate a flashing dot (50 ms every 2 s)that was quasi-stationary displacing(0.5 deg/s) between ±40 deg horizontally in otherwise complete darkness. Drift velocity was weak at all angles tested. Linearity was assessed by dividing the range of gaze eccentricity in four bins of 20 deg each, and comparing the slopes of a linear function fitted to the horizontal velocity in each bin. The slopes of single subjects for gaze eccentricities of ±0−20 deg were, in median,0.41 times the slopes obtained for gaze eccentricities of ±20−40 deg. By smoothing the individual subjects' eye velocity as a function of gaze eccentricity, we derived a population of position-velocity curves. We show that a tangent function provides a better fit to the mean of these curves when large eccentricities are considered. This implies that the quasi-linear behavior within the typical ocular motor range is the result of a tuning procedure, which is optimized in the most commonly used range of gaze. We hypothesize that the observed non-linearity at eccentric gaze results from a saturation of the input that each neuron in the integrating network receives from the others. As a consequence, gaze-holding performance declines more rapidly at large eccentricities. PMID:23637824

  17. Stop holding yourself back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morriss, Anne; Ely, Robin J; Frei, Frances X

    2011-01-01

    After working with hundreds of leaders in a wide variety of organizations and in countries all over the globe, the authors found one very clear pattern: When it comes to meeting their leadership potential, many people unintentionally get in their own way. Five barriers in particular tend to keep promising managers from becoming exceptional leaders: People overemphasize personal goals, protect their public image, turn their competitors into two-dimensional enemies, go it alone instead of soliciting support and advice, and wait for permission to lead. Troy, a customer service manager, endangered his job and his company's reputation by focusing on protecting his position, not helping his team; when a trusted friend advised him to change his behavior, the results were striking. Anita's insistence on sticking to the tough personal she'd created for herself caused her to ignore the more intuitive part of the leadership equation, with disastrous results--until she let go of the need to appear invulnerable and reached out to another manager. Jon, a personal trainer who had virtually no experience with either youth development programs or urban life, opened a highly successful gym for inner-city kids at risk; he refused to be daunted by his lack of expertise and decided to simply "go for it." As these and other examples from the authors' research demonstrate, being a leader means making an active decision to lead. Only then will the workforce--and society--benefit from the enormous amount of talent currently sitting on the bench.

  18. Simulation model analysis of the most promising geological sequestration formation candidates in the Rocky Mountain region, USA, with focus on uncertainty assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Si-Yong [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zaluski, Wade [Schlumberger Carbon Services, Houston, TX (United States); Will, Robert [Schlumberger Carbon Services, Houston, TX (United States); Eisinger, Chris [Colorado Geological Survey, Golden, CO (United States); Matthews, Vince [Colorado Geological Survey, Golden, CO (United States); McPherson, Brian [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2013-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to report results of reservoir model simulation analyses for forecasting subsurface CO2 storage capacity estimation for the most promising formations in the Rocky Mountain region of the USA. A particular emphasis of this project was to assess uncertainty of the simulation-based forecasts. Results illustrate how local-scale data, including well information, number of wells, and location of wells, affect storage capacity estimates and what degree of well density (number of wells over a fixed area) may be required to estimate capacity within a specified degree of confidence. A major outcome of this work was development of a new workflow of simulation analysis, accommodating the addition of “random pseudo wells” to represent virtual characterization wells.

  19. Few promising multivariable prognostic models exist for recovery of people with non-specific neck pain in musculoskeletal primary care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingbermühle, Roel W; van Trijffel, Emiel; Nelissen, Paul M; Koes, Bart; Verhagen, Arianne P

    2018-01-01

    Which multivariable prognostic model(s) for recovery in people with neck pain can be used in primary care? Systematic review of studies evaluating multivariable prognostic models. People with non-specific neck pain presenting at primary care. Baseline characteristics of the participants. Recovery measured as pain reduction, reduced disability, or perceived recovery at short-term and long-term follow-up. Fifty-three publications were included, of which 46 were derivation studies, four were validation studies, and three concerned combined studies. The derivation studies presented 99 multivariate models, all of which were at high risk of bias. Three externally validated models generated usable models in low risk of bias studies. One predicted recovery in non-specific neck pain, while two concerned participants with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Discriminative ability of the non-specific neck pain model was area under the curve (AUC) 0.65 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.71). For the first WAD model, discriminative ability was AUC 0.85 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.91). For the second WAD model, specificity was 99% (95% CI 93 to 100) and sensitivity was 44% (95% CI 23 to 65) for prediction of non-recovery, and 86% (95% CI 73 to 94) and 55% (95% CI 41 to 69) for prediction of recovery, respectively. Initial Neck Disability Index scores and age were identified as consistent prognostic factors in these three models. Three externally validated models were found to be usable and to have low risk of bias, of which two showed acceptable discriminative properties for predicting recovery in people with neck pain. These three models need further validation and evaluation of their clinical impact before their broad clinical use can be advocated. PROSPERO CRD42016042204. [Wingbermühle RW, van Trijffel E, Nelissen PM, Koes B, Verhagen AP (2018) Few promising multivariable prognostic models exist for recovery of people with non-specific neck pain in musculoskeletal primary care: a systematic review

  20. DESIGN OF INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF VERTICALLY INTEGRATED AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Витальевич ШМАТКО

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an approach to the design and development of information systems for the management and optimization of the organizational structure of vertically integrated agricultural holdings. A review of the problems of building and improving the organizational structure of vertically integrated agricultural holding is made. A method of constructing a discrete model management structure agricultural holding, which minimizes the costs associated with attracting applicants to work, is proposed.

  1. Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Traits of Promising Potato Clones and Commercial Cultivars Using the GGE Bi-plot and AMMI Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D HassanPanah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate quantitative and qualitative characteristics and stability of marketable tuber yield of 13 promising potato clones, along with three commercial cultivars (Agria, Marfona and Lady Rosetta as checks, an experiment was based on a randomized complete block design with four replications was carried out at the Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station of Ardabil during 2011 and 2012. During the growing period and after harvest, attributes like number of main stem per plant, plant height, tuber number and weight per plant, total and marketable tuber yield, dry matter percentage, baking type, hollow heart, tuber inner ring and discoloration of raw tuber flesh after 24 hours were measured. Combined ANONA for quantitative traits showed that there were significant differences among promising clones as to total and marketable tuber yield, tuber number and weight per plant, plant height, mean tuber weight, number of main stem per plant and dry matter percentage and their interactions with year in total and marketable tuber yield and tuber number and weight per plant. The clones 396151-7, 397008-5, 397015-8, 397008-2 and 994001-4 were found to have higher total and marketable tuber yield, tuber number and weight per plant and mean tuber weight. These clones produced high and mid-uniform tuber, yellow skin color, yellow and white flesh color, oval round and round tuber shape, mid and shallow eyes, with no hollow heart, tuber inner crack and tuber inner ring, mid-late maturity and mid and high dry matter percentage as compared with control and other clones. In this experiment, GGE Bi-plot and AMMI models were found to be proper methods for selection of 397008-2, 397008-5 and 994001-4 as being high marketable and stable yielding clones.

  2. Amine-modified SBA-15 and MCF mesoporous molecular sieves as promising sorbents for natural antioxidant. Modeling of caffeic acid adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Michał; Geszke-Moritz, Małgorzata

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a detailed study of caffeic acid adsorption on mesoporous SBA-15 and MCF silicas functionalized with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and 3-[2-(aminoethylamino)propyl]trimethoxysilane (AEAPTMS). Synthesized mesoporous adsorbents were characterized using different analytical techniques such as N2 sorption, XRD, TEM, SEM and FT-IR. The adsorption studies of caffeic acid were conducted in various organic solvents. Moreover, the effect of water content in 2-propanol-water mixture on adsorption efficiency was investigated. The experimental data were best fitted to the Langmuir equation, followed by the Temkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich and Freundlich models. The maximum adsorption capacity values calculated from the Langmuir model demonstrated that SBA-15 and MCF silicas modified with AEAPTMS revealed better adsorption properties toward caffeic acid (192.3 and 161.3mg/g, respectively) as compared to the materials modified with APTES (125.0 and 113.6 mg/g, respectively). The obtained results indicate that both SBA-15 and MCF silicas functionalized with AEAPTMS and APTES are promising materials for the entrapment of caffeic acid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Nurse practitioner-physician comanagement of primary care patients: The promise of a new delivery care model to improve quality of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norful, Allison Andreno; Swords, Kyleen; Marichal, Mickaela; Cho, Hwayoung; Poghosyan, Lusine

    2017-04-25

    The U.S. primary care system is under tremendous strain to deliver care to an increased volume of patients with a concurrent primary care physician shortage. Nurse practitioner (NP)-physician comanagement of primary care patients has been proposed by some policy makers to help alleviate this strain. To date, no collective evidence demonstrates the effects of NP-physician comanagement in primary care. This is the first review to synthesize all available studies that compare the effects of NP-physician comanagement to an individual physician managing primary care. The PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) framework guided the conduct of this systematic review. Five electronic databases were searched. Titles, abstracts, and full texts were reviewed, and inclusion/exclusion criteria were applied to narrow search results to eligible studies. Quality appraisal was performed using Downs and Black's quality checklist for randomized and nonrandomized studies. Six studies were identified for synthesis. Three outcome categories emerged: (a) primary care provider adherence to recommended care guidelines, (b) empirical changes in clinical patient outcomes, and (c) patient/caregiver quality of life. Significantly more recommended care guidelines were completed with NP-physician comanagement. There was variability of clinical patient outcomes with some findings favoring the comanagement model. Limited differences in patient quality of life were found. Across all studies, the NP-physician comanagementcare delivery model was determined to produce no detrimental effect on measured outcomes and, in some cases, was more beneficial in reaching practice and clinical targets. The use of NP-physician comanagement of primary care patients is a promising delivery care model to improve the quality of care delivery and alleviate organizational strain given the current demands of increased patient panel sizes and primary care physician shortages. Future

  4. Blue breath holding is benign.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, J B

    1991-01-01

    In their recent publication in this journal, Southall et al described typical cyanotic breath holding spells, both in otherwise healthy children and in those with brainstem lesions and other malformations. Their suggestions regarding possible autonomic disturbances may require further study, but they have adduced no scientific evidence to contradict the accepted view that in the intact child blue breath holding spells are benign. Those families in which an infant suffers an 'apparently life t...

  5. Bar-holding prosthetic limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Thomas W. (Inventor); Norton, William E. (Inventor); Belcher, Jewell G. (Inventor); Carden, James R. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A prosthetic device for below-the-elbow amputees is disclosed. The device has a removable effector, which is attached to the end of an arm cuff. The effector is comprised of a pair of C-shaped members that are oriented so as to face each other. Working in concert, the C-shaped members are able to hold a bar such as a chainsaw handle. A flat spring is fitted around the C-shaped members to hold them together.

  6. Hold the megaphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattenberg, B

    1994-09-08

    Alarmists and neo-Malthusians can be expected to base discussion at the upcoming International Conference on Population and Development on outmoded theoretical models discredited by actual experience in the US and other developed countries. For example, although population in the US has increased 60-fold since the first census in 1790, the country wields more economic power than any other. The Malthusian insistence that population growth will outrun the food supply has also been disproven; food production has tripled since the 1950s while population has doubled. The real cause of population growth in recent decades has been increased longevity and infant survival. As people realize their children will survive, a transition toward lower fertility will follow. In fact, it is more likely that world population will peak at 7-8 billion rather than the 10-12 billion cited by conference organizers. Finally, experience in the decade since the Mexico City World Population Conference confirms the position that market-oriented economic development is the most effective approach to lowered fertility.

  7. The Ancient Maya Landscape: Facing the Challenges and Embracing the Promise of Integrating Archaeology, Remote Sensing, Soil Science and Hydrologic Modeling for Coupled Natural and Human Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtha, T., Jr.; Duffy, C.; Cook, B. D.; Schroder, W.; Webster, D.; French, K. D.; Alcover, O.; Golden, C.; Balzotti, C.; Shaffer, D.

    2016-12-01

    Relying on a niche inheritance perspective, this paper discusses the long-term spatial and temporal dynamics of land-use management, agricultural decision making and patterns of resource availability in the tropical lowlands of Central America. We introduce and describe ongoing research that addresses a series of long standing questions about coupled natural and human history dynamics in the Central Maya lowlands, emphasizing the role of landscape and region to address these questions. First, we summarize the results of a CNH pilot study focused on the evolution of the regional landscape of Tikal, Guatemala. Particular attention is centered on how we integrated landscape survey, traditional archaeology and soil studies to understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of agricultural land use and intensification over a two thousand period. Additionally, we discuss how these results were integrated into remote sensing, hydrological and erosion models to better understand how past changes in available water and productive land compare to what we know about settlement patterns in the Tikal Region over that same time period. We not only describe how the Maya transformed this landscape, but also how the region influenced changing patterns of settlement and land use. We finish this section with a discussion of some of the unique challenges integrating archaeological information to study CNH dynamics during this pilot study. Second, we introduce a new project designed to `scale up' the pilot study for a macro-regional analysis of the lowland Maya landscape. The new project leverages a uniquely sampled LIDAR data set designed to refine measurements of above ground carbon storage. Our new project quantitatively examines these data for evidence for past human activity. Preliminary results offer a promising path for tightly integrating archaeology, natural science, remote sensing and modeling for studying CNH dynamics in the deep and recent past.

  8. The promise of dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, Louise Jane

    traditions - dialogic communication theory, action research, and science and technology studies. It also provides an empirically rich account of the dialogic turn through case studies of how dialogue is enacted in the fields of planned communication, public engagement with science and collaborative research...... in the fields in which it is practised and how can we analyse those practices in ways that take account of their complexities? The Promise of Dialogue presents a novel theoretical framework for analysing the dialogic turn in the production and communication of knowledge that builds bridges across three research...

  9. Equations Holding in Hilbert Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayet, René

    2006-07-01

    We produce and study several sequences of equations, in the language of orthomodular lattices, which hold in the ortholattice of closed subspaces of any classical Hilbert space, but not in all orthomodular lattices. Most of these equations hold in any orthomodular lattice admitting a strong set of states whose values are in a real Hilbert space. For some of these equations, we give conditions under which they hold in the ortholattice of closed subspaces of a generalised Hilbert space. These conditions are relative to the dimension of the Hilbert space and to the characteristic of its division ring of scalars. In some cases, we show that these equations cannot be deduced from the already known equations, and we study their mutual independence. To conclude, we suggest a new method for obtaining such equations, using the tensorial product.

  10. Blue breath holding is benign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, J B

    1991-01-01

    In their recent publication in this journal, Southall et al described typical cyanotic breath holding spells, both in otherwise healthy children and in those with brainstem lesions and other malformations. Their suggestions regarding possible autonomic disturbances may require further study, but they have adduced no scientific evidence to contradict the accepted view that in the intact child blue breath holding spells are benign. Those families in which an infant suffers an 'apparently life threatening event' deserve immense understanding and help, and it behoves investigators to exercise extreme care and self criticism in the presentation of new knowledge which may bear upon their management and their morale. PMID:2001115

  11. 75 FR 81405 - Portfolio Holdings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... conservatorship. One commenter suggested strategies for reengineering the nation's mortgage finance system. In... necessary reforms for the housing finance system or to the question of what form the Enterprises will take... FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1252 RIN 2590-AA22 Portfolio Holdings AGENCY: Federal...

  12. The Capability to Hold Property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, Rutger

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the question of whether a capability theory of justice (such as that of Martha Nussbaum) should accept a basic “capability to hold property.” Answering this question is vital for bridging the gap between abstract capability theories of justice and their institutional

  13. Cash Holdings Policy: a Dynamic Analysis of Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadwa Muhieddine Dahrouge

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how corporate cash holdings were adjusted over time for Brazilian companies during the crisis of 2008-2009. We adopt a dynamic model of corporate cash holdings to evaluate the main determinants for the speed of adjustment of cash holdings at the optimum level. We find evidence that: a the adjustment costs of Brazilian companies are high implying a delay in reaching the optimum level of cash; b the low speed adjustment to the optimum level is due to the limited availability of credit and the high cost of bank debt; c during crisis, the changes in working capital are positively related to the level of cash holdings providing evidence that companies prefer finance to growth with liquidity; d companies have looked for long-term financing to secure liquidity rather than investing on fixed assets, implying a negative relationship between investment and cash holding.

  14. Are Economists More Likely to Hold Stocks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Joensen, Eyðfrið Juanna Schrøter; Rangvid, Jesper

    A unique data set enables us to test the hypothesis that due to informational advantages economists are more likely to hold stocks than otherwise identical investors. Weconfirm that economists have a significantly higher probability of participating in the stockmarket than investors with any other...... education, even when controlling for several background characteristics. We make use of a large register-based panel data set containing detailed information on the educational attainments and various financial and socioeconomic variables.We model the stock market participation decision by the probit model....... The results are shown to be highly robust to various assumptions, including unobserved individual heterogeneityand instrumental variables estimation....

  15. BIM: Promises and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetel Igor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The building information modeling - BIM is a technology developed toward creation of computer based information model that encompasses whole building lifecycle. Toward that goal a number of information technology standards have been developed that enable different professions in AEC to cooperatively develop electronic building model. The paper gives overview of essential technologies, discusses their intended purpose, and gives outline of the currently achieved functionality.

  16. SPECIALIZATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Kołoszko-Chomentowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, an attempt was made to assess the sustainability of agricultural holdings with diff erent directions of production. Agricultural holdings in the Podlaskie voivodeship registered in the FADN system in 2011–2012 were investigated. Assessment accounted for agroecological indicators (share of permanent grasslands, share of cereals in crops, soil coverage with vegetation, stock density and economic indicators (profi tableness of land and labor. Analysis was conducted according to a classifi cation into agricultural holding types: fi eldcrops, dairy cattle, and granivores. Fieldcrop and granivore holdings achieved more favourable environmental sustainability indicators. Holdings specializing in dairy cattle breeding posed a threat to the natural environment, mainly due to their excessive stock density. Economic sustainability assessment showed that granivore holdings were assessed most favorably. In these holdings, holding income per full-time worker was 37% greater than in fi eldcrop holdings and 57% greater than in dairy cattle holdings.

  17. Multi-objective and Perishable Fuzzy Inventory Models Having Weibull Life-time With Time Dependent Demand, Demand Dependent Production and Time Varying Holding Cost: A Possibility/Necessity Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Savita; Mondal, Seema Sarkar

    2010-10-01

    A multi-objective inventory model of deteriorating item has been developed with Weibull rate of decay, time dependent demand, demand dependent production, time varying holding cost allowing shortages in fuzzy environments for non- integrated and integrated businesses. Here objective is to maximize the profit from different deteriorating items with space constraint. The impreciseness of inventory parameters and goals for non-integrated business has been expressed by linear membership functions. The compromised solutions are obtained by different fuzzy optimization methods. To incorporate the relative importance of the objectives, the different cardinal weights crisp/fuzzy have been assigned. The models are illustrated with numerical examples and results of models with crisp/fuzzy weights are compared. The result for the model assuming them to be integrated business is obtained by using Generalized Reduced Gradient Method (GRG). The fuzzy integrated model with imprecise inventory cost is formulated to optimize the possibility necessity measure of fuzzy goal of the objective function by using credibility measure of fuzzy event by taking fuzzy expectation. The results of crisp/fuzzy integrated model are illustrated with numerical examples and results are compared.

  18. Decision Taking versus Promise Issuing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    An alignment is developed between the terminology of outcome oriented decision taking and a terminology for promise issuing. Differences and correspondences are investigated between the concepts of decision and promise. For decision taking, two forms are distinguished: the external outcome

  19. Enhanced denitrification bioreactors hold promise for Mid-Atlantic ditch drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is strong interest in adapting treatment technologies such as wood-based denitrifying bioreactors to mid-Atlantic drainage systems to help address Chesapeake Bay water quality goals. This work evaluated the practical design and installation concerns, edge-of-field monitoring challenges, and ea...

  20. Resolvins and aliamides: lipid autacoids in ophthalmology – what promise do they hold?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesselink JMK

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Jan M Keppel Hesselink,1 Flavia Chiosi,2 Ciro Costagliola2 1University of Witten/Herdecke, Witten, Germany; 2Eye Clinic, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Molise, Campobasso, Italy Abstract: Resolvins are a novel class of lipid-derived endogenous molecules (autacoids with potent immunomodulating properties, which regulate the resolution phase of an active immune response. These modulating factors are locally produced, influencing the function of cells and/or tissues, which are produced on demand and subsequently metabolized in the same cells and/or tissues. This review is focused on certain lipid autacoids with putative relevance for ophthalmology in general and for dry eye more specifically. We also briefly investigate the concept of aliamides and the role of palmitoylethanolamide in ophthalmology, and analyze in more detail the putative role and the preclinical and clinical development of resolvins as emerging treatments for dry eye and related disorders, with a focus on one of the lead resolvin derivatives – RX-10045. Keywords: resolvins, autacoids, aliamides, dry eye, palmitoylethanolamide, inflammation, ophthalmology, protection

  1. Analytical model and behavioral simulation approach for a ΣΔ fractional-N synthesizer employing a sample-hold element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassia, Marco; Shah, Peter Jivan; Bruun, Erik

    2003-01-01

    A previously unknown intrinsic nonlinearity of standard SigmaDelta fractional-N synthesizers is identified. A general analytical model for SigmaDelta fractional-N phased-locked loops (PLLs) that includes the effect of the nonlinearity is derived and an improvement to the synthesizer topology is d...

  2. The Holding Company as an Instrument of Companies’ Tax-Financial Policy Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Gajewski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the holding institution as an economic and taxation solution. This article describes the holding company, indicates its advantages and disadvantages, and compares it to similar solutions. The main goal of holding companies is to change tax policies. As a result of these institutions, companies can change their tax status and economic situation. The holding institution influences the economic development of its constituent companies. The functioning of a holding company also has great importance for economic development. Establishing holdings is a worldwide trend that may be realised through various models.

  3. Cancer chemoprevention: progress and promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelloff, G J; Sigman, C C; Greenwald, P

    1999-12-01

    Cancer chemoprevention is the use of agents to inhibit, delay or reverse carcinogenesis. The focus of chemoprevention research in the next millennium will include defining the genotypic and phenotypic (functional and histological) changes during carcinogenesis, the cancer risk conferred by these changes, their modulation in preclinical experimentation and randomised clinical trials by chemopreventive drugs, dietary agents and regimens and treatments resulting from early detection. The key elements of this research effort will be basic and translational risk evaluation programmes; chemopreventive and dietary agent drug discovery and development; development of transgenic animal models; required safety and pharmacology studies; well-designed phase I, II and III chemoprevention studies; and much expanded early detection programmes. The large number of chemoprevention research programmes now ongoing ensures that the promise of chemoprevention will continue to be realised in the next decade.

  4. "Like Holding an Umbrella Before It Rains": Acceptability of Future Rectal Microbicides Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in India-A Modified Technology Acceptance Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Newman, Peter A; Shunmugam, Murali; Mengle, Shruta; Nelson, Ruban; Rubincam, Clara; Kumar, Pushpesh

    2017-07-01

    Topical rectal microbicides (RMs) are a new prevention technology in development that aims to reduce the risk of HIV acquisition from anal sex. We examined RM acceptability among men who have sex with men (MSM) in India. We conducted a qualitative exploratory study guided by a modified Technology Acceptance Model, with 10 focus groups ( n = 61) of MSM and 10 key informant interviews. Data were explored using framework analysis. RM acceptability was influenced by technological contexts: perceived usefulness of RMs, perceived ease of use of RM and applicator, and habits around condom and lubricant use; individual and interpersonal contexts: perceived relevance and preferences for product formulation and dosing frequency; and MSM community/social contexts: perceived social approval, RM-related stigma, social support. Implementation of RMs for MSM in India may be supported by multi-level interventions that engage community-based organizations in destigmatizing and distributing RMs, ideally gel-based products that enable on-demand use before sex.

  5. The Promises of Biology and the Biology of Promises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jieun

    2015-01-01

    commitments with differently imagined futures. I argue that promises are constitutive of the stem cell biology, rather than being derivative of it. Since the biological concept of stem cells is predicated on the future that they promise, the biological life of stem cells is inextricably intertwined...... patients’ bodies in anticipation of materializing the promises of stem cell biology, they are produced as a new form of biovaluable. The promises of biology move beyond the closed circuit of scientific knowledge production, and proliferate in the speculative marketplaces of promises. Part II looks at how...... of technologized biology and biological time can appear promising with the backdrop of the imagined intransigence of social, political, and economic order in the Korean society....

  6. Estimating animal movement contacts between holdings of different production types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Tom; Sisson, Scott A; Lewerin, Susanna Stenberg; Wennergren, Uno

    2010-06-01

    Animal movement poses a great risk for disease transmission between holdings. Heterogeneous contact patterns are known to influence the dynamics of disease transmission and should be included in modeling. Using pig movement data from Sweden as an example, we present a method for quantification of between holding contact probabilities based on different production types. The data contained seven production types: Sow pool center, Sow pool satellite, Farrow-to-finish, Nucleus herd, Piglet producer, Multiplying herd and Fattening herd. The method also estimates how much different production types will determine the contact pattern of holdings that have more than one type. The method is based on Bayesian analysis and uses data from central databases of animal movement. Holdings with different production types are estimated to vary in the frequency of contacts as well as in what type of holding they have contact with, and the direction of the contacts. Movements from Multiplying herds to Sow pool centers, Nucleus herds to other Nucleus herds, Sow pool centers to Sow pool satellites, Sow pool satellites to Sow pool centers and Nucleus herds to Multiplying herds were estimated to be most common relative to the abundance of the production types. We show with a simulation study that these contact patterns may also be expected to result in substantial differences in disease transmission via animal movements, depending on the index holding. Simulating transmission for a 1 year period showed that the median number of infected holdings was 1 (i.e. only the index holding infected) if the infection started at a Fattening herd and 2161 if the infection started on a Nucleus herd. We conclude that it is valuable to include production types in models of disease transmission and the method presented in this paper may be used for such models when appropriate data is available. We also argue that keeping records of production types is of great value since it may be helpful in risk

  7. Evaluating an open-loop functional electrical stimulation controller for holding the shoulder and elbow configuration of a paralyzed arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Derek N; Schearer, Eric M

    2017-07-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a promising solution for restoring functional motion to individuals with paralysis, but the potential for achieving full-arm reaching motions with FES for various desired tasks has not been realized. We present an open-loop controller capable of calculating and applying the necessary muscle stimulations to hold the wrist of an individual with high tetraplegia at any desired position. We used the controller to hold the wrist at a series of static positions. The controller was capable of discriminating between different wrist positions. The average distance to the target wrist position, or accuracy, was 7.7 cm. The average radius of the 95% confidence ellipsoid for a set of trials with the same muscle stimulations, or precision, was 6.7 cm. Adding feedback or online model updates will likely improve the accuracy for tasks requiring finer control. The controller is a good first step to controlling full-arm motions with FES.

  8. Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory contains measured data on holdings and transactions of allowances under the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), a...

  9. Ultrasonic methods for locating hold-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, D.N.; Olinger, C.T.

    1995-01-01

    Hold-up remains one of the major contributing factors to unaccounted for materials and can be a costly problem in decontamination and decommissioning activities. Ultrasonic techniques are being developed to noninvasively monitor hold-up in process equipment where the inner surface of such equipment may be in contact with the hold-up material. These techniques may be useful in improving hold-up measurements as well as optimizing decontamination techniques

  10. Postural Change Alters Autonomic Responses to Breath-Holding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Indu; Medow, Marvin S.; Clarke, Debbie; Ocon, Anthony; Stewart, Julian M.

    2011-01-01

    We used breath-holding during inspiration as a model to study the effect of pulmonary stretch on sympathetic nerve activity. Twelve healthy subjects (7 females, 5 males; 19–27 yrs) were tested while they performed an inspiratory breath-hold, both supine and during a 60° head-up tilt (HUT 60). Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), respiration, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), oxygen saturation (SaO2) and end tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) were recorded. Cardiac output (CO) and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were calculated. While breath-holding, ETCO2 increased significantly from 41±2 to 60±2 Torr during supine (pBreath-holding results in initial reductions of MSNA, MAP and HR by the pulmonary stretch reflex followed by increased sympathetic activity related to the arterial baroreflex and chemoreflex. PMID:20012144

  11. Functional Analysis and Intervention for Breath Holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Lee; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A functional analysis of breath-holding episodes in a 7-year-old girl with severe mental retardation and Cornelia-de-Lange syndrome indicated that breath holding served an operant function, primarily to gain access to attention. Use of extinction, scheduled attention, and a picture card communication system decreased breath holding. (Author/SW)

  12. The relationship between perceived discomfort of static posture holding and posture holding time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogutu, Jack; Park, Woojin

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have investigated mathematical characteristics of the discomfort-time relationship during prolonged static posture holding (SPH) on an individual basis. Consequently, the discomfort-time relationship is not clearly understood at individual trial level. The objective of this study was to examine discomfort-time sequence data obtained from a large number of maximum-duration SPH trials to understand the perceived discomfort-posture holding time relationship at the individual SPH trial level. Thirty subjects (15 male, 15 female) participated in this study as paid volunteers. The subjects performed maximum-duration SPH trials employing 12 different wholebody static postures. The hand-held load for all the task trials was a ``generic'' box weighing 2 kg. Three mathematical functions, that is, linear, logarithmic and power functions were examined as possible mathematical models for representing individual discomfort-time profiles of SPH trials. Three different time increase patterns (negatively accelerated, linear and positively accelerated) were observed in the discomfort-time sequences data. The power function model with an additive constant term was found to adequately fit most (96.4%) of the observed discomfort-time sequences, and thus, was recommended as a general mathematical representation of the perceived discomfort-posture holding time relationship in SPH. The new knowledge on the nature of the discomfort-time relationship in SPH and the power function representation found in this study will facilitate analyzing discomfort-time data of SPH and developing future posture analysis tools for work-related discomfort control.

  13. Few promising multivariable prognostic models exist for recovery of people with non-specific neck pain in musculoskeletal primary care: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Wingbermühle (Roel); E. van Trijffel (Emiel); Nelissen, P.M. (Paul M.); B.W. Koes (Bart); A.P. Verhagen (Arianne)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractQuestion: Which multivariable prognostic model(s) for recovery in people with neck pain can be used in primary care? Design: Systematic review of studies evaluating multivariable prognostic models. Participants: People with non-specific neck pain presenting at primary care.

  14. A mathematical model of aerosol holding chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Madsen, J; Berg, E

    1999-01-01

    , Ontario, Canada), NebuChamber (Astra, Södirtälje, Sweden) and Nebuhaler (Astra) adapted for babies. The dose of fluticasone proportionate delivered by the Babyhaler (Glaxco Wellcome, Oxbridge, Middlesex, UK) was 80% of that predicted, probably because of incomplete priming of this spacer. Of the above...

  15. Xeroradiography: Stagnated after a Promising Beginning? A Historical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Udoye, Christopher I.; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2010-01-01

    Various methods have been introduced for obtaining radiographs. Xeroradiography which is a method of imaging uses the xeroradiographic copying process to record images produced by diagnostic x-rays. It differs from halide film technique in that it involves neither wet chemical processing nor the use of dark room. Literature on this subject is scarce. After an initial promising beginning, this imaging method, once thought to hold the key to endodontic imaging, got stagnated. A revisit of this ...

  16. ALICE Holds Up to Challenge

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    ALICE's main austenitic stainless steel support structure (the Space Frame) has recently gone through many tests that proved quite challenging: insuring the structure is sound and lowering it horizontally into the ALICE cavern. This structure is constructed to hold the large volume detectors, such as the Time Projection Chamber, Transition Radiation Detector and Time of Flight inside the ALICE solenoid magnet. After the final assembly at CERN, two large mobile cranes were needed for the job of lifting and turning the 14 tonne frame onto its side. Once shifted, it was placed in Building SX2, one of the surface assembly areas designated for ALICE. The structure, which is 8 m in diameter and 7 m long, underwent many tests in its new position. Geometric control tests were performed by measuring each of the 18 cells and placing wooden or metal samples constructed to the same dimensions as the real thing inside the structure. The most important check was the movement of the real Time Projection Chamber from its s...

  17. 99mTc-hexoprenaline and 131I-dapoxetine. Preparation, in silico modeling and biological evaluation as promising lung scintigraphy radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashed, H.M.; Ibrahim, I.T.; Motaleb, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Hexoprenaline and dapoxetine (two lung selective pharmaceutical compounds) were radiolabeled to produce lung imaging radiopharmaceuticals using 99m Tc and 131 I, respectively. Different factors affecting labeling process were examined and optimum radiochemical purities of 91.3 ± 0.294 and 96.5 ± 0.342% were obtained, respectively. In silico molecular modeling studies for 99m Tc-hexoprenaline and 131 I-dapoxetine were done. Molecular modeling studies of the radiolabeled compounds examined the effect of radiolabeling on structure activity relationship for hexoprenaline and dapoxetine. Biodistribution studies in Swiss albino mice showed poor lung uptake of 99m Tc-hexoprenaline and high uptake for 131 I-dapoxetine (15.26 ± 0.11 and 55.82 ± 0.201%ID/g, respectively) matching the molecular modeling expectations. Consequently, 131 I-dapoxetine could be a hopeful radiopharmaceutical for lung scintigraphic imaging and further studies to radiolabel hexoprenaline with 131 I are recommended. (author)

  18. A distribution-free newsvendor problem with nonlinear holding cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Brojeswar; Sankar Sana, Shib; Chaudhuri, Kripasindhu

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we analyse a single-period newsvendor model to determine the optimal order quantity where the customers' balking occurs.This scenario occurs when the customers are opposed to buy a product for various reasons, such as decreasing quality of product, product is not as good as fresh when it reaches under a threshold level, etc. The model is investigated by assuming that the holding cost function depends on order quantity and the inventory level at which customer balking occurs depends on holding cost. The model allows partial backlogging and permits part of the backlogged shortages to turn into lost sales. We develop the model without taking any specific distributional form of demand, only assuming the mean and the variance of the distribution of demand. Finally, we illustrate the model by numerical examples and compare our distribution-free model with the specific distributional form of demand.

  19. Serotonin 2A receptor, serotonin transporter and dopamine transporter alterations in dogs with compulsive behaviour as a promising model for human obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeire, Simon; Audenaert, Kurt; De Meester, Rudy; Vandermeulen, Eva; Waelbers, Tim; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Eersels, Jos; Dobbeleir, André; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2012-01-30

    Neuro-imaging studies have shown altered, yet often inconsistent, serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We investigated both serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission in 9 drug-naïve dogs with compulsive behaviour, as a potential model for human OCD. Single photon emission computed tomography was used with (123)I-R91150 and (123)I-FP-CIT, in combination with (99m)Tc-ECD brain perfusion co-registration, to measure the serotonin (5-HT) 2A receptor, dopamine transporter (DAT) and serotonin transporter (SERT) availability. Fifteen normally behaving dogs were used as reference group. Significantly lower 5-HT2A receptor radioligand availability in frontal and temporal cortices (bilateral) was observed. Further, in 78% of the compulsive dogs abnormal DAT ratios in left and right striatum were demonstrated. Interestingly, both increased and decreased DAT ratios were observed. Finally, significantly lower subcortical perfusion and (hypo)thalamic SERT availability were observed in the compulsive dogs. This study provides evidence for imbalanced serotonergic and dopaminergic pathways in the pathophysiology of compulsions in dogs. The similarities with the altered neurotransmission in human OCD provide construct validity for this non-induced, natural canine model, suggesting its usefulness for future investigations of the pathophysiology of human OCD as well as the effectiveness of psychopharmacological interventions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties of CeO2 NPs and cerium sulphate: Studies with Drosophila melanogaster as a promising in vivo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaraby, Mohamed; Hernández, Alba; Annangi, Balasubramanyam; Demir, Esref; Bach, Jordi; Rubio, Laura; Creus, Amadeu; Marcos, Ricard

    2015-01-01

    Although in vitro approaches are the most used for testing the potential harmful effects of nanomaterials, in vivo studies produce relevant information complementing in vitro data. In this context, we promote the use of Drosophila melanogaster as a suitable in vivo model to characterise the potential risks associated to nanomaterials exposure. The main aim of this study was to evaluate different biological effects associated to cerium oxide nanoparticles (Ce-NPs) and cerium (IV) sulphate exposure. The end-points evaluated were egg-to-adult viability, particles uptake through the intestinal barrier, gene expression and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by haemocytes, genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity. Transmission electron microscopy images showed internalisation of Ce-NPs by the intestinal barrier and haemocytes, and significant expression of Hsp genes was detected. In spite of these findings, neither toxicity nor genotoxicity related to both forms of cerium were observed. Interestingly, Ce-NPs significantly reduced the genotoxic effect of potassium dichromate and the intracellular ROS production. No morphological malformations were detected after larvae treatment. This study highlights the importance of D. melanogaster as animal model in the study of the different biological effects caused by nanoparticulated materials, at the time that shows its usefulness to study the role of the intestinal barrier in the transposition of nanomaterials entering via ingestion.

  1. Course holding by cyclists and moped riders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godthelp, J. & Wouters, P.I.J.

    1980-01-01

    Course holding by cyclists and moped riders includes both steering alongside a course and stabilising the vehicle. Inability to hold course may lead to conflicts with other road users. To design safe bicycle and moped facilities and to consider the safety of those existing, knowledge about

  2. 9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Compliance With Standards and Holding Period § 2.101 Holding period. (a) Any live dog... considered to have acquired a dog or cat which is sold through the auction sale. (1) That any live dog or cat...

  3. Modeling of isotope fractionation at the catchment scale: How promising is compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) as a tool for analyzing diffuse pollution by agrochemicals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, S. R.; van Meerveld, H. J.; Waterloo, M. J.; Broers, H. P.; van Breukelen, B. M.

    2012-04-01

    Concentration measurements are indispensable for the assessment of subsurface and surface water pollution by agrochemicals such as pesticides. However, monitoring data is often ambiguous and easily misinterpreted as a decrease in concentration could be caused by transformation, dilution or changes in the application of the pesticide. In this context, compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) has recently emerged as a complementary monitoring technique. It is based on the measurement of the isotopic composition (e.g. δ13C and δ2H) of the contaminant. Since transformation processes are likely accompanied by isotope fractionation, thus a change in this composition, CSIA offers the opportunity to gain additional knowledge about transport and degradation processes as well as to track pollutants back to their sources. Isotopic techniques have not yet been applied in a comprehensive way in the analysis of catchment-wide organic pollution. We therefore incorporated fractionation processes associated with the fate of pesticides into the numerical flow and solute transport model HydroGeoSphere in order to assess the feasibility of CSIA within the context of catchment monitoring. The model was set up for a hypothetical hillslope transect which drains into a river. Reactive solute transport was driven by two pesticides applications within one year and actual data for rainfall and potential evapotranspiration from a meteorological station in the Netherlands. Degradation of the pesticide was assumed to take place at a higher rate under the prevailing oxic conditions in the topsoil than in deeper, anoxic subsurface layers. In terms of CSIA, these two degradation pathways were associated with different strengths of isotope fractionation for both hydrogen and carbon atoms. By simulating changes in δ13C and δ2H, the share of the oxic and the anoxic reaction on the overall degradation could be assessed. Model results suggest that CSIA is suitable for assessing degradation of

  4. Control of cooperative manipulators in holding deformable objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkathiri, A. A.; Azlan, N. Z.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the implementation of a control system to control cooperative manipulators to hold deformable objects. The aim is to hold the deformable object without having information on the shape and stiffness of the deformable object beforehand. The prototype of a pair of manipulators has been designed and built to test the controller. A force sensor and a rotary encoder are used to give feedback to the controller, which controls the DC motor actuators accordingly. A position proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller technique has been applied for one of the manipulators and a PID force control technique is applied to the other. Simulations and experimental tests have been conducted on models and the controller has been implemented on the real plant. Both simulation and test results prove that the implemented control technique has successfully provided the desired position and force to hold the deformable object with maximum experimental errors of 0.34mm and 50mN respectively.

