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Sample records for model etude critique

  1. Etude de la propagation sous critique dans les fibres de verre par relaxation de la charge

    R'Mili , M.; Godin , N.; Lamon , J.

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Plusieurs fibres inorganiques de type verre ou céramique (à base de carbure de silicium) sont très sensibles à la propagation sous critique de fissures, activée chimiquement ou thermiquement. Dans ce cas la rupture survient d'une façon prématurée à un niveau de contrainte relativement bas comparé à la contrainte de rupture. Cet article propose une approche statistique de la rupture en fatigue statique fondée sur l'analyse de la rupture des fibres dans une mèche sollici...

  2. Le modele de Hubbard bidimensionnel a faible couplage: Thermodynamique et phenomenes critiques

    Roy, Sebastien

    Une etude systematique du modele de Hubbard en deux dimensions a faible couplage a l'aide de la theorie Auto-Coherente a Deux Particules (ACDP) dans le diagramme temperature-dopage-interaction-sauts permet de mettre en evidence l'influence des fluctuations magnetiques sur les proprietes thermodynamiques du systeme electronique sur reseau. Le regime classique renormalise a temperature finie pres du dopage nul est marque par la grandeur de la longueur de correlation de spin comparee a la longueur thermique de de Broglie et est caracterisee par un accroissement drastique de la longueur de correlation de spin. Cette croissance exponentielle a dopage nul marque la presence d'un pic de chaleur specifique en fonction de la temperature a basse temperature. Une temperature de crossover est alors associee a la temperature a laquelle la longueur de correlation de spin est egale a la longueur thermique de de Broglie. C'est a cette temperature caracteristique, ou est observee l'ouverture du pseudogap dans le poids spectral, que se situe le maximum du pic de chaleur specifique. La presence de ce pic a des consequences sur l'evolution du potentiel chimique avec le dopage lorsque l'uniformite thermodynamique est respectee. Les contraintes imposees par les lois de la thermodynamique font en sorte que l'evolution du potentiel chimique avec le dopage est non triviale. On demontre entre autres que le potentiel chimique est proportionnel a la double occupation qui est reliee au moment local. Par ailleurs, une derivation de la fonction de mise a l'echelle de la susceptibilite de spin a frequence nulle au voisinage d'un point critique marque sans equivoque la presence d'un point critique quantique en dopage pour une valeur donnee de l'interaction. Ce point critique, associe a une transition de phase magnetique en fonction du dopage a temperature nulle, induit un comportement non trivial sur les proprietes physiques du systeme a temperature finie. L'approche quantitative ACDP permet de

  3. Purchasing portfolio models: a critique and update

    Gelderman, C.J.; Weele, van A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Purchasing portfolio models have spawned considerable discussion in the literature. Many advantages and disadvantages have been put forward, revealing considerable divergence in opinion on the merits of portfolio models. This study addresses the question of whether or not the use of purchasing

  4. Study of the critical scattering of neutrons by iron; Etude de la diffusion critique des neutrons par le fer

    Galula, M; Jacrot, B; Mangin, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France)

    1959-07-01

    The critical scattering of very slow neutrons by iron near critical point is measured by time of flight techniques. The VAN HOVE formula is verified and the geometrical parameters K{sub 1} et r{sub 1} introduced in this theory are determined. (author) [French] On etudie la diffusion critique des neutrons tres lents par le fer dans la region du point de Curie par une methode de temps de vol. On verifie la formule de VAN HOVE et on determine les parametres geometriques K{sub 1} et r{sub 1} introduit par ce dernier. (auteur)

  5. Critique of the Reggeized deck model

    Berger, E.L.

    1975-01-01

    A detailed analysis is presented of the Reggeized pion exchange Deck model for processes of the type ap → A*N → (a*π)N, where a = π, K, or nucleon and a* = rho, K*, N or Δ. Predictions of the model for both production and decay properties of the low mass system A* → (a*π) are derived and contrasted with data. Diffractive as well as charge exchange reactions are treated. The role of pion exchange in generating (a*π) enhancements near threshold and their properties is examined from several points of view. Characteristic exchange effects and quantum number properties (e.g., cross-overs) of the pion exchange Deck graph are shown to be verified in the data, but this graph alone is inadequate. The failures all point to the need for a second graph, having a* exchange properties. The contribution of a* exchange is roughly equal to that of the π exchange graph. (U.S.)

  6. Codeswitching and Generative Grammar: A Critique of the MLF Model and Some Remarks on "Modified Minimalism"

    MacSwan, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an empirical and theoretical critique of the Matrix Language Frame (MLF) model (Myers-Scotton, 1993; Myers-Scotton and Jake, 2001), and includes a response to Jake, Myers-Scotton and Gross's (2002) (JMSG) critique of MacSwan (1999, 2000) and reactions to their revision of the MLF model as a "modified minimalist approach." The…

  7. Study of U - Pu - Fe alloys (Masurca critical experiment); Etudes d'alliages U-Pu-Fe (experience critique MASURCA)

    Barthelemy, P; Boucher, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    pour ces deux dernieres teneurs le passage du point de transformation (595 et 590 deg. C respectivement) entraine une deterioration rapide et complete des echantillons sous air. Les essais d'inflammabilite sous air montrent que la temperature de debut d'oxydation se situe vers 250 deg. C et que la reaction ne s'entretient pas d'elle-meme. On n'a pas observe d'inflammation proprement dite lors d'une montee jusqu'a 660 deg. C. L'etude dilatometrique a permis de determiner la temperature de transformation a l'etat solide, la temperature de fusion commencante et les coefficients de dilatation. En dessous de la transformation les alliages sont formes principalement des phases U-Pu zeta et (U, Pu){sub 6}Fe. La conductibilite thermique, le module d'Young, la densite et la chaleur de fusion ont ete mesures. les essais de compatibilite U-Pu-Fe{approx}acier inox NS 22 S montrent qu'au contact des deux alliages se forme une phase du type (U,Pu){sub 6}Fe. L'alliage a 1% de fer parait preferable, la phase (U,Pu){sub 6}Fe formee a l'interface etant 2 a 3 fois moins etendue qu'avec l'alliage a 1,5% de fer. Enfin le probleme de la stabilite thermique a temperature peu elevee a ete considere pour l'alliage a 1% de fer. Le passage du point de transformation a 595 deg. C entraine l'apparition d'une anomalie dilatometrique, au refroidissement, se traduisant par une tres faible dilatation dont l'amplitude diminue en fonction du nombre de cycles effectues entre 20 et 650 deg. C sur l'alliage brut de coulee a l'origine. Par contre, des cyclages thermiques entre 50 et 400 deg. C montrent que les alliages ne presentent pas d'anomalie et sont stables. De meme, des maintiens de 5 mois a 100 deg. C, 200 deg. C, 300 deg. C, sous vide, n'entrainent aucune alteration des alliages. (auteurs)

  8. Study of critical adsorption by neutron reflectivity; Etude de l`adsorption critique par reflexion de neutrons

    Sibille, P

    1998-02-26

    The presence of an interface between the 2 phases of a binary mixing adds a new force to the interactions between molecules. The phase equilibrium near the interface is then modified, one phase whose molecules are repelled more strongly is desorbed, this phenomenon is called adsorption. Contrary to the optical techniques, the neutron reflectivity allows us to get the needed resolution to investigate this phenomenon. The Fisher and De Gennes model foresees a concentration profile decreasing following first a square root law then an exponential law. The purpose of this work is to check this law experimentally. A binary mixing of deuterated cyclohexane with methanol has been used. A preliminary result analysis shows a linear behaviour followed by an exponential decrease. The neutron reflectivity technique is presented and the difficulties raised by its setting are described. (A.C.) 56 refs.

  9. Kolb's Experiential Learning Model: Critique from a Modeling Perspective

    Bergsteiner, Harald; Avery, Gayle C.; Neumann, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Kolb's experiential learning theory has been widely influential in adult learning. The theory and associated instruments continue to be criticized, but rarely is the graphical model itself examined. This is significant because models can aid scientific understanding and progress, as well as theory development and research. Applying accepted…

  10. Il y a critique et critique : épistémologie des modèles d’argumentation There is Critique and there is Critique: Epistemology of Argumentation Models

    Emmanuelle Danblon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article part d’un constat. La conception de la critique est toujours liée à l’épistémologie (souvent implicite des modèles d’analyse du discours. C’est à ce niveau que se situe le débat entre experts de ces disciplines. Je défends ensuite le modèle rhétorique en proposant d’insister sur sa dimension pratique laquelle est directement liée aux émotions et aux intuitions. Ainsi, la rhétorique est avant tout une technique est c’est dans cet aspect de la discipline qu’il faut chercher le cœur de sa rationalité. Je proposerai finalement d’ajouter ces nouveaux critères à une conception élargie de la raison humaine qui tienne compte également d’outils contemporains pour les analyses du discours.This paper claims that any conception of critique is necessarily linked with the (often implicit epistemology of models for Discourse Analysis. This is what actually underlies the debates of the experts in the discipline. I present here a defense of the rhetorical model - but at the same time, I propose to highlight its practical dimension, which is closely connected to emotions and intuitions. Thus rhetoric is, primarily, a technique. This aspect of the discipline lies at the very heart of its rationality. Such criteria should be added to an expanded conception of human reason which would take into account contemporary tools for Discourse Analysis.

  11. Design and construction of a fast critical facility; Etude et construction d'un ensemble critique a neutrons rapides; Proektirovanie i sooruzhenie kriticheskoj sborki na bystrykh nejtronakh; Proyecto u construccion de un conjunto critico de neutrones rapidos

    Kato, W Y; Dates, L R [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1962-03-15

    construction d'un ensemble critique a neutrons rapides. On considere que dans un programme de mise au point de reacteurs a neutrons rapides, un ensemble critique fournit un moyen tres utile de verifier les methodes de calculs, les ensembles de sections efficaces neutroniques et d'obtenir l'ensemble des parametres physiques necessaires a la conception d'un reacteur de puissance. Puisqu'il s'agit avant tout d'un instrument de physique, la realisation d'un ensemble critique a neutrons rapides implique la solution d'un certain nombre de problemes qui sont tres differents de ceux que pose un reacteur de puissance. Outre les problemes habituels de site, de confinement, de construction du coeur et d'appareillage, il faut resoudre des problemes tels que les suivants: associer une grande souplesse a la securite, determiner les dimensions et le type de l'appareil qui convient le mieux aux besoins de la physique experimentale, determiner le nombre et l'emplacement de barres de controle et de securite en vue de reduire au minimum les effets perturbateurs, assurer la reproductibilit e d'emploi des barres de controle et autres elements mobiles en vue d'obtenir la pre- cision necessaire dans les mesures de la reactivite. Ces problemes sont parmi ceux qui sont decrits dans le memoire, qui decoule de l'experience acquise dernierement au Laboratoire national d'Argonne; ce dernier fait construire actuellement au Centre de Lemont (Illinois) un ensemble critique a neutrons rapides, le ZPR-YI, destine aux etudes de physique d'un reacteur a neutrons rapides. Le ZPR-VI est du type a coeur divise, comme le ZPR-III. Le volume de sa matrice est 2,5 fois superieur a celui de la matrice du modele precedent; il servira a etudier les proprietes physiques de grands reacteurs, hautement dilues, a combustibles metalliques et ceramiques, non ralentis et partiellement ralentis, avec un coeur dont le volume peut atteindre 1500 l environ. Les auteurs donnent une description detaillee du ZPR-VI et analysent les

  12. Study of superconductors with high critical temperature by using the vibrating blade technique: anelastic properties, vortices dynamics; Etude des supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique par la technique de la lame vibrante: - proprietes anelastiques, - dynamique des vortex

    De Brion, Sophie

    1991-10-04

    This research thesis reports the application of the vibrating blade technique to the study of high critical temperature superconductors, first for the anelastic properties, and then for vortices dynamics. As far as the study of anelastic properties is concerned, the author reports the measurement of dissipation and of Young modulus, between 4 K and 300 K and at about 1 khz, in YbaCuO ceramics with various oxygen content. A detailed study of the tetragonal phase reveals the existence of a single relaxation process, the magnitude of which depends on the compound oxygen content and on its thermal treatment. In the second part, the author reports the measurement, under magnetic field and within a temperature range lower than the superconducting critical temperature, of a YbaCuO crystal with two different oxygen concentrations. At low temperature, the author studies the contribution of vortices trapped in an irreversible state. At high temperature, this contribution disappears and thus defines an irreversibility line beyond which vortices are in a reversible regime. This line is studied for different magnetic field orientations with respect to CuO planes. It is interpreted in terms of de-trapping thermally activated by vortices [French] La technique de la lame vibrante a ete appliquee a l'etude des supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique, pour leurs proprietes anelastiques d'abord, pour la dynamique des vortex ensuite. Dans la gamme de temperature 4 K - 300 K, nous avons mesure la dissipation et le module d'Young, a une frequence de 1 kHz environ, dans des ceramiques YBaCuO (phase 123) de differentes teneurs en oxygene (variant de O{sub 6} a O{sub 7}). Nous avons observe plusieurs pics de dissipation. Une etude detaillee de la phase tetragonale (de O{sub 6} a O{sub 6,4}) a mis en evidence un seul processus de relaxation, active thermiquement avec une energie de 0,1 eV et dont l'ampleur depend de la teneur en oxygene du compose et de son traitement thermique. Cette

  13. A brief critique of the Adam-Gibbs entropy model

    Dyre, J. C.; Hecksher, Tina; Niss, Kristine

    2009-01-01

    This paper critically discusses the entropy model proposed by Adam and Gibbs in 1965 for the dramatic temperature dependence of glass-forming liquids' average relaxation time, which is one of the most influential models during the last four decades. We discuss the Adam-Gibbs model's theoretical...

  14. Computer models of vocal tract evolution: an overview and critique

    de Boer, B.; Fitch, W. T.

    2010-01-01

    Human speech has been investigated with computer models since the invention of digital computers, and models of the evolution of speech first appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Speech science and computer models have a long shared history because speech is a physical signal and can be

  15. A critique of recent models for human error rate assessment

    Apostolakis, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper critically reviews two groups of models for assessing human error rates under accident conditions. The first group, which includes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) handbook model and the human cognitive reliability (HCR) model, considers as fundamental the time that is available to the operators to act. The second group, which is represented by the success likelihood index methodology multiattribute utility decomposition (SLIM-MAUD) model, relies on ratings of the human actions with respect to certain qualitative factors and the subsequent derivation of error rates. These models are evaluated with respect to two criteria: the treatment of uncertainties and the internal coherence of the models. In other words, this evaluation focuses primarily on normative aspects of these models. The principal findings are as follows: (1) Both of the time-related models provide human error rates as a function of the available time for action and the prevailing conditions. However, the HCR model ignores the important issue of state-of-knowledge uncertainties, dealing exclusively with stochastic uncertainty, whereas the model presented in the NRC handbook handles both types of uncertainty. (2) SLIM-MAUD provides a highly structured approach for the derivation of human error rates under given conditions. However, the treatment of the weights and ratings in this model is internally inconsistent. (author)

  16. Critique of a pion exchange model for interquark forces

    Isgur, Nathan

    2000-01-01

    I describe four serious defects of a widely discussed pion exchange model for interquark forces: it does not solve the ''spin-orbit problem'' as advertised, it fails to describe the internal structure of baryon resonances, it leads to disastrous conclusions when extended to mesons, and it is not reasonably connected to the physics of heavy-light systems. While extensions of the original pion exchange model may be able to correct these defects, this catalogue of criticisms defines some of the most formidable problems such elaborations must address. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  17. Critique of a pion exchange model for interquark forces

    Isgur, N.

    1999-01-01

    The author describes four serious defects of a widely discuss pion exchange model for interquark forces: it doesn't solve the ''spin-orbit problem'' as advertised, it fails to describe the internal structure of baryon resonances, it leads to disastrous conclusions when extended to mesons, and it is not reasonably connected to the physics of heavy-light systems

  18. Etude, par principes premiers, des effets de la correlation entre electrons sur les proprietes electroniques et magnetiques de polymeres pontes et de supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique

    Pesant, Simon

    Description of complex systems by Density functional theory is treated in this thesis. First, the Density functional theory and a few functionals used to simulate cristals are presented. Specifically, the LDA and GGA functionnals are described and their limits are exposed. Furthermore, the Hubbard model as well as the LDA+U functionnal are addressed in this chapter. These methods enable the study of highly correlated materials. Then, results obtained on polymers are summarized in two articles. The first one treats the band gap variation of ladder-type polymers compared to non ladder type ones. The second article considers small band gap polymers. In this case, it will be shown that an hybrid functional, which contains exact exchange, is required to describe the electronic properties of the polymers under study. Finally, the last chapter address the study of cuprates superconductors. The LDA+U can account for the localization of electrons in copper orbitals. Consequently, a study of the impact of this functionnal on electronic properties of cuprates is conducted. The chapter is ended by an article treating magnetic orders in doped La 2CuO4. Supplementary materials of the second article and a description of the theory of superconductivity of Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer are put in annex. Keywords : Electronic correlation, DFT, LDA+U, cuprates, polymers, magnetic orders

  19. Etude critique de l’anticipation des catastrophes et de la gestion du secteur énergétique émirati

    Khalifa Al Khaili

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rev.esc.adm.neg All disasters are said to follow a cyclical pattern referred to as the disaster cycle. The cycle is an overall view of stages within a continual loop of prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. Disaster preparedness is one of the stages of the disaster management cycle guided in a manner that adequately protects communities. It involves the identification of potential hazards and vulnerabilities through risk assessments, forecast development and warning systems, modelling and training for a number of disaster scenarios of different hazards and at different magnitudes, development of insurance infrastructure and the growth of an intelligent community. The energy sector dominates in the UAE and consists of various assets - electricity, oil and natural gas that are geographically dispersed and connected by systems and networks. The protection of these systems and assets and within the energy sector especially, the safeguarding of oil and gas infrastructure from any and all internal and external threats should become top priority in the UAE. Threats to geopolitical and economic stability that need to be considered and prepared to include tectonic activity, climate change, nuclear energy, terrorism and war. This paper discusses the current level of resilience in the Emirati energy sector and what can be done to improve it. The secondary data was taken from various academic and professional sources whilst the primary data, which constitutes 35 questionnaires with both qualitative and quantitative data, were collected on site at two electricity generating plants, one in Abu Dhabi and one in Dubai.

