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Sample records for model holds promise

  1. Stem Cells Hold Promise, Peril in Treating Seniors' Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164099.html Stem Cells Hold Promise, Peril in Treating Seniors' Eye Disease ... 15, 2017 WEDNESDAY, March 15, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Stem cells may offer new hope for people losing their ...

  2. Study Finds Ebola Treatment ZMapp Holds Promise, Although Results Not Definitive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Release Thursday, October 13, 2016 Study finds Ebola treatment ZMapp holds promise, although results not definitive ... emergency. A clinical trial to evaluate the experimental Ebola treatment ZMapp found it to be safe and ...

  3. EOQ Models with Varying Holding Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Ghasemi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Models of inventory management contain different parameters. An issue is observable in the classical models which can be related to the determination of the quantity of the economic order and the quantity of the economic production. In these models, the parameters like setup and holding costs and also the rate of demands are fixed. This matter causes the quantity of the economic ordering in classic model to have some differences in comparison with the real-world conditions. It should be stated that holding cost of spoiled and useless products is not always fixed and so the costs increase by passing the time. This paper is an attempt to develop classical EOQ models by considering holding cost as an increasing function of the ordering cycle length. So the classical EOQ models are developed, and the related optimum quantity to the ordering cycle length, economic ordering quantity, and the optimum total cost are determined.

  4. Miniaturized bacterial biosensor system for arsenic detection holds great promise for making integrated measurement device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffi, Nina; Merulla, Davide; Beutier, Julien; Barbaud, Fanny; Beggah, Siham; van Lintel, Harald; Renaud, Philippe; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2011-01-01

    Combining bacterial bioreporters with microfluidics systems holds great promise for in-field detection of chemical or toxicity targets. Recently we showed how Escherichia coli cells engineered to produce a variant of green fluorescent protein after contact to arsenite and arsenate can be encapsulated in agarose beads and incorporated into a microfluidic chip to create a device for in-field detection of arsenic, a contaminant of well known toxicity and carcinogenicity in potable water both in industrialized and developing countries. Cell-beads stored in the microfluidics chip at -20°C retained inducibility up to one month and we were able to reproducibly discriminate concentrations of 10 and 50 μg arsenite per L (the drinking water standards for European countries and the United States, and for the developing countries, respectively) from the blank in less than 200 minutes. We discuss here the reasons for decreasing bioreporter signal development upon increased storage of cell beads but also show how this decrease can be reduced, leading to a faster detection and a longer lifetime of the device.

  5. A mathematical model of aerosol holding chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Madsen, J; Berg, E

    1999-01-01

    A mathematical model of aerosol delivery from holding chambers (spacers) was developed incorporating tidal volume (VT), chamber volume (Vch), apparatus dead space (VD), effect of valve insufficiency and other leaks, loss of aerosol by immediate impact on the chamber wall, and fallout of aerosol...... in the chamber with time. Four different spacers were connected via filters to a mechanical lung model, and aerosol delivery during "breathing" was determined from drug recovery from the filters. The formula correctly predicted the delivery of budesonide aerosol from the AeroChamber (Trudell Medical, London......, Ontario, Canada), NebuChamber (Astra, Södirtälje, Sweden) and Nebuhaler (Astra) adapted for babies. The dose of fluticasone proportionate delivered by the Babyhaler (Glaxco Wellcome, Oxbridge, Middlesex, UK) was 80% of that predicted, probably because of incomplete priming of this spacer. Of the above...

  6. Blocking TRPA1 in Respiratory Disorders: Does It Hold a Promise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indranil Mukhopadhyay

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1 ion channel is expressed abundantly on the C fibers that innervate almost entire respiratory tract starting from oral cavity and oropharynx, conducting airways in the trachea, bronchi, terminal bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles and upto alveolar ducts and alveoli. Functional presence of TRPA1 on non-neuronal cells got recognized recently. TRPA1 plays a well-recognized role of “chemosensor”, detecting presence of exogenous irritants and endogenous pro-inflammatory mediators that are implicated in airway inflammation and sensory symptoms like chronic cough, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, allergic rhinitis and cystic fibrosis. TRPA1 can remain activated chronically due to elevated levels and continued presence of such endogenous ligands and pro-inflammatory mediators. Several selective TRPA1 antagonists have been tested in animal models of respiratory disease and their performance is very promising. Although there is no TRPA1 antagonist in advanced clinical trials or approved on market yet to treat respiratory diseases, however, limited but promising evidences available so far indicate likelihood that targeting TRPA1 may present a new therapy in treatment of respiratory diseases in near future. This review will focus on in vitro, animal and human evidences that strengthen the proposed role of TRPA1 in modulation of specific airway sensory responses and also on preclinical and clinical progress of selected TRPA1 antagonists.

  7. Mental models students hold of zoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Patricia Gail

    The purpose of this study was to depict the mental models high school students, ages 14-18, hold of zoos. This study also examined how students define conservation and the role of zoos in conservation. This study examined the differences in mental models of 84 students (1) 21 students who had visited a zoo with their teacher in the same semester in which the study was conducted, (2) 21 students who had visited a zoo during another school year with their teacher, (3) 21 students who had visited the zoo without a teacher, and (4) 21 students who had never visited a zoo. It also examined the mental models of students of different ethnicities and examined differences in mental models of young men and women. This study was conducted and the data analyzed using a qualitative methodology research design. All 84 students completed a demographic questionnaire, a concept map, and a ranking concepts exercise. Twenty-four students were interviewed. The findings indicated that: (1) students who had visited a zoo have a richer mental model of zoos than students who have never visited a zoo, (2) students who had visited a zoo with their teacher provided a deeper richer understanding of the roles of zoos in conservation and education, (3) students who have never visited a zoo do have mental models of zoos, (4) students do not mention conservation with respect to zoos unless specifically asked about the role of zoos in conservation, and (5) students did not mention the zoo's connection to species survival nor did they view zoos as a source of information for conservation-related topics. The data indicated that the mental models student hold of zoos consist of seven themes: (1) organisms, (2) people, (3) amenities, (4) descriptive terms, (5) habitats, (6) education, and (7) conservation. The seven themes were defined and used to create the Zoo Acuity Model. The central constructs of the Zoo Acuity Model are the Observation Framework, the Interaction Framework, and the Information

  8. Cloud Coaching: Web-Based Learning Holds Promise, Especially for Districts with Limited Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Lindsay Clare; Bickel, Donna DiPrima; Zook-Howell, Dena; Correnti, Richard; Walsh, Marguerite

    2016-01-01

    Web-based coaching shows significant promise for linking teachers to highly expert practitioners. This is particularly important in districts that cannot afford to hire full-time school-based coaches or to train and support coaches to be experts in all content areas. While web-based teacher professional development shows a great deal of potential…

  9. Does a sorghum-cowpea composite porridge hold promise for contributing to alleviating oxidative stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apea-Bah, Franklin B; Minnaar, Amanda; Bester, Megan J; Duodu, Kwaku G

    2014-08-15

    The effect of compositing red non-tannin sorghum with cream-coloured cowpea and porridge preparation on phenolic profile and radical scavenging activity was studied. A maize-soybean composite porridge representing a similar product on the South African market was used as reference sample. UPLC-QToF-MS-ESI was used to determine phenolic composition of the grain flours, their composites and porridges. Total phenolic content was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu method while radical scavenging activity was determined using the ABTS, DPPH and NO radical scavenging assays. Four benzoic acid derivatives and five cinnamic acid derivatives were identified in the samples. The predominant flavonoid subclasses identified in sorghum were flavan-3-ols, flavanones and flavones while cowpea had mainly flavan-3-ols and flavonols with soybean having mainly isoflavones. Compositing the cereals with legumes significantly (pporridge showed better promise in contributing to alleviating radical induced oxidative stress than maize-soybean composite porridge.

  10. Do biological-based strategies hold promise to biofouling control in MBRs?

    KAUST Repository

    Malaeb, Lilian

    2013-10-01

    Biofouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) remains a primary challenge for their wider application, despite the growing acceptance of MBRs worldwide. Research studies on membrane fouling are extensive in the literature, with more than 200 publications on MBR fouling in the last 3 years; yet, improvements in practice on biofouling control and management have been remarkably slow. Commonly applied cleaning methods are only partially effective and membrane replacement often becomes frequent. The reason for the slow advancement in successful control of biofouling is largely attributed to the complex interactions of involved biological compounds and the lack of representative-for-practice experimental approaches to evaluate potential effective control strategies. Biofouling is driven by microorganisms and their associated extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS) and microbial products. Microorganisms and their products convene together to form matrices that are commonly treated as a black box in conventional control approaches. Biological-based antifouling strategies seem to be a promising constituent of an effective integrated control approach since they target the essence of biofouling problems. However, biological-based strategies are in their developmental phase and several questions should be addressed to set a roadmap for translating existing and new information into sustainable and effective control techniques. This paper investigates membrane biofouling in MBRs from the microbiological perspective to evaluate the potential of biological-based strategies in offering viable control alternatives. Limitations of available control methods highlight the importance of an integrated anti-fouling approach including biological strategies. Successful development of these strategies requires detailed characterization of microorganisms and EPS through the proper selection of analytical tools and assembly of results. Existing microbiological/EPS studies reveal a number of

  11. Do biological-based strategies hold promise to biofouling control in MBRs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaeb, Lilian; Le-Clech, Pierre; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S; Ayoub, George M; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2013-10-01

    Biofouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) remains a primary challenge for their wider application, despite the growing acceptance of MBRs worldwide. Research studies on membrane fouling are extensive in the literature, with more than 200 publications on MBR fouling in the last 3 years; yet, improvements in practice on biofouling control and management have been remarkably slow. Commonly applied cleaning methods are only partially effective and membrane replacement often becomes frequent. The reason for the slow advancement in successful control of biofouling is largely attributed to the complex interactions of involved biological compounds and the lack of representative-for-practice experimental approaches to evaluate potential effective control strategies. Biofouling is driven by microorganisms and their associated extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS) and microbial products. Microorganisms and their products convene together to form matrices that are commonly treated as a black box in conventional control approaches. Biological-based antifouling strategies seem to be a promising constituent of an effective integrated control approach since they target the essence of biofouling problems. However, biological-based strategies are in their developmental phase and several questions should be addressed to set a roadmap for translating existing and new information into sustainable and effective control techniques. This paper investigates membrane biofouling in MBRs from the microbiological perspective to evaluate the potential of biological-based strategies in offering viable control alternatives. Limitations of available control methods highlight the importance of an integrated anti-fouling approach including biological strategies. Successful development of these strategies requires detailed characterization of microorganisms and EPS through the proper selection of analytical tools and assembly of results. Existing microbiological/EPS studies reveal a number of

  12. A mathematical model of aerosol holding chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zak, M; Madsen, J; Berg, E

    1999-01-01

    in the chamber with time. Four different spacers were connected via filters to a mechanical lung model, and aerosol delivery during "breathing" was determined from drug recovery from the filters. The formula correctly predicted the delivery of budesonide aerosol from the AeroChamber (Trudell Medical, London......, Ontario, Canada), NebuChamber (Astra, Södirtälje, Sweden) and Nebuhaler (Astra) adapted for babies. The dose of fluticasone proportionate delivered by the Babyhaler (Glaxco Wellcome, Oxbridge, Middlesex, UK) was 80% of that predicted, probably because of incomplete priming of this spacer. Of the above...

  13. Review of Some Promising Fractional Physical Models

    CERN Document Server

    Tarasov, Vasily E

    2015-01-01

    Fractional dynamics is a field of study in physics and mechanics investigating the behavior of objects and systems that are characterized by power-law non-locality, power-law long-term memory or fractal properties by using integrations and differentiation of non-integer orders, i.e., by methods of the fractional calculus. This paper is a review of physical models that look very promising for future development of fractional dynamics. We suggest a short introduction to fractional calculus as a theory of integration and differentiation of non-integer order. Some applications of integro-differentiations of fractional orders in physics are discussed. Models of discrete systems with memory, lattice with long-range inter-particle interaction, dynamics of fractal media are presented. Quantum analogs of fractional derivatives and model of open nano-system systems with memory are also discussed.

  14. Promises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    AT dusk, I switched on my radio. What I heard was a special call-in program entitled "New Air of the City," on a local music channel; the two silver-tongued hosts were discussing the topic of promises. A young woman with a soft voice managed to get through first. She said that she had been in love for many years. She and her fiance often went to the banks of the Yangtze River in their spare time, lifting stones to look for small crabs, as tiny as fingernails. They liked to raise the crabs in a glass bowl. But one day, there were few stones by the river; they searched for a long time, but found nothing. An old man who was catching fish told them that it was difficult to find those crabs on the bank. Then he took several crabs out of his

  15. Model reduction for experimental thermal characterization of a holding furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loussouarn, Thomas; Maillet, Denis; Remy, Benjamin; Dan, Diane

    2017-09-01

    Vacuum holding induction furnaces are used for the manufacturing of turbine blades by loss wax foundry process. The control of solidification parameters is a key factor for the manufacturing of these parts. The definition of the structure of a reduced heat transfer model with experimental identification through an estimation of its parameters is required here. Internal sensors outputs, together with this model, can be used for assessing the thermal state of the furnace through an inverse approach, for a better control. Here, an axisymmetric furnace and its load have been numerically modelled using FlexPDE, a finite elements code. The internal induction heat source as well as the transient radiative transfer inside the furnace are calculated through this detailed model. A reduced lumped body model has been constructed to represent the numerical furnace. The model reduction and the estimation of the parameters of the lumped body have been made using a Levenberg-Marquardt least squares minimization algorithm, using two synthetic temperature signals with a further validation test.

  16. New strategies for the treatment of Parkinson's disease hold considerable promise for future management of neurodegenerative disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarkam, Carsten Reidies; Sørensen, Jens Christian; Sunde, Niels Å;

    2001-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are often consideredincurable with no efficient therapies to modifyor halt the progress of disease, and ultimatelylead to reduced quality of life and to death.Our knowledge of the nervous system in healthand disease has, however, increasedconsiderably during the last...... fifty years andtoday, neuroscience reveals promising newstrategies to deal with disorders of thenervous system.Some of these results have been implementedwith success in the treatment of Parkinson'sdisease, a common neurodegenerative illnessaffecting approximately 1% of the populationaged seventy...... or more. Parkinson's disease ischaracterized by a massive loss of dopaminergicneurons in the substantia nigra, leading tosevere functional disturbance of the neuronalcircuitry in the basal ganglia. A thoroughdescription of basal ganglia circuitry inhealth and disease is presented. We describehow...

  17. Holding Period Return-Risk Modeling: Ambiguity in Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.G.P.M. Hallerbach (Winfried)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we explore the theoretical and empirical problems of estimating average (excess) return and risk of US equities over various holding periods and sample periods. Our findings are relevant for performance evaluation, for estimating the historical equity risk premium, and for

  18. Holding Period Return-Risk Modeling: Ambiguity in Estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.G.P.M. Hallerbach (Winfried)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we explore the theoretical and empirical problems of estimating average (excess) return and risk of US equities over various holding periods and sample periods. Our findings are relevant for performance evaluation, for estimating the historical equity risk premium, and for

  19. Organizational suggestion system in the era of holding by developing an innovative model : the case of bonyade ta avon holding in Iran(an applied model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Ghasemi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the popular ways of taking advantage of personnel creativity is through suggestionsystems. Our main question is how to implement suggestion system in holding with conglomeratestructure. The paper presents an innovative model that were named ITFSK Model with accordanceof Bonayade Taavone (a holding that has many companies and institutions with conglomeratestructure. ITFSK is a model that explains how participation management and suggestion system isimplemented effectively in huge Enterprises (holding and this approach brings continuousimprovement (kaizen and it impacts the productivity of these enterprises.The paper is based on field research and the research in Bonyade Tavan that has 22 companies and2 institutions that activity fields of the subholdings is very varied.Our model consists of five main parts such as ideas bank, think-tank, feedback, sharing ofknowledge and kaizen that was named ITFSK.Implementation of “Suggestion system” rules has immediate and significant effects on theproductivity of activities in the jobs, thus influencing the performance of processes in the analyzedorganization. Suggestion system can result in kaizen and innovation in environment oforganization.The model was used to implement and evaluate a suggestion system of holding with conglomeratedstructure. The application of the model to evaluate the suggestion system provided some goodinsights and highlighted some areas of improvement.

  20. Implementation of a numerical holding furnace model in foundry and construction of a reduced model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loussouarn, Thomas; Maillet, Denis; Remy, Benjamin; Dan, Diane

    2016-09-01

    Vacuum holding induction furnaces are used for the manufacturing of turbine blades by loss wax foundry process. The control of solidification parameters is a key factor for the manufacturing of these parts in according to geometrical and structural expectations. The definition of a reduced heat transfer model with experimental identification through an estimation of its parameters is required here. In a further stage this model will be used to characterize heat exchanges using internal sensors through inverse techniques to optimize the furnace command and the optimization of its design. Here, an axisymmetric furnace and its load have been numerically modelled using FlexPDE, a finite elements code. A detailed model allows the calculation of the internal induction heat source as well as transient radiative transfer inside the furnace. A reduced lumped body model has been defined to represent the numerical furnace. The model reduction and the estimation of the parameters of the lumped body have been made using a Levenberg-Marquardt least squares minimization algorithm with Matlab, using two synthetic temperature signals with a further validation test.

  1. CRISPR-Cas9 systems: versatile cancer modelling platforms and promising therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Wan-Shun; Yuan, Zhi-Min; Ma, Shi-Jie; Xu, Jiang; Yuan, Dong-Tang

    2016-03-15

    The RNA-guided nuclease CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated nuclease 9) and its variants such as nickase Cas9, dead Cas9, guide RNA scaffolds and RNA-targeting Cas9 are convenient and versatile platforms for site-specific genome editing and epigenome modulation. They are easy-to-use, simple-to-design and capable of targeting multiple loci simultaneously. Given that cancer develops from cumulative genetic and epigenetic alterations, CRISPR-Cas9 and its variants (hereafter referred to as CRISPR-Cas9 systems) hold extensive application potentials in cancer modeling and therapy. To date, they have already been applied to model oncogenic mutations in cell lines (e.g., Choi and Meyerson, Nat Commun 2014;5:3728) and in adult animals (e.g., Xue et al., Nature 2014;514:380-4), as well as to combat cancer by disabling oncogenic viruses (e.g., Hu et al., Biomed Res Int 2014;2014:612823) or by manipulating cancer genome (e.g., Liu et al., Nat Commun 2014;5:5393). Given the importance of epigenome and transcriptome in tumourigenesis, manipulation of cancer epigenome and transcriptome for cancer modeling and therapy is a promising area in the future. Whereas (epi)genetic modifications of cancer microenvironment with CRISPR-Cas9 systems for therapeutic purposes represent another promising area in cancer research. Herein, we introduce the functions and mechanisms of CRISPR-Cas9 systems in genome editing and epigenome modulation, retrospect their applications in cancer modelling and therapy, discuss limitations and possible solutions and propose future directions, in hope of providing concise and enlightening information for readers interested in this area.

  2. Modeling cation exchange capacity and soil water holding capacity from basic soil properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idowu Olorunfemi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cation exchange capacity (CEC is a good indicator of soil productivity and is useful for making recommendations of phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium for soils of different textures. Soil water holding capacity (SWHC defines the ability of a soil to hold water at a particular time of the season. This research predicted CEC and SWHC of soils using pedotransfer models developed (using Minitab 17 statistical software from basic soil properties (Sand(S, Clay(C, soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC and verify the model by comparing the relationship between measured and estimated (obtained by PTFs CEC and SWHC in the Forest Vegetative Zone of Nigeria. For this study, a total of 105 sampling points in 35 different locations were sampled in the study areas. Three sampling points were randomly selected per location and three undisturbed samples were collected at each sampling point. The results showed success in predicting CEC and SWHC from basic soil properties. In this study, five linear regression models for predicting soil CEC and seven linear regression models for predicting SWHC from some soil physical and chemical properties were suggested. Model 5 [CEC = -13.93+2.645 pH +0.0446 C (%+2.267 SOC (%] was best for predicting CEC while model 12 [SWHC (%=36.0- 0.215 S (%+0.113 C (%+10.36 SOC (%] is the most acceptable model for predicting SWHC.

  3. Models for prevention and treatment of cancer: problems vs promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Bharat B; Danda, Divya; Gupta, Shan; Gehlot, Prashasnika

    2009-11-01

    Current estimates from the American Cancer Society and from the International Union Against Cancer indicate that 12 million cases of cancer were diagnosed last year, with 7 million deaths worldwide; these numbers are expected to double by 2030 (27 million cases with 17 million deaths). Despite tremendous technological developments in all areas, and President Richard Nixon's initiative in the 1974 "War against Cancer", the US cancer incidence is the highest in the world and the cancer death rate has not significantly changed in the last 50 years (193.9 per 100,000 in 1950 vs 193.4 per 100,000 in 2002). Extensive research during the same time, however, has revealed that cancer is a preventable disease that requires major changes in life style; with one third of all cancers assigned to Tobacco, one third to diet, and remaining one third to the environment. Approximately 20 billion dollars are spent annually to find a cure for cancer. We propose that our inability to find a cure to cancer lies in the models used. Whether cell culture or animal studies, no model has yet been found that can reproduce the pathogenesis of the disease in the laboratory. Mono-targeted therapies, till know in most cases, have done a little to make a difference in cancer treatment. Similarly, molecular signatures/predictors of the diagnosis of the disease and response are also lacking. This review discusses the pros and cons of current cancer models based on cancer genetics, cell culture, animal models, cancer biomarkers/signature, cancer stem cells, cancer cell signaling, targeted therapies, therapeutic targets, clinical trials, cancer prevention, personalized medicine, and off-label uses to find a cure for cancer and demonstrates an urgent need for "out of the box" approaches.

  4. Beyond pure parasystole: promises and problems in modeling complex arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtemanche, M; Glass, L; Rosengarten, M D; Goldberger, A L

    1989-08-01

    The dynamics of pure parasystole, a cardiac arrhythmia in which two competing pacemakers fire independently, have recently been fully characterized. This model is now extended in an attempt to account for the more complex dynamics occurring with modulated parasystole, in which there exists nonlinear interaction between the sinus node and the ectopic ventricular focus. Theoretical analysis of modulated parasystole reveals three types of dynamics: entrainment, quasiperiodicity, and chaos. Rhythms associated with quasiperiodicity obey a set of rules derived from pure parasystole. This model is applied to the interpretation of continuous electrocardiographic data sets from three patients with complicated patterns of ventricular ectopic activity. We describe several new statistical properties of these records, related to the number of intervening sinus beats between ectopic events, that are essential in characterizing the dynamics and testing mathematical models. Detailed comparison between data and theory in these cases show substantial areas of agreement as well as potentially important discrepancies. These findings have implications for understanding the dynamics of the heartbeat in normal and pathological conditions.

  5. Phase-Type Models of Channel-Holding Times in Cellular Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Kaare; Nielsen, Bo Friis; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we derive the distribution of the channel-holding time when both cell-residence and call-holding times are phase-type distributed. Furthermore, the distribution of the number of handovers, the conditional channel-holding time distributions, and the channel-holding time when cell re...... residence times are correlated are derived. All distributions are of phase type, making them very general and flexible. The channel-holding times are of importance in performance evaluation and simulation of cellular mobile communication systems....

  6. Predicting and Modelling of Survival Data when Cox's Regression Model does not hold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    2002-01-01

    Aalen model; additive risk model; counting processes; competing risk; Cox regression; flexible modeling; goodness of fit; prediction of survival; survival analysis; time-varying effects......Aalen model; additive risk model; counting processes; competing risk; Cox regression; flexible modeling; goodness of fit; prediction of survival; survival analysis; time-varying effects...

  7. Evolutionary Network Control also holds for nonlinear networks: Ruling the Lotka-Volterra model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ferrarini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The proof of our understanding of ecological and biological systems is measured by our skill to rule them, i.e. to channelize them towards a desired state. Control is a cardinal issue in most complex systems, but because a general theory to apply it in a quantitative manner has been absent so far, little was known about how we can rule weighted, directed networks that represent the most common configuration of real systems. To this purpose, Evolutionary Network Control (ENC has been developed as a theoretical and methodological framework aimed to the control of ecological and biological networks by coupling network dynamics and evolutionary modelling. ENC is a tools to address controllability for arbitrary network topologies and sizes. ENC has proven to cover several topics of network control, e.g. a the global control from inside and b from outside, c the local (step-by-step control, and the computation of: d control success, e feasibility, and f degree of uncertainty. Taken together, these results indicate that many aspects of controllability can be explored exactly and analytically for arbitrary networks, opening new avenues to deepening our understanding of complex systems. As yet, I have applied ENC only to linear ecological and biological networks. In this work, I show that ENC also holds for any kind of nonlinear networks, and provide an applicative example based on the nonlinear, widely-used, Lotka-Volterra model.

  8. A MULTIYEAR LAGS INPUT-HOLDING-OUTPUT MODEL ON EDUCATION WITH EXCLUDING IDLE CAPITAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue FU; Xikang CHEN

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a multi-year lag Input-Holding-Output (I-H-O) Model on education with exclusion of the idle capital to address the reasonable education structure in support of a sus-tainable development strategy in China. First, the model considers the multiyear lag of human capital because the lag time of human capital is even longer and more important than that of fixed capital. Second, it considers the idle capital resulting from the output decline in education, for example, stu-dent decrease in primary school. The new generalized Leonitief dynamic inverse is deduced to obtain a positive solution on education when output declines as well as expands. After compiling the 2000 I-H-O table on education, the authors adopt modifications-by-step method to treat nonlinear coefficients, and calculate education scale, the requirement of human capital, and education expenditure from 2005 to 2020. It is found that structural imbalance of human capital is a serious problem for Chinese economic development.

  9. Fourier modeling of the BOLD response to a breath-hold task: Optimization and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Joana; Jorge, João; Sousa, Inês; Vilela, Pedro; Figueiredo, Patrícia

    2016-07-15

    Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) reflects the capacity of blood vessels to adjust their caliber in order to maintain a steady supply of brain perfusion, and it may provide a sensitive disease biomarker. Measurement of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response to a hypercapnia-inducing breath-hold (BH) task has been frequently used to map CVR noninvasively using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, the best modeling approach for the accurate quantification of CVR maps remains an open issue. Here, we compare and optimize Fourier models of the BOLD response to a BH task with a preparatory inspiration, and assess the test-retest reproducibility of the associated CVR measurements, in a group of 10 healthy volunteers studied over two fMRI sessions. Linear combinations of sine-cosine pairs at the BH task frequency and its successive harmonics were added sequentially in a nested models approach, and were compared in terms of the adjusted coefficient of determination and corresponding variance explained (VE) of the BOLD signal, as well as the number of voxels exhibiting significant BOLD responses, the estimated CVR values, and their test-retest reproducibility. The brain average VE increased significantly with the Fourier model order, up to the 3rd order. However, the number of responsive voxels increased significantly only up to the 2nd order, and started to decrease from the 3rd order onwards. Moreover, no significant relative underestimation of CVR values was observed beyond the 2nd order. Hence, the 2nd order model was concluded to be the optimal choice for the studied paradigm. This model also yielded the best test-retest reproducibility results, with intra-subject coefficients of variation of 12 and 16% and an intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.74. In conclusion, our results indicate that a Fourier series set consisting of a sine-cosine pair at the BH task frequency and its two harmonics is a suitable model for BOLD-fMRI CVR measurements

  10. Model validation through long-term promising sustainable maize/pigeon pea residue management in Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwale, C.D.; Kabambe, V.H.; Sakale, W.D.; Giller, K.E.; Kauwa, A.A.; Ligowe, I.; Kamalongo, D.

    2013-01-01

    In the 2005/2006 season, the Model Validation Through Long-Term Promising Sustainable Maize/Pigeon Pea Residue Management experiment was in the 11th year at Chitedze and Chitala, and in the 8th year at Makoka and Zombwe. The experiment was a split-plot design with cropping system as the main plot an

  11. Modeled risk of ischemic heart disease following left breast irradiation with deep inspiration breath hold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge-Hindy, Harriet B; Duffy, Danielle; Yamoah, Kosj; Simone, Nicole L; Skowronski, Jenna; Dicker, Adam P; Anne, Pramila R

    2015-01-01

    Deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) dramatically reduces radiation dose to the heart during radiation therapy (RT) for left-sided breast cancer, but the subsequent risk of radiation-related ischemic heart disease (IHD) is unknown. Our primary objective was to quantify the risk of IHD following RT with DIBH using modeled risk estimates (MRE). Patients with stage 0-III left-sided breast cancer who received RT with DIBH were retrospectively studied. Computed tomography simulations were performed with DIBH and during free breathing (FB) for comparison of dosimetry. Patients were classified as high risk, at risk, or at optimal risk for IHD and baseline risk estimates for IHD were obtained from historic controls. The excess relative risk of IHD because of left breast RT was calculated using patient-specific dosimetry and an existing dose-effect model. MRE were determined from the sum of baseline risk estimates and excess risk. Between 2002 and 2011, 111 patients were treated using DIBH and 104 were available for analysis. MRE for 10-year risk of IHD with DIBH and FB were 3.25% (interquartile range [IQR], 1.20-3.44) and 3.64% (IQR, 1.43-3.81) (P < .0001), respectively. MRE for lifetime risk of IHD with DIBH and FB were 9.71% (IQR, 1.98-16.62) and 10.28% (IQR, 2.05-16.97) (P < .0001), respectively. MRE were significantly reduced by use of DIBH in all risk groups. The largest absolute risk reduction resulting from the DIBH technique was observed in patients at high risk for IHD. The median relative risk reduction in MRE resulting from DIBH was 11.4% (range, 0-32.0) and 6.4% (range, 0-23.4) at 10 years and throughout the patients' lifetime, respectively. After a median follow-up of 7.0 years (range, 1.3-11.2), the estimated 10-year freedom from IHD was 99.0% (95% confidence interval 93.4-99.8). RT with DIBH may provide breast cancer survivors a clinically significant reduction in the risk of IHD. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by

  12. Extracting Soil Water Holding Capacity Parameters of a Distributed Agro-Hydrological Model from High Resolution Optical Satellite Observations Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Ferrant

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sentinel-2 (S2 earth observation satellite mission, launched in 2015, is foreseen to promote within-field decisions in Precision Agriculture (PA for both: (1 optimizing crop production; and (2 regulating environmental impacts. In this second scope, a set of Leaf Area Index (LAI derived from S2 type time-series (2006–2010, using Formosat-2 satellite is used to spatially constrain the within-field crop growth and the related nitrogen contamination of surface water simulated at a small experimental catchment scale with the distributed agro-hydrological model Topography Nitrogen Transfer and Transformation (TNT2. The Soil Water Holding Capacity (SWHC, represented by two parameters, soil depth and retention porosity, is used to fit the yearly maximum of LAI (LAX at each pixel of the satellite image. Possible combinations of soil parameters, defining 154 realistic SWHC found on the study site are used to force spatially homogeneous SWHC. LAX simulated at the pixel level for the 154 SWHC, for each of the five years of the study period, are recorded and hereafter referred to as synthetic LAX. Optimal SWHCyear_I,pixel_j, corresponding to minimal difference between observed and synthetic LAXyear_I,pixel_j, is selected for each pixel, independent of the value at neighboring pixels. Each re-estimated soil maps are used to re-simulate LAXyear_I. Results show that simulated and synthetic LAXyear_I,allpixels obtained from SWHCyear_I,allpixels are close and accurately fit the observed LAXyear_I,allpixels (RMSE = 0.05 m2/m2 to 0.2 and R2 = 0.99 to 0.94, except for the year 2008 (RMSE = 0.8 m2/m2 and R2 = 0.8. These results show that optimal SWHC can be derived from remote sensing series for one year. Unique SWHC solutions for each pixel that limit the LAX error for the five years to less than 0.2 m2/m2 are found for only 10% of the pixels. Selection of unique soil parameters using multi-year LAX and neighborhood solution is expected to deliver more robust soil

  13. Pricing equity warrants with a promised lowest price in Merton's jump-diffusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Weilin; Zhang, Xili

    2016-09-01

    Motivated by the empirical evidence of jumps in the dynamics of firm behavior, this paper considers the problem of pricing equity warrants in the presence of a promised lowest price when the price of the underlying asset follows the Merton's jump-diffusion process. Using the Martingale approach, we propose a valuation model of equity warrants based on the firm value, its volatility, and parameters of the jump component, which are not directly observable. To implement our pricing model empirically, this paper also provides a promising estimation method for obtaining these desired variables based on observable data, such as stock prices and the book value of total liability. We conduct an empirical study to ascertain the performance of our proposed model using the data of Changdian warrant collected from 25 May 2006 (the listing date) to 29 January 2007 (the expiration date). Furthermore, the comparison of traditional models (such as the Black-Scholes model, the Noreen-Wolfson model, the Lauterbach-Schultz model, and the Ukhov model) with our model is presented. From the empirical study, we can see that the mean absolute error of our pricing model is 16.75%. By contrast, the Black-Scholes model, the Noreen-Wolfson model, the Lauterbach-Schultz model, and the Ukhov model applied to the same warrant produce mean absolute errors of 92.24%, 45.38%, 87.34%, 76.12%, respectively. Thus both the dilution effect and the jump feature cannot be ignored in determining the valuation of equity warrants.

  14. An inventory model of instantaneous deteriorating items with controllable deterioration rate for time dependent demand and holding cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar Mishra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper to develop an inventory model for instantaneous deteriorating items with the consideration of the facts that the deterioration rate can be controlled by using the preservation technology (PT and the holding cost & demand rate both are linear function of time which was treated as constant in most of the deteriorating inventory model. Design/methodology/approach: Developed the mathematical equation of deterministic deteriorating inventory model in which demand rate and holding cost both is linear function of time, deterioration rate is constant, backlogging rate is variable and depend on the length of the next replenishment, shortages are allowed and partially backlogged and obtain an analytical solution which optimizes the total cost of the proposed inventory model. Findings: The model can be applied for optimizing the total inventory cost of deteriorating items inventory for such business enterprises where they use the preservation technology to control the deterioration rate under other assumptions of the model. Originality/value: The inventory system for deteriorating items has been an object of study for a long time, but little is known about the effect of investing in reducing the rate of product deterioration and their significant impact in the business. The proposed model is effective as well as efficient for the business organization that uses the preservation technology to reduce the deterioration rate of the instantaneous deteriorating items of the inventory.

  15. Aggregating available soil water holding capacity data for crop yield models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seubert, C. E.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Holt, D. A.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    The total amount of water available to plants that is held against gravity in a soil is usually estimated as the amount present at -0.03 MPa average water potential minus the amount present at -1.5 MPa water potential. This value, designated available water-holding capacity (AWHC), is a very important soil characteristic that is strongly and positively correlated to the inherent productivity of soils. In various applications, including assessing soil moisture status over large areas, it is necessary to group soil types or series as to their productivity. Current methods to classify AWHC of soils consider only total capacity of soil profiles and thus may group together soils which differ greatly in AWHC as a function of depth in the profile. A general approach for evaluating quantitatively the multidimensional nature of AWHC in soils is described. Data for 902 soil profiles, representing 184 soil series, in Indiana were obtained from the Soil Characterization Laboratory at Purdue University. The AWHC for each of ten 150-mm layers in each soil was established, based on soil texture and parent material. A multivariate clustering procedure was used to classify each soil profile into one of 4, 8, or 12 classes based upon ten-dimensional AWHC values. The optimum number of classes depends on the range of AWHC in the population of oil profiles analyzed and on the sensitivity of a crop to differences in distribution of water within the soil profile.

  16. Force sensor in simulated skin and neural model mimic tactile SAI afferent spiking response to ramp and hold stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Elmer K

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The next generation of prosthetic limbs will restore sensory feedback to the nervous system by mimicking how skin mechanoreceptors, innervated by afferents, produce trains of action potentials in response to compressive stimuli. Prior work has addressed building sensors within skin substitutes for robotics, modeling skin mechanics and neural dynamics of mechanotransduction, and predicting response timing of action potentials for vibration. The effort here is unique because it accounts for skin elasticity by measuring force within simulated skin, utilizes few free model parameters for parsimony, and separates parameter fitting and model validation. Additionally, the ramp-and-hold, sustained stimuli used in this work capture the essential features of the everyday task of contacting and holding an object. Methods This systems integration effort computationally replicates the neural firing behavior for a slowly adapting type I (SAI afferent in its temporally varying response to both intensity and rate of indentation force by combining a physical force sensor, housed in a skin-like substrate, with a mathematical model of neuronal spiking, the leaky integrate-and-fire. Comparison experiments were then conducted using ramp-and-hold stimuli on both the spiking-sensor model and mouse SAI afferents. The model parameters were iteratively fit against recorded SAI interspike intervals (ISI before validating the model to assess its performance. Results Model-predicted spike firing compares favorably with that observed for single SAI afferents. As indentation magnitude increases (1.2, 1.3, to 1.4 mm, mean ISI decreases from 98.81 ± 24.73, 54.52 ± 6.94, to 41.11 ± 6.11 ms. Moreover, as rate of ramp-up increases, ISI during ramp-up decreases from 21.85 ± 5.33, 19.98 ± 3.10, to 15.42 ± 2.41 ms. Considering first spikes, the predicted latencies exhibited a decreasing trend as stimulus rate increased, as is

  17. Inventory model with cash flow oriented and time-dependent holding cost under permissible delay in payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi R.P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study develops an inventory model for determining an optimal ordering policy for non-deteriorating items and time-dependent holding cost with delayed payments permitted by the supplier under inflation and time-discounting. The discounted cash flows approach is applied to study the problem analysis. Mathematical models have been derived under two different situations i.e. case I: The permissible delay period is less than cycle time for settling the account and case II: The permissible delay period is greater than or equal to cycle time for settling the account. An algorithm is used to obtain minimum total present value of the costs over the time horizon H. Finally, numerical example and sensitivity analysis demonstrate the applicability of the proposed model. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the optimal cycle time and optimal payment time for an item so that annual total relevant cost is minimized.

  18. 3-Self behavior modification programs base on the PROMISE Model for clients at metabolic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intarakamhang, Ungsinun

    2011-12-29

    The objectives of this mixed methods research were 1) to study effects of the health behavior modification program (HBMP) conducted under the principles of the PROMISE Model and the CIPP Model and 2) to compare the 3-self health behaviors and the biomedical indicators before with after the program completion. During the program, three sample groups including 30 program leaders, 30 commanders and 120 clients were assessed, and there were assessments taken on 4,649 volunteers who were at risk of metabolic syndrome before and after the program conducted in 17 hospitals. The collected data were analyzed by the t-test and the path analysis. The research instruments were questionnaires used for program evaluation, structuralized interview forms, and questionnaires used for 3-self health behavior assessment. The findings were as follows: 1) During the program, the assessment result deriving from comparing the overall opinions toward the program among the three sample groups showed no difference (F=2.219), 2) The program management factors based on the PROMISE Model (positive reinforcement, optimism, context, and process or activity provision) had an overall influence on the product or success of the HBMP (p< 0.05) with size effects at 0.37, 0.13, 0.31 and 0.88 respectively. All of the factors could predict the product of the program by 69%. 3) After participating in the program, the clients' 3-self health behaviors (self-efficacy, self-regulation, and self-care) were significantly higher than those appeared before the participation (p< 0.05), and their biomedical indicators (BMI, blood pressure, waistline, blood glucose, lipid profiles, cholesterol, and HbA1c) were significantly lower than those measured before the program (p< 0.05).

  19. Smart composite material system with sensor, actuator, and processor functions: a model of holding and releasing a ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Ryutaro; Yoshida, Hitoshi; Nagai, Hideki; Xu, Ya; Jang, Byung-Koog

    2002-07-01

    A smart composite material system which has three smart functions of sensor, actuator and processor has been developed intend to apply to structure of house for controlling ambient temperature and humidity, hands of robot for holding and feeling an object, and so on. A carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) is used as matrix in the smart composite. The size of the matrix is 120mm x 24mm x 0.45mm. The CFRP plate is combined two Ni-Ti shape memory alloy (SMA) wires with an elastic rubber to construct a composite material. The composite material has a characteristic of reversible response with respect to temperature. A photo-sensor and temperature sensor are embedded in the composite material. The composite material has a processor function to combine with a simple CPU (processor) unit. For demonstrating the capability of the composite material system, a model is built up for controlling certain behaviors such as gripping and releasing a spherical object. The amplitude of gripping force is (3.0 plus/minus 0.3) N in the measurement, which is consistent with our calculation of 2.7 N. Out of a variety of functions to be executed by the CPU, it is shown to exert calculation and decision making in regard to object selection, object holding, and ON-OFF control of action by external commands.

  20. Fuzzy promises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Thomas Boysen; Kappel, Klemens; Eadie, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    This article clarifies the commonplace assumption that brands make promises by developing definitions of brand promise delivery. Distinguishing between clear and fuzzy brand promises, we develop definitions of what it is for a brand to deliver on fuzzy functional, symbolic, and experiential...

  1. The copepod Tigriopus: a promising marine model organism for ecotoxicology and environmental genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisuddin, Sheikh; Kwok, Kevin W H; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Schlenk, Daniel; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2007-07-20

    There is an increasing body of evidence to support the significant role of invertebrates in assessing impacts of environmental contaminants on marine ecosystems. Therefore, in recent years massive efforts have been directed to identify viable and ecologically relevant invertebrate toxicity testing models. Tigriopus, a harpacticoid copepod has a number of promising characteristics which make it a candidate worth consideration in such efforts. Tigriopus and other copepods are widely distributed and ecologically important organisms. Their position in marine food chains is very prominent, especially with regard to the transfer of energy. Copepods also play an important role in the transportation of aquatic pollutants across the food chains. In recent years there has been a phenomenal increase in the knowledge base of Tigriopus spp., particularly in the areas of their ecology, geophylogeny, genomics and their behavioural, biochemical and molecular responses following exposure to environmental stressors and chemicals. Sequences of a number of important marker genes have been studied in various Tigriopus spp., notably T. californicus and T. japonicus. These genes belong to normal biophysiological functions (e.g. electron transport system enzymes) as well as stress and toxic chemical exposure responses (heat shock protein 20, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase). Recently, 40,740 expressed sequenced tags (ESTs) from T. japonicus, have been sequenced and of them, 5,673 ESTs showed significant hits (E-value, >1.0E-05) to the red flour beetle Tribolium genome database. Metals and organic pollutants such as antifouling agents, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and polychrlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have shown reproducible biological responses when tested in Tigriopus spp. Promising results have been obtained when Tigriopus was used for assessment of risk associated with exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Application of environmental

  2. The copepod Tigriopus: A promising marine model organism for ecotoxicology and environmental genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raisuddin, Sheikh [Department of Chemistry and the National Research Lab of Marine Molecular and Environmental Bioscience, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kwok, Kevin W.H. [Swire Institute of Marine Science, Department of Ecology and Biodiversity, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Leung, Kenneth M.Y. [Swire Institute of Marine Science, Department of Ecology and Biodiversity, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Schlenk, Daniel [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Lee, Jae-Seong [Department of Chemistry and the National Research Lab of Marine Molecular and Environmental Bioscience, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jslee2@hanyang.ac.kr

    2007-07-20

    There is an increasing body of evidence to support the significant role of invertebrates in assessing impacts of environmental contaminants on marine ecosystems. Therefore, in recent years massive efforts have been directed to identify viable and ecologically relevant invertebrate toxicity testing models. Tigriopus, a harpacticoid copepod has a number of promising characteristics which make it a candidate worth consideration in such efforts. Tigriopus and other copepods are widely distributed and ecologically important organisms. Their position in marine food chains is very prominent, especially with regard to the transfer of energy. Copepods also play an important role in the transportation of aquatic pollutants across the food chains. In recent years there has been a phenomenal increase in the knowledge base of Tigriopus spp., particularly in the areas of their ecology, geophylogeny, genomics and their behavioural, biochemical and molecular responses following exposure to environmental stressors and chemicals. Sequences of a number of important marker genes have been studied in various Tigriopus spp., notably T. californicus and T. japonicus. These genes belong to normal biophysiological functions (e.g. electron transport system enzymes) as well as stress and toxic chemical exposure responses (heat shock protein 20, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase). Recently, 40,740 expressed sequenced tags (ESTs) from T. japonicus, have been sequenced and of them, 5673 ESTs showed significant hits (E-value, >1.0E-05) to the red flour beetle Tribolium genome database. Metals and organic pollutants such as antifouling agents, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and polychrlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have shown reproducible biological responses when tested in Tigriopus spp. Promising results have been obtained when Tigriopus was used for assessment of risk associated with exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Application of environmental

  3. The Oklahoma's Promise Program: A National Model to Promote College Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Pilar; Mendez, Jesse P.