  5. Internationalization and Corporate Cash Holdings: Evidence from Brazil and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Arata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research expands on previous studies of cash holdings and their determinants by studying the relationship between the degree of internationalization and the level of corporate cash holdings. We used a sample of nonfinancial, publicly traded companies from Brazil and Mexico for the period from 2006 to 2010. Our results suggest that the degree of internationalization is a determinant of cash, and that cash holding increases quadratically as the degree of company internationalization grows. Such behavior was different from the North American company studies in Chiang and Wang (2011. Similar to previous studies, both Trade-off and Pecking Order predictions are relevant control variables in our model. Finally, companies held less cash on their balance sheets during the precrisis period.

  6. Calibration in a Bayesian modelling framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, M.J.W.; Hagenaars, T.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    Bayesian statistics may constitute the core of a consistent and comprehensive framework for the statistical aspects of modelling complex processes that involve many parameters whose values are derived from many sources. Bayesian statistics holds great promises for model calibration, provides the

  7. Mastering JavaScript promises

    CERN Document Server

    Hussain, Muzzamil

    2015-01-01

    This book is for all the software and web engineers wanting to apply the promises paradigm to their next project and get the best outcome from it. This book also acts as a reference for the engineers who are already using promises in their projects and want to improve their current knowledge to reach the next level. To get the most benefit from this book, you should know basic programming concepts, have a familiarity with JavaScript, and a good understanding of HTML.

  8. Effects of Calcination Holding Time on Properties of Wide Band Gap Willemite Semiconductor Nanoparticles by the Polymer Thermal Treatment Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mustapha Alibe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Willemite is a wide band gap semiconductor used in modern day technology for optoelectronics application. In this study, a new simple technique with less energy consumption is proposed. Willemite nanoparticles (NPs were produced via a water–based solution consisting of a metallic precursor, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, and underwent a calcination process at 900 °C for several holding times between 1–4 h. The FT–IR and Raman spectra indicated the presence of metal oxide bands as well as the effective removal of PVP. The degree of the crystallization and formation of the NPs were determined by XRD. The mean crystallite size of the NPs was between 18.23–27.40 nm. The morphology, particle shape and size distribution were viewed with HR-TEM and FESEM analysis. The willemite NPs aggregate from the smaller to larger particles with an increase in calcination holding time from 1–4 h with the sizes ranging between 19.74–29.71 nm. The energy values obtained from the experimental band gap decreased with increasing the holding time over the range of 5.39 eV at 1 h to at 5.27 at 4 h. These values match well with band gap obtained from the Mott and Davis model for direct transition. The findings in this study are very promising and can justify the use of these novel materials as a potential candidate for green luminescent optoelectronic applications.

  9. America: No Promise Without Agony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert McAfee

    We may discover signs of promise in the midst of agony if we make some shifts of perspective. (1) "Our fear of overt violence must be countered by our acknowledgement of covert violence." Covert violence is subtle and more destructive than physical violence because it is the "denial of personhood"--the insinuation by an act or by neglect that a…

  10. Promising Electric Aircraft Drive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of electric aircraft propulsion technology performance thresholds for key power system components is presented. A weight comparison of electric drive systems with equivalent total delivered energy is made to help identify component performance requirements, and promising research and development opportunities.

  11. Catalytic Antibodies: Concept and Promise

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 11. Catalytic Antibodies: Concept and Promise. Desirazu N Rao Bharath Wootla. General Article Volume 12 Issue ... Keywords. Catalytic antibodies; abzymes; hybridome technology; Diels– Alder reaction; Michaelis– Menten kinetics; Factor VIII.

  12. Endothelial Extracellular Vesicles-Promises and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hromada, Carina; Mühleder, Severin; Grillari, Johannes; Redl, Heinz; Holnthoner, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, microparticles, and apoptotic bodies, are phospholipid bilayer-enclosed vesicles that have once been considered as cell debris lacking biological functions. However, they have recently gained immense interest in the scientific community due to their role in intercellular communication, immunity, tissue regeneration as well as in the onset, and progression of various pathologic conditions. Extracellular vesicles of endothelial origin have been found to play a versatile role in the human body, since they are on the one hand known to contribute to cardiovascular diseases, but on the other hand have also been reported to promote endothelial cell survival. Hence, endothelial extracellular vesicles hold promising therapeutic potential to be used as a new tool to detect as well as treat a great number of diseases. This calls for clinically approved, standardized, and efficient isolation and characterization protocols to harvest and purify endothelial extracellular vesicles. However, such methods and techniques to fulfill stringent requirements for clinical trials have yet to be developed or are not harmonized internationally. In this review, recent advances and challenges in the field of endothelial extracellular vesicle research are discussed and current problems and limitations regarding isolation and characterization are pointed out.

  13. Missing the Promise of Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) have exerted enormous pressure on every participant in a child's education. Students are struggling to meet new standards for mathematics learning, and parents are struggling to understand how to help them. Teachers are growing in their capacity to develop new mathematical competencies, and…

  14. Modelling of potentially promising SARS protease inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plewczynski, Dariusz [Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, ICM, Warsaw University, Pawinskiego 5a Street, 02-106 Warsaw (Poland); Hoffmann, Marcin [BioInfoBank Institute, Limanowskiego 24A/16, 60-744 Poznan (Poland); Grotthuss, Marcin von [BioInfoBank Institute, Limanowskiego 24A/16, 60-744 Poznan (Poland); Knizewski, Lukasz [Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, ICM, Warsaw University, Pawinskiego 5a Street, 02-106 Warsaw (Poland); Rychewski, Leszek [BioInfoBank Institute, Limanowskiego 24A/16, 60-744 Poznan (Poland); Eitner, Krystian [BioInfoBank Institute, Limanowskiego 24A/16, 60-744 Poznan (Poland); Ginalski, Krzysztof [Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling, ICM, Warsaw University, Pawinskiego 5a Street, 02-106 Warsaw (Poland)

    2007-07-18

    In many cases, at the beginning of a high throughput screening experiment some information about active molecules is already available. Active compounds (such as substrate analogues, natural products and inhibitors of related proteins) are often identified in low throughput validation studies on a biochemical target. Sometimes the additional structural information is also available from crystallographic studies on protein and ligand complexes. In addition, the structural or sequence similarity of various protein targets yields a novel possibility for drug discovery. Co-crystallized compounds from homologous proteins can be used to design leads for a new target without co-crystallized ligands. In this paper we evaluate how far such an approach can be used in a real drug campaign, with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus providing an example. Our method is able to construct small molecules as plausible inhibitors solely on the basis of the set of ligands from crystallized complexes of a protein target, and other proteins from its structurally homologous family. The accuracy and sensitivity of the method are estimated here by the subsequent use of an electronic high throughput screening flexible docking algorithm. The best performing ligands are then used for a very restrictive similarity search for potential inhibitors of the SARS protease within the million compounds from the Ligand.Info small molecule meta-database. The selected molecules can be passed on for further experimental validation.

  15. Freedom: A Promise of Possibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunkers, Sandra Schmidt

    2015-10-01

    The idea of freedom as a promise of possibility is explored in this column. The core concepts from a research study on considering tomorrow (Bunkers, 1998) coupled with humanbecoming community change processes (Parse, 2003) are used to illuminate this notion. The importance of intentionality in human freedom is discussed from both a human science and a natural science perspective. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Breath-holding spells in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ran D

    2015-02-01

    I have children in my clinic who experience seizurelike episodes in which they cry and hold their breath to the point of cyanosis and loss of consciousness. Their examination or investigation findings are normal and referral to a pediatric specialist results in no further investigation. Are breath-holding spells common, and what type of investigation is needed? A breath-holding spell is a benign paroxysmal nonepileptic disorder occurring in healthy children 6 to 48 months of age. The episodes start with a provocation such as emotional upset or minor injury, and might progress to breath holding, cyanosis, and syncope. The episodes are extremely frightening to watch but have benign consequences. Once a clinical diagnosis is made, it is recommended to conduct an electrocardiogram and to rule out anemia, but no further investigation or referral is warranted. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  17. Surface Hold Advisor Using Critical Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Caleb Hoi Kei (Inventor); Hsiao, Thomas Kun-Lung (Inventor); Mittler, Nathan C. (Inventor); Couluris, George J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The Surface Hold Advisor Using Critical Sections is a system and method for providing hold advisories to surface controllers to prevent gridlock and resolve crossing and merging conflicts among vehicles traversing a vertex-edge graph representing a surface traffic network on an airport surface. The Advisor performs pair-wise comparisons of current position and projected path of each vehicle with other surface vehicles to detect conflicts, determine critical sections, and provide hold advisories to traffic controllers recommending vehicles stop at entry points to protected zones around identified critical sections. A critical section defines a segment of the vertex-edge graph where vehicles are in crossing or merging or opposite direction gridlock contention. The Advisor detects critical sections without reference to scheduled, projected or required times along assigned vehicle paths, and generates hold advisories to prevent conflicts without requiring network path direction-of-movement rules and without requiring rerouting, rescheduling or other network optimization solutions.

  18. Pengaruh krisis keuangan global dan karakteristik perusahaan terhadap cash holding perusahaan di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sutrisno

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the effect of the global financial crisis and firm characteristics on corporate cash holdings in Indonesia. A total of 101 manufacturing firms listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2005 to 2014 are examined. This study employs panel regression with fixed effect model. The results show that Indonesia firms hold more cash during the global financial crisis than in the normal times. Investment opportunities set and divident payment have positive effect on cash holding, meanwhile firm size, capital expenditure, liquid assets substitutes, and leverage have negative effect on cash holding

  19. A Real-Time Holding Decision Rule Accounting for Passenger Travel Cost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laskaris,; Cats, O.; Jenelius, E; Viti, F

    2016-01-01

    Holding has been extensively investigated as a strategy to mitigate the inherently stochastic nature of public transport operations. Holding focuses on either regulating vehicle headways using a rule-based approach or minimizing passenger travel cost by employing optimization models. This paper

  20. Chitin fulfilling a biomaterials promise

    CERN Document Server

    Khor, Eugene

    2001-01-01

    The second edition of Chitin underscores the important factors for standardizing chitin processing and characterization. It captures the essential interplay between chitin's assets and limitations as a biomaterial, placing the past promises of chitin in perspective, addressing its present realities and offering insight into what is required to realize chitin's destiny (including its derivative, chitosan) as a biomaterial of the twenty-first century. This book is an ideal guide for both industrialists and researchers with a vested interest in commercializing chitin.An upd

  1. Involuntary Psychiatric Holds in Preadolescent Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Santillanes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Little is known about the use of involuntary psychiatric holds in preadolescent children. The primary objective was to characterize patients under the age of 10 years on involuntary psychiatric holds. Methods: This was a two-year retrospective study from April 2013 – April 2015 in one urban pediatric emergency department (ED. Subjects were all children under the age of 10 years who were on an involuntary psychiatric hold at any point during their ED visit. We collected demographic data including age, gender, ethnicity and details about living situation, child protective services involvement and prior mental health treatment, as well as ED disposition. Results: There were 308 visits by 265 patients in a two-year period. Ninety percent of involuntary psychiatric holds were initiated in the prehospital setting. The following were common characteristics: male (75%, in custody of child protective services (23%, child protective services involvement (42%, and a prior psychiatric hospitalization (32%. Fifty-six percent of visits resulted in discharge from the ED, 42% in transfer to a psychiatric hospital and 1% in admission to the pediatric medical ward. Median length of stay was 4.7 hours for discharged patients and 11.7 hours for patients transferred to psychiatric hospitals. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this study presents the first characterization of preadolescent children on involuntary psychiatric holds. Ideally, mental health screening and services could be initiated in children with similar high-risk characteristics before escalation results in placement of an involuntary psychiatric hold. Furthermore, given that many patients were discharged from the ED, the current pattern of utilization of involuntary psychiatric holds in young children should be reconsidered.

  2. Latino Immigrants, Acculturation, and Health: Promising New Directions in Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraído-Lanza, Ana F; Echeverría, Sandra E; Flórez, Karen R

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of novel topics emerging in recent years in research on Latino immigrants, acculturation, and health. In the past ten years, the number of studies assessing new ways to conceptualize and understand how acculturation-related processes may influence health has grown. These new frameworks draw from integrative approaches testing new ground to acknowledge the fundamental role of context and policy. We classify the emerging body of evidence according to themes that we identify as promising directions--intrapersonal, interpersonal, social environmental, community, political, and global contexts, cross-cutting themes in life course and developmental approaches, and segmented assimilation--and discuss the challenges and opportunities each theme presents. This body of work, which considers acculturation in context, points to the emergence of a new wave of research that holds great promise in driving forward the study of Latino immigrants, acculturation, and health. We provide suggestions to further advance the ideologic and methodologic rigor of this new wave.

  3. An investigation on inter-individual variation in perceived discomfort of static posture holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogutu, Jack; Park, Woojin; Son, Minseok

    2015-01-01

    Realizing population-level discomfort evaluation and control of common static posture holding tasks requires an understanding of the inter-individual variation in discomfort perception. However, little research is available. This study aimed to determine the types of mathematical probability distribution suitable for modeling population discomfort distributions of various static posture holding tasks and characterize how the magnitude of inter-individual variation in perceived discomfort varies across static posture holding tasks. Ten male and ten female subjects participated. The participants conducted static posture holding for a set of 180 short-duration (20-second-long) static posture holding tasks and subjectively rated the overall perceived discomfort for each task using the Borg CR-10 discomfort scale. Statistical analyses were conducted according to the study objectives. The static posture holding tasks exhibited multifarious discomfort distribution patterns. Probability distribution identification analyses indicated that no single distribution type could represent population discomfort distributions universally across different static posture holding tasks. Sample standard deviation of discomfort ratings data quantifying the magnitude of inter-individual variation in discomfort perception varied considerably across static posture holding tasks. It seemed to have a positive relationship with sample mean within the range of the experimental conditions. Population-level evaluation of discomforts associated with static posture holding tasks must be based on careful examinations of empirical discomfort distributions.

  4. The promising opportunity of dismantlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    Civil engineering, mechanics and waste conditioning companies are thriving around the market of nuclear facilities dismantlement which is promised to a huge development in the coming decade. This paper presents a map of the opportunities of the dismantlement market throughout Europe (research and power reactors, fuel fabrication plants, spent fuel reprocessing plants) and a cost estimation of a given dismantling work with respect to the different steps of the work. In France a small core of about twenty companies is involved in nuclear dismantlement but the French market is also looking towards foreign specialists of this activity. The British market is also targeted by the French companies but for all the actors the technological or commercial advance gained today will be determining for the future markets. (J.S.)

  5. PERFORMANCE OF FINANCIAL HOLDING COMPANIES IN TAIWAN: AN APPLICATION OF NETWORK DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Yueh-Chiang Lee; Yao-Hung Yang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we adopt the network data envelopment analysis model in lieu of the multi-stage data envelopment analysis model to evaluate the operational efficiency of financial holding companies and their subsidiaries; the advantage of the network data envelopment analysis model is that it fully captures the synergies of cross selling undertaken by subsidiaries. In this study, conducted in 2012, we find synergistic effects associated with the merger of four financial holding companies, Hua ...

  6. Acupuncture: a promising treatment for depression during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manber, Rachel; Schnyer, Rosa N; Allen, John J B; Rush, A John; Blasey, Christine M

    2004-11-15

    Few medically acceptable treatments for depression during pregnancy are available. The aim of this randomized controlled pilot study was to determine whether acupuncture holds promise as a treatment for depression during pregnancy. Sixty-one pregnant women with major depressive disorder and a 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD17) score >or=14 were randomly assigned to one of three treatments, delivered over 8 weeks: an active acupuncture (SPEC, N=20), an active control acupuncture (NSPEC, N=21), and massage (MSSG, N=20). Acupuncture treatments were standardized, but individually tailored, and were provided in a double-blind fashion. Responders to acute phase treatment (HRSD17 scoreor=50% reduction from baseline) continued the treatment they were initially randomized to until 10 weeks postpartum. Response rates at the end of the acute phase were statistically significantly higher for SPEC (69%) than for MSSG (32%), with an intermediate NSPEC response rate (47%). The SPEC group also exhibited a significantly higher average rate of reduction in BDI scores from baseline to the end of the first month of treatment than the MSSG group. Responders to the acute phase of all treatments combined had significantly lower depression scores at 10 weeks postpartum than nonresponders. Generalizability is limited by the small sample and its relative homogeneity. Acupuncture holds promise for the treatment of depression during pregnancy.

  7. Emulsifying salt increase stability of cheese emulsions during holding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anni Bygvrå; Sijbrandij, Anna G.; Varming, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    of sodium and phosphate in foods makes production of cheese powder without or with minimal amounts of emulsifying salts desirable. The present work uses a centrifugation method to characterize stability of model cheese feeds. Stability of cheese feed with emulsifying salt increased with holding time at 60°C......In cheese powder production, cheese is mixed and melted with water and emulsifying salt to form an emulsion (cheese feed) which is required to remain stable at 60°C for 1h and during further processing until spray drying. Addition of emulsifying salts ensures this, but recent demands for reduction......, especially when no stirring was applied. No change in stability during holding was observed in cheese feeds without emulsifying salt. This effect is suggested to be due to continued exerted functionality of the emulsifying salt, possibly through reorganizations of the mineral balance....

  8. CASH HOLDING, GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND FIRM VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prana Wahyu Nisasmara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to understand the influence of profitability, capital structure, cash holding, and GCG (Good Corporate Governance on firm value.  The samples of this study were the property sector and real estate companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX in the period of 2008-2013. The data used from the annual report company. The methods of data analysis were multiple regression models and analyzed using IBM SPSS software. The results of this study are profitability has no influence on firm value, capital structure has positive influence on firm value, cash holding has no influence on firm value and GCG a has a positive influence on firm value.

  9. 12 CFR 1732.7 - Record hold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Banking OFFICE OF FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS RECORD RETENTION Record Retention Program § 1732.7 Record hold. (a) Definition. For... Enterprise or OFHEO that the Enterprise is to retain records relating to a particular issue in connection...

  10. Empowerment Amongst Teachers Holding Leadership Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidov-Ungar, Orit; Friedman, Izhak; Olshtain, Elite

    2014-01-01

    This study used semi-structured in-depth interviews to explore empowerment patterns among teachers who hold leadership positions in school. Our qualitative analysis presents a hierarchical ladder with three types of empowerment amongst these teachers, ranging from limited empowerment through rewarding empowerment to change-enhancing empowerment.…

  11. Biosketch Ashok Venkitaraman holds the Ursula Zoellner ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ashok

    Ashok Venkitaraman holds the Ursula Zoellner Professorship of Cancer Research at the University of Cambridge, and is the Director of the Medical Research Council. (MRC) Cancer Cell Unit there. He learnt and practiced medicine at the Christian. Medical College, Vellore, before completing his Ph.D. at University College ...

  12. Towards a classification of weak hand holds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimmelman, V.; Sáfár, A.; Crasborn, O.

    2016-01-01

    The two symmetrical manual articulators (the hands) in signed languages are a striking modalityspecific phonetic property. The weak hand can maintain the end position of an articulation while the other articulator continues to produce additional signs. This weak hand spreading (hold) has been

  13. 47 CFR 73.7005 - Holding period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., utilities, music licensing fees, etc.). Any successive applicants proposing to assign or transfer the... receiving a decisive preference for fair distribution of service is required to construct and operate... preference is based for a period of four years of on-air operations. (c) The holding period in this section...

  14. Resveratrol analogs: promising chemopreventive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogas, Talysa; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Pezzuto, John M

    2013-07-01

    Although resveratrol can modulate multiple stages of carcinogenesis, by most common standards it is not a good drug candidate. Resveratrol lacks potency, high efficacy, and target specificity; it is rapidly metabolized and serum concentrations are low. Using resveratrol as a scaffold, we produced over 100 derivatives, some of which have target specificity in the nanomolar range. Aromatase inhibition was enhanced over 6000-fold by using 1,3-thiazole as the central ring of resveratrol. Optimizing the substitution pattern of the two phenyl rings and the central heterocyclic linker led to selective QR1 induction with a CD value of 87 nM. Several derivatives have been selected for evaluation of synergistic effects. Preliminary results with pairs of compounds are promising and further experiments, in a constant multidrug manner, will allow us to create polygonograms for larger combinations of derivatives. The objective is to develop a highly efficacious cocktail of derivatives based on the structure of resveratrol. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. The Promise: Islamic Micro-finance and the Synthesis of Time\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Retsikas, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    The article explores a particular mode of time synthesis as carried out in the field of Islamic micro-finance in Indonesia. It approaches this financial experiment through Deleuze’s tripartite division of time and the concept of promise advanced here. I argue that the analytical promise the concept of promise holds is partly related to its ability to circumscribe a field of practice that is at once theological and economic and partly to its privileging of the time of the future. What the stud...

  16. Quinoline: a promising antitubercular target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keri, Rangappa S; Patil, Siddappa A

    2014-10-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global public health problem in recent years. TB originated mainly from various strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a highly infectious and chronic disease with high infection rate since ancient times. Since the last 50 years, the same long-duration, multidrug treatment plan is being followed for the treatment of tuberculosis. Due to the development of resistance to conventional antibiotics there is a need for new therapeutic strategies to combat M. tuberculosis. Subsequently, there is an urgent need for the development of new drug molecules with newer targets and with an alternative mechanism of action. Among hetrocyclic compounds, quinoline compounds are important privileged structure in medicinal chemistry, are widely used as "parental" compounds to synthesize molecules with medical benefits, especially with anti-malarial and anti-microbial activities. Certain, quinoline-based compounds, also show effective anti-TB activity. This broad spectrum of biological and biochemical activities has been further facilitated by the synthetic versatility of quinoline, which allows the generation of a large number of structurally diverse derivatives. To pave the way for future research, there is a need to collect the latest information in this promising area. In the present review, we have collated published reports on this versatile core to provide an insight so that its full therapeutic potential can be utilized for the treatment tuberculosis. It is hoped that, this review will be helpful for new thoughts in the quest for rational designs of more active and less toxic quinoline-based anti-TB drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. TOOLS OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT OF A HOLDING COMPANY AND ITS SUB-SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai N. Samoilenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept and essence of intellectual property management are considered in the article, as well as the models, the methods and the tools of intellectual property management of holding structures. In particular, the life cycle of object of intellectual property is described, the concept "intellectual property management" is created, the most effective models of intellectual property management are revealed, and also the instruments of intellectual property management of a holding company and its sub-systems are defined.

  18. 12 CFR 225.124 - Foreign bank holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign bank holding companies. 225.124 Section... SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.124 Foreign bank holding companies. (a) Effective December 1, 1971, the...

  19. 12 CFR 1252.1 - Enterprise portfolio holding criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. 1252.1 Section 1252.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS § 1252.1 Enterprise portfolio holding criteria. The Enterprises are required to comply with the portfolio holdings...

  20. Pain-Related Brain Activity Evoked by Active and Dynamic Arm Movement: Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness as a Promising Model for Studying Movement-Related Pain in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yoichi; Kan, Shigeyuki; Uematsu, Hironobu; Shibata, Masahiko; Fujino, Yuji

    2015-08-01

    To demonstrate delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a suitable model for the study of movement-evoked pain, we attempted to identify brain regions specifically involved in pain evoked by active and dynamic movement under DOMS condition. Twelve healthy volunteers DOMS was induced in the left upper-arm flexor muscles by an eccentric elbow contraction exercise. Movement-evoked pain in the affected muscles was evaluated just before (day 0) and after (days 1-7 and 30) the exercise using a visual analog scale. Subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scans while performing repeated elbow flexion on day 2 (DOMS condition) and day 30 (painless condition). We compared brain activity between the DOMS and painless conditions. Movement-evoked pain reached peak intensity on day 2 and disappeared by day 30 in all subjects. No subject felt pain at rest on either of these days. Contralateral primary motor cortex (M1), parietal operculum and bilateral presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) showed greater activity during active and dynamic arm movement with DOMS than during the same movement without pain. There was no difference in activation of brain regions known collectively as the "pain matrix," except for the parietal operculum, between the two conditions. Active and dynamic movement with pain selectively evoked activation of M1, pre-SMA, and parietal operculum, as assessed using DOMS. Our results demonstrate that DOMS is a promising experimental model for the study of movement-evoked pain in humans. 2015 The Authors Pain Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Academy of Pain Medicine.

  1. Saskatchewan Energy Holdings Ltd. consolidated financial statements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The consolidated financial statements of Saskatchewan Energy Holdings Ltd. (formerly Saskatchewan Energy Corporation) as of December 31, 1990, and the consolidated statements of earnings and retained earnings and changes in cash position for the year are presented. Data include an inventory of supplies, natural gas in storage, property, plant and equipment. Financial statements are also presented for the year ending December 31, 1989, with comparative figures for the seven months ending December 31, 1988

  2. New strategies for the treatment of Parkinson's disease hold considerable promise for future management of neurodegenerative disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarkam, Carsten Reidies; Sørensen, Jens Christian; Sunde, Niels Å

    2001-01-01

    or more. Parkinson's disease ischaracterized by a massive loss of dopaminergicneurons in the substantia nigra, leading tosevere functional disturbance of the neuronalcircuitry in the basal ganglia. A thoroughdescription of basal ganglia circuitry inhealth and disease is presented. We describehow...... the functional disturbances seen inParkinson's disease may be corrected atspecific sites in this circuitry by medicaltreatment or, in advanced stages of Parkinson'sdisease, by neurosurgical methods. The latterinclude lesional surgery, neuraltransplantation and deep brain stimulation,together with future......Neurodegenerative diseases are often consideredincurable with no efficient therapies to modifyor halt the progress of disease, and ultimatelylead to reduced quality of life and to death.Our knowledge of the nervous system in healthand disease has, however, increasedconsiderably during the last...

  3. Transcriptional profiling reveals progeroid Ercc1-/Δ mice as a model system for glomerular aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Schumacher (Björn); V. Bartels (Valerie); P. Frommolt (Peter); B. Habermann (Bianca); F. Braun (Fabian); J.L. Schultze (Joachim); M. Roodbergen (Marianne); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); P. Nürnberg (Peter); M.E.T. Dollé (Martijn); T. Benzing (Thomas); R.-U. Müller (Roman-Ulrich); C.E. Kurschat (Christine)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Aging-related kidney diseases are a major health concern. Currently, models to study renal aging are lacking. Due to a reduced life-span progeroid models hold the promise to facilitate aging studies and allow examination of tissue-specific changes. Defects in genome

  4. The promise of entrepreneurship education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Claus; Blenker, Per; Korsgaard, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    into general anomalies; (IV) Constructing innovative solutions; (V) Prototyping; and (VI) Business modelling. Finally, we discuss the implications of the reconceptualized framework in terms of the research questions governing the field of entrepreneurship education, for the practice of entrepreneurship......This article develops a conceptual framework for entrepreneurship education based on a reconceptualization of the individual-opportunity nexus as presented by Shane and Venkataraman (2000). In order to achieve this objective, we reinterpret both the basic assumptions pertaining to the individual...... education, as well as for policy to promote entrepreneurship education....

  5. Inefficient Job Destructions and Training with Hold-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chéron, Arnaud; Rouland, Benedicte

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops an equilibrium search model with endogenous job destructions and where firms decide at the time of job entry how much to invest in match-specific human capital. We first show that job destruction and training investment decisions are strongly complementary. It is possible...... that there are no firings at equilibrium. Further, training investments are confronted to a hold-up problem making the decentralized equilibrium always inefficient. We show therefore that both training subsidies and firing taxes must be implemented to bring back efficiency....

  6. Holding-time-aware asymmetric spectrum allocation in virtual optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Chunjian; Li, Hui; Liu, Yuze; Ji, Yuefeng

    2017-10-01

    Virtual optical networks (VONs) have been considered as a promising solution to support current high-capacity dynamic traffic and achieve rapid applications deployment. Since most of the network services (e.g., high-definition video service, cloud computing, distributed storage) in VONs are provisioned by dedicated data centers, needing different amount of bandwidth resources in both directions, the network traffic is mostly asymmetric. The common strategy, symmetric provisioning of traffic in optical networks, leads to a waste of spectrum resources in such traffic patterns. In this paper, we design a holding-time-aware asymmetric spectrum allocation module based on SDON architecture and an asymmetric spectrum allocation algorithm based on the module is proposed. For the purpose of reducing spectrum resources' waste, the algorithm attempts to reallocate the idle unidirectional spectrum slots in VONs, which are generated due to the asymmetry of services' bidirectional bandwidth. This part of resources can be exploited by other requests, such as short-time non-VON requests. We also introduce a two-dimensional asymmetric resource model for maintaining idle spectrum resources information of VON in spectrum and time domains. Moreover, a simulation is designed to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, and results show that our proposed asymmetric spectrum allocation algorithm can improve the resource waste and reduce blocking probability.

  7. Realizing the promise of social psychology in improving public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, William M P; Shepperd, James A; Suls, Jerry; Rothman, Alexander J; Croyle, Robert T

    2015-02-01

    The theories, phenomena, empirical findings, and methodological approaches that characterize contemporary social psychology hold much promise for addressing enduring problems in public health. Indeed, social psychologists played a major role in the development of the discipline of health psychology during the 1970s and 1980s. The health domain allows for the testing, refinement, and application of many interesting and important research questions in social psychology, and offers the discipline a chance to enhance its reach and visibility. Nevertheless, in a review of recent articles in two major social-psychological journals (Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin and Journal of Personality and Social Psychology), we found that only 3.2% of 467 studies explored health-related topics. In this article, we identify opportunities for research at the interface of social psychology and health, delineate barriers, and offer strategies that can address these barriers as the discipline continues to evolve. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  8. Let's just hold a real vote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gareth

    2017-04-12

    The planned RCN consultation to gauge how nurses feel about balloting on industrial action is a step in the right direction, but for heaven's sake why don't we just hold a real vote? No one is interested in a test vote - not the media, not members. A real vote would be headline news and RCN members would be enthused and motivated. As it is, we are just kicking the ball into the long grass yet again. There will be a low turnout and we will end up shrugging our shoulders and saying 'There's nothing to be done'. Jeremy Hunt must be laughing his socks off.

  9. Hold-down device for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclercq, J.; Bonnamour, M.

    1984-01-01

    The present device can be used in nuclear reactors and more particularly in pressurized water reactors consisting of coupled fuel assemblies, certain of which are equipped with non-displaceable elements carried by an unsertable member. The device comprises the unsertable member provided with at least two sets of springs which transmit the load of an upper structure common to the fuel assemblies ajacent that which supports the unsertable member. The device is used to hold-down fuel assemblies which are subjected to the forces of circulating coolant [fr

  10. The Economics of an Admissions Holding Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, Kraftin E; Martin, Richard

    2017-06-01

    With increasing attention to the actual cost of delivering care, return-on-investment calculations take on new significance. Boarded patients in the emergency department (ED) are harmful to clinical care and have significant financial opportunity costs. We hypothesize that investment in an admissions holding unit for admitted ED patients not only captures opportunity cost but also significantly lowers direct cost of care. This was a three-phase study at a busy urban teaching center with significant walkout rate. We first determined the true cost of maintaining a staffed ED bed for one patient-hour and compared it to alternative settings. The opportunity cost for patients leaving without being seen was then conservatively estimated. Lastly, a convenience sample of admitted patients boarding in the ED was observed continuously from one hour after decision-to-admit until physical departure from the ED to capture a record of every interaction with a nurse or physician. Personnel costs per patient bed-hour were $58.20 for the ED, $24.80 for an inpatient floor, $19.20 for the inpatient observation unit, and $10.40 for an admissions holding area. An eight-bed holding unit operating at practical capacity would free 57.4 hours of bed space in the ED and allow treatment of 20 additional patients. This could yield increased revenues of $27,796 per day and capture opportunity cost of $6.09 million over 219 days, in return for extra staffing costs of $218,650. Analysis of resources used for boarded patients was determined by continuous observation of a convenience sample of ED-boarded patients, which found near-zero interactions with both nursing and physicians during the boarding interval. Resource expense per ED bed-hour is more than twice that in non-critical care inpatient units. Despite the high cost of available resources, boarded non-critical patients receive virtually no nursing or physician attention. An admissions holding unit is remarkably effective in avoiding the

  11. Optimizing functional parameter accuracy for breath-hold DCE-MRI of liver tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orton, Matthew R; Miyazaki, Keiko; Koh, Dow-Mu; Collins, David J; Leach, Martin O; Hawkes, David J; Atkinson, David

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is a valuable tool for assessing treatment response to novel cancer therapeutics. With appropriate data acquisition, quantitative functional parameter estimates can be obtained by fitting a model to the data. This research focuses on applying a dual-input single-compartment pharmacokinetic model to breath-hold DCE-MRI imaging of the liver. In this paper, the use of two breath-holds, providing greater temporal information, is compared with a single breath-hold approach. Computer simulations are used to assess the accuracy, precision and sensitivity to input function errors obtained for parameters estimated from the two imaging protocols. Data from ten patients were analysed to assess the noise statistics obtained from the two breath-hold protocols. The noise statistics were used with a pharmacokinetic liver model to simulate data, from which the estimation accuracy, precision and sensitivity for the two protocols were assessed. Data from the ten patients were also analysed, and the estimates were compared with literature values. This work demonstrates the feasibility of obtaining functional liver perfusion estimates over a 3D volume using a sequential breath-hold protocol. The simulation results show that the protocol consisting of two images per breath-hold is to be preferred as it requires identical patient co-operation, but provides parameter estimates that have superior accuracy and precision.

  12. SITUATION OF REGULATIONS FOR HOLDING COMPANIES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Filofteia Braga

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the tax facilities applicable to Romania on holding companies, ranking of the first 20 countries that investing in our country, their activities field and the necessity to approve the law holding company.

  13. Reliable quantification of BOLD fMRI cerebrovascular reactivity despite poor breath-hold performance☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Molly G.; Murphy, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) can be mapped using BOLD fMRI to provide a clinical insight into vascular health that can be used to diagnose cerebrovascular disease. Breath-holds are a readily accessible method for producing the required arterial CO2 increases but their implementation into clinical studies is limited by concerns that patients will demonstrate highly variable performance of breath-hold challenges. This study assesses the repeatability of CVR measurements despite poor task performance, to determine if and how robust results could be achieved with breath-holds in patients. Twelve healthy volunteers were scanned at 3T. Six functional scans were acquired, each consisting of 6 breath-hold challenges (10, 15, or 20 s duration) interleaved with periods of paced breathing. These scans simulated the varying breath-hold consistency and ability levels that may occur in patient data. Uniform ramps, time-scaled ramps, and end-tidal CO2 data were used as regressors in a general linear model in order to measure CVR at the grey matter, regional, and voxelwise level. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) quantified the repeatability of the CVR measurement for each breath-hold regressor type and scale of interest across the variable task performances. The ramp regressors did not fully account for variability in breath-hold performance and did not achieve acceptable repeatability (ICC  0.4). Further analysis of intra-subject CVR variability across the brain (ICCspatial and voxelwise correlation) supported the use of end-tidal CO2 data to extract robust whole-brain CVR maps, despite variability in breath-hold performance. We conclude that the incorporation of end-tidal CO2 monitoring into scanning enables robust, repeatable measurement of CVR that makes breath-hold challenges suitable for routine clinical practice. PMID:23845426

  14. Congestion Service Facilities Location Problem with Promise of Response Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In many services, promise of specific response time is advertised as a commitment by the service providers for the customer satisfaction. Congestion on service facilities could delay the delivery of the services and hurts the overall satisfaction. In this paper, congestion service facilities location problem with promise of response time is studied, and a mixed integer nonlinear programming model is presented with budget constrained. The facilities are modeled as M/M/c queues. The decision variables of the model are the locations of the service facilities and the number of servers at each facility. The objective function is to maximize the demands served within specific response time promised by the service provider. To solve this problem, we propose an algorithm that combines greedy and genetic algorithms. In order to verify the proposed algorithm, a lot of computational experiments are tested. And the results demonstrate that response time has a significant impact on location decision.

  15. Iron and zinc levels in breath-holding spells

    OpenAIRE

    DEDA, Gülhis; AKAR, M. Nejat; CİN, Şükrü; GENÇGÖNÜL, Handan

    2002-01-01

    Breath-Holding spells are a dramatic and commonly observed clinical phenomenon in childhood. The underlyingpathophysiologic mechanisms in breath-holding spells are result from autonomic nervous system dysregulation.Cerebral anoxia is the ultimate factor responsible for the loss of consciousness observed in the severe forms of breath-holding spells.It’s known that, there is relationbetween breath-holding spells and iron-deficiency anemia, and the spells resolve after oral iron supplemantation....

  16. Network analysis of pig movements: Loyalty patterns and contact chains of different holding types in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Jana; Boklund, Anette; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2017-01-01

    -going contact chains. Our results reflect the pyramidal structure of the underlying network. Based on the considered disease, the time frame for the calculation of network measurements needs to be adapted. Using these adapted values for loyalty and contact chains might help to identify holdings with high......Understanding animal movements is an important factor for the development of meaningful surveillance and control programs, but also for the development of disease spread models. We analysed the Danish pig movement network using static and temporal network analysis tools to provide deeper insight......, the number of registered movements and the number of pigs moved. To identify holdings and holding types with potentially higher risk for introduction or spread of diseases via pig movements, we determined loyalty patterns, annual network components and contact chains for the 24 registered holding types...

  17. 42 CFR 412.344 - Hold-harmless payment methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hold-harmless payment methodology. 412.344 Section...-Related Costs § 412.344 Hold-harmless payment methodology. (a) General. A hospital paid under the hold-harmless payment methodology receives a payment per discharge based on the higher of: (1) 85 percent of...

  18. 49 CFR 178.338-9 - Holding time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Holding time. 178.338-9 Section 178.338-9... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.338-9 Holding time. (a) “Holding time” is the time, as determined by testing, that will elapse from loading until the pressure of the contents...

  19. Antigen Loss Variants: Catching Hold of Escaping Foes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Maulik; Müller, Rolf; Pogge von Strandmann, Elke

    2017-01-01

    Since mid-1990s, the field of cancer immunotherapy has seen steady growth and selected immunotherapies are now a routine and preferred therapeutic option of certain malignancies. Both active and passive cancer immunotherapies exploit the fact that tumor cells express specific antigens on the cell surface, thereby mounting an immune response specifically against malignant cells. It is well established that cancer cells typically lose surface antigens following natural or therapy-induced selective pressure and these antigen-loss variants are often the population that causes therapy-resistant relapse. CD19 and CD20 antigen loss in acute lymphocytic leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, respectively, and lineage switching in leukemia associated with mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene rearrangements are well-documented evidences in this regard. Although increasing number of novel immunotherapies are being developed, majority of these do not address the control of antigen loss variants. Here, we review the occurrence of antigen loss variants in leukemia and discuss the therapeutic strategies to tackle the same. We also present an approach of dual-targeting immunoligand effectively retargeting NK cells against antigen loss variants in MLL-associated leukemia. Novel immunotherapies simultaneously targeting more than one tumor antigen certainly hold promise to completely eradicate tumor and prevent therapy-resistant relapses.