  20. Contribution to the experimental study of the critical scattering of cold neutrons in iron; Contriiution a l'etude experimentale de la diffusion critique des neutrons froids par le fer

    Konstantinovic, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-03-15

    The aim of the present work is a study of magnetic fluctuations which are produced in iron in the neighbourhood of the Curie temperature, by neutron scattering. We start by briefly recalling the theory of scattering of neutrons by magnetic substances and Landau's theory of second order phase transitions which enables one to derive the magnetic cross section near the Curie temperature. Following this is a description of the experimental apparatus after which we present the experimental results. The analysis of the results confirms the four-third law obeyed by the magnetic susceptibility near the Curie point, predicted by recent theories based on the Heisenberg model. However, the analysis reveals a non-zero relaxation time for the magnetic fluctuations at the Curie point, which is in disagreement with theoretical conclusions. (author) [French] L'objet du present travail est l'etude des fluctuations d'aimantation qui prennent naissance dans le fer au voisinage de sa temperature de Curie par la diffusion des neutrons. Nous commencons par rappeler brievement les generalites sur la diffusion des neutrons par les substances magnetiques et la theorie de Landau des transitions de phase du second ordre qui permet de deriver une expression de la section efficace magnetique pres de la temperature de Curie. Ensuite, apres la description du dispositif experimental, nous presentons les resultats experimentaux. L'analyse de ces resultats confirme les theories recentes suivant le modele d'Heisenberg en ce qui concerne la 'loi en 4/3' de la susceptibilite magnetique au voisinage du point de Curie; mais par ailleurs elle revele l'existence d'un temps de relaxation des fluctuations d'aimantation non nul en ce point, ce qui est en desaccord avec les previsions theoriques actuelles. (auteur)

  1. Study of the thermo-electronic stability of LTS conductors and contribution to the study of the thermo-electric stability of HTS conductors. Novel techniques to simulate quench precursors in superconducting electro-magnets; Etude de la stabilite thermoelectronique des conducteurs supraconducteurs a basse temperature critique et contribution a l'etude de la stabilite thermoelectrique des supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique

    Trillaud, F

    2005-09-01

    Most of this work deals with the development of new heater technology to simulate quench precursors in super-conducting electro-magnets. The carbon paste point heater and 2 alternative technologies have been used: induction coils and the diode laser. 2 main experimental setups with 2 different heaters have been used to study the stability of Cu/NbTi composite wires. The order of magnitude of the results obtained with the charged point heater and the diode laser is consistent. Our work covered both low critical temperature (LTS) conductors and high critical temperature (HTS) conductors. A large body of data has been gathered on quench energies and normal zone propagation velocities (NZPV). Concerning quench energy: LTS conductors appear largely more sensitive to heat disturbances than HTS conductors. NZPV enables one to define the criteria for which a magnet can be considered as self-protected. It is commonly assumed that, below 1 m/s, active protection is necessary to ensure safe quenches. This is the case for HTS conductors whose NZPV is of the order of a few centimeters per seconds, at most. However, the NZPVs of LTS conductors are above a few meters per seconds. While HTS conductors can suffer from local hot spots which diffuse slowly resulting in damaging overheating, LTS conductors spread the normal zone quickly enough owing to their good thermal conductivity to minimize local overheating. In addition, this gives enough time to dump the energy of the magnet. This work clears a new path to carry out accurate and reproducible experiment on superconductors. It demonstrates the powerfulness of diode laser technology for stability studies. Numerical simulations of the thermal behaviour of a Cu/NbTi multi-filament composite wire have been performed, they are based on a simplified transient liquid helium heat exchange model. This model appears to be not accurate enough to simulate the early time evolution of the voltage between the current sharing temperature and the

  2. Study of the thermo-electronic stability of LTS conductors and contribution to the study of the thermo-electric stability of HTS conductors. Novel techniques to simulate quench precursors in superconducting electro-magnets; Etude de la stabilite thermoelectronique des conducteurs supraconducteurs a basse temperature critique et contribution a l'etude de la stabilite thermoelectrique des supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique

    Trillaud, F

    2005-09-01

    Most of this work deals with the development of new heater technology to simulate quench precursors in super-conducting electro-magnets. The carbon paste point heater and 2 alternative technologies have been used: induction coils and the diode laser. 2 main experimental setups with 2 different heaters have been used to study the stability of Cu/NbTi composite wires. The order of magnitude of the results obtained with the charged point heater and the diode laser is consistent. Our work covered both low critical temperature (LTS) conductors and high critical temperature (HTS) conductors. A large body of data has been gathered on quench energies and normal zone propagation velocities (NZPV). Concerning quench energy: LTS conductors appear largely more sensitive to heat disturbances than HTS conductors. NZPV enables one to define the criteria for which a magnet can be considered as self-protected. It is commonly assumed that, below 1 m/s, active protection is necessary to ensure safe quenches. This is the case for HTS conductors whose NZPV is of the order of a few centimeters per seconds, at most. However, the NZPVs of LTS conductors are above a few meters per seconds. While HTS conductors can suffer from local hot spots which diffuse slowly resulting in damaging overheating, LTS conductors spread the normal zone quickly enough owing to their good thermal conductivity to minimize local overheating. In addition, this gives enough time to dump the energy of the magnet. This work clears a new path to carry out accurate and reproducible experiment on superconductors. It demonstrates the powerfulness of diode laser technology for stability studies. Numerical simulations of the thermal behaviour of a Cu/NbTi multi-filament composite wire have been performed, they are based on a simplified transient liquid helium heat exchange model. This model appears to be not accurate enough to simulate the early time evolution of the voltage between the current sharing temperature and the

  3. The role of model checking in critiquing based on clinical guidelines

    Groot, Perry; Hommersom, Arjen; Lucas, Peter; Serban, Radu; Ten Teije, Annette; Van Harmelen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Medical critiquing systems criticise clinical actions performed by a physician. In order to provide useful feedback, an important task is to find differences between the actual actions and a set of 'ideal' actions as described by a clinical guideline. In case differences exist, insight to which

  4. Criticality studies; Etudes de criticite

    Breton, D; Lecorche, P; Clouet d' Orval, Ch [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    de calcul destinees a resoudre les problemes de securite nucleaire poses par les installations chimiques et metallurgiques. I - Les etudes experimentales ont porte depuis 1958 sur des milieux homogenes composes d'un sel fissile dissous dans l'eau legere. Mises au point sur le reacteur PROSERPINE, les experiences ont ete poursuivies a Saclay sur les assemblages ALECTO ou des solutions de plutonium ou d'uranium enricni a 90 p.100 peuvent etre rendues critiques. Les resultats deja obtenus portent sur les masses critiques de cuves cylindriques de diametre variable entre 20 et 50 cm, reflechies de maniere diverse (eau, beton...) a des concentrations allant jusqu'a 100 g/l. Des mesures physiques (spectres, bruits de pile) et d'interaction completent les resultats obtenus. D'autres experiences portant sur des solutions de plutonium ont ete entreprises en 1963 au Centre de Valduc. Elles portent sur l'etude de masses critiques de reservoirs annulaires de diametre exterieur 50 cm et de diametre interieur variable entre 10 et 30 cm. Ces reservoirs peuvent etre reflechis par de l'eau independamment interieurement et exterieurement. Deux de ces reservoirs ont ete etudies en interaction, pour diverses configurations. D'autres experiences ont porte sur des plaques de diverses epaisseurs. II - Les etudes entreprises ont permis la mise au point de methodes de calcul qui ont ete eprouvees sur plusieurs experiences. Les possibilites de calcul reposant sur la methode du transport et sur la methode de Monte Carlo ont ete particulierement exploitees. Toutes ces etudes theoriques sont appliquees dans la conception et le controle des installations industrielles sur le plan de la surete. (auteurs)

  5. Comparison Of The Worth Of Critical And Exponential Measurements For Heavy-Water-Moderated Reactors; Valeur Relative des Mesures Critiques et Exponentielles pour l'Etude des Reacteurs Ralentis a l'Eau Lourde; Sravnenie tsennosti kriticheskikh i ehksponentsial'nykh izmerenij dlya reaktorov s tyazhelovodnym zamedlitelem; Valor Relativo de las Mediciones Criticas y Exponenciales para los Reactores Moderados por Agua Pesada

    Graves, W. E.; Hennelly, E. J. [Savannah River Laboratory, E.I. Du Pont De Nemours and Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1964-02-15

    experiences a l'aide d'ensembles critiques et les comparaisons faites entre experiences exponentielles et experiences critiques font l'objet d'un apercu dans le present memoire et d'un expose detaille dans un autre memoire. 3. Evaluation des barres de controle Une analyse appropriee des experiences exponentielles semble donner de bons resultats lorsqu'il s'agit de mesures de l'antireactivite totale. Cependant, si l'on veut etudier convenablement certaines caracteristiques du flux, il faut un ensemble critique de dimensions normales tel que le PDP. 4. Coefficients de temperature Les experiences exponentielles offrent une methode excellente si l'on veut determiner le coefficient thermique du laplacien pour un chauffage de reseau uniforme. Une installation speciale (PSE) du SRL permet de proceder a ces mesures a des temperatures allant jusqu'a 215 Degree-Sign C. Pour un chauffage non uniforme, on prefere generalement utiliser des ensembles critiques. 5. Reseaux mixtes Dans les reacteurs, on utilise rarement les reseaux uniformes simples auxquels les experiences exponentielles s'appliquent essentiellement. Au SRL, on fait des experiences critiques a chargements mixtes tant pour mesurer les effets directs dans des maquettes de reacteurs que pour verifier les calculs de diffusion heterogenes et a deux dimensions. 6. Etudes,au point de vue de l'etat critique, du comportement dans l'eau ordinaire d'un combustible destine a un reseau a eau lourde Les ensembles exponentiels du SRL se sont reveles particulierement utiles pour les etudes visant a determiner comment manipuler le combustible enrichi dans l'eau ordinaire. Ces travaux ne necessitent pas une tres grande exactitude; les experiences exponentielles d'un caractere, plus general sont nettement preferables aux experiences critiques d'un caractere plus particulier. (author) [Spanish] Con los conjuntos criticos y los exponenciales se obtienen generalmente informaciones en parte repetidas sobre los reticulados de reactor. En los

  6. Study of a preamplifier for the detection of weak impulses of neutrons from a critical medium (Proserpine) (1960); Etude d'un preamplificateur pour la detection d'impulsions faibles de neutrons issues d'un milieu critique (proserpine) (1960)

    Agaisse, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    In a critical experiment the small detection instruments supply weak impulses, and these must be brought outside the pile for counting. The important parameter is the ratio of the signal to the background. For the preamplifier studied in this report the background, considered at the input, is 12 micro-volts; a factor 2 is thus gained with respect to ordinary preamplifiers. (author) [French] Dans une experience critique, les appareils de detection, de petite taille, fournissent des impulsions faibles. Elles doivent etre transportees en dehors de la pile pour y etre comptees. Le rapport du signal au bruit de fond est le parametre important. Pour le preamplificateur etudie dans ce rapport, le bruit, ramene a l'entree est de 12 microvolts, ce qui permet de gagner un facteur 2 par rapport aux preamplificateurs usuels. (auteur)

  7. Experimental study of heat exchange coefficients, critical heat flux and charge losses, using water-steam mixtures in turbulent flow in a vertical tube; Etude experimentale des coefficients d'echanges thermiques, des flux de chaleur critiques et des pertes de charge avec des melanges eau-vapeur en ecoulement turbulent dans un tube vertical

    Perroud, P; De La Harpe, A; Rebiere, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-12-15

    Two stainless steel tubes were used (with diameters of 5 and 10 mm, lengths 400 and 600 mm respectively), heated electrically (50 Hz). The mixture flows from top to bottom. The work was carried out mainly on mixtures of high concentration (x > 0.1), at pressures between 50 and 60 kg/cm{sup 2}, flowing as a liquid film on the walls of the tube with droplets suspended in the central current of steam. By analysis of the heat transfer laws the exchange mechanisms were established, and the conditions under which the critical heat flux may be exceeded without danger of actual burnout were determined. In this way high output concentrations (x{sub s} > 0.9) may be obtained. An attempt has been made to find out to what extent existing correlation formulae can be used to account for the phenomena observed. It is shown that those dealing with exchange coefficients can only be applied in a first approximation in cases where exchange by convection is preponderant, and only below the critical flux. The formulae proposed by WAPD and CISE do not give a satisfactory estimation of the critical heat flux, and the essential reasons for this inadequacy are explained. Lastly, the Martinelli and Nelson method may be used to an approximation of 30 per cent for the calculation of charge losses. (author) [French] On a utilise deux tubes en acier inox (avec des diametres de 5 et 10 mm, et des longueurs respectives 400 et 600 mm) chauffes electriquement (50 Hz). Le melange s'ecoule de haut en bas. Les etudes ont porte plus specialement sur des melanges de titres eleves (x > 0,1) a des pressions comprises entre 60 et 90 kg/cm{sup 2} dont l'ecoulement se fait avec film liquide annulaire et gouttelettes en suspension dans le coeur de vapeur. Par l'analyse des lois de transfert de chaleur, on a precise les mecanismes d'echanges et l'on a d'autre part determine dans quelles conditions le flux de chaleur critique peut etre depasse sans danger de 'burnout' proprement dit. On peut ainsi obtenir des

  8. Folds and Etudes

    Bean, Robert

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about "Folds" and "Etudes" which are images derived from anonymous typing exercises that he found in a used copy of "Touch Typing Made Simple". "Etudes" refers to the musical tradition of studies for a solo instrument, which is a typewriter. Typing exercises are repetitive attempts to type words and phrases…

  9. An investigation into preparation of silver sheathed superconducting wires with a high critical temperature; Etude des problemes poses par l'elaboration de fils supraconducteurs gaines argent a haute temperature critique

    Chaffron, Laurent

    1992-04-03

    conditionnement de la poudre, le renforcement de la gaine, le cycle de la temperature et l'atmosphere des traitements thermiques, nous avons d'abord fortement reduit les effets nefastes des 4 premieres causes. Puis, nous nous sommes efforces de texturer fortement la ceramique par frittage fluage et sommes ainsi arrives a la conclusion que la texturation etait une condition necessaire mais non suffisante pour atteindre un courant de transport eleve, car ce dernier reste limite par la presence de phase amorphe dans de trop nombreux joints de grains. Finalement en fondant le materiau dans un gradient de temperature et en le deplacant a tres faible vitesse, nous avons obtenu des materiaux a joints de grains propres qui presentent des courants critiques tres eleves, mais la technique est beaucoup trop lente pour produire des fils de grande longueur. (auteur)

  10. The Adult Life Spiral: A Critique of the Life Cycle Model.

    Stein, Peter; Etzkowitz, Henry

    We can identify and describe alternate paths of adulthood utilizing data from interviews with single adults. Our review of major models used in adulthood studies suggests that a developmental model, such as Daniel Levinson's life cycle model, is too tied to the notion of the imminent unfolding of the life course. The age-stratification theory…

  11. Developing critique together

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    imperative – more general still than that of eradicating errors. There is something in critique which is akin to virtue” (Foucault, 1997, pp. 42-43). Critique is future-directed: It communicates a ‘more general imperative’ that affects the possible, the imaginable, and thereby the actual. Even if formulated...

  12. Source and Message Factors in Persuasion: A Reply to Stiff's Critique of the Elaboration Likelihood Model.

    Petty, Richard E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Answers James Stiff's criticism of the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) of persuasion. Corrects certain misperceptions of the ELM and criticizes Stiff's meta-analysis that compares ELM predictions with those derived from Kahneman's elastic capacity model. Argues that Stiff's presentation of the ELM and the conclusions he draws based on the data…

  13. Critique of the Ford-Andresen film rupture model for aqueous stress corrosion cracking

    Hall, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Ford-Andresen film rupture model for aqueous stress corrosion cracking has obtained a prominent position in the nuclear reactor industry. The model is said to have superior predictive capabilities because it is derived from a fundamental understanding of the film rupture-repassivation mechanism of crack advance. However, a critical review shows that there are conceptual and mathematical problems with the Ford-Andresen model development; there are inconsistencies among the stated and implied assumptions, the crack tip current density expression lacks the necessary dependence on crack tip strain rate and the fundamental proportionality that exists between crack tip strain rate and crack growth rate is overlooked and omitted from the model development. Consequently, the Ford-Andresen model must be considered neither phenomenologically nor fundamentally supported.

  14. Critique of the Board-Hall model for thermal detonations in UO2--Na systems

    Williams, D.C.

    1976-01-01

    The Board--Hall model for detonating thermal explosions is reviewed and some criticisms are offered in terms of its application to UO 2 -Na systems. The basic concept of a detonation-like thermal explosion is probably valid provided certain fundamental conditions can be met; however, Board and Hall's arguments as to just how these conditions can be met in UO 2 -Na mixtures appear to contain serious flaws. Even as given, the model itself predicts that a very large triggering event is needed to initiate the process. More importantly, the model for shock-induced fragmentation greatly overestimates the tendency for such fragmentation to occur. The shock-dispersive effects of mixtures are ignored. Altogether, the model's deficiencies imply that, as given, it is not applicable to LMFBR accident analysis; nonetheless, one cannot completely rule out the possibility of meeting the fundamental conditions for detonation by other mechanisms

  15. Study of potential of nuclear waste transmutation and safety characteristics of an hybrid system: sub critical accelerator reactor; Etude du potentiel de transmutation et des caracteristiques de surete d`un systeme hybride: accelerateur reacteur sous critique

    Tchistiakov, A

    1998-04-01

    The study of potential of nuclear waste transmutation for the new reactor systems - hybrid reactors - was the object of this work. Global review of different projects is presented. The basic physical parameters definitions, as neutron surplus and relative importance of external source neutrons, are introduced and explained. For these parameters, numerical values are obtained. The advantage in neutron surplus of fast system is noted. Equilibrium model and corresponding toxicities of different isotopes nd nuclear cycles are presented. Numerical analysis for equilibrium model converge validation are performed also. The study of neutron consumption by `transmutable` Long-Lived Fission Products (Tc, I and Cs) show the possibility of their incineration in dedicated fast hybrid reactors. Equilibrium model shown the influence of reprocessing losses level to cycle toxicity level. Relations between specific fuel inventories (mass normalised by power unit) for thermal and fast spectra are examined. The differences are relatively small. Finally, few hybrid reactor concepts with different objects were analysed. These studies confirm that in frameworks of certain Nuclear Energy scenarios the fast hybrid systems can reduce significantly the radio-toxicity of fuel cycle. Preliminary analyses of sub-critical reactor behaviour show big potential of this reactor type in `Transient of Power` kind of accident, even if more detailed study is necessary. (author)

  16. A Critique of a Phenomenological Fiber Breakage Model for Stress Rupture of Composite Materials

    Reeder, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Stress rupture is not a critical failure mode for most composite structures, but there are a few applications where it can be critical. One application where stress rupture can be a critical design issue is in Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPV's), where the composite material is highly and uniformly loaded for long periods of time and where very high reliability is required. COPV's are normally required to be proof loaded before being put into service to insure strength, but it is feared that the proof load may cause damage that reduces the stress rupture reliability. Recently, a fiber breakage model was proposed specifically to estimate a reduced reliability due to proof loading. The fiber breakage model attempts to model physics believed to occur at the microscopic scale, but validation of the model has not occurred. In this paper, the fiber breakage model is re-derived while highlighting assumptions that were made during the derivation. Some of the assumptions are examined to assess their effect on the final predicted reliability.