    2013-01-01

    Using a multi-method approach involving fixed effects and logistic regressions, this study examined the effect of the Oklahoma's Promise Program on student persistence in relation to the Pell and Stafford federal programs and according to socio-economic characteristics and class level. The Oklahoma's Promise is a hybrid state program that pays…

  4. In vitro psoriasis models with focus on reconstructed skin models as promising tools in psoriasis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Eline; Ramadhas, Anesh; Lambert, Jo; Van Gele, Mireille

    2017-06-01

    Psoriasis is a complex chronic immune-mediated inflammatory cutaneous disease associated with the development of inflammatory plaques on the skin. Studies proved that the disease results from a deregulated interplay between skin keratinocytes, immune cells and the environment leading to a persisting inflammatory process modulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of T cells. However, a major hindrance to study the pathogenesis of psoriasis more in depth and subsequent development of novel therapies is the lack of suitable pre-clinical models mimicking the complex phenotype of this skin disorder. Recent advances in and optimization of three-dimensional skin equivalent models have made them attractive and promising alternatives to the simplistic monolayer cultures, immunological different in vivo models and scarce ex vivo skin explants. Moreover, human skin equivalents are increasing in complexity level to match human biology as closely as possible. Here, we critically review the different types of three-dimensional skin models of psoriasis with relevance to their application potential and advantages over other models. This will guide researchers in choosing the most suitable psoriasis skin model for therapeutic drug testing (including gene therapy via siRNA molecules), or to examine biological features contributing to the pathology of psoriasis. However, the addition of T cells (as recently applied to a de-epidermized dermis-based psoriatic skin model) or other immune cells would make them even more attractive models and broaden their application potential. Eventually, the ultimate goal would be to substitute animal models by three-dimensional psoriatic skin models in the pre-clinical phases of anti-psoriasis candidate drugs. Impact statement The continuous development of novel in vitro models mimicking the psoriasis phenotype is important in the field of psoriasis research, as currently no model exists that completely matches the in vivo psoriasis

  5. The Newark Fairmount Promise Neighborhood: A Collaborative University-Community Partnership Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Diane; Herts, Rolando; Devance, Donita

    2014-01-01

    The recent awarding of a Promise Neighborhood Planning Grant to Rutgers University-Newark demonstrates how the institution's leadership has promoted a vision and mission that fosters an institutional climate supportive of community engagement. This paper discusses how Gray's (1989) partnership development framework and Kania and Kramer's (2011)…

  6. Cardiac spheroids as promising in vitro models to study the human heart microenvironment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polonchuk, Liudmila; Chabria, Mamta; Badi, Laura

    2017-01-01

    and fibroblasts at ratios approximating those present in vivo. The cellular organisation, extracellular matrix and microvascular network mimic human heart tissue. These spheroids have been employed to investigate the dose-limiting cardiotoxicity of the common anti-cancer drug doxorubicin. Viability......, biochemistry and pharmacology in vitro, offering a promising alternative to animals and standard cell cultures with regard to mechanistic insights and prediction of toxic effects in human heart tissue....

  7. A heads-up no-limit Texas Hold'em poker player: Discretized betting models and automatically generated equilibrium-finding programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilpin, Andrew G.; Sandholm, Tuomas; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    We present Tartanian, a game theory-based player for heads-up no-limit Texas Hold'em poker. Tartanian is built from three components. First, to deal with the virtually infinite strategy space of no-limit poker, we develop a discretized betting model designed to capture the most important strategic...

  8. Promising synergies of simulation model management, software engineering, artificial intelligence, and general system theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oren, T.I.

    1982-01-01

    Simulation is viewed within the model management paradigm. Major components of simulation systems as well as elements of model management are outlined. Possible synergies of simulation model management, software engineering, artificial intelligence, and general system theories are systematized. 21 references.

  9. African rivers hold promise of major energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskillson, E.

    1978-07-01

    Completion of a group of hydroelectric projects in southern Africa will provide a source of renewable energy to the area and could result in a subcontinental power grid. A project planned for the Orange River, South Africa's largest water system, will eventually include nine dams, 20 power stations, tunnels, and a system of irrigation canals. Projects for the Cunene River (which forms the Angolan-Namibian border), the Zambesi, Kafue, Zaire, and Great Ruaha Rivers are all described in terms of construction status and total planned generating capacity.

  10. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy may hold promise in studying metabolites, tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-24

    Almost 15 years ago, in a basement at Chicago's University of Illinois Medical Center, Michael Barany, MD, PhD, measured phosphorus metabolites in an intact frog muscle using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Prior to that, chemists used spectroscopy solely to analyze the contents of test tubes. Only a British group preceded Barany in proving that it would work in tissue as well. Today, he does spectroscopy clinically, one day a week, at the Greenberg Radiology Institute in Highland Park, IL, north of Chicago. Barany says that he can distinguish malignant from benign tumors in the living brain. The tool he uses is a standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machine. While MRI capabilities have forged ahead, human MRS has been awaiting improvements in magnet and computer technology. Barany is one of a number of researchers who, since the early 1980s, have been developing MRS technology and techniques so that it can be done in the human body.

  11. The promises and pitfalls of applying computational models to neurological and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel, Christoph; Fletcher, Paul C

    2016-10-01

    Computational models have become an integral part of basic neuroscience and have facilitated some of the major advances in the field. More recently, such models have also been applied to the understanding of disruptions in brain function. In this review, using examples and a simple analogy, we discuss the potential for computational models to inform our understanding of brain function and dysfunction. We argue that they may provide, in unprecedented detail, an understanding of the neurobiological and mental basis of brain disorders and that such insights will be key to progress in diagnosis and treatment. However, there are also potential problems attending this approach. We highlight these and identify simple principles that should always govern the use of computational models in clinical neuroscience, noting especially the importance of a clear specification of a model's purpose and of the mapping between mathematical concepts and reality.

  12. Melanin, a promising radioprotector: Mechanisms of actions in a mice model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunwar, A., E-mail: amitbio@rediffmail.com [Radiation and Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Adhikary, B. [Radiation and Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Jayakumar, S. [Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Barik, A. [Radiation and Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Chattopadhyay, S. [Bio-Organic Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Raghukumar, S. [Myko Tech Private Limited, Dona Paula, Goa‐403004 (India); Priyadarsini, K.I., E-mail: kindira@barc.gov.in [Radiation and Photochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2012-10-15

    The radioprotective effect of extracellular melanin, a naturally occurring pigment, isolated from the fungus Gliocephalotrichum simplex was examined in BALB/C mice, and the probable mechanism of action was established. At an effective dose of 50 mg/kg body weight, melanin exhibited both prophylactic and mitigative activities, increasing the 30-day survival of mice by 100% and 60%, respectively, after exposure to radiation (7 Gy, whole body irradiation (WBI)). The protective activity of melanin was primarily due to inhibition of radiation-induced hematopoietic damages as evidenced by improvement in spleen parameters such as index, total cellularity, endogenous colony forming units, and maintenance of circulatory white blood cells and platelet counts. Melanin also reversed the radiation-induced decrease in ERK phosphorylation in splenic tissue, which may be the key feature in its radioprotective action. Additionally, our results indicated that the sustained activation of AKT, JNK and P38 proteins in splenic tissue of melanin pre-treated group may also play a secondary role. This was also supported by the fact that melanin could prevent apoptosis in splenic tissue by decreasing BAX/Bcl-XL ratio, and increasing the expressions of the proliferation markers (PCNA and Cyclin D1), compared to the radiation control group. Melanin also reduced the oxidative stress in hepatic tissue and abrogated immune imbalance by reducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL6 and TNFα). In conclusion, our results confirmed that fungal melanin is a very effective radioprotector against WBI and the probable mechanisms of radioprotection are due to modulation in pro-survival (ERK) signaling, prevention of oxidative stress and immunomodulation. -- Highlights: ► Melanin showed promising radioprotection under pre and post irradiation condition. ► Melanin protects the hematopoietic system from radiation induced damage. ► Melanin modulates pro-survival pathways, immune system

  13. The progress and promise of zebrafish as a model to study mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prykhozhij, Sergey V; Berman, Jason N

    2014-09-01

    Immunological and hematological research using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has significantly advanced our understanding of blood lineage ontology, cellular functions and mechanisms, and provided opportunities for disease modeling. Mast cells are an immunological cell type involved in innate and adaptive immune systems, hypersensitivity reactions and cancer progression. The application of zebrafish to study mast cell biology exploits the developmental and imaging opportunities inherent in this model system to enable detailed genetic and molecular studies of this lineage outside of traditional mammalian models. In this review, we first place the importance of mast cell research in zebrafish into the context of comparative studies of mast cells in other fish species and highlight its advantages due to superior experimental tractability and direct visualization in transparent embryos. We discuss current and future tools for mast cell research in zebrafish and the notable results of using zebrafish for understanding mast cell fate determination and our development of a systemic mastocytosis model.

  14. Chronic Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer’s Disease: New Perspectives on Animal Models and Promising Candidate Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Millington

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic neuroinflammation is now considered one of the major factors in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, the most widely used transgenic AD models (overexpressing mutated forms of amyloid precursor protein, presenilin, and/or tau do not demonstrate the degree of inflammation, neurodegeneration (particularly of the cholinergic system, and cognitive decline that is comparable with the human disease. Hence a more suitable animal model is needed to more closely mimic the resulting cognitive decline and memory loss in humans in order to investigate the effects of neuroinflammation on neurodegeneration. One of these models is the glial fibrillary acidic protein-interleukin 6 (GFAP-IL6 mouse, in which chronic neuroinflammation triggered constitutive expression of the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6 in astrocytes. These transgenic mice show substantial and progressive neurodegeneration as well as a decline in motor skills and cognitive function, starting from 6 months of age. This animal model could serve as an excellent tool for drug discovery and validation in vivo. In this review, we have also selected three potential anti-inflammatory drugs, curcumin, apigenin, and tenilsetam, as candidate drugs, which could be tested in this model.

  15. Lake Baikal Endemic Sculpins (Cottoidei: A Promising Model to Study Adaptive Plasticity of Blood Cholesterol Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay P. Sudakov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the blood lipid spectra in four closely related sculpin (Cottoidei species endemic to Lake Baikal. These data characterize the Baikal sculpins as a set of model organisms for studying the adaptive plasticity of cholesterol metabolism and also mechanisms of resistance to the development of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis.

  16. Promises from Afar: A Model of International Student Psychological Contract in Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordia, Sarbari; Bordia, Prashant; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite their significant presence in western business schools, the needs and experiences of international students have not been adequately reflected in the business education literature. We draw upon psychological contract theory--used to understand employer-employee relationships--to develop a novel theoretical model on the international…

  17. Beyond Boundaries: A Promising New Model for Security and Global Development. Carnegie Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theroux, Karen

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, a team of international security experts and researchers at the Henry L. Stimson Center launched an initiative to build an effective model for sustainable nonproliferation of biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons. The project represented an exciting and innovative way of thinking about security: a dual-use approach that operated at…

  18. Embryonic chicken transplantation is a promising model for studying the invasive behaviour of melanoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna eJayachandran

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition is a hallmark event in the metastatic cascade conferring invasive ability to tumor cells. There are ongoing efforts to replicate the physiological events occurring during mobilization of tumor cells in model systems. However, few systems are able to capture these complex in vivo events. The embryonic chicken transplantation model has emerged as a useful system to assess melanoma cells including functions that are relevant to the metastatic process, namely invasion and plasticity. The chicken embryo represents an accessible and economical 3-dimensional in vivo model for investigating melanoma cell invasion as it exploits the ancestral relationship between melanoma and its precursor neural crest cells. We describe a methodology which enables the interrogation of melanoma cell motility within the developing avian embryo. This model involves the injection of melanoma cells into the neural tube of chicken embryos. Melanoma cells are labelled using fluorescent tracker dye, Vybrant DiO, then cultured as hanging drops for 24 hours to aggregate the cells. Groups of approximately 700 cells are placed into the neural tube of chicken embryos prior to the onset of neural crest migration at the hindbrain level (embryonic day 1.5 or trunk level (embryonic day 2.5. Chick embryos are reincubated and analysed after 48 hours for the location of melanoma cells using fluorescent microscopy on whole mounts and cross-sections of the embryos. Using this system, we compared the in vivo invasive behavior of epithelial-like and mesenchymal-like melanoma cells. We report that the developing embryonic microenvironment confers motile abilities to both types of melanoma cells. Hence the embryonic chicken transplantation model has potential to become a valuable tool for in vivo melanoma invasion studies. Importantly, it may provide novel insights into and reveal previously unknown mediators of the metastatic steps of invasion and

  19. Alzheimer's disease in a dish: promises and challenges of human stem cell models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jessica E; Goldstein, Lawrence S B

    2012-10-15

    Human pluripotent stem cells can differentiate into disease-relevant cell types, which capture the unique genome of an individual patient and provide insight into pathological mechanisms of human disease. Recently, human stem cell models for Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative dementia, have been described. Stem cell-derived neurons from patients with familial and sporadic AD and Down's syndrome recapitulate human disease phenotypes such as amyloid β peptide production, hyperphosphorylation of tau protein and endosomal abnormalities. Treatment of human neurons with small molecules can modulate these phenotypes, demonstrating the utility of this system for drug development and screening. This review will highlight the current AD stem cell models and discuss the remaining challenges and potential future directions of this field.

  20. A brief look at model-based dose calculation principles, practicalities, and promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloboda, Ron S; Morrison, Hali; Cawston-Grant, Brie; Menon, Geetha V

    2017-02-01

    Model-based dose calculation algorithms (MBDCAs) have recently emerged as potential successors to the highly practical, but sometimes inaccurate TG-43 formalism for brachytherapy treatment planning. So named for their capacity to more accurately calculate dose deposition in a patient using information from medical images, these approaches to solve the linear Boltzmann radiation transport equation include point kernel superposition, the discrete ordinates method, and Monte Carlo simulation. In this overview, we describe three MBDCAs that are commercially available at the present time, and identify guidance from professional societies and the broader peer-reviewed literature intended to facilitate their safe and appropriate use. We also highlight several important considerations to keep in mind when introducing an MBDCA into clinical practice, and look briefly at early applications reported in the literature and selected from our own ongoing work. The enhanced dose calculation accuracy offered by a MBDCA comes at the additional cost of modelling the geometry and material composition of the patient in treatment position (as determined from imaging), and the treatment applicator (as characterized by the vendor). The adequacy of these inputs and of the radiation source model, which needs to be assessed for each treatment site, treatment technique, and radiation source type, determines the accuracy of the resultant dose calculations. Although new challenges associated with their familiarization, commissioning, clinical implementation, and quality assurance exist, MBDCAs clearly afford an opportunity to improve brachytherapy practice, particularly for low-energy sources.

  1. A brief look at model-based dose calculation principles, practicalities, and promise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron S. Sloboda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Model-based dose calculation algorithms (MBDCAs have recently emerged as potential successors to the highly practical, but sometimes inaccurate TG-43 formalism for brachytherapy treatment planning. So named for their capacity to more accurately calculate dose deposition in a patient using information from medical images, these approaches to solve the linear Boltzmann radiation transport equation include point kernel superposition, the discrete ordinates method, and Monte Carlo simulation. In this overview, we describe three MBDCAs that are commercially available at the present time, and identify guidance from professional societies and the broader peer-reviewed literature intended to facilitate their safe and appropriate use. We also highlight several important considerations to keep in mind when introducing an MBDCA into clinical practice, and look briefly at early applications reported in the literature and selected from our own ongoing work. The enhanced dose calculation accuracy offered by a MBDCA comes at the additional cost of modelling the geometry and material composition of the patient in treatment position (as determined from imaging, and the treatment applicator (as characterized by the vendor. The adequacy of these inputs and of the radiation source model, which needs to be assessed for each treatment site, treatment technique, and radiation source type, determines the accuracy of the resultant dose calculations. Although new challenges associated with their familiarization, commissioning, clinical implementation, and quality assurance exist, MBDCAs clearly afford an opportunity to improve brachytherapy practice, particularly for low-energy sources.

  2. Kind discipline: Developing a conceptual model of a promising school discipline approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Jennifer L; Walsh, Michele E; de Blois, Madeleine; Maré, Jeannette; Carvajal, Scott C

    2017-02-06

    This formative evaluation develops a novel conceptual model for a discipline approach fostering intrinsic motivation and positive relationships in schools. We used concept mapping to elicit and integrate perspectives on kind discipline from teachers, administrators, and other school staff. Three core themes describing kind discipline emerged from 11 identified clusters: (1) proactively developing a positive school climate, (2) responding to conflict with empathy, accountability, and skill, and (3) supporting staff skills in understanding and sharing expectations. We mapped the identified components of kind discipline onto a social ecological model and found that kind discipline encompasses all levels of that model including the individual, relational, environmental/structural, and even community levels. This contrasts with the dominant individual-behavioral discipline approaches that focus on fewer levels and may not lead to sustained student and staff motivation. The findings illustrate the importance of setting and communicating clear expectations and the need for them to be collaboratively developed. Products of the analysis and synthesis reported here are operationalized materials for teachers grounded in a "be kind" culture code for classrooms.

  3. Big data in nephrology: promises and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Girish N; Coca, Steven G; Wyatt, Christina M

    2016-08-01

    Data from the electronic health records hold great promise for nephrology research. However, due to significant limitations, reporting guidelines have been formulated for analyses conducted using electronic health records data.

  4. Small holding circles

    CERN Document Server

    Fruchard, Augustin

    2010-01-01

    A circle C holds a convex body K if C does not meet the interior of K and if there does not exist any euclidean displacement which moves C as far as desired from K, avoiding the interior of K. The purpose of this note is to explore how small can be a holding circle.

  5. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure in Rodents As a Promising Model for the Study of ADHD Molecular Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Mayorquín, Argelia E.; Padilla-Velarde, Edgar; Ortuño-Sahagún, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    A physiological parallelism, or even a causal effect relationship, can be deducted from the analysis of the main characteristics of the “Alcohol Related Neurodevelopmental Disorders” (ARND), derived from prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), and the behavioral performance in the Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These two clinically distinct disease entities, exhibits many common features. They affect neurological shared pathways, and also related neurotransmitter systems. We briefly review here these parallelisms, with their common and uncommon characteristics, and with an emphasis in the subjacent molecular mechanisms of the behavioral manifestations, that lead us to propose that PAE in rats can be considered as a suitable model for the study of ADHD. PMID:28018163

  6. The promise of performative: Relational, genetic and scripted models in architectural design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanovic Đorđe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of performative models within the context of architectural design. Understanding the performances of the built environment can be postulated in rather different manners. It is commonly expected that the built environment complies with the diverse and changing requirements of its users. It is equally required that buildings are economically constructed, easily maintained, energy efficient, safe and aesthetically pleasing. Yet, such expectations are complex and consist of a great number of intertwined effects that are not easy to synchronize during architectural design process. Although they can be precisely evaluated and quantitatively expressed, the values specifying the performances, such as temperature, humidity and intensity of light or sound, in traditionally established course of architectural design are usually only considered throughout the post-rationalization or correction of the architectural design. The research presented in this paper explores design mechanisms, for direct and formative incorporation of feedback information into the very conception of architectural form.

  7. Translating the WHO 25×25 goals into a UK context: the PROMISE modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobiac, Linda J; Scarborough, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Objective Model the impact of targets for obesity, diabetes, raised blood pressure, tobacco use, salt intake, physical inactivity and harmful alcohol use, as outlined in the Global Non-Communicable Disease Action Plan 2013–2020, on mortality and morbidity in the UK population. Design Dynamic population modelling study. Setting UK population. Participants Not available. Main outcome measures Mortality and morbidity (years lived with disability) from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) that are averted or delayed. Probability of achieving a 25% reduction in premature mortality from NCDs by 2025 (current WHO target) and a 33% reduction by 2030 (proposed target). Results The largest improvements in mortality would be achieved by meeting the obesity target and the largest improvements in morbidity would be achieved by meeting the diabetes target. The UK could achieve the 2025 and 2030 targets for reducing premature mortality with only a little additional preventive effort compared with current practice. Achieving all 7 risk targets could avert a total of 300 000 deaths (95% uncertainty interval 250 000 to 350 000) and 1.3 million years lived with disability (1.2–1.4 million) from NCDs by 2025, with the majority of health gains due to reduced mortality and morbidity from heart disease and stroke, and reduced morbidity from diabetes. Potential reductions in morbidity from depression and in morbidity and mortality from dementia at older ages are also substantial. Conclusions The global premature mortality targets are a potentially achievable goal for countries such as the UK that can capitalise on many decades of effort in prevention and treatment. High morbidity diseases and diseases in later life are not addressed in the Global NCD Action Plan and targets, but must also be considered a priority for prevention in the UK where the population is ageing and the costs of health and social care are rising. PMID:28377390

  8. Promising anticancer activities of Justicia simplex D. Don. in cellular and animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Litty; Aranjani, Jesil Mathew; Pai, K Sreedhara Ranganath; Srinivasan, K K

    2017-03-06

    Justicia simplex D. Don. belonging to the family of Acanthaceae has been traditionally used for treatment of rheumatism, inflammation and bronchitis. The plant is traditionally considered as an anticancer medicine and is used by healers of Karnataka to treat various types of cancers. The present study aims at the elucidation of anticancer activity of various extracts of J. simplex, isolation of its active constituents and assessment of the role in growth inhibition and angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. Extracts of J. simplex was evaluated for the in vitro cytotoxic effect by Brine Shrimp Lethality assay, Trypan Blue dye exclusion assay and antiproliferative assay. In vivo cytotoxicity of the extracts were determined by liquid tumor model in Swiss albino mice. Tumor prognosis, metastasis and angiogenesis were assessed by VEGF expression of the solid tumor. Phytochemical analysis afforded the isolation of a compound, the chemical structure of which was established using IR, NMR and TOF-MS spectral method. The compound was also evaluated for the growth inhibitory and angiogenic effects. The petroleum ether extract revealed potent anticancer activity in in vitro and in vivo studies. The anti-angiogenic effect is due to the down regulation of VEGF expression. The growth inhibitory assay revealed that the isolated compound namely triacontanoic ester of 5''-hydroxyjustisolin is responsible for the anticancer activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Promise(s of mesenchymal stem cells as an in vitro model system to depict pre-diabetic/diabetic milieu in WNIN/GR-Ob mutant rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soundarya L Madhira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Development of model systems have helped to a large extent, in bridging gap to understand the mechanism(s of disease including diabetes. Interestingly, WNIN/GR-Ob rats (Mutants, established at National Centre for Laboratory Animals (NCLAS of National Institute of Nutrition (NIN, form a suitable model system to study obesity with Type 2 diabetes (T2D demonstrating several secondary complications (cataract, cardiovascular complications, infertility, nephropathy etc. The present study has been carried out to explore the potent application(s of multipotent stem cells such as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs, to portray features of pre-diabetic/T2D vis-à-vis featuring obesity, with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, hyperinsulinemia (HI and insulin resistance (IR seen with Mutant rats akin to human situation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Primary cultures of BM-MSCs (third passage from Mutants, its lean littermate (Lean and parental control (Control were characterized for: proliferation markers, disease memory to mark obesity/T2D/HI/IR which included phased gene expression studies for adipogenic/pancreatic lineages, inflammatory markers and differentiation ability to form mature adipocytes/Insulin-like cellular aggregates (ILCAs. The data showed that BM-MSCs from Mutant demonstrated a state of disease memory, depicted by an upregulated expression of inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNFα; increased stem cell recruitment (Oct-4, Sox-2 and proliferation rates (CD90+/CD29+, PDA, 'S' phase of cell cycle by FACS and BrdU incorporation; accelerated preadipocyte induction (Dact-1, PPARγ2 with a quantitative increase in mature adipocyte formation (Leptin; ILCAs, which were non-responsive to high glucose did confer the Obese/T2D memory in Mutants. Further, these observations were in compliance with the anthropometric data. CONCLUSIONS: Given the ease of accessibility and availability of MSCs, the present study form the basis to report for

  10. Cameroon mid-level providers offer a promising public health dentistry model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achembong Leo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Oral health services are inadequate and unevenly distributed in many developing countries, particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa. Rural areas in these countries and poorer sections of the population in urban areas often do not have access to oral health services mainly because of a significant shortage of dentists and the high costs of care. We reviewed Cameroon’s experience with deploying a mid-level cadre of oral health professionals and the feasibility of establishing a more formal and predictable role for these health workers. We anticipate that a task-shifting approach in the provision of dental care will significantly improve the uneven distribution of oral health services particularly in the rural areas of Cameroon, which is currently served by only 3% of the total number of dentists. Methods The setting of this study was the Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Board (BCHB, which has four dentists and 42 mid-level providers. De-identified data were collected manually from the registries of 10 Baptist Convention clinics located in six of Cameroon’s 10 regions and then entered into an Excel format before importing into STATA. A retrospective abstraction of all entries for patient visits starting October 2010, and going back in time until 1500 visits were extracted from each clinic. Results This study showed that mid-level providers in BCHB clinics are offering a full scope of dental work across the 10 clinics, with the exception of treatment for major facial injuries. Mid-level providers alone performed 93.5% of all extractions, 87.5% of all fillings, 96.5% of all root canals, 97.5% of all cleanings, and 98.1% of all dentures. The dentists also typically played a teaching role in training the mid-level providers. Conclusions The Ministry of Health in Cameroon has an opportunity to learn from the BCHB model to expand access to oral health care across the country. This study shows the benefits of using a simple, workable, low

  11. Holding Costs and Equilibrium Arbitrage

    OpenAIRE

    Tuckman, Bruce; Vila, Jean-Luc

    1993-01-01

    This paper constructs a dynamic model of the equilibrium determination of relative prices when arbitragers face holding costs. The major findings are that 1) models based on riskless arbitrage arguments alone may not provide usefully tight bounds on observed prices, 2) arbitragers are often most effective in eliminating the mispricings of shorter-term assets, 3) arbitrage activity increases the mean reversion of changes in the mispricing process and reduces their conditional volatility, and 4...

  12. Optimal policy for profit maximising in an EOQ model under non-linear holding cost and stock-dependent demand rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pando, V.; García-Laguna, J.; San-José, L. A.

    2012-11-01

    In this article, we integrate a non-linear holding cost with a stock-dependent demand rate in a maximising profit per unit time model, extending several inventory models studied by other authors. After giving the mathematical formulation of the inventory system, we prove the existence and uniqueness of the optimal policy. Relying on this result, we can obtain the optimal solution using different numerical algorithms. Moreover, we provide a necessary and sufficient condition to determine whether a system is profitable, and we establish a rule to check when a given order quantity is the optimal lot size of the inventory model. The results are illustrated through numerical examples and the sensitivity of the optimal solution with respect to changes in some values of the parameters is assessed.

  13. AN ENTROPIC ORDER QUANTITY MODEL WITH FUZZY HOLDING COST AND FUZZY DISPOSAL COST FOR PERISHABLE ITEMS UNDER TWO COMPONENT DEMAND AND DISCOUNTED SELLING PRICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Tripathy

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A new type of replenishment policy is suggested in an entropy order quantity model for a perishable product possessing fuzzy holding cost and fuzzy disposal cost. This model represents an appropriate combination of two component demand with discounted selling price, particularly over a finite time horizon. Its main aim lies in the need for an entropic cost of the cycle time is a key feature of specific perishable product like fruits, vegetables, food stuffs, fishes etc. To handle this multiplicity of objectives in a pragmatic approach, entropic ordering quantity model with discounted selling price during pre and post deterioration of perishable items to optimize its payoff is proposed. It has been imperative to demonstrate this model by analysis, which reveals some important characteristics of discounted structure. Furthermore, numerical experiments are conducted to evaluate the difference between the crisp and fuzzy cases in EOQ and EnOQ separately. This paper explores the economy of investing in economics of lot sizing in Fuzzy EOQ, Crisp EOQ and Crisp EnOQ models. The proposed paper reveals itself as a pragmatic alternative to other approaches based on two component demand function with very sound theoretical underpinnings but with few possibilities of actually being put into practice. The results indicate that this can become a good model and can be replicated by researchers in neighbourhood of its possible extensions.

  14. Using the integrative model of behavioral prediction to identify promising message strategies to promote healthy sleep behavior among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Rebecca; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    This research used the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction (IMBP) to examine cognitive predictors of intentions to engage in healthy sleep behavior among a population of college students. In doing so, we identify promising message strategies to increase healthy sleep behavior during college. In Phase 1, members of a small sample of undergraduates (n = 31) were asked to describe their beliefs about expected outcomes, norms, and perceived behavioral control associated with sleep on an open-ended questionnaire. We analyzed these qualitative responses to create a closed-ended survey about sleep-related attitudes, perceived norms, control beliefs, behavioral intentions, and behavior. In Phase 2, a larger sample of undergraduate students (n = 365) completed the survey. Attitudes and perceived behavioral control were the strongest predictors of both intentions to engage in sleep behavior and self-reported sleep behavior. Control beliefs associated with time management and stress also had substantial room to change, suggesting their potential as message strategies to better promote healthy sleep behavior in college. We conclude with a broader discussion of the study's implications for message design and intervention.

  15. An optimization of an inventory model of decaying-lot depleted by declining market demand and extended with discretely variable holding costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Prakash Tyagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inventory management is considered as major concerns of every organization. In inventory holding, many steps are taken by managers that result a cost involved in this row. This cost may not be constant in nature during time horizon in which perishable stock is held. To investigate on such a case, this study proposes an optimization of inventory model where items deteriorate in stock conditions. To generalize the decaying conditions based on location of warehouse and conditions of storing, the rate of deterioration follows the Weibull distribution function. The demand of fresh item is declining with time exponentially (because no item can always sustain top place in the list of consumers’ choice practically e.g. FMCG. Shortages are allowed and backlogged, partially. Conditions for global optimality and uniqueness of the solutions are derived, separately. The results of some numerical instances are analyzed under various conditions.

  16. Do More Economists Hold Stocks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Joensen, Juanna Schröter; Rangvid, Jesper

    , even when controlling for several background characteristics. We make use of a large register-based panel data set containing detailed information on the educational attainments and various financial and socioeconomic variables. We model the stock market participation decision by the probit model......A unique data set enables us to test the hypothesis that more economists than otherwise identical investors hold stocks due to informational advantages. We confirm that economists have a significantly higher probability of participating in the stock market than investors with any other education...

  17. The effect of friction in the hold down post spherical bearings on hold down post loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, James A.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of friction at the connection of the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) aft skirt and the mobile launch platform (MLP) hold down posts was analyzed. A simplified model of the shuttle response during the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) buildup was constructed. The model included the effect of stick-slip friction for the rotation of the skirt about the spherical bearing. Current finite element models assume the joint is completely frictionless in rotation and therefore no moment is transferred between the skirt and the hold down posts. The model was partially verified against test data and preliminary parameter studies were performed. The parameter studies indicated that the coefficient of friction strongly influenced the moment on the hold down posts. The coefficient of friction had little effect on hold down post vertical loads, however. Further calibration of the model is necessary before the effect of friction on the hold down post horizontal loads can be analyzed.

  18. Bilateral trade, openness and asset holdings

    OpenAIRE

    Peter, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between bilateral trade flows, trade openness, and asset holdings in a three-country stochastic general equilibrium model. The threecountry model set-up enables me to disentangle and separate the effects bilateral trade flows and trade openness have on bilateral portfolio patterns. I find that both factors independently influence bilateral asset holdings. Higher bilateral trade as well as higher trade openness lead to a higher bilateral foreign asset posit...

  19. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis-associated neoplasia: a promising model for the development of chemopreventive interventions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Margie Lee CLAPPER; Harry Stanley COOPER; Wen-Chi Lee CHANG

    2007-01-01

    Individuals diagnosed with ulcerative colitis face a significantly increased risk of developing colorectal dysplasia and cancer during their lifetime. To date, little attention has been given to the development of a chemopreventive intervention for this high-risk population. The mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) -induced colitis represents an excellent preclinical system in which to both charac-terize the molecular events required for tumor formation in the presence of inflam-marion and assess the ability of select agents to inhibit this process. Cyclic admin-istration of DSS in drinking water results in the establishment of chronic colitis and the development of colorectal dysplasias and cancers with pathological fea-tures that resemble those of human colitis-associated neoplasia. The incidence and multiplicity of lesions observed varies depending on the mouse strain used (ie, Swiss Webster, C57BL/6J, CBA, ICR) and the dose (0.7%-5.0%) and schedule (1-15 cycles with or without a subsequent recovery period) of DSS. The incidence of neoplasia can be increased and its progression to invasive cancer accelerated significantly by administering DSS in combination with a known colon carcinogen(azoxymethane (AOM), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)) or iron. More recent induction of colitis-associated neoplasia in genetically defined mouse strains has provided new insight into the role of specific genes (ie, adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc),p53, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Msh2) in the development of colitis-associated neoplasias. Emerging data from chemopreventive intervention studies document the efficacy of several agents in inhibiting DSS-induced neoplasia and provide great promise that colitis-associated colorectal neoplasia is a pre-ventable disease.

  20. Collective behaviors of book holding durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ren-De; Guo, Qiang; Han, Jing-Ti; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2016-10-01

    Duration can directly reflect the collective reading behaviors of library user book holding. In this paper, by introducing the burstiness and memory coefficients, we empirically investigate the collective book holding behavior of three university libraries. The statistical results show that there are similar properties among the students with different backgrounds, presenting the burstiness = - 0.2 and memory = 0.5 for three datasets, which indicates that memory and random effects coexist in student book holding durations. In addition, we analyze the behavior patterns without duplicate durations by merging a series of books borrowed and returned at the same time. The results show the average burstiness B increases to -0.16 and memory M drops to 0.16 for three datasets, which indicates that both duplicate behavior and student's preference affect the memory effect. Furthermore, we present a model which assumes student's next book holding duration follows the previous one with probability p, and with probability 1 - p, the student would hold the book independently. The experimental results show that the presented model can reproduce the burstiness and memory effect of student book holding durations when p = 0.5 for empirical datasets and p = 0.2 for de-duplicate datasets, which indicate that the student's preferential holding behavior occurs with the probability p. This work helps in deeply understanding the regularity of duration-based human behaviors.

  1. Single breath-hold 3D measurement of left atrial volume using compressed sensing cardiovascular magnetic resonance and a non-model-based reconstruction approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardoulis, Orestis; Monney, Pierre; Bermano, Amit; Vaxman, Amir; Gotsman, Craig; Schwitter, Janine; Stuber, Matthias; Stergiopulos, Nikolaos; Schwitter, Juerg

    2015-06-11

    Left atrial (LA) dilatation is associated with a large variety of cardiac diseases. Current cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) strategies to measure LA volumes are based on multi-breath-hold multi-slice acquisitions, which are time-consuming and susceptible to misregistration. To develop a time-efficient single breath-hold 3D CMR acquisition and reconstruction method to precisely measure LA volumes and function. A highly accelerated compressed-sensing multi-slice cine sequence (CS-cineCMR) was combined with a non-model-based 3D reconstruction method to measure LA volumes with high temporal and spatial resolution during a single breath-hold. This approach was validated in LA phantoms of different shapes and applied in 3 patients. In addition, the influence of slice orientations on accuracy was evaluated in the LA phantoms for the new approach in comparison with a conventional model-based biplane area-length reconstruction. As a reference in patients, a self-navigated high-resolution whole-heart 3D dataset (3D-HR-CMR) was acquired during mid-diastole to yield accurate LA volumes. Phantom studies. LA volumes were accurately measured by CS-cineCMR with a mean difference of -4.73 ± 1.75 ml (-8.67 ± 3.54%, r2 = 0.94). For the new method the calculated volumes were not significantly different when different orientations of the CS-cineCMR slices were applied to cover the LA phantoms. Long-axis "aligned" vs "not aligned" with the phantom long-axis yielded similar differences vs the reference volume (-4.87 ± 1.73 ml vs. -4.45 ± 1.97 ml, p = 0.67) and short-axis "perpendicular" vs. "not-perpendicular" with the LA long-axis (-4.72 ± 1.66 ml vs. -4.75 ± 2.13 ml; p = 0.98). The conventional bi-plane area-length method was susceptible for slice orientations (p = 0.0085 for the interaction of "slice orientation" and "reconstruction technique", 2-way ANOVA for repeated measures). To use the 3D-HR-CMR as the reference for LA volumes

  2. Infusing BSCS 5E Instructional Model with Multimedia: A Promising Approach to Develop 21st Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senan, Divya C.

    2013-01-01

    The full promise of class room learning is dependent on its ability to incorporate 21st century skills in its instructional design, delivery and implementation. In this increasingly competitive global economy, it is not enough for students to acquire subject-level mastery alone. Skills like creative thinking, problem-solving, communication and…

  3. Promises, promises for neuroscience and law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckholtz, Joshua W; Faigman, David L

    2014-09-22

    Stunning technical advances in the ability to image the human brain have provoked excited speculation about the application of neuroscience to other fields. The 'promise' of neuroscience for law has been touted with particular enthusiasm. Here, we contend that this promise elides fundamental conceptual issues that limit the usefulness of neuroscience for law. Recommendations for overcoming these challenges are offered.

  4. Behavioural activation: history, evidence and promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Jonathan W; Puspitasari, Ajeng J; Santos, Maria M; Nagy, Gabriela A

    2012-05-01

    Behavioural activation holds promise to reduce the global burden of depression as a treatment approach that is effective, easy to teach, scalable and acceptable to providers and patients across settings and cultures. This editorial reviews the history of behavioural activation, what it is, current evidence for its use and future directions.

  5. Rapid MR assessment of left ventricular systolic function after acute myocardial infarction using single breath-hold cine imaging with the temporal parallel acquisition technique (TPAT) and 4D guide-point modelling analysis of left ventricular function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberle, Holger C.; Jensen, Christoph J.; Sabin, Georg V.; Naber, Christoph K.; Bruder, Oliver [Elisabeth Hospital, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Essen (Germany); Nassenstein, Kai; Schlosser, Thomas [University of Duisburg-Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen, Essen (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    We compared four-dimensional guide-point modelling left ventricular function analysis (4DVF) results of cine images in four short-axis and two long-axis slices acquired in a single breath-hold, obtained with the temporal parallel acquisition technique (TPAT), with standard left ventricular function (LVF) analysis results determined by the summation of discs method, in patients who had recently suffered myocardial infarction. Despite wall motion abnormalities, 4DVF yields results for left ventricular ejection fractions and end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes that are in excellent agreement with standard LVF analysis results in these patients. A shortened cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) protocol using single breath-hold cine image acquisition could facilitate the assessment of left ventricular function soon after myocardial infarction in critically ill patients who are unable to comply with the multiple breath-holds required for standard LVF analysis. (orig.)

  6. Artificial neural network model with the parameter tuning assisted by a differential evolution technique: the study of the hold up of the slurry flow in a pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Lahiri

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a robust hybrid artificial neural network (ANN methodology which can offer a superior performance for the important process engineering problems. The method incorporates a hybrid artificial neural network and differential evolution technique (ANN-DE for the efficient tuning of ANN meta parameters. The algorithm has been applied for the prediction of the hold up of the solid liquid slurry flow. A comparison with selected correlations in the literature showed that the developed ANN correlation noticeably improved the prediction of hold up over a wide range of operating conditions, physical properties, and pipe diameters.

  7. The holding environment and intersubjectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginot, E

    2001-04-01

    The holding environment is explored in the context of the analytic dyad, where it is seen as rooted in the patient's need to be experientially known through the intersubjective interaction. In examining previous emphasis on holding as an optimally attuned empathic environment provided by the analyst, a broadened view of what constitutes a holding environment is presented, underscoring its interactional nature. A distinction is made between empathic holding based on the patient's expressed material, and holding that is generated through the analyst's intersubjective knowledge, gained via ongoing intersubjective engagements and enactments. It is argued that the unmediated connection to the patient's internal representations resulting from these intersubjective interactions, and the ensuing verbal exploration of them, can create a profound sense of being understood and thus held. A clinical process depicting the experience of holding in an intersubjective context is presented.

  8. Photons, Photosynthesis, and High-Performance Computing: Challenges, Progress, and Promise of Modeling Metabolism in Green Algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C. H.; Graf, P.; Alber, D. M.; Kim, K.; Murray, G.; Posewitz, M.; Seibert, M.

    2008-01-01

    The complexity associated with biological metabolism considered at a kinetic level presents a challenge to quantitative modeling. In particular, the relatively sparse knowledge of parameters for enzymes with known kinetic responses is problematic. The possible space of these parameters is of high-dimension, and sampling of such a space typifies a combinatorial explosion of possible dynamic states. However, with sufficient quantitative transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics data at hand, these challenges could be met by high-performance software with sampling, fitting, and optimization capabilities. With this in mind, we present the High-Performance Systems Biology Toolkit HiPer SBTK, an evolving software package to simulate, fit, and optimize metabolite concentrations and fluxes within the space of rate and binding parameters associated with detailed enzyme kinetic models. We present our chosen modeling paradigm for the formulation of metabolic pathway models, the means to address the challenge of representing such models in a precise and persistent fashion using the standardized Systems Biology Markup Language, and our second-generation model of H2-associated Chlamydomonas metabolism. Processing of such models for hierarchically parallelized simulation and optimization, job specification by the user through a GUI interface, software capabilities and initial scaling data, and the mapping of the computation to biological questions is also discussed. Moreover, we present near-term future software and model development goals.

  9. Promises in Different Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Holly Shi

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports a pilot study, which examines culture differences in a social function of language, i.e.,the function of promise making using Searle′s constitutive rules. It is to argue that different cultures may have the same type of speech-act such as promise, which, however, represents different cultural concepts. Evidence supporting the argument was drawn from a comparison of performance of Americans and Orientals concerning their respective concepts of promise making.

  10. Experimental studies of heat exchange for sodium boiling in the fuel assembly model: Safety substantiation of a promising fast reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khafizov, R. R.; Poplavskii, V. M.; Rachkov, V. I.; Sorokin, A. P.; Trufanov, A. A.; Ashurko, Yu. M.; Volkov, A. V.; Ivanov, E. F.; Privezentsev, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    Numerical simulation of the ULOF-type accident development in a fast reactor with sodium coolant performed using the COREMELT code indicates that sodium boiling in the active core takes place. The boiling is accompanied by oscillations of the technological parameters of the reactor installation; these oscillations can go on during several tens of seconds. In this case, it is possible that a stable regime of removal of heat from residual energy release is implemented. The model of the two-phase coolant flow applied in the code has an important effect on the numerical results; that is why this model needs experimental verification. For eliminating the development of an accident resulting in destruction of the active core elements, a structural solution is proposed; the essence of it is the application of the sodium void above the reactor active core. The experimental installation was developed and the heat exchange at sodium boiling in the model fuel assembly of the fast reactor in the regimes of natural and forced circulation in the presence of the sodium void and the top end shield was studied. It was demonstrated that, in the presence of the sodium void, it is possible to provide long-term cooling of the fuel assembly for a thermal flux density on the fuel element simulator surface of up to 140 and 170 kW/m2 in the natural and forced circulation modes, respectively. The obtained data are used for more precise determination of the numerical model of sodium boiling in the fuel assembly and verification of the COREMELT code.