  20. 76 FR 13152 - Promise Neighborhoods Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... to attain an excellent education and successfully transition to college and a career. A Promise... parents or family members who report talking with their child about the importance of college and career... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION RIN 1855-ZA07 Promise Neighborhoods Program Catalog of Federal Domestic...

  1. Tennessee Promise: A Response to Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlepage, Ben; Clark, Teresa; Wilson, Randal; Stout, Logan

    2018-01-01

    Community colleges in Tennessee, either directly or indirectly, experienced unprecedented change as a result of Tennessee Promise. The present study explored how student support service administrators at three community colleges responded to organizational change as a result of the Tennessee Promise legislation. Investigators selected community…

  2. 78 FR 23162 - Supervision and Regulation Assessments for Bank Holding Companies and Savings and Loan Holding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... mentioned above, only top-tier foreign banking organizations with financial holding company status file Part... Nonbank Financial Companies Supervised by the Federal Reserve AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal... financial companies designated for Board supervision by the Financial Stability Oversight Council (Council...

  3. 78 FR 31590 - Sears Holdings Management Corporation, A Division Of Sears Holdings Corporation, Hoffman Estates...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... (``My position at Sears had nothing to do with Analytics or space Management. I worked in Marketing... firm clarified that one petitioner supplied print marketing management services, another petitioner... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-81,253] Sears Holdings Management...

  4. Should we Hold the Obese Responsible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Andersen, Martin Marchman

    2014-01-01

    holding the obese responsible will have positive consequences. Taking these two conceptions of responsibility into account, the authors turn their analysis toward examining the relevant moral considerations to be taken into account when public policies regarding obesity rely on such a conception......It is a common belief that obesity is wholly or partially a question of personal choice and personal responsibility. It is also widely assumed that when individuals are responsible for some unfortunate state of affairs, society bears no burden to compensate them. This article focuses on two...... conceptualizations of responsibility: backward-looking and forward-looking conceptualizations. When ascertaining responsibility in a backward-looking sense, one has to determine how that state of affairs came into being or where the agent stood in relation to it. In contrast, a forward-looking conceptualization...

  5. Inferences from counterfactual threats and promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Suzanne M; Byrne, Ruth M J

    2012-01-01

    We examine how people understand and reason from counterfactual threats, for example, "if you had hit your sister, I would have grounded you" and counterfactual promises, for example, "if you had tidied your room, I would have given you ice-cream." The first experiment shows that people consider counterfactual threats, but not counterfactual promises, to have the illocutionary force of an inducement. They also make the immediate inference that the action mentioned in the "if" part of the counterfactual threat and promise did not occur. The second experiment shows that people make more negative inferences (modus tollens and denial of the antecedent) than affirmative inferences (modus ponens and affirmation of the consequent) from counterfactual threats and promises, unlike indicative threats and promises. We discuss the implications of the results for theories of the mental representations and cognitive processes that underlie conditional inducements.

  6. 12 CFR 225.82 - How does a bank holding company elect to become a financial holding company?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... financial holding company, or enforcing compliance with applicable law. ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does a bank holding company elect to become a financial holding company? 225.82 Section 225.82 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...

  7. Why does the power law for stock price hold?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaizoji, Taisei; Miyano, Michiko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain why the power law for stock price holds. We first show that the complementary cumulative distributions of stock prices follow a power law using a large database assembled from the balance sheets and stock prices of a number of worldwide companies for the period 2004 through 2013. Secondly, we estimate company fundamentals from a simple cross-sectional regression model using three financial indicators-dividends per share, cash flow per share, and book value per share—as explanatory variables for stock price. Thirdly, we demonstrate that the complementary cumulative distributions of fundamentals follow a power law. We find that the power laws for stock prices and for fundamentals hold for the 10-year period of our study, and that the estimated values of the power law exponents are close to unity. Furthermore, we illustrate that the tail distribution of fundamentals closely matches the tail distribution of stock prices. On these grounds, we conclude that the power law for stock price is caused by the power law behavior of the fundamentals.

  8. A Haptic Guided Robotic System for Endoscope Positioning and Holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabuk, Burak; Ceylan, Savas; Anik, Ihsan; Tugasaygi, Mehtap; Kizir, Selcuk

    2015-01-01

    To determine the feasibility, advantages, and disadvantages of using a robot for holding and maneuvering the endoscope in transnasal transsphenoidal surgery. The system used in this study was a Stewart Platform based robotic system that was developed by Kocaeli University Department of Mechatronics Engineering for positioning and holding of endoscope. After the first use on an artificial head model, the system was used on six fresh postmortem bodies that were provided by the Morgue Specialization Department of the Forensic Medicine Institute (Istanbul, Turkey). The setup required for robotic system was easy, the time for registration procedure and setup of the robot takes 15 minutes. The resistance was felt on haptic arm in case of contact or friction with adjacent tissues. The adaptation process was shorter with the mouse to manipulate the endoscope. The endoscopic transsphenoidal approach was achieved with the robotic system. The endoscope was guided to the sphenoid ostium with the help of the robotic arm. This robotic system can be used in endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery as an endoscope positioner and holder. The robot is able to change the position easily with the help of an assistant and prevents tremor, and provides a better field of vision for work.

  9. Medical big data: promise and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choong Ho; Yoon, Hyung-Jin

    2017-03-01

    The concept of big data, commonly characterized by volume, variety, velocity, and veracity, goes far beyond the data type and includes the aspects of data analysis, such as hypothesis-generating, rather than hypothesis-testing. Big data focuses on temporal stability of the association, rather than on causal relationship and underlying probability distribution assumptions are frequently not required. Medical big data as material to be analyzed has various features that are not only distinct from big data of other disciplines, but also distinct from traditional clinical epidemiology. Big data technology has many areas of application in healthcare, such as predictive modeling and clinical decision support, disease or safety surveillance, public health, and research. Big data analytics frequently exploits analytic methods developed in data mining, including classification, clustering, and regression. Medical big data analyses are complicated by many technical issues, such as missing values, curse of dimensionality, and bias control, and share the inherent limitations of observation study, namely the inability to test causality resulting from residual confounding and reverse causation. Recently, propensity score analysis and instrumental variable analysis have been introduced to overcome these limitations, and they have accomplished a great deal. Many challenges, such as the absence of evidence of practical benefits of big data, methodological issues including legal and ethical issues, and clinical integration and utility issues, must be overcome to realize the promise of medical big data as the fuel of a continuous learning healthcare system that will improve patient outcome and reduce waste in areas including nephrology.

  10. Medical big data: promise and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choong Ho; Yoon, Hyung-Jin

    2017-01-01

    The concept of big data, commonly characterized by volume, variety, velocity, and veracity, goes far beyond the data type and includes the aspects of data analysis, such as hypothesis-generating, rather than hypothesis-testing. Big data focuses on temporal stability of the association, rather than on causal relationship and underlying probability distribution assumptions are frequently not required. Medical big data as material to be analyzed has various features that are not only distinct from big data of other disciplines, but also distinct from traditional clinical epidemiology. Big data technology has many areas of application in healthcare, such as predictive modeling and clinical decision support, disease or safety surveillance, public health, and research. Big data analytics frequently exploits analytic methods developed in data mining, including classification, clustering, and regression. Medical big data analyses are complicated by many technical issues, such as missing values, curse of dimensionality, and bias control, and share the inherent limitations of observation study, namely the inability to test causality resulting from residual confounding and reverse causation. Recently, propensity score analysis and instrumental variable analysis have been introduced to overcome these limitations, and they have accomplished a great deal. Many challenges, such as the absence of evidence of practical benefits of big data, methodological issues including legal and ethical issues, and clinical integration and utility issues, must be overcome to realize the promise of medical big data as the fuel of a continuous learning healthcare system that will improve patient outcome and reduce waste in areas including nephrology. PMID:28392994

  11. Medical big data: promise and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong Ho Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of big data, commonly characterized by volume, variety, velocity, and veracity, goes far beyond the data type and includes the aspects of data analysis, such as hypothesis-generating, rather than hypothesis-testing. Big data focuses on temporal stability of the association, rather than on causal relationship and underlying probability distribution assumptions are frequently not required. Medical big data as material to be analyzed has various features that are not only distinct from big data of other disciplines, but also distinct from traditional clinical epidemiology. Big data technology has many areas of application in healthcare, such as predictive modeling and clinical decision support, disease or safety surveillance, public health, and research. Big data analytics frequently exploits analytic methods developed in data mining, including classification, clustering, and regression. Medical big data analyses are complicated by many technical issues, such as missing values, curse of dimensionality, and bias control, and share the inherent limitations of observation study, namely the inability to test causality resulting from residual confounding and reverse causation. Recently, propensity score analysis and instrumental variable analysis have been introduced to overcome these limitations, and they have accomplished a great deal. Many challenges, such as the absence of evidence of practical benefits of big data, methodological issues including legal and ethical issues, and clinical integration and utility issues, must be overcome to realize the promise of medical big data as the fuel of a continuous learning healthcare system that will improve patient outcome and reduce waste in areas including nephrology.

  12. Within-holding prevalence of sheep classical scrapie in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Río Vilas Víctor J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from the Compulsory Scrapie Flocks Scheme (CSFS, part of the compulsory eradication measures for the control of scrapie in the EU, have been used to estimate the within-holding prevalence of classical scrapie in Great Britain (GB. Specifically data from one of the testing routes within the CSFS have been used; the initial cull (IC, whereby two options can be applied: the whole flock cull option by which the entire flock is depopulated, and the genotyping and cull of certain genotypes. Results Between April 2005 and September 2007, 25,316 suitable samples, submitted from 411 flocks in 213 scrapie-affected holdings in Great Britain, were tested for scrapie. The predicted within-holding prevalence for the initial cull was 0.65% (95% CI: 0.55–0.75. For the whole cull option was 0.47% (95% CI: 0.32–0.68 and for the genotype and cull or mixed option (both options applied in different flocks of the same holding, the predicted within-holding prevalence was 0.7% (95% CI: 0.6–0.83. There were no significant differences in the within-flock prevalence between countries (England, Scotland and Wales or between CSFS holdings by the surveillance stream that detected the index case. The number of CSFS flocks on a holding did not affect the overall within-holding prevalence of classical scrapie. Conclusion These estimates are important in the discussion of the epidemiological implications of the current EU testing programme of scrapie-affected flocks and to inform epidemiological and mathematical models. Furthermore, these estimates may provide baseline data to assist the design of future surveillance activities and control policies with the aim to increase their efficiency.

  13. Improving prediction models with new markers: A comparison of updating strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Nieboer (Daan); Y. Vergouwe (Yvonne); D. Ankerst (Donna); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: New markers hold the promise of improving risk prediction for individual patients. We aimed to compare the performance of different strategies to extend a previously developed prediction model with a new marker. Methods: Our motivating example was the extension of a risk

  14. The Promise and Reality of Formative Assessment Practice in a Continuous Assessment Scheme: The Case of Trinidad and Tobago

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lisle, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    Continuous Assessment (CA) systems are externally directed, curriculum-based assessment schemes used for both summative and formative purposes within classrooms. CA has been implemented as national policy in several postcolonial developing countries and is believed to hold great promise for improving education outcomes. This theory-driven…

  15. Holding back, intimacy, and psychological and relationship outcomes among couples coping with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon L; Kissane, David; Zaider, Talia; Kashy, Deborah; Lee, David; Heckman, Carolyn; Virtue, Shannon Myers

    2015-10-01

    The present study evaluated intimacy as a mechanism for the effects of holding back sharing concerns about cancer on couples' psychological distress, well-being, and marital satisfaction using the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM), and evaluated 2 possible moderators of these associations: the number of patient and spouse cancer concerns. We had 139 men treated for localized prostate cancer in the past year and their spouses complete surveys about holding back sharing cancer concerns, intimacy, distress, and relationship satisfaction, as well as patient and spouse cancer concerns. APIM-indicated that the association between holding back sharing concerns, and patient and spouse distress, well-being, and relationship satisfaction could be partially accounted for by their influence on patient and spouse perceptions of relationship intimacy. The number of cancer concerns did not moderate the mediational model. Holding back has strong associations with both partners' well-being and distress. Holding back sharing concerns was particularly detrimental for couples' intimacy and relationship satisfaction. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Sports-related lung injury during breath-hold diving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Mijacika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of people practising recreational breath-hold diving is constantly growing, thereby increasing the need for knowledge of the acute and chronic effects such a sport could have on the health of participants. Breath-hold diving is potentially dangerous, mainly because of associated extreme environmental factors such as increased hydrostatic pressure, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypothermia and strenuous exercise. In this article we focus on the effects of breath-hold diving on pulmonary function. Respiratory symptoms have been reported in almost 25% of breath-hold divers after repetitive diving sessions. Acutely, repetitive breath-hold diving may result in increased transpulmonary capillary pressure, leading to noncardiogenic oedema and/or alveolar haemorrhage. Furthermore, during a breath-hold dive, the chest and lungs are compressed by the increasing pressure of water. Rapid changes in lung air volume during descent or ascent can result in a lung injury known as pulmonary barotrauma. Factors that may influence individual susceptibility to breath-hold diving-induced lung injury range from underlying pulmonary or cardiac dysfunction to genetic predisposition. According to the available data, breath-holding does not result in chronic lung injury. However, studies of large populations of breath-hold divers are necessary to firmly exclude long-term lung damage.

  17. The hand-hold polarization-sensitive spectral domain optical coherence and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Gao, Wanrong

    2017-08-01

    The polarization-sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) has the advantages of being able to measure the polarization properties of samples, such as phase-retardation, diattenuation, depolarization, and optical axis orientation, providing a contrast to identify the diseased area and normal area in tissues in PSOCT images. Conventionally, the sample arm of PSOCT is fixed on the stage where biomedical tissues or models is placed, and the OCT images is acquired by scanning with a galvanometer-based mirror. To be applied in the practical diagnosis, a promising way is to design a hand-held device. To this end, it is required that probe is assembled with a small volume to allow for comprehensively imaging large tissues areas at a microscopic scale, and is available to move on different samples to be acquired quickly with negligible motion artifacts. Meanwhile, the probe should be manufactured wih well stability to avoid system jitter error while it is used to detect the biological tissues in vivo. In this work, a design of a hand-hold fiber-based PSOCT is described. The device is of the size of 10 cm (length) × 8 cm (width) × 6 cm (height). Both the axial resolution and the imaging depth of the system are measured and were approximately 7 μm and 2.5 mm in air, respectively, which are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. The A-scan rate of the system is 70 kHz. The structure is compact and all the components are fixed on the shell to reduce the motion artifact, resulting in a great stability on measuring the tissues in vivo. The cross sectional images of ex vivo chicken breast, ex vivo pork cartilage and in vivo forearm skin of human wolunteer are presented to demonstrate the capability of the system.

  18. Epigenetic epidemiology: promises for public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakulski, Kelly M; Fallin, M Daniele

    2014-04-01

    Epigenetic changes underlie developmental and age related biology. Promising epidemiologic research implicates epigenetics in disease risk and progression, and suggests epigenetic status depends on environmental risks as well as genetic predisposition. Epigenetics may represent a mechanistic link between environmental exposures, or genetics, and many common diseases, or may simply provide a quantitative biomarker for exposure or disease for areas of epidemiology currently lacking such measures. This great promise is balanced by issues related to study design, measurement tools, statistical methods, and biological interpretation that must be given careful consideration in an epidemiologic setting. This article describes the promises and challenges for epigenetic epidemiology, and suggests directions to advance this emerging area of molecular epidemiology. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. How Important Is a Reproducible Breath Hold for Deep Inspiration Breath Hold Breast Radiation Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiant, David; Wentworth, Stacy; Liu, Han; Sintay, Benjamin

    2015-11-15

    Deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) for left-sided breast cancer has been shown to reduce heart dose. Surface imaging helps to ensure accurate breast positioning, but it does not guarantee a reproducible breath hold (BH) at DIBH treatments. We examine the effects of variable BH positions for DIBH treatments. Twenty-five patients who underwent free breathing (FB) and DIBH scans were reviewed. Four plans were created for each patient: FB, DIBH, FB_DIBH (the DIBH plans were copied to the FB images and recalculated, and image registration was based on breast tissue), and P_DIBH (a partial BH with the heart shifted midway between the FB and DIBH positions). The FB_DIBH plans give a "worst-case" scenario for surface imaging DIBH, where the breast is aligned by surface imaging but the patient is not holding their breath. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were used to compare the dose metrics. The DIBH plans gave lower heart dose and comparable breast coverage versus FB in all cases. The FB_DIBH plans showed no significant difference versus FB plans for breast coverage, mean heart dose, or maximum heart dose (P≥.10). The mean heart dose differed between FB_DIBH and FB by <2 Gy for all cases, and the maximum heart dose differed by <2 Gy for 21 cases. The P_DIBH plans showed significantly lower mean heart dose than FB (P<.01). The mean heart doses for the P_DIBH plans were

  20. Brain responses to emotional stimuli during breath holding and hypoxia: an approach based on the independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menicucci, Danilo; Artoni, Fiorenzo; Bedini, Remo; Pingitore, Alessandro; Passera, Mirko; Landi, Alberto; L'Abbate, Antonio; Sebastiani, Laura; Gemignani, Angelo

    2014-11-01

    Voluntary breath holding represents a physiological model of hypoxia. It consists of two phases of oxygen saturation dynamics: an initial slow decrease (normoxic phase) followed by a rapid drop (hypoxic phase) during which transitory neurological symptoms as well as slight impairment of integrated cerebral functions, such as emotional processing, can occur. This study investigated how breath holding affects emotional processing. To this aim we characterized the modulation of event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by emotional-laden pictures as a function of breath holding time course. We recorded ERPs during free breathing and breath holding performed in air by elite apnea divers. We modeled brain responses during free breathing with four independent components distributed over different brain areas derived by an approach based on the independent component analysis (ICASSO). We described ERP changes during breath holding by estimating amplitude scaling and time shifting of the same components (component adaptation analysis). Component 1 included the main EEG features of emotional processing, had a posterior localization and did not change during breath holding; component 2, localized over temporo-frontal regions, was present only in unpleasant stimuli responses and decreased during breath holding, with no differences between breath holding phases; component 3, localized on the fronto-central midline regions, showed phase-independent breath holding decreases; component 4, quite widespread but with frontal prevalence, decreased in parallel with the hypoxic trend. The spatial localization of these components was compatible with a set of processing modules that affects the automatic and intentional controls of attention. The reduction of unpleasant-related ERP components suggests that the evaluation of aversive and/or possibly dangerous situations might be altered during breath holding.

  1. Influence of the hold period on the fuel rod behaviour during a power ramp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourreau, S.; Lansiart, S.; Couffin, P.; Verdeau, C.; Decroix, G.M.; Grandjean, M.-C.; Hugot, H.; Mermaz, F.; Van Schel, E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents three examples of power ramp tests performed in the OSIRIS experimental reactor, located at Saclay (France). The rods tested during these experiments stem from the same segmented 'mother' rod, pre-irradiated for two cycles in a French PWR. They underwent very similar power transient conditions, except for the hold time at Ramp Terminal Level (RTL) - respectively 41.5 kW/m (J12/2), 40.7 kW/m (J12/4) and 39.5 kW/m (J12/5) for RTL, but zero (J12/2), 16 minutes (J12/4) and 12 hours (J12/5) for the hold time at RTL. No failure was detected for any of the three experiments despite the relatively high mechanical stress applied to the cladding in the case of J12/2. Moreover, although no hold time was maintained at RTL, a permanent deformation clearly appeared on the clad during the power transient. An analysis of the cladding deformation has also been undertaken concerning the J12/2, J12/4 and J12/5 experiments. This study was realized by carrying out post-calculations of the three experiments with a 2D fuel modelling code using the finite element method. The computations satisfactorily reproduce the influence of hold time on the cladding deformation during the power transients, especially for the J12/2 and J12/4 experiments with hold times enclosing the failure times experimentally observed for power ramp tests. For the hold time of 12 hours, the micrographic observations of the fuel, compared to the case of the 16 minutes hold time, support the hypothesis of weak but noticeable gaseous swelling. (author)

  2. Physiology of static breath holding in elite apneists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Anthony R; Drvis, Ivan; Dujic, Zeljko; MacLeod, David B; Ainslie, Philip N

    2018-03-07

    What is the topic of this review? This review provides an up-to-date assessment of the physiology involved with extreme static dry-land breath holding in trained apneists. What advances does it highlight? We specifically highlight the recent findings involved with the cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and metabolic function during a maximal breath hold in elite apneists. Breath hold related activities have been performed for centuries, but only recently within the last ∼30 years has it emerged as an increasingly popular competitive sport. In apnea sport, people compete in disciplines relating to underwater distances or simply maximal breath hold duration - with the current (oxygen un-supplemented) static breath hold record at 11:35 min. Remarkably, many ultra-elite apneists are able to supress respiratory urges to the point where consciousness fundamentally limits a breath hold duration. Here, arterial oxygen saturations as low as ∼50% have been reported. In such cases, oxygen conservation to maintain cerebral functioning is critical, where responses ascribed to the mammalian dive reflex - e.g., sympathetically mediated peripheral vaconstriction, and vagally mediated bradycardia - are central. In defence of maintaining global cerebral oxygen delivery during prolonged breath holds, the cerebral blood flow may increase by ∼100% from resting values. Interestingly, near the termination of prolonged dry static breath holds, recent studies also indicate that reductions in the cerebral oxidative metabolism can occur, likely attributable to the extreme hypercapnia and irrespective of the hypoxemia. In this review we highlight and discuss the recent data on the cardiovascular, metabolic and particularly cerebrovascular function in competitive apneists performing maximal static breath holds. The physiological adaptation and maladaptation with regular breath hold training are also summarized, and future research areas in this unique physiological field are highlighted

  3. Modeling the multi-scale mechanisms of macromolecular resource allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Laurence; Yurkovich, James T; King, Zachary A

    2018-01-01

    As microbes face changing environments, they dynamically allocate macromolecular resources to produce a particular phenotypic state. Broad 'omics' data sets have revealed several interesting phenomena regarding how the proteome is allocated under differing conditions, but the functional consequen...... and detail how mathematical models have aided in our understanding of these processes. Ultimately, such modeling efforts have helped elucidate the principles of proteome allocation and hold promise for further discovery....

  4. Holdings of the Federal German Government in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The report provides an overview of the direct and more important indirect holdings of the Federal German Government and its special assets ERP, Compensation Fund, Federal Mail and Federal Railway. Part A provides a total survey of the number of government holdings. For the direct holdings of the Federal Government and its special assets the shares in nominal capital and registered foundation capital, number of employees and dividend on profits are presented. In Parts B to M, the narrative parts, the most important holdings are reported on more in detail (sphere of activities, economic development, composition of the corporate bodies). The listing order does not reflect any order of importance. The following part N contains alphabetic indexes. Indexes I and II list all the direct holdings of the Federal Government and its special assets irrespective of the nominal capital volume and share of holdings. In index III, are listed only companies with corporate activites and a nominal capital of at least 100.000 German Marks of which the Federal Government and/or its special assets hold directly or indirectly at least 25 percent. Holdings of these undertakings of which the Federal Government does not have majority ownership, and which are not dependent on it under the regulations governing shareholdings either, are not considered. (orig.) [de

  5. Acute effects of cannabis on breath-holding duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Metrik, Jane

    2016-08-01

    Distress intolerance (an individual's perceived or actual inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states) is associated with cannabis use. It is unknown whether a biobehavioral index of distress intolerance, breath-holding duration, is acutely influenced (increased or decreased) by cannabis. Such information may further inform understanding of the expression of psychological or physiological distress postcannabis use. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7%-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed duration of breath holding. Participants (n = 88; 65.9% male) were nontreatment-seeking frequent cannabis users who smoked placebo or active THC cigarette on two separate study days and completed a breath-holding task postsmoking. Controlling for baseline breath-holding duration and participant sex, THC produced significantly shorter breath-holding durations relative to placebo. There was a significant interaction of drug administration × frequency of cannabis use, such that THC decreased breath-holding time among less frequent but not among more frequent users. Findings indicate that cannabis may exacerbate distress intolerance (via shorter breath-holding durations). As compared to less frequent cannabis users, frequent users display tolerance to cannabis' acute effects including increased ability to tolerate respiratory distress when holding breath. Objective measures of distress intolerance are sensitive to contextual factors such as acute drug intoxication, and may inform the link between cannabis use and the expression of psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. A pacemaker for asystole in breath-holding spells

    OpenAIRE

    Legge, Leah M; Kantoch, Michal J; Seshia, Shashi S; Soni, Reeni

    2002-01-01

    Two cases of young children with frequent severe breath-holding spells complicated by prolonged asystole and seizures are reported. A ventricular pacemaker was implanted in each child, and both have subsequently remained free of syncope, although they continue to exhibit breath-holding behaviour.

  7. Korean Investment in EU through Holding Companies: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Bong Lee

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available When transnational enterprises set subsidiary companies in certain area, their major aim is to invest indirectly through the holding companies which hold invested share. Especially, because of the geographical neighborhood and economic integration, investing by holding companies is common in Europe. In Europe, taking full advantage of holding company is out of the following two reasons. Firstly, the efficiency and flexibility of the manage strategy of a group could be elevated by making full use of the holding company. Secondly, the transnational enterprises have the possibility of flexible management at the tax strategy level. Recently, the Korean companies are making the best use of holding companies when they are Marching into the EU. In the year 1996, group K purchased 8 enterprises of a certain industry section of B, a German company, setting holding companies in Germany. The analysis result of the case shows that the manage efficiency could be risen and the taxation could be reduced by way of making use of holding companies. As to the Korean investment efficiency of overseas indirect investment in EU, this thesis brought forward a blueprint about integrating the local companies.

  8. PBL og de sammensatte hold på kandidatuddannelser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engen, Mie; Fallov, Mia Arp; Jensen, Rune Hagel Skaarup

    Denne rapport omhandler pædagogiske udfordringer og muligheder i Aalborgs Problembaserede Læringstilgang (PBL), når den omsættes til pædagogisk og didaktisk handling på kandidatuddannelser med sammensatte hold. Sammensatte hold betyder i denne sammenhæng kandidatuddannelser, hvor de optagne stude...

  9. Course holding by cyclists and moped riders. (Revised version).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godhelp, J. & Wouters, P.I.J.

    1980-01-01

    Course holding by cyclists and moped riders includes both steering alongside a course and stabilising the vehicle. Inability to hold course may lead to conflicts with other road users. To design safe bicycle and moped facilities and to consider the safety of those existing, knowledge about

  10. Evaluation of Manometric Measures during Tongue-Hold Swallows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Witte, Ulrike; Gumbley, Freya; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Based on visual inspection, prior research documented increased movement of the posterior pharyngeal wall in healthy volunteers during tongue-hold swallows. This manometric study investigated the immediate effects of the tongue-hold maneuver on pharyngeal peak pressure generation, duration of pressure generation, and pressure slope…

  11. 12 CFR 925.22 - Adjustments in stock holdings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustments in stock holdings. 925.22 Section... ASSOCIATES MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.22 Adjustments in stock holdings. (a) Adjustment in general. A Bank may from time to time increase or decrease the amount of stock any member is required to...

  12. A pacemaker for asystole in breath-holding spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legge, Leah M; Kantoch, Michal J; Seshia, Shashi S; Soni, Reeni

    2002-01-01

    Two cases of young children with frequent severe breath-holding spells complicated by prolonged asystole and seizures are reported. A ventricular pacemaker was implanted in each child, and both have subsequently remained free of syncope, although they continue to exhibit breath-holding behaviour. PMID:20046299

  13. 7 CFR 981.52 - Holding requirement and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Holding requirement and delivery. 981.52 Section 981.52 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... delivery. Each handler shall, at all times, hold in his possession or under his control, in proper storage...

  14. 7 CFR 993.57 - Holding requirement and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Holding requirement and delivery. 993.57 Section 993... delivery. Each handler shall at all times, hold, in his possession or under his control, in proper storage... require that such delivery consist of natural condition prunes or it may arrange for such delivery to...

  15. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Updates Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Year’s resolution, know this: many so-called “miracle” weight loss supplements and foods (including teas and coffees) don’ ...

  16. 76 FR 39589 - Promise Neighborhoods Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Innovation and Improvement, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice of final priorities, requirements... Dropout/Graduation Crisis Among American Indian and Alaska Native Students: Failure to Respond Places the... success of Promise Neighborhoods will require the use of both short-term and long-term goals to measure...

  17. Complexity of Propositional Proofs Under a Promise

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dershowitz, N.; Tzameret, Iddo

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2010), s. 1-29 ISSN 1529-3785 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : theory * promise problems * propositional proof complexity * random 3CNF * resolution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.391, year: 2010 http://dl.acm.org/ citation .cfm?doid=1740582.1740586

  18. Complexity of Propositional Proofs Under a Promise

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dershowitz, N.; Tzameret, Iddo

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2010), s. 1-29 ISSN 1529-3785 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : theory * promise problems * propositional proof complexity * random 3CNF * resolution Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.391, year: 2010 http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=1740582.1740586

  19. Deposition of micrometer particles in pulmonary airways during inhalation and breath holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Yohsuke; Miki, Takahito; Ishikawa, Takuji; Aoki, Takayuki; Yamaguchi, Takami

    2012-06-26

    We investigated how breath holding increases the deposition of micrometer particles in pulmonary airways, compared with the deposition during inhalation period. A subject-specific airway model with up to thirteenth generation airways was constructed from multi-slice CT images. Airflow and particle transport were simulated by using GPU computing. Results indicate that breath holding effectively increases the deposition of 5μm particles for third to sixth generation (G3-G6) airways. After 10s of breath holding, the particle deposition fraction increased more than 5 times for 5μm particles. Due to a small terminal velocity, 1μm particles only showed a 50% increase in the most efficient case. On the other hand, 10μm particles showed almost complete deposition due to high inertia and high terminal velocity, leading to an increase of 2 times for G3-G6 airways. An effective breath holding time for 5μm particle deposition in G3-G6 airways was estimated to be 4-6s, for which the deposition amount reached 75% of the final deposition amount after 10s of breath holding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Kalamazoo Promise: A Study of Philanthropy's Increasing Role in the American Economy and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Shelley

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the Kalamazoo Promise through the lens of the existing literature on other privately funded scholarships programs and the broader advancement knowledge base. The author concludes that current research does not adequately explain the Promise, and suggests a conceptual model--a logic model--to be used in philanthropy evaluation.

  1. Service Users perspectives in PROMISE and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    Since its inception in 2013, PROMISE (PROactive Management of Integrated Services and Environments) has been supporting service users and staff at the Cambridgeshire and Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust (CPFT) on a journey to reduce reliance on force. The author's own personal experiences led to the founding of PROMISE and illustrates how individual experiences can influence a patient to lead change. Coproduction is actively embedded in PROMISE. Patients have been meaningfully involved because they are innovators and problem solvers who bring an alternative viewpoint by the very nature of their condition. A patient is more than just a person who needs to be 'fixed' they are individuals with untapped skills and added insight. There have been 2 separate Patient Advisory Groups (PAGs) since the project was first established. The first Patient Advisory Group was recruited to work with the PROMISE researchers on a study which used a participatory qualitative approach. Drawing on their lived experience and different perspectives the PAG was instrumental in shaping the qualitative study, including the research questions. Their active involvement helped to ensure that that the study was sensitively designed, methodologically robust and ethically sound. The 2 nd PAG was formed in 2016 to give the project an overall steer. Patients in this group contributed to the work on the 'No' Audit and reviewed several CPFT policies such as the Seclusion and Segregation policy which has impacted on frontline practice. They also made a significant contribution to the study design for a funding application that was submitted by the PROMISE team to the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR). Both PAGs were supported by funding from East of England Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC EoE) and were influential in different ways. An evaluation of the 2 nd PAG which was conducted in June 2017 showed very high satisfaction levels. The free text

  2. The deepwater Gulf of Mexico : promises delivered?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    A summary review of deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) oil production was presented for the years 1989 to 1998. Trends and prospects in deepwater GOM production and leasing were assessed. Promises and forecasts made in the early 1990s were compared with what actually happened since then. Forecasts in the early 1990s promised deeper, faster and cheaper developments in the deepwater Gulf. Results of the comparison showed that the prognosticators were correct on all three counts. Regarding the future of the Gulf, one can be justified in being optimistic in so far as more experience, robust economics, more and cheaper rigs can be taken as reliable indicators of optimism. In contrast, there are certain negatives to consider, such as low commodity prices, budget constraints, lease expirations, technical challenges and increased competition. . 12 figs

  3. Reproducibility of BOLD signal change induced by breath holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magon, Stefano; Basso, Gianpaolo; Farace, Paolo; Ricciardi, Giuseppe Kenneth; Beltramello, Alberto; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2009-04-15

    Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) contrast is influenced by some physiological factors such as blood flow and blood volume that can be a source of variability in fMRI analysis. Previous studies proposed to use the cerebrovascular response data to normalize or calibrate BOLD maps in order to reduce variability of fMRI data both among brain areas in single subject analysis and across subjects. Breath holding is one of the most widely used methods to investigate the vascular reactivity. However, little is known about the robustness and reproducibility of this procedure. In this study we investigated three different breath holding periods. Subjects were asked to hold their breath for 9, 15 or 21 s in three separate runs and the fMRI protocol was repeated after 15 to 20 days. Our data show that the BOLD response to breath holding after inspiration results in a complex shape due to physiological factors that influence the signal variation with a timing that is highly reproducible. Nevertheless, the reproducibility of the magnitude of the cerebrovascular response to CO(2), expressed as amplitude of BOLD signal and number of responding voxels, strongly depends on duration of breath holding periods. Breath holding period of 9 s results in high variability of the magnitude of the response while longer breath holding durations produce more robust and reproducible BOLD responses.

  4. Promising Products for Printing and Publishing Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Činčikaitė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article surveys printing and publishing market and its strong and weak aspects. The concept of a new product is described as well as its lifetime and the necessity of its introduction to the market. The enterprise X operating on the market is analyzed, its strong and weak characteristics are presented. The segmentation of the company consumers is performed. On the basis of the performed analysis the potential promising company products are defined.Article in Lithuanian

  5. The promises and facts of emergent strategy in public management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Peter

    Public managers are experiencing a growing demand for innovation. One of the promising approaches to instigating innovation is that of emergent strategic patterns (ESPs). According to the literature, the institutional barriers and drivers of ESPs are shaped by the two dominant public management...... models, NPM (the barriers) and governance (the drivers). However, based on an empirical case study of the institutional barriers and drivers for ESPs in the Danish Crime Prevention Council, this article concludes that ESPs are in fact enabled by a much more mixed management model....

  6. Effect of holding office on the behavior of politicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enemark, Daniel; Gibson, Clark C.; McCubbins, Mathew D.; Seim, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Reciprocity is central to our understanding of politics. Most political exchanges—whether they involve legislative vote trading, interbranch bargaining, constituent service, or even the corrupt exchange of public resources for private wealth—require reciprocity. But how does reciprocity arise? Do government officials learn reciprocity while holding office, or do recruitment and selection practices favor those who already adhere to a norm of reciprocity? We recruit Zambian politicians who narrowly won or lost a previous election to play behavioral games that provide a measure of reciprocity. This combination of regression discontinuity and experimental designs allows us to estimate the effect of holding office on behavior. We find that holding office increases adherence to the norm of reciprocity. This study identifies causal effects of holding office on politicians’ behavior. PMID:27856736

  7. Rock Equity Holdings, LLC - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of an Administrative Penalty Assessment in the form of an Expedited Storm Water Settlement Agreement against Rock Equity Holdings, LLC, for alleged violations at The Cove at Kettlestone/98th Street Reconstruction located at 3015

  8. 29 CFR 452.40 - Prior office holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Candidacy for Office; Reasonable Qualifications § 452.40 Prior office holding. A.... 26 26 Wirtz v. Hotel, Motel and Club Employees Union, Local 6, 391 U.S. 492 at 504. The Court stated...

  9. Bank holding companies' participation in credit insurance underwriting

    OpenAIRE

    Paul R. Watro

    1982-01-01

    A discussion of the public and corporate benefits associated with credit insurance underwriting by bank holding companies in the Fourth Federal Reserve District, featuring rate reduction guidelines, performance ratios, and earnings comparisons.

  10. Effect of holding office on the behavior of politicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enemark, Daniel; Gibson, Clark C; McCubbins, Mathew D; Seim, Brigitte

    2016-11-29

    Reciprocity is central to our understanding of politics. Most political exchanges-whether they involve legislative vote trading, interbranch bargaining, constituent service, or even the corrupt exchange of public resources for private wealth-require reciprocity. But how does reciprocity arise? Do government officials learn reciprocity while holding office, or do recruitment and selection practices favor those who already adhere to a norm of reciprocity? We recruit Zambian politicians who narrowly won or lost a previous election to play behavioral games that provide a measure of reciprocity. This combination of regression discontinuity and experimental designs allows us to estimate the effect of holding office on behavior. We find that holding office increases adherence to the norm of reciprocity. This study identifies causal effects of holding office on politicians' behavior.

  11. Sonographic Examination of The Fetus Vis-à-Vis Shoulder Dystocia: A Vexing Promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Morgen S; Al-Hafez, Leen; Chauhan, Suneet P

    2016-12-01

    Since antepartum and intrapartum risk factors are poor at identifying women whose labor is complicated by shoulder dystocia, sonographic examination of the fetus holds promise. Though there are several measurements of biometric parameters to identify the parturient who will have shoulder dystocia, none are currently clinically useful. Three national guidelines confirm that sonographic measurements do not serve as appropriate diagnostic tests to identify women who will have shoulder dystocia with or without concurrent injury. In summary, biometric measurements of the fetus should not be used to alter clinical management with the aim of averting shoulder dystocia.

  12. Corporate Cash Holding Behavior and Financial Environment: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir, Muhammad Sohail; Alifiah, Mohammad Norfian

    2015-01-01

    Research on corporate liquidity management practices has mainly focused on the trade-off between the potential costs and benefits of holding cash. However, in order to improve the firm financial performance, much remained to be understood, particularly, the cash holding behavior of firms. Furthermore, this study reveals that contemporary literature in the area of cash management may overlook the industry and institutional context of firms at sector level. In addition, sectors are important to...

  13. Cembrit Holding A/S: At the crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2017-01-01

    This is a Teaching Note (product number: 8B17M008) for the "Cembrit Holding A/S: At the crossroads" case (product number - 9B17M008) published by Ivey Publishing.......This is a Teaching Note (product number: 8B17M008) for the "Cembrit Holding A/S: At the crossroads" case (product number - 9B17M008) published by Ivey Publishing....