  17. A critique of the Lees-Marshment market-oriented party model

    Ormrod, Robert P.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents conceptual and empirical criticisms of the Lees-Marshment market-oriented party model. Conceptual criticisms are the short-term approach, the narrow focus on voters, the nature of the relationship to competitors, a tendency towards centralisation and the lack of a distinction...

  18. Estimation of uranium resources by life-cycle or discovery-rate models: a critique

    Harris, D.P.

    1976-10-01

    This report was motivated primarily by M. A. Lieberman's ''United States Uranium Resources: An Analysis of Historical Data'' (Science, April 30). His conclusion that only 87,000 tons of U 3 O 8 resources recoverable at a forward cost of $8/lb remain to be discovered is criticized. It is shown that there is no theoretical basis for selecting the exponential or any other function for the discovery rate. Some of the economic (productivity, inflation) and data issues involved in the analysis of undiscovered, recoverable U 3 O 8 resources on discovery rates of $8 reserves are discussed. The problem of the ratio of undiscovered $30 resources to undiscovered $8 resources is considered. It is concluded that: all methods for the estimation of unknown resources must employ a model of some form of the endowment-exploration-production complex, but every model is a simplification of the real world, and every estimate is intrinsically uncertain. The life-cycle model is useless for the appraisal of undiscovered, recoverable U 3 O 8 , and the discovery rate model underestimates these resources

  19. Teaching Writing in the Social Sciences: A Comparison and Critique of Three Models

    Hansen, Kristine; Adams, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    This article describes and evaluates three approaches to teaching writing in the social sciences, particularly psychology: an English department-based course for all social science majors; a team-teaching model that embeds writing in core courses in psychology; and a stand-alone course dedicated to teaching writing in psychology, often taken…

  20. Comments and critique of the Ω anti Ω model for the new resonances

    Tow, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    The suggestion that the psi particles are Ω anti Ω compounds is briefly reviewed. Various arguments for their small widths are discussed. Crucial tests of the model are pointed out. Also comments are made on psi'' (4.15) and other B anti B systems. (U.S.)

  1. Obligatory Effort [Hishtadlut] as an Explanatory Model: A Critique of Reproductive Choice and Control.

    Teman, Elly; Ivry, Tsipy; Goren, Heela

    2016-06-01

    Studies on reproductive technologies often examine women's reproductive lives in terms of choice and control. Drawing on 48 accounts of procreative experiences of religiously devout Jewish women in Israel and the US, we examine their attitudes, understandings and experiences of pregnancy, reproductive technologies and prenatal testing. We suggest that the concept of hishtadlut-"obligatory effort"-works as an explanatory model that organizes Haredi women's reproductive careers and their negotiations of reproductive technologies. As an elastic category with negotiable and dynamic boundaries, hishtadlut gives ultra-orthodox Jewish women room for effort without the assumption of control; it allows them to exercise discretion in relation to medical issues without framing their efforts in terms of individual choice. Haredi women hold themselves responsible for making their obligatory effort and not for pregnancy outcomes. We suggest that an alternative paradigm to autonomous choice and control emerges from cosmological orders where reproductive duties constitute "obligatory choices."

  2. Critique of the use of deposition velocity in modeling indoor air quality

    Nazaroff, W.W.; Weschler, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    Among the potential fates of indoor air pollutants are a variety of physical and chemical interactions with indoor surfaces. In deterministic mathematical models of indoor air quality, these interactions are usually represented as a first-order loss process, with the loss rate coefficient given as the product of the surface-to-volume ratio of the room times a deposition velocity. In this paper, the validity of this representation of surface-loss mechanisms is critically evaluated. From a theoretical perspective, the idea of a deposition velocity is consistent with the following representation of an indoor air environment. Pollutants are well-mixed throughout a core region which is separated from room surfaces by boundary layers. Pollutants migrate through the boundary layers by a combination of diffusion (random motion resulting from collisions with surrounding gas molecules), advection (transport by net motion of the fluid), and, in some cases, other transport mechanisms. The rate of pollutant loss to a surface is governed by a combination of the rate of transport through the boundary layer and the rate of reaction at the surface. The deposition velocity expresses the pollutant flux density (mass or moles deposited per area per time) to the surface divided by the pollutant concentration in the core region. This concept has substantial value to the extent that the flux density is proportional to core concentration. Published results from experimental and modeling studies of fine particles, radon decay products, ozone, and nitrogen oxides are used as illustrations of both the strengths and weaknesses of deposition velocity as a parameter to indicate the rate of indoor air pollutant loss on surfaces. 66 refs., 5 tabs

  3. 69 ETUDE CRITIQUE DE LA QUESTION DU MARIAGE DANS UNE ...

    Ike Odimegwu

    et Mariama Bâ la ressent trop dans la société africaine. Ce théme sert à l'auteur un instrument pour dévoiler toutes sortes d'oppression de la femme .... Ba un outil pour dénoncer ce type de mariage où la jeune fille est sacrifiée au gré de sa ...

  4. Comparison of Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory Clean Critical and Subcritical Experiments with Calculations; Etude Comparative des Calculs et des Experiences Critiques Non Empoisonnees et Souscritiques, Faits au Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory; Sravnenie chistykh kriticheskikh i podkriticheskikh opytov v nolle s raschetnymi dannymi; Comparacion de los Resultados Experimentales del Knolls Atomic Power Lamra Tory con los Valores Calculados Teoricamente en Conjuntos Criticos Limpios y Subcriticos

    Bach, D. R.; Bistline, J. A.; Bunch, S. I.; Cerbone, R. J.; Feiner, F.; Skolnik, W.; Slovacek, R. E.; Weinstein, S. [Knolls Atomic Tower Laboratory, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1964-02-15

    conditions show agreement to within a few per cent of the measured decay constants in the range from 100 to 45 000 s{sup -1}. Comparison of the slow chopper spectrum measurements with calculated spectra using the most recent bound-hydrogen kernels for both water and polyethylene show good agreement except for highly absorbing water systems. In the latter case, the measured spectra are apparently even softer than the free atom calculated spectra. (author) [French] Le Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory a entrepris d'executer un programme intensif d'experiences et de calculs connexes pour determiner si les methodes de calcul et les donnees nucleaires conviennent pour les assemblages hydrogenes. Le programme comporte trois grandes parties: 1. Experiences critiques non empoisonnees avec combustible homogene solide pour lesquelles le rapport metal/hydrogene (en volume) est eleve; 2. Experiences critiques non empoisonnees avec combustible en plaques portant sur des gammes etendues des caracteristiques suivantes: dimension du coeur, rapport metal/eau. densite du combustible et temperature; 3. Mesures de la constante de decroissance des neutrons instantanes et du spectre a l'etat stationnaire sur des assemblages sous-critiques appartenant a la meme gamme de compositions. Pour les experiences visees sous 1, les elements combustibles sont des comprimes de poudres de ZrO{sub 2}, et d'UO{sub 2} fortement enrichi, melanges uniformement a de la paraffine. Avec des blocs reflecteurs dans lesquels le rapport ZrO{sub 2}/parraffine est le meme que dans les blocs combustibles, on a pu construire des coeurs reflechis avec des caracteristiques de ralentissement uniformes. L'ensemble critique est concu de telle facon que les configurations critiques soient de simples parallelepipedes rectangles sans canaux pour les barres de securite ou de reglage. On a fait des etudes de dimension critique sur des ensembles (avec et sans reflecteur) caracterises par des pertes en neutrons rapides, et des comparaisons

  5. Nuclear study of Melusine; Etude nucleaire de Melusine

    Cherot, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    In this report are reviewed - with respect to starting of experiments - the main nuclear characteristics of a 20 per cent enriched uranium lattice, with light water as moderator and reflector. The reactor is to operate at 1 MW. 1) Study of various critical masses. 2) Control. Effectiveness of cadmium. Control rods and of a stainless steel regulating rod. 3) Study of the effect on reactivity of disturbances in the core center. 4) Study of xenon and samarium poisoning. 5) Temperature factor. 6) Heat exchanges in a fuel element. (author) [French] On etudie, dans ce rapport, les principales proprietes nucleaires d'un reseau a uranium enrichi (20 pour cent), dont le moderateur et le reflecteur sont l'eau legere en vue des experiences de demarrage. Ce reacteur devra fonctionner a 1 MW. 1) Etude de diverses masses critiques. 2) Controle. Efficacite des barres de controle en cadmium et d'une barre de reglage en acier inoxydable. 3) Etude de l'effet sur la reactivite de perturbation au centre du coeur. 4) Etude de l'empoisonnement xenon et samarium. 5) Coefficient de temperature. 6) Echanges thermiques dans un element. (auteur)

  6. CREATION de VALEUR dans une STARTUP - MODELE et ETUDE de CAS

    Guillaume MARCEAU; Jean-Michel SAHUT

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we propose a value creation model based on the principle of the chain of value in corporate management. We particularly endeavour to show the incidence of a relevant allowance of a company's resources on its profitability, by distinguis

  7. Study of a one-dimensional model for a system of interacting fermions; Etude d'un modele a une dimension pour un systeme de fermions en interaction

    Gaudin, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-11-01

    The subject of this thesis is a one dimensional model for a quantum system of fermions with attractive or repulsive interaction. The eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Hamiltonian with periodic boundary conditions are exactly determined. The knowledge of the spectrum is essentially applied on the study of the attractive gas, characterized by the presence of 'pairs' or two particles bound states. This system can be described as a gas of 'one dimensional deuterons', which has some analogy with a boson gas. Some extensive properties of the ground state have been discussed for example energy as a function of the density and magnetization, for all the values of the coupling constant. The analytic properties of the energy function are studied, but not completely resolved. Finally the elementary excitations of the phonon type are considered and the dispersion curves are given. (author) [French] On etudie un modele a une dimension pour un systeme quantique de fermions en interaction attractive ou repulsive dans un volume donne. L'ensemble des niveaux d'energie et des etats propres du systeme est determine exactement. La connaissance du spectre est surtout appliquee a l'etude du gaz attractif, interessant par la presence de 'paires' ou etats lies a deux particules. On peut decrire ce systeme comme un gaz de 'deuterons a une dimension' qui possede quelque ressemblance avec un systeme de bosons. Quelques proprietes extensives de l'etat fondamental sont donnees, comme l'energie en fonction de la densite et de la magnetisation totale, pour toute valeur de la constante de couplage. Les proprietes analytiques de la fonction energie sont etudiees sans etre completement elucidees. On aborde enfin les excitations elementaires du systeme et on etablit la courbe de dispersion d'une excitation de type phonon. (auteur)

  8. Karl Marx: Critique as Emancipatory Practice

    Celikates, R.; de Boer, K.; Sonderegger, R.

    2012-01-01

    Critique of philosophy, critique of religion, critique of politics, critique of political economy - there is almost no sphere of modern society of which Karl Marx’s theory does not offer a critique. This makes it all the more necessary to investigate whether these different critiques possess any

  9. The Pragmatics of Critiquing

    2006-02-01

    philosophie (logique et argumentation), de la linguistique, de la psychologie et de la sociologie , ce document propose une étude de la critique...linguistique, de la psychologie et de la sociologie . Elle présente une revue exhaustive de l’analyse de l’argument et de l’argumentation qui nous

  10. Engagement beyond critique?

    Nielsen, Gritt B.; Jørgensen, Nanna Jordt

    2018-01-01

    In response to academic ideals of neutrality, complexity and cultural relativism promoted in postmodern cultural critique, different attempts have been made to make anthropology more “engaged” in the promotion of social change. In this article, we discuss three contemporary positions...

  11. Ideology, Critique and Surveillance

    Heidi Herzogenrath-Amelung

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The 2013 revelations concerning global surveillance programmes demonstrate in unprecedented clarity the need for Critical Theory of information and communication technologies (ICTs to address the mechanisms and implications of increasingly global, ubiquitous surveillance. This is all the more urgent because of the dominance of the “surveillance ideology” (the promise of security through surveillance that supports the political economy of surveillance. This paper asks which theoretical arguments and concepts can be useful for philosophically grounding a critique of this surveillance ideology. It begins by examining how the surveillance ideology works through language and introduces the concept of the ‘ideological packaging’ of ICTs to show how rhetoric surrounding the implementation of surveillance technologies reinforces the surveillance ideology. It then raises the problem of how ideology-critique can work if it relies on language itself and argues that Martin Heidegger’s philosophy can make a useful contribution to existing critical approaches to language.

  12. Non-normative Critique

    Hansen, Magnus Paulsen

    2016-01-01

    The close ties between modes of governing, subjectivities and critique in contemporary societies challenge the role of critical social research. The classical normative ethos of the unmasking researcher unravelling various oppressive structures of dominant vs. dominated groups in society is inade......The close ties between modes of governing, subjectivities and critique in contemporary societies challenge the role of critical social research. The classical normative ethos of the unmasking researcher unravelling various oppressive structures of dominant vs. dominated groups in society...... outlines a non-normative but critical programme based on an ethos of re-politicizing contemporary pervasive modes of governing. The analytical advantages and limitations of such a programme are demonstrated by readings of both Foucauldian studies and the works of and debates regarding the French pragmatic...

  13. Feminist Critiques Against Traditional Approaches to Security

    Petrus Kanisius Farneubun, P.

    Feminists claim that national security is a model of masculinity domination, which hardly disputed This essay addresses feminists critique on notion of conventional security and provides feminists own definition. It shows that feminists adopt comprehensive approach in relation to security. They tend

  14. Dance Critique as Signature Pedagogy

    Kearns, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    The curriculum of preprofessional university degree programs in dance typically comprise four components: theory and history, dance technique, creative process, and performance. This article focuses on critique in the modern dance technique and choreography components of the dance curriculum. Bachelor of Fine Arts programs utilize critique as a…

  15. Designing Critique for Knowledge Integration

    Sato, Mie Elissa

    Generating explanations is central to science and has the potential to have a powerful impact on students' conceptual understanding in science instruction. However, improving conceptual understanding by generating explanations is a fraught affair: students may struggle with the sense of false clarity that may arise from generating explanations, fail to detect gaps in their understanding, and dismiss salient information that contradict their beliefs. Critiquing explanations has the potential to counteract these pitfalls by exposing students to alternative ideas to contrast with their own. This dissertation seeks to clarify how to design critique in technology-enhanced science instruction to support students in revising their explanations about scientific phenomena, and in doing so, refining their conceptual understanding. Using the Knowledge Integration framework, I revised two technology-enhanced curriculum units, Plate Tectonics and Global Climate Change, in a design partnership between teachers, researchers, and technologists. I conducted a series of studies with sixth-grade students to investigate the conditions under which guided critique of explanations can support revision. The pilot critique study investigated the impact of the revised Plate Tectonics unit on students' understanding of convection, as well as of a preliminary design of critique where students generated and applied their own criteria for what makes a good explanation in science. The guidance study explored how incorporating a complex selection task that features meta-explanatory criteria into critique supports students in distinguishing among different criteria, as well as how students use peer or expert guidance on their initial explanation during revision. The critique study investigated how designing critique with a complex selection task that features plausible alternative ideas and giving guidance on students' critiques support students in distinguishing among a range of relevant ideas

  16. Essentialism, hybridism and cultural critique

    Frello, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    to social and cultural critique. Through a critical discussion of the concept of hybridity, I argue that rather than expecting to find definite emancipating or suppressing capacities connected to constructions of the ‘hybrid' and the ‘pure', we should focus on how these two poles are invested with meaning...... and related to power. Hence, while insisting on Cultural Studies' commitment to social and cultural critique, I argue that this critique would benefit from an analytical sensitivity towards the uses and abuses of the discursive power to designate meaningful and legitimate subject positions, rather than...

  17. Alecto 2 - interaction studies; Alecto 2 - etudes d'interaction

    Brunet, J P; Clouet d' Orval, Ch; Mougniot, J C; Penet, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    Weak interactions were experimentally studies with the tank of the critical assembly Alecto II and one, two or three bottles containing solutions of various concentrations. In particular, was studied the validity of certain classical assumptions, shielding effects, screening and semi-reflexion effects, importance of thermal coupling. The method of the 'k{sub eff}, solid angle' is shown to apply to such a system. The determination by divergence and pulsed neutron technique of the reactivity related to a millimeter of solution level affords the obtention of critical heights in terms of reactivity. (authors) [French] Une etude experimentale d'interactions faibles a ete faite entre la cuve de l'experience critique ALECTO II et une, deux ou trois bouteilles contenant des concentrations variees. On etudie, en particulier, la validite de certaines hypotheses classiques, effets d'ombre, d'ecrans, de semi-reflexion, importance du couplage thermique. On montre d'autre part que la methode du 'K{sub eff}, angle solide' peut s'appliquer a un tel systeme. La determination par divergence et neutrons pulses de la reactivite liee au millimetre de solution permet de traduire les hauteurs critiques obtenues, en terme de reactivite. (auteurs)

  18. Critique of the use of ICRP-29's 'Robustness Index' in evaluating uncertainties associated with radiological assessment models

    Hoffman, F O; Schwarz, G; Killough, G G [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1980-08-01

    Concern is expressed regarding the use of the robustness index, as proposed in ICRP 29, to characterise the uncertainties associated with a model's predictions. Results of a Monte Carlo simulation employing a model of the grass-cow-milk-infant pathway for /sup 131/I are used to elucidate the author's criticisms. It is recommended that the robustness index should be carefully examined to appraise its possible usefulness and potential dangers. Alternate methods for analysis of uncertainty are proposed.

  19. Advanced Change Theory Revisited: An Article Critique

    R. Scott Pochron

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of life in 21st century society requires new models for leading and managing change. With that in mind, this paper revisits the model for Advanced Change Theory (ACT as presented by Quinn, Spreitzer, and Brown in their article, “Changing Others Through Changing Ourselves: The Transformation of Human Systems” (2000. The authors present ACT as a potential model for facilitating change in complex organizations. This paper presents a critique of the article and summarizes opportunities for further exploring the model in the light of current trends in developmental and integral theory.

  20. Exploring the critiques of the social model of disability: the transformative possibility of Arendt's notion of power.