  11. Comparison and evaluation of experimental mediastinitis models: precolonized foreign body implants and bacterial suspension inoculation seems promising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kose Necmi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-sternotomy mediastinitis (PSM is a devastating surgical complication affecting 1–3% of patients that undergo cardiac surgery. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most commonly encountered bacterial pathogen cultured from mediastinal samples obtained from patients with PSM. A component of the membrane of the gram positive bacteria, lipoteichoic acid, stimulates the blood monocytes and macrophages to secrete cytokines, radicals and nitrogen species leading to oxido-inflammatory damage. This seems to be responsible for the high mortality rate in PSM. For the evaluation of the pathogenesis of infection or for the investigation of alternative treatment models in infection, no standard model of mediastinitis seems to be available. In this study, we evaluated four mediastinitis models in rats. Methods The rats were divided into four groups to form different infection models. Group A: A suspension of 1 × 107 colony-forming units Staphylococcus aureus in 0,5 mL was inoculated from the right second intercostal space into the mediastinum. Group B: A hole was created in the right second intercostal space and a piece of stainless-steel implant with a length of 0.5 cm was inserted into the mediastinum and a suspension of 1 × 107 cfu bacteria in 0,5 mL was administered via the tail vein. Group C: Precolonized stainless-steel implant was inserted into the mediastinum. Group D: Precolonized stainless-steel implant was inserted into the mediastinum and the bacteria suspension was also injected into the mediastinum. On the 10th day, rats were sacrificed and the extension of infection in the mediastenae was evaluated by quantitative cultures. Myeloperoxidase activity (MPO and malondialdehyde (MDA levels were determined in the sera to evaluate the neutrophil activation and assess the inflammatory oxidation. Results The degree of infection in group C and D were 83.3% and 100% respectively (P P Conclusion Infected implants and high

  12. 蔡耀杰基于三角度优化的企业最佳现金持有模型%Optimal Cash Holdings Model of Companies Based on Three Angle Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡耀杰

    2015-01-01

    According to the short of the optimal cash holdings model of enterprises in practical application, the main difficult problem is different to automatically adjust for enterprise situation, so we design an optimal cash holdings model of enterprise on the basis of the three angle optimization. First, refer to the main idea of the cost analysis model, and with the aid of a flexible budget principle and stochastic model for the innovation, and also build the model. Then choose some complex conditions due to shortage of cash as an object of enterprise, we design an optimal cash holdings model on the basis of the optimum cash balance. Finally, combining the above two situations, and on the basis of the best bank balances and cash balances layered, we build the optimal cash holdings model. The results show that the optimal cash holdings model of companies has batter effectiveness and practicability based on three angle optimization.%以实际应用过程中企业最佳现金持有模型的不足为着眼点,主要针对不同企业情况难以自动调整的问题,设计了以三角度优化为基础的企业最佳现金持有模型。首先参考了成本分析模型的主要思路,并借助弹性预算原理创对随机模式进行了创新,此外还对模型进行了构建,之后选取了一些由于现金短缺而导致复杂状况的企业作为对象,设计了以最佳现金余额角度为基础的最佳现金持有模型。最后对上述两个情况进行结合,并以最佳银行存款余额以及现金余额分层两个角度为基础,对最佳现金持有模型进行了构建。结果发现,本文所设计的以三角度优化为基础的企业最佳现金持有模型的有效性和实用性更强。

  13. The promise of community-based participatory research for health equity: a conceptual model for bridging evidence with policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacari-Stone, Lisa; Wallerstein, Nina; Garcia, Analilia P; Minkler, Meredith

    2014-09-01

    Insufficient attention has been paid to how research can be leveraged to promote health policy or how locality-based research strategies, in particular community-based participatory research (CBPR), influences health policy to eliminate racial and ethnic health inequities. To address this gap, we highlighted the efforts of 2 CBPR partnerships in California to explore how these initiatives made substantial contributions to policymaking for health equity. We presented a new conceptual model and 2 case studies to illustrate the connections among CBPR contexts and processes, policymaking processes and strategies, and outcomes. We extended the critical role of civic engagement by those communities that were most burdened by health inequities by focusing on their political participation as research brokers in bridging evidence and policymaking.

  14. Neurodegenerative diseases in a dish: the promise of iPSC technology in disease modeling and therapeutic discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y Z; Zhang, R X

    2015-01-01

    The study of stem-cell biology has been a flourishing research area because of its multi-differentiation potential. The emergence of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) open up the possibility of addressing obstructs, such as the limited cell source, inherent complexity of the human brain, and ethical constrains. Though still at its infancy phase, reprogramming of somatic cells has been demonstrating the ability to enhance in vitro study of neurodegenerative diseases and potential treatment. However, iPSCs would not thoroughly translate to the clinic before limitations are addressed. In this review, by summarizing the recent development of iPSC-based models, we will discuss the feasibility of iPSC technology on relevant diseases depth and illustrate how this new tool applies to drug screening and celluar therapy.

  15. Intangible Capital and Corporate Cash Holdings: Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Dalida Kadyrzhanova; Antonio Falato; Jae Sim

    2012-01-01

    The rise in intangible capital is a fundamental driver of the secular trend in US corporate cash holdings over the last decades. We construct a new measure of intangible capital and show that intangible capital is the most important firm-level determinant of corporate cash holdings. Our measure accounts for almost as much of the secular increase in cash since the 1980s as all other standard determinants together. We then develop a new model of corporate cash holdings that introduces intangibl...

  16. Methods of modeling TCO residential real estate in the life cycles of buildings as a promising energy efficiency management tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulakov Kirill

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Building and developing an affordable housing market is a huge challenge for Russia’s national economy. Today, the housing construction industry finds itself in a situation torn by a conflict caused by the simultaneous needs to minimize the housing construction costs in order to make housing more affordable for Russians and to increase the energy efficiency of the housing projects, which is associated with additional costs for developers. To find solutions to this contradictory situation, one needs new theoretical and practical approaches and economic tools. The global economic trend of managing goods and services on the basis of the value of goods and services over the life cycle is also manifested in the construction industry in Russia. The problem of forming a new economic thinking in the housing sector predetermines the perception of the value of housing not only as the price of purchased real estate, but as the equivalent of the total cost of ownership of real estate throughout its life cycle. This approach allows to compensate the initial rise in the cost of construction resulting from the introduction of energy-efficient technologies by savings in the operational phase of the life cycle of the property. In this regard, management of the total cost of real estate ownership based on energy modeling is of high research and practical relevance.

  17. Modeling and Analysis of Holding Voltage in BJT-based ESD Protection Device%基于BJT的ESD保护器件中维持电压的建模与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁海莲; 杨兵; 顾晓峰; 柯逸辰; 高国平

    2012-01-01

    The electro-static discharge (ESD) protection device based on the bipolar junction transistor (BJT) structure has been widely used due to its good bi-directional conduction ability and excellent protection performance. Since there is a little in-depth research on the production mechanism and modeling of the holding voltage under the negative resistor effect in such ESD protection device, we propose a modeling method for the holding voltage. By analyzing the impact of various modulation effects on the holding voltage, the modeling parameters are optimized first. Then, the structure and the electrical properties of NPN BJT are studied by simulation under the 0. 6 μm BiCMOS process, and a holding voltage estimation model is established by data fitting. Finally, two different BJT-based ESD protection devices are prepared and tested. The relative error range between the estimated and the measured data is about 12%~15%, indicating that the established holding voltage model is quite reliable.%基于双极晶体管(BJT)结构的静电放电(ESD)保护器件具有双向导通特性和良好的保护性能,在ESD保护中应用广泛.鉴于该类器件在负阻效应下维持电压的产生机理和建模方面的研究较少,提出了一种维持电压的数学建模方法.首先分析了多种调制效应对维持电压的影响,优化了模型参数;其次,基于0.6 μm BiCMOS工艺对NPN型BJT的结构及电学性能进行了仿真分析,通过数据拟合得到了维持电压的估算模型;最后,制备了两种不同结构的样品并进行了测试,实测数据与估算值的相对误差范围约12%~15%,表明建立的维持电压模型具有较高的可靠性.

  18. Promise Zones for Applicants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool assists applicants to HUD's Promise Zone initiative prepare data to submit with their application by allowing applicants to draw the exact location of the...

  19. Recombinant allergens: what does the future hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenta, Rudolf; Niespodziana, Katarzyna; Focke-Tejkl, Margit; Marth, Katharina; Huber, Hans; Neubauer, Angela; Niederberger, Verena

    2011-04-01

    This year we are celebrating not only the centenary of allergen-specific immunotherapy but also the 10-year anniversary of the first administration of recombinant allergen-based vaccines to allergic patients. By using recombinant DNA technology, defined and safe allergy vaccines can be produced that allow us to overcome many, if not all, of the problems associated with the use of natural allergen extracts, such as insufficient quality, allergenic activity, and poor immunogenicity. Here we provide an update of clinical studies with recombinant allergen-based vaccines, showing that some of these vaccines have undergone successful clinical evaluation up to phase III studies. Furthermore, we introduce a strategy for allergen-specific immunotherapy based on recombinant fusion proteins consisting of viral carrier proteins and allergen-derived peptides without allergenic activity, which holds the promise of being free of side effects and eventually being useful for prophylactic vaccination.

  20. Promising More Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    When NASA needed a real-time, online database system capable of tracking documentation changes in its propulsion test facilities, engineers at Stennis Space Center joined with ECT International, of Brookfield, Wisconsin, to create a solution. Through NASA's Dual-Use Program, ECT developed Exdata, a software program that works within the company's existing Promise software. Exdata not only satisfied NASA s requirements, but also expanded ECT s commercial product line. Promise, ECT s primary product, is an intelligent software program with specialized functions for designing and documenting electrical control systems. An addon to AutoCAD software, Promis e generates control system schematics, panel layouts, bills of material, wire lists, and terminal plans. The drawing functions include symbol libraries, macros, and automatic line breaking. Primary Promise customers include manufacturing companies, utilities, and other organizations with complex processes to control.

  1. Simulation model analysis of the most promising geological sequestration formation candidates in the Rocky Mountain region, USA, with focus on uncertainty assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Si-Yong [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zaluski, Wade [Schlumberger Carbon Services, Houston, TX (United States); Will, Robert [Schlumberger Carbon Services, Houston, TX (United States); Eisinger, Chris [Colorado Geological Survey, Golden, CO (United States); Matthews, Vince [Colorado Geological Survey, Golden, CO (United States); McPherson, Brian [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2013-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to report results of reservoir model simulation analyses for forecasting subsurface CO2 storage capacity estimation for the most promising formations in the Rocky Mountain region of the USA. A particular emphasis of this project was to assess uncertainty of the simulation-based forecasts. Results illustrate how local-scale data, including well information, number of wells, and location of wells, affect storage capacity estimates and what degree of well density (number of wells over a fixed area) may be required to estimate capacity within a specified degree of confidence. A major outcome of this work was development of a new workflow of simulation analysis, accommodating the addition of “random pseudo wells” to represent virtual characterization wells.

  2. Simulation model analysis of the most promising geological sequestration formation candidates in the Rocky Mountain region, USA, with focus on uncertainty assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Si-Yong [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Zaluski, Wade [Schlumberger Carbon Services, Houston, TX (United States); Will, Robert [Schlumberger Carbon Services, Houston, TX (United States); Eisinger, Chris [Colorado Geological Survey, Golden, CO (United States); Matthews, Vince [Colorado Geological Survey, Golden, CO (United States); McPherson, Brian [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2013-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to report results of reservoir model simulation analyses for forecasting subsurface CO2 storage capacity estimation for the most promising formations in the Rocky Mountain region of the USA. A particular emphasis of this project was to assess uncertainty of the simulation-based forecasts. Results illustrate how local-scale data, including well information, number of wells, and location of wells, affect storage capacity estimates and what degree of well density (number of wells over a fixed area) may be required to estimate capacity within a specified degree of confidence. A major outcome of this work was development of a new workflow of simulation analysis, accommodating the addition of “random pseudo wells” to represent virtual characterization wells.

  3. The promise of dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, Louise Jane

    It has become commonplace to employ dialogue-based approaches in producing and communicating knowledge in diverse fields. Here, “dialogue” has become a buzzword that promises democratic, participatory processes of mutual learning and knowledge co-production. But what does “dialogue” actually entail...... in the fields in which it is practised and how can we analyse those practices in ways that take account of their complexities? The Promise of Dialogue presents a novel theoretical framework for analysing the dialogic turn in the production and communication of knowledge that builds bridges across three research...

  4. The Capability to Hold Property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, Rutger|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269266224

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the question of whether a capability theory of justice (such as that of Martha Nussbaum) should accept a basic “capability to hold property.” Answering this question is vital for bridging the gap between abstract capability theories of justice and their institutional implication

  5. 75 FR 81405 - Portfolio Holdings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... portfolio parameters in response to conditions in the market. Related to the process of adjusting the..., Office of the General Counsel, (202) 414-3798, or Valerie Smith, Office of Policy Analysis and Research... to provide a liquid secondary market through securitization activities, the portfolio holdings...

  6. The Capability to Hold Property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, Rutger|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269266224

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the question of whether a capability theory of justice (such as that of Martha Nussbaum) should accept a basic “capability to hold property.” Answering this question is vital for bridging the gap between abstract capability theories of justice and their institutional

  7. Is Bitcoin Promising?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张程程

    2014-01-01

    On 26th Feb. 2014, the biggest Bitcoin trading platform al over the world was of line. It was bankrupt due to data theft. Global Bitcoin players got into a panic. Is Bitcoin promising? Below I wil analyze this question on several aspects, which are Bitcoins’ traits, demerits, and contrasts.

  8. Promising change, delivering continuity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens Friis; Sungusia, Eliezeri; Mabele, Mathew Bukhi;

    2017-01-01

    have conceptualized REDD+ as an example of ‘‘green grabbing” and have voiced fears of a potential global rush for land and trees. In this paper we argue that, in practice and up until now, REDD+ resembles longstanding dynamics of the development and conservation industry, where the promise of change...

  9. Fish Hold Effluent and Fish Hold Cleaning Wastewater Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    summarized in Table 1). EPA estimated that mid-size fishing vessels, such as gill netters , and purse seiners found in Alaska, and shrimp boats in the Gulf...size fishing boats such as gill netters , fish holds are typically cleaned using a garden hose at a flow rate of approximately 10 to 12 gpm (USEPA...Small: salmon trollers and longliners 1,500 Daily when fishing 500 - 600 150 - 200 Mid-size: gill netters , purse seiners and shrimp boats

  10. Are Economists More Likely to Hold Stocks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Joensen, Eyðfrið Juanna Schrøter; Rangvid, Jesper

    education, even when controlling for several background characteristics. We make use of a large register-based panel data set containing detailed information on the educational attainments and various financial and socioeconomic variables.We model the stock market participation decision by the probit model......A unique data set enables us to test the hypothesis that due to informational advantages economists are more likely to hold stocks than otherwise identical investors. Weconfirm that economists have a significantly higher probability of participating in the stockmarket than investors with any other...

  11. Optimization of Holding Temperature and Holding Thickness for Controlled Rolling on Plate Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xian-lei; ZHAO Zhong; WANG Jun; WANG Zhao-dong; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong

    2006-01-01

    Holding temperature and holding thickness are main parameters for two-phase controlled rolling on plate mill. The optimization of holding temperature and holding thickness for pass schedule calculation of two-phase controlled rolling on plate mill was presented and its feature is as follows: (1) Determination of holding thickness can be automatically obtained based on the influence of mill safety limits, tracking zone length and holding time on holding thickness; (2) Determination of holding temperature can be automatically obtained and the holding time can be reduced as much as possible; (3) Algorithm can modify the holding temperature and thickness depending on slab size and product size.

  12. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Hot Food Holding Cabinet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Hot Food Holding Cabinets that are...

  13. An Analysis of Telemedicine in Taiwan: A Business Model Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Tung-Cheng; Chang, Hong-Jer; Huang, Chung-Chien

    2011-01-01

    Background: As a useful tool, business model holds the promises to make operations explicitly in terms of what services and benefits the consumer may receive, the ways services may be provided, and what...

  14. Amine-modified SBA-15 and MCF mesoporous molecular sieves as promising sorbents for natural antioxidant. Modeling of caffeic acid adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Michał; Geszke-Moritz, Małgorzata

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a detailed study of caffeic acid adsorption on mesoporous SBA-15 and MCF silicas functionalized with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and 3-[2-(aminoethylamino)propyl]trimethoxysilane (AEAPTMS). Synthesized mesoporous adsorbents were characterized using different analytical techniques such as N2 sorption, XRD, TEM, SEM and FT-IR. The adsorption studies of caffeic acid were conducted in various organic solvents. Moreover, the effect of water content in 2-propanol-water mixture on adsorption efficiency was investigated. The experimental data were best fitted to the Langmuir equation, followed by the Temkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich and Freundlich models. The maximum adsorption capacity values calculated from the Langmuir model demonstrated that SBA-15 and MCF silicas modified with AEAPTMS revealed better adsorption properties toward caffeic acid (192.3 and 161.3mg/g, respectively) as compared to the materials modified with APTES (125.0 and 113.6 mg/g, respectively). The obtained results indicate that both SBA-15 and MCF silicas functionalized with AEAPTMS and APTES are promising materials for the entrapment of caffeic acid.

  15. SPECIALIZATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Kołoszko-Chomentowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, an attempt was made to assess the sustainability of agricultural holdings with diff erent directions of production. Agricultural holdings in the Podlaskie voivodeship registered in the FADN system in 2011–2012 were investigated. Assessment accounted for agroecological indicators (share of permanent grasslands, share of cereals in crops, soil coverage with vegetation, stock density and economic indicators (profi tableness of land and labor. Analysis was conducted according to a classifi cation into agricultural holding types: fi eldcrops, dairy cattle, and granivores. Fieldcrop and granivore holdings achieved more favourable environmental sustainability indicators. Holdings specializing in dairy cattle breeding posed a threat to the natural environment, mainly due to their excessive stock density. Economic sustainability assessment showed that granivore holdings were assessed most favorably. In these holdings, holding income per full-time worker was 37% greater than in fi eldcrop holdings and 57% greater than in dairy cattle holdings.

  16. China Rare Earth Holdings Limited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China Rare Earth Holdings Limited is a large trans-area corporation and a public company listed in Hong Kong Stock Exchange (Name: China Rare Earth, Code: 0769), with headquarter in Hong Kong. Located on the bank of beautiful Taihu Lake, the subsidiary in Yinxing covers area of 200,000 m2. It has nearly 1,000 employees, 30% of whom are technical staffs. After self-administration and effort, the company passed ISO 9001: 2000 and ISO 14000 Certificaitons.

  17. RDoC: Translating promise into progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Christopher J; Hajcak, Greg

    2016-03-01

    As highlighted by articles in the current special issue, the RDoC initiative holds promise for advancing understanding of mental health problems. However, the initiative is at its early stages and it remains unclear what level of progress can be achieved and how quickly. In this closing article, we identify major challenges facing RDoC and propose concrete approaches to addressing these challenges, including (a) clearer specification of clinical problems for study, with use of symptom dimensions from integrative dimensional models of psychopathology as provisional, modifiable referents; (b) encouragement of research on a distinct set of traits corresponding to process constructs from the RDoC matrix-those represented across animal, child temperament, and adult personality literatures-to serve as interfaces between matrix constructs and clinical problems; (c) an emphasis in the near term on use of proximal units of analysis in RDoC studies-in particular, on physiological, behavioral, and self-report measures of matrix constructs (examined as states or traits, or both); (d) inclusion of a clear ontogenetic-developmental component in RDoC research projects; (e) routine analysis of the psychometric properties of nonreport (e.g., physiological, task-behavioral) variables, including systematic evaluation of their reliability and convergent-discriminant validity; (f) modification of existing grant review criteria to prioritize replication and synergy in RDoC investigative work; and (g) creation of a cumulative data network system (RDoC-DataWeb) to encourage and facilitate coordination of research efforts across RDoC research groups.

  18. Bus coordination holding control for transit hubs under APTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Jing; ZHAO Ming

    2009-01-01

    To increase the passenger transferring efficiency, the bus coordination holding control for transit hubs,hich is as an important dynamic dispatching method for improving the service level of transit hubs, was studied in the framework of bus coordination dispatching mode. Firstly, the bus coordination holding control flow was studied based on Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) environment. Then a control model was presented to optimize the bus vehicle holding time, and a genetic algorithm was designed as the solving method. In the end, an example was given to illustrate the effectiveness of the control strategy and the algorithm.

  19. Determinants of agricultural holdings sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Wrzaszcz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural policy in the European Union, at the Community level, as well as Member Countries, increasingly emphasize the issue of sustainable development of agriculture. This is a response to the multiplying threats to the environment. Referring to this problem, it was justified to estimate the level of agricultural holdings sustainability (on the basis of FADN data and recognize its determinants. There was applied multidimensional statistical analysis and logistic regression. The research indicated that identification of environmentally friendly agriculture with low profit production is ungrounded.

  20. The Ancient Maya Landscape: Facing the Challenges and Embracing the Promise of Integrating Archaeology, Remote Sensing, Soil Science and Hydrologic Modeling for Coupled Natural and Human Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtha, T., Jr.; Duffy, C.; Cook, B. D.; Schroder, W.; Webster, D.; French, K. D.; Alcover, O.; Golden, C.; Balzotti, C.; Shaffer, D.

    2016-12-01

    Relying on a niche inheritance perspective, this paper discusses the long-term spatial and temporal dynamics of land-use management, agricultural decision making and patterns of resource availability in the tropical lowlands of Central America. We introduce and describe ongoing research that addresses a series of long standing questions about coupled natural and human history dynamics in the Central Maya lowlands, emphasizing the role of landscape and region to address these questions. First, we summarize the results of a CNH pilot study focused on the evolution of the regional landscape of Tikal, Guatemala. Particular attention is centered on how we integrated landscape survey, traditional archaeology and soil studies to understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of agricultural land use and intensification over a two thousand period. Additionally, we discuss how these results were integrated into remote sensing, hydrological and erosion models to better understand how past changes in available water and productive land compare to what we know about settlement patterns in the Tikal Region over that same time period. We not only describe how the Maya transformed this landscape, but also how the region influenced changing patterns of settlement and land use. We finish this section with a discussion of some of the unique challenges integrating archaeological information to study CNH dynamics during this pilot study. Second, we introduce a new project designed to `scale up' the pilot study for a macro-regional analysis of the lowland Maya landscape. The new project leverages a uniquely sampled LIDAR data set designed to refine measurements of above ground carbon storage. Our new project quantitatively examines these data for evidence for past human activity. Preliminary results offer a promising path for tightly integrating archaeology, natural science, remote sensing and modeling for studying CNH dynamics in the deep and recent past.

  1. Analytical model and behavioral simulation approach for a ΣΔ fractional-N synthesizer employing a sample-hold element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassia, Marco; Shah, Peter Jivan; Bruun, Erik

    2003-01-01

    A previously unknown intrinsic nonlinearity of standard SigmaDelta fractional-N synthesizers is identified. A general analytical model for SigmaDelta fractional-N phased-locked loops (PLLs) that includes the effect of the nonlinearity is derived and an improvement to the synthesizer topology...... is discussed. Also, a new methodology for behavioral simulation is presented: the proposed methodology is based on an object-oriented event-driven approach and offers the possibility to perform very fast and accurate simulations, and the theoretical models developed validate the simulation results. We show...

  2. China’s Secondary Aluminum Industry Holds Big Promise for Sustainable Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> In 2002,China’s primary aluminum productiontopped the world with a total output of 4,335,000 tons,ending China’s 100-odd years historyas a net importer of aluminum,a milestoneevent for China’s aluminum industry.Accord-ing to predictions,China’s production of alu-minum will reach 6.5 million tons by 2005,andwill exceed 9 million tons by 2010 based on aproduction capacity of 10 million tons.Overthe next 10 years,China’s production of secon-dary aluminum is expected to see an annualgrowth rate of over 9.5 percent.

  3. New Study on Dog Cancer May Hold Promise for Humans Too

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李毅

    2008-01-01

    由俄勒冈州立大学兽医学院和俄勒冈卫生科技大学癌症研究所的科研人员合作进行的研究发现,为治疗犬科动物血管肉瘤而研制的药物可能令罹患类似疾病的人类受益,因为二者的居住环境相似,患病模式相似而且犬科动物的寿命够长,适合进行科研。

  4. Resolvins and aliamides: lipid autacoids in ophthalmology – what promise do they hold?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesselink JMK

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Jan M Keppel Hesselink,1 Flavia Chiosi,2 Ciro Costagliola2 1University of Witten/Herdecke, Witten, Germany; 2Eye Clinic, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Molise, Campobasso, Italy Abstract: Resolvins are a novel class of lipid-derived endogenous molecules (autacoids with potent immunomodulating properties, which regulate the resolution phase of an active immune response. These modulating factors are locally produced, influencing the function of cells and/or tissues, which are produced on demand and subsequently metabolized in the same cells and/or tissues. This review is focused on certain lipid autacoids with putative relevance for ophthalmology in general and for dry eye more specifically. We also briefly investigate the concept of aliamides and the role of palmitoylethanolamide in ophthalmology, and analyze in more detail the putative role and the preclinical and clinical development of resolvins as emerging treatments for dry eye and related disorders, with a focus on one of the lead resolvin derivatives – RX-10045. Keywords: resolvins, autacoids, aliamides, dry eye, palmitoylethanolamide, inflammation, ophthalmology, protection

  5. Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Allowance Holdings and Transfers Data Inventory contains measured data on holdings and transactions of allowances under the NOx Budget Trading Program (NBP), a...

  6. 76 FR 36625 - Mutual Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Mutual Holding Company AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury... collection. Title of Proposal: Mutual Holding Company. OMB Number: 1550-0072. Form Numbers: MHC-1 (OTS Form... whether the applicant meets the statutory and regulatory criteria to form a mutual holding company...

  7. 76 FR 20458 - Mutual Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Mutual Holding Company AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury... collection. Title of Proposal: Mutual Holding Company. OMB Number: 1550-0072. Form Numbers: MHC-1 (OTS Form... whether the applicant meets the statutory and regulatory criteria to form a mutual holding company...

  8. Functional Analysis and Intervention for Breath Holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Lee; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A functional analysis of breath-holding episodes in a 7-year-old girl with severe mental retardation and Cornelia-de-Lange syndrome indicated that breath holding served an operant function, primarily to gain access to attention. Use of extinction, scheduled attention, and a picture card communication system decreased breath holding. (Author/SW)

  9. 47 CFR 73.7005 - Holding period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Holding period. 73.7005 Section 73.7005... Applications for Noncommercial Educational Stations on Non-Reserved Channels § 73.7005 Holding period. (a... holding period. From the grant of the construction permit and continuing until the facility has achieved...

  10. 9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Holding period. 2.101 Section 2.101... WELFARE REGULATIONS Compliance With Standards and Holding Period § 2.101 Holding period. (a) Any live dog... and control, for a period of not less than 5 full days, not including the day of acquisition, after...

  11. A LITERATURE REVIEW OF COMPANIES CASH HOLDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Oana Mihai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to investigate the scientific literature related to cash holdings of non-financial companies. We concentrated in our work on motives, determinants and theories of cash holding. The result of this study will enhance understanding of cash holding determinants and relevance of postulated theories in Romanian context. The main objective is to.

  12. BIM: Promises and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetel Igor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The building information modeling - BIM is a technology developed toward creation of computer based information model that encompasses whole building lifecycle. Toward that goal a number of information technology standards have been developed that enable different professions in AEC to cooperatively develop electronic building model. The paper gives overview of essential technologies, discusses their intended purpose, and gives outline of the currently achieved functionality.

  13. ALICE Holds Up to Challenge

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    ALICE's main austenitic stainless steel support structure (the Space Frame) has recently gone through many tests that proved quite challenging: insuring the structure is sound and lowering it horizontally into the ALICE cavern. This structure is constructed to hold the large volume detectors, such as the Time Projection Chamber, Transition Radiation Detector and Time of Flight inside the ALICE solenoid magnet. After the final assembly at CERN, two large mobile cranes were needed for the job of lifting and turning the 14 tonne frame onto its side. Once shifted, it was placed in Building SX2, one of the surface assembly areas designated for ALICE. The structure, which is 8 m in diameter and 7 m long, underwent many tests in its new position. Geometric control tests were performed by measuring each of the 18 cells and placing wooden or metal samples constructed to the same dimensions as the real thing inside the structure. The most important check was the movement of the real Time Projection Chamber from its s...

  14. Breath-holding and its breakpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, M J

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the basic properties of breath-holding in humans and the possible causes of the breath at breakpoint. The simplest objective measure of breath-holding is its duration, but even this is highly variable. Breath-holding is a voluntary act, but normal subjects appear unable to breath-hold to unconsciousness. A powerful involuntary mechanism normally overrides voluntary breath-holding and causes the breath that defines the breakpoint. The occurrence of the breakpoint breath does not appear to be caused solely by a mechanism involving lung or chest shrinkage, partial pressures of blood gases or the carotid arterial chemoreceptors. This is despite the well-known properties of breath-hold duration being prolonged by large lung inflations, hyperoxia and hypocapnia and being shortened by the converse manoeuvres and by increased metabolic rate. Breath-holding has, however, two much less well-known but important properties. First, the central respiratory rhythm appears to continue throughout breath-holding. Humans cannot therefore stop their central respiratory rhythm voluntarily. Instead, they merely suppress expression of their central respiratory rhythm and voluntarily 'hold' the chest at a chosen volume, possibly assisted by some tonic diaphragm activity. Second, breath-hold duration is prolonged by bilateral paralysis of the phrenic or vagus nerves. Possibly the contribution to the breakpoint from stimulation of diaphragm muscle chemoreceptors is greater than has previously been considered. At present there is no simple explanation for the breakpoint that encompasses all these properties.

  15. Citicoline: update on a promising and widely available agent for neuroprotection and neurorepair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saver, Jeffrey L

    2008-01-01

    Choline precursors promote repair and growth of cell membranes and hold promise in a variety of neurologic diseases, including ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Citicoline, the most well-studied choline agent precursor, is widely prescribed throughout the world and recently became available in the United States as a dietary supplement. In experimental stroke models, citicoline conferred acute neuroprotection and enhanced neuroplasticity and neurorepair in the subacute period. Although individual human stroke trials have been inconclusive, meta-analysis of 10 trials enrolling 2279 patients suggests patients receiving citicoline had substantially reduced frequencies of death and disability. Reinvestigation of citicoline with modern neuroimaging and clinical trial methods are underway and will provide more definitive information regarding the mechanistic and clinical effects of this promising neurotherapeutic agent.

  16. The Promises of Biology and the Biology of Promises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jieun

    2015-01-01

    commitments with differently imagined futures. I argue that promises are constitutive of the stem cell biology, rather than being derivative of it. Since the biological concept of stem cells is predicated on the future that they promise, the biological life of stem cells is inextricably intertwined...... patients’ bodies in anticipation of materializing the promises of stem cell biology, they are produced as a new form of biovaluable. The promises of biology move beyond the closed circuit of scientific knowledge production, and proliferate in the speculative marketplaces of promises. Part II looks at how...... of technologized biology and biological time can appear promising with the backdrop of the imagined intransigence of social, political, and economic order in the Korean society....

  17. The Promises of Biology and the Biology of Promises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jieun

    2015-01-01

    commitments with differently imagined futures. I argue that promises are constitutive of the stem cell biology, rather than being derivative of it. Since the biological concept of stem cells is predicated on the future that they promise, the biological life of stem cells is inextricably intertwined...... patients’ bodies in anticipation of materializing the promises of stem cell biology, they are produced as a new form of biovaluable. The promises of biology move beyond the closed circuit of scientific knowledge production, and proliferate in the speculative marketplaces of promises. Part II looks at how...... of technologized biology and biological time can appear promising with the backdrop of the imagined intransigence of social, political, and economic order in the Korean society....

  18. Holdings as a Measure of Journal Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Danny P.; Boyce, Bert R.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a study that compared holdings figures from the OCLC database to productivity measures from the "Journal Citation Reports" section of "Science Citation Index" and publisher circulation figures to determine whether there is a systematic relationship between easily gathered holdings and circulation figures and less…

  19. Course holding by cyclists and moped riders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godthelp, J. & Wouters, P.I.J.

    1980-01-01

    Course holding by cyclists and moped riders includes both steering alongside a course and stabilising the vehicle. Inability to hold course may lead to conflicts with other road users. To design safe bicycle and moped facilities and to consider the safety of those existing, knowledge about performan

  20. Error-Compensated Integrate and Hold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlin, M.

    1984-01-01

    Differencing circuit cancels error caused by switching transistors capacitance. In integrate and hold circuit using JFET switch, gate-to-source capacitance causes error in output voltage. Differential connection cancels out error. Applications in systems where very low voltages sampled or many integrate-and -hold cycles before circuit is reset.

  1. Inflation, operating cycle, and cash holdings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanchao; Wang; Yu; Ji; Xu; Chen; Chunlei; Song

    2014-01-01

    A corporate cash-holding strategy is a trade-off between the costs and benefits of holding cash.At the macrolevel,firms are inclined to adjust and optimize their cash-holding strategies in response to changes in purchasing power due to inflation.At the microlevel,the operating cycle,which indicates the speed and turnover of corporate cash flow,also influences the corporate cash-holding strategy.Firms flexibly adjust their cash-holding strategies in response to changes in the internal and external environment,which is referred to as the cash adjustment strategy.We examine these predicted relationships using a sample of listed firms in China’s stock market over the 1998–2009 period.Consistent with our predictions,the empirical results indicate a significant negative association between cash holdings and the CPI,but the relationship is reversed when the CPI reaches a certain level.There is also a U-shaped relationship between operating cycle and cash holdings,and this relationship is similarly influenced by changes in the inflation level.In examining the macroeconomic environment and microlevel firm-specific characteristics simultaneously,our findings supplement the literature on firms’cash-holding strategies and provide theoretical and practical implications.

  2. A distribution-free newsvendor problem with nonlinear holding cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Brojeswar; Sankar Sana, Shib; Chaudhuri, Kripasindhu

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we analyse a single-period newsvendor model to determine the optimal order quantity where the customers' balking occurs.This scenario occurs when the customers are opposed to buy a product for various reasons, such as decreasing quality of product, product is not as good as fresh when it reaches under a threshold level, etc. The model is investigated by assuming that the holding cost function depends on order quantity and the inventory level at which customer balking occurs depends on holding cost. The model allows partial backlogging and permits part of the backlogged shortages to turn into lost sales. We develop the model without taking any specific distributional form of demand, only assuming the mean and the variance of the distribution of demand. Finally, we illustrate the model by numerical examples and compare our distribution-free model with the specific distributional form of demand.

  3. Unconditional Schools, Youth of Promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, David

    2001-01-01

    This article contrasts schools of exclusion with unconditional schools, which are designed to wrap around services to meet the needs of even high-risk students. The author describes essential components of developing a teamwork approach to increase the holding power of schools with challenging students. (Author)

  4. Internationalization and Corporate Cash Holdings: Evidence from Brazil and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Arata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research expands on previous studies of cash holdings and their determinants by studying the relationship between the degree of internationalization and the level of corporate cash holdings. We used a sample of nonfinancial, publicly traded companies from Brazil and Mexico for the period from 2006 to 2010. Our results suggest that the degree of internationalization is a determinant of cash, and that cash holding increases quadratically as the degree of company internationalization grows. Such behavior was different from the North American company studies in Chiang and Wang (2011. Similar to previous studies, both Trade-off and Pecking Order predictions are relevant control variables in our model. Finally, companies held less cash on their balance sheets during the precrisis period.

  5. JavaScript promises essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Sarieddine, Rami

    2014-01-01

    If you are a JavaScript developer working with asynchronous operations and want to know more about promises, then this book is ideal for you. Having a detailed explanation of JavaScript promises will be perfect as your next step towards adopting this new standard and using the API in your web and JavaScript applications.

  6. Utility, limitations, and promise of proteomics in animal science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippolis, John D; Reinhardt, Timothy A

    2010-12-15

    Proteomics experiments have the ability to simultaneously identify and quantify thousands of proteins in one experiment. The use of this technology in veterinary/animal science is still in its infancy, yet it holds significant promise as a method for advancing veterinary/animal science research. Examples of current experimental designs and capabilities of proteomic technology and basic principles of mass spectrometry are discussed. In addition, challenges and limitations of proteomics are presented, stressing those that are unique to veterinary/animal sciences.

  7. 78 FR 66097 - Acies Corporation, Immtech Pharmaceuticals, Inc., MRU Holdings, Inc., MSTI Holdings, Inc., Nestor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Acies Corporation, Immtech Pharmaceuticals, Inc., MRU Holdings, Inc., MSTI Holdings, Inc., Nestor... concerning the securities of MRU Holdings, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the...

  8. 78 FR 2481 - Watco Holdings, Inc., Watco Railroad Company Holdings, Inc., & Watco Acquisition Sub, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... Acquisition Sub, Inc.--Acquisition of Control Exemption--Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc. Watco Holdings, Inc. (Watco Holdings), Watco Railroad Company Holdings, Inc. (Watco Railroad), and Watco Acquisition Sub, Inc. (Merger Sub), all noncarriers, have filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1180.2(d)(2) for...

  9. 77 FR 48550 - Sears Holdings Management Corporation, A Division of Sears Holdings Corporation, Hoffman Estates...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Sears Holdings Management Corporation, A Division of Sears Holdings... workers at the Hoffman Estates, Illinois facility are similarly situated as the Sears Holdings workers...

  10. The carbon holdings of northern Ecuador's mangrove forests

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, Stuart E; Borbor, Mercy; Millones, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Within a GIS environment, we combine field measures of mangrove diameter, mangrove species distribution, and mangrove density with remotely sensed measures of mangrove location and mangrove canopy cover to estimate the mangrove carbon holdings of northern Ecuador. We find that the four northern estuaries of Ecuador contain approximately 7,742,999 t (plus or minus 15.47 percent) of standing carbon. Of particular high carbon holdings are the Rhizophora mangle dominated mangrove stands found in-and-around the Cayapas-Mataje Ecological Reserve in northern Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador and certain stands of Rhizophora mangle in-and-around the Isla Corazon y Fragata Wildlife Refuge in central Manabi Province, Ecuador. Our field driven mangrove carbon estimate is higher than all but one of the comparison models evaluated. We find that basic latitudinal mangrove carbon models performed at least as well, if not better, than the more complex species based allometric models in predicting standing carbon levels. In additi...

  11. Mastering JavaScript promises

    CERN Document Server

    Hussain, Muzzamil

    2015-01-01

    This book is for all the software and web engineers wanting to apply the promises paradigm to their next project and get the best outcome from it. This book also acts as a reference for the engineers who are already using promises in their projects and want to improve their current knowledge to reach the next level. To get the most benefit from this book, you should know basic programming concepts, have a familiarity with JavaScript, and a good understanding of HTML.

  12. Antioxidant and antigenotoxic properties of CeO2 NPs and cerium sulphate: Studies with Drosophila melanogaster as a promising in vivo model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaraby, Mohamed; Hernández, Alba; Annangi, Balasubramanyam; Demir, Esref; Bach, Jordi; Rubio, Laura; Creus, Amadeu; Marcos, Ricard

    2015-01-01

    Although in vitro approaches are the most used for testing the potential harmful effects of nanomaterials, in vivo studies produce relevant information complementing in vitro data. In this context, we promote the use of Drosophila melanogaster as a suitable in vivo model to characterise the potential risks associated to nanomaterials exposure. The main aim of this study was to evaluate different biological effects associated to cerium oxide nanoparticles (Ce-NPs) and cerium (IV) sulphate exposure. The end-points evaluated were egg-to-adult viability, particles uptake through the intestinal barrier, gene expression and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by haemocytes, genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity. Transmission electron microscopy images showed internalisation of Ce-NPs by the intestinal barrier and haemocytes, and significant expression of Hsp genes was detected. In spite of these findings, neither toxicity nor genotoxicity related to both forms of cerium were observed. Interestingly, Ce-NPs significantly reduced the genotoxic effect of potassium dichromate and the intracellular ROS production. No morphological malformations were detected after larvae treatment. This study highlights the importance of D. melanogaster as animal model in the study of the different biological effects caused by nanoparticulated materials, at the time that shows its usefulness to study the role of the intestinal barrier in the transposition of nanomaterials entering via ingestion.

  13. "The molecule's the thing:" the promise of molecular modeling and dynamic simulations in aiding the prioritization and interpretation of genomic testing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Gavin R; Zimmermann, Michael T; Klee, Eric W; Urrutia, Raul A

    2016-01-01

    Clinical genomics is now a reality and lies at the heart of individualized medicine efforts. The success of these approaches is evidenced by the increasing volume of publications that report causal links between genomic variants and disease. In spite of early success, clinical genomics currently faces significant challenges in establishing the relevance of the majority of variants identified by next generation sequencing tests. Indeed, the majority of mutations identified are harbored by proteins whose functions remain elusive. Herein we describe the current scenario in genomic testing and in particular the burden of variants of uncertain significance (VUSs). We highlight a role for molecular modeling and molecular dynamic simulations as tools that can significantly increase the yield of information to aid in the evaluation of pathogenicity. Though the application of these methodologies to the interpretation of variants identified by genomic testing is not yet widespread, we predict that an increase in their use will significantly benefit the mission of clinical genomics for individualized medicine.

  14. Identification of muscle-specific microRNAs in serum of muscular dystrophy animal models: promising novel blood-based markers for muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideya Mizuno

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is a lethal X-linked disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, which encodes a cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin. Creatine kinase (CK is generally used as a blood-based biomarker for muscular disease including DMD, but it is not always reliable since it is easily affected by stress to the body, such as exercise. Therefore, more reliable biomarkers of muscular dystrophy have long been desired. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, ∼22 nucleotide, noncoding RNAs which play important roles in the regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Recently, it has been reported that miRNAs exist in blood. In this study, we hypothesized that the expression levels of specific serum circulating miRNAs may be useful to monitor the pathological progression of muscular diseases, and therefore explored the possibility of these miRNAs as new biomarkers for muscular diseases. To confirm this hypothesis, we quantified the expression levels of miRNAs in serum of the dystrophin-deficient muscular dystrophy mouse model, mdx, and the canine X-linked muscular dystrophy in Japan dog model (CXMD(J, by real-time PCR. We found that the serum levels of several muscle-specific miRNAs (miR-1, miR-133a and miR-206 are increased in both mdx and CXMD(J. Interestingly, unlike CK levels, expression levels of these miRNAs in mdx serum are little influenced by exercise using treadmill. These results suggest that serum miRNAs are useful and reliable biomarkers for muscular dystrophy.

  15. Identification of muscle-specific microRNAs in serum of muscular dystrophy animal models: promising novel blood-based markers for muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Hideya; Nakamura, Akinori; Aoki, Yoshitsugu; Ito, Naoki; Kishi, Soichiro; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Hashido, Kazuo

    2011-03-30

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal X-linked disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, which encodes a cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin. Creatine kinase (CK) is generally used as a blood-based biomarker for muscular disease including DMD, but it is not always reliable since it is easily affected by stress to the body, such as exercise. Therefore, more reliable biomarkers of muscular dystrophy have long been desired. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, ∼22 nucleotide, noncoding RNAs which play important roles in the regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Recently, it has been reported that miRNAs exist in blood. In this study, we hypothesized that the expression levels of specific serum circulating miRNAs may be useful to monitor the pathological progression of muscular diseases, and therefore explored the possibility of these miRNAs as new biomarkers for muscular diseases. To confirm this hypothesis, we quantified the expression levels of miRNAs in serum of the dystrophin-deficient muscular dystrophy mouse model, mdx, and the canine X-linked muscular dystrophy in Japan dog model (CXMD(J)), by real-time PCR. We found that the serum levels of several muscle-specific miRNAs (miR-1, miR-133a and miR-206) are increased in both mdx and CXMD(J). Interestingly, unlike CK levels, expression levels of these miRNAs in mdx serum are little influenced by exercise using treadmill. These results suggest that serum miRNAs are useful and reliable biomarkers for muscular dystrophy.