  14. Impact of breath holding on cardiovascular respiratory and cerebrovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujic, Zeljko; Breskovic, Toni

    2012-06-01

    Human underwater breath-hold diving is a fascinating example of applied environmental physiology. In combination with swimming, it is one of the most popular forms of summer outdoor physical activities. It is performed by a variety of individuals ranging from elite breath-hold divers, underwater hockey and rugby players, synchronized and sprint swimmers, spear fishermen, sponge harvesters and up to recreational swimmers. Very few data currently exist concerning the influence of regular breath holding on possible health risks such as cerebrovascular, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. A literature search of the PubMed electronic search engine using keywords 'breath-hold diving' and 'apnoea diving' was performed. This review focuses on recent advances in knowledge regarding possibly harmful physiological changes and/or potential health risks associated with breath-hold diving. Available evidence indicates that deep breath-hold dives can be very dangerous and can cause serious acute health problems such a collapse of the lungs, barotrauma at descent and ascent, pulmonary oedema and alveolar haemorrhage, cardiac arrest, blackouts, nitrogen narcosis, decompression sickness and death. Moreover, even shallow apnoea dives, which are far more frequent, can present a significant health risk. The state of affairs is disturbing as athletes, as well as recreational individuals, practice voluntary apnoea on a regular basis. Long-term health risks of frequent maximal breath holds are at present unknown, but should be addressed in future research. Clearly, further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms related to the possible development or worsening of different clinical disorders in recreational or competitive breath holding and to determine the potential changes in training/competition regimens in order to prevent these adverse events.

  15. The carbon holdings of northern Ecuador's mangrove forests

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Stuart E.; Lovette, John; Borbor, Mercy; Millones, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Within a GIS environment, we combine field measures of mangrove diameter, mangrove species distribution, and mangrove density with remotely sensed measures of mangrove location and mangrove canopy cover to estimate the mangrove carbon holdings of northern Ecuador. We find that the four northern estuaries of Ecuador contain approximately 7,742,999 t (plus or minus 15.47 percent) of standing carbon. Of particular high carbon holdings are the Rhizophora mangle dominated mangrove stands found in-...

  16. Analysis of promising sustainable renovation concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    This report focuses on analyses of the most promising existing sustainable renovation concepts, i.e. full-service concepts and technical concepts, for single-family houses. As a basis for the analyses a detailed building stock analysis was carried out. Furthermore, as a basis a general working...... and contractors and the idea is to help the homeowner with design and decision making process. The building stock analysis shows that detached single-family houses account for large share of the total number of dwellings in all Nordic countries. Final energy use for space heating and hot water is in the range...

  17. Does urban sprawl hold down upward mobility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, R.; Hamidi, Shima; Grace, James B.; Wei, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to the general perception, the United States has a much more class-bound society than other wealthy countries. The chance of upward mobility for Americans is just half that of the citizens of the Denmark and many other European countries. In addition to other influences, the built environment may contribute to the low rate of upward mobility in the U.S. This study tests the relationship between urban sprawl and upward mobility for commuting zones in the U.S. We examine potential pathways through which sprawl may have an effect on mobility. We use structural equation modeling to account for both direct and indirect effects of sprawl on upward mobility. We find that upward mobility is significantly higher in compact areas than sprawling areas. The direct effect, which we attribute to better job accessibility in more compact commuting zones, is stronger than the indirect effects. Of the indirect effects, only one, through the mediating variable income segregation, is significant.

  18. Single breath-hold MR imaging of liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Jeong; Kim, Seong Hee; Kim, Sun Hee; Chae, Yoo Soon; Chung, Chun Phil; Kim, Yang Sook

    1993-01-01

    Single breath-hold gradient echo images with Small Tip Angle Gradient Echo (STAGE) were evaluated in the study of liver in 16 patients (4 normal liver, 5 hepatoma, 5 cholangiocarcinoma, 1 hemangioma, 1 cavernous transformation of portal vein). We obtained one slice of gradient echo during single breath-hold at the level of pathology defined on conventional spin echo image. Single breath-hold gradient echo images were compared with spin echo images for image quality and artifacts. Single breath-hold gradient image showed improved resolution of vascular detail and excellent contrast between lesion and adjacent normal liver in hepatoma. Cholangiocarcinoma showed decreased contrast between lesion and biliary trees but improved contrast between lesion and blood vessel. Cavernous transformation of portal vein was noted as tortuous vessel of high signal intensity. Single breath-hold gradient echo scan increased vascular artifact, but decreased respiratory artifact leading to improved image quality. Single breath-hold technique can reduce imaging time and improve image quality and may be used as complementary method to the spin echo scan

  19. Brain metabolite values in children with breath-holding spells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calik M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mustafa Calik,1 Dilek Sen Dokumaci,2 Suna Sarikaya,3 Mahmut Demir,4 Ilhan Isik,5 Halil Kazanasmaz,4 Cemil Kaya,4 Hasan Kandemir6 1Department of Pediatric Neurology, 2Department of Radiology, 3Department of Neurology, 4Department of Pediatrics, Harran University School of Medicine, 5Department of Pediatric Neurology, Eyyubiye Training and Research Hospital, 6Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Harran University School of Medicine, Sanliurfa, Turkey Abstract: Breath-holding spells are benign, paroxysmal events with apnea and postural tone changes after a crying episode in infants. The objective of this study was to investigate the pathologies in brain metabolite values in the absence of seizure in children with breath-holding spells by using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. Brain MRS examination was performed on 18 children with breath-holding spells and 13 neurologically normal children who were included as the control group. There was no significant difference in terms of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, choline (Cho, creatine (Cr, and myoinositol (mI levels and also in terms of NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and mI/Cr ratios between the patients and the control group (all P>0.05. Our study suggested that there is no permanent neuronal damage in patients with breath-holding spells. This result confirms the previous studies, which reported no permanent neuronal damage in patients with breath-holding spells. Keywords: brain metabolite, children, breath holding, magnetic resonance spectroscopy 

  20. Leverage, Asymmetric Information, Firm Value, and Cash Holdings in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldea Mita Cheryta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to analyze the effect of leverage and asymmetry information on the firm value through cash holding as mediation variable. The populations of this research were all the firms which listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange since 2012 – 2015. A sample of this research was saturated sample and census, consisted 56 firms related the population criteria. This research used secondary data from the firm financial report through path analysis method. This research showed that leverage had a negative effect on the cash holdings, asymmetry information had a negative effect on the firm value through cash holding, and cash holding had a negative effect on the firm value. With leverage and effect on cash, holding cannot affect the firm value, due to investor risk-averse, investor risk seeker, and neutral investor has their own point of view in assessing the company. Cash holdings can lead to asymmetric information that can lead to agency a conflict that can affect a company’s performance, so that indirectly, with the existence of asymmetry, information had an effect on the declining the firm value.

  1. Optimisiation of The Total Weighed Holding Time in A P2P Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naors Y Anad Alsaleem

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of working out of mathematical model in networks of peer-to-peer communication is that the formulation of a problem of optimisation of the total weighed holding time must be given. Optimization of the mathematical model constructed оn the theory of schedules. The common system decision is received, allowing to optimise a P2P network holding time. The practical importance is the described models and methods of the theory of schedules allow to display adequately the structure and the function of a P2P network and to consider their dynamics, restriction of previous information, shifts, interruptions and other typical technological decisions that can be used to increase the productivity of a network and quality of granting of services QoS, QoE

  2. Promising strategies for the prevention of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Laura E; Yaffe, Kristine

    2009-10-01

    The incidence and prevalence of dementia are expected to increase several-fold in the coming decades. Given that the current pharmaceutical treatment of dementia can only modestly improve symptoms, risk factor modification remains the cornerstone for dementia prevention. Some of the most promising strategies for the prevention of dementia include vascular risk factor control, cognitive activity, physical activity, social engagement, diet, and recognition of depression. In observational studies, vascular risk factors-including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity-are fairly consistently associated with increased risk of dementia. In addition, people with depression are at high risk for cognitive impairment. Population studies have reported that intake of antioxidants or polyunsaturated fatty acids may be associated with a reduced incidence of dementia, and it has been reported that people who are cognitively, socially, and physically active have a reduced risk of cognitive impairment. However, results from randomized trials of risk factor modification have been mixed. Most promising, interventions of cognitive and physical activity improve cognitive performance and slow cognitive decline. Future studies should continue to examine the implication of risk factor modification in controlled trials, with particular focus on whether several simultaneous interventions may have additive or multiplicative effects.

  3. Microarray technology: a promising tool in nutrigenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masotti, Andrea; Da Sacco, Letizia; Bottazzo, Gian Franco; Alisi, Anna

    2010-08-01

    Microarray technology is a powerful tool for the global evaluation of gene expression profiles in tissues and for understanding many of the factors controlling the regulation of gene transcription. This technique not only provides a considerable amount of information on markers and predictive factors that may potentially characterize a specific clinical picture, but also promises new applications for therapy. One of the most recent applications of microarrays concerns nutritional genomics. Nutritional genomics, known as nutrigenomics, aims to identify and understand mechanisms of molecular interaction between nutrients and/or other dietary bioactive compounds and the genome. Actually, many nutrigenomic studies utilize new approaches such as microarrays, genomics, and bioinformatics to understand how nutrients influence gene expression. The coupling of these new technologies with nutrigenomics promises to lead to improvements in diet and health. In fact, it may provide new information which can be used to ameliorate dietary regimens and to discover novel natural agents for the treatment of important diseases such as diabetes and cancer. This critical review gives an overview of the clinical relevance of a nutritional approach to several important diseases, and proposes the use of microarray for nutrigenomic studies.

  4. Promises in intelligent plant control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otaduy, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The control system is the brain of a power plant. The traditional goal of control systems has been productivity. However, in nuclear power plants the potential for disaster requires safety to be the dominant concern, and the worldwide political climate demands trustworthiness for nuclear power plants. To keep nuclear generation as a viable option for power in the future, trust is the essential critical goal which encompasses all others. In most of today's nuclear plants the control system is a hybrid of analog, digital, and human components that focuses on productivity and operates under the protective umbrella of an independent engineered safety system. Operation of the plant is complex, and frequent challenges to the safety system occur which impact on their trustworthiness. Advances in nuclear reactor design, computer sciences, and control theory, and in related technological areas such as electronics and communications as well as in data storage, retrieval, display, and analysis have opened a promise for control systems with more acceptable human brain-like capabilities to pursue the required goals. This paper elaborates on the promise of futuristic nuclear power plants with intelligent control systems and addresses design requirements and implementation approaches

  5. Characterization plan for the waste holding basin (3513 impoundment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stansfield, R.G.; Francis, C.W.

    1986-09-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are required to comply fully with all federal and state regulations. In response to this requirement, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has established the remedial action program, to provide comprehensive management of areas where past research, development, and waste management activities have been conducted and have resulted in residual contamination of facilities or the environment. One of the objectives of this program is to define the extent of contamination at these sites. The intent is to document the known environmental characteristics of the sites and identify the additional actions, such as sampling, analytical measurements, and modeling, necessary to confirm contamination and the possible migration of contaminants from the sites. One of these sites is the waste holding basin (3513 impoundment). The 3513 impoundment is an unlined waste settling basin constructed in 1944 for collection of ORNL wastewater before its discharge into White Oak Creek. Operation of the facility ceased in 1976 when a new process waste treatment plant came into operation. Considerable site-specific environmental information has been developed over the years relative to the type and quantities of radionuclides and hazardous substances contained in the pond water and sediment. The concentrations and patterns of distribution for many of the radionuclides in the aquatic biota as well as for the terrestrial plants growing on the berm of the impoundment have been determined by DOE ecological studies. Recently, some data were collected that evaluate the extent of contaminant movement to the groundwater. Results from these studies are summarized in this report. Also included in this report is an outline of additional tasks needed to obtain the necessary information to model the transport and dose pathways of hazardous substances from the site

  6. Characterization plan for the waste holding basin (3513 impoundment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stansfield, R.G.; Francis, C.W.

    1986-09-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are required to comply fully with all federal and state regulations. In response to this requirement, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has established the remedial action program, to provide comprehensive management of areas where past research, development, and waste management activities have been conducted and have resulted in residual contamination of facilities or the environment. One of the objectives of this program is to define the extent of contamination at these sites. The intent is to document the known environmental characteristics of the sites and identify the additional actions, such as sampling, analytical measurements, and modeling, necessary to confirm contamination and the possible migration of contaminants from the sites. One of these sites is the waste holding basin (3513 impoundment). The 3513 impoundment is an unlined waste settling basin constructed in 1944 for collection of ORNL wastewater before its discharge into White Oak Creek. Operation of the facility ceased in 1976 when a new process waste treatment plant came into operation. Considerable site-specific environmental information has been developed over the years relative to the type and quantities of radionuclides and hazardous substances contained in the pond water and sediment. The concentrations and patterns of distribution for many of the radionuclides in the aquatic biota as well as for the terrestrial plants growing on the berm of the impoundment have been determined by DOE ecological studies. Recently, some data were collected that evaluate the extent of contaminant movement to the groundwater. Results from these studies are summarized in this report. Also included in this report is an outline of additional tasks needed to obtain the necessary information to model the transport and dose pathways of hazardous substances from the site.

  7. Stress corrosion cracking life estimation of hold-down spring screw for nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    Hold-down spring screw fractures due to primary water stress corrosion cracking were observed in nuclear fuel assemblies. The screw fastens hold-down springs that are required to maintain the nuclear fuel assembly in contact with upper core plate and permit thermal and irradiation-induced length changes. In order to investigate the primary causes of the screw fractures, the finite element stress analysis and fracture mechanics analysis were performed on the hold-down spring assembly. The elastic-plastic finite element analysis showed that the local stresses at the critical regions of head-shank fillet and thread root significantly exceeded the yield strength of the screw material, resulting in local plastic deformation. Preloading on the screw applied for tightening had beneficial effects on the screw strength by reducing the stress level at the critical regions, compared to the screw without preload. Calculated deflections and strains at the hold-down springs using the finite element analysis were in very close agreements with the experimentally measured deflections and strains. Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) life of the Inconel 600 screw was predicted by integrating the Scott's model and resulted in a life of 1.42 years, which was fairly close to the field experience. Cracks were expected to originate at the threaded region of the screw and propagated to the opposite side of the spring, which was confirmed by the fractographic analysis of the fractured screws. (orig.)

  8. The promise of mobile technologies and single case designs for the study of individuals in their natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardaga, Roger; Bricker, Jonathan; McDonell, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Mobile technologies are growing rapidly around the world to broad demographics of society. These technologies hold great promise for their integration with Single Case Designs (SCDs) and the study of individuals in their natural environment. This paper discusses the theoretical, methodological and analytic implications of these tools for the advancement of the contextual behavioral etiology of behavioral disorders, and their remediation. We hope this paper will highlight the scientific advantages of combining mobile technologies and SCDs and encourage their adoption among CBS scientists.

  9. Symptom profiles of subsyndromal depression in disease clusters of diabetes, excess weight, and progressive cerebrovascular conditions: a promising new type of finding from a reliable innovation to estimate exhaustively specified multiple indicators–multiple causes (MIMIC models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francoeur RB

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Richard B Francoeur School of Social Work, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Abstract: Addressing subsyndromal depression in cerebrovascular conditions, diabetes, and obesity reduces morbidity and risk of major depression. However, depression may be masked because self-reported symptoms may not reveal dysphoric (sad mood. In this study, the first wave (2,812 elders from the New Haven Epidemiological Study of the Elderly (EPESE was used. These population-weighted data combined a stratified, systematic, clustered random sample from independent residences and a census of senior housing. Physical conditions included progressive cerebrovascular disease (CVD; hypertension, silent CVD, stroke, and vascular cognitive impairment [VCI] and co-occurring excess weight and/or diabetes. These conditions and interactions (clusters simultaneously predicted 20 depression items and a latent trait of depression in participants with subsyndromal (including subthreshold depression (11≤ Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D] score ≤27. The option for maximum likelihood estimation with standard errors that are robust to non-normality and non-independence in complex random samples (MLR in Mplus and an innovation created by the author were used for estimating unbiased effects from latent trait models with exhaustive specification. Symptom profiles reveal masked depression in 1 older males, related to the metabolic syndrome (hypertension–overweight–diabetes; silent CVD–overweight; and silent CVD–diabetes and 2 older females or the full sample, related to several diabetes and/or overweight clusters that involve stroke or VCI. Several other disease clusters are equivocal regarding masked depression; a couple do emphasize dysphoric mood. Replicating findings could identify subgroups for cost-effective screening of subsyndromal depression. Keywords: depression, diabetes, overweight, cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, metabolic

  10. 12 CFR 225.81 - What is a financial holding company?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies § 225.81 What is a financial holding company? (a) Definition. A financial holding... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is a financial holding company? 225.81...

  11. Effect of iron supplementation in children with breath holding spells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rahul; Omanakuttan, Divin; Singh, Amitabh; Jajoo, Mamta

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of iron supplementation in children with breath holding spells, irrespective of their iron status and study the factors associated with the response. This was a prospective interventional study. Study population comprised of patients aged 6-36 months, attending a paediatric outpatient department with recurrent episodes (more than three in last 4 weeks) of breath holding spells. Children with loss of consciousness or convulsive movements associated with breath holding spells were considered as severe. After baseline investigations, all enrolled patients were given elemental iron at the dose of 3 mg/kg/day as a single daily dose. Four weekly follow-ups were done until 3 months after initiation of the intervention. At 12 weeks, investigations were repeated and outcome assessed for remission or decrease in severity of breath holding episodes. A total of 100 children with breath holding spells received iron supplementation. Almost 73% of children showed complete response, with another 23% showing greater than 50% reduction in frequency. Frequency of spells at diagnosis and intolerance to oral iron were significantly associated with poor response to iron supplementation. Other factors such as age at onset, age at presentation, severity of spells, anaemia and serum iron parameters had no significant association with the response. Of the 27 children without iron deficiency (serum ferritin ≥ 30 µg/L), 77.7% responded completely to iron supplementation, similar to the iron-deficient group. Iron supplementation is effective in the management of breath holding spells. Non-anaemic and iron-replete children with breath holding spells also respond well to iron supplementation. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  12. Cobalt Derivatives as Promising Therapeutic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffern, Marie C.; Yamamoto, Natsuho; Holbrook, Robert J.; Eckermann, Amanda L.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic complexes are versatile platforms for the development of potent and selective pharmaceutical agents. Cobalt possesses a diverse array of properties that can be manipulated to yield promising drug candidates. Investigations into the mechanism of cobalt therapeutic agents can provide valuable insight into the physicochemical properties that can be harnessed for drug development. This review presents examples of bioactive cobalt complexes with special attention to their mechanisms of action. Specifically, cobalt complexes that elicit biological effects through protein inhibition, modification of drug activity, and bioreductive activation are discussed. Insights gained from these examples reveal features of cobalt that can be rationally tuned to produce therapeutics with high specificity and improved efficacy for the biomolecule or pathway of interest. PMID:23270779

  13. The promise and paradox of cultural competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Rebecca J

    2012-12-01

    Cultural competence has become a ubiquitous and unquestioned aspect of professional formation in medicine. It has been linked to efforts to eliminate race-based health disparities and to train more compassionate and sensitive providers. In this article, I question whether the field of cultural competence lives up to its promise. I argue that it does not because it fails to grapple with the ways that race and racism work in U.S. society today. Unless we change our theoretical apparatus for dealing with diversity to one that more critically engages with the complexities of race, I suggest that unequal treatment and entrenched health disparities will remain. If the field of cultural competence incorporates the lessons of critical race scholarship, however, it would not only need to transform its theoretical foundation, it would also need to change its name.

  14. Underexploited tropical plants with promising economic value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    The apparent advantages of staple plants over the minor tropical plants often result only from the disproportionate research attention they have been given. A world-wide inquiry resulted in a list of 400 promising but neglected species. The 36 most important species are described in compact monographs and concern cereals (Echinochloa turnerana, grain amaranths, quinua and Zosterea mazina), roots and tubers (Arrachacha, cocoyams and taro), vegetables (chaya, hearts of palms, wax gourd, winged bean), fruits (durian, mangosteen, naranjilla, pejibaye, pummelo, soursop, uvilla), oilseeds (babassu palm, buffalo gourd, Caryocar species, Hessenia polycarpa and jojoba), forage (Acacia albida, Brosimum alicastrum Cassia sturtii, saltbushes and tamarugo) and other crops (buriti palm, Calathea lutea, candelilla, guar, guayule, Paspalum vaginatum, ramie and Spirulina).

  15. Cyanobacteria: Promising biocatalysts for sustainable chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoot, Cory J; Ungerer, Justin; Wangikar, Pramod P; Pakrasi, Himadri B

    2018-04-06

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes showing great promise as biocatalysts for the direct conversion of CO 2 into fuels, chemicals, and other value-added products. Introduction of just a few heterologous genes can endow cyanobacteria with the ability to transform specific central metabolites into many end products. Recent engineering efforts have centered around harnessing the potential of these microbial biofactories for sustainable production of chemicals conventionally produced from fossil fuels. Here, we present an overview of the unique chemistry that cyanobacteria have been co-opted to perform. We highlight key lessons learned from these engineering efforts and discuss advantages and disadvantages of various approaches. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Promising treatments of tomorrow for multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic options for multiple sclerosis are rapidly expanding. What was once seen as a disease with little hope for treatment is now a target of rapid drug development. Current therapies have demonstrated efficacy in limiting the impact of the disease, but none is fully effective in all patients. However, promising new treatments are on the horizon. In this review we will discuss potential novel immunomodulating drugs that are in advanced stages of investigation; these drugs include monoclonal antibodies, chimeric molecules, and oral therapies. The use of hematopoietic stem cells will also be discussed and, in addition, we will look farther ahead at possible novel targets for the development of new immunomodulatory or neuroprotective pharmaceuticals.

  17. Does environmental archaeology need an ethical promise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riede, Felix; Andersen, Per; Price, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Environmental catastrophes represent profound challenges faced by societies today. Numerous scholars in the climate sciences and the humanities have argued for a greater ethical engagement with these pressing issues. At the same time, several disciplines concerned with hazards are moving towards...... formalized ethical codes or promises that not only guide the dissemination of data but oblige scientists to relate to fundamentally political issues. This article couples a survey of the recent environmental ethics literature with two case studies of how past natural hazards have affected vulnerable...... societies in Europe?s prehistory. We ask whether cases of past calamities and their societal effects should play a greater role in public debates and whether archaeologists working with past environmental hazards should be more outspoken in their ethical considerations. We offer no firm answers, but suggest...

  18. Does environmental archaeology need an ethical promise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riede, Felix; Andersen, Per; Price, Neil

    2016-01-01

    societies in Europe?s prehistory. We ask whether cases of past calamities and their societal effects should play a greater role in public debates and whether archaeologists working with past environmental hazards should be more outspoken in their ethical considerations. We offer no firm answers, but suggest......Environmental catastrophes represent profound challenges faced by societies today. Numerous scholars in the climate sciences and the humanities have argued for a greater ethical engagement with these pressing issues. At the same time, several disciplines concerned with hazards are moving towards...... formalized ethical codes or promises that not only guide the dissemination of data but oblige scientists to relate to fundamentally political issues. This article couples a survey of the recent environmental ethics literature with two case studies of how past natural hazards have affected vulnerable...

  19. Nanomedicine delivers promising treatments for rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Leena Kumari; O'Mary, Hannah; Cui, Zhengrong

    2015-01-01

    An increased understanding in the pathophysiology of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, reveals that the diseased tissue and the increased presence of macrophages and other overexpressed molecules within the tissue can be exploited to enhance the delivery of nanomedicine. Nanomedicine can passively accumulate into chronic inflammatory tissues via the enhanced permeability and retention phenomenon, or be surface conjugated with a ligand to actively bind to receptors overexpressed by cells within chronic inflammatory tissues, leading to increased efficacy and reduced systemic side-effects. This review highlights the research conducted over the past decade on using nanomedicine for potential treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and summarizes some of the major findings and promising opportunities on using nanomedicine to treat this prevalent and chronic disease.

  20. Iron supplementation for breath-holding attacks in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehetner, Anthony A; Orr, Nigel; Buckmaster, Adam; Williams, Katrina; Wheeler, Danielle M

    2010-05-12

    Breath-holding attacks are common during childhood. Iron supplementation has been claimed to reduce the frequency or severity, or both, of breath-holding attacks in children. To assess the effect of iron supplementation on the frequency and severity of breath-holding attacks in children. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (up to April 2009). We scanned references of included trials. Pharmaceutical companies manufacturing oral iron supplements and some trial authors were contacted for any unpublished data or trials. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing iron supplementation with placebo or no therapy in children breath-holding episodes. These were reported by an observer. The primary outcome was reduction in the frequency (number over time) or severity (leading to cessation of loss of consciousness or convulsive movements), or both, of breath-holding attacks. Two authors (AZ and NO) independently selected studies and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for missing data, where necessary. Risk of bias was assessed using domain-based evaluation. In the presence of low heterogeneity, a fixed-effect meta-analysis was performed with pooled results presented as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Two trials (87 children) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In these trials, iron supplementation significantly reduced the frequency of breath-holding attacks in children (OR 76.48; 95% CI 15.65 to 373.72; P breath-holding attacks maintained this significance (OR 53.43; 95% CI 6.57 to 434.57; P = 0.0002). Iron supplementation (at 5 mg/kg/day of elemental iron for 16 weeks) appears to be useful in reducing the frequency and severity of breath-holding attacks. Supplementation is of particular benefit in children with iron deficiency anaemia, responses correlating with the improvements in haemoglobin

  1. Brain metabolite values in children with breath-holding spells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calik, Mustafa; Sen Dokumaci, Dilek; Sarikaya, Suna; Demir, Mahmut; Isik, Ilhan; Kazanasmaz, Halil; Kaya, Cemil; Kandemir, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Breath-holding spells are benign, paroxysmal events with apnea and postural tone changes after a crying episode in infants. The objective of this study was to investigate the pathologies in brain metabolite values in the absence of seizure in children with breath-holding spells by using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Brain MRS examination was performed on 18 children with breath-holding spells and 13 neurologically normal children who were included as the control group. There was no significant difference in terms of N -acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), and myoinositol (mI) levels and also in terms of NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and mI/Cr ratios between the patients and the control group (all P >0.05). Our study suggested that there is no permanent neuronal damage in patients with breath-holding spells. This result confirms the previous studies, which reported no permanent neuronal damage in patients with breath-holding spells.

  2. Agreement and repeatability of vascular reactivity estimates based on a breath-hold task and a resting state scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipp, Ilona; Murphy, Kevin; Caseras, Xavier; Wise, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    FMRI BOLD responses to changes in neural activity are influenced by the reactivity of the vasculature. By complementing a task-related BOLD acquisition with a vascular reactivity measure obtained through breath-holding or hypercapnia, this unwanted variance can be statistically reduced in the BOLD responses of interest. Recently, it has been suggested that vascular reactivity can also be estimated using a resting state scan. This study aimed to compare three breath-hold based analysis approaches (block design, sine–cosine regressor and CO2 regressor) and a resting state approach (CO2 regressor) to measure vascular reactivity. We tested BOLD variance explained by the model and repeatability of the measures. Fifteen healthy participants underwent a breath-hold task and a resting state scan with end-tidal CO2 being recorded during both. Vascular reactivity was defined as CO2-related BOLD percent signal change/mm Hg change in CO2. Maps and regional vascular reactivity estimates showed high repeatability when the breath-hold task was used. Repeatability and variance explained by the CO2 trace regressor were lower for the resting state data based approach, which resulted in highly variable measures of vascular reactivity. We conclude that breath-hold based vascular reactivity estimations are more repeatable than resting-based estimates, and that there are limitations with replacing breath-hold scans by resting state scans for vascular reactivity assessment. PMID:25795342

  3. C-14/I-29 Preservation and Hold Time Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitchen, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-04-08

    Preservation and hold time of radionuclides must account for both nuclear half-lives and nonnuclear loss mechanisms, but variations in the latter are often neglected. Metals-based defaults are inappropriate for long-lived non-metals C-14 and I-129, which are vulnerable to chemical and biological volatilization. Non-acidification is already widely practiced for them. Recommended addition measures from radiological and chemical literature include glass containers where possible, water filtration where possible, headspace minimization, light shielding, cold (4°C) storage and unfiltered water hold time of 28 days. Soil hold time may need to be shortened when water-logged, excessively sandy, or still adjusting to significant new contamination.

  4. Magnetic insulation to improve voltage holding in electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, L. R.

    2009-01-01

    Voltage holding in high voltage electrostatic accelerators is a longstanding problem which limits the practically obtainable performance of most systems. This paper proposes an idea for improving the voltage holding in electrostatic accelerators by suppressing breakdowns between successive stages of an accelerator. The idea consists of flowing electric currents along the accelerator electrodes to produce magnetic fields which envelope each electrode and its support structure, so as to prevent very low energy electrons from leaving the surfaces of electrodes and subsequently picking up energy from the electric field. In order to be useful in some applications, this magnetic insulation would only need to produce modest gains in voltage holding capability, and its utility can be easily tested experimentally as described herein.

  5. [Rapid prototyping: a very promising method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverman, T M; Karagozoglu, K H; Prins, H-J; Schulten, E A J M; Forouzanfar, T

    2013-03-01

    Rapid prototyping is a method which makes it possible to produce a three-dimensional model based on two-dimensional imaging. Various rapid prototyping methods are available for modelling, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, direct laser metal sintering, two-photon polymerization, laminated object manufacturing, three-dimensional printing, three-dimensional plotting, polyjet inkjet technology,fused deposition modelling, vacuum casting and milling. The various methods currently being used in the biomedical sector differ in production, materials and properties of the three-dimensional model which is produced. Rapid prototyping is mainly usedforpreoperative planning, simulation, education, and research into and development of bioengineering possibilities.

  6. Holding Pressure and Its Influence on Quality in PIM Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Petera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The PIM (powder injection molding process consists of several steps in which faults can occur. The quality of the part that is produced usually cannot be seen until the end of the process. It is therefore necessary to find a way to discover the fault earlier in the process. The cause of defects is very often “phase separation” (inhomogeneity in powder distribution, which can also be influenced by the holding pressure. This paper evaluates the powder distribution with a new method based on density measurement. Measurements were made using various holding pressure values.

  7. The Effect of Holding a Research Chair on Scientists’ Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirnezami, S.R.; Beaudry, C.

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines the effect of holding Canada Research Chair (CRC) on a scientist’s number of citations as a measure of research impact, based on an econometric analysis with combined data on Quebec scientists’ funding and journal publication. Using Generalized Least Square (GLS) method for regression analysis, the results show that holding either tier-1 or tier- 2 of CRC significantly and positively results in conducting research with higher impact. This finding, however, does not necessarily imply that the others are the lesser scientists. (Author)

  8. Candida Biofilms: Threats, Challenges, and Promising Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalheiro, Mafalda; Teixeira, Miguel Cacho

    2018-01-01

    Candida species are fungal pathogens known for their ability to cause superficial and systemic infections in the human host. These pathogens are able to persist inside the host due to the development of pathogenicity and multidrug resistance traits, often leading to the failure of therapeutic strategies. One specific feature of Candida species pathogenicity is their ability to form biofilms, which protects them from external factors such as host immune system defenses and antifungal drugs. This review focuses on the current threats and challenges when dealing with biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida parapsilosis, highlighting the differences between the four species. Biofilm characteristics depend on the ability of each species to produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and display dimorphic growth, but also on the biofilm substratum, carbon source availability and other factors. Additionally, the transcriptional control over processes like adhesion, biofilm formation, filamentation, and EPS production displays great complexity and diversity within pathogenic yeasts of the Candida genus. These differences not only have implications in the persistence of colonization and infections but also on antifungal resistance typically found in Candida biofilm cells, potentiated by EPS, that functions as a barrier to drug diffusion, and by the overexpression of drug resistance transporters. The ability to interact with different species in in vivo Candida biofilms is also a key factor to consider when dealing with this problem. Despite many challenges, the most promising strategies that are currently available or under development to limit biofilm formation or to eradicate mature biofilms are discussed. PMID:29487851

  9. Promising Gene Therapeutics for Salivary Gland Radiotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjith Parameswaran Nair

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available More than 0.5 million new cases of head and neck cancer are diagnosed worldwide each year, and approximately 75% of them are treated with radiation alone or in combination with other cancer treatments. A majority of patients treated with radiotherapy develop significant oral off-target effects because of the unavoidable irradiation of normal tissues. Salivary glands that lie within treatment fields are often irreparably damaged and a decline in function manifests as dry mouth or xerostomia. Limited ability of the salivary glands to regenerate lost acinar cells makes radiation-induced loss of function a chronic problem that affects the quality of life of the patients well beyond the completion of radiotherapy. The restoration of saliva production after irradiation has been a daunting challenge, and this review provides an overview of promising gene therapeutics that either improve the gland’s ability to survive radiation insult, or alternately, restore fluid flow after radiation. The salient features and shortcomings of each approach are discussed.

  10. Artificial Intelligence in Surgery: Promises and Perils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Daniel A; Rosman, Guy; Rus, Daniela; Meireles, Ozanan R

    2018-01-31

    The aim of this review was to summarize major topics in artificial intelligence (AI), including their applications and limitations in surgery. This paper reviews the key capabilities of AI to help surgeons understand and critically evaluate new AI applications and to contribute to new developments. AI is composed of various subfields that each provide potential solutions to clinical problems. Each of the core subfields of AI reviewed in this piece has also been used in other industries such as the autonomous car, social networks, and deep learning computers. A review of AI papers across computer science, statistics, and medical sources was conducted to identify key concepts and techniques within AI that are driving innovation across industries, including surgery. Limitations and challenges of working with AI were also reviewed. Four main subfields of AI were defined: (1) machine learning, (2) artificial neural networks, (3) natural language processing, and (4) computer vision. Their current and future applications to surgical practice were introduced, including big data analytics and clinical decision support systems. The implications of AI for surgeons and the role of surgeons in advancing the technology to optimize clinical effectiveness were discussed. Surgeons are well positioned to help integrate AI into modern practice. Surgeons should partner with data scientists to capture data across phases of care and to provide clinical context, for AI has the potential to revolutionize the way surgery is taught and practiced with the promise of a future optimized for the highest quality patient care.

  11. The Renewed Promise of Medical Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bemmel, J H; McCray, A T

    2016-05-20

    The promise of the field of Medical Informatics has been great and its impact has been significant. In 1999, the Yearbook editors of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) - also the authors of the present paper - sought to assess this impact by selecting a number of seminal papers in the field, and asking experts to comment on these articles. In particular, it was requested whether and how the expectations, represented by these papers, had been fulfilled since their publication several decades earlier. Each expert was also invited to comment on what might be expected in the future. In the present paper, these areas are briefly reviewed again. Where did these early papers have an impact and where were they not as successful as originally expected? It should be noted that the extraordinary developments in computer technology observed in the last two decades could not have been foreseen by these early researchers. In closing, some of the possibilities and limitations of research in medical informatics are outlined in the context of a framework that considers six levels of computer applications in medicine and health care. For each level, some predictions are made for the future, concluded with thoughts on fruitful areas for ongoing research in the field.

  12. Candida Biofilms: Threats, Challenges, and Promising Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafalda Cavalheiro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Candida species are fungal pathogens known for their ability to cause superficial and systemic infections in the human host. These pathogens are able to persist inside the host due to the development of pathogenicity and multidrug resistance traits, often leading to the failure of therapeutic strategies. One specific feature of Candida species pathogenicity is their ability to form biofilms, which protects them from external factors such as host immune system defenses and antifungal drugs. This review focuses on the current threats and challenges when dealing with biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida parapsilosis, highlighting the differences between the four species. Biofilm characteristics depend on the ability of each species to produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS and display dimorphic growth, but also on the biofilm substratum, carbon source availability and other factors. Additionally, the transcriptional control over processes like adhesion, biofilm formation, filamentation, and EPS production displays great complexity and diversity within pathogenic yeasts of the Candida genus. These differences not only have implications in the persistence of colonization and infections but also on antifungal resistance typically found in Candida biofilm cells, potentiated by EPS, that functions as a barrier to drug diffusion, and by the overexpression of drug resistance transporters. The ability to interact with different species in in vivo Candida biofilms is also a key factor to consider when dealing with this problem. Despite many challenges, the most promising strategies that are currently available or under development to limit biofilm formation or to eradicate mature biofilms are discussed.

  13. Secukinumab: a promising therapeutic option in spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Ficco, Hernan; Perez-Alamino, Rodolfo; Maldonado-Cocco, José A

    2016-09-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is the second most common chronic inflammatory joint disease. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is another less common but equally chronic and disabling spondyloarthritis (SpA). Therapeutic agents for the treatment of these diseases have been somewhat lacking as compared with those available for rheumatoid arthritis, which represents a significant challenge for both the treating physician and the pharmaceutical industry. A promising development for our understanding of the physiopathology of PsA and AS involves new targets to interrupt IL-17 and IL-12/IL-23 pathways. Up to 30-40 % of SpA patients have inadequate or poor response, or are intolerant to anti-TNF therapies. Therefore, there has been a clear unmet medical need in an important group of these patients. As a result, new therapeutic targets have emerged for the treatment of both axial and peripheral SpA. Interleukin 17 (IL-17) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is increased in psoriatic lesions as well as in the synovial fluid of patients with PsA and in sites of enthesitis in SpA. IL-23 has been shown to play an important role in the polarization of CD4+ T-cells to become IL-17 producers. Based on these evidences, blockade of the cytokine IL-17 or its receptors was considered to have therapeutic implications for the treatment of psoriasis, as well as PsA and AS.This article presents a thorough review of an IL-17 A blocking agent, its mechanism of action, its clinical efficacy and its therapeutic safety.

  14. Enantioselectivity of mass spectrometry: challenges and promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Hanan; El-Aneed, Anas

    2013-01-01

    With the fast growing market of pure enantiomer drugs and bioactive molecules, new chiral-selective analytical tools have been instigated including the use of mass spectrometry (MS). Even though MS is one of the best analytical tools that has efficiently been used in several pharmaceutical and biological applications, traditionally MS is considered as a "chiral-blind" technique. This limitation is due to the MS inability to differentiate between two enantiomers of a chiral molecule based merely on their masses. Several approaches have been explored to assess the potential role of MS in chiral analysis. The first approach depends on the use of MS-hyphenated techniques utilizing fast and sensitive chiral separation tools such as liquid chromatography (LC), gas chromatography (GC), and capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled to MS detector. More recently, several alternative separation techniques have been evaluated such as supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC); the latter being a hybrid technique that combines the efficiency of CE with the selectivity of LC. The second approach is based on using the MS instrument solely for the chiral recognition. This method depends on the behavioral differences between enantiomers towards a foreign molecule and the ability of MS to monitor such differences. These behavioral differences can be divided into three types: (i) differences in the enantiomeric affinity for association with the chiral selector, (ii) differences of the enantiomeric exchange rate with a foreign reagent, and (iii) differences in the complex MS dissociation behaviors of the enantiomers. Most recently, ion mobility spectrometry was introduced to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate chiral compounds. This article provides an overview of MS role in chiral analysis by discussing MS based methodologies and presenting the challenges and promises associated with each approach. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The promise of innovation: Nuclear energy horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourogov, V.