    Owens, Janine

    2015-03-01

    The social model of disability has demonstrated political success for disabled people in society. At the same time, it has been labelled an outdated ideology in need of further development. While the social model of disability has been used successfully for political activism, it has simultaneously created conflict and tensions in disability studies, sociology and the sociology of the body. This article sheds light on the confusion surrounding the social model of disability by discussing the historical emergence of its different forms. It then proceeds to analyse and evaluate key criticisms of the social model of disability. The article then goes on to explore the relevance of different forms of power to the current discourse on disability before proceeding to explore in depth what might be gained from the approach of one particular theorist on power; Hannah Arendt. It suggests that there may be merit in drawing on Arendt and illustrates some of the benefits of a more nuanced idea of a pluralistic body and experiences. © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  1. Methodes d'amas quantiques a temperature finie appliquees au modele de Hubbard

    Plouffe, Dany

    Depuis leur decouverte dans les annees 80, les supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique ont suscite beaucoup d'interet en physique du solide. Comprendre l'origine des phases observees dans ces materiaux, telle la supraconductivite, est l'un des grands defis de la physique theorique du solide des 25 dernieres annees. L'un des mecanismes pressentis pour expliquer ces phenomenes est la forte interaction electron-electron. Le modele de Hubbard est l'un des modeles les plus simples pour tenir compte de ces interactions. Malgre la simplicite apparente de ce modele, certaines de ses caracteristiques, dont son diagramme de phase, ne sont toujours pas bien etablies, et ce malgre plusieurs avancements theoriques dans les dernieres annees. Cette etude se consacre a faire une analyse de methodes numeriques permettant de calculer diverses proprietes du modele de Hubbard en fonction de la temperature. Nous decrivons des methodes (la VCA et la CPT) qui permettent de calculer approximativement la fonction de Green a temperature finie sur un systeme infini a partir de la fonction de Green calculee sur un amas de taille finie. Pour calculer ces fonctions de Green, nous allons utiliser des methodes permettant de reduire considerablement les efforts numeriques necessaires pour les calculs des moyennes thermodynamiques, en reduisant considerablement l'espace des etats a considerer dans ces moyennes. Bien que cette etude vise d'abord a developper des methodes d'amas pour resoudre le modele de Hubbard a temperature finie de facon generale ainsi qu'a etudier les proprietes de base de ce modele, nous allons l'appliquer a des conditions qui s'approchent de supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique. Les methodes presentees dans cette etude permettent de tracer un diagramme de phase pour l'antiferromagnetisme et la supraconductivite qui presentent plusieurs similarites avec celui des supraconducteurs a haute temperature. Mots-cles : modele de Hubbard, thermodynamique

  2. Study of transfer reactions ({alpha},t), ({alpha},{sup 3}He) in the f-p shell: mechanism and spectroscopic use; Etude des reactions de transfert ({alpha},t), ({alpha},{sup 3}He) dans la couche f-p mecanisme et utilisation spectroscopique

    Roussel, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-05-01

    We describe an experimental study of ({alpha},t), ({alpha},{sup 3}He) reactions at 44 MeV using a solid-state identifier, on the target-nuclei {sup 54}Fe and {sup 58,60,62,64}Ni. A critical study of optical model and of disturbed wave analysis has been performed. We show the complementarity of different transfer-reactions, the ambiguity of spectroscopic factors, the importance of the problem of the reaction mechanism. (author) [French] On decrit une etude experimentale des reactions ({alpha},t), ({alpha},{sup 3}He) a 44 MeV utilisant un systeme identificateur de particules sur les noyaux-cibles {sup 54}Fe et {sup 58,60,62,64}Ni. Une etude critique de modele optique et d'analyse en ondes deformees (D.W.B.A.) a ete entreprise. On montre la complementarite des differentes reactions de transfert, l'ambiguite des facteurs spectroscopiques, l'importance du probleme du mecanisme. (auteur)

  3. Public Policy and Foucaultian Critique

    Karlsen, Mads Peter; Villadsen, Kaspar

    2012-01-01

    This article suggests that certain intertwinements can be discerned between contemporary public policies and post-structural thinking, emblematically represented by Foucault and scholars drawing upon his work. The article demonstrates that the post-structural perspective on power, while recognising...... its strengths and efficacy, confines observers to a particular form of analytical critique, which sets specific limits for what can be observed and debated. The position of Nikolas Rose is discussed with a specific attention to his diagnosis of the adoption of ‘community’ as a governmental category...... and his understanding of the relationship between power and critique. A significant challenge for this form of critique is the recent embracing of concepts of ‘diversity’ and ‘pluralism’, both in welfare reforms and service arrangements. Another difficulty is posed by how to engage with the material...

  4. CASE STUDY CRITIQUE; UPPER CLINCH CASE STUDY

    Case study critique: Upper Clinch case study (from Research on Methods for Integrating Ecological Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment: A Trade-off Weighted Index Approach to Integrating Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment). This critique answers the questions: 1) does ...

  5. Retour sur les critiques anarchistes du marxisme

    Angaut , Jean-Christophe

    2013-01-01

    There is a tendency evident in the various strands of contemporary anarchism to ignore both Marx, Marxism and the history of Marxism, and the critiques formulated by the anarchist tradition. Against this tendency, the aim of the present article is to emphasize both the contemporary relevance of these critiques and the contribution of Marxism to a radical critique of all forms of domination. It therefore recalls the role played by the critique of Marxism in the elaboration of the anarchist mov...

  6. Study of the long-term values and prices of plutonium; a simplified parametrized model; Etude des valeurs et des prix du plutonium a long terme; un modele parametre simplifie

    Gaussens, J; Paillot, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The authors define the notions of use values and price of plutonium. They give a 'simplified parametrized model' simulating the equilibrium of the offer and the demand in time, concerning the plutonium and the price deriving from the relative scarcity of this metal, taking into account the technical and economic operating parameters of the various reactors confronted. This model is simple enough to allow direct computations and establish clear relations between the various parameters. The use of the linear programmes method allows on the other hand a wide extension of the model. This report includes three main parts: I - General description of the study (without detailed calculations) II - Mathematical development of the simplified parametrized model and application (the basic data and the results of the calculations are given) III - Appendices (giving the detailed computations of part II). (authors) [French] Les auteurs definissent les notions de valeurs d'usage et de prix du plutonium. Ils donnent un 'modele parametre simplifie' simulant l'equilibre de l'office et de la demande dans le temps concernant le plutonium et le prix qui decoule de la rarete relative de ce metal, compte tenu des parametres techniques et economiques de fonctionnement des divers reacteurs en presence. Ce modele est suffisamment simple pour permettre des calculs manuels et etablir des liaisons claires entre les divers parametres. L'utilisation de la technique des programmes lineaires permet par ailleurs une extension considerable du modele. Cette note comprend trois parties: I - Expose general de l'etude (sans expose du detail des calculs) II - Developpement mathematique du modele parametre simplifie et application (on precise les donnees de base et le resultat des calculs) III - Annexes (donnant le detail des calculs de la partie II). (auteurs)

  7. Political realism as ideology critique

    Prinz, J.; Rossi, E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines an account of political realism as a form of ideology critique. We defend the normative edge of this critical-theoretic project against the common charge that there is a problematic trade-off between a theory’s groundedness in facts about the political status quo and its ability

  8. Mistral project: identification and parameter adjustment. Theoretical part; Projet Mistral: identification et recalage des modeles. Etude theorique

    Faille, D.; Codrons, B.; Gevers, M.

    1996-03-01

    This document belongs to the methodological part of the project MISTRAL, which builds a library of power plant models. The model equations are generally obtained from the first principles. The parameters are actually not always easily calculable (at least accurately) from the dimension data. We are therefore investigating the possibility of automatically adjusting the value of those parameters from experimental data. To do that, we must master the optimization algorithms and the techniques that are analyzing the model structure, like the identifiability theory. (authors). 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 append.

  9. A Feminist Critique of Solution-Focused Therapy.

    Dermer, Shannon B.; Hemesath, Crystal Wilhite; Russell, Candyce S.

    1998-01-01

    Applying the feminist critique to solution-focused therapy highlights the strengths and weaknesses of this model from a feminist perspective. Although solution-focused therapy and feminist approaches share an emphasis on competence and strengths, solution-focused theory tends to overlook gender and power differences. In general, the model falls…

  10. Modeling and numerical study of transfers in fissured environments; Modelisation et etude numerique des transferts en milieux fissures

    Granet, S.

    2000-01-28

    Oil recovery from fractured reservoirs plays a very important role in the petroleum industry. Some of the world most productive oil fields are located in naturally fractured reservoirs. Modelling flow in such a fracture network is a very complex problem. This is conventionally done using a specific idealized model. This model is based on the Warren and Root representation and on a dual porosity, dual permeability approach. A simplified formulation of matrix-fracture fluid transfers uses a pseudo-steady-state transfer equation involving a constant exchange coefficient. Such a choice is one of the main difficulties of this approach. To get a better understanding of the simplifications involved in the dual porosity approach a reference model must be available. To obtain such a fine description, we have developed a new methodology. This technique called 'the fissure element methodology' is based on a specific gridding of the fractured medium. The fissure network is gridded with linear elements coupled with an unstructured triangular grid of matrix. An appropriate finite volume scheme has been developed to provide a good description of the flow. The numerical development of is precisely described. A simulator has been developed using this method. Several simulations have been realised. Comparisons have been done with different dual-porosity dual-permeability models. A reflexion concerning the choice of the exchange coefficient used in the dual porosity model is then proposed. This new tool has permit to have a better understanding of the production mechanisms of a complex fractured reservoir. (author)

  11. The Dialectics of Communicative and Immanent Critique

    Johan Fornäs

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In cultural studies and cultural research, the importance of being critical is often stressed, but it is more rare to scrutinise how such critique is and can be performed. This text discusses different modes of critique, in three main steps. First, a brief review of the history and signifying layers of the concept of critique itself leads up to a late modern communicative concept of critique, linked to the contested relation between critique and tradition, and based on how Paul Ricoeur has interpreted ideology critique and the hermeneutics of suspicion. This communicative mode is contrasted to critical approaches that strive to radically dissociate themselves from others. Second, it is argued that the most powerful sources of critique are to be sought in the inner contradictions of the targeted spheres of social reality rather than applied from the outside. Such immanent – as opposed to transcendent – critique, has been formulated and exercised by Karl Marx, Theodor W. Adorno and Walter Benjamin, among others. The third section sums up the spiral moves of cultural studies as informed by critical hermeneutics: dialectical critique based on communicative and immanent critique must be on the move, never frozen, and may temporarily and locally explore radical and transcendent modes of critique, in ways that have been discussed by Donna Haraway.

  12. Disability as infra-critique

    Gad, Christopher; Dalsgaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    and we examine parts of the historical background for the production of authority in the context of managing disability as exception during polling. In doing so we point out that as the organization of electoral processes evolves, new potentialities for infra-critique also emerge.......This article investigates how disability can work analytically as a ‘critique from within’. Our case is the accommodation of citizens with disabilities during the voting process in Denmark. Here disability makes explicit how Danish democracy is produced as disability rubs up against implicit...... this offers. We analyze an incident at a polling booth during the 2013 Danish Municipal election. This renders visible some of the complex socio-material processes through which citizens and the Danish state co-enact and co-authorize one another. We highlight how ‘detachments’ are vital to such processes...

  13. Experimental transmission electron microscopy studies and phenomenological model of bismuth-based superconducting compounds; Etudes experimentales par microscopie electronique en transmission et modele phenomenologique des composes supraconducteurs a base de bismuth

    Elboussiri, Khalid

    1991-09-26

    The main part of this thesis is devoted to an experimental study by transmission electron microscopy of the different phases of the superconducting bismuth cuprates Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub n-1}Cu{sub n}O{sub 2n+4}. In high resolution electron microscopy, the two types of incommensurate modulation realized in these compounds have been observed. A model of structure has been proposed from which the simulated images obtained are consistent with observations. The medium resolution images correlated with the electron diffraction data have revealed existence of a multi-soliton regime with latent lock in phases of commensurate periods between 4b and 10b. At last, a description of different phases of these compounds as a result of superstructures from a disordered perovskite type structure is proposed (author) [French] Le travail presente dans cette these consiste en une etude experimentale essentiellement par microscopie electronique en transmission des differentes phases supraconductrices presentes dans les composes appartenant a la famille des cuprates de bismuth Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub n-1}Cu{sub n}O{sub 2n+4}. Les obsevations de microscopie electronique a haute resolution ont permis de mettre en evidence les differentes modulations incommensurables realisees dans ces composes. Un modele de structure est propose et a permis d'obtenir des images simulees compatibles avec les observations. D'autre part, les observations de microscopie electronique en moyenne resolution sur ces composes, combinees avec les resultats de diffraction electronique, ont montre l'existence d'un regime multisoliton associe a des phases de Lock-in latentes de parametres compris entre 4b et 10b. Enfin, une description des differentes phases de ces composes en terme de surstructures derivees de structure perovskite desordonnee est exposee. (auteur)

  14. The econometrics of the Holy Grail : A critique (Revised version)

    Keuzenkamp, H.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the methodological views of David Hendry. A critique is given on the reification of the so-called Data Generating Process. The merits of general to specific modelling are analyzed. Hendry's neo-Popperian philosophy is examined. It is argued that this philosophy is not able to

  15. Critical and sub-critical experiments on U-BeO lattices; Experiences critiques et sous-critiques sur reseaux U-BeO

    Benoist, P.; Gourdon, Ch.; Martelly, J.; Sagot, M.; Wanner, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Deniz, V.; Joshi, B.V.; Sahai, K. [Atomic Energy Establishment Trombay (India)

    1958-07-01

    Sub-critical experiments have allowed us to measure the material buckling of uranium natural oxide of beryllium lattices with a grid of 15 cm, and made up of uranium bars measuring 2.60 - 2.92 - 3.56 and 4.40 cm of diameter. A critical experiment has then been conducted with hollow 1.35 per cent enriched uranium bars. A study of U-BeO 18.03 cm grid lattices is at present being conducted. (author)Fren. [French] Nous avons mesure par des experiences sous-critiques le laplacien matiere de reseaux uranium naturel-oxyde de beryllium, dont la maille carree a un pas de 15 cm, realises avec des barreaux d'uranium de diametres 2,60 - 2,92 - 3,56 - 4,40 cm. Une experience critique a ete faite ensuite avec des barres creuses d'uranium enrichi a 1,35 pour cent; l'etude des reseaux U-BeO de pas 18,03 cm est actuellement en cours. (auteur)

  16. Critical and sub-critical experiments on U-BeO lattices; Experiences critiques et sous-critiques sur reseaux U-BeO

    Benoist, P; Gourdon, Ch; Martelly, J; Sagot, M; Wanner, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Deniz, V; Joshi, B V; Sahai, K [Atomic Energy Establishment Trombay (India)

    1958-07-01

    Sub-critical experiments have allowed us to measure the material buckling of uranium natural oxide of beryllium lattices with a grid of 15 cm, and made up of uranium bars measuring 2.60 - 2.92 - 3.56 and 4.40 cm of diameter. A critical experiment has then been conducted with hollow 1.35 per cent enriched uranium bars. A study of U-BeO 18.03 cm grid lattices is at present being conducted. (author)Fren. [French] Nous avons mesure par des experiences sous-critiques le laplacien matiere de reseaux uranium naturel-oxyde de beryllium, dont la maille carree a un pas de 15 cm, realises avec des barreaux d'uranium de diametres 2,60 - 2,92 - 3,56 - 4,40 cm. Une experience critique a ete faite ensuite avec des barres creuses d'uranium enrichi a 1,35 pour cent; l'etude des reseaux U-BeO de pas 18,03 cm est actuellement en cours. (auteur)

  17. A Critique of Instructional

    McKernan, James

    2010-01-01

    The ‘objectives model’ of curriculum planning, predicated upon behavioural performances, has become the dominant form of curriculum planning in Europe and elsewhere in the world. This paper argues that the objectives model is satisfactory for training or instruction, but falls down when applied to a true sense of ‘education’. The paper outlines 13 limitations on the use of educational objectives. It is argued that those interested in using objectives are guided by evaluation as assessment rat...

  18. High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Critical Experiment and its Application to Thorium Absorption Rates; Experience Critique pour l'Etude d'un Reacteur a Haute Temperature, Refroidi par un Gaz et son Application a la Determination des Taux d'Absorption du Thorium; Kriticheskij opyt, postavlennyj na vysokotemperaturnom reaktore s gazovym okhlazhdeniem, i primenenie ego dlya opredeleniya stepeni pogloshcheniya toriya; Experimento Critico Efectuado en un Reactor de Elevada Temperatura Refrigerado por Gas y su Aplicacion para Calcular los Indices de Absorcion del Torio

    Bardes, R. G.; Brown, J. R.; Drake, M. K.; Fischer, P. U.; Pound, D. C.; Sampson, J. B.; Stewart, H. B. [General Dynamics Corporation,San Diego, CA (United States)

    1964-04-15

    the fact that the thorium is dispersed in graphite and the usual cadmium-ratio technique is difficult to apply. Comparison of experimental and theoretical results shows excellent agreement over a range of variables. In addition, the results of both activation and reactivity measurements of Doppler coefficient are in agreement, a fact which is felt to be significant in view of the disparity between results from these two techniques in the literature. (author) [French] Lors de l'etude du reacteur HTGR a haute temperature refroidi par un gaz, et de son premier prototype a Peach Bottom, la General Atomic Division de la societe General Dynamics a decide qu'il fallait proceder a une experience critique pour obtenir certaines donnees d'entree necessaires pour l'analyse nucleaire. Aux fins de l'etude nucleaire theorique, les besoins particuliers en donnees d'entree relatives aux absorptions par le thorium ont amene les ingenieurs a concevoir un assemblage experimental critique compose d'un reseau central entoure d*une region tampon et d'une region de commande. Ce type.d'assemblage, dans lequel on peut creer le spectre a mesurer dans le reseau central relativement petit ayant la geometrie voulue, permet d'obtenir des donnees d'entree tres diverses pour les etudes de projets nouveaux, au point de vue de l'analyse nucleaire. Le memoire indique les avantages particuliers que presente cette methode par rapport a celle qiu consiste a construire une maquette, ainsi que le role de la theorie pour determiner quelles experiences sont le plus utiles et comment utiliser ensuite ces experiences dans la verification des procedes d'etude. Les auteurs ont mis au point deux methodes relativement nouvelles qui peuvent etre utilisees avec l'assemblage decrit ci-dessus: une methode d'oscillation de la reactivite pour determiner le coefficient Doppler pour le thorium; une methode d'activation pour determiner a la fois l'integrale de resonance pour le thorium disperse dans le graphite et ses

  19. Under the Gaze of Double Critique

    Sabih, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    of the theory of double critique: decolonisation, desacralisation and the orphan book are operative in Ḫaṭībī´s analysis of Orientalism, identity, and the issue of origin. As a professional outsider, Ḫaṭībī follows conceptually and methodologically the rules of the epistemological critique in an enunciation...