  16. Decompression sickness following breath-hold diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipke, J D; Gams, E; Kallweit, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Despite convincing evidence of a relationship between breath-hold diving and decompression sickness (DCS), the causal connection is only slowly being accepted. Only the more recent textbooks have acknowledged the risks of repetitive breath-hold diving. We compare four groups of breath-hold divers: (1) Japanese and Korean amas and other divers from the Pacific area, (2) instructors at naval training facilities, (3) spear fishers, and (4) free-dive athletes. While the number of amas is likely decreasing, and Scandinavian Navy training facilities recorded only a few accidents, the number of spear fishers suffering accidents is on the rise, in particular during championships or using scooters. Finally, national and international associations (e.g., International Association of Free Drives [IAFD] or Association Internationale pour Le Developpment De L'Apnee [AIDA]) promote free-diving championships including deep diving categories such as constant weight, variable weight, and no limit. A number of free-diving athletes, training for or participating in competitions, are increasingly accident prone as the world record is presently set at a depth of 171 m. This review presents data found after searching Medline and ISI Web of Science and using appropriate Internet search engines (e.g., Google). We report some 90 cases in which DCS occurred after repetitive breath-hold dives. Even today, the risk of suffering from DCS after repetitive breath-hold diving is often not acknowledged. We strongly suggest that breath-hold divers and their advisors and physicians be made aware of the possibility of DCS and of the appropriate therapeutic measures to be taken when DCS is suspected. Because the risk of suffering from DCS increases depending on depth, bottom time, rate of ascent, and duration of surface intervals, some approaches to assess the risks are presented. Regrettably, none of these approaches is widely accepted. We propose therefore the development of easily manageable

  17. The Ambivalence of Promising Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shelley-Egan, Clare

    2010-01-01

    Issues of responsibility in the world of nanotechnology are becoming explicit with the emergence of a discourse on ‘responsible development’ of nanoscience and nanotechnologies. Much of this discourse centres on the ambivalences of nanotechnology and of promising technology in general. Actors must f

  18. “The molecule’s the thing:” the promise of molecular modeling and dynamic simulations in aiding the prioritization and interpretation of genomic testing results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Gavin R.; Zimmermann, Michael T.; Klee, Eric W.; Urrutia, Raul A.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical genomics is now a reality and lies at the heart of individualized medicine efforts. The success of these approaches is evidenced by the increasing volume of publications that report causal links between genomic variants and disease. In spite of early success, clinical genomics currently faces significant challenges in establishing the relevance of the majority of variants identified by next generation sequencing tests. Indeed, the majority of mutations identified are harbored by proteins whose functions remain elusive. Herein we describe the current scenario in genomic testing and in particular the burden of variants of uncertain significance (VUSs). We highlight a role for molecular modeling and molecular dynamic simulations as tools that can significantly increase the yield of information to aid in the evaluation of pathogenicity. Though the application of these methodologies to the interpretation of variants identified by genomic testing is not yet widespread, we predict that an increase in their use will significantly benefit the mission of clinical genomics for individualized medicine. PMID:27408685

  19. 3-Substituted-4-hydroxycoumarin as a new scaffold with potent CDK inhibition and promising anticancer effect: Synthesis, molecular modeling and QSAR studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Latif, Nehad A; Batran, Rasha Z; Khedr, Mohammed A; Abdalla, Mohamed M

    2016-08-01

    A new series of 3-substituted-4-hydroxycoumarin derivatives was designed, synthesized, and evaluated for CDK inhibiting and anticancer activities. All the synthesized target compounds showed remarkably high affinity and selectivity towards CDK1B, compared to flavopiridol, with Ki values in the low nanomolar range (Ki=0.35-0.88nM). Most of them elicited considerable inhibiting effect against CDK9T1 (Ki=3.26-23.45nM). Moreover, all the target compounds were tested in vitro against eighteen types of human tumor cell lines. The hydrazone 3a, N-phenylpyrazoline derivative 6b and 2-aminopyridyl-3-carbonitrile derivative 8c were the most potent anticancer agents against MCF-7 breast cancer cell line (IC50=0.21, 0.21 and 0.23nM, respectively). The target compounds 3a, 6b and 8c were further evaluated in MCF-7 breast cancer mouse xenograft model and showed in vivo efficacy at 10mg/kg dose. The docking study confirmed a unique binding mode in the active site of CDK1B with better score than flavopiridol. Quantitative structure activity relationship study was done and revealed a highly predictive power R(2) of 0.81.

  20. Holding children in mind or holding therapy: developing an ethical position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, John

    2007-04-01

    Attachment theory and therapy have established themselves as major constructs in foster care and adoption practice. The depth of the explanatory power of attachment theory and research have done much to both identify the source of developmental difficulties in adopted and fostered children, and of the significant changes that can be made when these children are placed with 'autonomously' classified carers. However, the power of the concept has also led to a proliferation of ideas, particularly therapeutic models that can, in some cases, stray a long way from the core of what is effective, safe and ethical clinical practice. Holding therapy is one of these models. The British Association for Adoption and Fostering developed a position statement on this practice, setting it within a broader framework of assessment and intervention. But like the model, the development of the position statement became controversial in its development. The article charts some of the critical issues and identifies the very significant dilemmas for parents and carers caught up in the maelstrom of challenging behaviours and disturbing feelings. The conclusion turns to one of the key components of an attachment-based idea: The critical importance of finding the space to think and to feel what the child is communicating without resorting to dangerous retaliation.

  1. High hydrostatic pressure processing: a promising nonthermal technology to inactivate viruses in high-risk foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Fangfei; Neetoo, Hudaa; Chen, Haiqiang; Li, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne outbreaks of viral origin have become increasingly a serious public health concern. High-pressure processing (HPP), a nonthermal technology, has come to the forefront for food processing given its minimal effects on food quality. Recent studies have revealed encouraging results for the inactivation of several human viruses by HPP. This review provides comprehensive information on the use of HPP to eliminate viruses in model systems and foods. We address the influences of various parameters, including pressure level, holding time, pH, temperature, and food matrix on the efficacy of pressure inactivation of viruses, as well as insight into the mechanisms for inactivation of enveloped and nonenveloped viruses. HPP is a promising technology for mitigating virus contamination of foods, thus it is essential to identify the optimal parameters for enhancing virus inactivation while ensuring sensory and nutritional quality retention of foods.

  2. De Novo Human Cardiac Myocytes for Medical Research: Promises and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Veronique; Cheng, Kang; Liao, Shudan; Lu, Aizhu; Zheng, Yong; Chen, Yawen; Xie, Yucai

    2017-01-01

    The advent of cellular reprogramming technology has revolutionized biomedical research. De novo human cardiac myocytes can now be obtained from direct reprogramming of somatic cells (such as fibroblasts), from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, which are reprogrammed from somatic cells), and from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Such de novo human cardiac myocytes hold great promise for in vitro disease modeling and drug screening and in vivo cell therapy of heart disease. Here, we review the technique advancements for generating de novo human cardiac myocytes. We also discuss several challenges for the use of such cells in research and regenerative medicine, such as the immature phenotype and heterogeneity of de novo cardiac myocytes obtained with existing protocols. We focus on the recent advancements in addressing such challenges.

  3. Towards a classification of weak hand holds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimmelman, V.; Sáfár, A.; Crasborn, O.

    2016-01-01

    The two symmetrical manual articulators (the hands) in signed languages are a striking modalityspecific phonetic property. The weak hand can maintain the end position of an articulation while the other articulator continues to produce additional signs. This weak hand spreading (hold) has been

  4. Holding Kids Accountable: Shaming with Compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, H. Allen; Revering, Andrew C.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the philosophy and procedures of Police Accountability Conferencing, a restorative justice approach in which police and school authorities, victims, offenders, and families are brought together in a process designed to hold youth accountable for their actions. Details the program's potential for reclaiming youth who have engaged in…

  5. Should we Hold the Obese Responsible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Andersen, Martin Marchman

    2014-01-01

    holding the obese responsible will have positive consequences. Taking these two conceptions of responsibility into account, the authors turn their analysis toward examining the relevant moral considerations to be taken into account when public policies regarding obesity rely on such a conception...

  6. 12 CFR 1732.7 - Record hold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... retention program of an Enterprise shall: (1) Address how employees and, as appropriate, how agents or... AND SOUNDNESS RECORD RETENTION Record Retention Program § 1732.7 Record hold. (a) Definition. For... permissible destruction of records; and, (3) Provide that any employee and, as appropriate, any agent or...

  7. How Much Popcorn Will Our Classroom Hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel-Esham, Katie

    2007-01-01

    "How much popcorn will our classroom hold?" This intriguing question sparked a terrific integrated science and math exploration that the author conducted with fifth-and sixth-grade students. In the process of finding the classroom's volume, students developed science-process skills (e.g., developing a plan, measurement, collecting and interpreting…

  8. Empowerment Amongst Teachers Holding Leadership Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidov-Ungar, Orit; Friedman, Izhak; Olshtain, Elite

    2014-01-01

    This study used semi-structured in-depth interviews to explore empowerment patterns among teachers who hold leadership positions in school. Our qualitative analysis presents a hierarchical ladder with three types of empowerment amongst these teachers, ranging from limited empowerment through rewarding empowerment to change-enhancing empowerment.…

  9. Uncertainty Quantification for Cargo Hold Fires

    CERN Document Server

    DeGennaro, Anthony M; Martinelli, Luigi; Rowley, Clarence W

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold -- first, to introduce the application of high-order discontinuous Galerkin methods to buoyancy-driven cargo hold fire simulations, second, to explore statistical variation in the fluid dynamics of a cargo hold fire given parameterized uncertainty in the fire source location and temperature. Cargo hold fires represent a class of problems that require highly-accurate computational methods to simulate faithfully. Hence, we use an in-house discontinuous Galerkin code to treat these flows. Cargo hold fires also exhibit a large amount of uncertainty with respect to the boundary conditions. Thus, the second aim of this paper is to quantify the resulting uncertainty in the flow, using tools from the uncertainty quantification community to ensure that our efforts require a minimal number of simulations. We expect that the results of this study will provide statistical insight into the effects of fire location and temperature on cargo fires, and also assist in the optimization of f...

  10. The Promise of Quantum Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    Quantum simulation promises to be one of the primary application of quantum computers, should one be constructed. This article briefly summarizes the history quantum simulation in light of the recent result of Wang and coworkers demonstrating calculation of the ground and excited states for a HeH+ molecule, and concludes with a discussion of why this and other recent progress in the field suggests that quantum simulation of quantum chemistry has a bright future.

  11. The promise of cyborg intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael F; Brown, Alexander A

    2017-03-01

    Yu et al. (2016) demonstrated that algorithms designed to find efficient routes in standard mazes can be integrated with the natural processes controlling rat navigation and spatial choices, and they pointed out the promise of such "cyborg intelligence" for biorobotic applications. Here, we briefly describe Yu et al.'s work, explore its relevance to the study of comparative cognition, and indicate how work involving cyborg intelligence would benefit from interdisciplinary collaboration between behavioral scientists and engineers.

  12. Nanomaterials promise better bone repair

    OpenAIRE

    Qifei Wang; Jianhua Yan; Junlin Yang; Bingyun Li

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials mimicking the nano-features of bones and offering unique smart functions are promising for better bone fracture repair. This review provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art research in developing and using nanomaterials for better bone fracture repair. This review begins with a brief introduction of bone fracture repair processes, then discusses the importance of vascularization, the role of growth factors in bone fracture repair, and the failure of bone fracture rep...

  13. Emulsifying salt increase stability of cheese emulsions during holding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anni Bygvrå; Sijbrandij, Anna G.; Varming, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    In cheese powder production, cheese is mixed and melted with water and emulsifying salt to form an emulsion (cheese feed) which is required to remain stable at 60°C for 1h and during further processing until spray drying. Addition of emulsifying salts ensures this, but recent demands for reduction...... of sodium and phosphate in foods makes production of cheese powder without or with minimal amounts of emulsifying salts desirable. The present work uses a centrifugation method to characterize stability of model cheese feeds. Stability of cheese feed with emulsifying salt increased with holding time at 60°C......, especially when no stirring was applied. No change in stability during holding was observed in cheese feeds without emulsifying salt. This effect is suggested to be due to continued exerted functionality of the emulsifying salt, possibly through reorganizations of the mineral balance....

  14. Multimodal Education: A Model with Promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerler, Edwin R., Jr.; Locke, Don C.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a program that uses Lazarus's factors that contribute to human growth and development as the basis for its program. The modalities covered are given the headings behavior, affect, sensation and imagery, cognition, interpersonal, and diet/physiology. (IRT)

  15. 12 CFR 583.20 - Savings and loan holding company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Savings and loan holding company. 583.20... REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.20 Savings and loan holding company. The term savings and loan holding company means any company that directly or indirectly controls a...

  16. 12 CFR 583.4 - Bank holding company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank holding company. 583.4 Section 583.4 Banks... AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.4 Bank holding company. The term bank holding company means any company which has control over any bank or over any company that is or becomes a bank...

  17. Chitin fulfilling a biomaterials promise

    CERN Document Server

    Khor, Eugene

    2001-01-01

    The second edition of Chitin underscores the important factors for standardizing chitin processing and characterization. It captures the essential interplay between chitin's assets and limitations as a biomaterial, placing the past promises of chitin in perspective, addressing its present realities and offering insight into what is required to realize chitin's destiny (including its derivative, chitosan) as a biomaterial of the twenty-first century. This book is an ideal guide for both industrialists and researchers with a vested interest in commercializing chitin.An upd

  18. Living on Hold in Palliative Cancer Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sandgren, RN, M.Sc.N., Ph.D. Student

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a classic grounded theory of palliative cancer patients and their relatives in the context of home care. We analyzed interviews and data related to the behaviour of both patients and relatives. “Living on hold” emerged as the pattern of behaviour through which the patients and relatives deal with their main concern, being put on hold. Living on Hold involves three modes: Fighting, Adjusting and Surrendering. Mode being may change during a trajectory depending on many different factors. There are also different triggers that can start a reconciling process leading to a change of mode. This means that patients and relatives can either be in the same mode or in different modes simultaneously. More or less synchronous modes may lead to problems and conflicts within the family, or with the health professionals.

  19. Latino Immigrants, Acculturation, and Health: Promising New Directions in Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraído-Lanza, Ana F; Echeverría, Sandra E; Flórez, Karen R

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of novel topics emerging in recent years in research on Latino immigrants, acculturation, and health. In the past ten years, the number of studies assessing new ways to conceptualize and understand how acculturation-related processes may influence health has grown. These new frameworks draw from integrative approaches testing new ground to acknowledge the fundamental role of context and policy. We classify the emerging body of evidence according to themes that we identify as promising directions--intrapersonal, interpersonal, social environmental, community, political, and global contexts, cross-cutting themes in life course and developmental approaches, and segmented assimilation--and discuss the challenges and opportunities each theme presents. This body of work, which considers acculturation in context, points to the emergence of a new wave of research that holds great promise in driving forward the study of Latino immigrants, acculturation, and health. We provide suggestions to further advance the ideologic and methodologic rigor of this new wave.

  20. Electrochemical cell with electrode hold-down

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudrot, R.J.; Shambaugh, J.S.; Zeltzer, H.

    1981-06-30

    A primary electrochemical cell including a hold-down unit for securing and preventing movement of a physically large battery stack of the cell is disclosed. The battery stack is disposed within a rectangular metal housing of the cell, together with an electrolytic solution, and comprises a large number of rectangular anodes and cathode structures arranged in the battery stack in alternation. The hold-down unit is disposed in the cell in abutment with the top of the battery stack and an inner surface of a cover assembly secured to the housing. The hold-down unit includes a pair of opposed end sections in abutment with the interior surfaces of one pair of walls of the housing and lying orthogonally to the planes of the components of the battery stack, and a pair of opposed connecting sections in abutment with the interior surfaces of the other pair of walls of the housing and interconnecting the pair of end sections. The connecting sections are spaced from the battery stack and define, together with the end sections, top and side openings. These openings, together with large openings in the end sections, minimize the displacement of electrolytic solution in the region of the cell above the battery stack. The connecting sections further include insulated, resilient, angularly-oriented tabs capable of deflection by contact with the top cover assembly for compensating for variations in tolerances associated with the manufacture and assembly of the components of the cell.

  1. 12 CFR 584.2-2 - Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies. 584.2-2 Section 584.2-2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 584.2-2 Permissible bank holding...

  2. Read my lips: The case against election promises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.A.; Los, B.; Onderstal, S.; Riyanto, Y.E.

    2008-01-01

    We study a model in which politicians differ in their ability to im- plement some policy. In an election, candidates make binding promises regarding the plans they will implement. These serve as a signal of true ability. In equilibrium, candidates make overambitious promises. The candidate with the

  3. Neural mass model-based tracking of anesthetic brain states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, Levin; Freestone, Dean R.; Manton, Jonathan H.; Heyse, Bjorn; Vereecke, Hugo E. M.; Lipping, Tarmo; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; Liley, David T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Neural mass model-based tracking of brain states from electroencephalographic signals holds the promise of simultaneously tracking brain states while inferring underlying physiological changes in various neuroscientific and clinical applications. Here, neural mass model-based tracking of brain state

  4. The promise of psychiatric pharmacogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians already face "personalized" medicine every day while experiencing the great variation in toxicities and drug efficacy among individual patients. Pharmacogenetics studies are the platform for discovering the DNA determinants of variability in drug response and tolerability. Research now focuses on the genome after its beginning with analyses of single genes. Therapeutic outcomes from several psychotropic drugs have been weakly linked to specific genetic variants without independent replication. Drug side effects show stronger associations to genetic variants, including human leukocyte antigen loci with carbamazepine-induced dermatologic outcome and MC4R with atypical antipsychotic weight gain. Clinical implementation has proven challenging, with barriers including a lack of replicable prospective evidence for clinical utility required for altering medical care. More recent studies show promising approaches for reducing these barriers to routine incorporation of pharmacogenetics data into clinical care.

  5. Mangiferin: a promising anticancer bioactive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Rajneet K; Kaur, Ranjot; Lohan, Shikha; Singh, Kamalinder K; Singh, Bhupinder

    2016-05-01

    Of late, several biologically active antioxidants from natural products have been investigated by the researchers in order to combat the root cause of carcinogenesis, in other words, oxidative stress. Mangiferin, a therapeutically active C-glucosylated xanthone, is extracted from pulp, peel, seed, bark and leaf of Mangifera indica. These polyphenols of mangiferin exhibit antioxidant properties and tend to decrease the oxygen-free radicals, thereby reducing the DNA damage. Indeed, its capability to modulate several key inflammatory pathways undoubtedly helps in stalling the progression of carcinogenesis. The current review article emphasizes an updated account on the patents published on the chemopreventive action of mangiferin, apoptosis induction made on various cancer cells, along with proposed antioxidative activities and patent mapping of other important therapeutic properties. Considering it as promising polyphenol, this paper would also summarize the diverse molecular targets of mangiferin.

  6. Purines: from premise to promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M

    2000-07-01

    Geoff Burnstock's remarkable insight and tenacity has established the area of purinergic research as a bona fide target for drug discovery. While efforts in P1 receptor-based medicinal chemistry and biology efforts over the past 25 years have not reached the level of success that the pharmaceutical industry investment may have anticipated, the P2 area, with knowledge of the selective localization of members of the P2X and P2Y family members and data from transgenic knockouts, has identified several potential therapeutic areas of major promise including cystic fibrosis, chronic bronchitis, male contraception and neurodegeneration. In addition, interest in the potential of purinergic therapeutics has extended outside the major pharmaceutical companies to the 'biotech industry' resulting in an environment where the inherent risks of 'first in field' in a therapeutic area may be more appropriately nurtured.

  7. Nanomaterials promise better bone repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifei Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials mimicking the nano-features of bones and offering unique smart functions are promising for better bone fracture repair. This review provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art research in developing and using nanomaterials for better bone fracture repair. This review begins with a brief introduction of bone fracture repair processes, then discusses the importance of vascularization, the role of growth factors in bone fracture repair, and the failure of bone fracture repair. Next, the review discusses the applications of nanomaterials for bone fracture repair, with a focus on the recent breakthroughs such as nanomaterials leading to precise immobilization of growth factors at the molecular level, promoting vascularization without the use of growth factors, and re-loading therapeutic agents after implantation. The review concludes with perspectives on challenges and future directions for developing nanomaterials for improved bone fracture repair.

  8. Cultural Neuroscience: Progress and Promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Joan Y; Cheon, Bobby K; Pornpattanangkul, Narun; Mrazek, Alissa J; Blizinsky, Katherine D

    2013-01-01

    The nature and origin of human diversity has been a source of intellectual curiosity since the beginning of human history. Contemporary advances in cultural and biological sciences provide unique opportunities for the emerging field of cultural neuroscience. Research in cultural neuroscience examines how cultural and genetic diversity shape the human mind, brain and behavior across multiple time scales: situation, ontogeny and phylogeny. Recent progress in cultural neuroscience provides novel theoretical frameworks for understanding the complex interaction of environmental, cultural and genetic factors in the production of adaptive human behavior. Here, we provide a brief history of cultural neuroscience, theoretical and methodological advances, as well as empirical evidence of the promise of and progress in the field. Implications of this research for population health disparities and public policy are discussed.

  9. What Happened to the Promise? A Critical (Re)Orientation of Two Sociocultural Learning Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewolny, Kim L.; Wilson, Arthur L.

    2009-01-01

    Cleary it is no longer possible to think about learning without context. Although context cannot be ignored anymore, educators often struggle to explain how people learn in "and" with various contexts. Situated cognition and cultural--historical activity theory (CHAT) hold promise for understanding how adult learners are cultural and historical…

  10. 32 CFR 806b.9 - Confidentiality promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidentiality promises. 806b.9 Section 806b.9... PROGRAM Obtaining Law Enforcement Records and Confidentiality Promises § 806b.9 Confidentiality promises. Promises of confidentiality must be prominently annotated in the record to protect from disclosure any...

  11. Cash Holdings and Leverage of German Listed Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Marc Steffen; Killi, Andreas Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    We examine cash holdings and leverage levels of German listed (non-financial and non-utility) firms. We document a secular increase in cash ratios over the last twenty years (1992–2011), reducing the net debt book leverage ratio for the average sample firm close to zero. Using prediction models...... firms are associated with measures of uncertainty faced by firms. Our results suggest that German firms have increased (reduced) their cash (net debt leverage) levels over time in order to adopt more precautionary financial policies....

  12. Should we Hold the Obese Responsible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Andersen, Martin Marchman

    2014-01-01

    conceptualizations of responsibility: backward-looking and forward-looking conceptualizations. When ascertaining responsibility in a backward-looking sense, one has to determine how that state of affairs came into being or where the agent stood in relation to it. In contrast, a forward-looking conceptualization...... holding the obese responsible will have positive consequences. Taking these two conceptions of responsibility into account, the authors turn their analysis toward examining the relevant moral considerations to be taken into account when public policies regarding obesity rely on such a conception...

  13. New strategies for the treatment of Parkinson's disease hold considerable promise for future management of neurodegenerative disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarkam, Carsten Reidies; Sørensen, Jens Christian; Sunde, Niels Å

    2001-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are often consideredincurable with no efficient therapies to modifyor halt the progress of disease, and ultimatelylead to reduced quality of life and to death.Our knowledge of the nervous system in healthand disease has, however, increasedconsiderably during the last fi...

  14. The Promise of Personalized Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that I call the four Ps: predictive, personalized, preemptive and participatory. This requires patient involvement well before disease strikes. As opposed to the doctor-centric, curative model ...

  15. The Ambivalence of Promising Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley-Egan, Clare

    2010-08-01

    Issues of responsibility in the world of nanotechnology are becoming explicit with the emergence of a discourse on 'responsible development' of nanoscience and nanotechnologies. Much of this discourse centres on the ambivalences of nanotechnology and of promising technology in general. Actors must find means of dealing with these ambivalences. Actors' actions and responses to ambivalence are shaped by their position and context, along with strategic games they are involved in, together with other actors. A number of interviews were conducted with industrial actors with the aim of uncovering their ethical stances towards responsible development of nanotechnology. The data shows that standard repertoires of justification of nanotechnological development were used. Thus, the industrial actors fell back on their position and associated responsibilities. Such responses reinforce a division of moral labour in which industrial actors and scientists can focus on the progress of science and technology, while other actors, such as NGOs, are expected to take care of broader considerations, such as ethical and social issues.

  16. Energy cost and optimisation in breath-hold diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trassinelli, M

    2016-05-07

    We present a new model for calculating locomotion costs in breath-hold divers. Starting from basic mechanics principles, we calculate the work that the diver must provide through propulsion to counterbalance the action of drag, the buoyant force and weight during immersion. Compared to those in previous studies, the model presented here accurately analyses breath-hold divers which alternate active swimming with prolonged glides during the dive (as is the case in mammals). The energy cost of the dive is strongly dependent on these prolonged gliding phases. Here we investigate the length and impacts on energy cost of these glides with respect to the diver characteristics, and compare them with those observed in different breath-hold diving species. Taking into account the basal metabolic rate and chemical energy to propulsion transformation efficiency, we calculate optimal swim velocity and the corresponding total energy cost (including metabolic rate) and compare them with observations. Energy cost is minimised when the diver passes through neutral buoyancy conditions during the dive. This generally implies the presence of prolonged gliding phases in both ascent and descent, where the buoyancy (varying with depth) is best used against the drag, reducing energy cost. This is in agreement with past results (Miller et al., 2012; Sato et al., 2013) where, when the buoyant force is considered constant during the dive, the energy cost was minimised for neutral buoyancy. In particular, our model confirms the good physical adaption of dolphins for diving, compared to other breath-hold diving species which are mostly positively buoyant (penguins for example). The presence of prolonged glides implies a non-trivial dependency of optimal speed on maximal depth of the dive. This extends previous findings (Sato et al., 2010; Watanabe et al., 2011) which found no dependency of optimal speed on dive depth for particular conditions. The energy cost of the dive can be further

  17. The Promise of Personalized Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headden, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The Alliance Tennenbaum Family Technology High School, a charter school on L.A.'s east side, uses a hybrid model that combines online and traditional instruction and offers students three different ways to learn. In the months since it adopted the rotational model, known as Blended Learning for Alliance School Transformation, or BLAST, Tennenbaum…

  18. Automated Inventory Control System for Nigeria Power Holding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-09-01

    Sep 1, 2013 ... Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) currently holds in excess of millions in spare parts inventory between ... Heightened operational risks, lower availability and ... expectations, demand uncertainty, and the flexibility of ...

  19. The Economic Promise of Delayed Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Dana

    2015-12-18

    Biomedicine has made enormous progress in the last half century in treating common diseases. However, we are becoming victims of our own success. Causes of death strongly associated with biological aging, such as heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and stroke-cluster within individuals as they grow older. These conditions increase frailty and limit the benefits of continued, disease-specific improvements. Here, we show that a "delayed-aging" scenario, modeled on the biological benefits observed in the most promising animal models, could solve this problem of competing risks. The economic value of delayed aging is estimated to be $7.1 trillion over 50 years. Total government costs, including Social Security, rise substantially with delayed aging--mainly caused by longevity increases--but we show that these can be offset by modest policy changes. Expanded biomedical research to delay aging appears to be a highly efficient way to forestall disease and extend healthy life.

  20. [Status and prospects for development of medical equipment at the state-of-the-art "Axion Holding" "Izhevskiy Motor Plant"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, A N; Mubarakshin, R G

    2002-01-01

    The joint stock company "Izhevsky Motor Plant "AXION-HOLDING" is a large manufacturer in different industrial branches, including medical equipment. The paper presents data on the status-of-the-art and prospects of development in producing medical equipment in several areas, including information on specific articles that are manufactured and promising.

  1. 26 CFR 1.563-2 - Personal holding company tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Personal holding company tax. 1.563-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Deduction for Dividends Paid § 1.563-2 Personal holding company tax. In the case of a personal holding company subject to the provisions of section 541, dividends paid...

  2. 42 CFR 412.344 - Hold-harmless payment methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hold-harmless payment methodology. 412.344 Section...-Related Costs § 412.344 Hold-harmless payment methodology. (a) General. A hospital paid under the hold-harmless payment methodology receives a payment per discharge based on the higher of: (1) 85 percent of...

  3. Creditor rights, country governance, and corporate cash holdings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seifert, Bruce; Gonenc, Halit

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the impact of creditor rights and country governance on cash holdings using a sample of firms from 47 countries. We hypothesize that cash holdings are smaller when both creditor rights and country governance are high. In these circumstances firms will not need to hold as much cas

  4. Voltage holding optimization of the MITICA electrostatic accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilan, N., E-mail: nicola.pilan@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Bettini, P. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); DII, Università di Padova, v. Gradenigo 6/A, I-35131 Padova (Italy); De Lorenzi, A. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Specogna, R. [DIEGM, Università di Udine, v. delle Scienze 208, I-33100 Udine (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► A set of electrostatic analyses of the region surrounding the MITICA electrostatic accelerator has been carried out. ► The distribution of the breakdown probability of the system has been calculated. ► The analyses have allowed identifying the weak point of the system to address the future design optimizations. -- Abstract: Two Heating Neutral Beam Injectors (H-NBI) are planned to be installed in ITER with a total delivered heating power of 33 MW [1]. The main parameters are: 870 kV acceleration voltage with 46 A beam current for hydrogen beam, and 1 MV voltage with 40 A current for deuterium beam. The voltage holding in the 1 MV ITER Neutral Beam Accelerator is recognized to be one of the most critical issues for long pulse (3600 s) beam operation, due to the complex electrostatic structure formed by electrodes polarized at different potentials immersed in vacuum or low-pressure gas. As a matter of fact, the system shall work in a p × d range at the left of the Paschen curve where the classical Townsend breakdown criterion is no longer valid. The voltage holding is governed by the mechanism of the long gap insulation in high vacuum, not yet well consolidated from the physical point of view. This paper is aimed to describe the optimization of the voltage holding capability for MITICA electrostatic accelerator. The results of this analysis will constitute the input for the probabilistic model [3] which is adopted to predict the breakdown probability by means of 2D analyses of the multi electrode – multi voltage system.

  5. Antigen Loss Variants: Catching Hold of Escaping Foes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Maulik; Müller, Rolf; Pogge von Strandmann, Elke

    2017-01-01

    Since mid-1990s, the field of cancer immunotherapy has seen steady growth and selected immunotherapies are now a routine and preferred therapeutic option of certain malignancies. Both active and passive cancer immunotherapies exploit the fact that tumor cells express specific antigens on the cell surface, thereby mounting an immune response specifically against malignant cells. It is well established that cancer cells typically lose surface antigens following natural or therapy-induced selective pressure and these antigen-loss variants are often the population that causes therapy-resistant relapse. CD19 and CD20 antigen loss in acute lymphocytic leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, respectively, and lineage switching in leukemia associated with mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene rearrangements are well-documented evidences in this regard. Although increasing number of novel immunotherapies are being developed, majority of these do not address the control of antigen loss variants. Here, we review the occurrence of antigen loss variants in leukemia and discuss the therapeutic strategies to tackle the same. We also present an approach of dual-targeting immunoligand effectively retargeting NK cells against antigen loss variants in MLL-associated leukemia. Novel immunotherapies simultaneously targeting more than one tumor antigen certainly hold promise to completely eradicate tumor and prevent therapy-resistant relapses. PMID:28286501

  6. A Promising Development: "Promise" Scholarships Targeting Individual Communities Reduce Barriers to College Access--and Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses Promise Scholarships in community colleges and sources of funding. The following community colleges and their scholarships are mentioned in this article: (1) Oregon Promise, Oregon; (2) Ventura College Promise, California; (3) Kalamazoo Promise, Michigan; (4) Pittsburgh Promise, Pennsylvania; (5) SEED Scholarship, Delaware;…

  7. Will psychoanalysis fulfill its promise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, Robert S

    2012-04-01

    Although Freud had aspirations of a university structure for psychoanalytic education the sociopolitical structure of the Austro-Hungarian empire precluded this, and psychoanalysis developed by default in the central European heartland within a part-time, private-practice educational structure. With its rapid spread in the post-World-War-II United States, and its ready penetration of American academic psychiatry, a counter educational structure arose in some quarters: the department-of-psychiatry-affiliated institute within the medical school. This article outlines beyond these other, more ambitious, academic vistas (the David Shakow model, the Anna Freud model, the Menninger Foundation, Emory University (USA), AP de BA (Argentina)); conceptions even closer to the ideal (idealized) goal of full-time placement within the university, with strong links to medicine, to the behavioral sciences and to the humanities. The putative advantages of such a structure are presented. Copyright © 2012 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  8. A Haptic Guided Robotic System for Endoscope Positioning and Holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabuk, Burak; Ceylan, Savas; Anik, Ihsan; Tugasaygi, Mehtap; Kizir, Selcuk

    2015-01-01

    To determine the feasibility, advantages, and disadvantages of using a robot for holding and maneuvering the endoscope in transnasal transsphenoidal surgery. The system used in this study was a Stewart Platform based robotic system that was developed by Kocaeli University Department of Mechatronics Engineering for positioning and holding of endoscope. After the first use on an artificial head model, the system was used on six fresh postmortem bodies that were provided by the Morgue Specialization Department of the Forensic Medicine Institute (Istanbul, Turkey). The setup required for robotic system was easy, the time for registration procedure and setup of the robot takes 15 minutes. The resistance was felt on haptic arm in case of contact or friction with adjacent tissues. The adaptation process was shorter with the mouse to manipulate the endoscope. The endoscopic transsphenoidal approach was achieved with the robotic system. The endoscope was guided to the sphenoid ostium with the help of the robotic arm. This robotic system can be used in endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery as an endoscope positioner and holder. The robot is able to change the position easily with the help of an assistant and prevents tremor, and provides a better field of vision for work.

  9. The promise of entrepreneurship education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Claus; Blenker, Per; Korsgaard, Steffen;

    2016-01-01

    This article develops a conceptual framework for entrepreneurship education based on a reconceptualization of the individual-opportunity nexus as presented by Shane and Venkataraman (2000). In order to achieve this objective, we reinterpret both the basic assumptions pertaining to the individual...... into general anomalies; (IV) Constructing innovative solutions; (V) Prototyping; and (VI) Business modelling. Finally, we discuss the implications of the reconceptualized framework in terms of the research questions governing the field of entrepreneurship education, for the practice of entrepreneurship...... education, as well as for policy to promote entrepreneurship education....

  10. The promise of entrepreneurship education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Claus; Blenker, Per; Korsgaard, Steffen;

    2016-01-01

    into general anomalies; (IV) Constructing innovative solutions; (V) Prototyping; and (VI) Business modelling. Finally, we discuss the implications of the reconceptualized framework in terms of the research questions governing the field of entrepreneurship education, for the practice of entrepreneurship......This article develops a conceptual framework for entrepreneurship education based on a reconceptualization of the individual-opportunity nexus as presented by Shane and Venkataraman (2000). In order to achieve this objective, we reinterpret both the basic assumptions pertaining to the individual...... education, as well as for policy to promote entrepreneurship education....

  11. [Promises and limits of genomics and its applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, François

    2015-01-01

    This text traces the extraordinary advances made in genomics for 40 years: recombinant DNA, transgenesis or genetic sequencing. In recent years, the model "all genetics" was questioned and post-genomics emerged in the molecular landscape. The promises of medical advances are many and the ethical issues that accompany them are challenges. Advances in synthetic biology are a relevant illustration of these promises and challenges.

  12. Realizing the promise of social psychology in improving public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, William M P; Shepperd, James A; Suls, Jerry; Rothman, Alexander J; Croyle, Robert T

    2015-02-01

    The theories, phenomena, empirical findings, and methodological approaches that characterize contemporary social psychology hold much promise for addressing enduring problems in public health. Indeed, social psychologists played a major role in the development of the discipline of health psychology during the 1970s and 1980s. The health domain allows for the testing, refinement, and application of many interesting and important research questions in social psychology, and offers the discipline a chance to enhance its reach and visibility. Nevertheless, in a review of recent articles in two major social-psychological journals (Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin and Journal of Personality and Social Psychology), we found that only 3.2% of 467 studies explored health-related topics. In this article, we identify opportunities for research at the interface of social psychology and health, delineate barriers, and offer strategies that can address these barriers as the discipline continues to evolve.

  13. Piracetam in severe breath holding spells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Matloob; Bhatti, Nasera; Shahab, Naheed

    2008-01-01

    Breath holding spells (BHS) are apparently frightening events occurring in otherwise healthy children. Generally, no medical treatment is recommended and parental reassurance is believed to be enough, however, severe BHS can be very stressful for the parents and a pharmacological agent may be desired in some of these children. In this prospective study aim was to determine the usefulness of piracetam as prophylactic treatment for severe BHS. Children were recruited from Neurology Clinic in Children's Hospital, Islamabad between January 2002 to December 2004. Diagnosis of BHS was based on characteristic history and normal physical examination. Piracetam was prescribed to those children who were diagnosed as severe BHS in a dose ranging from 50-100 mg/kg/day. Iron supplements were added if hemoglobin was less than 10 gm%. Patients were seen at 2-4 weeks interval and follow-up was continued until 3 months after the cessation of drug therapy. Fifty-two children were enrolled in the study, 34 boys and 18 girls. Ages ranged from 4 weeks to 5 years with mean age of 17 months. In 81% of children, spells disappeared completely and in 9% frequency was reduced to less than one per month and of much lesser intensity. Prophylaxis was given for 3-6 months (mean 5) duration. Piracetam is an effective prophylactic treatment for severe BHS.

  14. Organ printing: promises and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, Vladimir; Kasyanov, Vladimir; Drake, Christopher; Markwald, Roger R

    2008-01-01

    Organ printing or biomedical application of rapid prototyping, also defined as additive layer-by-layer biomanufacturing, is an emerging transforming technology that has potential for surpassing traditional solid scaffold-based tissue engineering. Organ printing has certain advantages: it is an automated approach that offers a pathway for scalable reproducible mass production of tissue engineered products; it allows a precised simultaneous 3D positioning of several cell types; it enables creation tissue with a high level of cell density; it can solve the problem of vascularization in thick tissue constructs; finally, organ printing can be done in situ. The ultimate goal of organ-printing technology is to fabricate 3D vascularized functional living human organs suitable for clinical implantation. The main practical outcomes of organ-printing technology are industrial scalable robotic biofabrication of complex human tissues and organs, automated tissue-based in vitro assays for clinical diagnostics, drug discovery and drug toxicity, and complex in vitro models of human diseases. This article describes conceptual framework and recent developments in organ-printing technology, outlines main technological barriers and challenges, and presents potential future practical applications.

  15. Multiple Job Holding, Local Labor Markets, and the Business Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Barry T.; Husain, Muhammad M.; Winters, John V

    2016-01-01

    About 5 percent of U.S. workers hold multiple jobs, which can exacerbate or mitigate employment changes over the business cycle. Theory is ambiguous and prior literature is not fully conclusive. We examine the relationship between multiple job holding and local unemployment rates using a large Current Population Survey data set of workers in urban labor markets during 1998-2013. High unemployment labor markets have moderately lower rates of multiple job holding. Yet no relationship between mu...

  16. Congestion Service Facilities Location Problem with Promise of Response Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In many services, promise of specific response time is advertised as a commitment by the service providers for the customer satisfaction. Congestion on service facilities could delay the delivery of the services and hurts the overall satisfaction. In this paper, congestion service facilities location problem with promise of response time is studied, and a mixed integer nonlinear programming model is presented with budget constrained. The facilities are modeled as M/M/c queues. The decision variables of the model are the locations of the service facilities and the number of servers at each facility. The objective function is to maximize the demands served within specific response time promised by the service provider. To solve this problem, we propose an algorithm that combines greedy and genetic algorithms. In order to verify the proposed algorithm, a lot of computational experiments are tested. And the results demonstrate that response time has a significant impact on location decision.

  17. Sports-related lung injury during breath-hold diving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Mijacika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of people practising recreational breath-hold diving is constantly growing, thereby increasing the need for knowledge of the acute and chronic effects such a sport could have on the health of participants. Breath-hold diving is potentially dangerous, mainly because of associated extreme environmental factors such as increased hydrostatic pressure, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypothermia and strenuous exercise. In this article we focus on the effects of breath-hold diving on pulmonary function. Respiratory symptoms have been reported in almost 25% of breath-hold divers after repetitive diving sessions. Acutely, repetitive breath-hold diving may result in increased transpulmonary capillary pressure, leading to noncardiogenic oedema and/or alveolar haemorrhage. Furthermore, during a breath-hold dive, the chest and lungs are compressed by the increasing pressure of water. Rapid changes in lung air volume during descent or ascent can result in a lung injury known as pulmonary barotrauma. Factors that may influence individual susceptibility to breath-hold diving-induced lung injury range from underlying pulmonary or cardiac dysfunction to genetic predisposition. According to the available data, breath-holding does not result in chronic lung injury. However, studies of large populations of breath-hold divers are necessary to firmly exclude long-term lung damage.

  18. Sports-related lung injury during breath-hold diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijacika, Tanja; Dujic, Zeljko

    2016-12-01

    The number of people practising recreational breath-hold diving is constantly growing, thereby increasing the need for knowledge of the acute and chronic effects such a sport could have on the health of participants. Breath-hold diving is potentially dangerous, mainly because of associated extreme environmental factors such as increased hydrostatic pressure, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypothermia and strenuous exercise.In this article we focus on the effects of breath-hold diving on pulmonary function. Respiratory symptoms have been reported in almost 25% of breath-hold divers after repetitive diving sessions. Acutely, repetitive breath-hold diving may result in increased transpulmonary capillary pressure, leading to noncardiogenic oedema and/or alveolar haemorrhage. Furthermore, during a breath-hold dive, the chest and lungs are compressed by the increasing pressure of water. Rapid changes in lung air volume during descent or ascent can result in a lung injury known as pulmonary barotrauma. Factors that may influence individual susceptibility to breath-hold diving-induced lung injury range from underlying pulmonary or cardiac dysfunction to genetic predisposition.According to the available data, breath-holding does not result in chronic lung injury. However, studies of large populations of breath-hold divers are necessary to firmly exclude long-term lung damage.

  19. Latino Immigrants, Acculturation, and Health: Promising New Directions in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraído-Lanza, Ana F.; Echeverría, Sandra E.; Flórez, Karen R.

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of novel topics emerging in recent years in research on Latino immigrants, acculturation, and health. In the past ten years, the number of studies assessing new ways to conceptualize and understand how acculturation-related processes may influence health has grown. These new frameworks draw from integrative approaches testing new ground to acknowledge the fundamental role of context and policy. We classify the emerging body of evidence according to themes that we identify as promising directions—intrapersonal, interpersonal, social environmental, community, political, and global contexts, cross-cutting themes in life course and developmental approaches, and segmented assimilation—and discuss the challenges and opportunities each theme presents. This body of work, which considers acculturation in context, points to the emergence of a new wave of research that holds great promise in driving forward the study of Latino immigrants, acculturation, and health. We provide suggestions to further advance the ideologic and methodologic rigor of this new wave. PMID:26735431

  20. The Promising Syllabus Enacted: One Teacher's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Christine Courtade

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe a rationale and strategies for use of the Promising Syllabus (in Bain, 2004, What the best college teachers do). This syllabus reflects the learner-centered paradigm where students take charge of their own learning. The syllabus creates a series of promises between teacher and student, focusing on a…

  1. Realizing the promises of marine biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, EEM; Akkerman, [No Value; Koulman, A; Kamermans, P; Reith, H; Barbosa, MJ; Sipkema, D; Wijffels, RH

    2003-01-01

    High-quality research in the field of marine biotechnology is one of the key-factors for successful innovation in exploiting the vast diversity of marine life. However, fascinating scientific research with promising results and claims on promising potential applications (e.g. for pharmaceuticals, nu

  2. Network analysis of pig movements: Loyalty patterns and contact chains of different holding types in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Jana; Boklund, Anette; Halasa, Tariq H B; Toft, Nils; Lentz, Hartmut H K

    2017-01-01

    Understanding animal movements is an important factor for the development of meaningful surveillance and control programs, but also for the development of disease spread models. We analysed the Danish pig movement network using static and temporal network analysis tools to provide deeper insight in the connection between holdings dealing with pigs, such as breeding and multiplier herds, production herds, slaughterhouses or traders. Pig movements, which occurred between 1st January 2006 and 31st December 2015 in Denmark, were summarized to investigate temporal trends such as the number of active holdings, the number of registered movements and the number of pigs moved. To identify holdings and holding types with potentially higher risk for introduction or spread of diseases via pig movements, we determined loyalty patterns, annual network components and contact chains for the 24 registered holding types. The total number of active holdings as well as the number of pig movements decreased during the study period while the holding sizes increased. Around 60-90% of connections between two pig holdings were present in two consecutive years and around one third of the connections persisted within the considered time period. Weaner herds showed the highest level of in-loyalty, whereas we observed an intermediate level of in-loyalty for all breeding sites and for production herds. Boar stations, production herds and trade herds showed a high level of out-loyalty. Production herds constituted the highest proportion of holdings in the largest strongly connected component. All production sites showed low levels of in-going contact chains and we observed a high level of out-going contact chain for breeding and multiplier herds. Except for livestock auctions, all transit sites also showed low levels of out-going contact chains. Our results reflect the pyramidal structure of the underlying network. Based on the considered disease, the time frame for the calculation of network

  3. Are Economists More Likely to Hold Stocks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Joensen, Eyðfrið Juanna Schrøter; Rangvid, Jesper

    education, even when controlling for several background characteristics. We make use of a large register-based panel data set containing detailed information on the educational attainments and various financial and socioeconomic variables.We model the stock market participation decision by the probit model...