    2003-01-01

    The 21st century promises the most open, competitive, and globalized markets in human history, as well as the most rapid pace of technological change ever. For nuclear energy, as any other, that presents challenges. Though the atom now supplies a good share of world electricity, its share of total energy is relatively small, anywhere from four to six per cent depending on how it is calculated. And, while energy is most needed in the developing world, four of every five nuclear plants are in industrialized countries. Critical problems that need to be overcome are well known - high capital costs for new plants, and concerns over proliferation risks and safety, (including safety of waste disposal) stand high among them. The IAEA and other programmes are confronting these problems through ambitious initiatives involving both industrialized and developing countries. They include the collaborative efforts known as the Generation-IV International Forum (GIF) and the IAEA International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). They use ideas, results and the best experiences from today's research and development tools and advanced types of nuclear energy systems to meet tomorrow's challenges. Though the market often decides the fate of new initiatives, the market is not always right for the common good. Governments, and the people that influence them, play an indispensable role in shaping progress in energy fields for rich and poor countries alike. They shoulder the main responsibilities for fundamental science, basic research, and long-term investments. For energy in particular, government investment and support will prove instrumental in the pace of innovation toward long-term options that are ready to replace limited fossil fuel supplies, and respond to the growing premium put on clean energy alternatives. Yet governments cannot go it alone. The challenges are too diverse and complex, and public concerns - about proliferation or safety - go beyond

  16. Finite element analysis of container ship's cargo hold using ANSYS and POSEIDON software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanny, Tania Tamiz; Akter, Naznin; Amin, Osman Md.

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays ship structural analysis has become an integral part of the preliminary ship design providing further support for the development and detail design of ship structures. Structural analyses of container ship's cargo holds are carried out for the balancing of their safety and capacity, as those ships are exposed to the high risk of structural damage during voyage. Two different design methodologies have been considered for the structural analysis of a container ship's cargo hold. One is rule-based methodology and the other is a more conventional software based analyses. The rule based analysis is done by DNV-GL's software POSEIDON and the conventional package based analysis is done by ANSYS structural module. Both methods have been applied to analyze some of the mechanical properties of the model such as total deformation, stress-strain distribution, Von Mises stress, Fatigue etc., following different design bases and approaches, to indicate some guidance's for further improvements in ship structural design.

  17. 12 CFR 575.14 - Subsidiary holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... company. The consideration for the shares shall be cash, tangible or intangible property (to the extent... debts and liabilities of the MHC subsidiary holding company, to receive the remaining assets of the MHC.... Beneficial Ownership Limitation. No person may directly or indirectly offer to acquire or acquire the...

  18. 49 CFR 176.145 - Segregation in single hold vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Segregation in single hold vessels. 176.145 Section 176.145 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials Segregation § 176.145 Segregation in...

  19. Board of visitors committee to hold planning retreat

    OpenAIRE

    Hincker, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    The Academic Affairs Committees of the Virginia Tech Board of Visitors will hold a planning retreat in open session on Saturday, Sept 13 from 9:30 a.m. to noon in the Duck Pond Room at the Inn at Virginia Tech.

  20. Carbon Dioxide Changes in Hyperventilation and Breath-hold Diving

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-01-05

    Jan 5, 1974 ... South Africa. S. Afr. Med. l., 48, 18 (1974). Under conditions of normal atmospheric pressure, breath- holding results in important changes in the mechanism whereby the CO, is transported ... haemoglobin in the face of falling CO, output to the ... Hong,' in a field study of Korean diving women, noted that they ...

  1. Implementing the South African water policy: holding the vision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementing the South African water policy: holding the vision while exploring an uncharted mountain. HM MacKay, KH Rogers, DJ Roux. Abstract. This paper discusses the long-term implementation of the South African National Water Policy of 1997, and addresses some of the difficult issues of the management and ...

  2. Brain damage in commercial breath-hold divers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyotaka Kohshi

    Full Text Available Acute decompression illness (DCI involving the brain (Cerebral DCI is one of the most serious forms of diving-related injuries which may leave residual brain damage. Cerebral DCI occurs in compressed air and in breath-hold divers, likewise. We conducted this study to investigate whether long-term breath-hold divers who may be exposed to repeated symptomatic and asymptomatic brain injuries, show brain damage on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.Our study subjects were 12 commercial breath-hold divers (Ama with long histories of diving work in a district of Japan. We obtained information on their diving practices and the presence or absence of medical problems, especially DCI events. All participants were examined with MRI to determine the prevalence of brain lesions.Out of 12 Ama divers (mean age: 54.9±5.1 years, four had histories of cerebral DCI events, and 11 divers demonstrated ischemic lesions of the brain on MRI studies. The lesions were situated in the cortical and/or subcortical area (9 cases, white matters (4 cases, the basal ganglia (4 cases, and the thalamus (1 case. Subdural fluid collections were seen in 2 cases.These results suggest that commercial breath-hold divers are at a risk of clinical or subclinical brain injury which may affect the long-term neuropsychological health of divers.

  3. Voluntary breath holding affects spontaneous brain activity measured by magnetoencephalography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, N. A.; Reits, D.

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity was measured by multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG) during voluntary breath holds. Significant changes in the activity are limited to the alpha rhythm: 0.25 Hz frequency increase and narrowing of the peak. The area of alpha activity shifts slightly toward (fronto-)

  4. Considerable pancreatic tumor motion during breath-holding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, Eelco; van der Horst, Astrid; Versteijne, Eva; Bel, Arjan; van Tienhoven, Geertjan

    2016-01-01

    Breath-holding (BH) is often used to reduce abdominal organ motion during radiotherapy. However, for inhale BH, abdominal tumor motion during BH has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to quantify tumor motion during inhale BH and tumor position variations between consecutive inhale

  5. P Wave Dispersion in Children with Breath-holding Spells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahsin Gider

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A breath-holding spell (BHS is a clinical feature frequently seen in infancy and early childhood and generally bringing children to pediatric cardiology outpatient clinics with the suspicion of cardiac disease. In this study, P wave dispersion (PWD, which is a marker of regional differences in atrial depolarization in electrocardiography and has been demonstrated to be beneficial in defining the risk of supraventricular tachycardia in various patient groups, was studied in children who presented with breath-holding spells. Materials and Methods: Forty-seven patients with breath-holding spells and 36 healthy children as a control group were included in this study. We performed electrocardiography and transthoracic echocardiography on patients and controls. PWD, which is defined as the difference between maximum and minimum p wave duration, was also calculated. Statistical analysis in the study was performed using SPSS version 22.0 and p<0.05 was accepted as significant. Results: Our study indicated that there were no statistically significant differences between the patients and controls in minimum, maximum p wave duration and PWD. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that atrial conduction is probably unaffected in children with breath-holding spells.

  6. 31 CFR 223.16 - List of certificate holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false List of certificate holding companies. 223.16 Section 223.16 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE SURETY COMPANIES DOING BUSINESS...

  7. Analysis of breath holding for lung CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuda, Toshizo; Eiho, Shigeru; Kuroda, Chikazumi; Hashimoto, Tsutomu

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: Movement artifact during lung CT can degrade image quality and, particularly in the case of computer aided diagnosis, make diagnosis inaccurate. In this study, diaphragmatic movement during full arrested inspiration in lung CT was evaluated to identify the optimum time after commencement of breath holding for image acquisition. Methods: For analysis two lung areas were used in this study. These areas, on two images from different time periods after breath holding on the same slice, were evaluated in 47 patients. Results: In approximately 74% of the patients 1 s after commencement of breath holding diaphragm motion was noted to be in the cranial direction. A comparison of the lung areas after 30 s and those after 1 s and 4 s showed significant differences. Those after 7 s showed no significant difference. Conclusions: The results show that the lung base should be scanned at 7 s from the commencement of breath holding. Also, the lungs should also be scanned from the base to apex

  8. Physiological alterations in UV-irradiated cells: liquid holding recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragao, B.R.

    1980-01-01

    The biochemical and physiological alterations that occur in ultraviolet irradiated cells, during liquid holding have been studied. Incubation in buffer acts not to interfer directly with the mechanic repairs but by promoting metabolic alterations that would block some irreversible and lethal physiological responses. (L.M.J.) [pt

  9. The myth of the early aviation patent hold-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katznelson, Ron D; Howells, John

    2015-01-01

    The prevailing historical accounts of the formation of the U.S. aircraft “patent pool” in 1917 assume the U.S. Government necessarily intervened to alleviate a patent hold-up among private aircraft manufacturers. We show these accounts to be inconsistent with the historical facts. We show that de...

  10. 76 FR 54717 - Supervised Securities Holding Companies Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... changes can the Board incorporate to make the regulation easier to understand? IV. Administrative Law... of foreign law that such company be subject to comprehensive consolidated supervision. Taking these... OO; Docket No. R-1430] RIN 7100-AD 81 Supervised Securities Holding Companies Registration AGENCY...

  11. 77 FR 32881 - Supervised Securities Holding Company Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ...), The Report of Foreign Banking Organizations (FR Y-7), The Consolidated Financial Statements for Bank... Y-9ES), The Supplement to the Consolidated Financial Statements for Bank Holding Companies (FR Y-9CS... comprehensive consolidated supervision by a foreign regulator, a nonbank financial company supervised by the...

  12. Joint moments required to hold a posture while somersaulting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikl, Joanne

    2018-02-01

    A pure somersault is a key skill in diving and gymnastics, and involves rotation about the transverse axis of the body. As the rotational speed increases the effort required to maintain a specified posture increases. This paper derives equations for the joint moments required for an athlete to hold three sport specific postures as a function of rotational speed. The joint moment is related to the isometric muscular strength and is the limiting factor of an athlete in their ability to hold a fixed posture while somersaulting. One inertial property data set was used to explore the joint moments required for three sport specific postures -tuck, pike and layout-. Even though the joint moments are proportional to the square of angular velocity, the constant of proportionality differs for each joint, and so greater isometric strength is required at some joints; especially the hips and through the torso. The situation when the hands were allowed to hold the legs and when they did not has been considered. It was found that the arms holding an observed point on the lower legs could reduce the joint moments required through the legs and torso. The direction of the pull of the hands against the legs is critical for effectiveness. For the tuck this included a large component tangential to the shank and so emphasises the need to maximise friction between the shank and hands. For the pike the pull normal to the shank was more important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Automated Inventory Control System for Nigeria Power Holding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... Automated Inventory Control System for Nigeria Power Holding. Ekechukwu Boniface. 1. , Henry Nwokoye. 1. , Abara Josiah Chukwuemeka. 2. 1Department of Computer Science, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, PMB5025 Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria boni_eke@yahoo.com. 2Department of Physics, Federal ...

  14. 26 CFR 25.2701-6 - Indirect holding of interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Special Valuation Rules § 25.2701-6..., an individual is treated as holding an equity interest to the extent the interest is held indirectly through a corporation, partnership, estate, trust, or other entity. If an equity interest is treated as...

  15. Water holding capacity and enzymatic modification of pressed potato fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramasamy, U.

    2014-01-01

    Cell wall polysaccharides (CWPs) contribute to the water holding capacity (WHC) of fibre rich feeds, such as pressed potato fibres (PPF). However, the role of CWPs on the WHC of PPF was unidentified so far.

    PPF was characterized to be abundant in arabinogalactan (AG) linked

  16. 33 CFR 100.30 - Approval required for holding event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... event. 100.30 Section 100.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... holding event. (a) An event for which application is required under § 100.15(a) shall be held only after approval of such event by the District Commander, except that applications referred to a State under § 100...

  17. Ultrasound lung "comets" increase after breath-hold diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, Kate; Germonpré, Peter; Charbel, Brian; Cialoni, Danilo; Musimu, Patrick; Sponsiello, Nicola; Marroni, Alessandro; Pastouret, Frédéric; Balestra, Costantino

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyze the ultrasound lung comets (ULCs) variation, which are a sign of extra-vascular lung water. Forty-two healthy individuals performed breath-hold diving in different conditions: dynamic surface apnea; deep variable-weight apnea and shallow, face immersed without effort (static maximal and non-maximal). The number of ULCs was evaluated by means of an ultrasound scan of the chest, before and after breath-hold diving sessions. The ULC score increased significantly from baseline after dynamic surface apnea (p = 0.0068), after deep breath-hold sessions (p = 0.0018), and after static maximal apnea (p = 0.031). There was no statistically significant difference between the average increase of ULC scores after dynamic surface apnea and deep breath-hold diving. We, therefore, postulate that extravascular lung water accumulation may be due to other factors than (deep) immersion alone, because it occurs during dynamic surface apnea as well. Three mechanisms may be responsible for this. First, the immersion-induced hydrostatic pressure gradient applied on the body causes a shift of peripheral venous blood towards the thorax. Second, the blood pooling effect found during the diving response Redistributes blood to the pulmonary vascular bed. Third, it is possible that the intense involuntary diaphragmatic contractions occurring during the "struggle phase" of the breath-hold can also produce a blood shift from the pulmonary capillaries to the pulmonary alveoli. A combination of these factors may explain the observed increase in ULC scores in deep, shallow maximal and shallow dynamic apneas, whereas shallow non-maximal apneas seem to be not "ULC provoking".

  18. Green and social bonds - A promising tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, Dominique; Barochez, Aurelie de; Cozic, Aela

    2013-11-01

    Issues of green bonds, socially responsible bonds and climate bonds are on the rise. Novethic estimates that some Euro 5 billion in such bonds has been issued since the start of 2013 by development banks, the main issuers of this type of debt. The figure is equal to over half of their total issues since 2007. Including local authorities, corporations and banks, a total Euro 8 billion of these bonds has been issued thus far in 2013. Given the size of the bond market, which the OECD estimated at Euro 95,000 billion in 2011, green and social bonds are still something of a niche but have strong growth potential. A number of large issues, from Euro 500 million to Euro 1 billion, were announced at the end of the year. Unlike conventional bonds, green and social bonds are not intended to finance all the activities of the issuer or refinance its debt. They serve instead to finance specific projects, such as producing renewable energy or adapting to climate change, the risk of which is shouldered by the issuer. This makes them an innovative instrument, used to earmark investments in projects with a direct environmental or social benefit rather than simply on the basis of the issuer's sustainable development policy. With financing being sought for the ecological transition, green and social bonds are promising instruments, sketching out at global level the shape of tools adapted to the financing of a green economy. On the strength of these advantages, the interest of responsible investors - the main target of green and social bond issuers - is growing fast. Judging by issuer press releases and the most commonly used currencies, the main subscribers today are US investors, among them CalSTRS and fund managers like Calvert Investment Management and Trillium Asset Management. European asset owners are also starting to focus on green and social bonds. A Novethic survey shows that 13% of them have already subscribed to such an issue or plan to do so. The present study

  19. Protein Replacement Therapy Shows Promise in Treating Rare Skin Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room Spotlight on Research Spotlight on Research Protein Replacement Therapy Shows Promise in Treating Rare Skin Disorder ... are under development. One promising approach involves protein replacement. Previous research has suggested that replacing the missing ...

  20. Patience, presence and promise: A study of prophetic realism in Jeremiah 29:4�7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm J. Wessels

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We tend to think of prophetic proclamation simply in terms of prophecies of doom or judgement and salvation or promise. Jeremiah is often regarded as a prophet of doom with rarely any positive proclamation. This view is contested by contending that Jeremiah was also a prophet of realism. He did not shy away from proclaiming prophecies of judgement but also embraced Yahweh�s promises of restoration. Jeremiah�s brief was to proclaim messages that will �pluck up� and �break down� and �overthrow�, but also �to build� and �to plant� (Jr 1:10. As much as this is true of Jeremiah�s ministry, the focus of this article is on a neglected aspect of his prophetic ministry namely �prophetic realism�. Jeremiah 29:4�7 is an example of prophetic realism as the prophet pastorally pays attention to the people of Judah in exile, calling on them to exercise patience whilst in exile and to contribute positively to their exilic society. This they should do whilst still holding onto Yahweh�s promises. Amongst the many confusing prophetic voices to the exiles, Jeremiah�s message is one of realism calling for patience, but also for constructive presence in their situation. Whilst Jeremiah�s message exudes prophetic realism, he still emphasises that Yahweh�s promise of restoration will play out in time (Jr 29:10�14.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Traditionally prophecy is either regarded as judgement or promise. An argument is promoted for a third category of prophetic realism. This view is not only relevant for Old Testament science, but also for the disciplines of Systematic and Practical Theology. Jeremiah�s prophetic realism compels researchers to broaden their views on what prophecy entails.

  1. 78 FR 64596 - Celerity Partners IV, LLC, Celerity AHI Holdings SPV, LLC, and All Aboard America! Holdings, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... Delaware. Applicants currently control two carriers, Hotard Coaches, Inc. (Coaches) and Industrial Bus Lines, Inc. d/b/a All Aboard America! (Industrial).\\2\\ Coaches and Industrial hold authority from the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) as motor carriers of passengers (license nos. MC...

  2. ANALISIS BEBERAPA FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI HOLDING PERIOD SAHAM BIASA PADA PERUSAHAAN GO PUBLIC YANG TERCATAT DALAM INDEX LQ45

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinus - Maulina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   There are many factors influencing the decision making of investors in holding their possession on security especially common stock. Monetary crisis condition has proved to be able to influence the investors’ attitude in Jakarta Stock Market in investing their capital especially about the long/short of holding a security. This study is conducted based on the differentiation of conclusion/result of study from previous studies about decision to hold security in the long/short term. The aim of this study is to analyze variables influencing holding period of common stock on public firm listed in LQ 45 Index, that are firms generally have good performance assessed based on both market performance and firm fundamental, then analyzing the dominance influencing variable. This study is conducted in Jakarta Stock Exchange with population of stocks listed in LQ 45 index in period of 2000 – 2001 with the total of 64 firms. The Sample Taking Method is purposive sampling with the criteria that the firms at least listed twice in LQ45 index on the study period. The analysis method used to analyze independent variables: spread, market value, variance return, and dividend pay out ratio and dependent variable: holding period is two stage least squares multiple regression model,  since there is possibility that the correlation of bid-ask spread from the current period and bid-ask spread and holding period from the previous period for every stock take place simultaneously. Results of the study showed that, partially, bid-ask spread variable that constitutes the different value between the highest price provided paid by buyer with the lowest price offered by seller has significance positive correlation on holding period of common stock and there is inverse correlation/significance negative between variance return variable that reflect the risk rate from stock effected by fluctuation of stock price and holding period of common stock. While

  3. Yield stability of soybean promising lines across environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisnawati, A.; Adie, M. M.

    2018-01-01

    Soybean is grown in the wide range of environments in Indonesia, hence the genotype and environment interaction is become one of major complication in the breeding programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability performance of soybean promising lines in eight locations during the dry season 2015. A completely randomized block design with four replicates was used to arrange the experiment. An additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model was used to examine the performance of yield stability. Soybean seed yield was affected by genotype (9.23%), environment (45.23%) and their interaction (45.62%). The first two principal component axes (PCA 1 and PCA 2) were significant (p < 0.01) and cumulatively contributed to 77.41% of the total variation. Based on AMMI multivariate method, two genotypes (G511H/Anj-1-6 and G511H/Anj-1-4) with seed yield of 2.67 and 2.74 t/ha, respectively, were identified as high yielding and stable promising lines across environments.

  4. Skipping Multiple Exons to Treat DMD-Promises and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslesh, Tejal; Maruyama, Rika; Yokota, Toshifumi

    2018-01-02

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal disorder caused by mutations in the DMD gene. Antisense-mediated exon-skipping is a promising therapeutic strategy that makes use of synthetic nucleic acids to skip frame-disrupting exon(s) and allows for short but functional protein expression by restoring the reading frame. In 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved eteplirsen, which skips DMD exon 51 and is applicable to approximately 13% of DMD patients. Multiple exon skipping, which is theoretically applicable to 80-90% of DMD patients in total, have been demonstrated in animal models, including dystrophic mice and dogs, using cocktail antisense oligonucleotides (AOs). Although promising, current drug approval systems pose challenges for the use of a cocktail AO. For example, both exons 6 and 8 need to be skipped to restore the reading frame in dystrophic dogs. Therefore, the cocktail of AOs targeting these exons has a combined therapeutic effect and each AO does not have a therapeutic effect by itself. The current drug approval system is not designed to evaluate such circumstances, which are completely different from cocktail drug approaches in other fields. Significant changes are needed in the drug approval process to promote the cocktail AO approach.

  5. Fast and Accurate Prediction of Stratified Steel Temperature During Holding Period of Ladle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deodhar, Anirudh; Singh, Umesh; Shukla, Rishabh; Gautham, B. P.; Singh, Amarendra K.

    2017-04-01

    Thermal stratification of liquid steel in a ladle during the holding period and the teeming operation has a direct bearing on the superheat available at the caster and hence on the caster set points such as casting speed and cooling rates. The changes in the caster set points are typically carried out based on temperature measurements at the end of tundish outlet. Thermal prediction models provide advance knowledge of the influence of process and design parameters on the steel temperature at various stages. Therefore, they can be used in making accurate decisions about the caster set points in real time. However, this requires both fast and accurate thermal prediction models. In this work, we develop a surrogate model for the prediction of thermal stratification using data extracted from a set of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, pre-determined using design of experiments technique. Regression method is used for training the predictor. The model predicts the stratified temperature profile instantaneously, for a given set of process parameters such as initial steel temperature, refractory heat content, slag thickness, and holding time. More than 96 pct of the predicted values are within an error range of ±5 K (±5 °C), when compared against corresponding CFD results. Considering its accuracy and computational efficiency, the model can be extended for thermal control of casting operations. This work also sets a benchmark for developing similar thermal models for downstream processes such as tundish and caster.

  6. Client/Server Architecture Promises Radical Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Grey; York, Jerry

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses the emergence of the client/server paradigm for the delivery of computer applications, its emergence in response to the proliferation of microcomputers and local area networks, the applicability of the model in academic institutions, and its implications for college campus information technology organizations. (Author/DB)

  7. A Comparison of the Physiological Responses to Underwater Arm Cranking and Breath Holding Between Synchronized Swimmers and Breath Holding Untrained Women

    OpenAIRE

    Alentejano, Teresa C.; Bell, Gordon J.; Marshall, Dru

    2012-01-01

    Exercise and breath holding in the water such as that performed in the sport of synchronized swimming may evoke the physiological consequences of the diving response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of breath holding during underwater arm cranking in synchronized swimmers who are trained in breath holding and compare these responses to untrained women. Each participant performed 6 breath holding periods in the water (2 ? 10s, 2 ? 20s and 2 ? 25s) with ...

  8. Competitive power markets and grid reliability : keeping the promise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulding, D.

    2005-01-01

    This white paper discussed various links between restructuring, competitive markets and reliability in the consolidation of electricity markets in Ontario. A historical approach was used, and the first section of the paper reviewed how reliability was managed in the pre-market period. The second section discussed the current reliability model and some of the general issues it has raised, as well as lessons learned. Structural reforms were reviewed. It was noted that currently dominant generators hold more market share than is compatible with ideas of workable competition. Issues concerning the mitigation of market power were discussed, with specific reference to the importance of public opinion. The need for mandatory standards and inclusive processes was emphasized, as well as the implementation of effective communication strategies and consumer education. A resource adequacy mechanism was recommended. The role of the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) was reviewed. Issues concerning consumer protection were examined. Future priorities included investment in infrastructure and reliability, as well as a realignment of markets. It was suggested that energy and reserve trading are critical for ensuring reliability in the market paradigm. Markets and inter-regional trading were discussed in terms of promoting reliability. Improvements in infrastructure were recommended, as well as a reduction in trade barriers. It was concluded that an over-arching, industry-wide commitment to investing in reliability is essential for managing the restructuring and reliability relationship in the years ahead. 15 refs

  9. 26 CFR 1.552-1 - Definition of foreign personal holding company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definition of foreign personal holding company. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Personal Holding Companies § 1.552-1 Definition of foreign personal holding company. (a) A foreign personal holding company is any foreign...

  10. Host cytokine responses induced after overnight stimulation with novel M. tuberculosis infection phase-dependent antigens show promise as diagnostic candidates for TB disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulin N Essone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb antigen-induced host markers that showed promise as TB diagnostic candidates in 7-day whole blood culture supernatants. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of these markers further, and cross-compare results with short-term antigen stimulated and unstimulated culture supernatants. METHODS: We recruited 15 culture confirmed TB cases and 15 non-TB cases from a high-TB endemic community in Cape Town, South Africa into a pilot case-control study from an on-going larger study. Blood samples collected from study participants were stimulated with 4 M.tb antigens that were previously identified as promising (ESAT6/CFP10 (early secreted, Rv2029c (latency, Rv2032 (latency and Rv2389c (rpf in a 7-day or overnight culture assay. Supernatants were also collected form the standard QuantiFERON In Tube (QFT-IT test. The levels of 26 host markers were evaluated in the three culture supernatants using the Luminex platform. RESULTS: The unstimulated levels of CRP, Serum amyloid P (SAP and serum amyloid A (SAA and ESAT-6/CFP-10 specific IP-10 and SAA were amongst the best discriminatory markers in all 3 assays, ascertaining TB with AUC of 72-84%. Four-marker models accurately classified up to 92%, 100% and 100% of study participants in the overnight, 7-day and Quantiferon culture supernatants, respectively, after leave-one-out cross validation. CONCLUSION: Unstimulated and antigen-specific levels of CRP, SAA, IP-10, MMP-2 and sCD40L hold promise as diagnostic candidates for TB disease in short-term stimulation assays. Larger studies are required to validate these findings but the data suggest that antigen-specific cytokine production and in particular mutimarker biosignatures might contribute to future diagnostic strategies.

  11. Host cytokine responses induced after overnight stimulation with novel M. tuberculosis infection phase-dependent antigens show promise as diagnostic candidates for TB disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essone, Paulin N; Chegou, Novel N; Loxton, Andre G; Stanley, Kim; Kriel, Magdalena; van der Spuy, Gian; Franken, Kees L; Ottenhoff, Tom H; Walzl, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    We previously identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) antigen-induced host markers that showed promise as TB diagnostic candidates in 7-day whole blood culture supernatants. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of these markers further, and cross-compare results with short-term antigen stimulated and unstimulated culture supernatants. We recruited 15 culture confirmed TB cases and 15 non-TB cases from a high-TB endemic community in Cape Town, South Africa into a pilot case-control study from an on-going larger study. Blood samples collected from study participants were stimulated with 4 M.tb antigens that were previously identified as promising (ESAT6/CFP10 (early secreted), Rv2029c (latency), Rv2032 (latency) and Rv2389c (rpf)) in a 7-day or overnight culture assay. Supernatants were also collected form the standard QuantiFERON In Tube (QFT-IT) test. The levels of 26 host markers were evaluated in the three culture supernatants using the Luminex platform. The unstimulated levels of CRP, Serum amyloid P (SAP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) and ESAT-6/CFP-10 specific IP-10 and SAA were amongst the best discriminatory markers in all 3 assays, ascertaining TB with AUC of 72-84%. Four-marker models accurately classified up to 92%, 100% and 100% of study participants in the overnight, 7-day and Quantiferon culture supernatants, respectively, after leave-one-out cross validation. Unstimulated and antigen-specific levels of CRP, SAA, IP-10, MMP-2 and sCD40L hold promise as diagnostic candidates for TB disease in short-term stimulation assays. Larger studies are required to validate these findings but the data suggest that antigen-specific cytokine production and in particular mutimarker biosignatures might contribute to future diagnostic strategies.

  12. Prosecuting the Leaders: Promises, Politics and Practicalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cryer

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Given recent developments in relation to the prosecution of international crimes,  it might be thought that one of the last bastions of sovereignty has been breached, and international criminal law has not only entrenched itself in international law. Indeed further to this, it has assumed a supranational position that stands entirely above States, promising justice for all and as a trump card over depredations committed in the name of State sovereignty. After all, Charles Taylor from Liberia is standing trial before the Special Court for Sierra Leone, Slobodan Milošević only escaped judgment by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former

  13. A comparison of the physiological responses to underwater arm cranking and breath holding between synchronized swimmers and breath holding untrained women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alentejano, Teresa C; Bell, Gordon J; Marshall, Dru

    2012-05-01

    Exercise and breath holding in the water such as that performed in the sport of synchronized swimming may evoke the physiological consequences of the diving response. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of breath holding during underwater arm cranking in synchronized swimmers who are trained in breath holding and compare these responses to untrained women. Each participant performed 6 breath holding periods in the water (2 × 10s, 2 × 20s and 2 × 25s) with 2 minutes of normal breathing in between, in either an ascending or descending order while performing arm crank exercise. The intensity of arm crank exercise was set below the individual ventilatory threshold. Both synchronized swimmers and controls were matched on sitting height and then randomly divided into 2 groups: one group started breath holding with the longest (25s) breath holding periods while the other group began breath holding with the shortest (10s) breath holding periods. The synchronized swimmers experienced a significant decrease in heart rate while breath holding for 20 and 25s but the changes in heart rate for the control group was not consistent between subgroups. Full recovery from breath holding was identified for minute ventilation after 25s of recovery from breath holding for all groups. Results suggest synchronized swimmers exhibited a better adaptation to breath holding while exercising underwater.

  14. Creating an enabling environment for adolescent sexual and reproductive health: a framework and promising approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanemyr, Joar; Amin, Avni; Robles, Omar J; Greene, Margaret E

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a conceptual framework and points out the key elements for creating enabling environments for adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH). An ecological framework is applied to organize the key elements of enabling environments for ASRH. At the individual level, strategies that are being implemented and seem promising are those that empower girls, build their individual assets, and create safe spaces. At the relationship level, strategies that are being implemented and seem promising include efforts to build parental support and communication as well as peer support networks. At the community level, strategies to engage men and boys and the wider community to transform gender and other social norms are being tested and may hold promise. Finally, at the broadest societal level, efforts to promote laws and policies that protect and promote human rights and address societal awareness about ASRH issues, including through mass media approaches, need to be considered. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of breath holding at low and high lung volumes on amount of exhaled particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Helene; Gerth, Emilie; Ljungström, Evert; Larsson, Per; Almstrand, Ann-Charlotte; Bake, Björn; Olin, Anna-Carin

    2013-01-15

    Exhaled breath contains particles originating from the respiratory tract lining fluid. The particles are thought to be generated during inhalation, by reopening of airways closed in the preceding expiration. The aim here was to explore processes that control exhaled particle concentrations. The results show that 5 and 10s breath holding at residual volume increased the median concentration of particles in exhaled air by 63% and 110%, respectively, averaged over 10 subjects. An increasing number of closed airways, developing on a timescale of seconds explains this behaviour. Breath holds of 5, 10 and 20s at total lung capacity decreased the concentration to 63%, 45% and 28% respectively, of the directly exhaled concentration. The decrease in particle concentration after breath holding at total lung capacity is caused by gravitational settling in the alveoli and associated bronchioles. The geometry employed here when modelling the deposition is however not satisfactory and ways of improving the description are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of entry into regional markets in fulfilling brand promise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the role of entry into regional markets in fulfilling brand promise. The study designs two questionnaires, one for measuring brand promise and the other for measuring export capabilities, in Likert scale and distributes it among 250 randomly selected producers who were involved in production and development of various products in city of Esfahan, Iran. Cronbach alphas were calculated for brand promise and export capabilities as 0.856 and 0.812, respectively. Using structural equation modeling, the study has detected seven factors including product development, public advocacy, strategic orientation, customer satisfaction, competitive pressures, organizational capabilities and distribution strategies.

  17. Optimal Control of Holding Motion by Nonprehensile Two-Cooperative-Arm Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changan Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, more researchers have focused on nursing-care assistant robot and placed their hope on it to solve the shortage problem of the caregivers in hospital or nursing home. In this paper, a nonprehensile two-cooperative-arm robot is considered to realize holding motion to keep a two-rigid-link object (regarded as a care-receiver stable on the robot arms. By applying Newton-Euler equations of motion, dynamic model of the object is obtained. In this model, for describing interaction behavior between object and robot arms in the normal direction, a viscoelastic model is employed to represent the normal forces. Considering existence of friction between object and robot arms, LuGre dynamic model is applied to describe the friction. Based on the obtained model, an optimal regulator is designed to control the holding motion of two-cooperative-arm robot. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, simulation results are shown.

  18. Expedited remedial action -- A promising opportunity at your doorstep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, E.R.

    1996-12-31

    The Expedited Remedial Action Program or ERAP carries great promise and is limited to no more than 30 sites, there are a number of slots now available, and the legislature will soon be considering a reauthorization of the full state Superfund program, which expires in June 1998, to reportedly be based to a great extent on the ERAP model. The ERAP provides for: (1) The early identification of fair and equitable shares of liability, including an orphan share, where appropriate, to be paid by the state; (2) The elimination of all joint and several liability; (3) Cleanup levels and remedies based on the foreseeable planned use of the site; (4) Site specific risk assessments based on the latest risk assessment protocols; (5) Use of an arbitrator to quickly resolve all significant liability and technical disputes; and (6) Broad and timely releases from future liability upon completion of cleanup.

  19. Genetic Tools for the Industrially Promising Methanotroph Methylomicrobium buryatense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puri, AW; Owen, S; Chu, F; Chavkin, T; Beck, DAC; Kalyuzhnaya, MG; Lidstrom, ME

    2015-02-10

    Aerobic methanotrophs oxidize methane at ambient temperatures and pressures and are therefore attractive systems for methane-based bioconversions. In this work, we developed and validated genetic tools for Methylomicrobium buryatense, a haloalkaliphilic gammaproteobacterial (type I) methanotroph. M. buryatense was isolated directly on natural gas and grows robustly in pure culture with a 3-h doubling time, enabling rapid genetic manipulation compared to many other methanotrophic species. As a proof of concept, we used a sucrose counterselection system to eliminate glycogen production in M. buryatense by constructing unmarked deletions in two redundant glycogen synthase genes. We also selected for a more genetically tractable variant strain that can be conjugated with small incompatibility group P (IncP)-based broad-host-range vectors and determined that this capability is due to loss of the native plasmid. These tools make M. buryatense a promising model system for studying aerobic methanotroph physiology and enable metabolic engineering in this bacterium for industrial biocatalysis of methane.

  20. Temperamental traits of breath holding children: A case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarayan, A.; Ganesan, B.; Anbumani; Jayanthini

    2008-01-01

    Background: Clinical observation and few anecdotal reports suggest that the children with breath holding spells (BHS) have certain temperamental traits, which predispose them to behave in certain way. They seem to have low frustration tolerance, which leads to adamant behavior. Vigorous crying, through various mechanisms, precipitates BHS. Materials and Methods: We assessed the temperamental traits of 30 children with BHS and compared them with 30 normal children after matching for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Temperament was measured using ‘Temperament measurement Schedule’. Results: The data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. The following temperamental traits, threshold of responsiveness (Pbreath holders. Conclusions: Significantly differing temperamental traits in breath holders suggests that these could influence the behavioral pattern exhibited by them. Breath holding spells can act as an easy marker for difficult temperamental traits, which gives an early opportunity to shape their difficult behavior. PMID:19742234

  1. De-sportization of fighting contests. The Origins and Dynamics of No Holds Barred Events and the Theory of Sportization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johan Heilbron; Drs. Maarten van Bottenburg

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of an empirical analysis of the recent emergence, spread and transformation of No Holds Barred fighting contests, it is argued that Norbert Elias's model of sportization provides a fruitful but insufficiently differentiated framework for understanding the development of sports and

  2. De-sportization of fighting contests : The Origins and Dynamics of No Holds Barred Events and the Theory of Sportization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bottenburg, M.; Heilbron, Johan

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of an empirical analysis of the emergence, spread and transformation of No Holds Barred fighting contests during the 1990s, we argue that Norbert Elias’s model of sportization represents a fruitful but not sufficiently differentiated framework for understanding the recent development of

  3. MEMS reliability: The challenge and the promise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W.M.; Tanner, D.M.; Miller, S.L.; Peterson, K.A.

    1998-05-01

    MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) that think, sense, act and communicate will open up a broad new array of cost effective solutions only if they prove to be sufficiently reliable. A valid reliability assessment of MEMS has three prerequisites: (1) statistical significance; (2) a technique for accelerating fundamental failure mechanisms, and (3) valid physical models to allow prediction of failures during actual use. These already exist for the microelectronics portion of such integrated systems. The challenge lies in the less well understood micromachine portions and its synergistic effects with microelectronics. This paper presents a methodology addressing these prerequisites and a description of the underlying physics of reliability for micromachines.

  4. Hair Water Content and Water Holding Capacity Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, P; Bontozoglou, C; Ciortea, LI; Imhof, RE

    2016-01-01

    We present our latest study on human hair water content and water holding capacity measurements by using capacitive contact imaging and condense-TEWL method. Previous studies showed that capacitive contact imaging based fingerprint sensors, originally designed for biometric applications, can be used for skin hydration imaging, skin surface analysis, 3D skin surface profiles, skin micro-relief as well as solvent penetration measurements. Through calibration, we can also measure the absolute di...

  5. Nuclear and BIO-CCS hold energy and environment answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, B.

    2010-01-01

    Australia's degraded soils could hold the key to solving Australia's carbon dioxide (C O2 ) emissions problems, according to John White. Increasing soil carbon is one of the few proven, large-scale possibilities - and arguably the best and most sustainable way - to remove existing atmospheric C O2 in the short-term and, at the same time, make soils more fertile and drought and salinity-resistant, providing enhanced food security and quality.

  6. P Wave Dispersion in Children with Breath-holding Spells

    OpenAIRE

    Tahsin Gider; Bülent Koca; Mustafa Çalık; Ali Yıldırım; Savaş Demirpençe

    2016-01-01

    Objective: A breath-holding spell (BHS) is a clinical feature frequently seen in infancy and early childhood and generally bringing children to pediatric cardiology outpatient clinics with the suspicion of cardiac disease. In this study, P wave dispersion (PWD), which is a marker of regional differences in atrial depolarization in electrocardiography and has been demonstrated to be beneficial in defining the risk of supraventricular tachycardia in various patient groups, was studied in childr...

  7. Clinical and Laboratory Findings of Patients with Breath Holding Spells

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem Özdemir; Serpil Çalışkan Can; Evren Semizel; Mehmet S. Okan

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics; physical findings, cardiological, hematological and neurological problems; treatment approaches; and the prognosis of children with breath holding spells.Materials and Method: Seventhy patients were included in this study. All patients were evaluated with detailed history and physical examination. Complete blood count, serum iron and iron binding capacity were studied; cardiological (telecardiography, electro...

  8. Business Politics-Incorporating Factor of Slovenske Zeleznice Holding in European Traffic Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Pirš

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The joining of the Republic of Slovenia in the EuropeanUnion gives special significance to the economic subjects becausethe past market and competition are open directly for theSlovenian economic subjects. It means that competition will increasefor the market of transport service. There will be morepossibilities for the enterprises to move faster towards culmination,the phase of degeneration - crisis. Since the business crisisendangers the future existence and development of the Slovenskeieleznice Holding, it has become very important to be ableto control it. In order to avoid this, the Slovenske ielezniceHolding needs clear and methodical business politics whichmeans common interconnections and interacting influence ofelements (rules, criteria, measures and activities, which constantlymove, change and develop. The business politics givesaims and feedback as a condition for the existence and functioningof everything, so it cannot be regarded only as a globalprogramme of development, but rather as a very complex anddynamic system.The elements of the business politics model- incorporatingfactor to the European traffic flows are the sub-politics of thebusiness politics which influence its realisation; production,staff, marketing, finances and development sub-politics. Theevaluation of the elements of the model has taken into considerationtheir condition and meaning in the realisation of the businesspolitics in 2003 and their expected values in 2008, whensimple transmission of achievements is expected in the railwaytraffic in the European Union and in the year 2012 when a repeatedenlargement of the European Union is foreseen.The model of business politics -factor of integration of theSlovenske ieleznice Holding into the European traffic flows isan experiment to restore the collaborating relation between certainelements of the model.