  20. Two Forms of Philosophical Argument or Critique

    Marshall, James D.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the author looks at two forms of philosophical argument or critique. These are derived by himself from the work of the late Kantian scholar, Stephan Korner who, in his book "What is Philosophy?" (1969), draws a number of distinctions between different forms of "philosophical" argument or critique. The two forms of derived argument,…

  1. Etude des phenomenes dynamiques ultrarapides et des caracteristiques impulsionnelles d'emission terahertz du supraconducteur YBCO

    Savard, Stephane

    Les premieres etudes d'antennes a base de supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique emettant une impulsion electromagnetique dont le contenu en frequence se situe dans le domaine terahertz remontent a 1996. Une antenne supraconductrice est formee d'un micro-pont d'une couche mince supraconductrice sur lequel un courant continu est applique. Un faisceau laser dans le visible est focalise sur le micro-pont et place le supraconducteur dans un etat hors-equilibre ou des paires sont brisees. Grace a la relaxation des quasiparticules en surplus et eventuellement de la reformation des paires supraconductrices, nous pouvons etudier la nature de la supraconductivite. L'analyse de la cinetique temporelle du champ electromagnetique emis par une telle antenne terahertz supraconductrice s'est averee utile pour decrire qualitativement les caracteristiques de celle-ci en fonction des parametres d'operation tels que le courant applique, la temperature et la puissance d'excitation. La comprehension de l'etat hors-equilibre est la cle pour comprendre le fonctionnement des antennes terahertz supraconductrices a haute temperature critique. Dans le but de comprendre ultimement cet etat hors-equilibre, nous avions besoin d'une methode et d'un modele pour extraire de facon plus systematique les proprietes intrinseques du materiau qui compose l'antenne terahertz a partir des caracteristiques d'emission de celle-ci. Nous avons developpe une procedure pour calibrer le spectrometre dans le domaine temporel en utilisant des antennes terahertz de GaAs bombarde aux protons H+ comme emetteur et detecteur. Une fois le montage calibre, nous y avons insere une antenne emettrice dipolaire de YBa 2Cu3O7-delta . Un modele avec des fonctions exponentielles de montee et de descente du signal est utilise pour lisser le spectre du champ electromagnetique de l'antenne de YBa 2Cu3O7-delta, ce qui nous permet d'extraire les proprietes intrinseques de ce dernier. Pour confirmer la validite du modele

  2. Study of magnetic excitations in the high critical temperature La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} superconductor with neutrons inelastic scattering; Etude des excitations magnetiques dans le supraconducteur a haute temperature critique La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} par diffusion inelastique des neutrons

    Petit, S

    1997-11-25

    In this work, we question the relevance of spin correlations in the problem of high-T{sub c} superconductivity. To characterize these correlations, we present a detailed inelastic neutron scattering study of the magnetic excitations spectrum, in the high T{sub c} La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} copper oxide superconductor, as a function of temperature and strontium content x. Our study demonstrates the existence of two distinct types of fluctuations. The first type corresponds to two-dimensional isotropic fluctuations peaked at incommensurate points around the antiferromagnetic wavevector. These fluctuations show a gap below T{sub c}. The second type of fluctuations corresponds to two-dimensional very low energy, typically 1 MeV, antiferromagnetic correlations. They arise at low temperatures, for T {<=}T{sub f} {approx} 10 K {<=}T{sub c}. Different scenarios are discussed, namely particle-hole excitation arising because of nesting properties of the Fermi surface, stripes, and localized carriers in the CuO{sub 2} plane because of the La/Sr substitution disorder. Next, aiming to study the interrelation between magnetism and superconductivity, we present a theoretical perturbative treatment of the t-t`-J model. This model is believed to describe the physics of the CuO{sub 2} plane. The considered quasiparticles describe the motion of a doped hole, followed by localized spins on the copper sites. For a given doping x, two phases can exist, containing either x or 1 + x of these quasiparticles. We show at in the second phase, the exchange interaction between localized spins, combined to the intrinsic anharmonicity of these quasiparticles leads to an attractive interaction between them. We study the stability and the symmetry of a superconducting phase based on this mechanism. (author) 215 refs.

  3. Voicing children's critique and utopias

    Husted, Mia; Lind, Unni

    and restrictions, Call for aesthetics an sensuality, Longings for home and parents, Longings for better social relations Making children's voice visible allows preschool teachers to reflect children's knowledge and life word in pedagogical practice. Keywords: empowerment and participation, action research...... children to raise and render visible their own critique and wishes related to their everyday life in daycare. Research on how and why to engage children as participants in research and in institutional developments addresses overall interests in democratization and humanization that can be traced back...... to strategies for Nordic welfare developments and the Conventions on Children's Rights. The theoretical and methodological framework follow the lines of how to form and learn democracy of Lewin (1948) and Dewey (1916). The study is carried out as action research involving 50 children at age three to five...

  4. The Closing of Critique, Pluralism and Reflexivity

    Alvesson, Mats; Kärreman, Dan

    2013-01-01

    addresses wider concerns regarding the politics of research and publishing and the conditions of critique at the present time. The pressure and eagerness to get published lead to strong subspecialization and an inclination to build research approaches within which authors are inclined to reproduce shared...... assumptions and be unwelcome to critical explorations. The article points to the risk of assumption-challenging work being marginalized through the anticipation of critique leading to hostile reactions and specialized, politically motivated reviewers blocking the publication of far-reaching critique....

  5. The Theun-Hinboun public-private partnership: a critique of the Asian Development Bank's model hydropower venture in Lao PDR

    Ryder, G.

    1999-10-01

    Financing of the Theun-Hinboun hydroelectric project in Laos, developed by Statkraft, the Norwegian state utility and Vattenfall, its Swedish counterpart, is critiqued. The two utilities put up $ 22 million for Nordic Hydropower's stake in the project and the Norwegian agency for development cooperation provided $ 8 million more for feasibility study, design and environmental mitigation plans. The project was supervised by Nordic Hydropower, a company which also has the contract for operation and management. Electrical and mechanical equipment was supplied by Norwegian and Swedish companies with financing from Nordic export credit agencies and the multilateral Nordic Investment Bank. Proponents of the project consider it as a great success, a 'first' in terms of foreign investment, legal framework, financing, cross-border electricity sale (to Thailand) and logistics. This report suggests that the biggest success of the project's proponents has been their ability to cajole private investors into an otherwise 'unbankable' venture in Laos, which would never have been backed by commercial lenders, who quite apart from country-specific risks, regard hydrodams as high-risk, low return investments, with a reputation for cost overruns and delays due to environmental problems and public opposition, had it not been for the zeal of the Asian Development Bank for public-private partnership. It is charged that as a result of this zeal, willingly assisted by the Nordic export credit agencies, the Government of Laos, and the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT), each for its private reasons, taxpayers responsible for these institutions have been forced to shoulder risks that the private sector prudently refused to take. As part-owners of the project, Lao citizens owe the Asian Development Bank $ 60 million, taxpayers in Nordic countries are responsible for $ 70 million and Thai taxpayers (owners of 20 per cent of the project) will also have to pay irrespective of

  6. Hare's preference utilitarianism: an overview and critique

    Mauro Cardoso Simões

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available My purpose in this paper is to summarize some aspects of utilitarianism and to provide a general overview of Hare's preference utilitarianism, followed by a critique of Hare's preference theory.

  7. THE POLITICAL CRITIQUE OF SPIKE Lee's Bamboozled

    Admin

    CONTEMPORARY AMERICAN MEDIA: THE POLITICAL. CRITIQUE OF SPIKE ... KEYWORDS: Blackface Minstrelsy, Racist Stereotypes and American Media. INTRODUCTION ..... of a difference that is itself a process of disavowal.” In this ...

  8. Phase field model for the study of boiling; Modele de champ de phase pour l'etude de l'ebullition

    Ruyer, P

    2006-07-15

    This study concerns both the modeling and the numerical simulation of boiling flows. First we propose a review concerning nucleate boiling at high wall heat flux and focus more particularly on the current understanding of the boiling crisis. From this analysis we deduce a motivation for the numerical simulation of bubble growth dynamics. The main and remaining part of this study is then devoted to the development and analyze of a phase field model for the liquid-vapor flows with phase change. We propose a thermodynamic quasi-compressible formulation whose properties match the one required for the numerical study envisaged. The system of governing equations is a thermodynamically consistent regularization of the sharp interface model, that is the advantage of the di use interface models. We show that the thickness of the interface transition layer can be defined independently from the thermodynamic description of the bulk phases, a property that is numerically attractive. We derive the kinetic relation that allows to analyze the consequences of the phase field formulation on the model of the dissipative mechanisms. Finally we study the numerical resolution of the model with the help of simulations of phase transition in simple configurations as well as of isothermal bubble dynamics. (author)

  9. Study of the two-dimensional Hubbard model at half-filling through constructive methods; Etude du modele de Hubbard bidimensionnel a demi remplissage par des methodes constructives

    Afchain, St

    2005-02-15

    The Hubbard model is the simplest model to describe the behaviour of fermions on a network, it takes into account only fermion scattering and only interactions with other fermions located on the same site. Half-filling means that the total number of fermions is equal to half the number of sites. In the first chapter we show how we can pass trough successive approximations from a very general Hamiltonian to the Hubbard Hamiltonian. The second chapter is dedicated to the passage from the Hamiltonian formalism to the Grassmanian functional formalism. The main idea is to show that the correlation functions of the Hamiltonian approach can be described through fermionic functional integrals which implies the possibility of speaking of the model in terms of field theory. The chapter 3 deals with the main constructive techniques that allow the strict and consistent construction of models inside the frame of field theory. We show by proving the violation of a condition concerning self-energy, that the two-dimensional Hubbard model at half-filling has not the behaviour of a Fermi liquid in the Landau's interpretation. (A.C.)

  10. Mathematical study of chemical kinetics schemes. Application to air pollution models; Etude mathematique de schemas de cinetique chimique. Application a des modeles de pollution atmospherique

    Billette, E.

    1997-06-23

    Complex chemical kinetics modelling is relevant in numerous fields related to the petroleum industry, for instance engine combustion, petrochemistry and atmospheric pollution. Many numerical difficulties are encountered in the computation of these models, mainly due to the large size, the non-linearity and the stiffness of the associated ordinary differential systems. We first studied systems that have an asymptotic behaviour which may be derived from an algebraic analysis. Then we reviewed different methods that make possible the reduction of size and stiffness for chemical kinetics-related differential systems, and suggest possible improvements for some of those methods. We also studied their application to atmospheric chemistry models. Finally, we started to extend those reduction methods to partial differential systems that include, in addition to chemical kinetics, other phenomena such as species emission, advection or diffusion. (author) 44 refs.

  11. Critiques of the risk concept

    Nexøe, Jørgen; Halvorsen, Peder Andreas; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø

    2007-01-01

    The increasing use of the risk concept in healthcare has caused concern among medical doctors, especially general practitioners (GPs). Critics have claimed that risk identification and intervention create unfounded anxiety, that the concept of risk is not useful at the individual patient level, t...... useful for GPs, and in fact a key issue. It is concluded that risk critique should be based on sound theory and empirical data. Critics may do well in making clear distinctions between facts and value judgements......The increasing use of the risk concept in healthcare has caused concern among medical doctors, especially general practitioners (GPs). Critics have claimed that risk identification and intervention create unfounded anxiety, that the concept of risk is not useful at the individual patient level...... interests promote risk interventions, that patients may misunderstand risk information, and that risk information can cause unnecessary anxiety. The authors have found no empirical data on the amount of time primary healthcare providers spend on risk interventions, and have not identified any valid...

  12. Study of the permeability up-scaling by direct filtering of geostatistical model; Etude du changement d'echelle des permeabilites par filtrage direct du modele geostatistique

    Zargar, G

    2005-10-15

    In this thesis, we present a new approach, which consists in directly up-scaling the geostatistical permeability distribution rather than the individual realizations. Practically, filtering techniques based on. the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform), allows us to generate geostatistical images, which sample the up-scaled distributions. In the log normal case, an equivalence hydraulic criterion is proposed, allowing to re-estimate the geometric mean of the permeabilities. In the anisotropic case, the effective geometric mean becomes a tensor which depends on the level of filtering used and it can be calculated by a method of renormalisation. Then, the method was generalized for the categorial model. Numerical tests of the method were set up for isotropic, anisotropic and categorial models, which shows good agreement with theory. (author)

  13. Study of the permeability up-scaling by direct filtering of geostatistical model; Etude du changement d'echelle des permeabilites par filtrage direct du modele geostatistique

    Zargar, G.

    2005-10-15

    In this thesis, we present a new approach, which consists in directly up-scaling the geostatistical permeability distribution rather than the individual realizations. Practically, filtering techniques based on. the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform), allows us to generate geostatistical images, which sample the up-scaled distributions. In the log normal case, an equivalence hydraulic criterion is proposed, allowing to re-estimate the geometric mean of the permeabilities. In the anisotropic case, the effective geometric mean becomes a tensor which depends on the level of filtering used and it can be calculated by a method of renormalisation. Then, the method was generalized for the categorial model. Numerical tests of the method were set up for isotropic, anisotropic and categorial models, which shows good agreement with theory. (author)

  14. Article Review: Advanced Change Theory Revisited: An Article Critique

    R. Scott Pochron

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of life in 21st century society requires new models for leadingand managing change. With that in mind, this paper revisits the model for AdvancedChange Theory (ACT as presented by Quinn, Spreitzer, and Brown in their article,“Changing Others Through Changing Ourselves: The Transformation of HumanSystems” (2000. The authors present ACT as a potential model for facilitating change incomplex organizations. This paper presents a critique of the article and summarizesopportunities for further exploring the model in the light of current trends indevelopmental and integral theory.

  15. ETUDE - European Trade Union Distance Education.

    Creanor, Linda; Walker, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Describes transnational distance learning activities among European trade union educators carried out as part of the European Trade Union Distance Education (ETUDE) project, supported by the European Commission. Highlights include the context of international trade union distance education; tutor training course; tutors' experiences; and…

  16. Etude aerodynamique d'un jet turbulent impactant une paroi concave

    LeBlanc, Benoit

    , tridimensionnel. Les nombres de Reynolds utilises dans l'etude numerique, bases sur le diametre du jet lineaire observe, sont de Red = 3333 et 6667, consideres comme etant en transition vers la turbulence. Dans cette etude, un montage numerique est construit. Le maillage, le schema numerique, les conditions frontiere et la discretisation sont discutes et choisis. Les resultats sont ensuite valides avec des donnees turbulentes experimentales. En modelisation numerique de turbulence, les modeles de Moyennage Reynolds des Equations Naviers Stokes (RANS) presentent des difficultes avec des ecoulements instationnaires en regime transitionnel. La Simulation des Grandes Echelles (LES) presente une solution plus precise, mais au cout encore hors de portee pour cette etude. La methode employee pour cette etude est la Simulation des Tourbillons Detaches (DES), qui est un hybride des deux methodes (RANS et LES). Pour analyser la topologie de l'ecoulement, la decomposition des modes propres (POD) a ete egalement ete effectuee sur les resultats numeriques. L'etude a demontre d'abord le temps de calcul relativement eleve associe a des essais DES pour garder le nombre de Courant faible. Les resultats numeriques ont cependant reussi a reproduire correctement le basculement asynchrone observe dans les essais experimentaux. Le basculement observe semble etre cause par des effets transitionnels, ce qui expliquerait la difficulte des modeles RANS a correctement reproduire l'aerodynamique de l'ecoulement. L'ecoulement du jet, a son tour, est pour la plupart du temps tridimensionnel et turbulent sauf pour de courtes periodes de temps stable et independant de la troisieme dimension. L'etude topologique de l'ecoulement a egalement permit la reconaissances de structures principales sousjacentes qui etaient brouillees par la turbulence. Mots cles : jet impactant, paroi concave, turbulence, transitionnel, simulation des tourbillons detaches (DES), OpenFOAM.

  17. Concerning the study of the irreversible magnetic behaviour of superconductivity; Contribution a l'etude du comportement magnetique irreversible des supraconducteurs

    Kuhn, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-03-01

    The influence of the presence of extended lattice defects on the magnetic behaviour has been studied for the case of type I superconductors, such as Re and Ta, and in a more quantitative manner for the type II superconductor niobium. In this case, measurements of the thermal conductivity have given an estimate of the relative concentration of lattice defects in each specimen. These measurements show that the larger the number of lattice defects, the more irreversible becomes the magnetization curve, and the larger becomes the values of the critical current, which is related by a simple model to the magnetization values. Finally, a study by transmission electron microscopy has confirmed on the one hand the diversity of the extended lattice defects and on the other hand has allowed the formulation of several hypothesis on their respective influence. [French] L'influence de la presence de defauts etendus sur le comportement magnetique a ete etudie pour des supraconducteurs de premiere espece, tels que le rhenium et le tantale, et plus quantitativement pour un supraconducteur de deuxieme espece, le niobium. Dans ce cas, des mesures de conductibilite thermique ont permis d'estimer la concentration relative des defauts du reseau dans chaque echantillon. Ces mesures montrent que plus les defauts du reseau sont nombreux, plus la courbe d'aimantation est irreversible, et plus les valeurs du courant critique, reliees par un modele simple aux valeurs de l'aimantation, sont elevees. Enfin une etude par microscopie electronique en transmission - a permis d'une part de constater la diversite des defauts etendus et d'autre part de formuler quelques hypotheses sur leurs influences respectives.

  18. Decoherence in quantum gravity: issues and critiques

    Anastopoulos, C [Department of Physics, University of Patras, 26500 Patras (Greece); Hu, B L [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-4111 (United States)

    2007-05-15

    An increasing number of papers have appeared in recent years on decoherence in quantum gravity at the Planck energy. We discuss the meaning of decoherence in quantum gravity starting from the common notion that quantum gravity is a theory for the microscopic structures of spacetime, and invoking some generic features of quantum decoherence from the open systems viewpoint. We dwell on a range of issues bearing on this process including the relation between statistical and quantum, noise from effective field theory, the meaning of stochasticity, the origin of non-unitarity and the nature of nonlocality in this and related contexts. To expound these issues we critique on two representative theories: One claims that decoherence in quantum gravity scale leads to the violation of CPT symmetry at sub-Planckian energy which is used to explain today's particle phenomenology. The other uses this process in place with the Brownian motion model to prove that spacetime foam behaves like a thermal bath. A companion paper will deal with intrinsic and fundamental decoherence which also bear on issues in classical and quantum gravity.