  4. 12 CFR 575.14 - Subsidiary holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the approval of its shareholders, except as otherwise provided in this section 5 or to the extent that... proposed by the board of directors of the MHC subsidiary holding company, approved by the shareholders by a... to subsidiary holding companies. (3) Optional charter provision limiting minority stock ownership....

  5. Er det etisk acceptabelt at holde elefanter i zoologiske haver?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Bag diskussionen om flytning af 17 vilde elefanter fra Afrika til amerikanske zoolgiske haver ligger en dybere uenighed om berettigelsen af at holde elefanter i fangenskab,......Bag diskussionen om flytning af 17 vilde elefanter fra Afrika til amerikanske zoolgiske haver ligger en dybere uenighed om berettigelsen af at holde elefanter i fangenskab,...

  6. Evaluation of Manometric Measures during Tongue-Hold Swallows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Witte, Ulrike; Gumbley, Freya; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Based on visual inspection, prior research documented increased movement of the posterior pharyngeal wall in healthy volunteers during tongue-hold swallows. This manometric study investigated the immediate effects of the tongue-hold maneuver on pharyngeal peak pressure generation, duration of pressure generation, and pressure slope…

  7. Acute effects of cannabis on breath-holding duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Metrik, Jane

    2016-08-01

    Distress intolerance (an individual's perceived or actual inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states) is associated with cannabis use. It is unknown whether a biobehavioral index of distress intolerance, breath-holding duration, is acutely influenced (increased or decreased) by cannabis. Such information may further inform understanding of the expression of psychological or physiological distress postcannabis use. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7%-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed duration of breath holding. Participants (n = 88; 65.9% male) were nontreatment-seeking frequent cannabis users who smoked placebo or active THC cigarette on two separate study days and completed a breath-holding task postsmoking. Controlling for baseline breath-holding duration and participant sex, THC produced significantly shorter breath-holding durations relative to placebo. There was a significant interaction of drug administration × frequency of cannabis use, such that THC decreased breath-holding time among less frequent but not among more frequent users. Findings indicate that cannabis may exacerbate distress intolerance (via shorter breath-holding durations). As compared to less frequent cannabis users, frequent users display tolerance to cannabis' acute effects including increased ability to tolerate respiratory distress when holding breath. Objective measures of distress intolerance are sensitive to contextual factors such as acute drug intoxication, and may inform the link between cannabis use and the expression of psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Forord, midtersider og efterord i Hold Ud Bro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    at skrive så nu sidder jeg bare her og surmuler så hold ud bro hold ud hold ud bro hold ud Grønthandleren, 19 år Vi sidder i et kælderlokale i skolen på Ringe Statsfængsel. Vi er syv mennesker, alle i gang med en skriveøvelse. I fem minutter skriver vi løs. Ingen siger noget, tastaturer klaprer...... Grønthandleren læser sin tekst højt, griner vi. Det er sjovt, fordi nogen af os ikke fatter, hvad en kartoffel (en hvid dansker) er. Så taler vi om uretfærdighed. Til sidst taler vi om slutningen, ”hold ud bro”. I teksten er det noget, forfatteren siger til sig selv: ”Så nu er jeg træt af at skrive så nu sidder...... jeg bare her og surmuler så hold ud bro hold ud.” Teksterne i ‘Hold ud bro’ er skrevet af tre unge indsatte i et skriveværksted, der fandt sted i Ringe Statsfængsel. Det foregik over tre dage i starten af marts 2016. Vi var tre unge indsatte, en lærer og tre skrivementorer. Vi arbejde primært med...

  9. 17 CFR 450.4 - Custodial holdings of government securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... government securities. 450.4 Section 450.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS UNDER TITLE II OF THE GOVERNMENT SECURITIES ACT OF 1986 CUSTODIAL HOLDINGS OF GOVERNMENT SECURITIES BY DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS § 450.4 Custodial holdings of government securities....

  10. Korean Investment in EU through Holding Companies: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Bong Lee

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available When transnational enterprises set subsidiary companies in certain area, their major aim is to invest indirectly through the holding companies which hold invested share. Especially, because of the geographical neighborhood and economic integration, investing by holding companies is common in Europe. In Europe, taking full advantage of holding company is out of the following two reasons. Firstly, the efficiency and flexibility of the manage strategy of a group could be elevated by making full use of the holding company. Secondly, the transnational enterprises have the possibility of flexible management at the tax strategy level. Recently, the Korean companies are making the best use of holding companies when they are Marching into the EU. In the year 1996, group K purchased 8 enterprises of a certain industry section of B, a German company, setting holding companies in Germany. The analysis result of the case shows that the manage efficiency could be risen and the taxation could be reduced by way of making use of holding companies. As to the Korean investment efficiency of overseas indirect investment in EU, this thesis brought forward a blueprint about integrating the local companies.

  11. Course holding by cyclists and moped riders. (Revised version).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godhelp, J. & Wouters, P.I.J.

    1980-01-01

    Course holding by cyclists and moped riders includes both steering alongside a course and stabilising the vehicle. Inability to hold course may lead to conflicts with other road users. To design safe bicycle and moped facilities and to consider the safety of those existing, knowledge about performan

  12. Residual magnetism holds solenoid armature in desired position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, R. P.

    1967-01-01

    Holding solenoid uses residual magnetism to hold its armature in a desired position after excitation current is removed from the coil. Although no electrical power or mechanical devices are used, the solenoid has a low tolerance to armature displacement from the equilibrium position.

  13. Er det etisk acceptabelt at holde elefanter i zoologiske haver?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Bag diskussionen om flytning af 17 vilde elefanter fra Afrika til amerikanske zoolgiske haver ligger en dybere uenighed om berettigelsen af at holde elefanter i fangenskab,......Bag diskussionen om flytning af 17 vilde elefanter fra Afrika til amerikanske zoolgiske haver ligger en dybere uenighed om berettigelsen af at holde elefanter i fangenskab,...

  14. Medical big data: promise and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choong Ho; Yoon, Hyung-Jin

    2017-03-01

    The concept of big data, commonly characterized by volume, variety, velocity, and veracity, goes far beyond the data type and includes the aspects of data analysis, such as hypothesis-generating, rather than hypothesis-testing. Big data focuses on temporal stability of the association, rather than on causal relationship and underlying probability distribution assumptions are frequently not required. Medical big data as material to be analyzed has various features that are not only distinct from big data of other disciplines, but also distinct from traditional clinical epidemiology. Big data technology has many areas of application in healthcare, such as predictive modeling and clinical decision support, disease or safety surveillance, public health, and research. Big data analytics frequently exploits analytic methods developed in data mining, including classification, clustering, and regression. Medical big data analyses are complicated by many technical issues, such as missing values, curse of dimensionality, and bias control, and share the inherent limitations of observation study, namely the inability to test causality resulting from residual confounding and reverse causation. Recently, propensity score analysis and instrumental variable analysis have been introduced to overcome these limitations, and they have accomplished a great deal. Many challenges, such as the absence of evidence of practical benefits of big data, methodological issues including legal and ethical issues, and clinical integration and utility issues, must be overcome to realize the promise of medical big data as the fuel of a continuous learning healthcare system that will improve patient outcome and reduce waste in areas including nephrology.

  15. Medical big data: promise and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong Ho Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of big data, commonly characterized by volume, variety, velocity, and veracity, goes far beyond the data type and includes the aspects of data analysis, such as hypothesis-generating, rather than hypothesis-testing. Big data focuses on temporal stability of the association, rather than on causal relationship and underlying probability distribution assumptions are frequently not required. Medical big data as material to be analyzed has various features that are not only distinct from big data of other disciplines, but also distinct from traditional clinical epidemiology. Big data technology has many areas of application in healthcare, such as predictive modeling and clinical decision support, disease or safety surveillance, public health, and research. Big data analytics frequently exploits analytic methods developed in data mining, including classification, clustering, and regression. Medical big data analyses are complicated by many technical issues, such as missing values, curse of dimensionality, and bias control, and share the inherent limitations of observation study, namely the inability to test causality resulting from residual confounding and reverse causation. Recently, propensity score analysis and instrumental variable analysis have been introduced to overcome these limitations, and they have accomplished a great deal. Many challenges, such as the absence of evidence of practical benefits of big data, methodological issues including legal and ethical issues, and clinical integration and utility issues, must be overcome to realize the promise of medical big data as the fuel of a continuous learning healthcare system that will improve patient outcome and reduce waste in areas including nephrology.

  16. Clinical holding with children who display behaviours that challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Andrea; McDonnell, Andrew; Gayson, Charlotte; Moss, Fiona; Mohammed, Needa; Smith, Claire; Vanes, Nicola

    Nurses hold children to administer treatment, prevent treatment interference and undertake clinical assessments, which can sometimes be invasive, as part of their regular duties. Clinical holding ensures this treatment or assessment is carried out safely, however, it has been reported that there is little training available in this area. This article explores the prevalent clinical holding techniques used by nursing staff when caring for children with behaviours that challenge. As an initial insight into what the researchers hope will become a more in-depth 2-year study, this investigation looks to explore current practice when holding children and the factors influencing this. It is hoped that this will inform the development of a training package offered to nurses when caring for these children. Thirteen semi-structured interviews took place with a small group of nurses, which were given thematic analysis. The overarching themes influencing holding practice were the nursing role itself along with intrinsic and external factors.

  17. The Parent Control in the Mechanical Engineering Management-Holding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šnircová, Jana; Hodulíková, Petra; Joehnk, Peter

    2012-12-01

    The group of entities under the control of parent, so called holding, is arisen as the result and the most often used form of the business concentration nowadays. The paper is focused to find special tasks of parent company for to preserve effective unified economic control in the management-holding. The unified economic control the holding exists in the conditions of the main conflict of interest - holding is not a legal but economic unit and the connected companies into it have a legal autonomy with the economic dependence. The unified economic control limits the financial independence of every individual company of the holding. The attention in the paper is concentrated to the management concept of the parent control, i.e. the parent company supervises the control of intragroup flows and all of subsidiaries production activities.

  18. The Promise and Reality of Formative Assessment Practice in a Continuous Assessment Scheme: The Case of Trinidad and Tobago

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lisle, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    Continuous Assessment (CA) systems are externally directed, curriculum-based assessment schemes used for both summative and formative purposes within classrooms. CA has been implemented as national policy in several postcolonial developing countries and is believed to hold great promise for improving education outcomes. This theory-driven…

  19. Reducing appropriable quasi rents to combat the hold-up problem in contract agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karantininis, Kostas; Graversen, Jesper Tranbjerg

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the problem of hold-up in the agri-food sector. Production contracts offered to future Danish Broiler producers give rise to specific investments and appropriable quasi rents. Farmers are vulnerable to opportunistic behaviour by poultry processors which materializes in lower......, when building the broiler house, to prepare a viable future change in production from broilers to pigs. This will increase the bargaining power to farmers and may result in higher producer prices. Based on the general model of the hold-up problem with co-specific investments (Koss & Eaton, 1997...

  20. Competency Education Offers Promise and Peril for Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritterband, Vicki; Heller, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Lindsay Unified School District (California) exemplifies the promise of competency education (or performance-based education, as it is called locally). Since beginning its transition to the model in 2009, discipline problems have sharply dropped, the school climate has dramatically improved (as measured by the California Healthy Kids Survey), and…

  1. Parent Trigger Laws and the Promise of Parental Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William C.; Rowland, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Parent trigger laws have gained momentum nationally under the premise that they will increase local authority by amplifying parental voice in the decision to turn around "failing" schools. Using Hirschman's exit, voice, and loyalty framework we create two conceptual models of voice and evaluate the promise of voice in California, home of…

  2. Parent Trigger Laws and the Promise of Parental Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William C.; Rowland, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Parent trigger laws have gained momentum nationally under the premise that they will increase local authority by amplifying parental voice in the decision to turn around "failing" schools. Using Hirschman's exit, voice, and loyalty framework we create two conceptual models of voice and evaluate the promise of voice in California,…

  3. Fecal Transplant Shows Early Promise Against Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 163263.html Fecal Transplant Shows Early Promise Against Autism Small study found giving healthy gut bacteria to ... study suggests a novel treatment for kids with autism: Give these young patients a fresh supply of ...

  4. Diabetes Drug Shows Promise Against Parkinson's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_167612.html Diabetes Drug Shows Promise Against Parkinson's Byetta improved symptoms of motor disease in small, ... may do double duty as a treatment for Parkinson's disease, a new study suggests. "This is a ...

  5. New Eczema Drug Promising in Early Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163883.html New Eczema Drug Promising in Early Trial Nemolizumab significantly ... the appearance of moderate to severe eczema, a new, preliminary trial finds. Nemolizumab is a man-made, ...

  6. Panspermia: A Promising Field of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampelotto, P. H.

    2010-04-01

    In recent years, most of the major barriers against the acceptance of Panspermia have been demolished and this hypothesis emerges as a promising field of research. In this work, recent discoveries and the principal advances in Panspermia are discussed.

  7. On the question of proportionality of the count of observed Scrapie cases and the size of holding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Rio Vilas Victor J

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper investigates the question of a suitable basic model for the number of scrapie cases in a holding and applications of this knowledge to the estimation of scrapie-affected holding population sizes and adequacy of control measures within holding. Is the number of scrapie cases proportional to the size of the holding in which case it should be incorporated into the parameter of the error distribution for the scrapie counts? Or, is there a different – potentially more complex – relationship between case count and holding size in which case the information about the size of the holding should be better incorporated as a covariate in the modeling? Methods We show that this question can be appropriately addressed via a simple zero-truncated Poisson model in which the hypothesis of proportionality enters as a special offset-model. Model comparisons can be achieved by means of likelihood ratio testing. The procedure is illustrated by means of surveillance data on classical scrapie in Great Britain. Furthermore, the model with the best fit is used to estimate the size of the scrapie-affected holding population in Great Britain by means of two capture-recapture estimators: the Poisson estimator and the generalized Zelterman estimator. Results No evidence could be found for the hypothesis of proportionality. In fact, there is some evidence that this relationship follows a curved line which increases for small holdings up to a maximum after which it declines again. Furthermore, it is pointed out how crucial the correct model choice is when applied to capture-recapture estimation on the basis of zero-truncated Poisson models as well as on the basis of the generalized Zelterman estimator. Estimators based on the proportionality model return very different and unreasonable estimates for the population sizes. Conclusion Our results stress the importance of an adequate modelling approach to the association between holding

  8. Evaluation of pulmonary function using single-breath-hold dual-energy computed tomography with xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoyama, Hiroyuki; Hirata, Yusuke; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Sakai, Kosuke; Saito, Yuriko; Mikami, Shintaro; Moriyama, Gaku; Yanagita, Hisami; Watanabe, Wataru; Otani, Katharina; Honda, Norinari; Uematsu, Kazutsugu

    2017-01-01

    reflected pulmonary function. Xenon images obtained with xenon-enhanced CT using a single-breath-hold technique can qualitatively depict pulmonary ventilation. A larger study comprising only COPD patients should be conducted, as xenon-enhanced CT is expected to be a promising technique for the management of COPD. PMID:28099359

  9. Creating an enabling environment for adolescent sexual and reproductive health: a framework and promising approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanemyr, Joar; Amin, Avni; Robles, Omar J; Greene, Margaret E

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a conceptual framework and points out the key elements for creating enabling environments for adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH). An ecological framework is applied to organize the key elements of enabling environments for ASRH. At the individual level, strategies that are being implemented and seem promising are those that empower girls, build their individual assets, and create safe spaces. At the relationship level, strategies that are being implemented and seem promising include efforts to build parental support and communication as well as peer support networks. At the community level, strategies to engage men and boys and the wider community to transform gender and other social norms are being tested and may hold promise. Finally, at the broadest societal level, efforts to promote laws and policies that protect and promote human rights and address societal awareness about ASRH issues, including through mass media approaches, need to be considered.

  10. Hearing Loss Rates Holding Steady for U.S. Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167456.html Hearing Loss Rates Holding Steady for U.S. Teens: Study Vaccine ... via earphones than ever before, but rates of hearing loss have not increased. Still, "the overall take-home ...

  11. Ways for Romanian Holding Refreshment – a Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Feher

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The current situation of the most Romanian holdings does not allow the performance of a high-quality and competitive agricultural production on the internal market and on the external market as well and the provision of a decent standard of living for farmers. The overtaking of this situation supposes the conversion of the country-like family holdings into modern trading family holdings, able to induce technological progress and to valorise the natural, labour and material resources available in our country. The activity content for the formation of such holdings is represented by the enhancement of their economic capacity and of their competitional power, in concordance with the requirements of future agriculture and of Romania’s integration in the EU structures. The accomplishment of such an objective implies actions and measures of agricultural policy, correlated to each other and sustainable, which should combine the private economic interest with the national one.

  12. Hold That Pose: Yoga May Ease Tough Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Hold That Pose: Yoga May Ease Tough Depression Study finds weekly sessions, plus deep breathing, helped ... the doctor ordered when it comes to beating depression, new research suggests. Researchers found that weekly sessions ...

  13. Researchers Put Embryo Development 'On Hold' in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162187.html Researchers Put Embryo Development 'On Hold' in Mice Putting stem cells ... were able to halt development of early mouse embryos for up to a month in the lab ...

  14. Southeast Region Headboat Survey-Compliance tracking holds list

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The holds list is used to track vessel compliance by recording any missing/late trip reports. This list is shared with enforcement officers in the event that legal...

  15. ASYMMETRIC INFORMATION COST DAN HOLDING PERIODS SAHAM BIASA DI BURSA EFEK INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyo Sulistyo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is analyze variable s influencing holding period of common stock on public firm listed in LQ 45 index, that are firms generally have good performance assessed based on both marked performance and firm fundamental, then analyzing the dominance influencing variable. This study is conducted in Indonesian Stock Exchange with population of stock listed in LQ 45 index with the total of 64 firms. The samples taking method in purposive sampling with the criteria that the firms at least listed twice in LQ45 index on the study period. The analysis method used to analyze independend variable: spread, market value, variance return, and dividend pay out ratio and dependend variable: holding period is two stage least squares multiple regression model, since there is possibility that the correlation of bid-ask spread from the current periods and bid-ask spread and holding period and holding period from the previous period for every stock take place simultaneously. The result of study showed thar, partially, bid-ask spread variable that constitutes the different value between the highest price provided paid by buyer with the lowest price offered by seller has significance positive correlation on holding period of common stock and there is inverse correlation/significance negative between variance return variable that reflect the risk rate from stock effected by fluctuation     of stock price and holding period of common stock. While simultaneously, there is not significance correlation between dependent variable and independend variable that mean bid-ask spread, market value, variance return and dividend pay out ratio can’t describe variation from hoding period variable.

  16. Does urban sprawl hold down upward mobility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, R.; Hamidi, Shima; Grace, James B.; Wei, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to the general perception, the United States has a much more class-bound society than other wealthy countries. The chance of upward mobility for Americans is just half that of the citizens of the Denmark and many other European countries. In addition to other influences, the built environment may contribute to the low rate of upward mobility in the U.S. This study tests the relationship between urban sprawl and upward mobility for commuting zones in the U.S. We examine potential pathways through which sprawl may have an effect on mobility. We use structural equation modeling to account for both direct and indirect effects of sprawl on upward mobility. We find that upward mobility is significantly higher in compact areas than sprawling areas. The direct effect, which we attribute to better job accessibility in more compact commuting zones, is stronger than the indirect effects. Of the indirect effects, only one, through the mediating variable income segregation, is significant.

  17. De-sportization of fighting contests : The Origins and Dynamics of No Holds Barred Events and the Theory of Sportization

    OpenAIRE

    Bottenburg, M. van; Heilbron, Johan

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of an empirical analysis of the emergence, spread and transformation of No Holds Barred fighting contests during the 1990s, we argue that Norbert Elias’s model of sportization represents a fruitful but not sufficiently differentiated framework for understanding the recent development of combat sports and fighting contests. Although the martial arts in the 20th century provide striking examples of processes of sportization and para-sportization, the rise of No Holds Barred events ...

  18. Little bottles and the promise of probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burges Watson, Duika; Moreira, Tiago; Murtagh, Madeleine

    2009-03-01

    In this article we explore; regimes of hope' in contemporary bioscience as articulated in spaces of health consumption. We use the case study of probiotic little bottles, highlighting their promissory branding as consumer products, to consider how hope and truth play out across different spaces of health care - the supermarket, media and laboratory. Drawing on work within both sociological and geographic literatures to think about hope, truth and probiotics, this article explores their ambiguous promise through an analysis of their biomedical and popular representation. The seemingly incommensurate promise of probiotics between popular and medical spheres provides the point of departure for an examination of the geographies of hope, truth and selfhood.

  19. [{sup 18}F]D.P.A. 714 a new and highly promising fluorine-18-labelled tracer for imaging of neuro inflammation: evaluation in a rodent model using micro PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauveau, F.; Van Camp, N.; Damont, M.; Hinnen, F.; Kuhnast, B.; Dolle, F.; Tavitian, B. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, CEA Institut d' Imagerie Biomedicale, Lab. d' Imagerie Moleculaire Experimentale, 91 - Orsay (France); Chauveau, F.; Van Camp, N. [Inserm, U803, 91 - Orsay (France); James, M.; Kassiou, M. [Sydney Univ., School of Medical Radiation Sciences, NSW (Australia); James, M.; Kassiou, M. [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). School of Chemistry; James, M.; Kassiou, M. [Sydney Univ., Ramaciotti Center for Brain Imaging, Brain and Mind Research Institute, NSW (Australia); Boutin, H. [Manchester Univ., Faculty of Life Sciences, Neurobiology Group (United Kingdom)

    2008-02-15

    We have successfully evaluated a new {sup 18}F P.B.R. (peripheral benzodiazepine receptor) tracer in an acute model of neuro inflammation. We further aim to apply this compound in clinically related models of neuro inflammation such as the experimental animal model of encephalitis for multiple sclerosis. (N.C.)

  20. Tamarind seed polysaccharide: A promising natural excipient for pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshny Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural polymers always have exceptional properties which make them distinct from the synthetic polymers and tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP is one such example which shows more valuable properties making it a useful excipient for a wide range of applications. TSP is a natural polysaccharide obtained from the seeds of Tamarindus indica, recently gaining a wide potential in the field of pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Its isolation and characterisation involve simple techniques resulting in cost-effective yield in its production. TSP shows uniqueness in its high drug holding capacity, high swelling index and high thermal stability, especially necessary for various novel drug delivery systems. It also plays the role of stabiliser, thickener, binder, release retardant, modifier, suspending agent, viscosity enhancer, emulsifying agent, as a carrier for novel drug delivery systems in oral, buccal, colon, ocular systems, nanofabrication, wound dressing and is also becoming an important part of food, cosmetics, confectionery and bakery. Various studies and experiments have been carried out to prove its multi-functional potentiality, from which it can be concluded that TSP can be a promising natural polysaccharide having enormous applications. This review focuses on the diversity of applications of TSP.

  1. Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163824.html Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma Over one-third ... TUESDAY, Feb. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental gene therapy for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma beat back more ...

  2. Ideological Repositioning: Race, Social Justice, and Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I engage in discourse centrally located in the ideology of race in the United States of America juxtaposed to social justice with promise for tomorrow in higher education and beyond. I assert that social justice in kinesiology requires that once hired, retaining, securing tenured status, and promoting faculty of color means having…

  3. Collaboration: Perks, Problems, and Promising Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Whatley, Gloria; And Others

    1994-01-01

    General educator-special educator collaboration is discussed. Advantages include professional exchange of ideas and sharing of resources; barriers include a feeling by staff of lack of ownership and lack of power in decision making, and the perception that goals are incompatible; promising practices include clarifying goals and developing…

  4. Capture technologies: Improvements and promising developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomen, E.; Hendriks, C.; Neele, F.

    2009-01-01

    In this status report we want to provide a comprehensive overview of the current status and promising technologies of CO2 capture by means of a literature review, in-house knowledge and interviews. We describe the technology, bottlenecks towards implementation and potential use. The results will be

  5. Controllable deterioration rate for time-dependent demand and time-varying holding cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Vinod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop an inventory model for non-instantaneous deteriorating items under the consideration of the facts: deterioration rate can be controlled by using the preservation technology (PT during deteriorating period, and holding cost and demand rate both are linear function of time, which was treated as constant in most of the deteriorating inventory models. So in this paper, we developed a deterministic inventory model for non-instantaneous deteriorating items in which both demand rate and holding cost are a linear function of time, deterioration rate is constant, backlogging rate is variable and depend on the length of the next replenishment, shortages are allowed and partially backlogged. The model is solved analytically by minimizing the total cost of the inventory system. The model can be applied to optimizing the total inventory cost of non-instantaneous deteriorating items inventory for the business enterprises, where the preservation technology is used to control the deterioration rate, and demand & holding cost both are a linear function of time.

  6. Corporate Cash Holdings and Adjustment Behaviour in Chinese Firms: An Empirical Analysis Using Generalized Method of Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajid ur Rehman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to find out the motives of cash holding in Chinese firms and theories associated with these motives. The study is unique because it not only estimates the adjustment speed of corporate cash holdings but also discuss several firm specific factors that affects cash holdings in Chinese firms with special reference to Chinese SOEs and NSOEs. An extensive set of panel data comprising 1632 A listed Chines firms, over a period from 2001 to 2013 are taken for analysis. The study reports a lower adjustment coefficient for Chinese firms compared to other developed nations. The study finds that target level of cash holdings in Chinese firms is better explained by Trade off and Pecking order theories. To cope with issues of endogeneity and serial correlation the study apply GMM and random effects model with an added AR (autoregressive term.

  7. The financial determinants of corporate cash holdings in an oil rich country: Evidence from Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muncef Guizani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of the cash holdings for a sample of Saudi firms over the period 2006–2014, using static and dynamic panel models. Our results show that leverage, firm size, capital expenditure, net working capital and cash flow volatility are important in determining cash holdings. When we divide our sample into two sub-samples: petrochemical and non-petrochemical firms, our results show a significant difference between the determinants of cash holdings of the two groups of firms. We also investigate the characteristics of high liquid firms (conservative firms. The results indicate that conservative firms are less leveraged, have large size, have low investment expenditures and have low cash flow fluctuation. Furthermore, dynamic panel estimation indicates that Saudi firms adjust their liquidity holdings quickly towards an endogenous target cash ratio.

  8. Analysis of Hold Down Force for IVTM in PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nak Hyun; Koo, Gyeong-Hoi [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The PGSFR (Prototype Generation IV Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor) is a new design for a compact sodium-cooled fast nuclear reactor. The main components of the IVTM (In-Vessel Transfer Machine) for PGSFR are composed of the upper driving part, the main tube and the pantograph arm including the gripper. The bottom of the pantograph arm has a tapered feature machined into it at the interface where it contacts the surrounding core assemblies when the hold down is engaged. A tapered feature on the core hold down assembly engages features in the top of the core assemblies and may help to reduce the deflections at the bottom of the main structural support tube while under refueling loads. Hold down force is one of the most important parameter for design IVTM. Elastic FE analysis was performed to calculate hold down force and displacement. The hold down force and displacement are 3626.8 N and -2.27 mm, respectively. The calculated values will be used to design IVTM for PGSFR. The maximum reaction force of fuel assembly is 641.05 N. The calculated values will be used to design receptacle and lower grid plate for PGSFR.

  9. Promising Products for Printing and Publishing Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Činčikaitė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article surveys printing and publishing market and its strong and weak aspects. The concept of a new product is described as well as its lifetime and the necessity of its introduction to the market. The enterprise X operating on the market is analyzed, its strong and weak characteristics are presented. The segmentation of the company consumers is performed. On the basis of the performed analysis the potential promising company products are defined.Article in Lithuanian

  10. PBL og de sammensatte hold på kandidatuddannelser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engen, Mie; Fallov, Mia Arp; Jensen, Rune Hagel Skaarup

    Denne rapport omhandler pædagogiske udfordringer og muligheder i Aalborgs Problembaserede Læringstilgang (PBL), når den omsættes til pædagogisk og didaktisk handling på kandidatuddannelser med sammensatte hold. Sammensatte hold betyder i denne sammenhæng kandidatuddannelser, hvor de optagne...... studerende har meget forskellige uddannelsesmæssige baggrunde. Rapporten formidler en didaktisk ramme for, hvordan PBL kan tilgås, når studerende på et kandidathold er meget forskellige, med henblik på at udnytte kompetencerne på de sammensatte hold bedst muligt og derved øge læringspotentialet....

  11. C-14/I-29 Preservation and Hold Time Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitchen, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-04-08

    Preservation and hold time of radionuclides must account for both nuclear half-lives and nonnuclear loss mechanisms, but variations in the latter are often neglected. Metals-based defaults are inappropriate for long-lived non-metals C-14 and I-129, which are vulnerable to chemical and biological volatilization. Non-acidification is already widely practiced for them. Recommended addition measures from radiological and chemical literature include glass containers where possible, water filtration where possible, headspace minimization, light shielding, cold (4°C) storage and unfiltered water hold time of 28 days. Soil hold time may need to be shortened when water-logged, excessively sandy, or still adjusting to significant new contamination.

  12. The Impact of Building Information Modeling on the Architectural Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, P. F.; Silva, Neander F.; Lima, Ecilamar M.

    Many benefits of Building Information Modeling, BIM, have been suggested by several authors and by software vendors. In this paper we describe an experiment in which two groups of designers were observed developing an assigned design task. One of the groups used a BIM system, while the other used a standard computer-aided drafting system. The results show that some of the promises of BIM hold true, such as consistency maintenance and error avoidance in the design documentation process. Other promises such as changing the design process itself seemed also promising but they need more research to determine to greater extent the depth of such changes.

  13. Non explosive low shock reusable 20 kN hold-down release actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, J.; Bueno, Ignacio

    2001-09-01

    SENER has developed a Non Explosive Hold-Down Release Actuator: NEHRA (Patented). The mechanism is based on a segmented nut kept in position by a preloaded mechanism. The preloaded mechanism is clamped with a latch than can be triggered by a wire of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA). A demonstrator model has been manufactured, assembled and functionally tested. The size developed is for a high strength M8 bolt (with an ultimate load about 40000 N, and a nominal preload of 20000 N).

  14. Investasi: Komparasi Strategi Buy and Hold dengan Pendekatan Teknikal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natica Ardani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyse effectivity of technical analysis moving average compare to buy and hold strategy on index LQ-45 (as emerging market and S&P500 (as developed market. Using descriptive approach, this research analysed by metastock program with moving average exponential crossovers method. This research data samples use LQ45 and S&P500 from year 2001-2011. The findings of this research indicate that technical analysis more effective when economic situation on crisis (bearish. Whereas buy and hold strategy more effective on good economic condition (bullish. The results consistent for LQ-45 and S&P500.

  15. Holding Pressure and Its Influence on Quality in PIM Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Petera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The PIM (powder injection molding process consists of several steps in which faults can occur. The quality of the part that is produced usually cannot be seen until the end of the process. It is therefore necessary to find a way to discover the fault earlier in the process. The cause of defects is very often “phase separation” (inhomogeneity in powder distribution, which can also be influenced by the holding pressure. This paper evaluates the powder distribution with a new method based on density measurement. Measurements were made using various holding pressure values.

  16. The Effect of Holding a Research Chair on Scientists’ Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirnezami, S.R.; Beaudry, C.

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines the effect of holding Canada Research Chair (CRC) on a scientist’s number of citations as a measure of research impact, based on an econometric analysis with combined data on Quebec scientists’ funding and journal publication. Using Generalized Least Square (GLS) method for regression analysis, the results show that holding either tier-1 or tier- 2 of CRC significantly and positively results in conducting research with higher impact. This finding, however, does not necessarily imply that the others are the lesser scientists. (Author)

  17. Promises, Promises, and Not a Job in Sight; Broke Ass State; The Violinist

    OpenAIRE

    Callahan, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Promises, Promises, and Not a Job in Sight Abstract: This piece was produced in October 2010 and looked at California’s impending gubernatorial race. Jobs and the economy were a big issue in that campaign between Meg Whitman and Jerry Brown, and I set out to answer whether either candidate could provide the economic relief they were promising. Resources: Mathews, Joe and Mark Paul. California Crackup: How Reform Broke the Golden State and How We Can Fix It. 2010, University of California Pre...

  18. Numerical simulation and combination optimization of aluminum holding furnace linings based on simulated annealing☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jimin Wang; Shen Lan; Tao Chen; Wenke Li; Huaqiang Chu

    2015-01-01

    To reduce heat loss and save cost, a combination decision model of reverb aluminum holding furnace linings in aluminum casting industry was established based on economic thickness method, and was resolved using sim-ulated annealing. Meanwhile, a three-dimensional mathematical model of aluminum holding furnace linings was developed and integrated with user-defined heat load distribution regime model. The optimal combination was as follows:side wal with 80 mm alumino-silicate fiber felts, 232 mm diatomite brick and 116 mm chamotte brick;top wall with 50 mm clay castables, 110 mm alumino-silicate fiber felts and 200 mm refractory concrete;and bottom wal with 232 mm high-alumina brick, 60 mm clay castables and 68 mm diatomite brick. Lining tem-perature from high to low was successively bottom wal , side wal , and top wall. Lining temperature gradient in increasing order of magnitude was refractory layer and insulation layer. It was indicated that the results of com-bination optimization of aluminum holding furnace linings were valid and feasible, and its thermo-physical mechanism and cost characteristics were reasonably revealed.

  19. The promises and facts of emergent strategy in public management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Peter

    Public managers are experiencing a growing demand for innovation. One of the promising approaches to instigating innovation is that of emergent strategic patterns (ESPs). According to the literature, the institutional barriers and drivers of ESPs are shaped by the two dominant public management...... models, NPM (the barriers) and governance (the drivers). However, based on an empirical case study of the institutional barriers and drivers for ESPs in the Danish Crime Prevention Council, this article concludes that ESPs are in fact enabled by a much more mixed management model....

  20. The promises and facts of emergent strategy in public management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Peter

    Public managers are experiencing a growing demand for innovation. One of the promising approaches to instigating innovation is that of emergent strategic patterns (ESPs). According to the literature, the institutional barriers and drivers of ESPs are shaped by the two dominant public management m...... models, NPM (the barriers) and governance (the drivers). However, based on an empirical case study of the institutional barriers and drivers for ESPs in the Danish Crime Prevention Council, this article concludes that ESPs are in fact enabled by a much more mixed management model....

  1. Creating a library holding group: an approach to large system integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Isaac R; Martin, Heather J; Delawaska-Elliott, Basia

    2016-10-01

    Faced with resource constraints, many hospital libraries have considered joint operations. This case study describes how Providence Health & Services created a single group to provide library services. Using a holding group model, staff worked to unify more than 6,100 nonlibrary subscriptions and 14 internal library sites. Our library services grew by unifying 2,138 nonlibrary subscriptions and 11 library sites and hiring more library staff. We expanded access to 26,018 more patrons. A model with built-in flexibility allowed successful library expansion. Although challenges remain, this success points to a viable model of unified operations.

  2. Astronaut Alan Bean holds Special Environmental Sample Container

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot for the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, holds a Special Environmental Sample Container filled with lunar soil collected during the extravehicular activity (EVA) in which Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander, and Bean participated. Connrad, who took this picture, is reflected in the helmet visor of the lunar module pilot.

  3. Astronaut Dale Gardner holds up for sale sign after EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, having just completed the major portion of his second extravehicular activity (EVA) period in three days, holds up a 'for sale' sign. Astronaut Joseph P. ALlen IV, who also participated in the two EVA's, is reflected in Gardner's helmet visor. A portion of each of two recovered satellites is in the lower right corner, with Westar nearer Discovery's aft.

  4. Water holding capacity and swelling of casein hydrogels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kruif, C; Anema, Skelte G.; Zhu, Changjun; Havea, Palatasa; Coker, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The water holding capacity of casein gels was investigated by measuring the swelling and de-swelling under a variety of conditions of temperature and salt concentration. Transglutaminase cross-linked sodium caseinate (15% w/w) gels will swell in good solvents or shrink in poor solvents until an equi

  5. Bending strength and holding power of tibial locking screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J; Lin, S J; Chiang, H; Hou, S M

    2001-04-01

    The bending strength and holding power of two types of specially designed tibial locking devices, a both-ends-threaded screw and an unthreaded bolt, were studied and compared with four types of commercially available tibial interlocking screws: Synthes, Howmedica, Richards, and Osteo AG. To test bending strength, the devices were inserted into a high molecular weight polyethylene tube and loaded at their midpoint by a materials testing machine to simulate a three point bending test. Single loading yielding strength and cyclic loading fatigue life were measured. To test holding power, the devices were inserted into tubes made of polyurethane foam, and their tips were loaded axially to measure pushout strength. The devices were tested with two different densities of foam materials and two different sizes of pilot holes. Insertion torque and stripping torque of the screws were measured first. Pushout tests were performed with each screw inserted with a tightness equal to 60% of its stripping torque. Test results showed that the yielding strength and the fatigue life were related closely to the inner diameter of the screws. The stripping torque predicted the pushout strength more reliably than did the insertion torque. All tested devices showed greater holding power in the foam with the higher density and with the smaller pilot holes. The both-ends-threaded screw had the highest pushout strength and a satisfactory fatigue strength. The unthreaded bolt had the highest fatigue strength but only fair holding power. Clinical studies of the use of these two types of locking devices are worthwhile.

  6. The myth of the early aviation patent hold-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katznelson, Ron D; Howells, John

    2015-01-01

    The prevailing historical accounts of the formation of the U.S. aircraft “patent pool” in 1917 assume the U.S. Government necessarily intervened to alleviate a patent hold-up among private aircraft manufacturers. We show these accounts to be inconsistent with the historical facts. We show that de...

  7. 31 CFR 223.16 - List of certificate holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false List of certificate holding companies. 223.16 Section 223.16 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE SURETY COMPANIES DOING...

  8. 33 CFR 100.30 - Approval required for holding event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... event. 100.30 Section 100.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... holding event. (a) An event for which application is required under § 100.15(a) shall be held only after approval of such event by the District Commander, except that applications referred to a State under § 100...

  9. 77 FR 32881 - Supervised Securities Holding Company Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... 81 Supervised Securities Holding Company Registration AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal...'' or ``Act''), which permits nonbank companies that own at least one registered securities broker or dealer, and that are required by a foreign regulator or provision of foreign law to be subject to...

  10. Great United Petroleum Holding Co Ltd Announced Its Establishment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ China's largest private petroleum group - the Great United Petroleum Holding Co., Ltd (GUPC) announced its establishment in Beijing on June 29th, marking that the private enterprises are moving from being decentralized to unification, China's private oil industry is entering on a new stage of development.

  11. Mixed Dominance and the Manner of Holding a Pencil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Virginia K.

    1982-01-01

    Reports on an informal study that revealed that a significant number of people who hold a pencil with two fingers and a thumb have mixed cerebral dominance, that more females than males have mixed dominance, and that those with mixed dominance tend to be more imaginative. (FL)

  12. U. S. Army Directory of Technical Information Holdings and Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Dale L.

    The directory identifies 111 Army sources of technical information that include 2200 specialized subject areas. The sources are indexed by subject matter, and name of holding, so that a searcher can find a description of all available indexed Army information services, with details on scope and size of collections, services available, and means of…

  13. 31 CFR 316.5 - Limitation on holdings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitation on holdings. 316.5 Section 316.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES E §...

  14. Autophagy : Moving Benchside Promises to Patient Bedsides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaid, Amine; Ndiaye, Papa Diogop; Filippakis, Harilaos; Roux, Jérémie; Röttinger, Éric; Graba, Yacine; Brest, Patrick; Hofman, Paul; Mograbi, Baharia

    2015-01-01

    Survival rates of patients with metastatic or recurrent cancers have remained virtually unchanged during the past 30 years. This fact makes the need for new therapeutic options even more urgent. An attractive option would be to target autophagy, an essential quality control process that degrades toxic aggregates, damaged organelles, and signaling proteins, and acts as a tumor suppressor pathway of tumor initiation. Conversely, other fascinating observations suggest that autophagy supports cancer progression, relapse, metastasis, dormancy and resistance to therapy. This review provides an overview of the contradictory roles that autophagy plays in cancer initiation and progression and discusses the promises and challenges of current strategies that target autophagy for cancer therapy.

  15. MEMORY AND PROMISE IN ARENDT AND NIETZSCHE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANESSA LEMM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates and compares the value and significance that Arendt and Nietzsche attribute to the role played by memory and by the promise in constituting the political and in safeguarding the freedom and plurality of human actionEste artículo compara el valor y el significado que Arendt y Nietzsche otorgan a la memoria y a la promesa para la constitución de lo político así como para la salvaguardia de la libertad y de la pluralidad humana

  16. 新秀丽线虫在筛选治疗神经退行性疾病药物中的运用%Caenorhabditis elegans:a promising model for antineurodegenerative diseases drug development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王言; 温志昌

    2011-01-01

    Lack of suitable drug sceening platform is the critical bottleneck in anti-neurodegenerative diseases drug development. Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living, transparent nematode. Due to the short life and reproductive cycle, Caenorhabditis elegans is becoming a popular in vivo model for drug high throughput screenings. The aim of this review is to introduce the neurodegenerative diseases Caenorhabditis elegans models,and then discuss the related pharmacology study. Together we believe these models will play an important role in drug development.%缺乏合适的动物平台用于药物筛选一直是阻碍神经退行性疾病药物研发的主要因素.新秀丽线虫以其结构简单、体型小巧、生命周期短暂、繁殖迅速和易于培养的独特优势,成为可以适用于高通量药物筛选的在体动物模型.本文对与神经退行性疾病相关的新秀丽线虫模型进行了总结,并且讨论了利用该类模型进行的药理学研究,确定该类模型一定会在抗神经退行性疾病药物的研发中起到重要作用.

  17. The physiology and pathophysiology of human breath-hold diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Peter; Lundgren, Claes E G

    2009-01-01

    This is a brief overview of physiological reactions, limitations, and pathophysiological mechanisms associated with human breath-hold diving. Breath-hold duration and ability to withstand compression at depth are the two main challenges that have been overcome to an amazing degree as evidenced by the current world records in breath-hold duration at 10:12 min and depth of 214 m. The quest for even further performance enhancements continues among competitive breath-hold divers, even if absolute physiological limits are being approached as indicated by findings of pulmonary edema and alveolar hemorrhage postdive. However, a remarkable, and so far poorly understood, variation in individual disposition for such problems exists. Mortality connected with breath-hold diving is primarily concentrated to less well-trained recreational divers and competitive spearfishermen who fall victim to hypoxia. Particularly vulnerable are probably also individuals with preexisting cardiac problems and possibly, essentially healthy divers who may have suffered severe alternobaric vertigo as a complication to inadequate pressure equilibration of the middle ears. The specific topics discussed include the diving response and its expression by the cardiovascular system, which exhibits hypertension, bradycardia, oxygen conservation, arrhythmias, and contraction of the spleen. The respiratory system is challenged by compression of the lungs with barotrauma of descent, intrapulmonary hemorrhage, edema, and the effects of glossopharyngeal insufflation and exsufflation. Various mechanisms associated with hypoxia and loss of consciousness are discussed, including hyperventilation, ascent blackout, fasting, and excessive postexercise O(2) consumption. The potential for high nitrogen pressure in the lungs to cause decompression sickness and N(2) narcosis is also illuminated.