  9. Designing Sustainable Public Transportation: Integrated Optimization of Bus Speed and Holding Time in a Connected Vehicle Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing public transportation and giving priority to buses is a feasible solution for improving the level of public transportation service, which facilitates congestion alleviation and prevention, and contributes to urban development and city sustainability. This paper presents a novel bus operation control strategy including both holding control and speed control to improve the level of service of transit systems within a connected vehicle environment. Most previous work focuses on optimization of signal timing to decrease the bus signal delay by assuming that holding control is not applied; the speed of buses is given as a constant input and the acceleration and deceleration processes of buses can be neglected. This paper explores the benefits of a bus operation control strategy to minimize the total cost, which includes bus signal delay, bus holding delay, bus travel delay, acceleration cost due to frequent stops and intense driving. A set of formulations are developed to explicitly capture the interaction between bus holding control and speed control. Experimental analysisand simulation tests have shown that the proposed integrated operational model outperforms the traditional control, speed control only, or holding control only strategies in terms of reducing the total cost of buses. The sensitivity analysis has further demonstrated the potential effectiveness of the proposed approach to be applied in a real-time bus operation control system under different levels of traffic demand, bus stop locations, and speed limits.

  10. Evaluation of QT Dispersion in Children with Breath Holding Spells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedian, Amir Hosein; Heidarzadeh Arani, Marzieh; Motaharizad, Davood; Mousavi, Gholam Abbas; Mosayebi, Ziba

    2016-01-01

    Breath holding spells (BHS) are common involuntary reflexes in infancy and early childhood. Differential diagnosis should embrace Long QT Syndrome (LQTS) and paroxysmal abnormalities of rhythm. The aim of this study was to compare QT dispersion (QTd) in children with breath holding spells and normal controls. QT dispersion and Corrected QT(QTc) dispersion were measured in 12 lead surface electrocardiograms in 56 patients with BHS and compared with healthy children of the same age referred to the clinic for regular checkup visits. The most common type of BHS was cyanotic (83.9%). Seven patients (12.5%) had pallid and two patients (3.5%) had mixed spells. There was a history of breath holding spells in 33.9% of the children. QT dispersion was 61.6± 22.5 and 47.1±18.8 ms in patient and control groups, respectively. QTc dispersion (QTcd) was 104 ± 29.6 and 71.9 ±18.2 ms, respectively. There was a significant difference between patient and control groups in terms of QTd and QTcd (P<0.001). QTd and QTcd were increased in children with BHS. Therefore, the evaluation of EKG for early diagnosis of rhythm abnormalities seems reasonable in these children.

  11. Stem cell therapy in spinal cord injury: Hollow promise or promising science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee Goel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI remains one of the most physically, psychologically and socially debilitating conditions worldwide. While rehabilitation measures may help limit disability to some extent, there is no effective primary treatment yet available. The efficacy of stem cells as a primary therapeutic option in spinal cord injury is currently an area under much scrutiny and debate. Several laboratory and some primary clinical studies into the use of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells or embryonic stem cell-derived oligodentrocyte precursor cells have shown some promising results in terms of remyelination and regeneration of damaged spinal nerve tracts. More recently,laboratory and early clinical experiments into the use of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells, a type of glial cell derived from olfactory bulb and mucosa have provided some phenomenal preliminary evidence as to their neuroregenerative and neural bridging capacity. This report compares and evaluates some current research into selected forms of embryonic and mesenchymal stem cell therapy as well as olfactory ensheathing cell therapy in SCI, and also highlights some legal and ethical issues surrounding their use. While early results shows promise, more rigorous large scaleclinical trials are needed to shed light on the safety, efficacy and long term viability of stem cell and cellular transplant techniques in SCI.

  12. Multivariate meta-analysis: Potential and promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dan; Riley, Richard; White, Ian R

    2011-01-01

    The multivariate random effects model is a generalization of the standard univariate model. Multivariate meta-analysis is becoming more commonly used and the techniques and related computer software, although continually under development, are now in place. In order to raise awareness of the multivariate methods, and discuss their advantages and disadvantages, we organized a one day ‘Multivariate meta-analysis’ event at the Royal Statistical Society. In addition to disseminating the most recent developments, we also received an abundance of comments, concerns, insights, critiques and encouragement. This article provides a balanced account of the day's discourse. By giving others the opportunity to respond to our assessment, we hope to ensure that the various view points and opinions are aired before multivariate meta-analysis simply becomes another widely used de facto method without any proper consideration of it by the medical statistics community. We describe the areas of application that multivariate meta-analysis has found, the methods available, the difficulties typically encountered and the arguments for and against the multivariate methods, using four representative but contrasting examples. We conclude that the multivariate methods can be useful, and in particular can provide estimates with better statistical properties, but also that these benefits come at the price of making more assumptions which do not result in better inference in every case. Although there is evidence that multivariate meta-analysis has considerable potential, it must be even more carefully applied than its univariate counterpart in practice. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:21268052

  13. Screening helical CT for mass screening of lung cancer. Application of low-dose and single-breath-hold scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shigeki; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Isomura, Takayuki; Endo, Tokiko; Yamakawa, Kouji; Itoh, Kengo; Naganawa, Shinji; Maruyama, Kunihiro; Ishigaki, Takeo

    1998-01-01

    The usefulness of helical CT with low-dose and single-breath-hold scanning was investigated for lung cancer screening. Twenty-four helical CT scans of the lung were performed using various parameters in 10 healthy volunteers. The effects of tube current and pitch were evaluated by assessment of image quality and detection of simulated nodules. Screening helical CT was performed at 120 kVp, 50 mA, 1 sec/rotation, 10 mm collimation, and a pitch of 2.0 in 110 patients. The ability of this method to detect nodules and masses, focal parenchymal opacities, and diffuse fibrotic changes was evaluated using conventional CT as the gold standard. A reduction in tube current to 50 mA did not significantly change the assessment of image quality or detection of simulated nodules. Although these factors were degraded by increasing the pitch, there was no significant difference between 1.5 and 2.0. Screening helical CT permitted the entire lung to be scanned with ease during a single-breath-hold in all patients. This method detected 177 of 196 nodules and masses (87 for 91 lesions greater than 5 mm in diameter), 54 of 57 focal parenchymal opacitied, and 15 of 15 cases with fibrotic changes. Screening helical CT with low-dose and single-breath-hold scanning shows promise for lung cancer screening. (author)

  14. Probe-holding apparatus for holding a probe for checking steam generator tubes particularly in a nuclear reactor installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamowski, A.; Gagny; Gallet, G.; Lhermitte, J.; Monne, M.; Vautherot, G.

    1984-01-01

    Probe-holding apparatus for holding a probe for checking steam generator tubes particularly in a nuclear reactor installation. The apparatus comprises a telescopic arm supported via a ball and socket joint from a support mounted in or near an access aperture in a chamber at one end of the steam generator. A probe guide is carried by a carriage pivotally mounted at the other end of the telescopic arm. The carriage includes an endless belt having a series of spaced projections which engage into the ends of the tubes, the projections being spaced by a distance equal to the tube pitch or a multiple thereof. The belt is driven by a stepping motor in order to move the carriage and place the probe guide opposite different ones of the tubes

  15. Oncolytic virotherapy: the questions and the promise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian L

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Laure Aurelian Department of Pharmacology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Oncolytic virotherapy is a new strategy to reduce tumor burden through selective virus replication in rapidly proliferating cells. Oncolytic viruses are members of at least ten virus families, each with its advantages and disadvantages. Here, I briefly review the recent advances and key challenges, as exemplified by the best-studied platforms. Recent advances include preclinical proof of feasibility, clinical evidence of tolerability and effectiveness, and the development of new strategies to improve efficacy. These include engineered tumor selectivity and expression of antitumorigenic genes that could function independently of virus replication, identification of combinatorial therapies that accelerate intratumoral virus propagation, and modification of immune responses and vascular delivery for treatment of metastatic disease. Key challenges are to select “winners” from the distinct oncolytic platforms that can stimulate anti-cancer immunity without affecting virus replication and can lyse cancer stem cells, which are most likely responsible for tumor maintenance, aggressiveness, and recurrence. Preventing the emergence of resistant tumor cells during virotherapy through the activation of multiple death pathways, the development of a better understanding of the mechanisms of cancer stem-cell lysis, and the development of more meaningful preclinical animal models are additional challenges for the next-generation of engineered viruses. Keywords: tumor cell lysis, virus replication, tumor selectivity, programmed cell death, immune response

  16. Targeting the MAPK Signaling Pathway in Cancer: Promising Preclinical Activity with the Novel Selective ERK1/2 Inhibitor BVD-523 (Ulixertinib).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germann, Ursula A; Furey, Brinley F; Markland, William; Hoover, Russell R; Aronov, Alex M; Roix, Jeffrey J; Hale, Michael; Boucher, Diane M; Sorrell, David A; Martinez-Botella, Gabriel; Fitzgibbon, Matthew; Shapiro, Paul; Wick, Michael J; Samadani, Ramin; Meshaw, Kathryn; Groover, Anna; DeCrescenzo, Gary; Namchuk, Mark; Emery, Caroline M; Saha, Saurabh; Welsch, Dean J

    2017-11-01

    Aberrant activation of signaling through the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK (MAPK) pathway is implicated in numerous cancers, making it an attractive therapeutic target. Although BRAF and MEK-targeted combination therapy has demonstrated significant benefit beyond single-agent options, the majority of patients develop resistance and disease progression after approximately 12 months. Reactivation of ERK signaling is a common driver of resistance in this setting. Here we report the discovery of BVD-523 (ulixertinib), a novel, reversible, ATP-competitive ERK1/2 inhibitor with high potency and ERK1/2 selectivity. In vitro BVD-523 treatment resulted in reduced proliferation and enhanced caspase activity in sensitive cells. Interestingly, BVD-523 inhibited phosphorylation of target substrates despite increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2. In in vivo xenograft studies, BVD-523 showed dose-dependent growth inhibition and tumor regression. BVD-523 yielded synergistic antiproliferative effects in a BRAF V600E -mutant melanoma cell line xenograft model when used in combination with BRAF inhibition. Antitumor activity was also demonstrated in in vitro and in vivo models of acquired resistance to single-agent and combination BRAF/MEK-targeted therapy. On the basis of these promising results, these studies demonstrate BVD-523 holds promise as a treatment for ERK-dependent cancers, including those whose tumors have acquired resistance to other treatments targeting upstream nodes of the MAPK pathway. Assessment of BVD-523 in clinical trials is underway (NCT01781429, NCT02296242, and NCT02608229). Mol Cancer Ther; 16(11); 2351-63. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Reduced breath holding index in patients with chronic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün, Hakan; Taşdemir, Serdar; Ulaş, Ümit Hıdır; Alay, Semih; Çetiz, Ahmet; Yücel, Mehmet; Öz, Oğuzhan; Odabaşı, Zeki; Demirkaya, Şeref

    2015-09-01

    Migraine is a neurovascular disorder characterized by autonomic nervous system dysfunction and severe headache attacks. Studies have shown that changes in the intracranial vessels during migraine have an important role in the pathophysiology. Many studies have been conducted on the increased risk of stroke in patients with migraine, but insufficient data are available on the mechanism underlying the increase. This study aimed to evaluate basal cerebral blood flow velocity and vasomotor reactivity in patients with chronic migraine. We evaluated 38 patients with chronic migraine. Three of them were excluded because they had auras and four of them were excluded because of their use of medication that can affect cerebral blood flow velocity and breath holding index (beta or calcium channel blockers). Our study population consisted of 31 patients with chronic migraine without aura and 29 age- and gender-matched healthy individuals who were not taking any medication. The mean blood flow velocity and breath holding index were measured on both sides from the middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery, with temporal window insonation. The breath holding index for middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery was significantly lower in the migraine group compared to that of the control group (p < 0.05).The vasomotor reactivity indicates the dilatation potential of a vessel, and it is closely related to autoregulation. According to our results, the vasodilator response of cerebral arterioles to hypercapnia was lower in patients with chronic migraine. These findings showed the existence of impairments in the harmonic cerebral hemodynamic mechanisms in patients with chronic migraine. This finding also supports the existing idea of an increased risk of stroke in patients with chronic migraine due to impaired vasomotor reactivity.

  18. Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935: 1935--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-15

    This report provides an economic and legislative history and analysis of the Public Utilities Holding Company Act (PUHCA) of 1935. This Act was substantially amended for the first time in 1992 by passage of the Energy Policy Act (EPACT). The report also includes a discussion of the issues which led to the amendment of PUHCA and projections of the impact of these changes on the electric industry. The report should be of use to Federal and State regulators, trade associations, electric utilities, independent power producers, as well as decision-makers in Congress and the Administration.

  19. Extended Schmidt law holds for faint dwarf irregular galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychowdhury, Sambit; Chengalur, Jayaram N.; Shi, Yong

    2017-12-01

    Context. The extended Schmidt law (ESL) is a variant of the Schmidt which relates the surface densities of gas and star formation, with the surface density of stellar mass added as an extra parameter. Although ESL has been shown to be valid for a wide range of galaxy properties, its validity in low-metallicity galaxies has not been comprehensively tested. This is important because metallicity affects the crucial atomic-to-molecular transition step in the process of conversion of gas to stars. Aims: We empirically investigate for the first time whether low metallicity faint dwarf irregular galaxies (dIrrs) from the local universe follow the ESL. Here we consider the "global" law where surface densities are averaged over the galactic discs. dIrrs are unique not only because they are at the lowest end of mass and star formation scales for galaxies, but also because they are metal-poor compared to the general population of galaxies. Methods: Our sample is drawn from the Faint Irregular Galaxy GMRT Survey (FIGGS) which is the largest survey of atomic hydrogen in such galaxies. The gas surface densities are determined using their atomic hydrogen content. The star formation rates are calculated using GALEX far ultraviolet fluxes after correcting for dust extinction, whereas the stellar surface densities are calculated using Spitzer 3.6 μm fluxes. The surface densities are calculated over the stellar discs defined by the 3.6 μm images. Results: We find dIrrs indeed follow the ESL. The mean deviation of the FIGGS galaxies from the relation is 0.01 dex, with a scatter around the relation of less than half that seen in the original relation. In comparison, we also show that the FIGGS galaxies are much more deviant when compared to the "canonical" Kennicutt-Schmidt relation. Conclusions: Our results help strengthen the universality of the ESL, especially for galaxies with low metallicities. We suggest that models of star formation in which feedback from previous generations

  20. Hold-up monitoring system for plutonium process tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Rongbao; Jin Huimin; Tan Yajun

    1994-01-01

    The development of hold-up monitoring system for plutonium process tanks and a calculation method for α activities deposited in containers and inner walls of pipe are described. The hardware of monitoring system consists of a portable HPGe detector, a φ50 mm x 60 mm NaI(Tl) detector, γ-ray tungsten collimators, ORTEC92X Spectrum Master and an AST-286 computer. The software of system includes Maestro Tm for Window3 and a PHOUP1 hold-up application software for user. The Monte-Carlo simulation calculation supported by MCNP software is performed for the probability calculation of all the unscattering γ-rays reaching to the detection positions from the source terms deposited in the complicated tanks. A measurement mean value for different positions is used to minimize the effect of heterogeneous distribution of source term. The sensitivity is better than 3.7 x 10 6 Bq/kg (steel) for a plutonium simulation source on a 3-8 mm thick steel plate surrounded by 0.8 x 10 -10 C/kg·s γ field from long-life fission products

  1. Breath holding during the turn in competitive swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, A B

    1986-08-01

    Breath holding times were measured during competition and averaged 5.0 sec in the breaststroke events, 4.3 sec in freestyle, 3.7 sec in butterfly, and 3.3 sec in backstroke. These times represented approximately 30% of the total time of swimming breaststroke and freestyle races but only 20% of the time of backstroke and butterfly events. Pulmonary gas exchanges of O2 and CO2 were studied in eight male swimmers during the first turn after the start of a swim and during the third turn after continuous swimming. It was concluded that biomechanical considerations of optimizing a turn are in most circumstances not limited by the increased PCO2 and the decreased PO2 in the alveoli related to the brief period of breath holding. In turns which last longer than about 5.5 s, the swimmers may experience a strong urge to breathe. This "breaking point" sensation is brief and need not compromise the conclusion of a well-executed turn.

  2. Clinical Efficacy of Piracetam on Breath Holding Spells in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ashrafzadeh

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Breath holding spells (BHS is a type of syncope in children , most commonly encontered in the early years of life. Although these athacks don't damage the brain , if these are frequent or prolonged cause , parents frighten , so physician should intervent. In this study we evaluated clinical efficacy of piracetam on B.H.S of children in Mashhad Ghaem Hospital during 2001-2002.In this double blind placebo control study , piracetam or placebo on a randomized basis was administered to children with 40 mg/kg/day in 2 divided doses for 2 months. From the 41 children that were enrolled , 21 cases received piracetam and 20 cases received placebo. Parents denoted the numbers of spells two months before and two months after taking drug. Control of breath holding spells were observed in 90.5% of patients in the group taking piracetam as compared with 40% in the group taking placebo (P = 0.002. Of the all patients 10 cases had iron deficiency anemia so they had taken elemental Fe too. The side effects were the same in these two groups. The results of this study indicated that piracetam was efficient for the treatment of children with B.H.S without greater incidence adverse effects than placebo.

  3. Noise distribution of a peak track and hold circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seller, Paul; Hardie, Alec L.; Morrissey, Quentin

    2012-12-01

    Noise in linear electronic circuits is well characterised in terms of power spectral density in the frequency domain and the Normal probability density function in the time domain. For instance a charge preamplifier followed by a simple time independent pulse shaping circuit produces an output with a predictable, easily calculated Normal density function. By the Ergodic Principle this is true if the signal is sampled randomly in time or the experiment is run many times and measured at a fixed time after the circuit is released from reset. Apart from well defined cases, the time of the sample after release of reset does not affect the density function. If this signal is then passed through a peak track-and-hold circuit the situation is very different. The probability density function of the sampled signal is no longer Normal and the function changes with the time of the sample after release of reset. This density function can be classified by the Gumbel probability density function which characterises the Extreme Value Distribution of a defined number of Normally distributed values. The number of peaks in the signal is an important factor in the analysis. This issue is analysed theoretically and compared with a time domain noise simulation programme. This is then related to a real electronic circuit used for low-noise X-ray measurements and shows how the low-energy resolution of this system is significantly degraded when using a peak track-and-hold.

  4. How Important Is a Reproducible Breath Hold for Deep Inspiration Breath Hold Breast Radiation Therapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiant, David; Wentworth, Stacy; Liu, Han; Sintay, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) for left-sided breast cancer has been shown to reduce heart dose. Surface imaging helps to ensure accurate breast positioning, but it does not guarantee a reproducible breath hold (BH) at DIBH treatments. We examine the effects of variable BH positions for DIBH treatments. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five patients who underwent free breathing (FB) and DIBH scans were reviewed. Four plans were created for each patient: FB, DIBH, FB_DIBH (the DIBH plans were copied to the FB images and recalculated, and image registration was based on breast tissue), and P_DIBH (a partial BH with the heart shifted midway between the FB and DIBH positions). The FB_DIBH plans give a “worst-case” scenario for surface imaging DIBH, where the breast is aligned by surface imaging but the patient is not holding their breath. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were used to compare the dose metrics. Results: The DIBH plans gave lower heart dose and comparable breast coverage versus FB in all cases. The FB_DIBH plans showed no significant difference versus FB plans for breast coverage, mean heart dose, or maximum heart dose (P≥.10). The mean heart dose differed between FB_DIBH and FB by <2 Gy for all cases, and the maximum heart dose differed by <2 Gy for 21 cases. The P_DIBH plans showed significantly lower mean heart dose than FB (P<.01). The mean heart doses for the P_DIBH plans were

  5. How Important Is a Reproducible Breath Hold for Deep Inspiration Breath Hold Breast Radiation Therapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiant, David, E-mail: David.wiant@conehealth.com; Wentworth, Stacy; Liu, Han; Sintay, Benjamin

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) for left-sided breast cancer has been shown to reduce heart dose. Surface imaging helps to ensure accurate breast positioning, but it does not guarantee a reproducible breath hold (BH) at DIBH treatments. We examine the effects of variable BH positions for DIBH treatments. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five patients who underwent free breathing (FB) and DIBH scans were reviewed. Four plans were created for each patient: FB, DIBH, FB-DIBH (the DIBH plans were copied to the FB images and recalculated, and image registration was based on breast tissue), and P-DIBH (a partial BH with the heart shifted midway between the FB and DIBH positions). The FB-DIBH plans give a “worst-case” scenario for surface imaging DIBH, where the breast is aligned by surface imaging but the patient is not holding their breath. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were used to compare the dose metrics. Results: The DIBH plans gave lower heart dose and comparable breast coverage versus FB in all cases. The FB-DIBH plans showed no significant difference versus FB plans for breast coverage, mean heart dose, or maximum heart dose (P≥.10). The mean heart dose differed between FB-DIBH and FB by <2 Gy for all cases, and the maximum heart dose differed by <2 Gy for 21 cases. The P-DIBH plans showed significantly lower mean heart dose than FB (P<.01). The mean heart doses for the P-DIBH plans were

  6. The pragmatics of NPP presidential campaign promises in Ghana's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses election campaign promises under Commissives, an aspect of Speech Act Theory, and Political Discourse Analysis (PDA). It considers the importance of context and looks at the social settings that are connected with promises. It examines the semantics, pragmatics and the structure of campaign ...

  7. Nanocellular polymer foams as promising high performance thermal insulation materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Shanqiu; Duvigneau, Joost; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2015-01-01

    Low density, nanocellular polymer nanocomposite foams are considered as a promising new class of materials with many promising applications, for example to passively enhance the energy efficiency of buildings. This paper discusses recent developments in this field of polymer materials science.

  8. Local and global trust based on the concept of promises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.; Burgess, M.

    2009-01-01

    We use the notion of a promise to define local trust between agents possessing autonomous decision-making. An agent is trustworthy if it is expected that it will keep a promise. This definition satisfies most commonplace meanings of trust. Reputation is then an estimation of this expectation value

  9. Monte Carlo study of holding forces for tank cars on grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    This paper describes a numerical procedure to examine the holding forces needed to secure a cut of railroad tank cars staged on a grade during loading and unloading operations. Holding forces are created by applying emergency brake systems and blocki...

  10. Finite element modeling of surface subsidence induced by underground coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, D.W.H.

    1992-01-01

    The ability to predict the effects of longwall mining on topography and surface structures is important for any coal company in making permit applications and anticipating potential mining problems. The sophisticated finite element model described and evaluated in this paper is based upon five years of underground and surface observations and evolutionary development of modeling techniques and attributes. The model provides a very powerful tool to address subsidence and other ground control questions. The model can be used to calculate postmining stress and strain conditions at any horizon between the mine and the ground surface. This holds the promise of assisting in the prediction of mining-related hydrological effects

  11. A Study on the Holding Capacity Safety Factors for Torpedo Anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís V. S. Sagrilo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of powerful numerical tools based on the finite-element method has been improving the prediction of the holding capacity of fixed anchors employed by the offshore oil industry. One of the main achievements of these tools is the reduction of the uncertainty related to the holding capacity calculation of these anchors. Therefore, it is also possible to reduce the values of the associated design safety factors, which have been calibrated relying on models with higher uncertainty, without impairing the original level of structural safety. This paper presents a study on the calibration of reliability-based safety factors for the design of torpedo anchors considering the statistical model uncertainty evaluated using results from experimental tests and their correspondent finite-element-based numerical predictions. Both working stress design (WSD and load and resistance factors design (LRFD design methodologies are investigated. Considering the WSD design methodology, the single safety is considerably lower than the value typically employed in the design of torpedo anchors. Moreover, a LRFD design code format for torpedo anchors is more appropriate since it leads to designs having less-scattered safety levels around the target value.

  12. Improvement of a Pneumatic Control Valve with Self-Holding Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohta, Shujiro; Akagi, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Wataru; Shimooka, So; Masago, Yusuke

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a small-sized, lightweight and low-cost control valve with low energy consumption and to apply it to the assistive system. We have developed some control valves; a tiny on/off valve using a vibration motor, and an on/off valve with self-holding function. We have also proposed and tested the digital servo valve with self-holding function using permanent magnets and a small-sized servo motor. In this paper, in order to improve the valve, an analytical model of the digital servo valve is proposed. And the simulated results by using the analytical model and identified parameters were compared with the experimental results. Then, the improved digital servo valve was designed based on the calculated results and tested. As a result, we realized the digital servo valve that can control the flow rate more precisely while maintaining its volume and weight compared with the previous valve. As an application of the improved valve, a position control system of rubber artificial muscle was built and the position control was performed successfully.

  13. The Promises and Pitfalls of Digital Technology in Its Application to Alcohol Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, Frederick

    2014-01-01

    Individuals seeking to change their alcohol use form a heterogeneous group with varied treatment goals-including moderation and abstinence-that therefore requires flexible treatment options. The availability of alcohol in the United States, and the pervasive social pressure to drink, warrant treatments that support individuals outside the treatment environment and that foster coping and self-regulation in the face of these demands. Emerging digital technologies show promise for helping both to hone therapies to clients' individual needs and to support clients in settings beyond the clinic. In the broader health care arena, digital health technologies (DHTs) are transforming how health professionals assess, prevent, and treat both physical and mental health problems. DHTs include assessments and interventions delivered via computer, Internet, mobile phone, and wireless or wearable device technologies. The emerging literature examining within-treatment and mobile DHTs highlights an opportunity to create personalized alcohol treatments for every person seeking care. Despite the promises DHTs may hold, however, there still are many potential risks to using them and a number of challenges regarding how to integrate them into treatment successfully. This article will review the current and potential advantages of DHTs in alcohol treatment and the technological, personal, organizational, and systemic limitations of integrating various technology-based assessment and intervention programs into care.

  14. Clinical applications of urinary cell-free DNA in cancer: current insights and promising future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tian; Li, Jinming

    2017-01-01

    Liquid biopsy is gaining significant attention as a tool for unveiling the molecular landscape of tumor and holds great promise for individualized medicine for cancer. Cell-free DNA serves as an extremely important component of liquid biopsy for cancer, and cell-free DNA in urine is even promising due to the remarkable advantage of urine as an ultra-noninvasive sample source over tissue and blood. Compared with the widely studied cell-free DNA in blood, less is known about the role of urinary cell-free DNA. Urinary cell-free DNA has the ability to give comprehensive and crucial information on cancer as it carries genetic messages from cells shedding directly into urine as well as transporting from circulation. As an indispensable component of liquid biopsy, urinary cell-free DNA is believed to have the potential of being a useful and ultra-noninvasive tool for cancer screening, diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring of cancer progression and therapeutic effect. In this review, we provide the current insights into the clinical applications of urinary cell-free DNA in cancer. We also introduce the basic biological significance and some technical issues in the detection of urinary cell-free DNA.

  15. 12 CFR 225.101 - Bank holding company's subsidiary banks owning shares of nonbanking companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.101 Bank holding... company and do not have a value greater than 5 percent of the value of the bank holding company's total... prohibition of the Act against retention of nonbanking interests applies to indirect as well as direct...

  16. 26 CFR 1.556-3 - Illustration of computation of undistributed foreign personal holding company income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Illustration of computation of undistributed foreign personal holding company income. 1.556-3 Section 1.556-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Holding Companies § 1.556-3 Illustration of computation of undistributed foreign personal holding company...

  17. 26 CFR 301.6501(f)-1 - Personal holding company tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Personal holding company tax. 301.6501(f)-1... Collection § 301.6501(f)-1 Personal holding company tax. If a corporation which is a personal holding company... time during the last half of such taxable year, more than 50 percent in value of the outstanding...

  18. Ten years of Dutch loss compensation regime for holding and financing companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobeldijk, A.C.P.; Braeken, B.

    2014-01-01

    Dutch holding and financing companies are subject to a specific tax loss compensation regime, the so-called holding company loss rule. In short, the purpose of this rule is the prevention of the compensation of losses resulting from holding and financing activities with profits from operational

  19. Automated daily breath hold stability measurements by real-time imaging in radiotherapy of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, Hans C J; Van Den Bongard, Desirée J G; van Asselen, B

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Breath hold is increasingly used for cardiac sparing in left-sided breast cancer irradiation. We have developed a fast automated method to verify breath hold stability in each treatment fraction. Material and methods We evaluated 504 patients treated with breath hold. Moderate

  20. New biomaterial as a promising alternative to silicone breast implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teck Lim, Goy; Valente, Stephanie A; Hart-Spicer, Cherie R; Evancho-Chapman, Mary M; Puskas, Judit E; Horne, Walter I; Schmidt, Steven P

    2013-05-01

    One in eight American women develops breast cancer. Of the many patients requiring mastectomy yearly as a consequence, most elect some form of breast reconstruction. Since 2006, only silicone breast implants have been approved by the FDA for the public use. Unfortunately, over one-third of women with these implants experience complications as a result of tissue-material biocompatibility issues, which may include capsular contracture, calcification, hematoma, necrosis and implant rupture. Our group has been working on developing alternatives to silicone. Linear triblock poly(styrene-b-isobutylene-b-styrene) (SIBS) polymers are self-assembling nanostructured thermoplastic rubbers, already in clinical practice as drug eluting stent coatings. New generations with a branched (arborescent or dendritic) polyisobutylene core show promising potential as a biomaterial alternative to silicone rubber. The purpose of this pre-clinical research was to evaluate the material-tissue interactions of a new arborescent block copolymer (TPE1) in a rabbit implantation model compared to a linear SIBS (SIBSTAR 103T) and silicone rubber. This study is the first to compare the molecular weight and molecular weight distribution, tensile properties and histological evaluation of arborescent SIBS-type materials with silicone rubber before implantation and after explantation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Progress and promise for the MDMA drug development program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feduccia, Allison A; Holland, Julie; Mithoefer, Michael C

    2018-02-01

    Pharmacotherapy is often used to target symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but does not provide definitive treatment, and side effects of daily medication are often problematic. Trauma-focused psychotherapies are more likely than drug treatment to achieve PTSD remission, but have high dropout rates and ineffective for a large percentage of patients. Therefore, research into drugs that might increase the effectiveness of psychotherapy is a logical avenue of investigation. The most promising drug studied as a catalyst to psychotherapy for PTSD thus far is 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as the recreational drug "Ecstasy." MDMA stimulates the release of hormones and neurochemicals that affect key brain areas for emotion and memory processing. A series of recently completed phase 2 clinical trials of MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for treatment of PTSD show favorable safety outcomes and large effect sizes that warrant expansion into multi-site phase 3 trials, set to commence in 2018. The nonprofit sponsor of the MDMA drug development program, the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS), is supporting these trials to explore whether MDMA, administered on only a few occasions, can increase the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Brain imaging techniques and animal models of fear extinction are elucidating neural mechanisms underlying the robust effects of MDMA on psychological processing; however, much remains to be learned about the complexities of MDMA effects as well as the complexities of PTSD itself.

  2. Recent Advances in Radiotracer Imaging Hold Potential for Future Refined Evaluation of Epilepsy in Veterinary Neurology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Bankstahl

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive nuclear imaging by positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography has significantly contributed to epileptic focus localization in human neurology for several decades now. Offering functional insight into brain alterations, it is also of particular relevance for epilepsy research. Access to these techniques for veterinary medicine is becoming more and more relevant and has already resulted in first studies in canine patients. In view of the substantial proportion of drug-refractory epileptic dogs and cats, image-guided epileptic focus localization will be a prerequisite for selection of patients for surgical focus resection. Moreover, radiotracer imaging holds potential for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of underlying epilepsy syndromes as well as to forecast disease risk after epileptogenic brain insults. Importantly, recent advances in epilepsy research demonstrate the suitability and value of several novel radiotracers for non-invasive assessment of neuroinflammation, blood–brain barrier alterations, and neurotransmitter systems. It is desirable that veterinary epilepsy patients will also benefit from these promising developments in the medium term. This paper reviews the current use of radiotracer imaging in the veterinary epilepsy patient and suggests possible future directions for the technique.

  3. Recent Advances in Radiotracer Imaging Hold Potential for Future Refined Evaluation of Epilepsy in Veterinary Neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankstahl, Marion; Bankstahl, Jens P

    2017-01-01

    Non-invasive nuclear imaging by positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography has significantly contributed to epileptic focus localization in human neurology for several decades now. Offering functional insight into brain alterations, it is also of particular relevance for epilepsy research. Access to these techniques for veterinary medicine is becoming more and more relevant and has already resulted in first studies in canine patients. In view of the substantial proportion of drug-refractory epileptic dogs and cats, image-guided epileptic focus localization will be a prerequisite for selection of patients for surgical focus resection. Moreover, radiotracer imaging holds potential for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of underlying epilepsy syndromes as well as to forecast disease risk after epileptogenic brain insults. Importantly, recent advances in epilepsy research demonstrate the suitability and value of several novel radiotracers for non-invasive assessment of neuroinflammation, blood-brain barrier alterations, and neurotransmitter systems. It is desirable that veterinary epilepsy patients will also benefit from these promising developments in the medium term. This paper reviews the current use of radiotracer imaging in the veterinary epilepsy patient and suggests possible future directions for the technique.

  4. Establishing an ISO 10001-based promise in inpatients care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Ashiqur Rahman; Karapetrovic, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore ISO 10001:2007 in planning, designing and developing a customer satisfaction promise (CSP) intended for inpatients care. Through meetings and interviews with research participants, who included a program manager, unit managers and registered nurses, information about potential promises and their implementation was obtained and analyzed. A number of promises were drafted and one was finally selected to be developed as a CSP. Applying the standard required adaptation and novel interpretation. Additionally, ISO 10002:2004 (Clause 7) was used to design the feedback handling activities. A promise initially chosen for development turned out to be difficult to implement, experience that helped in selecting and developing the final promise. Research participants found the ISO 10001-based method useful and comprehensible. This paper presents a specific health care example of how to adapt a standard's guideline in establishing customer promises. The authors show how a promise can be used in alleviating an existing issue (i.e. communication between carers and patients). The learning can be beneficial in various health care settings. To the knowledge, this paper shows the first example of applying ISO 10001:2007 in a health care case. A few activities suggested by the standard are further detailed, and a new activity is introduced. The integrated use of ISO 10001:2007 and 10002:2004 is presented and how one can be "augmented" by the other is demonstrated.

  5. The clinical adoption meta-model: a temporal meta-model describing the clinical adoption of health information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Health information systems (HISs) hold the promise to transform health care; however, their adoption is challenged. We have developed the Clinical Adoption Meta-Model (CAMM) to help describe processes and possible challenges with clinical adoption. The CAMM, developed through an action research study to evaluate a provincial HIS, is a temporal model with four dimensions: availability, use, behaviour changes, and outcome changes. Seven CAMM archetypes are described, illustrating classic trajectories of adoption of HISs over time. Each archetype includes an example from the literature. The CAMM and its archetypes can support HIS implementers, evaluators, learners, and researchers. PMID:24884588

  6. The clinical adoption meta-model: a temporal meta-model describing the clinical adoption of health information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Morgan; Lau, Francis

    2014-05-29

    Health information systems (HISs) hold the promise to transform health care; however, their adoption is challenged. We have developed the Clinical Adoption Meta-Model (CAMM) to help describe processes and possible challenges with clinical adoption. The CAMM, developed through an action research study to evaluate a provincial HIS, is a temporal model with four dimensions: availability, use, behaviour changes, and outcome changes. Seven CAMM archetypes are described, illustrating classic trajectories of adoption of HISs over time. Each archetype includes an example from the literature. The CAMM and its archetypes can support HIS implementers, evaluators, learners, and researchers.

  7. Holding the Project Accountable: Research Governance, Ethics, and Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leese, Matthias

    2017-12-01

    This paper seeks to address research governance by highlighting the notion of public accountability as a complementary tool for the establishment of an ethical resonance space for emerging technologies. Public accountability can render development and design process of emerging technologies transparent through practices of holding those in charge of research accountable for their actions, thereby fostering ethical engagement with their potential negative consequences or side-effects. Through practices such as parliamentary questions, audits, and open letters emerging technologies could be effectively rendered transparent and opened up to broader levels of scrutiny and debate, thereby contributing to a greater adherence of emerging technologies to ethics and moral consensus. Fundamental democratic practices could thus not only lead to better informed choices in design and development processes, but also contribute to more morally substantive outcomes.

  8. A Hold-down Margin Assessment using Statistical Method for the PWR Fuel Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, S. Y.; Park, N. K.; Lee, K. S.; Kim, H. K.

    2007-01-01

    The hold-down springs provide an acceptable hold down force against hydraulic uplift force absorbing the length change of the fuel assembly relative to the space between the upper and lower core plates in PWR. These length changes are mainly due to the thermal expansion, irradiation growth and creep down of the fuel assemblies. There are two kinds of hold-down springs depending on the different design concept of the reactor internals of the PWR in Korea, one is a leaf-type hold down spring for Westinghouse type plants and the other is a coil-type hold-down spring for OPR1000 (Optimized Power Reactor 1000). There are four sets of hold-down springs in each fuel assembly for leaf type hold-down spring and each set of the hold-down springs consists of multiple tapered leaves to form a cantilever leaf spring set. The length, width and thickness of the spring leaves are selected to provide the desired spring constant, deflection range, and hold down force. There are four coil springs in each fuel assembly for coil-type hold-down spring. In this study, the hold-down forces and margins were calculated for the leaf-type and coil-type hold-down springs considering geometrical data of the fuel assembly and its components, length changes of the fuel assembly due to thermal expansion, irradiation growth, creep, and irradiation relaxation. The hold-down spring forces were calculated deterministically and statistically to investigate the benefit of the statistical calculation method in view of hold-down margin. The Monte-Carlo simulation method was used for the statistical hold down force calculation

  9. Considerable pancreatic tumor motion during breath-holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, Eelco; van der Horst, Astrid; Versteijne, Eva; Bel, Arjan; van Tienhoven, Geertjan

    2016-11-01

    Breath-holding (BH) is often used to reduce abdominal organ motion during radiotherapy. However, for inhale BH, abdominal tumor motion during BH has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to quantify tumor motion during inhale BH and tumor position variations between consecutive inhale BHs in pancreatic cancer patients. Twelve patients with intratumoral fiducials were included and asked to perform three consecutive 30-second inhale BHs on each of three measurement days. During BH, lateral fluoroscopic movies were obtained and a two-dimensional (2D) image correlation algorithm was used to track the fiducials and the diaphragm, yielding the tumor and diaphragm motion during each BH. The tumor position variation between consecutive BHs was obtained from the difference in initial tumor position between consecutive BHs on a single measurement day. We observed tumor motion during BH with a mean absolute maximum displacement over all BHs of 4.2 mm (range 1.0-11.0 mm) in inferior-superior (IS) direction and 2.7 mm (range 0.5-8.0 mm) in anterior-posterior (AP) direction. We found only a moderate correlation between tumor and diaphragm motion in the IS direction (Pearson's correlation coefficient |r|>0.6 in 45 of 76 BHs). The mean tumor position variation between consecutive BHs was 0.2 [standard deviation (SD) 1.7] mm in the inferior direction and 0.5 (SD 0.8) mm in the anterior direction. We observed substantial pancreatic tumor motion during BH as well as considerable position variation between consecutive BHs on a single day. We recommend further quantifying these uncertainties before introducing breath-hold during radiation treatment of pancreatic cancer patients. Also, the diaphragm cannot be used as a surrogate for pancreatic tumor motion.