  19. Decoherence in quantum gravity: issues and critiques

    Anastopoulos, C; Hu, B L

    2007-01-01

    An increasing number of papers have appeared in recent years on decoherence in quantum gravity at the Planck energy. We discuss the meaning of decoherence in quantum gravity starting from the common notion that quantum gravity is a theory for the microscopic structures of spacetime, and invoking some generic features of quantum decoherence from the open systems viewpoint. We dwell on a range of issues bearing on this process including the relation between statistical and quantum, noise from effective field theory, the meaning of stochasticity, the origin of non-unitarity and the nature of nonlocality in this and related contexts. To expound these issues we critique on two representative theories: One claims that decoherence in quantum gravity scale leads to the violation of CPT symmetry at sub-Planckian energy which is used to explain today's particle phenomenology. The other uses this process in place with the Brownian motion model to prove that spacetime foam behaves like a thermal bath. A companion paper will deal with intrinsic and fundamental decoherence which also bear on issues in classical and quantum gravity

  20. Objectifying user critique. A means of continuous quality assurance for physician discharge letter composition.

    Oschem, M; Mahler, V; Prokosch, H U

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to objectify user critique rendering it usable for quality assurance. Based on formative and summative evaluation results we strive to promote software improvements; in our case, the physician discharge letter composition process at the Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Erlangen, Germany. We developed a novel six-step approach to objectify user critique: 1) acquisition of user critique using subjectivist methods, 2) creation of a workflow model, 3) definition of hypothesis and indicators, 4) measuring of indicators, 5) analyzing results, 6) optimization of the system regarding both subjectivist and objectivist evaluation results. In particular, we derived indicators and workflows directly from user critique/narratives. The identified indicators were mapped onto workflow activities, creating a link between user critique and the evaluated system. Users criticized a new discharge letter system as "too slow" and "too labor-intensive" in comparison with the previously used system. In a stepwise approach we collected subjective user critique, derived a comprehensive process model including deviations and deduced a set of five indicators for objectivist evaluation: processing time, system-related waiting time, number of mouse clicks, number of keyboard inputs, and throughput time. About 3500 measurements have been performed to compare the workflow-steps of both systems, regarding 20 discharge letters. Although the difference of the mean total processing time between both systems was statistically insignificant (2011.7 s vs. 1971.5 s; p = 0.457), we detected a significant difference in waiting times (101.8 s vs. 37.2 s; p quality assurance. To our knowledge no previous study in medical informatics mapped user critique onto workflow steps. Subjectivist analysis prompted us to use the indicator system-related waiting time for the objectivist study, which was rarely done before. We consider combining subjectivist and objectivist methods

  1. Critical sizes and flux distributions in the shut down pile; Tailles critiques et cartes de flux a froid

    Banchereau, A; Berthier, P; Genthon, J P; Gourdon, C; Lattes, R; Martelly, J; Mazancourt, R de; Portes, L; Sagot, M; Schmitt, A P; Tanguy, P; Teste du Bailler, A; Veyssiere, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    An important part of the experiments carried out on the reactor G1 during a period of shut-down has consisted in determinations of critical sizes, and measurements of flux distribution by irradiations of detectors. This report deals with the following points: 1- Critical sizes of the flat pile, the long pile and the uranium-thorium pile. 2- Flux charts of the same piles, and study of an exponential experiment. 3- Determination of the slit effect. 4- Calculation of the anisotropy of the lattice. 5- Description of the experimental apparatus of the irradiation measurements. (author) [French] Une part importante des experiences a froid effectuees sur le reacteur G1 a consiste en des determinations de tailles critiques et des mesures de distributions de flux par irradiations de detecteurs. Le present rapport traite les points suivants: 1- Tailles critiques de la pile plate, de la pile longue, de la pile a uranium-thorium. 2 - Cartes de flux des memes piles et etude d'une experience exponentielle. 3 - Determination de l'effet de fente. 4 - Calcul de l'anisotropie du reseau. 5 - Description de l'appareillage experimental des mesures d'irradiations. (auteur)

  2. Critical sizes and flux distributions in the shut down pile; Tailles critiques et cartes de flux a froid

    Banchereau, A.; Berthier, P.; Genthon, J.P.; Gourdon, C.; Lattes, R.; Martelly, J.; Mazancourt, R. de; Portes, L.; Sagot, M.; Schmitt, A.P.; Tanguy, P.; Teste du Bailler, A.; Veyssiere, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    An important part of the experiments carried out on the reactor G1 during a period of shut-down has consisted in determinations of critical sizes, and measurements of flux distribution by irradiations of detectors. This report deals with the following points: 1- Critical sizes of the flat pile, the long pile and the uranium-thorium pile. 2- Flux charts of the same piles, and study of an exponential experiment. 3- Determination of the slit effect. 4- Calculation of the anisotropy of the lattice. 5- Description of the experimental apparatus of the irradiation measurements. (author) [French] Une part importante des experiences a froid effectuees sur le reacteur G1 a consiste en des determinations de tailles critiques et des mesures de distributions de flux par irradiations de detecteurs. Le present rapport traite les points suivants: 1- Tailles critiques de la pile plate, de la pile longue, de la pile a uranium-thorium. 2 - Cartes de flux des memes piles et etude d'une experience exponentielle. 3 - Determination de l'effet de fente. 4 - Calcul de l'anisotropie du reseau. 5 - Description de l'appareillage experimental des mesures d'irradiations. (auteur)

  3. Poster Presentations: Conceptualizing, Constructing and Critiquing

    Newbrey, Michael G.; Baltezore, Joan M.

    2006-01-01

    Posters are commonly used as tools for disseminating information at scientific meetings, but many students lack an understanding of "good" poster characteristics. We present a set of characteristics for use in constructing posters for scientific meetings and classroom presentations along with tips on critiquing posters to enhance their…

  4. Designing for critique, designing for reflection

    Løfgreen, Lars Bo

    2010-01-01

    litteraturliste og et stikordsregister. Bogen rummer kapitlerne: “Visual topography: analysing the visual context of an interactive interface” af Lise Agerbæk, “Designing (with) Creativity” af Heidi Philipsen, “Designing for critique, designing for reflection – the (re)emergence of aesthetics in current design...

  5. Husserl's Preemptive Responses to Existentialist Critiques ...

    Husserl's Preemptive Responses to Existentialist Critiques. Paul S MacDonald. Abstract. Existentialist thinkers often publicly acknowledged Husserl's phenomenology as one of their main points of departure for treatment of such themes as intentionality, comportment, transcendence, and the lifeworld. Several central ...

  6. Maternal Depression and Developmental Disability: Research Critique

    Bailey, Donald B., Jr.; Golden, Robert N.; Roberts, Jane; Ford, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Maternal depression in families having a child with a disability has been the subject of considerable research over the past 25 years. This review was designed to describe the literature on maternal depression, critique its research methodology, identify consensus findings across studies, and make recommendations for future research. A particular…

  7. Toward Conceptualising Cultural Diversity: An Indigenous Critique.

    Manu'atu, Linita; Kepa, Mere

    This paper, written from the perspectives of indigenous Maori and Tongan researchers, critiques the Auckland Secondary Schools Principals Association's (ASSPA) perspective that culture disrupts students' schooling. It discusses the relations of schooling to the cultural and political forces inside and outside of school; the relations of indigenous…

  8. The Rational-Emotive Approach: A Critique

    Morris, G. Barry

    1976-01-01

    The critique of Rational-Emotive Therapy aims criticism at Ellis' concept of irrationality, analysis of human behavior and therapeutic techniques. Ellis suggests that his critic's claims lack the support of experimental evidence. He further suggests that an "existential" bias pervades which differs from his own brand of…

  9. Critique and sensitivity analysis of the compensation function used in the LMS Hudson River striped bass models. Environmental Sciences Division publication No. 944

    Van Winkle, W.; Christensen, S.W.; Kauffman, G.

    1976-12-01

    The description and justification for the compensation function developed and used by Lawler, Matusky and Skelly Engineers (LMS) (under contract to Consolidated Edison Company of New York) in their Hudson River striped bass models are presented. A sensitivity analysis of this compensation function is reported, based on computer runs with a modified version of the LMS completely mixed (spatially homogeneous) model. Two types of sensitivity analysis were performed: a parametric study involving at least five levels for each of the three parameters in the compensation function, and a study of the form of the compensation function itself, involving comparison of the LMS function with functions having no compensation at standing crops either less than or greater than the equilibrium standing crops. For the range of parameter values used in this study, estimates of percent reduction are least sensitive to changes in YS, the equilibrium standing crop, and most sensitive to changes in KXO, the minimum mortality rate coefficient. Eliminating compensation at standing crops either less than or greater than the equilibrium standing crops results in higher estimates of percent reduction. For all values of KXO and for values of YS and KX at and above the baseline values, eliminating compensation at standing crops less than the equilibrium standing crops results in a greater increase in percent reduction than eliminating compensation at standing crops greater than the equilibrium standing crops

  10. Critique and sensitivity analysis of the compensation function used in the LMS Hudson River striped bass models. Environmental Sciences Division publication No. 944

    Van Winkle, W.; Christensen, S.W.; Kauffman, G.

    1976-12-01

    The description and justification for the compensation function developed and used by Lawler, Matusky and Skelly Engineers (LMS) (under contract to Consolidated Edison Company of New York) in their Hudson River striped bass models are presented. A sensitivity analysis of this compensation function is reported, based on computer runs with a modified version of the LMS completely mixed (spatially homogeneous) model. Two types of sensitivity analysis were performed: a parametric study involving at least five levels for each of the three parameters in the compensation function, and a study of the form of the compensation function itself, involving comparison of the LMS function with functions having no compensation at standing crops either less than or greater than the equilibrium standing crops. For the range of parameter values used in this study, estimates of percent reduction are least sensitive to changes in YS, the equilibrium standing crop, and most sensitive to changes in KXO, the minimum mortality rate coefficient. Eliminating compensation at standing crops either less than or greater than the equilibrium standing crops results in higher estimates of percent reduction. For all values of KXO and for values of YS and KX at and above the baseline values, eliminating compensation at standing crops less than the equilibrium standing crops results in a greater increase in percent reduction than eliminating compensation at standing crops greater than the equilibrium standing crops.

  11. Kantian Critique as a possible Driver for Planned Change

    Petersen, Martin Lund; Bordum, Anders

    In this article it is revealed that planned change approaches operate with multiple drivers for change, but often neglect critique as a relevant driver for change. This is in contradistinction to approaches within the social sciences, where critique is often seen as a relevant approach to creating...... improvements and change. Looking at the concept of critique in its Kantian historical origin, and relating it to some influential specific theories of planned change, it is argued that critique is often ignored as a relevant method and means of leading change in organizations and firms. In conclusion...... there is an unused potential in using critique more systematically in attempts to manage and lead planned change....

  12. Work Design Theory: A Review and Critique with Implications for Human Resource Development

    Torraco, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    Six theoretical perspectives on work design are examined for their contributions to our understanding of how work is organized and designed in organizations: sociotechnical systems theory, process improvement, adaptive structuration theory, the job characteristics model, technostructural change models, and activity theory. A critique of these…

  13. Model of a plasma without collisions in a cylindrical geometry by the study of the motions of the particles (1960); Modele d'un plasma sans collisions dans une geometrie cylindrique par l'etude des mouvements de particules (1960)

    Rebut, P H [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    1960-07-01

    The Boltzmann equation for a group of particles in the absence of collisions may be written df/dt = 0, where f is the distribution function in the phase space. This equation means that f is an individual motion constant. This leads to a study, of the paths and to a research of the first integrals of the differential system related to them. This study leads also to a confinement condition on the velocities of a particle. The following step is related to the theoretical study of some distribution functions and of the resulting consequences. A differential system is obtained, giving density and magnetic and electric fields. This system has been in a number of cases solved by a digital computer. This solution allows an experimental comparison to be made. The first integrals obtained are still valid when magnetic 'screw-type' fields are concerned, which results in the obtention of a type of helicoidal deformation and of a stability criteria with respect to these deformations. (author) [French] L'equation de Boltzmann pour un groupe de particules en l'absence de collision peut s'ecrire df/dt = 0, ou f est la fonction de distribution dans l'espace des phases. Cette equation signifie que f est une constante du mouvement individuel. On est donc amene a etudier les trajectoires et a rechercher des integrales premieres du systeme differentiel qui leur est lie; cette etude conduit aussi a une condition de confinement portant sur les vitesses d'une particule. L'etape suivante se rapporte a l'etude theorique de certaines fonctions de distribution et des consequences qui en decoulent. On arrive a un systeme differentiel donnant densite, champs magnetiques et electriques, systeme qui a ete resolu dans un certain nombre de cas par une machine a calculer digitale. Cette resolution permet une confrontation experimentale. Les integrales premieres obtenues restent encore valables lors de champs magnetiques en 'vis'; il en resulte l'obtention d'un type de deformation helicoidale et d

  14. A critique of the standard cosmological model

    Křížek, Michal; Somer, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 5 (2014), s. 435-461 ISSN 1210-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : dark matter * dark energy * antigravity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.479, year: 2014

  15. Turbulent precipitation of uranium oxalate in a vortex reactor - experimental study and modelling; Precipitation turbulente d'oxalate d'uranium en reacteur vortex - etude experimentale et modelisation

    Sommer de Gelicourt, Y

    2004-03-15

    Industrial oxalic precipitation processed in an un-baffled magnetically stirred tank, the Vortex Reactor, has been studied with uranium simulating plutonium. Modelling precipitation requires a mixing model for the continuous liquid phase and the solution of population balance for the dispersed solid phase. Being chemical reaction influenced by the degree of mixing at molecular scale, that commercial CFD code does not resolve, a sub-grid scale model has been introduced: the finite mode probability density functions, and coupled with a model for the liquid energy spectrum. Evolution of the dispersed phase has been resolved by the quadrature method of moments, first used here with experimental nucleation and growth kinetics, and an aggregation kernel based on local shear rate. The promising abilities of this local approach, without any fitting constant, are strengthened by the similarity between experimental results and simulations. (author)

  16. Instrumental performance of an etude after three methods of practice.

    Vanden Ark, S

    1997-12-01

    For 80 fifth-grade students three practice conditions (mental, mental with physical simulation, and physical with singing) produced significant mean differences in instrumental performance of an etude. No significant differences were found for traditional, physical practice.

  17. A Feminist Critique of Rational-Choice Theories: Implications for Sociology.

    England, Paula

    1989-01-01

    Provides a feminist critique of rational-choice theory and the interdisciplinary feminist theories of sociology. Applies the separative model of self to four assumptions of the neoclassical economics version of rational-choice theory. Uses research on marital power to illustrate how removing distorting assumptions can help illuminate sociological…

  18. Weber's Critique of Advocacy in the Classroom: Critical Thinking and Civic Education.

    Weaver, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the four aspects of Max Weber's argument against including advocacy in the political science classroom. Believes that Weber's critique is a useful starting point for considering the issue in relation to contemporary education. Describes two models, critical thinking and civic education, that present advocacy in the political science…

  19. Bastions of Mechanism, Castles Built on Sand: A Critique of Schooling from an Ecological Perspective

    Steen, Sandy

    2003-01-01

    The realization of the goals of environmental education may involve a critique and transformation of the dominant model of schooling. Specifically, a greater emphasis on second-order change is necessary in order to address the mechanistic structures and dynamics of schooling that may frustrate environmental education. Several of the mechanistic…

  20. Etude d'un modele de Boltzmann sur reseau pour la simulation assistee par ordinateur des fluides a plusieurs phases immiscibles

    Leclaire, Sebastien

    The computer assisted simulation of the dynamics of fluid flow has been a highly rewarding topic of research for several decades now, in terms of the number of scientific problems that have been solved as a result, both in the academic world and in industry. In the fluid dynamics field, simulating multiphase immiscible fluid flow remains a challenge, because of the complexity of the interactions at the flow phase interfaces. Various numerical methods are available to study these phenomena, and, the lattice Boltzmann method has been shown in recent years to be well adapted to solving this type of complex flow. In this thesis, a lattice Boltzmann model for the simulation of two-phase immiscible flows is studied. The main objective of the thesis is to develop this promising method further, with a view to enhancing its validity. To achieve this objective, the research is divided into five distinct themes. The first two focus on correcting some of the deficiencies of the original model. The third generalizes the model to support the simulation of N-phase immiscible fluid flows. The fourth is aimed at modifying the model itself, to enable the simulation of immiscible fluid flows in which the density of the phases varies. With the lattice Boltzmann class of models studied here, this density variation has been inadequately modeled, and, after 20 years, the issue still has not been resolved. The fifth, which complements this thesis, is connected with the lattice Boltzmann method, in that it generalizes the theory of 2D and 3D isotropic gradients for a high order of spatial precision. These themes have each been the subject of a scientific article, as listed in the appendix to this thesis, and together they constitute a synthesis that explains the links between the articles, as well as their scientific contributions, and satisfy the main objective of this research. Globally, a number of qualitative and quantitative test cases based on the theory of multiphase fluid flows

  1. Adsorption of trace elements on a bentonite sample: experimental study and modelling; Retention d'elements trace sur une bentonite: etude experimentale et modelisation

    Hurel, Ch

    2002-12-15

    Radioactive waste storage in deep underground is studied in France. The alteration of the radioactive waste can mobilize the elements that can migrate to the geosphere. Clays (bentonite) are investigated as major materials constituting the barriers because of their low permeability and high retention capacity. A thermodynamic surface complexation model, based on the component additivity principle was investigated, in order to predict the adsorption behaviour of pollutants in contact with clay. This principle allows an independent determination of each parameter of the model, limiting the fitting procedure of correlated data, and it allows the use of an adsorption thermodynamic database for a solid. The predictions obtained were in good accordance with experimental data. The model could then be applied successfully in performance assessment. (author)

  2. [A anthropological critique of the ethic of care].

    Bertrand, Aliénor

    2011-03-01

    This article is a critique of the anthropology of vulnerability and of the needs on which the ethics of care are based. Firstly, this critique confronts the universal postulate of the anthropology of vulnerability to the history of the anthropology of illness. The latter manages to build up a specific disciplinary field in refusing the supervision of the medical sciences and the implicit principle to consider illness as an universal fact. The paper refers to the anthropology of nature and Philippe Descola's work in order to develop a comparative study of the systems of representations, including the naturalism of biomedicine as a model among others. It then presents the descriptions of the representations of vulnerability and the needs which are linked to the four main ontologies defined by anthropology of nature, animism, totemism, analogy and naturalism, and gives a new light to the anthropology on which the ethics of care rest. That anthropology of vulnerability could be an involuntary factor in order to make societies conform to an hygienic constraint. The ethics of care would therefore benefit greatly in freeing themselves from anthropology of vulnerability and focus on their original contextualism; in particular, they would benefit of the knowledge of the limits of naturalism at their basis. It will also allow them to provide a new tool for engineering social transformations in a time, the beginning of XXI century, when cultures happen to mix.