  18. The promise of mobile technologies and single case designs for the study of individuals in their natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardaga, Roger; Bricker, Jonathan; McDonell, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Mobile technologies are growing rapidly around the world to broad demographics of society. These technologies hold great promise for their integration with Single Case Designs (SCDs) and the study of individuals in their natural environment. This paper discusses the theoretical, methodological and analytic implications of these tools for the advancement of the contextual behavioral etiology of behavioral disorders, and their remediation. We hope this paper will highlight the scientific advantages of combining mobile technologies and SCDs and encourage their adoption among CBS scientists.

  19. Holding Back and Holding behind: Grade Retention and Students' Non-Academic and Academic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the implications of grade retention (repeating a grade) and social promotion (automatic promotion to the next grade each year) for high school students' academic and non-academic outcomes. Based on data from 3261 high school students, structural equation modeling demonstrated that, after controlling for interactions with…

  20. PROMISE een scenariomodel voor de prognoseberekening van emissies naar het oppervlaktewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzenga JG; Quarles van Ufford CHA; Slootweg J; Dijk RPM van; Roovaart JC van den; Verstappen GGC; Rijksinstituut voor integraal; LAE; RIZA

    1998-01-01

    PROMISE is an acronym for PROgnosis Model of Inputs to Surface water and Emission reductions. It is a co-operation project of RIZA and RIVM and is operational for toxic priority pollutants, like heavy metals and polycycli aromatic hydrocarbons. PROMISE will be used to evaluate Dutch environmental po

  1. Indoles - A promising scaffold for drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sravanthi, T V; Manju, S L

    2016-08-25

    Generally, heterocycles occupy a prominent place in chemistry due to their wide range of applications in the fields of drug design, photochemistry, agrochemicals, dyes and so on. Among them, indole scaffolds have been found in most of the important synthetic drug molecules and paved a faithful way to develop effective targets. Privileged structures bind to multiple receptors with high affinity, thus aiding the development of novel biologically active compounds. Among the indole class of compounds, 2-arylindoles appear to be a most promising lead for drug development. The derivatives of 2-arylindoles exhibits antibacterial, anticancer, anti-oxidants, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, antiviral, antiproliferative, antituberculosis activity, etc. This article would provide a clear knowledge on the wide-ranging biological activities of 2-arylindoles over the past two decades, which would be beneficial for the designing of more potent drug targets in order to compete with the existing drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Autism: Pathophysiology and Promising Herbal Remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Sarrafchi, Amir; Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a comprehensive growth abnormality in which social skills, language, communication, and behavioral skills are developed with delay and as diversionary. The reasons for autism are unclear, but various theories of genetics, immunity, biological, and psychosocial factors have been proffered. In fact, autism is a complex disorder with distinct causes that usually co-occur. Although no medicine has been recognized to treat this disorder, pharmacological treatments can be effective in reducing its signs, such as self-mutilation, aggression, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors, inattention, hyperactivity, and sleeping disorders. Recently, complementary and alternative approaches have been considered to treat autism. Ginkgo biloba is one of the most effective plants with an old history of applications in neuropsychological disorders which recently is used for autism. The present review discusses the recent findings, pathophysiology, and etiology of autism and thereafter addresses the promising results of herbal remedies.

  3. The promise and peril of healthcare forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharam, J Frank; Weiner, Jonathan P

    2012-03-01

    Health plans and physician groups increasingly use sophisticated tools to predict individual patient outcomes. Such analytics will accelerate as US medicine enters the digital age. Promising applications of forecasting include better targeting of disease management as well as innovative patient care approaches such as personalized health insurance and clinical decision support systems. In addition, stakeholders will use predictions to advance their organizational agendas, and unintended consequences could arise. Forecasting-based interventions might have uncertain effectiveness, focus on cost savings rather than long-term health, or specifically exclude disadvantaged populations. Policy makers, health plans, and method developers should adopt strategies that address these concerns in order to maximize the benefit of healthcare forecasting on the long-term health of patients.

  4. Promising treatments of tomorrow for multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic options for multiple sclerosis are rapidly expanding. What was once seen as a disease with little hope for treatment is now a target of rapid drug development. Current therapies have demonstrated efficacy in limiting the impact of the disease, but none is fully effective in all patients. However, promising new treatments are on the horizon. In this review we will discuss potential novel immunomodulating drugs that are in advanced stages of investigation; these drugs include monoclonal antibodies, chimeric molecules, and oral therapies. The use of hematopoietic stem cells will also be discussed and, in addition, we will look farther ahead at possible novel targets for the development of new immunomodulatory or neuroprotective pharmaceuticals.

  5. Nanomedicine delivers promising treatments for rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Leena Kumari; O'Mary, Hannah; Cui, Zhengrong

    2015-01-01

    An increased understanding in the pathophysiology of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, reveals that the diseased tissue and the increased presence of macrophages and other overexpressed molecules within the tissue can be exploited to enhance the delivery of nanomedicine. Nanomedicine can passively accumulate into chronic inflammatory tissues via the enhanced permeability and retention phenomenon, or be surface conjugated with a ligand to actively bind to receptors overexpressed by cells within chronic inflammatory tissues, leading to increased efficacy and reduced systemic side-effects. This review highlights the research conducted over the past decade on using nanomedicine for potential treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and summarizes some of the major findings and promising opportunities on using nanomedicine to treat this prevalent and chronic disease.

  6. Underexploited tropical plants with promising economic value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    The apparent advantages of staple plants over the minor tropical plants often result only from the disproportionate research attention they have been given. A world-wide inquiry resulted in a list of 400 promising but neglected species. The 36 most important species are described in compact monographs and concern cereals (Echinochloa turnerana, grain amaranths, quinua and Zosterea mazina), roots and tubers (Arrachacha, cocoyams and taro), vegetables (chaya, hearts of palms, wax gourd, winged bean), fruits (durian, mangosteen, naranjilla, pejibaye, pummelo, soursop, uvilla), oilseeds (babassu palm, buffalo gourd, Caryocar species, Hessenia polycarpa and jojoba), forage (Acacia albida, Brosimum alicastrum Cassia sturtii, saltbushes and tamarugo) and other crops (buriti palm, Calathea lutea, candelilla, guar, guayule, Paspalum vaginatum, ramie and Spirulina).

  7. Halopentacenes: Promising Candidates for Organic Semiconductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Gong-He; REN Zhao-Yu; GUO Ping; ZHENG Ji-Ming

    2009-01-01

    We introduce polar substituents such as F, Cl, Br into pentacene to enhance the dissolubility in common organic solvents while retaining the high charge-carrier mobilities of pentacene. Geometric structures, dipole moments,frontier molecule orbits, ionization potentials and electron affinities, as well as reorganization energies of those molecules, and of pentacene for comparison, are successively calculated by density functional theory. The results indicate that halopentacenes have rather small reorganization energies (< 0.2 eV), and when the substituents are in position 2 or positions 2 and 9, they are polarity molecules. Thus we conjecture that they can easily be dissolved in common organic solvents, and are promising candidates for organic semiconductors.

  8. GOLD NANOPARTICLES: PROMISING AND POTENTIAL NANOMATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Shringirishi*, S.K. Prajapati , Alok Mahor , Shashi Alok , Poonam Yadav and Amita Verma

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs have appeared as an attractive candidate for delivery of various drug molecules or considered as extraordinary molecular carriers for the targeting, intracellular trafficking and delivery of a huge array of biomolecules including DNA, RNA, proteins, peptides, drugs, genes and other molecules of therapeutic significance. Particularly gold nanoparticles have attracted intensive interest, because they are easily prepared, have low toxicity and can be readily attached to molecules of biological interest. More and more research shows that AuNPs-based technologies are becoming promising approaches in drug and gene delivery, liver targeting, brain targeting, cancer research and AIDS treatment. The present review focuses on synthesis and functionalization methods of GNPs, the past researchs and reviews about GNPs, their emerging applications and uses and their future prospects.

  9. Court rules insurer must honor its promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Monumental Life Insurance Co. has to pay more than $230,000 to a beneficiary whose partner died of AIDS, shortly after paying the monthly premium for a life insurance policy. Unaware of the health status of the policy holder, a representative from the insurance company granted coverage and gave the policy holder a written statement that showed the amount of coverage of the policy. After the death of the partner, the insurance company told the beneficiary that the amount of coverage promised was a mistake. The beneficiary sued, and it was ruled that the company's letter, and the payment of the monthly premium, constituted a contract that the insurance company was obligated to uphold.

  10. Cobalt Derivatives as Promising Therapeutic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffern, Marie C.; Yamamoto, Natsuho; Holbrook, Robert J.; Eckermann, Amanda L.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic complexes are versatile platforms for the development of potent and selective pharmaceutical agents. Cobalt possesses a diverse array of properties that can be manipulated to yield promising drug candidates. Investigations into the mechanism of cobalt therapeutic agents can provide valuable insight into the physicochemical properties that can be harnessed for drug development. This review presents examples of bioactive cobalt complexes with special attention to their mechanisms of action. Specifically, cobalt complexes that elicit biological effects through protein inhibition, modification of drug activity, and bioreductive activation are discussed. Insights gained from these examples reveal features of cobalt that can be rationally tuned to produce therapeutics with high specificity and improved efficacy for the biomolecule or pathway of interest. PMID:23270779

  11. How robust are probabilistic models of higher-level cognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Gary F; Davis, Ernest

    2013-12-01

    An increasingly popular theory holds that the mind should be viewed as a near-optimal or rational engine of probabilistic inference, in domains as diverse as word learning, pragmatics, naive physics, and predictions of the future. We argue that this view, often identified with Bayesian models of inference, is markedly less promising than widely believed, and is undermined by post hoc practices that merit wholesale reevaluation. We also show that the common equation between probabilistic and rational or optimal is not justified.

  12. “The molecule’s the thing:” the promise of molecular modeling and dynamic simulations in aiding the prioritization and interpretation of genomic testing results [version 3; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin R. Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Clinical genomics is now a reality and lies at the heart of individualized medicine efforts. The success of these approaches is evidenced by the increasing volume of publications that report causal links between genomic variants and disease. In spite of early success, clinical genomics currently faces significant challenges in establishing the relevance of the majority of variants identified by next generation sequencing tests. Indeed, the majority of mutations identified are harbored by proteins whose functions remain elusive. Herein we describe the current scenario in genomic testing and in particular the burden of variants of uncertain significance (VUSs. We highlight a role for molecular modeling and molecular dynamic simulations as tools that can significantly increase the yield of information to aid in the evaluation of pathogenicity. Though the application of these methodologies to the interpretation of variants identified by genomic testing is not yet widespread, we predict that an increase in their use will significantly benefit the mission of clinical genomics for individualized medicine.

  13. 26 CFR 1.553-1 - Foreign personal holding company income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Foreign personal holding company income. 1.553-1... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Personal Holding Companies § 1.553-1 Foreign personal holding company income. Foreign personal holding company income shall consist of the items defined...

  14. ANALISIS BEBERAPA FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI HOLDING PERIOD SAHAM BIASA PADA PERUSAHAAN GO PUBLIC YANG TERCATAT DALAM INDEX LQ45

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinus - Maulina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   There are many factors influencing the decision making of investors in holding their possession on security especially common stock. Monetary crisis condition has proved to be able to influence the investors’ attitude in Jakarta Stock Market in investing their capital especially about the long/short of holding a security. This study is conducted based on the differentiation of conclusion/result of study from previous studies about decision to hold security in the long/short term. The aim of this study is to analyze variables influencing holding period of common stock on public firm listed in LQ 45 Index, that are firms generally have good performance assessed based on both market performance and firm fundamental, then analyzing the dominance influencing variable. This study is conducted in Jakarta Stock Exchange with population of stocks listed in LQ 45 index in period of 2000 – 2001 with the total of 64 firms. The Sample Taking Method is purposive sampling with the criteria that the firms at least listed twice in LQ45 index on the study period. The analysis method used to analyze independent variables: spread, market value, variance return, and dividend pay out ratio and dependent variable: holding period is two stage least squares multiple regression model,  since there is possibility that the correlation of bid-ask spread from the current period and bid-ask spread and holding period from the previous period for every stock take place simultaneously. Results of the study showed that, partially, bid-ask spread variable that constitutes the different value between the highest price provided paid by buyer with the lowest price offered by seller has significance positive correlation on holding period of common stock and there is inverse correlation/significance negative between variance return variable that reflect the risk rate from stock effected by fluctuation of stock price and holding period of common stock. While

  15. Investigation of dose homogeneity for loose helical tomotherapy delivery in the context of breath-hold radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bryan; Kron, Tomas; Battista, Jerry; Van Dyk, Jake

    2005-05-01

    Loose helical delivery is a potential solution to account for respiration-driven tumour motion in helical tomotherapy (HT). In this approach, a treatment is divided into a set of interlaced 'loose' helices commencing at different gantry angles. Each loose helix covers the entire target length in one gantry rotation during a single breath-hold. The dosimetric characteristics of loose helical delivery were investigated by delivering a 6 MV photon beam in a HT-like manner. Multiple scenarios of conventional 'tight' HT and loose helical deliveries were modelled in treatment planning software, and carried out experimentally with Kodak EDR2 film. The advantage of loose helical delivery lies in its ability to produce a more homogeneous dose distribution by eliminating the 'thread' effect—an inherent characteristic of HT, which results in dose modulations away from the axis of gantry rotation. However, loose helical delivery was also subjected to undesirable dose modulations in the direction of couch motion (termed 'beating' effect), when the ratio between the number of beam projections per gantry rotation (n) and pitch factor (p) was a non-integer. The magnitude of dose modulations decreased with an increasing n/p ratio. The results suggest that for the current HT unit (n = 51), dose modulations could be kept under 5% by selecting a pitch factor smaller than 7. A pitch factor of this magnitude should be able to treat a target up to 30 cm in length. Loose helical delivery should increase the total session time only by a factor of 2, while the planning time should stay the same since the total number of beam projections remains unchanged. Considering its dosimetric advantage and clinical practicality, loose helical delivery is a promising solution for the future HT treatments of respiration-driven targets.

  16. Fast and Accurate Prediction of Stratified Steel Temperature During Holding Period of Ladle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deodhar, Anirudh; Singh, Umesh; Shukla, Rishabh; Gautham, B. P.; Singh, Amarendra K.

    2017-04-01

    Thermal stratification of liquid steel in a ladle during the holding period and the teeming operation has a direct bearing on the superheat available at the caster and hence on the caster set points such as casting speed and cooling rates. The changes in the caster set points are typically carried out based on temperature measurements at the end of tundish outlet. Thermal prediction models provide advance knowledge of the influence of process and design parameters on the steel temperature at various stages. Therefore, they can be used in making accurate decisions about the caster set points in real time. However, this requires both fast and accurate thermal prediction models. In this work, we develop a surrogate model for the prediction of thermal stratification using data extracted from a set of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, pre-determined using design of experiments technique. Regression method is used for training the predictor. The model predicts the stratified temperature profile instantaneously, for a given set of process parameters such as initial steel temperature, refractory heat content, slag thickness, and holding time. More than 96 pct of the predicted values are within an error range of ±5 K (±5 °C), when compared against corresponding CFD results. Considering its accuracy and computational efficiency, the model can be extended for thermal control of casting operations. This work also sets a benchmark for developing similar thermal models for downstream processes such as tundish and caster.

  17. Fast and Accurate Prediction of Stratified Steel Temperature During Holding Period of Ladle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deodhar, Anirudh; Singh, Umesh; Shukla, Rishabh; Gautham, B. P.; Singh, Amarendra K.

    2016-12-01

    Thermal stratification of liquid steel in a ladle during the holding period and the teeming operation has a direct bearing on the superheat available at the caster and hence on the caster set points such as casting speed and cooling rates. The changes in the caster set points are typically carried out based on temperature measurements at the end of tundish outlet. Thermal prediction models provide advance knowledge of the influence of process and design parameters on the steel temperature at various stages. Therefore, they can be used in making accurate decisions about the caster set points in real time. However, this requires both fast and accurate thermal prediction models. In this work, we develop a surrogate model for the prediction of thermal stratification using data extracted from a set of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, pre-determined using design of experiments technique. Regression method is used for training the predictor. The model predicts the stratified temperature profile instantaneously, for a given set of process parameters such as initial steel temperature, refractory heat content, slag thickness, and holding time. More than 96 pct of the predicted values are within an error range of ±5 K (±5 °C), when compared against corresponding CFD results. Considering its accuracy and computational efficiency, the model can be extended for thermal control of casting operations. This work also sets a benchmark for developing similar thermal models for downstream processes such as tundish and caster.

  18. Symptom profiles of subsyndromal depression in disease clusters of diabetes, excess weight, and progressive cerebrovascular conditions: a promising new type of finding from a reliable innovation to estimate exhaustively specified multiple indicators–multiple causes (MIMIC) models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francoeur, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    Addressing subsyndromal depression in cerebrovascular conditions, diabetes, and obesity reduces morbidity and risk of major depression. However, depression may be masked because self-reported symptoms may not reveal dysphoric (sad) mood. In this study, the first wave (2,812 elders) from the New Haven Epidemiological Study of the Elderly (EPESE) was used. These population-weighted data combined a stratified, systematic, clustered random sample from independent residences and a census of senior housing. Physical conditions included progressive cerebrovascular disease (CVD; hypertension, silent CVD, stroke, and vascular cognitive impairment [VCI]) and co-occurring excess weight and/or diabetes. These conditions and interactions (clusters) simultaneously predicted 20 depression items and a latent trait of depression in participants with subsyndromal (including subthreshold) depression (11≤ Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D] score ≤27). The option for maximum likelihood estimation with standard errors that are robust to non-normality and non-independence in complex random samples (MLR) in Mplus and an innovation created by the author were used for estimating unbiased effects from latent trait models with exhaustive specification. Symptom profiles reveal masked depression in 1) older males, related to the metabolic syndrome (hypertension–overweight–diabetes; silent CVD–overweight; and silent CVD–diabetes) and 2) older females or the full sample, related to several diabetes and/or overweight clusters that involve stroke or VCI. Several other disease clusters are equivocal regarding masked depression; a couple do emphasize dysphoric mood. Replicating findings could identify subgroups for cost-effective screening of subsyndromal depression. PMID:28003768

  19. Symptom profiles of subsyndromal depression in disease clusters of diabetes, excess weight, and progressive cerebrovascular conditions: a promising new type of finding from a reliable innovation to estimate exhaustively specified multiple indicators–multiple causes (MIMIC models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francoeur RB

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Richard B Francoeur School of Social Work, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Abstract: Addressing subsyndromal depression in cerebrovascular conditions, diabetes, and obesity reduces morbidity and risk of major depression. However, depression may be masked because self-reported symptoms may not reveal dysphoric (sad mood. In this study, the first wave (2,812 elders from the New Haven Epidemiological Study of the Elderly (EPESE was used. These population-weighted data combined a stratified, systematic, clustered random sample from independent residences and a census of senior housing. Physical conditions included progressive cerebrovascular disease (CVD; hypertension, silent CVD, stroke, and vascular cognitive impairment [VCI] and co-occurring excess weight and/or diabetes. These conditions and interactions (clusters simultaneously predicted 20 depression items and a latent trait of depression in participants with subsyndromal (including subthreshold depression (11≤ Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D] score ≤27. The option for maximum likelihood estimation with standard errors that are robust to non-normality and non-independence in complex random samples (MLR in Mplus and an innovation created by the author were used for estimating unbiased effects from latent trait models with exhaustive specification. Symptom profiles reveal masked depression in 1 older males, related to the metabolic syndrome (hypertension–overweight–diabetes; silent CVD–overweight; and silent CVD–diabetes and 2 older females or the full sample, related to several diabetes and/or overweight clusters that involve stroke or VCI. Several other disease clusters are equivocal regarding masked depression; a couple do emphasize dysphoric mood. Replicating findings could identify subgroups for cost-effective screening of subsyndromal depression. Keywords: depression, diabetes, overweight, cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, metabolic

  20. Challenges and promises for translating computational tools into clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Woo-Young; Busemeyer, Jerome R

    2016-10-01

    Computational modeling and associated methods have greatly advanced our understanding of cognition and neurobiology underlying complex behaviors and psychiatric conditions. Yet, no computational methods have been successfully translated into clinical settings. This review discusses three major methodological and practical challenges (A. precise characterization of latent neurocognitive processes, B. developing optimal assays, C. developing large-scale longitudinal studies and generating predictions from multi-modal data) and potential promises and tools that have been developed in various fields including mathematical psychology, computational neuroscience, computer science, and statistics. We conclude by highlighting a strong need to communicate and collaborate across multiple disciplines.

  1. Simulation of assembling cargo-hold spaceship pallets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ruizhao; Wang, Pengfei; Wu, Qianru; Jing, Chenchen

    2017-06-01

    The pallet is the load-carrying body between cargo and cargo-hold cabin. Due to the narrow space of cargo-hold cabin, it is difficult for workers to operate. During the installation process of the pallet, it can easily collide with cabin. Based on the installation technology of the pallet, the assembly process of pallet is simulated and analyzed in this paper. The main installation process includes the lifting of pallet, the process of pallet entering the cabin and the assembling of separating device. In the simulation, the practicability of tooling, the standing position of operators, visibility and accessibility of operations are analyzed to determine the risk points in the installation process of pallet. According to the simulation results, feasibility of pallet installation is verified, space requirements for installation are given, and position requirements and posture requirements of workers in the operation process can also be achieved.

  2. Legal Statement authorized by Veken Holding Group Co.,Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    According to Patent Law of the People’s Republic of China,Implementing Regulations of the Patent Law of the People’s Republic of China,and other laws and regulations,Zhejiang Heyi Law Office has been authorized by Veken Holding Group Co.,Ltd.("Veken Group")to announce the statement as below to protect the legal rights of the patentee.

  3. Clinical and Laboratory Findings of Patients with Breath Holding Spells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Özdemir

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics; physical findings, cardiological, hematological and neurological problems; treatment approaches; and the prognosis of children with breath holding spells.Materials and Method: Seventhy patients were included in this study. All patients were evaluated with detailed history and physical examination. Complete blood count, serum iron and iron binding capacity were studied; cardiological (telecardiography, electrocardiography, if necessary echocardiography and event recorder and neurological investigations (electroencephalography were done during the admission. Patients with iron deficiency anemia and iron deficiency were treated with ferrous sulphate orally. In patients with normal hematological values, no medication was used. After a two-month treatment period patients underwent control hematological evaluation. Frequency of the spells, age of disappearance of spells (defined as 6 months without spells, disappearance ratios between the three groups were compared. Results: The percentage of cyanotic, palloric and mixt type of breath holding spells of 70 patients included in the study were 67.1, 14.3 and 18.6, respectively. It was determined that psychogenic factors played a role in 77.1% of our patients. There were iron deficiency anemia in 39 (55.7%, iron deficiency in 12 (17.2% and normal hematological parameters in 19 (27.1% of 70 patients. The QTc values were normal in all of them. EEG’s were normal in 56 (80%, dysrhythmic in 11 (15.7% and pathologic in (4.3%. There was a positive family history of breath holding spells in 44.3% of those with breath holding spells. Conclusion: We determined that there was a correlation between the iron levels and the frequency of spells. The lower the iron levels the higher the frequency of spells. There was a dramatic decrease of 92% in spells with low doses of iron supplementation especially in the anemic group. (Journal of

  4. PCV Holding: Who’s next? - Planning the Succession

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Beatriz Maria Venâncio

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a case study on a family business – PCV Holding – established in Mozambique. Having survived three generations and experiencing one of the most intense periods of growth, a tough issue emerges which is capable of compromising the future of the business: The Succession -How to transfer the management and ownership to the next generation while ensuring a fair process. Through several meetings with the board members and owners, I had the opportunity to understand the business an...

  5. International Reserve Holdings with Sovereign Risk and Costly Tax Collection

    OpenAIRE

    Aizenman, Joshua; Nancy P. Marion

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the international reserve-holding behavior of developing countries. It shows that political-economy considerations modify the optimal reserve level determined by efficiency criteria. A country characterized by volatile output, inelastic demand for fiscal outlays, high tax collection costs and sovereign risk will want to accumulate international reserves as well as external debt. Efficiency considerations imply that reserves are optimal when the benefits they provide for in...

  6. ANALISIS FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI HOLDING PERIOD SAHAM BIASA PADA PERUSAHAAN GO PUBLIC YANG TERCATAT DALAM INDEX LQ45

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinus - Maulina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to know and analyze variables influencing holding period of common stock on public firm listed in LQ 45 Index, that are firms generally have good performance assessed based on both market performance and firm fundamental, then analyzing the dominance influencing variable. This study is conducted in Jakarta Stock Exchange with population of stocks listed in LQ 45 index in period of 2000 – 2001 with the total of 64 firms. The Sample Taking Method is purposive sampling with the criteria that the firms at least listed twice in LQ45 index on the study period. The Analysis method used to analyze independent variables: spread, market value, variance return, and dividend pay out ratio and dependent variable: holding period is two stage least squares multiple regression model,  since there is possibility that the correlation of bid-ask spread from the current period and bid-ask spread and holding period from the previous period for every stock take place simultaneously. Results show that partially bid-ask spread variable that constitutes the different value between the highest price provided paid by buyer with the lowest price offered by seller has significance positive correlation on holding period of common stock and there is inverse correlation/significance negative between variance return variable that reflect the risk rate from stock effected by fluctuation of stock price and holding period of common stock. While, simultaneously, there is no significance correlation between dependent variable and independent variable that means bid-ask spread, market value, variance return and dividend pay out ratio can’t describe variation from holding period variable. Keywords: holding period, common stock.

  7. The relation between acquisition of a theory of mind and the capacity to hold in mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, A C; Olson, D R

    1998-01-01

    Building on earlier work by Pascual-Leone (1970) and Case (1985), Olson (1989; 1993) set out a theory showing how a series of incremental changes in capacity for "holding in mind" could account, in part, for children's acquisition of a theory of mind. Following Piaget (1951) infants were said to employ schemata for maintaining relations with objects and events in the presence of those events. At about 18 months children became capable of holding in mind an object so as to free the perceptual system to perceive a second object and form a relation between the two, allowing for what Piaget called the "symbolic function" and what Olson described as predication. At around 4 years, the period examined in the present study, children were said to acquire the ability to represent that predicative relation as a belief or as true or false. That was the stage at which children were said to possess a theory of mind. The present study tested the hypothesized relation between development of a theory of mind and increasing computational resources. Three-, four-, and five-year-old children's performance on a pair of theory of mind tasks was compared with that on a pair of dual processing tasks designed on the basis of Baddeley's (1986) model of working memory. The resulting correlations, as high as r = .64 between the tasks, suggest that changes in capacity to hold in mind allow the expression of, and arguably the formation of, a theory of mind.

  8. Optimal Control of Holding Motion by Nonprehensile Two-Cooperative-Arm Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changan Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, more researchers have focused on nursing-care assistant robot and placed their hope on it to solve the shortage problem of the caregivers in hospital or nursing home. In this paper, a nonprehensile two-cooperative-arm robot is considered to realize holding motion to keep a two-rigid-link object (regarded as a care-receiver stable on the robot arms. By applying Newton-Euler equations of motion, dynamic model of the object is obtained. In this model, for describing interaction behavior between object and robot arms in the normal direction, a viscoelastic model is employed to represent the normal forces. Considering existence of friction between object and robot arms, LuGre dynamic model is applied to describe the friction. Based on the obtained model, an optimal regulator is designed to control the holding motion of two-cooperative-arm robot. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, simulation results are shown.

  9. Promise Neighborhoods: The Promise and Politics of Community Capacity Building as Urban School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsford, Sonya Douglass; Sampson, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this inquiry is to consider how the U.S. Department of Education's Promise Neighborhoods (PNs) program can improve persistently low-achieving urban schools by making their "neighborhoods whole again" through community capacity building for education reform. As the "first federal initiative to put education at the…

  10. [Rapid prototyping: a very promising method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverman, T M; Karagozoglu, K H; Prins, H-J; Schulten, E A J M; Forouzanfar, T

    2013-03-01

    Rapid prototyping is a method which makes it possible to produce a three-dimensional model based on two-dimensional imaging. Various rapid prototyping methods are available for modelling, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, direct laser metal sintering, two-photon polymerization, laminated object manufacturing, three-dimensional printing, three-dimensional plotting, polyjet inkjet technology,fused deposition modelling, vacuum casting and milling. The various methods currently being used in the biomedical sector differ in production, materials and properties of the three-dimensional model which is produced. Rapid prototyping is mainly usedforpreoperative planning, simulation, education, and research into and development of bioengineering possibilities.

  11. De-sportization of fighting contests. The Origins and Dynamics of No Holds Barred Events and the Theory of Sportization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottenburg, Maarten van; Heilbron, Johan

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of an empirical analysis of the recent emergence, spread and transformation of No Holds Barred fighting contests, it is argued that Norbert Elias's model of sportization provides a fruitful but insufficiently differentiated framework for understanding the development of sports and sport

  12. De-sportization of fighting contests. The Origins and Dynamics of No Holds Barred Events and the Theory of Sportization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drs. Maarten van Bottenburg; Johan Heilbron

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of an empirical analysis of the recent emergence, spread and transformation of No Holds Barred fighting contests, it is argued that Norbert Elias's model of sportization provides a fruitful but insufficiently differentiated framework for understanding the development of sports and

  13. De-sportization of fighting contests : The Origins and Dynamics of No Holds Barred Events and the Theory of Sportization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bottenburg, M.; Heilbron, Johan

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of an empirical analysis of the emergence, spread and transformation of No Holds Barred fighting contests during the 1990s, we argue that Norbert Elias’s model of sportization represents a fruitful but not sufficiently differentiated framework for understanding the recent development of

  14. De-sportization of fighting contests : The Origins and Dynamics of No Holds Barred Events and the Theory of Sportization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bottenburg, M.; Heilbron, Johan

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of an empirical analysis of the emergence, spread and transformation of No Holds Barred fighting contests during the 1990s, we argue that Norbert Elias’s model of sportization represents a fruitful but not sufficiently differentiated framework for understanding the recent development of

  15. Designing Sustainable Public Transportation: Integrated Optimization of Bus Speed and Holding Time in a Connected Vehicle Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing public transportation and giving priority to buses is a feasible solution for improving the level of public transportation service, which facilitates congestion alleviation and prevention, and contributes to urban development and city sustainability. This paper presents a novel bus operation control strategy including both holding control and speed control to improve the level of service of transit systems within a connected vehicle environment. Most previous work focuses on optimization of signal timing to decrease the bus signal delay by assuming that holding control is not applied; the speed of buses is given as a constant input and the acceleration and deceleration processes of buses can be neglected. This paper explores the benefits of a bus operation control strategy to minimize the total cost, which includes bus signal delay, bus holding delay, bus travel delay, acceleration cost due to frequent stops and intense driving. A set of formulations are developed to explicitly capture the interaction between bus holding control and speed control. Experimental analysisand simulation tests have shown that the proposed integrated operational model outperforms the traditional control, speed control only, or holding control only strategies in terms of reducing the total cost of buses. The sensitivity analysis has further demonstrated the potential effectiveness of the proposed approach to be applied in a real-time bus operation control system under different levels of traffic demand, bus stop locations, and speed limits.

  16. Dextran: A promising macromolecular drug carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaneshwar Suneela

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades intensive efforts have been made to design novel systems able to deliver the drug more effectively to the target site. The ongoing intense search for novel and innovative drug delivery systems is predominantly a consequence of the well-established fact that the conventional dosage forms are not sufficiently effective in conveying the drug compound to its site of action and once in the target area, in releasing the active agent over a desired period of time. The potential use of macromolecular prodrugs as a means of achieving targeted drug delivery has attracted considerable interest in recent years. Macromolecules such as antibodies, lipoproteins, lectins, proteins, polypeptides, polysaccharides, natural as well as synthetic polymers offer potential applicabilities as high molecular weight carriers for various therapeutically active compounds. Dextrans serve as one of the most promising macromolecular carrier candidates for a wide variety of therapeutic agents due to their excellent physico-chemical properties and physiological acceptance. The present contribution attempts to review various features of the dextran carrier like its source, structural and physico-chemical characteristics, pharmacokinetic fate and its applications as macromolecular carrier with special emphasis on dextran prodrugs.

  17. The Renewed Promise of Medical Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bemmel, J H; McCray, A T

    2016-05-20

    The promise of the field of Medical Informatics has been great and its impact has been significant. In 1999, the Yearbook editors of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) - also the authors of the present paper - sought to assess this impact by selecting a number of seminal papers in the field, and asking experts to comment on these articles. In particular, it was requested whether and how the expectations, represented by these papers, had been fulfilled since their publication several decades earlier. Each expert was also invited to comment on what might be expected in the future. In the present paper, these areas are briefly reviewed again. Where did these early papers have an impact and where were they not as successful as originally expected? It should be noted that the extraordinary developments in computer technology observed in the last two decades could not have been foreseen by these early researchers. In closing, some of the possibilities and limitations of research in medical informatics are outlined in the context of a framework that considers six levels of computer applications in medicine and health care. For each level, some predictions are made for the future, concluded with thoughts on fruitful areas for ongoing research in the field.

  18. The promise of Lean in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, John S; Berry, Leonard L

    2013-01-01

    An urgent need in American health care is improving quality and efficiency while controlling costs. One promising management approach implemented by some leading health care institutions is Lean, a quality improvement philosophy and set of principles originated by the Toyota Motor Company. Health care cases reveal that Lean is as applicable in complex knowledge work as it is in assembly-line manufacturing. When well executed, Lean transforms how an organization works and creates an insatiable quest for improvement. In this article, we define Lean and present 6 principles that constitute the essential dynamic of Lean management: attitude of continuous improvement, value creation, unity of purpose, respect for front-line workers, visual tracking, and flexible regimentation. Health care case studies illustrate each principle. The goal of this article is to provide a template for health care leaders to use in considering the implementation of the Lean management system or in assessing the current state of implementation in their organizations. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Acyl-homoserine lactone-based quorum sensing and quorum quenching hold promise to determine the performance of biological wastewater treatments: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinhui; Shi, Yahui; Zeng, Guangming; Gu, Yanling; Chen, Guiqiu; Shi, Lixiu; Hu, Yi; Tang, Bi; Zhou, Jianxin

    2016-08-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a communication process between cells, in which bacteria secrete and sense the specific chemicals, and regulate gene expression in response to population density. Quorum quenching (QQ) blocks QS system, and inhibits gene expression mediating bacterial behaviors. Given the extensive research of acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) signals, existences and effects of AHL-based QS and QQ in biological wastewater treatments are being subject to high concern. This review summarizes AHL structure, synthesis mode, degradation mechanisms, analytical methods, environmental factors, AHL-based QS and QQ mechanisms. The existences and roles of AHL-based QS and QQ in biomembrane processes, activated sludge processes and membrane bioreactors are summarized and discussed, and corresponding exogenous regulation strategy by selective enhancement of AHL-based QS or QQ coexisting in biological wastewater treatments is suggested. Such strategies including the addition of AHL signals, AHL-producing bacteria as well as quorum quenching enzyme or bacteria can effectively improve wastewater treatment performance without killing or limiting bacterial survival and growth. This review will present the theoretical and practical cognition for bacterial AHL-based QS and QQ, suggest the feasibility of exogenous regulation strategies in biological wastewater treatments, and provide useful information to scientists and engineers who work in this field.

  20. The Teaching Principal: An Untenable Position or a Promising Model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Paul M.; Wallin, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an interpretive study that examined the role of the teaching principal, particularly as it relates to principals' moral and legal requirement to work as instructional leaders for student learning. A teaching principal is defined as a principal who has a "double load" or dual roles in teaching and administration…

  1. A promising poison information centre model for Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Marks

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: A number of benefits might result from such a poisons centre network hub, including: (1 Improved cooperation between countries on poisoning problems; (2 Harmonisation and strengthening of research and surveillance; (3 Common standards and best practices e.g. regulating chemicals, data management, and staff training; and (4 Greater bargaining power to secure resources. Further investigation is needed to identify the most suitable location for the network hub, the activities it should fulfil, and the availability of specialists in poisons information who could become members of the hub.

  2. Intranasal formulations: promising strategy to deliver vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riese, Peggy; Sakthivel, Priya; Trittel, Stephanie; Guzmán, Carlos A

    2014-10-01

    The emergence of new diseases and the lack of efficient vaccines against numerous non-treatable pathogens require the development of novel vaccination strategies. To date, only a few mucosal vaccines have been approved for humans. This was in part due to i) the use of live attenuated vaccines, which are not suitable for certain groups of individuals, ii) safety concerns derived from implementation in humans of some mucosal vaccines, iii) the poor stability, absorption and immunogenicity of antigens delivered by the mucosal route and iv) the limited number of available technologies to overcome the bottlenecks associated with mucosal antigen delivery. Recent advances make feasible the development of efficacious mucosal vaccines with adequate safety profile. Thus, currently intranasal vaccines represent an attractive and valid alternative to conventional vaccines. The present review is focused on the potentials and limitations of market-approved intranasal vaccines and promising candidates undergoing clinical investigations. Furthermore, emerging strategies to overcome main bottlenecks including efficient breaching of the mucosal barrier and safety concerns by implementation of new adjuvants and delivery systems are discussed. The rational design of intranasal vaccines requires an in-depth understanding of the anatomic, physicochemical and barrier properties of the nasal mucosa, as well as the molecular mechanisms governing the activation of the local innate and adaptive immune system. This would provide the critical knowledge to establish effective approaches to deliver vaccine antigens across the mucosal barrier, supporting the stimulation of a long-lasting protective response at both mucosal and systemic levels. Current developments in the area of adjuvants, nanotechnologies and mucosal immunology, together with the identification of surface receptors that can be exploited for cell targeting and manipulating their physiological properties, will become instrumental

  3. Enantioselectivity of mass spectrometry: challenges and promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Hanan; El-Aneed, Anas

    2013-01-01

    With the fast growing market of pure enantiomer drugs and bioactive molecules, new chiral-selective analytical tools have been instigated including the use of mass spectrometry (MS). Even though MS is one of the best analytical tools that has efficiently been used in several pharmaceutical and biological applications, traditionally MS is considered as a "chiral-blind" technique. This limitation is due to the MS inability to differentiate between two enantiomers of a chiral molecule based merely on their masses. Several approaches have been explored to assess the potential role of MS in chiral analysis. The first approach depends on the use of MS-hyphenated techniques utilizing fast and sensitive chiral separation tools such as liquid chromatography (LC), gas chromatography (GC), and capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled to MS detector. More recently, several alternative separation techniques have been evaluated such as supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC); the latter being a hybrid technique that combines the efficiency of CE with the selectivity of LC. The second approach is based on using the MS instrument solely for the chiral recognition. This method depends on the behavioral differences between enantiomers towards a foreign molecule and the ability of MS to monitor such differences. These behavioral differences can be divided into three types: (i) differences in the enantiomeric affinity for association with the chiral selector, (ii) differences of the enantiomeric exchange rate with a foreign reagent, and (iii) differences in the complex MS dissociation behaviors of the enantiomers. Most recently, ion mobility spectrometry was introduced to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate chiral compounds. This article provides an overview of MS role in chiral analysis by discussing MS based methodologies and presenting the challenges and promises associated with each approach.

  4. Resveratrol as promising natural radioprotector. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzyńska, Małgorzata M

    2013-01-01

    Public feelings concerning radiation are still controversy. The main sources of trouble seems to be the failure nuclear power plant and danger of terroristic attack, which may cause temporally enhanced level of radiation leading to harmful health effects. Since radiation induced cellular damage is attributed primarily to harmful effect of free radicals, molecules with direct free radical scavenging properties are particularly promising as radiation modifiers/protectors, i.e. agents which present prior to or shortly after radiation exposure alter to response of tissues to radiation. Unfortunately, some of known radioprotectors are toxic at doses required for radioprotection. Resveratrol (RSV), an natural polyphenol is produced in several plants in response to injury, stress, bacteria or fungi infection, UV-irradiation and exposure to ozone. It is present in human diet i.e. in fruits and in wine. RSV is known for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiviral, cardioprotective, neuroprotective and antiageing action and it has been shown to have chemopreventive effects with respect to several human disease such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and gastric ulcers. Depending on the dose, RSV may act as antioxidant or as pro-oxidant. RSV improves sperm count and motility in rodents and prevent DNA damage caused by cryptopreservation of human sperm. Moreover, RSV acting with other agents, inhibits the toxic action of them. There are evidences that RSV is able to modulate the behavior of cells in response to radiation induced damage. Minimalization of radiation induced damage to somatic and germ cells by RSV might be useful in cancer therapy to prevent the damage to normal cells as well as in case of radiological accidents.

  5. Water addition, evaporation and water holding capacity of poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Mark W; Blackall, Patrick J; Stuetz, Richard M

    2015-12-15

    Litter moisture content has been related to ammonia, dust and odour emissions as well as bird health and welfare. Improved understanding of the water holding properties of poultry litter as well as water additions to litter and evaporation from litter will contribute to improved litter moisture management during the meat chicken grow-out. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how management and environmental conditions over the course of a grow-out affect the volume of water A) applied to litter, B) able to be stored in litter, and C) evaporated from litter on a daily basis. The same unit of measurement has been used to enable direct comparison-litres of water per square metre of poultry shed floor area, L/m(2), assuming a litter depth of 5cm. An equation was developed to estimate the amount of water added to litter from bird excretion and drinking spillage, which are sources of regular water application to the litter. Using this equation showed that water applied to litter from these sources changes over the course of a grow-out, and can be as much as 3.2L/m(2)/day. Over a 56day grow-out, the total quantity of water added to the litter was estimated to be 104L/m(2). Litter porosity, water holding capacity and water evaporation rates from litter were measured experimentally. Litter porosity decreased and water holding capacity increased over the course of a grow-out due to manure addition. Water evaporation rates at 25°C and 50% relative humidity ranged from 0.5 to 10L/m(2)/day. Evaporation rates increased with litter moisture content and air speed. Maintaining dry litter at the peak of a grow-out is likely to be challenging because evaporation rates from dry litter may be insufficient to remove the quantity of water added to the litter on a daily basis.

  6. Cognitive-motor interference while grasping, lifting and holding objects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwan Guillery

    Full Text Available In daily life, object manipulation is usually performed concurrently to the execution of cognitive tasks. The aim of the present study was to determine which aspects of precision grip require cognitive resources using a motor-cognitive dual-task paradigm. Eighteen healthy participants took part in the experiment, which comprised two conditions. In the first condition, participants performed a motor task without any concomitant cognitive task. They were instructed to grip, lift and hold an apparatus incorporating strain gauges allowing a continuous measurement of the force perpendicular to each contact surface (grip force, GF as well as the total tangential force applied on the object (load force, LF. In the second condition, participants performed the same motor task while concurrently performing a cognitive task consisting in a complex visual search combined with counting. In the dual-task condition, we found a significant increase in the duration of the preload phase (time between initial contact of the fingers with the apparatus and onset of the load force, as well as a significant increase of the grip force during the holding phase, indicating that the cognitive task interfered with the initial force scaling performed during the preload phase and the fine-tuning of grip force during the hold phase. These findings indicate that these aspects of precision grip require cognitive resources. In contrast, other aspects of the precision grip, such as the temporal coupling between grip and load forces, were not affected by the cognitive task, suggesting that they reflect more automatic processes. Taken together, our results suggest that assessing the dynamic and temporal parameters of precision grip in the context of a concurrent cognitive task may constitute a more ecological and better-suited tool to characterize motor dysfunction in patients.

  7. LEGITIMATION IMPLICATIONS IN THE PROCESS OF IMPLEMENTING AN ERP SYSTEM IN A HOLDING COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Theiss

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to evaluate the legitimation of the process of implementing an ERP system in a holding company. The conceptual model is based on the New Institutional Sociology, with the evaluation of the legitimation of a new information system in the organization studied. The data collection procedures employed interviews, questionnaires, as well as the analysis of documents provided by the company. As the system is already part of the company’s processes and the employees have already accepted the changes, it provides evidence of legitimation of the ERP system in the business.