  10. Gravitational-wave astronomy: delivering on the promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, B F

    2018-05-28

    Now that LIGO and Virgo have begun to detect gravitational-wave events with regularity, the field of gravitational-wave astronomy is beginning to realize its promise. Binary black holes and, very recently, binary neutron stars have been observed, and we are already learning much from them. The future, with improved sensitivity, more detectors and detectors like LISA in different frequency bands, has even more promise to open a completely hidden side of the Universe to our exploration.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The promises of gravitational-wave astronomy'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  11. Understanding the promises and premises of online health platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Van Dijck

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the claims and complexities involved in the platform-based economics of health and fitness apps. We examine a double-edged logic inscribed in these platforms, promising to offer personal solutions to medical problems while also contributing to the public good. On the one hand, online platforms serve as personalized data-driven services to their customers. On the other hand, they allegedly serve public interests, such as medical research or health education. In doing so, many apps employ a diffuse discourse, hinging on terms like “sharing,” “open,” and “reuse” when they talk about data extraction and distribution. The analytical approach we adopt in this article is situated at the nexus of science and technology studies, political economy, and the sociology of health and illness. The analysis concentrates on two aspects: datafication (the use and reuse of data and commodification (a platform’s deployment of governance and business models. We apply these analytical categories to three specific platforms: 23andMe, PatientsLikeMe, and Parkinson mPower. The last section will connect these individual examples to the wider implications of health apps’ data flows, governance policies, and business models. Regulatory bodies commonly focus on the (medical safety and security of apps, but pay scarce attention to health apps’ techno-economic governance. Who owns user-generated health data and who gets to benefit? We argue that it is important to reflect on the societal implications of health data markets. Governments have the duty to provide conceptual clarity in the grand narrative of transforming health care and health research.

  12. Dual Action of Myricetin on Porphyromonas gingivalis and the Inflammatory Response of Host Cells: A Promising Therapeutic Molecule for Periodontal Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Grenier

    Full Text Available Periodontitis that affects the underlying structures of the periodontium, including the alveolar bone, is a multifactorial disease, whose etiology involves interactions between specific bacterial species of the subgingival biofilm and the host immune components. In the present study, we investigated the effects of myricetin, a flavonol largely distributed in fruits and vegetables, on growth and virulence properties of Porphyromonas gingivalis as well as on the P. gingivalis-induced inflammatory response in host cells. Minimal inhibitory concentration values of myricetin against P. gingivalis were in the range of 62.5 to 125 μg/ml. The iron-chelating activity of myricetin may contribute to the antibacterial activity of this flavonol. Myricetin was found to attenuate the virulence of P. gingivalis by reducing the expression of genes coding for important virulence factors, including proteinases (rgpA, rgpB, and kgp and adhesins (fimA, hagA, and hagB. Myricetin dose-dependently prevented NF-κB activation in a monocyte model. Moreover, it inhibited the secretion of IL-6, IL-8 and MMP-3 by P. gingivalis-stimulated gingival fibroblasts. In conclusion, our study brought clear evidence that the flavonol myricetin exhibits a dual action on the periodontopathogenic bacterium P. gingivalis and the inflammatory response of host cells. Therefore, myricetin holds promise as a therapeutic agent for the treatment/prevention of periodontitis.

  13. Promises and pitfalls of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship approaches for predicting metabolism and toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zvinavashe, E.; Murk, A.J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    The description of quantitative structure¿activity relationship (QSAR) models has been a topic for scientific research for more than 40 years and a topic within the regulatory framework for more than 20 years. At present, efforts on QSAR development are increasing because of their promise for

  14. Fatigue crack growth control in pressure vessel using single peak overload and load hold at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ling; Nakamura, Haruo; Kobayashi, Hideo

    1995-01-01

    Pressure vessels are periodically subjected to a proof test to assure structural integrity. During that period, it may be possible to control the fatigue crack growth by simultaneous heating globally or locally around a crack tip. From this viewpoint, retardation behavior of a fatigue crack due to a single peak overload at a high temperature (∼300degC) was examined in an A 533 B-1 steel. Parameters investigated were overload ratio, applied temperature, hold time at higher temperature, and unloading temperature of overload. The higher the applied temperature, the greater the effect of retardation especially when unloading of the overload is done at lower temperatures. Also, the hold time at maximum load promotes oxide-film-induced crack closure. To evaluate those effects, a simple model is proposed based on the Dugdale model. (author)

  15. A Bayesian procedure for estimating the causal effects of nursing home bed-hold policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Roee; Intrator, Orna; Lancaster, Tony

    2017-10-03

    Nursing home bed-hold policies provide continuity of care for Medicaid beneficiaries by paying nursing homes to reserve beds so residents can return to their facility of occupancy following an acute hospitalization. In 2001, Michigan implemented bed-hold policies in nursing homes. We investigated the impact of these policies on mortality and hospitalizations using 1999-2004 quarterly data from nursing homes in Michigan and nursing homes in 11 states that did not implement such policies. Synthetic Control has been used to estimate the effects of policies by accounting for changes over time unrelated to the intervention. Synthetic Control is intended for scalar continuous outcome at each period, and assumes a single treated unit and multiple control units. We propose a Bayesian procedure to overcome these limitations. It imputes the outcomes of nursing homes in Michigan if they were not exposed to the policy by matching to non-exposed nursing homes that are associated with the exposed ones in the pre-policy period. Because sampling from a Bayesian model is computationally challenging, we describe an approximation procedure that can be implemented using existing software. Our approach can be applied to other studies that examine the impact of policies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Promising Practices and Programs: Current Efforts and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    The final chapter of the issue provides a synthesis of the first eight chapters, offers conclusions and recommendations, and considers future directions regarding practices and programs with promise for high impact at community colleges around the country.

  17. Promise Zone Round 2 Applicant Geography and Goal Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This dataset includes Promise Zone initiative round II applicant project data from 111 urban, rural, and tribal communities who consented to share their application...

  18. SU-E-J-62: Breath Hold for Left-Sided Breast Cancer: Visually Monitored Deep Inspiration Breath Hold Amplitude Evaluated Using Real-Time Position Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conroy, L; Quirk, S; Smith, WL; Yeung, R; Phan, T; Hudson, A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We used Real-Time Position Management (RPM) to evaluate breath hold amplitude and variability when gating with a visually monitored deep inspiration breath hold technique (VM-DIBH) with retrospective cine image chest wall position verification. Methods: Ten patients with left-sided breast cancer were treated using VM-DIBH. Respiratory motion was passively collected once weekly using RPM with the marker block positioned at the xiphoid process. Cine images on the tangent medial field were acquired on fractions with RPM monitoring for retrospective verification of chest wall position during breath hold. The amplitude and duration of all breath holds on which treatment beams were delivered were extracted from the RPM traces. Breath hold position coverage was evaluated for symmetric RPM gating windows from ± 1 to 5 mm centered on the average breath hold amplitude of the first measured fraction as a baseline. Results: The average (range) breath hold amplitude and duration was 18 mm (3–36 mm) and 19 s (7–34 s). The average (range) of amplitude standard deviation per patient over all breath holds was 2.7 mm (1.2–5.7 mm). With the largest allowable RPM gating window (± 5 mm), 4 of 10 VM-DIBH patients would have had ≥ 10% of their breath hold positions excluded by RPM. Cine verification of the chest wall position during the medial tangent field showed that the chest wall was greater than 5 mm from the baseline in only 1 out of 4 excluded patients. Cine images verify the chest wall/breast position only, whether this variation is acceptable in terms of heart sparing is a subject of future investigation. Conclusion: VM-DIBH allows for greater breath hold amplitude variability than using a 5 mm gating window with RPM, while maintaining chest wall positioning accuracy within 5 mm for the majority of patients

  19. Forecast of promising areas for uranium prospection at the metamorphic Massif of Isla de la Juventud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gongora, L.E.; Macola, E.; Sanchez, J.; Torres, J.C.; Alaminos, C.; LLanes, A.; Morales, M.

    1995-01-01

    A mineralization conceptual model for uranium of the metamorphic Massif of Isla de la Juventud was established taking into account the study of the geological and metallogenic characteristic of the territory. The determined indications of mineralization were plotted on the geological map in order to conform a forecasting map and the selection of 22 hypothetical promising areas was carried out. As result of the field words three really promising areas were selected. A group of exploration techniques needed to evaluate the targets areas is presented

  20. [DESCRIPTION AND PRESENTATION OF THE RESULTS OF ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM PROCESSING USING AN INFORMATION MODEL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myznikov, I L; Nabokov, N L; Rogovanov, D Yu; Khankevich, Yu R

    2016-01-01

    The paper proposes to apply the informational modeling of correlation matrix developed by I.L. Myznikov in early 1990s in neurophysiological investigations, such as electroencephalogram recording and analysis, coherence description of signals from electrodes on the head surface. The authors demonstrate information models built using the data from studies of inert gas inhalation by healthy human subjects. In the opinion of the authors, information models provide an opportunity to describe physiological processes with a high level of generalization. The procedure of presenting the EEG results holds great promise for the broad application.

  1. PROMISING FINANCING SCHEME OF HEALTH INSURANCE IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Slavitych

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The promising financing scheme of health insurance in Ukraine should be found at the present stage of its development. The health care system in Ukraine is cumbersome and outdated. It is based on the Semashko model with rigid management and financing procedures. The disadvantages accumulated in the national health care system due to lack of modernization, disregard of the population needs, non-use of modern global trends, the inefficient operation of the system and the high level of corruption cause the underlying situation. The decision of new government policy in the sector is introduction of new financial mechanisms, in order to ensure human rights in the health sector. Methodology. The study is based on a comparison of systems of financing of medicine in Ukraine and in other countries, provided advantages and disadvantages of each model. Results showed that the availability of medical services is the key problem in any society. The availability of health care services is primarily determined by the proportion of services guaranteed by the government (government guarantees. In some countries such as the United States, practically the whole medicine is funded by voluntary health insurance (VHI. In Europe the mandatory health insurance (MHI and government funding are the most significant source of funds. Practical importance. The improvement of the demographic situation, the preservation and improvement of public health, improvement of social equity and citizens' rights in respect of medical insurance. Value/originality. Premiums for health insurance are the source of funding. Based on the new model requirements it is necessary to create an appropriate regulation, which would determine its organizational and regulatory framework. This process is primarily determined by identification and setting rules governing the relationship between patients, health care providers and insurers, creation of the conditions and the implementation of quality

  2. Biomarkers for pancreatic cancer: promising new markers and options beyond CA 19-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballehaninna, Umashankar K; Chamberlain, Ronald S

    2013-12-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma accounts for nearly 90-95% of exocrine malignant tumors of the pancreas. Traditionally, overexpressed proteins/epitopes such as CA 19-9, CA-50, CEA, and many others were being used as pancreatic cancer tumor markers. The main utility of these biomarkers was in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer as well as to assess response to chemotherapy and to determine prognosis and to predict tumor recurrence. However, these markers had significant limitations such as lack of sensitivity, false-negative results in certain blood groups, as well as false-positive elevation in the presence of obstructive jaundice. To circumvent these limitations, an extraordinary amount of research is being performed to identify an accurate tumor marker or a panel of markers that could aid in the management of the pancreatic cancer. Although this research has identified a large number and different variety of biomarkers, few hold future promise as a preferred marker for pancreatic cancer. This review provides an insight into exciting new areas of pancreatic biomarker research such as salivary, pancreatic juice, and stool markers that can be used as a noninvasive test to identify pancreatic cancer. This manuscript also provides a discussion on newer biomarkers, the role of microRNAs, and pancreatic cancer proteomics, which have the potential to identify a preferred tumor marker for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. This review further elaborates on important genetic changes associated with the development and progression of pancreatic cancer that holds the key for the identification of a sensitive biomarker and which could also serve as a therapeutic target.

  3. Breath-Hold Target Localization With Simultaneous Kilovoltage/Megavoltage Cone-Beam Computed Tomography and Fast Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blessing, Manuel; Stsepankou, Dzmitry; Wertz, Hansjoerg; Arns, Anna; Lohr, Frank; Hesser, Juergen; Wenz, Frederik

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated high-dose radiotherapy for small lung tumors has typically been based on stereotaxy. Cone-beam computed tomography and breath-hold techniques have provided a noninvasive basis for precise cranial and extracranial patient positioning. The cone-beam computed tomography acquisition time of 60 s, however, is beyond the breath-hold capacity of patients, resulting in respiratory motion artifacts. By combining megavoltage (MV) and kilovoltage (kV) photon sources (mounted perpendicularly on the linear accelerator) and accelerating the gantry rotation to the allowed limit, the data acquisition time could be reduced to 15 s. Methods and Materials: An Elekta Synergy 6-MV linear accelerator, with iViewGT as the MV- and XVI as the kV-imaging device, was used with a Catphan phantom and an anthropomorphic thorax phantom. Both image sources performed continuous image acquisition, passing an angle interval of 90 o within 15 s. For reconstruction, filtered back projection on a graphics processor unit was used. It reconstructed 100 projections acquired to a 512 x 512 x 512 volume within 6 s. Results: The resolution in the Catphan phantom (CTP528 high-resolution module) was 3 lines/cm. The spatial accuracy was within 2-3 mm. The diameters of different tumor shapes in the thorax phantom were determined within an accuracy of 1.6 mm. The signal-to-noise ratio was 68% less than that with a 180 o -kV scan. The dose generated to acquire the MV frames accumulated to 82.5 mGy, and the kV contribution was <6 mGy. Conclusion: The present results have shown that fast breath-hold, on-line volume imaging with a linear accelerator using simultaneous kV-MV cone-beam computed tomography is promising and can potentially be used for image-guided radiotherapy for lung cancer patients in the near future.

  4. Telepsychiatry in the developing world: Whither promised joy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subho Chakrabarti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Telepsychiatry, the use of information and communication technologies to provide psychiatric services from a distance, has matured as a mode of service delivery and has expanded its reach since its inception. Telepsychiatry promotes equality of access to high-quality specialized care for underserved users. It enables, empowers and brings about high levels of satisfaction among users. Telepsychiatry can deliver a broad array of clinical services and support several other nonclinical activities. Accumulated evidence demonstrates that clinical outcomes of telepsychiatric interventions are comparable to conventional treatment among patients of all ages, ethnicities, cultures, and diagnostic groups across diverse clinical settings. However, negative attitudes, concerns about the quality of the evidence, doubts about cost-effectiveness, technological vagaries, uncertainty regarding the doctor–patient alliance, and a number of legal, ethical and regulatory hurdles continue to hinder the widespread implementation of telepsychiatric services. A particularly disappointing aspect has been the lack of development of telepsychiatric services in developing countries, where they are required the most because of the large mental-health gap in care with the more traditional forms of services. Problems of costs, lack of infrastructure and connectivity, shortage of trained personnel, sociocultural differences, limited data on effectiveness, and lack of institutional support are the principal challenges to the wider adoption of telepsychiatry in these resource-constrained countries. It is evident that much more effort by all stakeholders, innovative solutions, and hybrid models of care are required before telepsychiatry is able to fulfil its true potential and bring about the promised change in mental health outcomes in the developing world.

  5. SU-E-J-223: A BOLD Contrast Imaging Sequence to Evaluate Oxygenation Changes Due to Breath Holding for Breast Radiotherapy: A Pilot Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, J; Chang, Z; Cai, J; Palta, M; Horton, J; Yin, F; Blitzblau, R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a robust MRI sequence to measure BOLD breath hold induced contrast in context of breast radiotherapy. Methods: Two sequences were selected from prior studies as candidates to measure BOLD contrast attributable to breath holding within the breast: (1) T2* based Gradient Echo EPI (TR/TE = 500/41ms, flip angle = 60°), and (2) T2 based Single Shot Fast Spin Echo (SSFSE) (TR/TE = 3000/60ms). We enrolled ten women post-lumpectomy for breast cancer who were undergoing treatment planning for whole breast radiotherapy. Each session utilized a 1.5T GE MRI and 4 channel breast coil with the subject immobilized prone on a custom board. For each sequence, 1–3 planes of the lumpectomy breast were imaged continuously during a background measurement (1min) and intermittent breath holds (20–40s per breath hold, 3–5 holds per sequence). BOLD contrast was quantified as correlation of changes in per-pixel intensity with the breath hold schedule convolved with a hemodynamic response function. Subtle motion was corrected using a deformable registration algorithm. Correlation with breath-holding was considered significant if p<0.001. Results: The percentage of the breast ROI with positive BOLD contrast measured by the two sequences were in agreement with a correlation coefficient of R=0.72 (p=0.02). While both sequences demonstrated areas with strong BOLD response, the response was more systematic throughout the breast for the SSFSE (T2) sequence (% breast with response in the same direction: 51.2%±0.7% for T2* vs. 68.1%±16% for T2). In addition, the T2 sequence was less prone to magnetic susceptibility artifacts, especially in presence of seroma, and provided a more robust image with little distortion or artifacts. Conclusion: A T2 SSFSE sequence shows promise for measuring BOLD contrast in the context of breast radiotherapy utilizing a breath hold technique. Further study in a larger patient cohort is warranted to better refine this novel technique

  6. SU-E-J-223: A BOLD Contrast Imaging Sequence to Evaluate Oxygenation Changes Due to Breath Holding for Breast Radiotherapy: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, J; Chang, Z; Cai, J; Palta, M; Horton, J; Yin, F; Blitzblau, R [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a robust MRI sequence to measure BOLD breath hold induced contrast in context of breast radiotherapy. Methods: Two sequences were selected from prior studies as candidates to measure BOLD contrast attributable to breath holding within the breast: (1) T2* based Gradient Echo EPI (TR/TE = 500/41ms, flip angle = 60°), and (2) T2 based Single Shot Fast Spin Echo (SSFSE) (TR/TE = 3000/60ms). We enrolled ten women post-lumpectomy for breast cancer who were undergoing treatment planning for whole breast radiotherapy. Each session utilized a 1.5T GE MRI and 4 channel breast coil with the subject immobilized prone on a custom board. For each sequence, 1–3 planes of the lumpectomy breast were imaged continuously during a background measurement (1min) and intermittent breath holds (20–40s per breath hold, 3–5 holds per sequence). BOLD contrast was quantified as correlation of changes in per-pixel intensity with the breath hold schedule convolved with a hemodynamic response function. Subtle motion was corrected using a deformable registration algorithm. Correlation with breath-holding was considered significant if p<0.001. Results: The percentage of the breast ROI with positive BOLD contrast measured by the two sequences were in agreement with a correlation coefficient of R=0.72 (p=0.02). While both sequences demonstrated areas with strong BOLD response, the response was more systematic throughout the breast for the SSFSE (T2) sequence (% breast with response in the same direction: 51.2%±0.7% for T2* vs. 68.1%±16% for T2). In addition, the T2 sequence was less prone to magnetic susceptibility artifacts, especially in presence of seroma, and provided a more robust image with little distortion or artifacts. Conclusion: A T2 SSFSE sequence shows promise for measuring BOLD contrast in the context of breast radiotherapy utilizing a breath hold technique. Further study in a larger patient cohort is warranted to better refine this novel technique.

  7. Studies of radiation blistering effects on voltage holding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.

    1975-01-01

    The surfaces of niobium and tungsten wires were blistered by 300-keV helium-ion irradiation and then tested for voltage holding. A cylindrical projection-tube technique was employed so that regions of strong electron emission could be observed and later examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Blistering was found to cause significant increases in pre-breakdown currents. However, these currents tend to saturate over a region corresponding to around 200-400 kV/cm surface field such that the ultimate voltage breakdown limit is not seriously reduced. Emission image observations and SEM photographs suggest that, in many cases, parts of the blistered surface are gradually erected by the strong surface fields, but this may not occur until after several arc breakdowns. SEM photographs also indicate that vapor from the anode may play an important part in the breakdown mechanism. Implications of these results to the design of devices important to fusion development, such as direct collectors and ion sources, are briefly discussed. The importance of future in situ irradiation-voltage experiments is also stressed. (U.S.)

  8. Role of cerebral blood flow in extreme breath holding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bain Anthony R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of cerebral blood flow (CBF on a maximal breath-hold (BH in ultra-elite divers was examined. Divers (n = 7 performed one control BH, and one BH following oral administration of the non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (1.2 mg/kg. Arterial blood gases and CBF were measured prior to (baseline, and at BH termination. Compared to control, indomethacin reduced baseline CBF and cerebral delivery of oxygen (CDO2 by about 26% (p < 0.01. Indomethacin reduced maximal BH time from 339 ± 51 to 319 ± 57 seconds (p = 0.04. In both conditions, the CDO2 remained unchanged from baseline to the termination of apnea. At BH termination, arterial oxygen tension was higher following oral administration of indomethacin compared to control (4.05 ± 0.45 vs. 3.44 ± 0.32 kPa. The absolute increase in CBF from baseline to the termination of apnea was lower with indomethacin (p = 0.01. These findings indicate that the impact of CBF on maximal BH time is likely attributable to its influence on cerebral H+ washout, and therefore central chemoreceptive drive to breathe, rather than to CDO2.

  9. The development of a Space Shuttle Research Animal Holding Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagow, R. B.

    1980-01-01

    The ability to maintain the well being of experiment animals is of primary importance to the successful attainment of life sciences flight experiment goals. To assist scientists in the conduct of life sciences flight experiments, a highly versatile Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) is being developed for use on Space Shuttle/Spacelab missions. This paper describes the design of the RAHF system, which in addition to providing general housing for various animal species, approximating the environment found in ground based facilities, is designed to minimize disturbances of the specimens by vehicle and mission operations. Life-sustaining capabilities such as metabolic support and environmental control are provided. RAHF is reusable and is a modular concept to accommodate animals of different sizes. The basic RAHF system will accommodate a combination of 24 500-g rats or 144 mice or a mixed number of rats and mice. An alternative design accommodates four squirrel monkeys. The entire RAHF system is housed in a single ESA rack. The animal cages are in drawers which are removable for easy access to the animals. Each cage contains a waste management system, a feeding system and a watering system all of which will operate in zero or one gravity.

  10. PROMISE AND PLAUSIBILITY: HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION DECISIONS WITH LIMITED EVIDENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce; Knox, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of new medical devices and diagnostics is often hampered by lack of published evidence which makes conventional health technology assessment (HTA) difficult. We now have 5 years' experience of the Medical Technologies Advisory Committee of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the United Kingdom, addressing this problem. This committee assesses devices and diagnostics against claims of advantage, to produce guidance on adoption for the health service. We have reflected on the practical, technical, and intellectual processes we have used in developing guidance for the health service. When scientific and clinical evidence is sparse, promise and plausibility play an increased part in decision-making. Drivers of promise include a clear design and mechanism of action, the possibility of radical improvement in care and/or resource use, and improving health outcomes for large numbers of patients. Plausibility relates to judgements about the whether the promise is likely to be delivered in a "real world" setting. Promise and plausibility need to be balanced against the amount of evidence available. We examine the influence they may have on decision-making compared with other factors such as risk and cost. Decisions about adoption of new devices and diagnostics with little evidence are influenced by judgements of their promise and the plausibility of claims that they will provide benefits in a real-world setting. This kind of decision making needs to be transparent and this article explains how these influences can be balanced against the use of more familiar criteria.

  11. Innovation behaviour and the use of research and extension services in small-scale agricultural holdings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Sandoval, R.; García-Álvarez-Coque, J.M.; Mas-Verdú, F.

    2016-07-01

    Farmers’ views on research and extension services (RES) included in the Agricultural Knowledge and Innovation System are rarely investigated. This study analyses the relationship between key factors of innovation behaviour (market orientation, learning orientation, and innovation attitude) and the use of RES through structural equation modelling, focusing on small-scale agricultural holdings. Market orientation and learning orientation appear to be positively correlated, confirming that synergies between both factors provide a background for innovativeness. Learning orientation and farm-holders’ education level, improve knowledge exchange and make the agriculture innovation process more inclusive. However, farmers’ innovation attitude is not clearly correlated with the use of RES. Motivations about “the will to do innovations” are represented by a construct that does not appear to have a determinant effect as a mediator in farmer’s decisions about using RES.

  12. Laughter is not always funny: breath-holding spells in familial dysautonomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maayan, Channa; Katz, Eliot; Begin, Michal; Yuvchev, Ivelin; Kharasch, Virginia S

    2015-02-01

    Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a genetic disease characterized by primary autonomic dysfunction including parasympathetic hypersensitivity. Breath-holding spells (BHS) are believed to be caused by autonomic dysregulation mediated via the vagus nerve and increased in patients with a family history of BHS. Details and understanding of its pathophysiology are lacking. In this retrospective study of patients with FD, the incidence of BHS was higher at 53.3%, compared with previous studies in normal children. Laughter as a precipitating factor for BHS has not been previously reported in FD and occurred in 10% of patients in this study. Lower lung volumes, chronic lung disease, chronic CO2 retention, and inadequate autonomic compensation occur in those with FD leading to a higher incidence and severity of BHS when crying or laughing. Thus, FD may be a good model for understanding manifestations of the autonomic nervous system dysfunction and contribute to our knowledge of BHS mechanisms. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Innovation behaviour and the use of research and extension services in small-scale agricultural holdings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos-Sandoval, R.; García-Álvarez-Coque, J.M.; Mas-Verdú, F.

    2016-01-01

    Farmers’ views on research and extension services (RES) included in the Agricultural Knowledge and Innovation System are rarely investigated. This study analyses the relationship between key factors of innovation behaviour (market orientation, learning orientation, and innovation attitude) and the use of RES through structural equation modelling, focusing on small-scale agricultural holdings. Market orientation and learning orientation appear to be positively correlated, confirming that synergies between both factors provide a background for innovativeness. Learning orientation and farm-holders’ education level, improve knowledge exchange and make the agriculture innovation process more inclusive. However, farmers’ innovation attitude is not clearly correlated with the use of RES. Motivations about “the will to do innovations” are represented by a construct that does not appear to have a determinant effect as a mediator in farmer’s decisions about using RES.

  14. Assessing and ensuring patient safety during breath-holding for radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, M J; Green, S; Stevens, A M; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2014-11-01

    While there is recent interest in using repeated deep inspiratory breath-holds, or prolonged single breath-holds, to improve radiotherapy delivery, breath-holding has risks. There are no published guidelines for monitoring patient safety, and there is little clinical awareness of the pronounced blood pressure rise and the potential for gradual asphyxia that occur during breath-holding. We describe the blood pressure rise during deep inspiratory breath-holding with air and test whether it can be abolished simply by pre-oxygenation and hypocapnia. We measured blood pressure, oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate in 12 healthy, untrained subjects performing breath-holds. Even for deep inspiratory breath-holds with air, the blood pressure rose progressively (e.g. mean systolic pressure rose from 133 ± 5 to 175 ± 8 mmHg at breakpoint, p breath-hold duration and prevented the development of asphyxia but failed to abolish the pressure rise. The pressure rise was not a function of breath-hold duration and was not signalled by any fall in heart rate (remaining at resting levels of 72 ± 2 beats per minute). Colleagues should be aware of the progressive blood pressure rise during deep inspiratory breath-holding that so far is not easily prevented. In breast cancer patients scheduled for breath-holds, we recommend routine screening for heart, cardiovascular, renal and cerebrovascular disease, routine monitoring of patient blood pressure and SpO2 during breath-holding and requesting patients to stop if systolic pressure rises consistently >180 mmHg and or SpO2 falls breath-holds, or prolonged single breath-holding techniques, to improve radiotherapy delivery. But there appears to be no clinical awareness of the risks to patients from breath-holding. We demonstrate the progressive blood pressure rise during deep inspiratory breath-holds with air, which we show cannot be prevented by the simple expedient of pre-oxygenation and hypocapnia. We propose patient

  15. Effects of Holding Time on Thermomechanical Fatigue Properties of Compacted Graphite Iron Through Tests with Notched Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodrat, Sepideh; Riemslag, Ton A. C.; Kestens, Leo A. I.; Petrov, Roumen H.; Janssen, Michael; Sietsma, Jilt

    2013-05-01

    In cylinder heads of compacted graphite iron (CGI), the heating and cooling cycles can lead to localized cracking due to thermomechanical fatigue (TMF). Traditionally, TMF behavior is studied by thermal cycling of smooth specimens. The resulting number of cycles to failure ( N f) constitutes a single parameter that can be used to predict actual service failures. Nevertheless, there are also some drawbacks of the conventional testing procedures, most noticeably the prolonged testing times and a considerable scatter in test results. To address these drawbacks, TMF tests were performed using notched specimens, resulting in shorter testing times with less scatter. In the case of cast iron, artificial notches do not necessarily change the TMF behavior since the inherent graphite particles behave as internal notches. Using a notch depth of 0.2 mm, the effect of prolonged holding times (HT) on TMF lifetime was studied and a clear effect was found. Extended holding times were also found to be accompanied by relaxation of compressive stresses, causing higher tensile stresses to develop in the subsequent low temperature stages of the TMF cycles. The lifetimes in notched CGI specimens can be predicted by the Paris' fatigue crack growth model. This model was used to differentiate between the individual effects of stress level and holding times on TMF lifetime. Microstructural changes were evaluated by analyzing quantitative data sets obtained by orientation contrast microscopy based on electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD).

  16. Copenhagen's climate finance promise: six key questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J. Timmons [Brown University (United States); Stadelmann, Martin [University of Zurich (Switzerland); Huq, Saleemul

    2010-02-15

    One clear promise emerged from the confusion of the 2009 climate talks in Copenhagen. This was to provide short- and long-term 'climate finance' to help developing countries – especially the most vulnerable – adapt to climate impacts. The promise seemed simple enough: wealthier nations would pledge US$10 billion a year from 2010-2012, ramping up to US$100 billion a year starting in 2020. This was also touted as a way to help developing countries avoid high-carbon pathways of development by adopting lower-emitting power sources such as solar or natural gas. But a closer look at the Copenhagen promise unearths at least six big questions – any one of which could seriously challenge the trust these funds were designed to build.

  17. Holding parents so they can hold their children: grief work with surviving spouses to support parentally bereaved children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner-Lin, Allison; Biank, Nancee M

    A child's adjustment to the death of a parent is greatly influenced by the surviving parent's ability to attend to his or her own grief-related needs, to create and sustain a consistent and nurturing environment, and to encourage the child to express distressing or conflicting thoughts, feelings, and fantasies about the loss. Yet, the surviving parent's grief often compromises their ability to parent consistently and empathically. This article will illustrate how, by providing a holding environment for whole families, clinicians can help parents to facilitate children's grief reactions and, thus, mitigate long-term adverse mental health outcomes. Family Matters programs, designed and implemented in a community agency, use a holistic approach to family support and treatment in a milieu setting. Combining therapeutic work with surviving spouses and bereaved children supports children's grief while facilitating newly single parents as they adapt the structure of family life. When clinical work with families begins before the ill parent dies, the clinicians may build a relationship with the dying parent, prepare the child and surviving spouse for life after loss, and support continuity in family culture. We introduce a curriculum for simultaneously supporting bereaved children and parents, present a series of common challenges faced by surviving parents, and suggest avenues for intervention research.

  18. Big data analytics in healthcare: promise and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghupathi, Wullianallur; Raghupathi, Viju

    2014-01-01

    To describe the promise and potential of big data analytics in healthcare. The paper describes the nascent field of big data analytics in healthcare, discusses the benefits, outlines an architectural framework and methodology, describes examples reported in the literature, briefly discusses the challenges, and offers conclusions. The paper provides a broad overview of big data analytics for healthcare researchers and practitioners. Big data analytics in healthcare is evolving into a promising field for providing insight from very large data sets and improving outcomes while reducing costs. Its potential is great; however there remain challenges to overcome.

  19. Promising design options for the encapsulated nuclear heat source reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, L.; Carelli, M.D.; Dzodzo, M. [Westinghouse Science and Technology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hossain, Q.; Brown, N.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Wade, D.C.; Sienick, J.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Greenspan, E.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Saphier, D. [University of California Dept of Nuclear Engineering, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Promising design options for the Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) liquid-metal cooled fast reactor were identified during the first year of the DOE NERI program sponsored feasibility study. Many opportunities for incorporation of innovations in design and fabrication were identified. Three of the innovations are hereby described: a novel IHX (intermediate heat exchanger) made of a relatively small number of rectangular channels, an ENHS module design featuring 100% natural circulation, and a novel conceptual design of core support and fuelling. As a result of the first year study the ENHS concept appears more practical and more promising than perceived at the outset of this study. (authors)

  20. Promising design options for the encapsulated nuclear heat source reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, L.; Carelli, M.D.; Dzodzo, M.; Hossain, Q.; Brown, N.W.; Wade, D.C.; Sienick, J.J.; Greenspan, E.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Saphier, D.

    2001-01-01

    Promising design options for the Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) liquid-metal cooled fast reactor were identified during the first year of the DOE NERI program sponsored feasibility study. Many opportunities for incorporation of innovations in design and fabrication were identified. Three of the innovations are hereby described: a novel IHX (intermediate heat exchanger) made of a relatively small number of rectangular channels, an ENHS module design featuring 100% natural circulation, and a novel conceptual design of core support and fuelling. As a result of the first year study the ENHS concept appears more practical and more promising than perceived at the outset of this study. (authors)

  1. Apparatus and method for generating a magnetic field by rotation of a charge holding object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Vukovic, Lela [Westchester, IL; Rathke, Jerome W [Homer Glenn, IL

    2009-10-13

    A device and a method for the production of a magnetic field using a Charge Holding Object that is mechanically rotated. In a preferred embodiment, a Charge Holding Object surrounding a sample rotates and subjects the sample to one or more magnetic fields. The one or more magnetic fields are used by NMR Electronics connected to an NMR Conductor positioned within the Charge Holding Object to perform NMR analysis of the sample.

  2. 体力と息こらえ(breath holding)の相関関係

    OpenAIRE

    "川上, 雅之"; "カワカミ, マサユキ"; Masayuki", "Kawakami

    1980-01-01

    "This research is an analysis of the correlation of the length of the breath holding with physical fitness. These tests of physical fitness were measured by side step test, vertical jump, back strenrgth, grip strength, trunk extension, standing trunk flexion and step test. Following results were obtained : 1) The length of breath holding is correlated with physical characteristics such as height, circumference chest and body surface area. 2) The length of breath holding is correlated with phy...

  3. The koala hold from down under: another choice in breastfeeding position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Shannon C

    2013-05-01

    While there are no set rules about breastfeeding positions, Australian lactation practice has traditionally recommended some established ones. One position that can provide an alternative is the "Koala Hold." This hold mimics that of the koala such that the baby is straddled on the mother's knee, skin to skin, in the upright position. This article describes the techniques of the Koala Hold and identifies the advantages and considerations for the use of this position.

  4. Liquid holding recovery and photoreactivation of the ultraviolet-inactivated vibrios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.K.; Chatterjee, S.N.

    1981-01-01

    The kinetics of liquid holding recovery and photoreactivation of the ultra-violet-inactivated vibrios have been investigated. Photoreactivation was highest (about 80%) for Vibrio cholerae (classical) strains but the liquid holding recovery was highest (about 29%) for Vibrio parahemolyticus ones. Significance of the differences between any two of the four vibrio biotypes in respect of their liquid holding recovery and also photoreactivation was analysed statistically. (auth.)

  5. Adults' preferences for side-of-hold as portrayed in paintings of the Madonna and Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lauren Julius; Cardénas, Rodrigo Andrés; Spradlin, Michael P; Almerigi, Jason B

    2009-11-01

    Most women hold infants on their left side. They do the same when depicted in works of art. Does the latter accurately reflect the real-life bias, the artist's own aesthetic preference, or something else, such as the artist's handedness, sex, direction of attentional bias, or even the artist's own side-preference for holding infants? As a first step to finding out, we showed 272 young adults (85 men, 187 women) 20 pairs of paintings of the Madonna and Child, the original on one side, its mirror-reversal on the other, and asked which one they preferred. Along with assessing the effects of the variables already mentioned, we used equal numbers of paintings originally depicting left-holds and right-holds to control for the possible effects of differences between the paintings other than side-of-hold itself, such as in their colour scheme, background details, and the type of hold shown (e.g., cradle vs seated on lap). Each pair was presented twice, once with the original on the left, once on the right, for a total of 40 trials. Women and men alike more often preferred left-hold images, but the difference was significant only for women. Preferences were also stronger for original left-hold paintings than for the mirror-reversals of original right-hold paintings, suggesting that the originals differed in ways affecting preference beyond those we tried to control. Overall preference for left-hold images was enhanced when the images were on the viewer's left. As for the other variables, they were for the most part unrelated to preferences. The reasons for the preference thus remain unclear but it is evidently affected by multiple variables, with at least some clearly different from those affecting side-of-hold preferences of real mothers holding real infants.

  6. EFFECTS OF ORAL IRON SUPPLEMENT ON BREATH-HOLDING SPELLS IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    S.H. TONEKABONI; S. ALAVI; F. MAHVELATI; Z. TABASI

    2006-01-01

    Objectives:Breath holding spells are one of the most frequent and important diagnostic challenges in pediatrics. The aim of this study, conducted on pediatric patients referring to the pediatric neurology clinic in Hormozgan province, was to evaluate therapeutic effects of iron on breath holding spellsMaterials and Methods:35 children (19 males and 16 females), aged between 3 to 60 months, with a history of breath-holding spells, were included in the trial. To obtain all relevant data a speci...

  7. Breath Holding Spells in Children with Long QT Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jeffrey A; Bos, J Martijn; Etheridge, Susan P; Ackerman, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a genetic heart rhythm disorder that may present with syncope, seizures, or sudden cardiac death. Breath holding spells (BHS) occur in 5% of all children and have been noted in children with LQTS anecdotally. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of BHS in children diagnosed with LQTS at ≤5 years of age. A retrospective review was performed to identify children diagnosed with LQTS who were ≤5 years old at initial presentation to our LQTS clinic from August 1999 to November 2013. The mean length of follow-up was 6.4 ± 2.8 years. The electronic medical records were reviewed for clinical presentation of BHS, as well as LQTS-associated symptoms, diagnostic tests, and treatment. The study cohort consisted of 115 children with LQTS (58% male; median age at diagnosis, 11 months [range, birth to 5 years]; mean corrected QT interval (QTc), 478 ± 60 milliseconds). At presentation, 80% of patients were asymptomatic. Genetic testing revealed type 1 LQTS (LQT1) in 48%. Overall, 5 of 115 patients (4.3%) had BHS (2 of 5 [40%] male, mean QTc: 492 ± 14 milliseconds, 4 [80%] with family history of LQTS). BHS were the presenting symptom in 1 of 23 symptomatic patients (4.3%). All BHS occurred in patients with LQT1 (P = .02). Although BHS among children with LQTS are relatively rare and occur at similar frequency as the general population, they can be the presenting symptom for a heart rhythm disorder. Careful attention to BHS is important to distinguish an innocent BHS from a potential LQTS-triggered cardiac event so that proper treatment is initiated. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Self-face Captures, Holds, and Biases Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał J. Wójcik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The implicit self-recognition process may take place already in the pre-attentive stages of perception. After a silent stimulus has captured attention, it is passed on to the attentive stage where it can affect decision making and responding. Numerous studies show that the presence of self-referential information affects almost every cognitive level. These effects may share a common and fundamental basis in an attentional mechanism, conceptualized as attentional bias: the exaggerated deployment of attentional resources to a salient stimulus. A gold standard in attentional bias research is the dot-probe paradigm. In this task, a prominent stimulus (cue and a neutral stimulus are presented in different spatial locations, followed by the presentation of a target. In the current study we aimed at investigating whether the self-face captures, holds and biases attention when presented as a task-irrelevant stimulus. In two dot-probe experiments coupled with the event-related potential (ERP technique we analyzed the following relevant ERPs components: N2pc and SPCN which reflect attentional shifts and the maintenance of attention, respectively. An inter-stimulus interval separating face-cues and probes (800 ms was introduced only in the first experiment. In line with our predictions, in Experiment 1 the self-face elicited the N2pc and the SPCN component. In Experiment 2 in addition to N2pc, an attentional bias was observed. Our results indicate that unintentional self-face processing disables the top-down control setting to filter out distractors, thus leading to the engagement of attentional resources and visual short-term memory.