  3. Beyond critique: rethinking roles for the anthropology of mental health.

    Whitley, Rob

    2014-09-01

    The current supremacy of the 'bio-bio-bio' model within the discipline of psychiatry has progressively marginalized social science approaches to mental health. This situation begs the question, what role is there for the anthropology of mental health? In this essay, I contend that there are three essential roles for the anthropology of mental health in an era of biological psychiatry. These roles are to (i) provide a meaningful critique of practices, beliefs, and movements within current psychiatry; (ii) illuminate the socio-cultural, clinical, and familial context of suffering and healing regarding emotional distress/mental illness; and (iii) act as a catalyst for positive change regarding healing, services and provisions for people with emotional distress/mental illness. My argument is unified by my contention that a credible anthropology of mental health intending to make a societal contribution should offer no opposition without proposition. In other words, any critique must be counter-balanced by the detailing of solutions and proposals for change. This will ensure that the anthropology of mental health continues to contribute critical knowledge to the understanding of mental suffering, distress, and healing. Such social and cultural approaches are becoming especially important given the widespread disenchantment with an increasingly dominant biological psychiatry.

  4. Experimental study and modelling of iron ore reduction by hydrogen; Etude experimentale et modelisation de la reduction du minerai de fer par l'hydrogene

    Wagner, D

    2008-01-15

    In an effort to find new ways to drastically reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions from the steel industry (ULCOS project), the reduction of iron ore by pure hydrogen in a shaft furnace was investigated. The work consisted of literature, experimental, and modelling studies. The chemical reaction and its kinetics were analysed on the basis of thermogravimetric experiments and physicochemical characterizations of partially reduced samples. A specific kinetic model was designed, which simulates the successive reactions, the different steps of mass transport, and possible iron sintering, at the particle scale. Finally, a 2-dimensional numerical model of a shaft furnace was developed. It depicts the variation of the solid and gas temperatures and compositions throughout the reactor. One original feature of the model is using the law of additive characteristic times for calculating the reaction rates. This allowed us to handle both the particle and the reactor scale, while keeping reasonable calculation time. From the simulation results, the influence of the process parameters was assessed. Optimal operating conditions were concluded, which reveal the efficiency of the hydrogen process. (author)

  5. Thermal stability of the French nuclear waste glass - long term behavior modeling; Etude de la stabilite thermique du verre nucleaire. Modelisation de son evolution a long terme

    Orlhac, X

    2000-07-01

    The thermal stability of the French nuclear waste glass was investigated experimentally and by modeling to predict its long-term evolution at low temperature. The crystallization mechanisms were analyzed by studying devitrification in the supercooled liquid. Three main crystalline phases were characterized (CaMoO{sub 4}, CeCO{sub 2}, ZnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}). Their crystallisation was TO 4.24 wt%, due to the low concentration of the constituent elements. The nucleation and growth curves showed that platinoid elements catalysed nucleation but did not affect growth, which was governed by volume diffusion. The criteria of classic nucleation theory were applied to determine the thermodynamic and diffusional activation energies. Viscosity measurements illustrate the analogy between the activation energy of viscous flow and diffusion, indicating control of crystallization by viscous flow phenomena. The combined action of nucleation and growth was assessed by TTT plots, revealing a crystallization equilibrium line that enables the crystallized fractions to be predicted over the long term. The authors show that hetero-genetics catalyze the transformation without modifying the maximum crystallized fraction. A kinetic model was developed to describe devitrification in the glass based on the nucleation and growth curves alone. The authors show that the low-temperature growth exhibits scale behavior (between time and temperature) similar to thermo-rheological simplicity. The analogy between the resulting activation energy and that of the viscosity was used to model growth on the basis of viscosity. After validation with a simplified (BaO{sub 2}SiO{sub 2}) glass, the model was applied to the containment glass. The result indicated that the glass remained completely vitreous after a cooling scenario with the one measured at the glass core. Under isothermal conditions, several million years would be required to reach the maximum theoretical crystallization fraction. (author)

  6. Brand the Pricing: Critical Critique

    Alam Kazmi, Syed Hasnain

    2015-01-01

    Brand pricing decision models and established theories in the marketing and econometrics focus typically on assuming the symmetric competing businesses. The empirical generalities are key for strategic marketplace planning. The significance of pricing to customer store and brand choices are always regarded as a widely known truth among marketing scholars and explains consumer’s role responding to their psychological representations of price rather than price itself. Scholars have ...

  7. Designing example-critiquing interaction

    Faltings, Boi; Pu, Pearl; Torrens, Marc; Viappiani, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    In many practical scenarios, users are faced with the problem of choosing the most preferred outcome from a large set of possibilities. As people are unable to sift through them manually, decisions support systems are often used to automatically find the optimal solution. A crucial requirement for such a system is to have an accurate model of the user's preferences. Studies have shown that people are usually unable to accurately state their preferences up front, but are greatly helped by seei...

  8. Impacts modeling using the SPH particulate method. Case study; Modelisation d'impacts par la methode particulaire SPH. Etude de cas

    Debord, R

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this study is the modeling of the impact of melted metal on the reactor vessel head in the case of a core-meltdown accident. Modeling using the classical finite-element method alone is not sufficient but requires a coupling with particulate methods in order to take into account the behaviour of the corium. After a general introduction about particulate methods, the Nabor and SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) methods are described. Then, the theoretical and numerical reliability of the SPH method is determined using simple cases. In particular, the number of neighbours significantly influences the preciseness of calculations. Also, the mesh of the structure must be adapted to the mesh of the fluid in order to reduce the edge effects. Finally, this study has shown that the values of artificial velocity coefficients used in the simulation of the BERDA test performed by the FZK Karlsruhe (Germany) are not correct. The domain of use of these coefficients was precised during a low speed impact. (J.S.)

  9. Impacts modeling using the SPH particulate method. Case study; Modelisation d'impacts par la methode particulaire SPH. Etude de cas

    Debord, R

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this study is the modeling of the impact of melted metal on the reactor vessel head in the case of a core-meltdown accident. Modeling using the classical finite-element method alone is not sufficient but requires a coupling with particulate methods in order to take into account the behaviour of the corium. After a general introduction about particulate methods, the Nabor and SPH (smoothed particle hydrodynamics) methods are described. Then, the theoretical and numerical reliability of the SPH method is determined using simple cases. In particular, the number of neighbours significantly influences the preciseness of calculations. Also, the mesh of the structure must be adapted to the mesh of the fluid in order to reduce the edge effects. Finally, this study has shown that the values of artificial velocity coefficients used in the simulation of the BERDA test performed by the FZK Karlsruhe (Germany) are not correct. The domain of use of these coefficients was precised during a low speed impact. (J.S.)

  10. Modelling atmospheric circulations for the study of Alpine valleys pollution; Modelisation des circulations atmospheriques pour l'etude de la pollution des vallees alpines

    Brulfert, G

    2004-11-15

    Local weather phenomena observed in alpine valleys frequently lead to the accumulation of emitted anthropogenic airborne species in the low layers of the atmosphere. The development of a numerical model allows reproducing the chemical evolution of air mass during POVA intensive period of observations. In Chamonix and Maurienne valley, computations of photochemical indicators (NO{sub y}, O{sub 3}/NO{sub z}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/HNO{sub 3}) prove the ozone regime to be control by volatile organic compounds. Moreover simulation highlighted that the major part of this secondary pollutant is regionally produced. The development of an indicator who localised ozone production sites can help to define abatement scenarios. The chemical mechanism RACM allows describing the evolution of many species. It is possible to conclude that in winter road traffic and heating are the main sources of volatile organic compounds. (author)

  11. Modelling atmospheric circulations for the study of Alpine valleys pollution; Modelisation des circulations atmospheriques pour l'etude de la pollution des vallees alpines

    Brulfert, G.

    2004-11-15

    Local weather phenomena observed in alpine valleys frequently lead to the accumulation of emitted anthropogenic airborne species in the low layers of the atmosphere. The development of a numerical model allows reproducing the chemical evolution of air mass during POVA intensive period of observations. In Chamonix and Maurienne valley, computations of photochemical indicators (NO{sub y}, O{sub 3}/NO{sub z}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/HNO{sub 3}) prove the ozone regime to be control by volatile organic compounds. Moreover simulation highlighted that the major part of this secondary pollutant is regionally produced. The development of an indicator who localised ozone production sites can help to define abatement scenarios. The chemical mechanism RACM allows describing the evolution of many species. It is possible to conclude that in winter road traffic and heating are the main sources of volatile organic compounds. (author)

  12. Peacebuilding: assumptions, practices and critiques

    Cravo, Teresa Almeida

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Peacebuilding has become a guiding principle of international intervention in the periphery since its inclusion in the Agenda for Peace of the United Nations in 1992. The aim of creating the conditions for a self-sustaining peace in order to prevent a return to armed conflict is, however, far from easy or consensual. The conception of liberal peace proved particularly limited, and inevitably controversial, and the reality of war-torn societies far more complex than anticipated by international actors that today assume activities in the promotion of peace in post-conflict contexts. With a trajectory full of contested successes and some glaring failures, the current model has been the target of harsh criticism and widespread scepticism. This article critically examines the theoretical background and practicalities of peacebuilding, exploring its ambition as well as the weaknesses of the paradigm adopted by the international community since the 1990s.

  13. Conception et validation d'un modele d'analyse et de suivi pour une politique energetique durable et acceptable de l'energie eolienne: Une etude comparative France-Quebec

    Feurtey, Evariste

    In this research, we built a conceptual model of a sustainable and acceptable wind power policy that we tried to validate through the case study of France and Quebec in the wind energy sector. Our qualitative and comparative approach helps us to illustrate the interaction of institutional variables studied, including the national context of emergence, the balance of power between pressure groups, the supranational and exogenous influences, level of political commitment, policy and regulatory instruments, social acceptance and energy policy mechanisms. The research confirms that the neo-corporatism is present in France as in Quebec. With the unfavorable energy context (low cost of electricity tariff, lack of electricity demand, and an already low zero carbon electric mix), it is an important factor explaining : 1) the 20 years delay accumulated by France and Quebec in the development of wind projects or industrial sector; 2) the 10% limited penetration scale given to wind energy. We also demonstrate that the political commitment to develop wind energy fluctuates with the government majority, the energy context or the influence of pressure groups. This manifests itself in a lack of continuity of policies and tariff instruments used. In both national case studies, the results also show that balanced policies and regulations ensure sustainable development of wind energy only if they allow a sufficient market size. The search results also illustrates that the conceptual division made between acceptance of wind sector, acceptance of ownership, local acceptance is very instructive. Social controversies, though multifactorial, are connected to both a critique of the development model too industrial and private, territorial dilemmas (closed environment), energy context (electric surplus in Quebec), or related to strategic planning system and centralized decision. An important issue for a more acceptable wind policy in the future will come to a greater plurality of ownership

  14. MASURCA, a Fast-Neutron Critical Mock-Up: Operation and Uses; MASURCA. Maquette Critique a Neutrons Rapides. Description Fonctionnelle et Obiectifs; ''MAZURKA'' - kriticheskaya model' na bystrykh nejtronakh. funktsional'noe opisanie i tseli; Descripcion Funcional y Objetivos de la Maqueta Critica de Neutrones Rapidos 'MASURCA '

    Schmitt, A. P.; Storrer, F.; Vendryes, G. [Association CEA-EURATOM, Cadarache (France); Tavernier, G.; Van Dievoet, J. [Societe Belgo-Nucleaire, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1964-02-15

    describes how the facility works. Reference is made to the possibility of simulating fast reactor oxide cores (by using ferrous oxide elements to introduce oxygen) and carbide cores (by using graphite elements). The paper also discusses the mixed loading technique which will have to be used in view of the amounts of plutonium available for such experiments during the present decade, and the techniques which will be used to determine the basic neutron parameters. The place of this critical mock-up in the general basic physics research of fast neutron reactor development is indicated: the experimental means involved include a Harmonie reactor source, to serve in developing measuring techniques and providing data for exponential experiments, and accelerators serving as static and dynamic neutron sources for subcritical experiments with fast neutrons. (author) [French] Dans le cadre de l'Association EURATOM-CEA, on construit actuellement au Centre d'etudes nucleaires de Cadarache une maquette critique a neutrons rapides appelee 'Masurca'. Cette machine d'une grande souplesse est essentiellement destinee a faire des etudes sur des assemblages critique, non ralentis, au plutonium, de grand volume ayant donc un spectre neutronique relativement mou. Les buts de ces etudes sont developpes dans le memoire. Pour mener a bien ces travaux, une machine de ce genre doit satisfaire a un certain nombre de conditions: essentiellement, elle doit associer a une grande souplesse d'utilisation une securite de fonctionnement quasi absolue. Ce probleme de securite a ete resolu par: 1. Une recherche de securite intrinseque, les elements de simulation du combustible permettant d'obtenir a) un coefficient de reactivite negatif du a la dilatation longitudinale cumulative de ces elements et b) un coefficient Doppler negatif; 2. L'utilisation d'un jeu de barres de controle de securite et de compensation. Ces barres peuvent se placer suivant un reseau carre de 30 cm de pas environ; 3. Uneenceinte etanche

  15. Studying uranium migration in natural environment: experimental approach and geochemical modeling; Etude de la migration de l'uranium en milieu naturel: approche experimentale et modelisation geochimique

    Phrommavanh, V.

    2008-10-15

    The present study deals with characterizing uranium migration in a limited zone of Le Bouchet site, a former uranium ore treatment facility, which is dismantled and the rehabilitation of which is under process. Some wastes are packed in a rehabilitated disposal nearby, called the Itteville site. In the framework of the monitoring of the deposit environment (air, water, sediment) set by prefectorial decrees, a piezometer (PZPK) located downstream to the latter, has shown total dissolved uranium peaks each winter since the 1990's. PZPK collects both the interstitial water of a calcareous peat formation, between the surface and 3 m, and an alluvial aquifer near 6 m of depth. Firstly, a hydrogeochemical characterization of the site has evidenced the uranium source term, which is present in the peat soil near 0.8 m, hence excluding any leaching from the waste disposal. Actually, a few microparticles of uranium oxide and mixed uranium-thorium oxide have been detected, but they do not represent the major part of the source term. Secondly, water chemistry of the peat soil water and PZPK has been monitored every two months from 2004 to 2007 in order to understand the reasons of the seasonal fluctuations of [U]tot.diss.. Completed with geochemical modeling and a bacterial identification by 16S rDNA sequence analysis, water chemistry data showed an important sulfate-reducing bacterial activity in summertime, leading to reducing conditions and therefore, a total dissolved uranium content limited by the low solubility of uraninite U{sup IV}O{sub 2}(s). In wintertime, the latter bacterial activity being minimal and the effective pluviometry more important, conditions are more oxidant, which favors U(VI), more soluble, notably as the Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}(aq) complex, evidenced by TRLFS. Finally, bacterial activity has been reproduced in laboratory in order to better characterize its impact on uranium solubility in the peat soil. Various parameters were tested

  16. Approximation auto-coherente a deux particules, pseudogap et supraconductivite dans le modele de Hubbard attractif

    Allen, Steve

    2000-10-01

    Dans cette these nous presentons une nouvelle methode non perturbative pour le calcul des proprietes d'un systeme de fermions. Notre methode generalise l'approximation auto-coherente a deux particules proposee par Vilk et Tremblay pour le modele de Hubbard repulsif. Notre methode peut s'appliquer a l'etude du comportement pre-critique lorsque la symetrie du parametre d'ordre est suffisamment elevee. Nous appliquons la methode au probleme du pseudogap dans le modele de Hubbard attractif. Nos resultats montrent un excellent accord avec les donnees Monte Carlo pour de petits systemes. Nous observons que le regime ou apparait le pseudogap dans le poids spectral a une particule est un regime classique renormalise caracterise par une frequence caracteristique des fluctuations supraconductrices inferieure a la temperature. Une autre caracteristique est la faible densite de superfluide de cette phase demontrant que nous ne sommes pas en presence de paires preformees. Les resultats obtenus semblent montrer que la haute symetrie du parametre d'ordre et la bidimensionalite du systeme etudie elargissent le domaine de temperature pour lequel le regime pseudogap est observe. Nous argumentons que ce resultat est transposable aux supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique ou le pseudogap apparait a des' temperatures beaucoup plus grandes que la temperature critique. La forte symetrie dans ces systemes pourraient etre reliee a la theorie SO(5) de Zhang. En annexe, nous demontrons un resultat tout recent qui permettrait d'assurer l'auto-coherence entre les proprietes a une et a deux particules par l'ajout d'une dynamique au vertex irreductible. Cet ajout laisse entrevoir la possibilite d'etendre la methode au cas d'une forte interaction.

  17. A Critique: Jared Diamond’s Collapse Put In Perspective

    Emma Gause

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jared Diamond’s book 'Collapse' captivated readers with its tales of past great civilizations succumbing to dramatic cycles of decline, and among them are the ancient Maya. Diamond’s model of the Maya collapse has become quite popular since its publication, however numerous other divergent theories exist as well, which attempt to explain the phenomenon. Diamond, buoyed by the success of his book and his renown as an author, is the assumed authority, despite academic criticism. By comparing Diamond’s 'Collapse' with current research I hope to critique Diamond and thus elucidate the condition of the Maya decline concerning the roles of the environment, the regional variability of various sociopolitical dynamics, such as those that were played out in the Petexbatun region, and the extent of Post Classic continuation of Maya tradition.

  18. Interpreting Foucault: An Evaluation of a Foucauldian Critique of Education

    Woermann, Minka

    2012-01-01

    The potential strengths and weaknesses of a Foucauldian critique of education are discussed and evaluated. The article focuses specifically on the value of Foucault's work for critiquing social and political ideologies prevalent in education, which is understood as a societal institution, and hence, as a modern regime of institutional power. In…

  19. Interpreting Foucault: an evaluation of a Foucauldian critique of ...

    The potential strengths and weaknesses of a Foucauldian critique of education are discussed and evaluated. The article focuses specifically on the value of Foucault's work for critiquing social and political ideologies prevalent in education, which is understood as a societal institution, and hence, as a modern regime of ...