  8. HIV aspartyl protease inhibitors as promising compounds against Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    André; Luis; Souza; dos; Santos

    2010-01-01

    Cells of Candida albicans(C.albicans) can invade humans and may lead to mucosal and skin infections or to deep-seated my coses of almost all inner organs,especially in immunocompromised patients.In this context,both the host immune status and the ability of C.albicans to modulate the expression of its virulence factors are relevant aspects that drive the candidal susceptibility or resistance;in this last case,culminating in the establishment of successful infection knownas candidiasis.C.albicans possesses a potent arma-mentarium consisting of several virulence moleculesthat help the fungal cells to escape of the host immuneresponses.There is no doubt that the secretion of aspartyl-type proteases,designated as Saps,are one of the major virulence attributes produced by C.albicans cells,since these hydrolytic enzymes participate in a wide range of fungal physiological processes as well as in different facets of the fungal-host interactions.For these reasons,Saps clearly hold promise as new potential drug targets.Corroborating this hypothesis,the introduction of new anti-human immunodeficiency virus drugs of the as party l protease inhibitor-type(HIV PIs) have emerged as new agents for the inhibition of Saps.The introduction of HIV PIs has revolutionized the treatment of HIV disease,reducing opportunistic infections,especially candidiasis.The attenuation of candidal infections in HIV-infected individuals might not solely have resulted from improved immunological status,but also as a result of direct inhibition of C.albicans Saps.In this article,we review updates on the beneficial effects of HIV PIs against the human fungal pathogen C.albicans,focusing on the effects of these compounds on Sap activity,growth behavior,morphological architecture,cellular differentiation,fungal adhesion to animal cells and abiotic materials,modulation of virulence factors,experimental candidiasis infection,and their synergistic actions with classical antifungal agents.

  9. Deep inspiration breath-hold radiotherapy for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josipovic, Mirjana; Persson, Gitte F; Bangsgaard, Jens P

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated the impact of deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) and tumour baseline shifts on image quality and registration uncertainty in image-guided DIBH radiotherapy (RT) for locally advanced lung cancer. METHODS: Patients treated with daily cone beam CT (CBCT)-guided free...... ≤2 mm did not affect the CBCT image quality considerably. CONCLUSION: DIBH CBCT improved image quality and reduced registration uncertainty in the craniocaudal direction in image-guided RT of locally advanced lung cancer. Baseline shifts ≤2 mm in DIBH during CBCT acquisition did not affect image...

  10. Henan Non-ferrous Holding Company Set Up in Henan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Henan Non-ferrous Holding Co.(hereinafter referred to as Henan Non-ferrous),an enterprise set up under the joint effort of 3 enterprises with state-owned assets namely Shenhuo Group,Yichuan Power and Yulian Group,has started its operation under tight schedule.The focus of the current operation is acquisition,for which a number of alumina and aluminum processing enterprises are on the list of Henan Non-ferrous.China Nonferrous Metals Monthly reported this news at our last issue,now we try to analysis more details behind the decision.

  11. La Holding Estrategia Fiscal Para las Empresas Familiares

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Hilda Hernandez Sandoval; Sandra Patricia de la Garza Cienfuegos; Laura Leticia Gaona Tamez

    2010-01-01

    La presente investigación se realizó en Monclova, Coah., en el año 2011 y tiene por objeto constituir una empresa holding para obtener beneficios fiscales sin caer en la evasión o elusión fiscal, esta alternativa permite controlar desde la cúspide a las demás empresas subsidiarias que han sido creadas. Los resultados muestran que existen en México 4,862 empresas familiares que consolidan para efectos fiscales, las cuales se encuentran integradas en 422 grupos. En este régimen de fiscalización...

  12. Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935: 1935--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-15

    This report provides an economic and legislative history and analysis of the Public Utilities Holding Company Act (PUHCA) of 1935. This Act was substantially amended for the first time in 1992 by passage of the Energy Policy Act (EPACT). The report also includes a discussion of the issues which led to the amendment of PUHCA and projections of the impact of these changes on the electric industry. The report should be of use to Federal and State regulators, trade associations, electric utilities, independent power producers, as well as decision-makers in Congress and the Administration.

  13. PARTICLE PROPERTIES--PROMISE AND NEGLECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wolfgang Peukert

    2003-01-01

    We see two major trends in Particle Technology. First, the focus is shifted from unit operations towards functional products, i.e. towards product engineering. Second, modeling will become more and more important. Processes cannot yet be designed from basic molecular understanding. Nanotechnology, however, begins to bridge this gap between molecules and particles and may thus open new ways not only for the production and handling of particulate matter but also for the engineered design of advanced material properties. Starting from the concept of product engineering we investigate the basic preconditions for tailoring nanoparticulate properties, i.e. the control of the particle interactions. Nanotechnology can only be transferred to industrial production if the interactions are effectively controlled.Material and particle properties are essential for predictive models. Although strong tools like MD, DEM or population balance models are available, these models are only predictive if realistic material and particle properties are available which is often not the case. We show for selected examples how particle properties can be obtained by studying the physically relevant elementary processes. The impact breakage behavior of many different materials is described by a master curve. Particle adhesion can be modeled if the roughness of particle and substrate and the Hamaker constant are known. The latter is obtained from adsorption studies.

  14. Econometrics of inventory holding and shortage costs: the case of refined gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krane, S.D.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis estimates a model of a firm's optimal inventory and production behavior in order to investigate the link between the role of inventories in the business cycle and the microeconomic incentives for holding stocks of finished goods. The goal is to estimate a set of structural cost function parameters that can be used to infer the optimal cyclical response of inventories and production to shocks in demand. To avoid problems associated with the use of value based aggregate inventory data, an industry level physical unit data set for refined motor gasoline is examined. The Euler equations for a refiner's multiperiod decision problem are estimated using restrictions imposed by the rational expectations hypothesis. The model also embodies the fact that, in most periods, the level of shortages will be zero, and even when positive, the shortages are not directly observable in the data set. These two concerns lead us to use a generalized method of moments estimation technique on a functional form that resembles the formulation of a Tobit problem. The estimation results are disappointing; the model and data yield coefficient estimates incongruous with the cost function interpretations of the structural parameters. These is only some superficial evidence that production smoothing is significant and that marginal inventory shortage costs increase at a faster rate than do marginal holding costs.

  15. The Design of Reactor Internals Hold-Down Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohong Xue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hold down spring(HDS, clamped between the upper support plate flange and the core barrel flange inside a pressurized reactor vessel, is used to provide a downward force to keep the core barrel stable and from being lifted off from the vessel ledge during reactor normal operation. Spring designer used to think under certain extreme operating conditions, the spring could be lifted off from the ledge because the spring is not stiff enough to prevent the “lift-off”. Therefore, the spring was designed as stiff as it practically can be. However, finite element study indicated that the magnitude of preload is a strong function of friction coefficient. To find the magnitude of the friction coefficient, a series of tests were conducted on 1/10 scale hold down spring samples of three different spring designs. From the test results, it was found that the friction coefficient increases rapidly as the number of loading cycles increases. This implies that the spring preload would increase rapidly during plant operation. Therefore, it is concluded that, because of the strong frictional effect, not only the current design is more than adequate, but also should be made even softer.

  16. In which Financial Markets do Mutual Fund Theorems hold true?

    CERN Document Server

    Schachermayer, Walter; Taflin, Erik

    2007-01-01

    The Mutual Fund Theorem (MFT) is considered in a general semimartingale financial market S with a finite time horizon T, where agents maximize expected utility of terminal wealth. It is established that: 1) Let N be the wealth process of the num\\'eraire portfolio (i.e. the optimal portfolio for the log utility). If any path-independent option with maturity T written on the num\\'eraire portfolio can be replicated by trading \\emph{only} in N, then the (MFT) holds true for general utility functions, and the num\\'eraire portfolio may serve as mutual fund. This generalizes Merton's classical result on Black-Scholes markets. Conversely, under a supplementary weak completeness assumption, we show that the validity of the (MFT) for general utility functions implies the same replicability property for options on the num\\'eraire portfolio described above. 2) If for a given class of utility functions (i.e. investors) the (MFT) holds true in all complete Brownian financial markets S, then all investors use the same utili...

  17. Clinical Efficacy of Piracetam on Breath Holding Spells in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ashrafzadeh

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Breath holding spells (BHS is a type of syncope in children , most commonly encontered in the early years of life. Although these athacks don't damage the brain , if these are frequent or prolonged cause , parents frighten , so physician should intervent. In this study we evaluated clinical efficacy of piracetam on B.H.S of children in Mashhad Ghaem Hospital during 2001-2002.In this double blind placebo control study , piracetam or placebo on a randomized basis was administered to children with 40 mg/kg/day in 2 divided doses for 2 months. From the 41 children that were enrolled , 21 cases received piracetam and 20 cases received placebo. Parents denoted the numbers of spells two months before and two months after taking drug. Control of breath holding spells were observed in 90.5% of patients in the group taking piracetam as compared with 40% in the group taking placebo (P = 0.002. Of the all patients 10 cases had iron deficiency anemia so they had taken elemental Fe too. The side effects were the same in these two groups. The results of this study indicated that piracetam was efficient for the treatment of children with B.H.S without greater incidence adverse effects than placebo.

  18. Functional stability limits while holding loads in various positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbein, M A; Redfern, M S

    1997-05-01

    Stability of the body during manual material handling is an important issue in the prevention of falls and over-exertion injuries. This research investigated stability limits while standing and holding loads in different positions relative to the body. Theoretically, the stability region is the full base of support defined by the perimeter of the foot contact area. However, the functional stability region may be smaller. The purpose of this study was to locate functional stability limits with respect to the base of support. Fifteen male subjects leaned as far as possible in four directions in the sagittal and frontal planes. Their center of gravity location at these extremes determined the stability limit. The results showed that functional stability limits reached only about 60% of the distance to the maximum base of support limits under the conditions of this study. The sway angles reached at the stability limits averaged 9.2 degrees anteroposteriorly and 15.3 degrees laterally. External load positions which lowered the center of gravity of the body-and-load system extended those stability limits. This study provides a postural stability perspective of load-holding which may be applied in establishing safe lifting and reach limits.

  19. Problems, challenges and promises: perspectives on precision medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, David J

    2016-05-01

    The 'precision medicine (systems medicine)' concept promises to achieve a shift to future healthcare systems with a more proactive and predictive approach to medicine, where the emphasis is on disease prevention rather than the treatment of symptoms. The individualization of treatment for each patient will be at the centre of this approach, with all of a patient's medical data being computationally integrated and accessible. Precision medicine is being rapidly embraced by biomedical researchers, pioneering clinicians and scientific funding programmes in both the European Union (EU) and USA. Precision medicine is a key component of both Horizon 2020 (the EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation) and the White House's Precision Medicine Initiative. Precision medicine promises to revolutionize patient care and treatment decisions. However, the participants in precision medicine are faced with a considerable central challenge. Greater volumes of data from a wider variety of sources are being generated and analysed than ever before; yet, this heterogeneous information must be integrated and incorporated into personalized predictive models, the output of which must be intelligible to non-computationally trained clinicians. Drawing primarily from the field of 'oncology', this article will introduce key concepts and challenges of precision medicine and some of the approaches currently being implemented to overcome these challenges. Finally, this article also covers the criticisms of precision medicine overpromising on its potential to transform patient care.

  20. [Absorbable coronary stents. New promising technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbel, Raimund; Böse, Dirk; Haude, Michael; Kordish, Igor; Churzidze, Sofia; Malyar, Nasser; Konorza, Thomas; Sack, Stefan

    2007-06-01

    Coronary stent implantation started in Germany 20 years ago. In the beginning, the progress was very slow and accelerated 10 years later. Meanwhile, coronary stent implantation is a standard procedure in interventional cardiology. From the beginning of permanent stent implantation, research started to provide temporary stenting of coronary arteries, first with catheter-based systems, later with stent-alone technology. Stents were produced from polymers or metal. The first polymer stent implantation failed except the Igaki-Tamai stent in Japan. Newly developed absorbable polymer stents seem to be very promising, as intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography have demonstrated. Temporary metal stents were developed based on iron and magnesium. Currently, the iron stent is tested in peripheral arteries. The absorbable magnesium stent (Biotronik, Berlin, Germany) was tested in peripheral arteries below the knee and meanwhile in the multicenter international PROGRESS-AMS (Clinical Performance and Angiographic Results of Coronary Stenting with Absorbable Metal Stents) study. The first magnesium stent implantation was performed on July 30, 2004 after extended experimental testing in Essen. The magnesium stent behaved like a bare-metal stent with low recoil of 5-7%. The stent struts were absorbed when tested with IVUS. Stent struts were not visible by fluoroscopy or computed tomography (CT) as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). That means, that the magnesium stent is invisible and therefore CT and MRI can be used for imaging of interventions. Only using micro-CT the stent struts were visible. The absorption process could be demonstrated in a patient 18 days after implantation due to suspected acute coronary syndrome, which was excluded. IVUS showed a nice open lumen. Stent struts were no longer visible, but replaced by tissue indicating the previous stent location. Coronary angiography after 4 months showed an ischemia-driven target lesion

  1. Prosecuting the Leaders: Promises, Politics and Practicalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Cryer

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Given recent developments in relation to the prosecution of international crimes,  it might be thought that one of the last bastions of sovereignty has been breached, and international criminal law has not only entrenched itself in international law. Indeed further to this, it has assumed a supranational position that stands entirely above States, promising justice for all and as a trump card over depredations committed in the name of State sovereignty. After all, Charles Taylor from Liberia is standing trial before the Special Court for Sierra Leone, Slobodan Milošević only escaped judgment by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former

  2. The role of entry into regional markets in fulfilling brand promise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the role of entry into regional markets in fulfilling brand promise. The study designs two questionnaires, one for measuring brand promise and the other for measuring export capabilities, in Likert scale and distributes it among 250 randomly selected producers who were involved in production and development of various products in city of Esfahan, Iran. Cronbach alphas were calculated for brand promise and export capabilities as 0.856 and 0.812, respectively. Using structural equation modeling, the study has detected seven factors including product development, public advocacy, strategic orientation, customer satisfaction, competitive pressures, organizational capabilities and distribution strategies.

  3. Results of Hg speciation testing on MCU strip effluent hold tank (SEHT) and decontaminated salt solution hold tank (DSSHT) materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-17

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with preparing and shipping samples for Hg speciation by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences, Inc. in Seattle, WA on behalf of the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Mercury Task Team.i,ii The tenth shipment of samples was designated to include Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT) and MCU Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT) materials from processing Salt Batch 7b. The MCU SEHT (MCU-15-722) and DSSHT (MCU-15-709) samples were pulled on June 15, 2015. All MCU samples were received at SRNL on June 16, 2015. The DSSHT sample was moved the same day to refrigeration, while the SEHT sample was placed in the Shielded Cells. On July 9, 2015 it was opened and an aliquot diluted 1:100 with Eurofins deionized water and a portion of the diluted sample transferred to a Teflon® bottle prior to moving it to refrigeration that same day. All samples were kept in the dark and refrigerated until final dilutions were prepared for shipment to Eurofins.

  4. Targeting aerobic glycolysis: 3-bromopyruvate as a promising anticancer drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardaci, Simone; Desideri, Enrico; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa

    2012-02-01

    The Warburg effect refers to the phenomenon whereby cancer cells avidly take up glucose and produce lactic acid under aerobic conditions. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor reliance on glycolysis remains not completely clear, its inhibition opens feasible therapeutic windows for cancer treatment. Indeed, several small molecules have emerged by combinatorial studies exhibiting promising anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo, as a single agent or in combination with other therapeutic modalities. Therefore, besides reviewing the alterations of glycolysis that occur with malignant transformation, this manuscript aims at recapitulating the most effective pharmacological therapeutics of its targeting. In particular, we describe the principal mechanisms of action and the main targets of 3-bromopyruvate, an alkylating agent with impressive antitumor effects in several models of animal tumors. Moreover, we discuss the chemo-potentiating strategies that would make unparalleled the putative therapeutic efficacy of its use in clinical settings.

  5. A Study on the Holding Capacity Safety Factors for Torpedo Anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís V. S. Sagrilo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of powerful numerical tools based on the finite-element method has been improving the prediction of the holding capacity of fixed anchors employed by the offshore oil industry. One of the main achievements of these tools is the reduction of the uncertainty related to the holding capacity calculation of these anchors. Therefore, it is also possible to reduce the values of the associated design safety factors, which have been calibrated relying on models with higher uncertainty, without impairing the original level of structural safety. This paper presents a study on the calibration of reliability-based safety factors for the design of torpedo anchors considering the statistical model uncertainty evaluated using results from experimental tests and their correspondent finite-element-based numerical predictions. Both working stress design (WSD and load and resistance factors design (LRFD design methodologies are investigated. Considering the WSD design methodology, the single safety is considerably lower than the value typically employed in the design of torpedo anchors. Moreover, a LRFD design code format for torpedo anchors is more appropriate since it leads to designs having less-scattered safety levels around the target value.

  6. MEMS reliability: The challenge and the promise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W.M.; Tanner, D.M.; Miller, S.L.; Peterson, K.A.

    1998-05-01

    MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) that think, sense, act and communicate will open up a broad new array of cost effective solutions only if they prove to be sufficiently reliable. A valid reliability assessment of MEMS has three prerequisites: (1) statistical significance; (2) a technique for accelerating fundamental failure mechanisms, and (3) valid physical models to allow prediction of failures during actual use. These already exist for the microelectronics portion of such integrated systems. The challenge lies in the less well understood micromachine portions and its synergistic effects with microelectronics. This paper presents a methodology addressing these prerequisites and a description of the underlying physics of reliability for micromachines.

  7. Scrapping Maroon history : Brazil's promise, Suriname's shame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Price

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Argues that all American nations except Suriname now provide legal protection for its indigenous/Maroon populations. Demonstrates that successive Suriname governments have been pursuing an increasingly militant and destructive policy against both Maroons and indigenous communities. Calls for rapid legislation, to bring Suriname's constitution and legal code in line with the various human rights and ecological treaties to which the country is party. Also reviews recent work on remnants of quilombos in Brazil, which often uses research on Caribbean Maroon communities as implicit or explicit models.

  8. Unhealthy behaviour is contagious: an invitation to exploit models for infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, D J; VAN Empelen, P; VAN Lenthe, F J; Richardus, J H; DE Vlas, S J

    2013-03-01

    We argue that the spread of unhealthy behaviour shows marked similarities with infectious diseases. It is therefore interesting and challenging to use infectious disease methodologies for studying the spread and control of unhealthy behaviour. This would be a great addition to current methods, because it allows taking into account the dynamics of individual interactions and the social environment at large. In particular, the application of individual-based modelling holds great promise to address some major public health questions.

  9. Multivariate meta-analysis: potential and promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dan; Riley, Richard; White, Ian R

    2011-09-10

    The multivariate random effects model is a generalization of the standard univariate model. Multivariate meta-analysis is becoming more commonly used and the techniques and related computer software, although continually under development, are now in place. In order to raise awareness of the multivariate methods, and discuss their advantages and disadvantages, we organized a one day 'Multivariate meta-analysis' event at the Royal Statistical Society. In addition to disseminating the most recent developments, we also received an abundance of comments, concerns, insights, critiques and encouragement. This article provides a balanced account of the day's discourse. By giving others the opportunity to respond to our assessment, we hope to ensure that the various view points and opinions are aired before multivariate meta-analysis simply becomes another widely used de facto method without any proper consideration of it by the medical statistics community. We describe the areas of application that multivariate meta-analysis has found, the methods available, the difficulties typically encountered and the arguments for and against the multivariate methods, using four representative but contrasting examples. We conclude that the multivariate methods can be useful, and in particular can provide estimates with better statistical properties, but also that these benefits come at the price of making more assumptions which do not result in better inference in every case. Although there is evidence that multivariate meta-analysis has considerable potential, it must be even more carefully applied than its univariate counterpart in practice. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Ten years of Dutch loss compensation regime for holding and financing companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobeldijk, A.C.P.; Braeken, B.

    2014-01-01

    Dutch holding and financing companies are subject to a specific tax loss compensation regime, the so-called holding company loss rule. In short, the purpose of this rule is the prevention of the compensation of losses resulting from holding and financing activities with profits from operational acti

  11. 26 CFR 53.4943-2 - Imposition of tax on excess business holdings of private foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... foundation described in section 4946(a)(1)(H), a questionnaire asking such persons to list all holdings... constructively held by F. The questionnaire asks each such person to list the holdings in such enterprises of any... his family, had an interest). The questionnaire asks that constructive holdings be listed only...

  12. 17 CFR 450.3 - Exemption for holdings subject to fiduciary standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY REGULATIONS UNDER TITLE II OF THE GOVERNMENT SECURITIES ACT OF 1986 CUSTODIAL HOLDINGS OF GOVERNMENT SECURITIES BY DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS § 450.3 Exemption for holdings subject to fiduciary... the Office of Thrift Supervision governing the holding of government securities in a...

  13. Measurement of Gas Hold-up Profiles in Stirred Tank Reactors by Gamma Ray Attenuation Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parasu Veera, U.; Patwardhan, A.W.; Joshi, J.B.

    2001-01-01

    Gas hold-up is one of the most important hydrodynamic characteristics that is needed for performance estimation, design and scale-up of reactors. The performance of large-scale reactors can be reliably evaluated by measuring the gas hold-up in such reactors. In the present work, local gas hold-up in

  14. 26 CFR 1.556-3 - Illustration of computation of undistributed foreign personal holding company income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Illustration of computation of undistributed foreign personal holding company income. 1.556-3 Section 1.556-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Holding Companies § 1.556-3 Illustration of computation of undistributed foreign personal holding...

  15. 21 CFR 111.465 - What requirements apply to holding reserve samples of dietary supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to holding reserve samples... Distributing § 111.465 What requirements apply to holding reserve samples of dietary supplements? (a) You must hold reserve samples of dietary supplements in a manner that protects against contamination...

  16. 12 CFR 225.122 - Bank holding company ownership of mortgage companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Regulations Financial Holding Companies Interpretations § 225.122 Bank holding company ownership of mortgage... Federal law or (2) as comprised within the concept of “such incidental powers as shall be necessary to... section 4 of the Act is to confine a bank holding company's activities to the management and control of...

  17. 78 FR 17155 - Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption; Correction AGENCY: Food and..., harvesting, packing, and holding of produce, meaning fruits and vegetables grown for human consumption. FDA..., Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption.'' The document published with several...

  18. 78 FR 24692 - Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption; Extension of Comment Periods..., Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption'' that appeared in the Federal Register of... Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption'' with a 120-day comment period...

  19. 26 CFR 301.6501(f)-1 - Personal holding company tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Personal holding company tax. 301.6501(f)-1... Collection § 301.6501(f)-1 Personal holding company tax. If a corporation which is a personal holding company... time during the last half of such taxable year, more than 50 percent in value of the...

  20. 76 FR 79190 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ..., California 94105-1579: 1. Private Bancorp of America, Inc., La Jolla, California; to become a bank holding... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C...

  1. 26 CFR 1.897-2 - United States real property holding corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false United States real property holding corporations... property holding corporations. (a) Purpose and scope. This section provides rules regarding the definition and consequences of U.S. real property holding corporation status. U.S. real property...

  2. 12 CFR 574.8 - Qualified stock issuances by undercapitalized savings associations or holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... stock by the acquiring savings and loan holding company. (5) The entire consideration for the stock issued is paid in cash by the acquiring savings and loan holding company. (6) At the time of the stock issuance, each savings association subsidiary of the acquiring savings and loan holding company (other...

  3. 46 CFR 154.1210 - Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing... Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1210 Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping. (a) Each hold space, void space, cofferdam,...

  4. China will Hold Seminar to Greet the World Standards Day

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Here comes 2004, the 35th session of the World Standards Day. The theme of this session is"Standards Connect the World", which is precisely a good turning point not only for the domestic economy to connect rails gradually with international, but also for national government to consummate and strengthen the standardization management system, to advance standardization work, and to raise the standardization level, after China's entrance into the World Trade Organization. Therefore, when the 35th session of the World Standards Day is arriving, sponsored by the SAC (Standardization Administration of China) and organized by CAS (China Association for Standardization), China will hold a seminar on October 14 in the Great Hall of the People.

  5. DOES UNCOVERED INTEREST RATE PARITY HOLD IN TURKEY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcan Karahan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the earlier empirical studies focusing on developed countries failed to give evidence in favor of the Uncovered Interest Rate Parity (UIP. After intensive financial liberalization processes and mostly preferred free exchange rate regimes, a new area of research starts to involve the investigation whether UIP holds for developing economies differently. Accordingly, we tested the UIP for Turkey’s monthly interest rate and exchange rate data between 2002 and 2011. We run conventional regressions in the form of Ordinary Least Squares (OLS and used a simple Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GARCH analysis. The empirical results of both methods do not support the validity of UIP for Turkey. Thus, together with most of the earlier empirical studies focusing on developed countries and detecting the invalidity of UIP, we can argue that the experience of Turkey and developed economies are not different.

  6. Experimental determination of bone cortex holding power of orthopedic screw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolliger Neto Raul

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrical specimens of bone measuring 15 mm in diameter were obtained from the lateral cortical layer of 10 pairs of femurs and tibias. A central hole 3.2 mm in diameter was drilled in each specimen. The hole was tapped, and a 4.5 mm cortical bone screw was inserted from the outer surface. The montage was submitted to push-out testing up to a complete strip of the bone threads. The cortical thickness and rupture load were measured, and the shear stress was calculated. The results were grouped according to the bone segment from which the specimen was obtained. The results showed that bone cortex screw holding power is dependent on the bone site. Additionally, the diaphyseal cortical bone tissue is both quantitatively and qualitatively more resistant to screw extraction than the metaphyseal tissue.

  7. Microbial oceanography: paradigms, processes and promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, David M

    2007-10-01

    Life on Earth most likely originated as microorganisms in the sea. Over the past approximately 3.5 billion years, microorganisms have shaped and defined Earth's biosphere and have created conditions that have allowed the evolution of macroorganisms and complex biological communities, including human societies. Recent advances in technology have highlighted the vast and previously unknown genetic information that is contained in extant marine microorganisms, from new protein families to novel metabolic processes. Now there is a unique opportunity, using recent advances in molecular ecology, metagenomics, remote sensing of microorganisms and ecological modelling, to achieve a comprehensive understanding of marine microorganisms and their susceptibility to environmental variability and climate change. Contemporary microbial oceanography is truly a sea of opportunity and excitement.

  8. In Vitro Gamete Differentiation from Pluripotent Stem Cells as a Promising Therapy for Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouka, Aurélie; Tachdjian, Gérard; Dupont, Joëlle; Drévillon, Loïc; Tosca, Lucie

    2016-04-01

    Generation of gametes derived in vitro from pluripotent stem cells holds promising prospects for future reproductive applications. Indeed, it provides information on molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying germ cell (GC) development and could offer a new potential treatment for infertility. Great progress has been made in derivation of gametes from embryonic stem cells, despite ethical issues. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) technology allows the reprogramming of a differentiated somatic cell, possibly emanating from the patient, into a pluripotent state. With the emergence of iPSCs, several studies created primordial GC stage to mature gamete-like cells in vitro in mice and humans. Recent findings in GC derivation suggest that in mice, functional gametes can be generated in vitro. This strengthens the idea that it might be possible in the future to generate functional human sperm and oocytes from pluripotent stem cells in culture.

  9. Gold nanoparticle layer: a promising platform for ultra-sensitive cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng; Yuan, Lin; Wang, Hongwei; Li, Dan; Chen, Hong

    2011-03-15

    Developing new technologies applicable to the sensitive detection of cancer in its early stages has always been attractive in diagnosis. A stable gold nanoparticle layer (GNPL)-modified high-binding ELISA plate was obtained via chemical plating and was proven to be more efficient in binding proteins while maintaining their activity. GNPL-based ELISA for the representative biomarker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) demonstrated that GNPL markedly amplified the ELISA signal and significantly improved the limit of detection (LOD). Antithrombin detection further confirms the effectiveness and universality of this GNPL-based platform. The entire assay procedure is simple and low in cost and does not require special facilities. All these virtues indicate that this GNPL platform holds great promise in clinical applications for the early diagnosis of cancer.

  10. COMMENTARY: THE PROMISE OF DIGITAL SCHOLARSHIP IN SLA RESEARCH AND LANGUAGE PEDAGOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Sieloff Magnan

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Although digital scholarship is now well established in academia, there is no consensus about how it should be evaluated for tenure and promotion. Is digital publication acceptable as a way to disseminate research? Is the digital medium appropriate for conducting research? To what degree does creating digital materials--from research instruments to pedagogical materials--advance knowledge and thereby constitute scholarship? Recent calls for open access to scholarship (i.e., free publication and dissemination through digital media (see Chanier, 2007 are stimulating a debate that hinges on just such questions. In that debate, departments holding traditional views hesitate to recognize digital media as scholarship while others hold that digital media promises to enrich scholarly exchanges. In 2001, the Modern Language Association entered the controversy by offering its Guidelines for Evaluating Work with Digital Media in the Modern Languages (MLA, 2001. These Guidelines are the work of the Committee on Information Technology, formerly the MLA Committee on Computers and Emerging Technologies in Teaching and Research. They aim to help departments achieve an informed perspective on this new scholarly medium. In this commentary, I offer additional thoughts to the debate by considering (a how digital media necessitates a redefinition of scholarship in second language acquisition (SLA research and language pedagogy, (b what criteria might be used in evaluating digital scholarship, and (c how digital media enhances and accelerates SLA scholarship beyond the possibilities of print publication.

  11. Extending emotion and decision-making beyond the laboratory: The promise of palliative care contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rebecca A; Padgett, Lynne; Ellis, Erin M

    2016-08-01

    Although laboratory-based research on emotion and decision-making holds the distinct advantage of rigorous experimental control conditions that allow causal inferences, the question of how findings in a laboratory generalize to real-world settings remains. Identifying ecologically valid, real-world opportunities to extend laboratory findings is a valuable means of advancing this field. Palliative care-or care intended to provide relief from serious illness and aging-related complications during treatment or at the end of life-provides a particularly rich opportunity for such work. Here, we present an overview of palliative care, summarize existing research on emotion and palliative care decision-making, highlight challenges associated with conducting such research, outline examples of collaborative projects leveraging palliative care as a context for generating fundamental knowledge about emotion and decision-making, and describe the resources and collaborations necessary to conduct this type of research. In sum, palliative care holds unique promise as an emotionally laden context in which to answer fundamental questions about emotion and decision-making that extends our theoretical understanding of the role of emotion in high-stakes decision-making while simultaneously generating knowledge that can improve palliative care implementation. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Social Pharmacy: Its Performance and Promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Among private Universities of Pharmacy in Japan, Kyoritsu University of Pharmacy was the first to introduce courses in social pharmacy in 1991. Social pharmacy is a discipline driven by social needs. By studying the relationship between pharmacy and society, particularly through case studies, the impact of drugs and changes in societal expectation of them, as well as through historical background studies and surveys of current trends, this discipline acts to determine the roles of pharmacists and pharmacies expected by society. Social pharmacy requires a basic knowledge of pharmaceutical science, but an understanding from economic viewpoints of the current systems and structures in which healthcare functions is important as well. Once these are understood, the goal is to identify social problems, and to create and apply models for their resolution which connect pharmacy and society. So far, social pharmacy has played an important role in training programs for community-based pharmacists essential for a hyper-aged society, for community pharmacies' health management programs aimed at promoting the health of residents, and educational programs for elementary and middle school children.

  13. Oncolytic virotherapy: the questions and the promise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian L

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Laure Aurelian Department of Pharmacology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Oncolytic virotherapy is a new strategy to reduce tumor burden through selective virus replication in rapidly proliferating cells. Oncolytic viruses are members of at least ten virus families, each with its advantages and disadvantages. Here, I briefly review the recent advances and key challenges, as exemplified by the best-studied platforms. Recent advances include preclinical proof of feasibility, clinical evidence of tolerability and effectiveness, and the development of new strategies to improve efficacy. These include engineered tumor selectivity and expression of antitumorigenic genes that could function independently of virus replication, identification of combinatorial therapies that accelerate intratumoral virus propagation, and modification of immune responses and vascular delivery for treatment of metastatic disease. Key challenges are to select “winners” from the distinct oncolytic platforms that can stimulate anti-cancer immunity without affecting virus replication and can lyse cancer stem cells, which are most likely responsible for tumor maintenance, aggressiveness, and recurrence. Preventing the emergence of resistant tumor cells during virotherapy through the activation of multiple death pathways, the development of a better understanding of the mechanisms of cancer stem-cell lysis, and the development of more meaningful preclinical animal models are additional challenges for the next-generation of engineered viruses. Keywords: tumor cell lysis, virus replication, tumor selectivity, programmed cell death, immune response

  14. 12 CFR 502.26 - How does OTS calculate the semi-annual assessment for savings and loan holding companies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-site supervision of a noncomplex, low risk savings and loan holding company structure. OTS will... company is the registered holding company at the highest level of ownership in a holding company structure, unless OTS designates another savings and loan holding company in the holding company structure. OTS...

  15. Financial claims and product market competition: An explanation for permitting banks to hold equity in firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao Shin-Heng

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines financial claims for lending if banks are permitted to hold equity in productive firms. We demonstrate that in situations where an oligopolistic product market has relatively high competition, e.g., quasi-competitive behavior, equity holding by banks is likely to do little damage. However, where the product market has relatively high collusion, e.g., corporative behavior, equity holding by banks are very unlikely to hold equity in firms. Our findings provide an alternative argument that lifting the Glass-Steagall Act restricting banks from holding equity in firms should give little cause for concern.

  16. A quantitative comparison of Calvin-Benson cycle models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Anne; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2011-12-01

    The Calvin-Benson cycle (CBC) provides the precursors for biomass synthesis necessary for plant growth. The dynamic behavior and yield of the CBC depend on the environmental conditions and regulation of the cellular state. Accurate quantitative models hold the promise of identifying the key determinants of the tightly regulated CBC function and their effects on the responses in future climates. We provide an integrative analysis of the largest compendium of existing models for photosynthetic processes. Based on the proposed ranking, our framework facilitates the discovery of best-performing models with regard to metabolomics data and of candidates for metabolic engineering.

  17. Maximum holding endurance time: Effects of load and load's center of gravity height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Manual holding task is a potential risk to the development of musculoskeletal injuries since it is prone to induce localized muscle fatigue. Maximum holding endurance time is a significant parameter for the design of manual holding task. This study aimed to examine the effects of load and load's COG height on maximum holding endurance time. Fifteen young and healthy males were recruited as participants. A factorial design was used to examine the effects of load and load's COG height on maximum holding endurance time. Four levels of load (15% , 30% , 45% and 60% of the participant's maximum holding capacity) and two levels of load's COG height in box (0 cm and 40 cm high from the handle position) were examined. Maximum holding endurance time decreased with increasing load and/or increasing load's COG height. The effect of load's COG height on maximum holding endurance time decreased with increasing load. Load, load's COG height, and the interaction of load and load's COG height significantly affected maximum holding endurance time. Practitioners should realize the effects of load, load's COG height, and the interaction of load and load's COG height on maximum holding endurance time when setting the working conditions of holding tasks.

  18. Development and the Temporality of its Exchange. How an Eastern Yucatec Village Made Cash Transfer Promises Accountable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Dapuez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how three temporalities of exchange amend the reception of cash transfers for development in a village in Eastern Yucatan, Mexico. Based on participant observation and in-depth interviews of recipients of cash transfers from Procampo and Oportunidades, this study reveals that ritual promising functions as a means of temporal regulation in most transactions of this sort, and that the recipients hold their government accountable for promises and commitments regarding cash transfers. In assessing the temporal ranges and effectiveness of these transfers by alluding to previous stipulations that sustain the exchange and make it understandable and bearable as a promise, the people in this village consider the objectives of the Procampo and Oportunidades programs to be implausible. Accountability with respect to the long-term effects of these transfers is not, however, based only on local impressions of a state that procrastinates in its “engagement” with peasants. As the timetable established for the accumulation of human capital also exceeds the time limits of responsible promising, these cash transfer programs cannot be evaluated in terms of their fulfilled or unfulfilled promises.

  19. Does EVA performance evaluation improve the value of cash holdings? Evidence from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongjian; Shen; Lei; Zou; Donghua; Chen

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of the economic value added(EVA)performance evaluation,issued in 2010 by the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council,on the value of the cash holdings of central state-owned enterprises(CSOEs).We find that EVA performance evaluation has some influence on the overinvestment of CSOE cash holdings and significantly increases the value of CSOE cash holdings compared with the cash holdings of local state-owned enterprises.The greater value of CSOE cash holdings derives from underinvestment modification and overinvestment restraint.The value of cash holdings increases more for companies with better accounting performance.Thus,the EVA performance evaluation policy increases CSOE efficiency.This study contributes to the emerging literature related to cash holdings and the economic consequences of the EVA performance evaluation policy.It expands the literature related to investor protection in countries experiencing economic transition.

  20. Does EVA performance evaluation improve the value of cash holdings? Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjian Shen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of the economic value added (EVA performance evaluation, issued in 2010 by the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council, on the value of the cash holdings of central state-owned enterprises (CSOEs. We find that EVA performance evaluation has some influence on the overinvestment of CSOE cash holdings and significantly increases the value of CSOE cash holdings compared with the cash holdings of local state-owned enterprises. The greater value of CSOE cash holdings derives from underinvestment modification and overinvestment restraint. The value of cash holdings increases more for companies with better accounting performance. Thus, the EVA performance evaluation policy increases CSOE efficiency. This study contributes to the emerging literature related to cash holdings and the economic consequences of the EVA performance evaluation policy. It expands the literature related to investor protection in countries experiencing economic transition.

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY OF FAMILY-OWNED AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS IN THE PODLASKIE VOIVODESHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Kołoszko-Chomentowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is environmental sustainability assessment of agricultural holdings in the Podlaskie voivodeship, participating in the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN in the years 2007–2012. The assessment was conducted based on agro-ecological indicators and environmental burden (material pressure. The analysis was conducted according to a classification into agricultural holding types: field crops, dairy cattle, and mixed holdings. The factor with the strongest impact on the agro-ecological sustainability of the studied agricultural holdings was the holding type. Field crop and mixed holdings achieved more favorable environmental sustainability indicators. Holdings specializing in dairy cattle breeding pose a threat to the natural environment due to their excessive number of livestock.

  2. Catastrophe models and the expansion method: A review of issues and an application to the econometric modeling of economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Casetti

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Many negative reactions to Catastrophe Theory have been triggered by overly simplistic applications unintended and unsuited for statistical-econometric estimation, inference, and testing. In this paper it is argued that stochastic catastrophe models constructed using the Expansion Method hold the most promise to widen the acceptance of Catastrophe Theory by analytically oriented scholars in the social sciences and elsewhere. The paper presents a typology of catastrophe models, and demonstrates the construction and estimation of an econometric expanded cusp catastrophe model of economic growth.

  3. SU-E-J-62: Breath Hold for Left-Sided Breast Cancer: Visually Monitored Deep Inspiration Breath Hold Amplitude Evaluated Using Real-Time Position Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, L; Quirk, S; Smith, WL [The University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada); Yeung, R; Phan, T [The University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada); Hudson, A [Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We used Real-Time Position Management (RPM) to evaluate breath hold amplitude and variability when gating with a visually monitored deep inspiration breath hold technique (VM-DIBH) with retrospective cine image chest wall position verification. Methods: Ten patients with left-sided breast cancer were treated using VM-DIBH. Respiratory motion was passively collected once weekly using RPM with the marker block positioned at the xiphoid process. Cine images on the tangent medial field were acquired on fractions with RPM monitoring for retrospective verification of chest wall position during breath hold. The amplitude and duration of all breath holds on which treatment beams were delivered were extracted from the RPM traces. Breath hold position coverage was evaluated for symmetric RPM gating windows from ± 1 to 5 mm centered on the average breath hold amplitude of the first measured fraction as a baseline. Results: The average (range) breath hold amplitude and duration was 18 mm (3–36 mm) and 19 s (7–34 s). The average (range) of amplitude standard deviation per patient over all breath holds was 2.7 mm (1.2–5.7 mm). With the largest allowable RPM gating window (± 5 mm), 4 of 10 VM-DIBH patients would have had ≥ 10% of their breath hold positions excluded by RPM. Cine verification of the chest wall position during the medial tangent field showed that the chest wall was greater than 5 mm from the baseline in only 1 out of 4 excluded patients. Cine images verify the chest wall/breast position only, whether this variation is acceptable in terms of heart sparing is a subject of future investigation. Conclusion: VM-DIBH allows for greater breath hold amplitude variability than using a 5 mm gating window with RPM, while maintaining chest wall positioning accuracy within 5 mm for the majority of patients.

  4. Targeting the MAPK Signaling Pathway in Cancer: Promising Preclinical Activity with the Novel Selective ERK1/2 Inhibitor BVD-523 (ulixertinib).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germann, Ursula A; Furey, Brinley F; Markland, William; Hoover, Russell R; Aronov, Alex M; Roix, Jeffrey J; Hale, Micheal; Boucher, Diane M; Sorrell, David A; Martinez-Botella, Gabriel; Fitzgibbon, Matthew; Shapiro, Paul; Wick, Michael J; Samadani, Ramin; Meshaw, Kathryn; Groover, Anna; DeCrescenzo, Gary; Namchuk, Mark; Emery, Caroline M; Saha, Saurabh; Welsch, Dean J

    2017-09-22

    Aberrant activation of signaling through the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK (MAPK) pathway is implicated in numerous cancers, making it an attractive therapeutic target. Although BRAF- and MEK-targeted combination therapy has demonstrated significant benefit beyond single-agent options, the majority of patients develop resistance and disease progression after approximately 12 months. Reactivation of ERK signaling is a common driver of resistance in this setting. Here we report the discovery of BVD-523 (ulixertinib), a novel, reversible, ATP-competitive ERK1/2 inhibitor with high potency and ERK1/2 selectivity. In vitro BVD-523 treatment resulted in reduced proliferation and enhanced caspase activity in sensitive cells. Interestingly, BVD-523 inhibited phosphorylation of target substrates despite increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2. In in vivo xenograft studies, BVD-523 showed dose-dependent growth inhibition and tumor regression. BVD-523 yielded synergistic anti-proliferative effects in a BRAFV600E mutant melanoma cell line xenograft model when used in combination with BRAF inhibition. Antitumor activity was also demonstrated in in vitro and in vivo models of acquired resistance to single-agent and combination BRAF/MEK targeted therapy. Based on these promising results, these studies demonstrate BVD-523 holds promise as a treatment for ERK-dependent cancers, including those whose tumors have acquired resistance to other treatments targeting upstream nodes of the MAPK pathway. Assessment of BVD-523 in clinical trials is underway (NCT01781429, NCT02296242 and NCT02608229). Copyright ©2017, American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Influence of promised rewards on conflict resolution in healthy participants and patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Duprez, Joan; Naudet, Florian; Argaud, Soizic; Dondaine, Thibaut; Drapier, Sophie; Robert, Gabriel Hadrien; Drapier, Dominique; Vérin, Marc; Sauleau, Paul

    2016-08-15

    The influence of promised rewards on conflict resolution processes is not clearly defined in the literature, and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Some studies have shown no effect of reward, while others have demonstrated a beneficial influence. In addition, although the basal ganglia are known to play a critical role in the association between motivation and cognition, the influence of promised rewards on conflict resolution processes in Parkinson's disease (PD) has received little attention. In this context, we assessed the influence of promised rewards on both impulse activation and suppression in 36 healthy participants and 36 patients with PD, using a rewarded Simon task. Analysis of performances revealed that promised rewards worsened the overall congruence effect, but only in healthy participants. Although the incentive context did not modulate the congruence effect in patients, by using the activation-suppression model, we were able to show that promised rewards did influence impulse suppression in patients-but not in healthy participants. Suppressing inappropriate response activation in an incentive context appears to be harder in medically treated Parkinson's disease. This indicates that incentive motivation can modulate at least one cognitive process involved in cognitive action control in patients with medically treated PD. The activation-suppression model provides essential additional information concerning the influence of promised rewards on conflict resolution processes in a pathological population.