  9. Wireless cellular networks with Pareto-distributed call holding times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Dagnino, Ramon M.; Takagi, Hideaki

    2001-07-01

    Nowadays, there is a growing interest in providing internet to mobile users. For instance, NTT DoCoMo in Japan deploys an important mobile phone network with that offers the Internet service, named 'i-mode', to more than 17 million subscribers. Internet traffic measurements show that the session duration of Call Holding Time (CHT) has probability distributions with heavy-tails, which tells us that they depart significantly from the traffic statistics of traditional voice services. In this environment, it is particularly important to know the number of handovers during a call for a network designer to make an appropriate dimensioning of virtual circuits for a wireless cell. The handover traffic has a direct impact on the Quality of Service (QoS); e.g. the service disruption due to the handover failure may significantly degrade the specified QoS of time-constrained services. In this paper, we first study the random behavior of the number of handovers during a call, where we assume that the CHT are Pareto distributed (heavy-tail distribution), and the Cell Residence Times (CRT) are exponentially distributed. Our approach is based on renewal theory arguments. We present closed-form formulae for the probability mass function (pmf) of the number of handovers during a Pareto distributed CHT, and obtain the probability of call completion as well as handover rates. Most of the formulae are expressed in terms of the Whittaker's function. We compare the Pareto case with cases of $k(subscript Erlang and hyperexponential distributions for the CHT.

  10. Quantifying the risk of nosocomial infection within Ebola Holding Units: a retrospective cohort study of negative patients discharged from five Ebola Holding Units in Western Area, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkell, Paul; Youkee, Daniel; Brown, Colin S; Kamara, Abdul; Kamara, Thaim B; Johnson, Oliver; Lado, Marta; George, Viginia; Koroma, Fatmata; King, Matilda B; Parker, Benson E; Baker, Peter

    2017-01-01

    A central pillar in the response to the 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in Sierra Leone was the role of Ebola Holding Units (EHUs). These units isolated patients meeting a suspect case definition, tested them for EVD, initiated appropriate early treatment and discharged negative patients to onward inpatient care or home. Positive patients were referred to Ebola Treatment Centres. We aimed to estimate the risk of nosocomial transmission within these EHUs. We followed up a cohort of 543 patients discharged with a negative EVD test from five EHUs in the Western Area, Sierra Leone, and examined all line-listed subsequent EVD tests from any facility in the Western Area to see whether the patient was retested within 30 days, matching by name, age and address. We defined possible readmissions as having the same name and age but uncertain address, and confirmed readmissions where name, age and address matched. We found a positive readmission rate of 3.3% (18 cases), which included 1.5% confirmed readmissions (8 cases) and 1.8% possible readmissions (10 cases). This is lower than rates previously reported. We cannot ascertain whether EVD was acquired within the EHUs or from re-exposure in the community. No demographic or clinical variables were identified as risk factors for positive readmission, likely due to our small sample size. These findings support the EHU model as a safe method for isolation of suspect EVD patients and their role in limiting the spread of EVD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A clinical evaluation of visual feedback-guided breath-hold reproducibility of tumor location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Ohga, Saiji; Nonoshita, Takeshi; Ohnishi, Kayoko; Terashima, Kotaro; Honda, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Arimura, Hidetaka; Hirata, Hideki

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of visual feedback-guided breath-hold using a machine vision system with a charge-coupled device camera and a monocular head-mounted display. Sixteen patients with lung tumors who were treated with stereotactic radiotherapy were enrolled. A machine vision system with a charge-coupled device camera was used for monitoring respiration. A monocular head-mounted display was used to provide the patient with visual feedback about the breathing trace. The patients could control their breathing so that the breathing waveform would fall between the upper and lower threshold lines. Planning and treatment were performed under visual feedback-guided expiratory breath-hold. Electronic portal images were obtained during treatment. The range of cranial-caudal motion of the tumor location during each single breath-hold was calculated as the intra-breath-hold (intra-BH) variability. The maximum displacement between the two to five averaged tumor locations of each single breath-hold was calculated as the inter-breath-hold (inter-BH) variability. All 16 patients tolerated the visual feedback-guided breath-hold maneuvers well. The intra- and inter-BH variability of all patients was 1.5 ± 0.6 mm and 1.2 ± 0.5 mm, respectively. A visual feedback-guided breath-hold technique using the machine vision system is feasible with good breath-hold reproducibility.

  12. Voluntary Breath-hold Technique for Reducing Heart Dose in Left Breast Radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Frederick R.; Colgan, Ruth M.; Donovan, Ellen M.; Carr, Karen; Landeg, Steven; Clements, Nicola; McNair, Helen A.; Locke, Imogen; Evans, Philip M.; Haviland, Joanne S.; Yarnold, John R.; Kirby, Anna M.

    2014-01-01

    Breath-holding techniques reduce the amount of radiation received by cardiac structures during tangential-field left breast radiotherapy. With these techniques, patients hold their breath while radiotherapy is delivered, pushing the heart down and away from the radiotherapy field. Despite clear dosimetric benefits, these techniques are not yet in widespread use. One reason for this is that commercially available solutions require specialist equipment, necessitating not only significant capital investment, but often also incurring ongoing costs such as a need for daily disposable mouthpieces. The voluntary breath-hold technique described here does not require any additional specialist equipment. All breath-holding techniques require a surrogate to monitor breath-hold consistency and whether breath-hold is maintained. Voluntary breath-hold uses the distance moved by the anterior and lateral reference marks (tattoos) away from the treatment room lasers in breath-hold to monitor consistency at CT-planning and treatment setup. Light fields are then used to monitor breath-hold consistency prior to and during radiotherapy delivery. PMID:25046661

  13. Qualitative assessment of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography using breath-hold and non-breath-hold techniques in the portal venous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Eun-Hoe; Kim, Sun-Ju; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Kim, Kwang-Choul; Chung, Woon-Kwan

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the image quality in delineation of the portal venous systems with two different methods, breath-hold and non-breath-hold by using the 3D FLASH sequence. We used a 1.5 T system to obtain magnetic resonance(MR)images. Arterial and portal phase 3D FLASH images were obtained with breath-hold after a bolus injection of GD-DOTA. The detection of PVS on the MR angiograms was classified into three grades. First, the angiograms of the breath-hold method showed well the portal vein, the splenic vein and the superior mesenteric vein systems in 13 of 15 patients (86%) and the inferior mesenteric vein system in 6 of 15 patients (40%), Second, MR angiograms of the non-breath-hold method demonstrated the PVS and the SMV in 12 of 15 patients (80%) and the IMV in 5 of 15 patients (33%). Our study showed contrast-enhanced 3D FLASH MR angiography, together with the breath-hold technique, may provide reliable and accurate information on the portal venous system.

  14. Multi-slice CT for visualization of acute pulmonary embolism: single breath-hold subtraction technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildberger, J.E.; Mahnken, A.H.; Spuentrup, E.; Guenther, R.W. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. of Technology, Aachen (Germany); Klotz, E.; Ditt, H. [Siemens Medical Solutions, Computed Tomography, Forchheim (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: the purpose of our preliminary animal study was to evaluate the feasibility of a new subtraction technique for visualization of perfusion defects within the lung parenchyma in segmental and subsegmental pulmonary embolism (PE). Materials and methods: in three healthy pigs, PE were artificially induced by fresh human clot material. Within a single breath-hold, CT angiography (CTA) was performed on a 16-slice multi-slice CT scanner (SOMATOM Sensation 16; Siemens, Forchheim, Germany) before and after intravenous application of 80 mL of contrast-medium, followed by a saline chaser. Scan parameters were 120 kV and 100 mAs{sub eff.}, using a collimation of 16 x 1.5 mm and a table speed/rot. of 36 mm (pitch: 1.5; rotation time: 0.5 s). A new 3D subtraction technique was developed, which is based on automated segmentation, non-linear spatial filtering and non-rigid registration. Data were analysed using a color-encoded ''compound view'' of parenchymal enhancement and CTA information displayed in axial, coronal and sagittal orientation. Results: subtraction was technically feasible in all three data sets. The mean scan time for each series was 4.7 s, interscan delay was 14.7 s, respectively. Therefore, an average breath-hold of approximately 24 s was required for the overall scanning procedure. Downstream of occluded segmental and subsegmental arteries, perfusion defects were clearly assessable, showing lower or missing enhancement compared to normally perfused lung parenchyma. In all pigs, additional peripheral areas with triangular shaped perfusion defects were delineated, considered typical for PE. Conclusions: our initial results from the animal model studied slow that perfusion imaging of PE is feasible within a single breath-hold. It allows a comprehensive assessment of perfusion deficits as the direct proof of a pulmonary embolus, can be combined with an indirect visual quantification of the density changes in the adjacent lung tissue

  15. Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: Findings from Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libretto, Salvatore; Nemes, Susanna; Namur, Jenny; Garrett, Gerald; Hess, Lauren; Kaplan, Linda

    2005-01-01

    In a study to evaluate the drug treatment and aftercare efforts sponsored by the State Department's International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs Bureau, residential Therapeutic Community (TC) treatment programs in three countries in Southeast Asia--Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand--were examined to identify promising practices and to…

  16. Promising Practices in Drug Treatment: An Overview of Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Gerald; Nemes, Susanna; Hoffman, Jeffrey; Libretto, Salvatore; Skinstadt, Anne Helene; Hess, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a research project sponsored and funded by the State Department's Bureau of International Narcotics and Affairs (INL) on substance abuse and treatment in ten countries. The purpose of the study was to identify promising practices in drug treatment in Europe, Latin America, and Southeast Asia. The steps taken to complete this…

  17. Pomological and phenological characteristics of promising rose hip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine pomological and phenological characteristics of eleven promising rose hip (Rosa) genotypes chosen from wild populations in Tokat region of northern Anatolia, Turkey. Plants were propagated by cuttings and planted in 2000 at the research station of the Horticultural Department of ...

  18. Augmented Reality Based Doppler Lidar Data Visualization: Promises and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherukuru N. W.

    2016-01-01

    As a proof of concept, we used the lidar data from a recent field campaign and developed a smartphone application to view the lidar scan in augmented reality. In this paper, we give a brief methodology of this feasibility study, present the challenges and promises of using AR technology in conjunction with Doppler wind lidars.

  19. Understanding the promises and premises of online health platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijck, J.; Poell, T.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the claims and complexities involved in the platform-based economics of health and fitness apps. We examine a double-edged logic inscribed in these platforms, promising to offer personal solutions to medical problems while also contributing to the public good. On the one

  20. 78 FR 63913 - Proposed Priority-Promise Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... neighborhood a child grows up in affects his or her odds of graduating from high school, health outcomes, and... to ensure that hard-working Americans make it to the middle class. Promise Zones will align the work... are creating jobs, increasing economic activity, improving educational opportunities, reducing violent...

  1. Promises of Money Meant to Heighten Student Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Katie

    2008-01-01

    Does motivating students to study harder with the promise of cash sound like innovation--or bribery? That's a question educators and researchers have been debating, amid concerns that money-for-achievement programs actually decrease students' intrinsic motivation to learn and send mixed messages about studying. But the idea is catching on, with…

  2. History in the Junior College Classroom: Problems and Promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, James W.

    This paper assesses the problems faced in teaching history in the junior college classroom and the promise of and possibilities for new departures in the instructor's role. The problems are seen as: 1) the question of emphasis within the junior college curriculum; 2) the widespread vocational-technical orientation of students and administrators;…

  3. Vachellia karroo leaf meal: a promising non-conventional feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vachellia karroo leaf meal: a promising non-conventional feed resource for improving goat production in low-input farming systems of Southern Africa. ... Vachellia karroo possesses desirable fatty acid profiles, and high protein and mineral contents that can improve animal performance. Presently, the use of V. karroo for ...

  4. Postmodernism and the need for story and promise: How Robert ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modernity's belief that we live in a narratable world (a world with a story) and its confidence in progress (a world with a promise), are terminated by postmodernism's insights. This is how the American Lutheran theologian Robert Jenson understands the impact of postmodernism. If this is true, it poses great challenges for the ...

  5. Promise and Progress of Millihertz Gravitational-Wave Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.

    2017-01-01

    Extending the new field of gravitational wave (GW) astronomy into the millihertz band with a space-based GW observatory is a high-priority objective of international astronomy community. This paper summarizes the astrophysical promise and the technological groundwork for such an observatory, concretely focusing on the prospects for the proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission concept.

  6. Why do promises affect trustworthiness, or do they?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismayilov, Huseyn; Potters, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We set out to test whether the effect of promises on trustworthiness derives from the fact that they are made (internal consistency) or that they are received (social obligation). The results of an experimental trust game appeared at first to support the former mechanism. Even when trustee messages

  7. Rulers against Writers, Writers against Rulers: The Failed Promise of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various literary critics have dwelt on the nature, tenets and trends of commitment in Nigeria literature. However, there is paucity of scholarly studies on the representations of the failed promise to the public sphere in postcolonial Nigerian fiction. This paper, therefore, examines the strategies and technicalities of representing ...

  8. Dendritic cell vaccines in melanoma: from promise to proof?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesterhuis, W. J.; Aarntzen, E. H. J. G.; de Vries, I. J. M.; Schuurhuis, D. H.; Figdor, C. G.; Adema, G. J.; Punt, C. J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are the directors of the immune system, capable of inducing tumour antigen-specific T- and B-cell responses. As such, they are currently applied in clinical studies in cancer patients. Early small clinical trials showed promising results, with frequent induction of anti-cancer

  9. Reducing Aggressive Male Behavior in Elementary School: Promising Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Barbara; Gibson, Jamel; Morrison-Danner, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    Student aggression and violent behavior, especially among males, is pervasive and problematic in the classroom. When incorporated in the lesson design, promising practices (music, movement, and visual stimulation) are evidence-based strategies that may reduce male aggression in the classroom.

  10. Promising Teacher Practices: Students' Views about Their Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeed, Azra; Easterbrook, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Internationally, conceptual and procedural understanding, understanding the Nature of Science, and scientific literacy are considered worthy goals of school science education in modern times. The empirical study presented here reports on promising teacher practices that in the students' views afford learning opportunities and support their science…

  11. The Pittsburgh Promise: A Community's Commitment to Its Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghubril, Saleem

    2013-01-01

    The nonprofit community-based organization Pittsburgh Promise aims to help revitalize Pittsburgh and its public school system by offering college scholarships to any Pittsburgh Public School graduate who meets the academic requirements. Executive director Saleem Ghubril spoke with "Voices in Urban Education" guest editor Jacob Mishook…

  12. Immobilization of microbial cells: A promising tool for treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suzana

    2013-07-10

    Jul 10, 2013 ... Review. Immobilization of microbial cells: A promising tool for treatment of toxic pollutants in industrial ... immobilized microorganisms could be cost effective since they can be used several times without ..... controlling the cell immobilization on the support (Hsu et al., 2004, Górecka and Jastrzębska, 2011).

  13. Infliximab (Revellex(R)): a promise fulfilled?: medicine in practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infliximab (Revellex(R)): a promise fulfilled?: medicine in practice. JP Wright. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  14. Review of regional economic models with special reference to labor impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, G.; Mason, B.

    1979-06-01

    This paper reviews several regional economic models and examines the capabilities of these models for assessing the total employment impacts of solar energy adoption. Five generic analytic methods are discussed: economic base analysis, shift-share analysis, demographic-economic interaction models, input-output analysis, and industrial location analysis. Ten regional models incorporating some aspect of these methods are reviewed. From the model review, the conclusion is drawn that there is no single model that fits all of the necessary criteria for planned research efforts. Models that appear to hold promise are the Economic Activity Analysis (EAA) Model, the Regional Industrial Multipliers System (RIMS), the Multiregion, Multi-industry (MRMI) Model, and the MULTIREGION model.

  15. Translation regulation in plants: an interesting past, an exciting present and a promising future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchante, Catharina; Stepanova, Anna N; Alonso, Jose M

    2017-05-01

    Changes in gene expression are at the core of most biological processes, from cell differentiation to organ development, including the adaptation of the whole organism to the ever-changing environment. Although the central role of transcriptional regulation is solidly established and the general mechanisms involved in this type of regulation are relatively well understood, it is clear that regulation at a translational level also plays an essential role in modulating gene expression. Despite the large number of examples illustrating the critical role played by translational regulation in determining the expression levels of a gene, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind such types of regulation has been slow to emerge. With the recent development of high-throughput approaches to map and quantify different critical parameters affecting translation, such as RNA structure, protein-RNA interactions and ribosome occupancy at the genome level, a renewed enthusiasm toward studying translation regulation is warranted. The use of these new powerful technologies in well-established and uncharacterized translation-dependent processes holds the promise to decipher the likely complex and diverse, but also fascinating, mechanisms behind the regulation of translation. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Curcumin is a promising inhibitor of genotype 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Taofeng; Shi, Yunpeng; Xiao, Shuqi; Li, Na; Zhao, Qin; Zhang, Angke; Nan, Yuchen; Mu, Yang; Sun, Yani; Wu, Chunyan; Zhang, Hongtao; Zhou, En-Min

    2017-10-10

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) could lead to pandemic diseases and huge financial losses to the swine industry worldwide. Curcumin, a natural compound, has been reported to serve as an entry inhibitor of hepatitis C virus, chikungunya virus and vesicular stomatitis virus. In this study, we investigated the potential effect of curcumin on early stages of PRRSV infection. Curcumin inhibited infection of Marc-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) by four different genotype 2 PRRSV strains, but had no effect on the levels of major PRRSV receptor proteins on Marc-145 cells and PAMs or on PRRSV binding to Marc-145 cells. However, curcumin did block two steps of the PRRSV infection process: virus internalization and virus-mediated cell fusion. Our results suggested that an inhibition of genotype 2 PRRSV infection by curcumin is virus strain-independent, and mainly inhibited by virus internalization and cell fusion mediated by virus. Collectively, these results demonstrate that curcumin holds promise as a new anti-PRRSV drug.

  17. CRISPR/Cas9: a promising way to exploit genetic variation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Reema; Yadav, Prashant; Barbadikar, Kalyani M; Baliyan, Nikita; Malhotra, Era Vaidya; Singh, Binay Kumar; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Dhiraj

    2016-12-01

    Creation of variation in existing gene pool of crop plants is the foremost requirement in crop improvement programmes. Genome editing is a tool to produce knock out of target genes either by introduction of insertion or by deletion that disrupts the function of a specific gene. The CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9) system is the most recent addition to the toolbox of sequence-specific nucleases that includes ZFNs and TALENs. The CRISPR/Cas9 system allows targeted cleavage of genomic DNA guided by a small noncoding RNA, resulting in gene modifications by both non-homologous end joining and homology-directed repair mechanisms. Here, we present an overview of mechanisms of CRISPR, its potential roles in creating variation in germplasm and applications of this novel interference pathway in crop improvement. The availability of the CRISPR/Cas9 system holds promise in facilitating both forward and reverse genetics and will enhance research in crops that lack genetic resources.

  18. The promise of digital mood tracking technologies: are we heading on the right track?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Gin S; Hamilton, Amber; Morris, Grace; Mannie, Zola; Das, Pritha; Outhred, Tim

    2017-11-01

    The growing understanding that mood disorders are dynamic in nature and fluctuate over variable epochs of time has compelled researchers to develop innovative methods of monitoring mood. Technological advancement now allows for the detection of minute-to-minute changes while also capturing a longitudinal perspective of an individual's illness. Traditionally, assessments of mood have been conducted by means of clinical interviews and paper surveys. However, these methods are often inaccurate due to recall bias and compliance issues, and are limited in their capacity to collect and process data over long periods of time. The increased capability, availability and affordability of digital technologies in recent decades has offered a novel, non-invasive alternative to monitoring mood and emotion in daily life. This paper reviews the emerging literature addressing the use of digital mood tracking technologies, primarily focusing on the strengths and inherent limitations of using these new methods including electronic self-report, behavioural data collection and wearable physiological biosensors. This developing field holds great promise in generating novel insights into the mechanistic processes of mood disorders and improving personalised clinical care. However, further research is needed to validate many of these novel approaches to ensure that these devices are indeed achieving their purpose of capturing changes in mood. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Mindfulness practice: A promising approach to reducing the effects of clinician implicit bias on patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Diana J; Beach, Mary Catherine; Saha, Somnath

    2017-02-01

    Like the population at large, health care providers hold implicit racial and ethnic biases that may contribute to health care disparities. Little progress has been made in identifying and implementing effective strategies to address these normal but potentially harmful unconscious cognitive processes. We propose that meditation training designed to increase healthcare providers' mindfulness skills is a promising and potentially sustainable way to address this problem. Emerging evidence suggests that mindfulness practice can reduce the provider contribution to healthcare disparities through several mechanisms including: reducing the likelihood that implicit biases will be activated in the mind, increasing providers' awareness of and ability to control responses to implicit biases once activated, increasing self-compassion and compassion toward patients, and reducing internal sources of cognitive load (e.g., stress, burnout, and compassion fatigue). Mindfulness training may also have advantages over current approaches to addressing implicit bias because it focuses on the development of skills through practice, promotes a nonjudgmental approach, can circumvent resistance some providers feel when directly confronted with evidence of racism, and constitutes a holistic approach to promoting providers' well-being. We close with suggestions for how a mindfulness approach can be practically implemented and identify potential challenges and research gaps to be addressed. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. The promise of documentary theatre to counter ageism in age-friendly communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Kathy; Lipscomb, Valerie Barnes

    2017-08-01

    This paper discusses an innovative theatre-arts collaboration that was created to provoke public discourse about aging in a community located in the Southeastern United States in which more than one-half of residents are age 50 or older. The development and execution of the documentary theatre production are explicated and the post-performance talk-backs with the audience are shared to illustrate how it facilitated insight and dialogue among its largely older audiences. Experience with this production suggests that academics can collaborate with professional artists to promote the subjective experience of aging as a positive appreciation of self. Consequently, the play holds promise to counter deeply ingrained negative self-beliefs about aging and foster greater acceptance about the experience of others. In addition, the play represents a unique community-based effort to enhance respect and social inclusion, a core domain of livability in the age-friendly community movement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Aptamers as promising molecular recognition elements for diagnostics and therapeutics in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Erin M; Holahan, Matthew R; DeRosa, Maria C

    2014-12-01

    Oligonucleotide aptamers are short, synthetic, single-stranded DNA or RNA able to recognize and bind to a multitude of targets ranging from small molecules to cells. Aptamers have emerged as valuable tools for fundamental research, clinical diagnosis, and therapy. Due to their small size, strong target affinity, lack of immunogenicity, and ease of chemical modification, aptamers are an attractive alternative to other molecular recognition elements, such as antibodies. Although it is a challenging environment, the central nervous system and related molecular targets present an exciting potential area for aptamer research. Aptamers hold promise for targeted drug delivery, diagnostics, and therapeutics. Here we review recent advances in aptamer research for neurotransmitter and neurotoxin targets, demyelinating disease and spinal cord injury, cerebrovascular disorders, pathologies related to protein aggregation (Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and prions), brain cancer (glioblastomas and gliomas), and regulation of receptor function. Challenges and limitations posed by the blood brain barrier are described. Future perspectives for the application of aptamers to the central nervous system are also discussed.

  2. The Promised Savior in Pre-Islamic Great Religions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Arab

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the ancient times the belief in the rise of the Reformer has been a fundamental principle. Many of the holy prophets have announced the advent of new prophet. Moreover in the announcements and indications of predecessors there are always allusions to "the Last Promised" and "the Savior of Last Days" under such titles as "Kalki", "Fifth Buddha", "Soshyans", "Messiah", "The Son of Man" and so on and so forth. Of course there are different types of belief in the last reformer in religions. In one place the Savior is merely a social reformer while in another place he is only after the spiritual salvation of people and even sometimes he undertakes both tasks. On the other hand, the Last Promised is once nationalist and once seeks to save the whole world.    This essay seeks to assay the views of pre-Islamic great religions including Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism and Buddhism as to the Promised Savior. This essay is an analytico-descriptive research which has based itself on the first hand works comprising the sacred scriptures of religions and proceeds through the typological analyses of idea of the Promised in religions.    Zoroastrianism: the idea of the Promised has been tied to the notion of Soshyant. Generally speaking, this notion alludes to a group of people who periodically emerge at the end of every millennium of the last three millennia of world's age so as to uproot evil and renew the world, the last one of these reformers is Soshyans. According to the aforementioned typology, Zoroastrian idea of Last Savior is among the Promised who saves the whole world. Moreover Zoroastrian Promised cannot be declared only a social savior as he is not wholly detached from people's spirituality too. From another point of view, Zoroastrian idea of the Promised represents a universal and not nationalist savior who is relatively a human and not divine entity who emerges in the last millennium of world's age.    Judaism: in the

  3. The Promised Savior in Pre-Islamic Great Religions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Arab

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the ancient times the belief in the rise of the Reformer has been a fundamental principle. Many of the holy prophets have announced the advent of new prophet. Moreover in the announcements and indications of predecessors there are always allusions to "the Last Promised" and "the Savior of Last Days" under such titles as "Kalki", "Fifth Buddha", "Soshyans", "Messiah", "The Son of Man" and so on and so forth. Of course there are different types of belief in the last reformer in religions. In one place the Savior is merely a social reformer while in another place he is only after the spiritual salvation of people and even sometimes he undertakes both tasks. On the other hand, the Last Promised is once nationalist and once seeks to save the whole world.    This essay seeks to assay the views of pre-Islamic great religions including Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, Hinduism and Buddhism as to the Promised Savior. This essay is an analytico-descriptive research which has based itself on the first hand works comprising the sacred scriptures of religions and proceeds through the typological analyses of idea of the Promised in religions.    Zoroastrianism: the idea of the Promised has been tied to the notion of Soshyant. Generally speaking, this notion alludes to a group of people who periodically emerge at the end of every millennium of the last three millennia of world's age so as to uproot evil and renew the world, the last one of these reformers is Soshyans. According to the aforementioned typology, Zoroastrian idea of Last Savior is among the Promised who saves the whole world. Moreover Zoroastrian Promised cannot be declared only a social savior as he is not wholly detached from people's spirituality too. From another point of view, Zoroastrian idea of the Promised represents a universal and not nationalist savior who is relatively a human and not divine entity who emerges in the last millennium of world's age.    Judaism: in the

  4. Crack growth threshold under hold time conditions in DA Inconel 718 – A transition in the crack growth mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fessler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeroengine manufacturers have to demonstrate that critical components such as turbine disks, made of DA Inconel 718, meet the certification requirements in term of fatigue crack growth. In order to be more representative of the in service loading conditions, crack growth under hold time conditions is studied. Modelling crack growth under these conditions is challenging due to the combined effect of fatigue, creep and environment. Under these conditions, established models are often conservative but the degree of conservatism can be reduced by introducing the crack growth threshold in models. Here, the emphasis is laid on the characterization of crack growth rates in the low ΔK regime under hold time conditions and in particular, on the involved crack growth mechanism. Crack growth tests were carried out at high temperature (550 °C to 650 °C under hold time conditions (up to 1200 s in the low ΔK regime using a K-decreasing procedure. Scanning electron microscopy was used to identify the fracture mode involved in the low ΔK regime. EBSD analyses and BSE imaging were also carried out along the crack path for a more accurate identification of the fracture mode. A transition from intergranular to transgranular fracture was evidenced in the low ΔK regime and slip bands have also been observed at the tip of an arrested crack at low ΔK. Transgranular fracture and slip bands are usually observed under pure fatigue loading conditions. At low ΔK, hold time cycles are believed to act as equivalent pure fatigue cycles. This change in the crack growth mechanism under hold time conditions at low ΔK is discussed regarding results related to intergranular crack tip oxidation and its effect on the crack growth behaviour of Inconel 718 alloy. A concept based on an “effective oxygen partial pressure” at the crack tip is proposed to explain the transition from transgranular to intergranular fracture in the low ΔK regime.

  5. Intravenous Gadoxetate Disodium Administration Reduces Breath-holding Capacity in the Hepatic Arterial Phase: A Multi-Center Randomized Placebo-controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Taylor R; Motosugi, Utaroh; Middleton, Michael S; Allen, Brian C; Jaffe, Tracy A; Miller, Chad M; Reeder, Scott B; Sirlin, Claude B; Bashir, Mustafa R

    2017-02-01

    Purpose To determine, in a multicenter double-blinded placebo-controlled trial, whether maximal hepatic arterial phase breath-holding duration is affected by gadoxetate disodium administration. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained for this prospective multi-institutional HIPAA-compliant study; written informed consent was obtained from all subjects. At three sites, a total of 44 volunteers underwent a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging examination in which images were acquired before and dynamically after bolus injection of gadoxetate disodium, normal saline, and gadoterate meglumine, administered in random order in a single session. The technologist and volunteer were blinded to the agent. Arterial phase breath-holding duration was timed after each injection, and volunteers reported subjective symptoms. Heart rate (HR) and oxygen saturation were monitored. Images were independently analyzed for motion artifacts by three radiologists. Arterial phase breath-holding duration and motion artifacts after each agent were compared by using the Mann-Whitney U test and the McNemar test. Factors affecting the above outcomes were assessed by using a univariate, multivariable model. Results Arterial phase breath holds were shorter after gadoxetate disodium (mean, 32 seconds ± 19) than after saline (mean, 40 seconds ± 17; P breath holds were shorter after gadoxetate disodium than after both saline and gadoterate meglumine. Three (7%) of 44 volunteers had severe arterial phase motion artifacts after gadoxetate disodium administration, one (2%; P = .62) had them after gadoterate meglumine administration, and none (P = .25) had them after saline administration. HR and oxygen saturation changes were not significantly associated with contrast agent. Conclusion Maximal hepatic arterial phase breath-holding duration is reduced after gadoxetate disodium administration in healthy volunteers, and reduced breath-holding duration is associated with motion

  6. Maintaining continuity of care for nursing home residents: effect of states' Medicaid bed-hold policies and reimbursement rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrator, Orna; Schleinitz, Mark; Grabowski, David C; Zinn, Jacqueline; Mor, Vincent

    2009-02-01

    Recent public concern in response to states' intended repeal of Medicaid bed-hold policies and report of their association with higher hospitalization rates prompts examination of these policies in ensuring continuity of care within the broader context of Medicaid policies. Minimum Data Set assessments of long-stay nursing home residents in April-June 2000 linked to Medicare claims enabled tracking residents' hospitalizations during the ensuing 5 months and determining hospital discharge destination. Multinomial multilevel models estimated the effect of state policies on discharge destination controlling for resident, hospitalization, nursing home, and market characteristics. Among 77,955 hospitalizations, 5,797 (7.4 percent) were not discharged back to the baseline nursing home. Bed-hold policies were associated with lower odds of transfer to another nursing home (AOR=0.55, 95 percent CI 0.52-0.58) and higher odds of hospitalization (AOR=1.36), translating to 9.5 fewer nursing home transfers and 77.9 more hospitalizations per 1,000 residents annually, and costing Medicaid programs about $201,311. Higher Medicaid reimbursement rates were associated with lower odds of transfer. Bed-hold policies were associated with greater continuity of NH care; however, their high cost compared with their small impact on transfer but large impact on increased hospitalizations suggests that they may not be effective.

  7. 77 FR 69454 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company... acquisition of a nonbanking company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking...

  8. 78 FR 41063 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company... acquisition of a nonbanking company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking...

  9. 77 FR 38816 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company... involves the acquisition of a nonbanking company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the...

  10. 78 FR 7430 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company... involves the acquisition of a nonbanking company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the...

  11. 78 FR 37222 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company... involves the acquisition of a nonbanking company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the...

  12. 75 FR 30405 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company... involves the acquisition of a nonbanking company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the...

  13. 77 FR 42312 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company... acquisition of a nonbanking company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking...

  14. 77 FR 64993 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company... involves the acquisition of a nonbanking company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the...

  15. 75 FR 26961 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company... involves the acquisition of a nonbanking company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the...

  16. 78 FR 17206 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company... involves the acquisition of a nonbanking company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the...

  17. 77 FR 48156 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company... involves the acquisition of a nonbanking company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the...

  18. 46 CFR 154.305 - Segregation of hold spaces from the sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Segregation of hold spaces from the sea. 154.305 Section 154.305 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.305 Segregation of hold spaces from the sea. In vessels having cargo...

  19. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(15)-1 - Indebtedness of certain personal holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indebtedness of certain personal holding...)-1 Indebtedness of certain personal holding companies. (a) Qualified indebtedness—(1) Carryover... for any indebtedness which was qualified indebtedness (as defined in section 545(c) and § 1.545-3) in...

  20. 12 CFR 225.122 - Bank holding company ownership of mortgage companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.122 Bank holding company ownership of mortgage..., assemble credit information, make property inspections and appraisals, and secure title information. The... decide whether to make any or all of the loans requested. The company would in addition solicit investors...

  1. 76 FR 58005 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... BFHI Holdings, LLC, both in Aventura Florida, and Florida Carpenters Regional Council Pension Fund..., Assistant Vice President) 1000 Peachtree Street, NE., Atlanta, Georgia 30309: 1. Trade Street Investment..., Florida, and Florida Carpenters Regional Council Pension Fund, Hialeah, Florida; to become bank holding...

  2. 78 FR 48637 - Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Produce for Human Consumption; Extension of Comment Periods AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption,'' that appeared in... ``Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption'' with a 120...

  3. 78 FR 11611 - Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... Produce for Human Consumption; Extension of Comment Period for Information Collection Provisions AGENCY..., Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption'' that appeared in the Federal Register of... ``Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption.'' FOR FURTHER...

  4. Effects of Holding Methods and Time on the Vitamin Contents of Five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The five leafy vegetables are fair sources of thiamin, riboflavin and niacin. There were losses in the vitamins as holding time increased, regardless of the holding method employed. The rate of loss of vitamins was highest in Lot I (the unwrapped leaves that were kept in a shade both day and night). The rate of loss of vitamins ...

  5. 12 CFR 250.200 - Investment in bank premises by holding company banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... company, is required to include indebtedness of a corporation, wholly owned by the holding company, that... company is an “affiliate of each of the holding company's majority-owned banks as that term is defined in... part of whose premises is owned by such an affiliate, must include the affiliate's total indebtedness...

  6. 12 CFR 225.102 - Bank holding company indirectly owning nonbanking company through subsidiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... which is not a bank holding company and is not engaged in any business other than investing in... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank holding company indirectly owning nonbanking company through subsidiaries. 225.102 Section 225.102 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...

  7. 75 FR 28250 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice.... Cordia Bancorp Inc., Washington, DC; to become a bank holding company through the acqusition of up to 52...

  8. 18 CFR 284.403 - Code of conduct for persons holding blanket marketing certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Code of conduct for persons holding blanket marketing certificates. 284.403 Section 284.403 Conservation of Power and Water... Pipelines § 284.403 Code of conduct for persons holding blanket marketing certificates. (a) To the extent...

  9. 76 FR 77442 - Mutual Insurance Holding Company Treated as Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... insolvency of an insurance company.'' \\10\\ The identical definition is found in Section 380.1 of Title 12 of... definition to mutual insurance holding companies because, under applicable state laws, a mutual insurance... holding company arguably does not fit squarely within a literal reading of the statutory definition of...

  10. 76 FR 19357 - FCC To Hold Open Commission Meeting, Thursday, April 7, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... (202) 488-5562. These copies are available in paper format and alternative media, including large print... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION FCC To Hold Open Commission Meeting, Thursday, April 7, 2011 March 31, 2011. The Federal Communications Commission will hold an Open Meeting on the subjects listed...

  11. 76 FR 4110 - Sunshine Act Meeting; FCC To Hold Open Commission Meeting Tuesday, January 25, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    ... (202) 488-5562. These copies are available in paper format and alternative media, including large print... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting; FCC To Hold Open Commission Meeting Tuesday, January 25, 2011 January 18, 2011. The Federal Communications Commission will hold an Open...

  12. 75 FR 62818 - Sunshine Act Meeting; FCC To Hold Open Commission Meeting Thursday, October 14, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ...-5563; TTY (202) 488-5562. These copies are available in paper format and alternative media, including... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting; FCC To Hold Open Commission Meeting Thursday, October 14, 2010 October 7, 2010. The Federal Communications Commission will hold an Open Meeting...

  13. 77 FR 73462 - Sunshine Act Meeting FCC To Hold Open Commission Meeting Wednesday, December 12, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... alternative media, including large print/ type; digital disk; and audio and video tape. Best Copy and Printing... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting FCC To Hold Open Commission Meeting Wednesday, December 12, 2012 December 5, 2012. The Federal Communications Commission will hold an Open...

  14. 75 FR 22681 - Prohibited Service at Savings and Loan Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Prohibited Service at Savings and Loan Holding Companies AGENCY: Office of... collection: Title of Proposal: Prohibited Service at Savings and Loan Holding Companies. OMB Number: 1550... company (SLHC), the SLHC or the individual will need to apply to the OTS for an approval order for a case...

  15. 75 FR 42833 - Prohibited Service at Savings and Loan Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Prohibited Service at Savings and Loan Holding Companies AGENCY: Office of... collection. Title of Proposal: Prohibited Service at Savings and Loan Holding Companies. OMB Number: 1550...

  16. The Ins and Outs of Breath Holding: Simple Demonstrations of Complex Respiratory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skow, Rachel J.; Day, Trevor A.; Fuller, Jonathan E.; Bruce, Christina D.; Steinback, Craig D.

    2015-01-01

    The physiology of breath holding is complex, and voluntary breath-hold duration is affected by many factors, including practice, psychology, respiratory chemoreflexes, and lung stretch. In this activity, we outline a number of simple laboratory activities or classroom demonstrations that illustrate the complexity of the integrative physiology…

  17. A metal aerosol holding chamber devised for young children with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H

    1995-01-01

    The low tidal volume and flow in preschool children may reduce the efficiency of aerosol delivery from a pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) through a traditional holding chamber. A prototype small-volume steel holding chamber with two one-way valves was devised to prolong aerosol availabilit...

  18. Air Force’s Combat Aircraft: A Future Holding into the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    erector launcher (TEL) giving the ability to “shoot and scoot,” and a radar that can be ready to move in only five minutes from full operation.81 In...8X8 heavy-duty wheeled chassis truck. It has two ammunition boxes each holding 500 rounds of ammunition of which one magazine typically holds armor

  19. problems in spinning in kolfe house-hold utencil factory abstract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kolfe House-Hold Utensil Factory in Addis Ababa, is producing different types of utensils for house-hold use from commercial aluminium. Deep drawing or/and spinning are the methods used for shaping this metal to desired shape and size, though some small parts are cast too. One of their products is kettle, which is.

  20. 26 CFR 53.4943-7 - Special rules for readjustments involving grandfathered holdings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in Z will represent 50% of the fair market value of the outstanding Z stock. (ii) Under the... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special rules for readjustments involving... Excess Business Holdings § 53.4943-7 Special rules for readjustments involving grandfathered holdings. (a...