  6. The Sharing Experimental Animal Resources, Coordinating Holdings (SEARCH) Framework: Encouraging Reduction, Replacement, and Refinement in Animal Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Bethny; Blyth, Karen; Carter, Phil; Chelala, Claude; Jones, Louise; Holen, Ingunn; Speirs, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    While significant medical breakthroughs have been achieved through using animal models, our experience shows that often there is surplus material remaining that is frequently never revisited but could be put to good use by other scientists. Recognising that most scientists are willing to share this material on a collaborative basis, it makes economic, ethical, and academic sense to explore the option to utilise this precious resource before generating new/additional animal models and associated samples. To bring together those requiring animal tissue and those holding this type of archival material, we have devised a framework called Sharing Experimental Animal Resources, Coordinating Holdings (SEARCH) with the aim of making remaining material derived from animal studies in biomedical research more visible and accessible to the scientific community. We encourage journals, funding bodies, and scientists to unite in promoting a new way of approaching animal research by adopting the SEARCH framework. PMID:28081116

  7. Dual job holding practitioners in Bangladesh: an exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Reinhold; Anwar, Raqibul; Begum, Tahmina; Killingsworth, James R; Normand, Charles

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses the system of financial and non-financial incentives underlying job preferences of doctors in Bangladesh who work both in government health services and in private practice. The study is based on a survey of 100 government-employed doctors with private practice, across different levels of care and geographical areas. In-depth interviews were carried out in a sub-sample of 28 respondents. The study explores the beliefs and attitudes towards the arrangements of joint private/public practice, establishes profiles of fee levels and earnings and examines the options to change the incentive system in a way that ensures an increased involvement of dual job holding practitioners in the priority areas of care. Consultation fees were Tk120 on average (range Tk20-300) and found to be correlated with the qualification of the practice owner and the type of service offered. A majority of the respondents reported at least to double their government income by engaging in private practice. Significant predictors of total income included the number of patients seen in private practice (p=0.000), employment in a secondary or tertiary care facility (p=0.001) and ownership of premises for private practice (p=0.033). Age was found to be marginally significant (p=0.084). No association was found between total income and specialisation, private practice costs, level of government salary or a degree from abroad. The data suggest that doctors have adopted individual strategies to accommodate the advantages of both government employment and private practice in their career development, thus maximising benefit from the incentives provided to them e.g. status of a government job, and minimising opportunity costs of economic losses e.g. lower salaries. Commitment to government services was found to be greater among doctors in primary health care who reported they would give up private practice if paid a higher salary. Among doctors in secondary and tertiary care, the

  8. Comparative swimming and station-holding ability of the threatened Rocky Mountain Sculpin (Cottus sp.) from four hydrologically distinct rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veillard, Marie F; Ruppert, Jonathan L W; Tierney, Keith; Watkinson, Douglas A; Poesch, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Hydrologic alterations, such as dams, culverts or diversions, can introduce new selection pressures on freshwater fishes, where they are required to adapt to novel environmental conditions. Our study investigated how species adapt to natural and altered stream flow, where we use the threatened Rocky Mountain Sculpin (Cottus sp.) as a model organism. We compared the swimming and station-holding performance of Rocky Mountain Sculpin from four different hydrologic regimes in Alberta and British Columbia, including the North Milk River, a system that experiences increased flows from a large-scale diversion. We measured the slip (Uslip) and failure (Uburst) velocities over three constant acceleration test trials. Uslip was defined as the point at which individuals required the addition of bursting or swimming to maintain position. Uburst was defined as the point at which individuals were unable to hold position in the swimming chamber through swimming, bursting or holding techniques without fully or partially resting on the electrified back plate. We found individuals from the Flathead River in British Columbia (with the highest natural flow) failed at significantly higher Uburst velocities than fish from the southern Albertan populations. However, there was no relationship between peak hydrologic flow from the natal river and Uburst or Uslip. Further, Uburst velocities decreased from 51.8 cm s(-1) (7.2 BL s(-1)) to 45.6 cm s(-1) (6.3 BL s(-1)) by the third consecutive test suggesting the use of anaerobic metabolism. Uslip was not different between trials suggesting the use of aerobic metabolism in station-holding behaviours (Uslip). Moreover, we found no significant differences in individuals from the altered North Milk River system. Finally, individual caudal morphological characteristics were related to both slip and failure velocities. Our study contributes to the conservation of Rocky Mountain Sculpin by providing the first documentation of swimming and station-holding

  9. Three-dimensional imaging of hold baggage for airport security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokytha, S.; Speller, R.; Robson, S.

    2014-06-01

    This study describes a cost-effective check-in baggage screening system, based on "on-belt tomosynthesis" (ObT) and close-range photogrammetry, that is designed to address the limitations of the most common system used, conventional projection radiography. The latter's limitations can lead to loss of information and an increase in baggage handling time, as baggage is manually searched or screened with more advanced systems. This project proposes a system that overcomes such limitations creating a cost-effective automated pseudo-3D imaging system, by combining x-ray and optical imaging to form digital tomograms. Tomographic reconstruction requires a knowledge of the change in geometry between multiple x-ray views of a common object. This is uniquely achieved using a close range photogrammetric system based on a small network of web-cameras. This paper presents the recent developments of the ObT system and describes recent findings of the photogrammetric system implementation. Based on these positive results, future work on the advancement of the ObT system as a cost-effective pseudo-3D imaging of hold baggage for airport security is proposed.

  10. Role of cerebral blood flow in extreme breath holding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bain Anthony R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of cerebral blood flow (CBF on a maximal breath-hold (BH in ultra-elite divers was examined. Divers (n = 7 performed one control BH, and one BH following oral administration of the non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (1.2 mg/kg. Arterial blood gases and CBF were measured prior to (baseline, and at BH termination. Compared to control, indomethacin reduced baseline CBF and cerebral delivery of oxygen (CDO2 by about 26% (p < 0.01. Indomethacin reduced maximal BH time from 339 ± 51 to 319 ± 57 seconds (p = 0.04. In both conditions, the CDO2 remained unchanged from baseline to the termination of apnea. At BH termination, arterial oxygen tension was higher following oral administration of indomethacin compared to control (4.05 ± 0.45 vs. 3.44 ± 0.32 kPa. The absolute increase in CBF from baseline to the termination of apnea was lower with indomethacin (p = 0.01. These findings indicate that the impact of CBF on maximal BH time is likely attributable to its influence on cerebral H+ washout, and therefore central chemoreceptive drive to breathe, rather than to CDO2.

  11. Holding-side influences on infant's view of mother's face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Angélique W; van Rijswijk, Mariëlle; Omtzigt, David

    2011-11-01

    Recently we found that adult children whose mothers had had a right-arm preference for holding infants have a reduced left bias for recognising faces, suggesting that they are less well right-hemisphere lateralised for perceiving faces. One possible explanation of this finding is that early visual exposure to faces is suboptimal for right-held infants. To test this idea, we asked mothers to pick up a doll with an inbuilt camera in its face and to start bottle-feeding it. The results showed that less was visible of the face of mothers who held the doll on their right arm in comparison to those who held the doll on their left arm: From the right arm, the mother's left half of the face was less visible when the mothers were looking up and their right half of the face was less visible when they were looking at the doll. These results suggest that right-held infants receive suboptimal information from faces. Because early face exposure is important for face-processing development, the suboptimal face exposure probably experienced by right-held infants may have consequences for their ability to recognise faces and facial emotion later in life.

  12. Life on hold: the experience of living with neuromyelitis optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutch, Kerry; Methley, Abigail; Moore, Phil; Jacob, Anu

    2014-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a rare autoimmune condition characterised by acute relapses of optic neuritis and extensive transverse myelitis. The aim of this qualitative study was to develop an improved understanding of the experiences of people living with NMO. Fifteen participants completed a semi-structured interview and data were interpreted using a constant comparative method. Participants were recruited from the Northern UK NMO Service. Five major themes were identified: diagnosis and treatment, symptoms, adjustment, identity and support. Results suggest NMO is a difficult condition to live with due to the unpredictability of relapses and accrued disability of visual or spinal symptoms occurring with each relapse. Poor vision, reduced mobility, bladder dysfunction and pain affected participants' independence and experience of living with NMO. Participants reported that during relapse and recovery they would "put their life on hold". They identified the importance of periods of stability to enable them to adjust to their condition and therefore aim for "normality" of life that they believed was comparable to their peers. Implications for Rehabilitation Disability due to NMO has a major impact on an individual's life, abilities and identity. Timely treatment of relapse is essential to reduce or prevent disability. Health care professionals need to coordinate care locally and nationally. Multi-disciplinary work is vital to promote adjustment, coping strategies and support for people living with NMO.

  13. Normative perils and promises of food health branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Thomas Boysen

    The paper identifies and describes normative perils and promises that may crop up in relation to branding of foods on the value og health......The paper identifies and describes normative perils and promises that may crop up in relation to branding of foods on the value og health...

  14. Nanocellular polymer foams as promising high performance thermal insulation materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, S.; Duvigneau, J.; Vancso, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Low density, nanocellular polymer nanocomposite foams are considered as a promising new class of materials with many promising applications, for example to passively enhance the energy efficiency of buildings. This paper discusses recent developments in this field of polymer materials science. Parti

  15. Effects of biochar on water inifltration and water holding capacity of loessial soil%生物炭对黄绵土水分入渗和持水性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    解倩; 王丽梅; 齐瑞鹏; 王彤彤; 郑纪勇

    2016-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope Biochar is a newly constructed scientific term which is defined as ‘‘a carbon(C)-rich and non-pollution product when biomass such as wood, manure or leaves is heated in a closed container with little or unavailable air’’. It has the properties of high internal surface area, microporosity, non-biological and biological stability. It has been widely proposed as a promising novel alternative of soil amendment to improve soil physical and chemical properties, to reduce the biological effectiveness of soil pollutant, as well as to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. However, to date, the effects of biochar addition on soil hydraulic properties, and the inlfuencing mechanism of biochar addition on water retention and holding capacity are still unclear.Materials and methods Effects of biochar with two sizes (1—2 mm and≤0.25 mm) and 4 doses (10 g∙kg−1, 50 g∙kg−1, 100 g∙kg−1 and 150 g∙kg−1) on wetting front, cumulative infiltration and retention curves of loessial soil were explored through simulated experiments in laboratory. The loessial soil was collected from the soil surface (0—20 cm) of a field without tillage in Ansai Ecological Experimental Station, Shaanxi Province innorthwest China. Experiment with biochar was charcoal-derived biochar and its carbon mass fraction was 85%. Results The results showed that (1) the infiltration capacity was obviously decreased and water holding capacity was significantly increased compared to the control due to the biochar addition in loessial soil. When the particle size was the same and within a certain infiltration time period, in addition to the≤0.25 mm treatment and the cumulative infiltration curve almost superposition under the 10 g∙kg−1, 50 g∙kg−1 and 100 g∙kg−1 treatments, cumulative infiltration and wetting front moving rate tended to decrease with the increasing content of biochar, while water holding capacity tended to

  16. SU-E-J-223: A BOLD Contrast Imaging Sequence to Evaluate Oxygenation Changes Due to Breath Holding for Breast Radiotherapy: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, J; Chang, Z; Cai, J; Palta, M; Horton, J; Yin, F; Blitzblau, R [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a robust MRI sequence to measure BOLD breath hold induced contrast in context of breast radiotherapy. Methods: Two sequences were selected from prior studies as candidates to measure BOLD contrast attributable to breath holding within the breast: (1) T2* based Gradient Echo EPI (TR/TE = 500/41ms, flip angle = 60°), and (2) T2 based Single Shot Fast Spin Echo (SSFSE) (TR/TE = 3000/60ms). We enrolled ten women post-lumpectomy for breast cancer who were undergoing treatment planning for whole breast radiotherapy. Each session utilized a 1.5T GE MRI and 4 channel breast coil with the subject immobilized prone on a custom board. For each sequence, 1–3 planes of the lumpectomy breast were imaged continuously during a background measurement (1min) and intermittent breath holds (20–40s per breath hold, 3–5 holds per sequence). BOLD contrast was quantified as correlation of changes in per-pixel intensity with the breath hold schedule convolved with a hemodynamic response function. Subtle motion was corrected using a deformable registration algorithm. Correlation with breath-holding was considered significant if p<0.001. Results: The percentage of the breast ROI with positive BOLD contrast measured by the two sequences were in agreement with a correlation coefficient of R=0.72 (p=0.02). While both sequences demonstrated areas with strong BOLD response, the response was more systematic throughout the breast for the SSFSE (T2) sequence (% breast with response in the same direction: 51.2%±0.7% for T2* vs. 68.1%±16% for T2). In addition, the T2 sequence was less prone to magnetic susceptibility artifacts, especially in presence of seroma, and provided a more robust image with little distortion or artifacts. Conclusion: A T2 SSFSE sequence shows promise for measuring BOLD contrast in the context of breast radiotherapy utilizing a breath hold technique. Further study in a larger patient cohort is warranted to better refine this novel technique.

  17. Innovation behaviour and the use of research and extension services in small-scale agricultural holdings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmery Ramos-Sandoval

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Farmers’ views on research and extension services (RES included in the Agricultural Knowledge and Innovation System are rarely investigated. This study analyses the relationship between key factors of innovation behaviour (market orientation, learning orientation, and innovation attitude and the use of RES through structural equation modelling, focusing on small-scale agricultural holdings. Market orientation and learning orientation appear to be positively correlated, confirming that synergies between both factors provide a background for innovativeness. Learning orientation and farm-holders’ education level, improve knowledge exchange and make the agriculture innovation process more inclusive. However, farmers’ innovation attitude is not clearly correlated with the use of RES. Motivations about “the will to do innovations” are represented by a construct that does not appear to have a determinant effect as a mediator in farmer’s decisions about using RES.

  18. The Determinants of Corporate Cash Holdings- An Empirical study from UK Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Cash holding is most important financial decision in the company management strategy. In this dissertation, the determinants of corporate cash holdings in UK non-financial publicly traded firms over the period from 2003 to 2012 are investigated. Our study finds that growth opportunities and cash flow and cash flow variability are positively associated with the level of corporate cash holdings, while firm size, leverage, net working capital, bank debt and dividend payment have negative impact ...

  19. Adults' preferences for side-of-hold as portrayed in paintings of the Madonna and Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lauren Julius; Cardénas, Rodrigo Andrés; Spradlin, Michael P; Almerigi, Jason B

    2009-11-01

    Most women hold infants on their left side. They do the same when depicted in works of art. Does the latter accurately reflect the real-life bias, the artist's own aesthetic preference, or something else, such as the artist's handedness, sex, direction of attentional bias, or even the artist's own side-preference for holding infants? As a first step to finding out, we showed 272 young adults (85 men, 187 women) 20 pairs of paintings of the Madonna and Child, the original on one side, its mirror-reversal on the other, and asked which one they preferred. Along with assessing the effects of the variables already mentioned, we used equal numbers of paintings originally depicting left-holds and right-holds to control for the possible effects of differences between the paintings other than side-of-hold itself, such as in their colour scheme, background details, and the type of hold shown (e.g., cradle vs seated on lap). Each pair was presented twice, once with the original on the left, once on the right, for a total of 40 trials. Women and men alike more often preferred left-hold images, but the difference was significant only for women. Preferences were also stronger for original left-hold paintings than for the mirror-reversals of original right-hold paintings, suggesting that the originals differed in ways affecting preference beyond those we tried to control. Overall preference for left-hold images was enhanced when the images were on the viewer's left. As for the other variables, they were for the most part unrelated to preferences. The reasons for the preference thus remain unclear but it is evidently affected by multiple variables, with at least some clearly different from those affecting side-of-hold preferences of real mothers holding real infants.

  20. Stock Liquidity and Corporate Cash Holdings: Feedback and the Cash as Ammunition Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Nyborg, Kjell G.; Wang, Zexi

    2013-01-01

    The paper contributes to the literature on corporate cash holdings by showing that there is a financial markets channel that affects corporations’ cash holdings. Leaning on the literature on stock price feedback to firm fundamentals, we advance the hypothesis that firms with more liquid stocks hold more cash, ceteris paribus, as ammunition to defend against negative cascades or stimulate positive ones. This contrasts with an alternative view that firms with more liquid stocks are less financi...

  1. Periodic Review Probabilistic Multi-Item Inventory System with Zero Lead Time under Constraint and Varying Holding Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglaa H. El-Sodany

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study treats the probabilistic safety stock n-items inventory system having varying holding cost and zero lead-time subject to linear constraint. Approach: The expected total cost is composed of three components: the average purchase cost; the expected order cost and the expected holding cost. Results: The policy variables for this model are the number of periods N*r and the optimal maximum inventory level Q*mr and the minimum expected total cost. Conclusion/Recommendations: We can obtain the optimal values of these policy variables by using the geometric programming approach. A special case is deduced and an illustrative numerical example is added.

  2. Establishing an ISO 10001-based promise in inpatients care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Ashiqur Rahman; Karapetrovic, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore ISO 10001:2007 in planning, designing and developing a customer satisfaction promise (CSP) intended for inpatients care. Through meetings and interviews with research participants, who included a program manager, unit managers and registered nurses, information about potential promises and their implementation was obtained and analyzed. A number of promises were drafted and one was finally selected to be developed as a CSP. Applying the standard required adaptation and novel interpretation. Additionally, ISO 10002:2004 (Clause 7) was used to design the feedback handling activities. A promise initially chosen for development turned out to be difficult to implement, experience that helped in selecting and developing the final promise. Research participants found the ISO 10001-based method useful and comprehensible. This paper presents a specific health care example of how to adapt a standard's guideline in establishing customer promises. The authors show how a promise can be used in alleviating an existing issue (i.e. communication between carers and patients). The learning can be beneficial in various health care settings. To the knowledge, this paper shows the first example of applying ISO 10001:2007 in a health care case. A few activities suggested by the standard are further detailed, and a new activity is introduced. The integrated use of ISO 10001:2007 and 10002:2004 is presented and how one can be "augmented" by the other is demonstrated.

  3. Quantifying the risk of nosocomial infection within Ebola Holding Units: a retrospective cohort study of negative patients discharged from five Ebola Holding Units in Western Area, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkell, Paul; Youkee, Daniel; Brown, Colin S; Kamara, Abdul; Kamara, Thaim B; Johnson, Oliver; Lado, Marta; George, Viginia; Koroma, Fatmata; King, Matilda B; Parker, Benson E; Baker, Peter

    2017-01-01

    A central pillar in the response to the 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in Sierra Leone was the role of Ebola Holding Units (EHUs). These units isolated patients meeting a suspect case definition, tested them for EVD, initiated appropriate early treatment and discharged negative patients to onward inpatient care or home. Positive patients were referred to Ebola Treatment Centres. We aimed to estimate the risk of nosocomial transmission within these EHUs. We followed up a cohort of 543 patients discharged with a negative EVD test from five EHUs in the Western Area, Sierra Leone, and examined all line-listed subsequent EVD tests from any facility in the Western Area to see whether the patient was retested within 30 days, matching by name, age and address. We defined possible readmissions as having the same name and age but uncertain address, and confirmed readmissions where name, age and address matched. We found a positive readmission rate of 3.3% (18 cases), which included 1.5% confirmed readmissions (8 cases) and 1.8% possible readmissions (10 cases). This is lower than rates previously reported. We cannot ascertain whether EVD was acquired within the EHUs or from re-exposure in the community. No demographic or clinical variables were identified as risk factors for positive readmission, likely due to our small sample size. These findings support the EHU model as a safe method for isolation of suspect EVD patients and their role in limiting the spread of EVD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Novel hold-release functionality in a P300 brain-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide-Aguirre, R. E.; Huggins, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Assistive technology control interface theory describes interface activation and interface deactivation as distinct properties of any control interface. Separating control of activation and deactivation allows precise timing of the duration of the activation. Objective. We propose a novel P300 brain-computer interface (BCI) functionality with separate control of the initial activation and the deactivation (hold-release) of a selection. Approach. Using two different layouts and off-line analysis, we tested the accuracy with which subjects could (1) hold their selection and (2) quickly change between selections. Main results. Mean accuracy across all subjects for the hold-release algorithm was 85% with one hold-release classification and 100% with two hold-release classifications. Using a layout designed to lower perceptual errors, accuracy increased to a mean of 90% and the time subjects could hold a selection was 40% longer than with the standard layout. Hold-release functionality provides improved response time (6-16 times faster) over the initial P300 BCI selection by allowing the BCI to make hold-release decisions from very few flashes instead of after multiple sequences of flashes. Significance. For the BCI user, hold-release functionality allows for faster, more continuous control with a P300 BCI, creating new options for BCI applications.

  5. Qualitative assessment of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography using breath-hold and non-breath-hold techniques in the portal venous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Eun-Hoe; Kim, Sun-Ju; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Kim, Kwang-Choul; Chung, Woon-Kwan

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the image quality in delineation of the portal venous systems with two different methods, breath-hold and non-breath-hold by using the 3D FLASH sequence. We used a 1.5 T system to obtain magnetic resonance(MR)images. Arterial and portal phase 3D FLASH images were obtained with breath-hold after a bolus injection of GD-DOTA. The detection of PVS on the MR angiograms was classified into three grades. First, the angiograms of the breath-hold method showed well the portal vein, the splenic vein and the superior mesenteric vein systems in 13 of 15 patients (86%) and the inferior mesenteric vein system in 6 of 15 patients (40%), Second, MR angiograms of the non-breath-hold method demonstrated the PVS and the SMV in 12 of 15 patients (80%) and the IMV in 5 of 15 patients (33%). Our study showed contrast-enhanced 3D FLASH MR angiography, together with the breath-hold technique, may provide reliable and accurate information on the portal venous system.

  6. Understanding the promises and premises of online health platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Van Dijck

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the claims and complexities involved in the platform-based economics of health and fitness apps. We examine a double-edged logic inscribed in these platforms, promising to offer personal solutions to medical problems while also contributing to the public good. On the one hand, online platforms serve as personalized data-driven services to their customers. On the other hand, they allegedly serve public interests, such as medical research or health education. In doing so, many apps employ a diffuse discourse, hinging on terms like “sharing,” “open,” and “reuse” when they talk about data extraction and distribution. The analytical approach we adopt in this article is situated at the nexus of science and technology studies, political economy, and the sociology of health and illness. The analysis concentrates on two aspects: datafication (the use and reuse of data and commodification (a platform’s deployment of governance and business models. We apply these analytical categories to three specific platforms: 23andMe, PatientsLikeMe, and Parkinson mPower. The last section will connect these individual examples to the wider implications of health apps’ data flows, governance policies, and business models. Regulatory bodies commonly focus on the (medical safety and security of apps, but pay scarce attention to health apps’ techno-economic governance. Who owns user-generated health data and who gets to benefit? We argue that it is important to reflect on the societal implications of health data markets. Governments have the duty to provide conceptual clarity in the grand narrative of transforming health care and health research.

  7. Understanding the promises and premises of online health platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Van Dijck

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the claims and complexities involved in the platform-based economics of health and fitness apps. We examine a double-edged logic inscribed in these platforms, promising to offer personal solutions to medical problems while also contributing to the public good. On the one hand, online platforms serve as personalized data-driven services to their customers. On the other hand, they allegedly serve public interests, such as medical research or health education. In doing so, many apps employ a diffuse discourse, hinging on terms like “sharing,” “open,” and “reuse” when they talk about data extraction and distribution. The analytical approach we adopt in this article is situated at the nexus of science and technology studies, political economy, and the sociology of health and illness. The analysis concentrates on two aspects: datafication (the use and reuse of data and commodification (a platform’s deployment of governance and business models. We apply these analytical categories to three specific platforms: 23andMe, PatientsLikeMe, and Parkinson mPower. The last section will connect these individual examples to the wider implications of health apps’ data flows, governance policies, and business models. Regulatory bodies commonly focus on the (medical safety and security of apps, but pay scarce attention to health apps’ techno-economic governance. Who owns user-generated health data and who gets to benefit? We argue that it is important to reflect on the societal implications of health data markets. Governments have the duty to provide conceptual clarity in the grand narrative of transforming health care and health research.

  8. Multi-slice CT for visualization of acute pulmonary embolism: single breath-hold subtraction technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildberger, J.E.; Mahnken, A.H.; Spuentrup, E.; Guenther, R.W. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. of Technology, Aachen (Germany); Klotz, E.; Ditt, H. [Siemens Medical Solutions, Computed Tomography, Forchheim (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: the purpose of our preliminary animal study was to evaluate the feasibility of a new subtraction technique for visualization of perfusion defects within the lung parenchyma in segmental and subsegmental pulmonary embolism (PE). Materials and methods: in three healthy pigs, PE were artificially induced by fresh human clot material. Within a single breath-hold, CT angiography (CTA) was performed on a 16-slice multi-slice CT scanner (SOMATOM Sensation 16; Siemens, Forchheim, Germany) before and after intravenous application of 80 mL of contrast-medium, followed by a saline chaser. Scan parameters were 120 kV and 100 mAs{sub eff.}, using a collimation of 16 x 1.5 mm and a table speed/rot. of 36 mm (pitch: 1.5; rotation time: 0.5 s). A new 3D subtraction technique was developed, which is based on automated segmentation, non-linear spatial filtering and non-rigid registration. Data were analysed using a color-encoded ''compound view'' of parenchymal enhancement and CTA information displayed in axial, coronal and sagittal orientation. Results: subtraction was technically feasible in all three data sets. The mean scan time for each series was 4.7 s, interscan delay was 14.7 s, respectively. Therefore, an average breath-hold of approximately 24 s was required for the overall scanning procedure. Downstream of occluded segmental and subsegmental arteries, perfusion defects were clearly assessable, showing lower or missing enhancement compared to normally perfused lung parenchyma. In all pigs, additional peripheral areas with triangular shaped perfusion defects were delineated, considered typical for PE. Conclusions: our initial results from the animal model studied slow that perfusion imaging of PE is feasible within a single breath-hold. It allows a comprehensive assessment of perfusion deficits as the direct proof of a pulmonary embolus, can be combined with an indirect visual quantification of the density changes in the adjacent lung tissue

  9. Promise Zone Round 2 Applicant Geography and Goal Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This dataset includes Promise Zone initiative round II applicant project data from 111 urban, rural, and tribal communities who consented to share their application...

  10. Lactose crystallization: current issues and promising Engineering solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Rjabova, A.; Kirsanov, V.; Strizhko, M.; Bredikhin, A.; Semipyatnyi, V.; Chervetsov, V.; Galstyan, A.

    2013-01-01

    Current technological aspects of lactose crystallization are considered. A promising lactose crystallization method involving simulation seed crystals is reported. Advanced engineering solutions for continuous crystallization using spraying in vacuo and scraped-surface heat exchangers are presented.

  11. Protein Replacement Therapy Shows Promise in Treating Rare Skin Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1999 Spotlight on Research 2014 February 2014 (historical) Protein Replacement Therapy Shows Promise in Treating Rare Skin Disorder Replacing a protein that is crucial to ensuring that the skin’s ...

  12. Genital Herpes Vaccine Shows Promise in Animal Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 163137.html Genital Herpes Vaccine Shows Promise in Animal Trials Two-pronged approach tested on lab monkeys, guinea ... vaccines have not shown very robust protection in animal and human trials. Friedman and his colleagues decided that an effective ...

  13. Web-Based Help for Insomnia Shows Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162290.html Web-Based Help for Insomnia Shows Promise Interactive program ... Now, insomnia might be one of them. A web-based interactive program may help chronically sleepless individuals ...

  14. The Promise and Prejudice of Big Data in Intelligence Community

    OpenAIRE

    Jani, Karan

    2016-01-01

    Big data holds critical importance in the current generation of information technology, with applications ranging from financial, industrial, academic to defense sectors. With the exponential rise of open source data from social media and increasing government monitoring, big data is now also linked with national security, and subsequently to the intelligence community. In this study I review the scope of big data sciences in the functioning of intelligence community. The major part of my stu...

  15. Crack growth threshold under hold time conditions in DA Inconel 718 – A transition in the crack growth mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fessler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeroengine manufacturers have to demonstrate that critical components such as turbine disks, made of DA Inconel 718, meet the certification requirements in term of fatigue crack growth. In order to be more representative of the in service loading conditions, crack growth under hold time conditions is studied. Modelling crack growth under these conditions is challenging due to the combined effect of fatigue, creep and environment. Under these conditions, established models are often conservative but the degree of conservatism can be reduced by introducing the crack growth threshold in models. Here, the emphasis is laid on the characterization of crack growth rates in the low ΔK regime under hold time conditions and in particular, on the involved crack growth mechanism. Crack growth tests were carried out at high temperature (550 °C to 650 °C under hold time conditions (up to 1200 s in the low ΔK regime using a K-decreasing procedure. Scanning electron microscopy was used to identify the fracture mode involved in the low ΔK regime. EBSD analyses and BSE imaging were also carried out along the crack path for a more accurate identification of the fracture mode. A transition from intergranular to transgranular fracture was evidenced in the low ΔK regime and slip bands have also been observed at the tip of an arrested crack at low ΔK. Transgranular fracture and slip bands are usually observed under pure fatigue loading conditions. At low ΔK, hold time cycles are believed to act as equivalent pure fatigue cycles. This change in the crack growth mechanism under hold time conditions at low ΔK is discussed regarding results related to intergranular crack tip oxidation and its effect on the crack growth behaviour of Inconel 718 alloy. A concept based on an “effective oxygen partial pressure” at the crack tip is proposed to explain the transition from transgranular to intergranular fracture in the low ΔK regime.

  16. Evaluation of spinal internal loads and lumbar curvature under holding static load at different trunk and knee positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrizi, Sedighe; Parnianpour, Mohammad; Firoozabadi, Seyyed Mohammad; Kasemnejad, Anoshirvan; Karimi, Elham

    2007-04-01

    A study was performed to investigate how different trunk and knee positions while holding static loads affect the lumbar curvature and internal loads on the lumbar spine at L4-L5. Ten healthy male subjects participated in this study. Two inclinometers were used to evaluate the curvature of lumbar spine, lordosis, while a 3D static biomechanical model was used to predict the spinal compression and shear forces at L4-L5. Eighteen static tasks while holding three level of load (0, 10 and 20 kg), two levels of knee position (45 and 180 degrees of flexion) and three levels of trunk position (neutral, 15 and 30 degree of flexion) were simulated for 10 healthy male subjects. The results of this study revealed that the lordosis of lumbar spine changed to kyphosis with increasing weight of load from 0 to 20 kg in trunk flexion position (pcurvature. The results of this study suggested, at a more flexed trunk and standing position with higher loads both external moment and internal loads increased significantly at L4-L5 level but with 45 knee flexion external moment and compression force increased and shear force decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Subjects made more effort to maintain stability of the body in squat position. The highest external moment and compression force were computed at flexed knee and trunk position with highest loads. Hence holding weight in this position must be avoided by implementing ergonomic change to the workplace.

  17. 12 CFR 575.12 - Conversion or liquidation of mutual holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...—(1) Generally. A mutual holding company may convert to the stock form in accordance with the rules and regulations set forth in part 563b of this chapter. (2) Exchange of savings association stock. Any stock issued pursuant to § 575.7 by a subsidiary savings association or subsidiary holding company of...

  18. Exploring the financial rationales of Dutch forest holdings and their relation with financial results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogstra-Klein, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The financial situation of many forest holdings inthe Netherlands is a major concern. For example, the yearly overview of Dutch private forest holdings larger than 5 ha shows that over the las t 30 years, the average annual results were negative during most years. However, it should be taken into ac

  19. 20 CFR 703.103 - Stock companies holding Treasury certificates of authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stock companies holding Treasury certificates... REGULATIONS Authorization of Insurance Carriers § 703.103 Stock companies holding Treasury certificates of... the Secretary of the Treasury as an acceptable surety on Federal bonds, unless requested to do...

  20. 39 CFR 447.52 - Holding of State or local office by Postal Service employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Holding of State or local office by Postal Service employees. 447.52 Section 447.52 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PERSONNEL RULES OF CONDUCT FOR POSTAL EMPLOYEES Participation in Community Affairs § 447.52 Holding of State or local office by Postal...

  1. The Ins and Outs of Breath Holding: Simple Demonstrations of Complex Respiratory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skow, Rachel J.; Day, Trevor A.; Fuller, Jonathan E.; Bruce, Christina D.; Steinback, Craig D.

    2015-01-01

    The physiology of breath holding is complex, and voluntary breath-hold duration is affected by many factors, including practice, psychology, respiratory chemoreflexes, and lung stretch. In this activity, we outline a number of simple laboratory activities or classroom demonstrations that illustrate the complexity of the integrative physiology…

  2. 77 FR 20635 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice... Officer) 90 Hennepin Avenue, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55480-0291: 1. Leackco Banking Holding Company,...

  3. Ape Behavior in Two Alternating Environments: Comparing Exhibit and Short-Term Holding Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Stephen R.; Wagner, Katherine E.; Schapiro, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    -specific reactions to the holding area, including increased aggression and self-directed behavior by chimpanzees and increased activity and prosocial behavior among gorilla subjects. Both species showed more feeding-foraging behavior while in the exhibit enclosure. Results suggest that holding areas may not meet all...

  4. 12 CFR 1500.3 - What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking investments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking investments? 1500.3 Section 1500.3 Banks and Banking DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS MERCHANT BANKING INVESTMENTS § 1500.3 What are the holding periods permitted for merchant banking...

  5. 12 CFR 250.200 - Investment in bank premises by holding company banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... company, is required to include indebtedness of a corporation, wholly owned by the holding company, that... “affiliate of each of the holding company's majority-owned banks as that term is defined in said section 2... is owned by such an affiliate, must include the affiliate's total indebtedness in determining...

  6. 75 FR 2544 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... Commercial Bank, Lockport, New York, and thereby engage in operating a savings association, pursuant to... Central Financial, Inc., Annandale, Minnesota; to become a bank holding company by acquiring 100 percent... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this...

  7. Heterogeneity among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Italian pig finishing holdings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battisti, A.; Franco, A.; Merialdi, G.;

    2010-01-01

    A survey for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in finishing pig holdings was carried out in Italy in 2008. MRSA isolates were characterised by spa-. SCCmec- and antimicrobial susceptibility typing. A prevalence of 38% (45/118, 95% CI 29.4-46.9%) positive holdings was observed...

  8. Do social factors influence investment behavior and performance? Evidence from mutual fund holdings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgers, Arian; Derwall, J.M.M.; Koedijk, Kees; ter Horst, Jenke

    2015-01-01

    We study the economic significance of social dimensions in investment decisions by analyzing the holdings of U.S. equity mutual funds over the period 2004-2012. Using these holdings, we measure funds' exposures to socially sensitive stocks in order to answer two questions. What explains cross-sectio

  9. Audiovisual biofeedback guided breath-hold improves lung tumor position reproducibility and volume consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Lee, PhD

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: This study demonstrated that audiovisual biofeedback can be used to improve the reproducibility and consistency of breath-hold lung tumor position and volume, respectively. These results may provide a pathway to achieve more accurate lung cancer radiation treatment in addition to improving various medical imaging and treatments by using breath-hold procedures.

  10. Do social factors influence investment behavior and performance? Evidence from mutual fund holdings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgers, Arian; Derwall, J.M.M.; Koedijk, Kees; ter Horst, Jenke

    We study the economic significance of social dimensions in investment decisions by analyzing the holdings of U.S. equity mutual funds over the period 2004-2012. Using these holdings, we measure funds' exposures to socially sensitive stocks in order to answer two questions. What explains

  11. 75 FR 71440 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... York, which will continue to operate an equipment finance company, pursuant to sections 225.28(b)(1... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12...

  12. 75 FR 1384 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... regulations to become a bank holding company and/or to acquire the assets or the ownership of, control of, or..., Missouri 64198-0001: 1. First National Management Group, LLC, Greenwood Village, Colorado; to become a bank... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this...

  13. 77 FR 76160 - New Generation Biofuels Holdings, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION New Generation Biofuels Holdings, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading December 21, 2012. It... concerning the securities of New Generation Biofuels Holdings, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic...

  14. 77 FR 51064 - Dana Holding Corporation, Power Technologies Group Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... Employment and Training Administration Dana Holding Corporation, Power Technologies Group Division, Including... Holding Corporation, Power Technologies Group Division, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (subject firm). The negative... competitive articles) in 2011 and 2012, loss of business with a firm that employed a worker group eligible...

  15. 78 FR 69605 - Standards for the Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... Growing, Harvesting, Packing, and Holding of Produce for Human Consumption; Extension of Comment Periods... Holding of Produce for Human Consumption'' and for its information collection provisions. DATES: The FDA... for Human Consumption.'' The original comment period of 120 days was extended several times and...

  16. 47 CFR 13.11 - Holding more than one commercial radio operator license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Holding more than one commercial radio operator license. 13.11 Section 13.11 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.11 Holding more than one commercial radio operator license. (a) An eligible...

  17. 77 FR 52033 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C... company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking company complies with...

  18. 76 FR 78658 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C... company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking company complies with...

  19. 78 FR 23934 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C... company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking company complies with...

  20. 78 FR 21949 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C... company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking company complies with...

  1. 77 FR 50106 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C... company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking company complies with...

  2. 77 FR 17479 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C... company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking company complies with...

  3. 77 FR 54578 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C... company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking company complies with...

  4. 76 FR 80945 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C... company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking company complies with...

  5. 78 FR 23935 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C... company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking company complies with...

  6. 77 FR 12057 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C... company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking company complies with...

  7. 77 FR 61607 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C... company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking company complies with...

  8. 78 FR 5179 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C... company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking company complies with...

  9. 78 FR 35930 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C... nonbanking company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking company complies...

  10. 77 FR 60435 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C... company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking company complies with...

  11. 78 FR 37541 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C... company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking company complies with...

  12. 78 FR 54647 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C... company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking company complies with...

  13. 78 FR 67363 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C... company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking company complies with...

  14. 78 FR 76146 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C... company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking company complies with...

  15. 77 FR 41188 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice... company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking company complies with the... holding company through the acquisition of 100 percent of the voting shares of CNBO Bancorp, Inc.,...

  16. 77 FR 76039 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice... company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking company complies with the... bank holding company upon the merger of Flushing Savings Bank, FSB, Flushing, New York, with and...

  17. 77 FR 22786 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C... company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking company complies with...

  18. 78 FR 28597 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C... company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking company complies with...

  19. 78 FR 68445 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C... company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking company complies with...

  20. 77 FR 59613 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C... company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking company complies with...

  1. 77 FR 59195 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C... company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking company complies with...

  2. 77 FR 15110 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C... company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking company complies with...

  3. 77 FR 23249 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C... company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking company complies with...

  4. 78 FR 18340 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C... company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking company complies with...

  5. 77 FR 23482 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C... company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking company complies with...

  6. 77 FR 65382 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C... company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking company complies with...

  7. 77 FR 57088 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C... company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking company complies with...

  8. 78 FR 19709 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this notice have applied to the Board for approval, pursuant to the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 (12 U.S.C... company, the review also includes whether the acquisition of the nonbanking company complies with...

  9. 76 FR 76412 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ...; to become a bank holding company by acquiring 100 percent of the voting shares of First Advantage... the voting shares of First Federal Savings and Loan Bank, Olathe, Kansas. D. Federal Reserve Bank of... Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies The companies listed in this...

  10. 12 CFR 225.102 - Bank holding company indirectly owning nonbanking company through subsidiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank holding company indirectly owning nonbanking company through subsidiaries. 225.102 Section 225.102 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN...

  11. 31 CFR 597.203 - Holding of funds in interest-bearing accounts; investment and reinvestment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... as otherwise directed by the Office of Foreign Assets Control, any U.S. financial institution holding... under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, provided the funds are invested in a money market fund or in... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Holding of funds in interest-bearing...

  12. 75 FR 22168 - Global Medical Products Holdings, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Global Medical Products Holdings, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading April 23, 2010. It appears... concerning the securities of Global Medical Products Holdings, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic...

  13. 12 CFR 16.9 - Securities offered and sold in holding company dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... dissolution. 16.9 Section 16.9 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERING DISCLOSURE RULES § 16.9 Securities offered and sold in holding company dissolution. Offers and sales of bank issued securities in connection with the dissolution of the holding company of...

  14. 77 FR 30001 - PBF Holding Company LLC, Toledo Refining Company LLC v. Enbridge Energy, Limited Partnership...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission PBF Holding Company LLC, Toledo Refining Company LLC v. Enbridge Energy... to Oil Pipeline Proceedings, 18 CFR 343.1(a), PBF Holding Company LLC and Toledo Refining Company...

  15. 77 FR 10598 - BIOTECH Holdings Ltd., California Oil & Gas Corp., Central Minera Corp., Chemokine Therapeutics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION BIOTECH Holdings Ltd., California Oil & Gas Corp., Central Minera Corp., Chemokine Therapeutics... concerning the securities of BIOTECH Holdings Ltd. because it has not filed any annual reports since...

  16. [DESCRIPTION AND PRESENTATION OF THE RESULTS OF ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM PROCESSING USING AN INFORMATION MODEL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myznikov, I L; Nabokov, N L; Rogovanov, D Yu; Khankevich, Yu R

    2016-01-01

    The paper proposes to apply the informational modeling of correlation matrix developed by I.L. Myznikov in early 1990s in neurophysiological investigations, such as electroencephalogram recording and analysis, coherence description of signals from electrodes on the head surface. The authors demonstrate information models built using the data from studies of inert gas inhalation by healthy human subjects. In the opinion of the authors, information models provide an opportunity to describe physiological processes with a high level of generalization. The procedure of presenting the EEG results holds great promise for the broad application.

  17. A larval zebrafish model of bipolar disorder as a screening platform for neuro-therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Lee David; Soanes, Kelly Howard

    2012-08-01

    Modelling neurological diseases has proven extraordinarily difficult due to the phenotypic complexity of each disorder. The zebrafish has become a useful model system with which to study abnormal neurological and behavioural activity and holds promise as a model of human disease. While most of the disease modelling using zebrafish has made use of adults, larvae hold tremendous promise for the high-throughput screening of potential therapeutics. The further development of larval disease models will strengthen their ability to contribute to the drug screening process. Here we have used zebrafish larvae to model the symptoms of bipolar disorder by treating larvae with sub-convulsive concentrations of the GABA antagonist pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). A number of therapeutics that act on different targets, in addition to those that have been used to treat bipolar disorder, were tested against this model to assess its predictive value. Carbamazepine, valproic acid, baclofen and honokiol, were found to oppose various aspects of the PTZ-induced changes in activity. Lidocaine and haloperidol exacerbated the PTZ-induced activity changes and sulpiride had no effect. By comparing the degree of phenotypic rescue with the mechanism of action of each therapeutic we have shown that the low-concentration PTZ model can produce a number of intermediate phenotypes that model symptoms of bipolar disorder, may be useful in modelling other disease states, and will help predict the efficacy of novel therapeutics.

  18. How Central Banks Prepare for Financial Crises - An Empirical Analysis of the Effects of Crises and Globalization on International Reserve Holdings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steiner, Adreas

    2013-01-01

    Central banks' international reserve holdings have increased significantly in the recent past. While traditional models fail to explain this accumulation of reserves, the more recent literature argues that reserves are used as a lifejacket against financial crises. However, research so far has negle

  19. Modeling mania in preclinical settings: a comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajaykumar N.; Fries, Gabriel R.; Galvez, Juan F.; Valvassori, Samira S.; Soares, Jair C.; Carvalho, André F.; Quevedo, Joao

    2015-01-01

    The current pathophysiological understanding of mechanisms leading to onset and progression of bipolar manic episodes remains limited. At the same time, available animal models for mania have limited face, construct, and predictive validities. Additionally, these models fail to encompass recent pathophysiological frameworks of bipolar disorder (BD), e.g. neuroprogression. Therefore, there is a need to search for novel preclinical models for mania that could comprehensively address these limitations. Herein we review the history, validity, and caveats of currently available animal models for mania. We also review new genetic models for mania, namely knockout mice for genes involved in neurotransmission, synapse formation, and intracellular signaling pathways. Furthermore, we review recent trends in preclinical models for mania that may aid in the comprehension of mechanisms underlying the neuroprogressive and recurring nature of BD. In conclusion, the validity of animal models for mania remains limited. Nevertheless, novel (e.g. genetic) animal models as well as adaptation of existing paradigms hold promise. PMID:26545487

  20. Inefficient Job Destructions and Training with Hold-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chéron, Arnaud; Rouland, Benedicte

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops an equilibrium search model with endogenous job destructions and where firms decide at the time of job entry how much to invest in match-specific human capital. We first show that job destruction and training investment decisions are strongly complementary. It is possible...