  20. Critique and Process: Signature Pedagogies in the Graphic Design Classroom

    Motley, Phillip

    2017-01-01

    Like many disciplines in design and the visual fine arts, critique is a signature pedagogy in the graphic design classroom. It serves as both a formative and summative assessment while also giving students the opportunity to practice the habits of graphic design. Critiques help students become keen observers of relevant disciplinary criteria;…

  1. Education Policy and Practice "under" New Labour: An Epistolary Critique

    Richards, Colin

    2010-01-01

    Since the election of 1997 New Labour's education policy has been subject to variety of forms of critique--in this journal and others. One of the sources for such critique has been a barrage of letters unleashed for over a decade by Colin Richards in the "Times Educational Supplement". Here are reproduced a self-edited selection of his…

  2. The virtual dental home: a critique.

    Friedman, Jay W; Nash, David A; Mathu-Muju, Kavita R

    2017-09-01

    The Virtual Dental Home is a concept of the Pacific Center for Special Care of the Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry in San Francisco. It is designed to improve access to dental care for underserved populations, specifically children and institutionalized adults. This article describes the development and implementation of the Virtual Dental Home, subsequently critiquing the concept. The criteria for a dental home are not met by the program. It is the equivalent of a traditional public oral health prevention and screening program, with the additional dimension of allowing dental hygienists and assistants to place interim glass ionomer restorations in dental cavities. The critique questions the need to insert a "cloud" dentist into the process. The routine utilization of radiographs is also challenged. The VDH not only lacks the attributes of a dental home, it has not been shown to be as efficient and effective as traditional programs staffed by dental hygienists and dental therapists. The article concludes by describing how programs utilizing dental therapists could address the deficiencies of the Virtual Dental Home, effectively improving access to oral health care for underserved populations. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  3. Towards a Critique of Political Democracy

    Mario Tronti

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the idea that democracy always binds together a practice of domination and a project of liberation, Tronti formulates the conditions for a critique of democracy that would permit a rebirth of political thought in the current conjuncture. Bringing the heterodox Marxist traditions of ‘workerism’ and the ‘autonomy of the political’ together with the feminist thinking of difference, Tronti underscores the identitarian tendencies of democracy and the difficulties of combining democracy with a genuine notion of freedom. For Tronti, democracy is increasingly synonymous with the pervasiveness of capitalism understood as ‘bourgeois society’, and the victory of ‘real democracy’ (as one might speak of ‘real socialism’ is the sociological victory of the bourgeoisie. The homo oeconomicus and the homo democraticus are fused into the dominant figure of democracy, the ‘mass bourgeois’. Against the depoliticizing consequences of ‘democratic Empire’, Tronti proposes a profound rethinking of our notion of politics, one which should not shy from reconsidering the elitist critiques of democracy.

  4. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: An Islamic critique

    Anke Iman Bouzenita

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abraham Maslow’s model of the hierarchy of needs is pervasive in many academic specialisations. After a short description of the model, this article summarises the existing criticisms. While criticism on the empirical validity of the model and its ethno-centricity are frequently mentioned in the literature, the authors of this article give special focus on the missing consideration of the spiritual aspect of human existence in Maslow’s model. The study explores reasons for the commodification of the model (i.e. the divorcing of the model from its substance and using it simply as a commodity and the non-consideration of Maslow’s later changes. Special focus is laid on the usage of this model in marketing, given its position as a field which embodies the capitalist perspective so completely through, particularly, advertising but also through the conceptualisation of people. The article describes the model’s diverse reception in Muslim academic circles. It offers an Islamic critique of both its foundations and its usage. The study concludes that attempts at harmonising the model with the higher objectives (maqāṣid of the Sharī‘ah do not do justice to either model.

  5. MAIN PROBLEMS OF THE PHILOSOPHICAL CRITIQUE OF RELIGION

    Jowita Guja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a synthetic overview of main problems of the philosophical critique of religion. In the beginning I identify and characterize three general threads of the critique: the enlightenment, the alienational and the thread which focuses on the problem of theodicy. The greater part of my article is devoted to the alienational critique of religion n its two types: atheistic (Feuerbach, Marx, Freud, Nietzsche, Sartre and theistic (Barth. The subjects of my analysis are the sources and foundations of the alienational critique of religion and the most important problems implied by it: the essence of religion, the ideal of the irreligious man, the prospect to remove religion. The analysis presents troubles and confusions connected to these subjects: they emerge in atheistic type of alienational critique of religion.

  6. The Crisis of Critique in Critical Management Studies

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    both directions and employ both conceptions in their critique. Critique should not ignore one of the dual aims. Hence, my paper will point toward a Third Wave of critical management studies, addressing the question (or quest) whether the fundamental tension between Normativity and Contextuality can......Generally speaking, critical management studies are based upon a critique of customary conceptions of management for being reductionist and carrying implicit, unrecognized (problematic) assumptions. This conceptual paper argues, however, that this holds for critical management studies too: Critical...... management studies are equally based upon reductionist, problematic assumptions regarding the conception of, not management, but critique. Thus, this paper identifies a crisis in critical management studies in terms of simplified accounts of critique. There has been and still is a rough dividing line between...

  7. Experimental study of superconductivity induced by proximity effects; Etude experimentale de la supraconductivite induite par effets de proximite

    Martinet, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-11-15

    We present a study of the proximity effects between a superconductor (InBi or PbBi alloys) and a 'normal' metal (Zn or Sn respectively, above their critical temperature) using essentially the tunneling techniques. On the N side, some specific properties of such an induced superconductivity are described: linear variation of the pair potential near the critical temperature of the binary layer, T{sub CNS}; reduced energy scale at T{sub CNS}; evidence of a thermodynamic critical field (called breakdown field) presented by N above its critical temperature. On the S side, we study crossing from a gapless to a quasi gapless regime. This gives a proof of a finite coherence length at T{sub CNS}. Experimental details (in particular about the preparation and measurement of tunneling junctions) are given in annexe. Possible applications are suggested. (author) [French] Nous presentons une etude experimentale des effets de proximite entre un supraconducteur (alliages d'InBi ou de PbBi) et un metal 'normal' (Zn ou Sn respectivement, pris au-dessus de leur temperature critique), en utilisant principalement des mesures d'effet tunnel. Du cote N, on met en evidence des proprietes specifiques de cette supraconductivite induite: comportement lineaire du potentiel de paires pres de la temperature critique du bilame, T{sub CNS}; echelle d'energie reduite a T{sub CNS}; apparition d'un champ critique thermodynamique (appele champ de basculement) dans N au-dessus de sa temperature critique. Du cote S, nous etudions le passage continu d'une situation 'sans bande interdite' a basse temperature et en champ fort, a une situation 'pratiquement sans bande interdite' pres de T{sub CNS} en champ nul. Ceci fournit une preuve de la non divergence de la longueur de coherence a T{sub CNS}. Les techniques experimentales (et en particulier la preparation et la mesure de jonctions tunnel) sont decrites en detail dans une annexe. On envisage des applications pratiques possibles. (auteur)

  8. Curricular Critique of an Environmental Education Policy Framework: Acting Today, Shaping Tomorrow

    Douglas D. Karrow

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The following paper is a curricular critique of an environmental education policy framework called Acting Today, Shaping Tomorrow (2009. It is founded upon: (a an examination of the conventional argument for integrated curriculum models and its relevance to K-12 environmental education; and (b utilization of a typology of integrated curriculum models to analyze an environmental education policy framework within the jurisdiction of Ontario, Canada. In conclusion, Ontario’s environmental education policy framework tends toward an integrated curriculum model referred to as ‘selective infusion.’  The implications for integrated curricular practice are identified, with recommendations for improving the policy framework from an integrated curricular perspective.     Key Words: environmental education, integrated curriculum, curriculum critique, education policy.

  9. Formulating transgenerational technology critique as conflictual collaboration

    Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In the fields of technology design studies and human-computer interaction (HCI), participatory technology design involving children has been on the rise. Particularly studies applying and developing the cooperative inquiry methodology or inspired by it are of growing interest to media technology...... designers. While the underlying impetus of actively involving the intended users in the design process and thereby taking the children as seriously as adult users is laudable, the overarching framing and directionality of the technology design process is rendered unquestionable for the children....... The presentation illustrates that the pristine intention of engaging in intergenerational technology design is potentially helpful for collectively formulating a productive and sustainable technology critique. On the downside the applied methodologies lack viable concepts for meaningfully analyzing its...

  10. Rita Felski, The Limits of Critique

    Corrado Confalonieri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Professore di Letteratura inglese presso la University of Virginia – e dal 2016 Niels Bohr Professor alla University of Southern Denmark per un progetto quinquennale dedicato agli usi sociali della letteratura –, Rita Felski non è, all’interno del gruppo di studiosi che lavorano negli Stati Uniti, tra quelli più noti al pubblico italiano, e ciò non soltanto perché mancano traduzioni dei suoi libri, ma per il fatto che diversi tra questi sono rivolti a un contesto piuttosto specificamente americano. Non fa eccezione The Limits of Critique, il libro che qui si presenta e che dovrebbe costituire la seconda uscita di una trilogia avviata nel 2008 con Uses of Literature (Wiley-Blackwell e destinata a concludersi con un volume ora in fase di elaborazione dedicato al coinvolgimento estetico e alle ragioni per cui, come lettori o spettatori, siamo affascinati da un’opera d’arte.

  11. Two Agendas for Bioethics: Critique and Integration.

    Garrett, Jeremy R

    2015-07-01

    Many bioethicists view the primary task of bioethics as 'value clarification'. In this article, I argue that the field must embrace two more ambitious agendas that go beyond mere clarification. The first agenda, critique, involves unmasking, interrogating, and challenging the presuppositions that underlie bioethical discourse. These largely unarticulated premises establish the boundaries within which problems can be conceptualized and solutions can be imagined. The function of critique, then, is not merely to clarify these premises but to challenge them and the boundaries they define. The second agenda, integration, involves honoring and unifying what is right in competing values. Integration is the morally ideal response to value conflict, offering the potential for transcending win/lose outcomes. The function of integration, then, is to envision actions or policies that not only resolve conflicts, but that do so by jointly realizing many genuine values in deep and compelling ways. My argument proceeds in stages. After critically examining the role and dominant status of value clarification in bioethical discourse, I describe the nature and value of the two agendas, identify concrete examples of where each has been and could be successful, and explain why a critical integrative bioethics--one that appreciates the joint necessity and symbiotic potential of the two agendas--is crucial to the future of the field. The ultimate goal of all of this is to offer a more compelling vision for how bioethics might conduct itself within the larger intellectual and social world it seeks to understand and serve. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Attractive forces study in macromolecules and critical systems; Etude des forces attractives dans les macromolecules et les systemes critiques

    Penninckx-Sans, A.

    1995-07-10

    The attractive forces effect is particularly interesting at the proximity of a critical point. In a liquid system, there are two kinds of attractive forces in presence : the forces bound to the solution volume and those generated by the presence of the solution surface or by a solution interface. In the first case, the attractive forces are the more important as the system is in a critical field. For this study, the selected example is a polymer solution in a two solvents mixture. A formulation in terms of way integrals as part of statistical physics has lead us to find again some known results on the polymer chain conformation in the presence of two solvents (collapse of the polymer on itself) far from the critical point and to extend these results to the critical field. In the case of attractive forces created by the surface in some critical systems (polymer of infinite size in solution and binary mixture near the de mixture point), the adsorption profile created by the attraction of one specie by the surface, follows a scale law. The optical methods usually used for the study of these systems do not give characteristic sign of concentration profile in power law. In the case where the interaction potential between radiation and matter is attractive, the reflectivity gives a separate mark of the existence of the scale law in the form of a resonance. After some theoretical forecasts, the author has used this method on the binary mixture methanol-cyclohexane in order to reveal experimentally a reflectivity pseudo-discontinuity and then the existence of the power law in the critical adsorption profile. (O.L.). 69 refs., 60 tabs.

  13. Etude critique de la prise en charge de 159 personnes âgées en consultation de psychiatrie

    Ben Thabet, Jihène; Ammar, Yousra; Charfi, Nada; Zouari, Lobna; Zouari, Nasreddine; Gaha, Lotfi; Maalej, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le phénomène de vieillissement des populations est associé à une augmentation de la prévalence de la morbidité liée à l’âge. La prescription des psychotropes chez le sujet âgé est de plus en plus fréquente dans les institutions, les doses sont de plus en plus élevées, avec un recours fréquent à une poly pharmacothérapie. Nous nous sommes proposé de décrire les conduites thérapeutiques chez le sujet âgé consultant en psychiatrie, en vue de les confronter aux dernières recommandations en la matière. Méthodes L’étude était de type rétrospectif et descriptif. Elle a concerné les sujets âgés d'au moins 60 ans ayant consulté pour la première fois en psychiatrie, au CHU Hédi Chaker à Sfax, en 2010 ou 2011. Résultats Nous avons colligé 159 dossiers. L’âge moyen était de 73 ans. La démence et les troubles de l'humeur étaient les diagnostics les plus fréquents. Sur le plan thérapeutique, une poly thérapie faite d'au moins deux psychotropes de familles différentes a été prescrite pour 55,9%. Chez 60.3% des sujets, le traitement a été prescrit d'emblée à dose complète. Aucun dossier ne faisait état d'une prise en charge psychothérapeutique. Conclusion La prise en charge des malades de notre étude n’était pas conforme aux recommandations, notamment en matière d'association médicamenteuse, de progression des doses et d'association de la psychothérapie à la pharmacothérapie. L'information des médecins et leur sensibilisation aux particularités du sujet âgé contribuerait à optimiser les soins qui leur sont prodigués, y compris en psychiatrie. PMID:25120873

  14. Market Power and the Demsetz Quality Critique: An Evaluation for Food Retailing

    Cotterill, Ronald W.; Harper, C. David

    1994-01-01

    This study analyzes supermarket firm prices to determine whether prices are related to market structure and whether the Demsetz quality critique is valid. Factor analysis is used to identify five service factors that are modeled with price as endogenous variables in a simultaneous equations framework to test whether a more concentrated market structure is related to higher service levels which, in turn, are related to higher prices (the Demsetz hypothesis) and whether a more concentrated mark...

  15. PENULISAN ETUDE-ETUDE MUSIK TALEMPONG UNGGAN (Sebuah Usaha Pembelajaran Musik Tradisi Berbasis Literatur

    Asri MK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available “Talempong unggan”, a traditional music from Minangkabau community particularly in Unggan, Sumpur Kudus, Sijunjung Regency, West Sumatera Indonesia is classified into genre of “talempong duduak” (rea. Due to its special musical concept and the playing technics, this traditional music is selected as a practising course in the Karawitan Department of Indonesian Institute of Art (ISI Padang Panjang since 1993 till now. In a system of class learning with many students, Talempong Unggan definitely needs supporting methods and learning technics suitable for the course where the students can reach their maximum skills. All the melody of “talempong unggan” that has been made as a material of practice is transcribed to the system of numeric notation and rhythm motive of “gendang” and “aguang” which is written into signs and special notation. All of qualitative data is formulated into finding methods, technics and etude of learning ensamble of Talempong Unggan the traditional music that learned in Karawitan Department of ISI Padang Panjang. Key words: Talempong Unggan, Methods, Technics, Etude

  16. Cultural Journalism and Cultural Critique in a changing Media Landscape

    Nørgaard Kristensen, Nete; From, Unni

    2015-01-01

    This special issue addresses a topic of journalism studies that has previously been somewhat neglected but which has gained increasing scholarly attention since the mid-2000s: the coverage and evaluation of art and culture, or what we term “cultural journalism and cultural critique.......” In this introduction, we highlight three issues that serve to frame the study of cultural journalism and cultural critique more generally and the eight articles of this special issue more specifically: (1) the constant challenge of demarcating cultural journalism and cultural critique, including the interrelations...... of “journalism” and “critique”; (2) the dialectic of globalisation’s cultural homogenisation, on the one hand, and the specificity of local/national cultures, on the other; and (3) the digital media landscape seen in terms of the need to rethink, perhaps even redefine cultural journalism and cultural critique...

  17. Out of time : the limits of secular critique

    Randell-Moon, Holly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of Talal Asad, Wendy Brown, Judith Butler, Saba Mahmood, 'Is critique secular? Blasphemy, injury, and free speech' and Michael Warner, Jonathan Vanantwerpen, and Craig Calhoun (eds, 'Varieties of secularism in a secular age'.

  18. Critique of the Communication Audit from the Academic Researcher's Perspective.

    Sincoff, Michael Z.; Goyer, Robert S.

    The history of the International Communication Association's Communication Audit is briefly reviewed, and possible benefits and pitfalls of the approach are discussed. Certain assumptions and methods underlying the Communicaton Audit are critiqued. (AA)

  19. Impact on DNB predictions of mixing models implemented into the three-dimensional thermal-hydraulic code Thyc; Impact de modeles de melange implantes dans le code de thermohydraulique Thyc sur les predictions de flux critique

    Banner, D

    1993-10-01

    The objective of this paper is to point out how departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) predictions can be improved by the THYC software. The EPRI/Columbia University E161 data base has been used for this study. In a first step, three thermal-hydraulic mixing models have been implemented into the code in order to obtain more accurate calculations of local void fractions at the DNB location. The three investigated models (A, B and C) are presented by growing complexity. Model A assumes a constant turbulent viscosity throughout the flow. In model B, a k-L turbulence transport equation has been implemented to model generation and decay of turbulence in the DNB test section. Model C is obtained by representing oriented transverse flows due to mixing vanes in addition to the k-L equation. A parametric study carried out with the three mixing models exhibits the most significant parameters. The occurrence of departure from nucleate boiling is then predicted by using a DNB correlation. Similar results are obtained as long as the DNB correlation is kept unchanged. In a second step, an attempt to substitute correlations by another statistical approach (pseudo-cubic thin-plate type Spline method) has been done. It is then shown that standard deviations of P/M (predicted to measured) ratios can be greatly improved by advanced statistics. (author). 7 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  20. Study of the machining of uranium carbide rods obtained by continuous casting under electronic bombardment; Etude de l'usinage de barreaux de carbure d'uranium obtenus par coulee continue sous bombardement electronique

    Rousset, P; Accary, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The authors consider the various methods of machining uranium mono-carbide and compare them critically in the case of their application to uranium carbide obtained by fusion under an electronic bombardment and continuous casting. This study leads them to propose two mechanical machining methods: cylindrical rectification and center-less rectification, preceded by a preliminary roughing out of a cylinder, the latter appearing more suitable. A study of the machining yields as a function of the diameter of the rough bars and of the diameter of the finished rods has shown that an optimum value of the rough bar diameter exists for each value of the finished rod diameter. It is found that the yield increases as the diameter itself increases, this yield rising from 45 per cent to around 70 per cent as the diameter of the rough bars increases from 25-26 mm to 37-38 mm. (authors) [French] Les auteurs envisagent les differentes methodes d'usinage du monocarbure d'uranium et se livrent a une etude critique de celles-ci, dans le cas de leur application a l'usinage de barreaux de carbure d'uranium obtenus par fusion sous bombardement electronique et coulee continue. Cette etude les conduit a proposer deux methodes d'usinage mecanique: la rectification cylindrique et la rectification 'centerless', precedee d'un ebauchage par carottage, la seconde paraissant la plus appropriee. L'etude des rendements d'usinage en fonction du diametre des barreaux bruts et du diametre des barreaux finis, a mis en evidence une valeur optimale du diametre des barreaux bruts pour chaque valeur du diametre des barreaux usines. Elle a montre que le rendement croit lorsque le diametre croit lui-meme, ce rendement passant d'environ 45 pour cent a environ 70 pour cent, lorsque le diametre des barreaux bruts passe de 25-26 mm a 37-38 mm.

  1. Implementing Formative Assessment in Engineering Education: The Use of the Online Assessment System Etude

    Dopper, Sofia M.; Sjoer, Ellen

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the possibilities offered by the online assessment system Etude to achieve the benefits of formative assessment. In order to find out the way this works in practice, we carried out an experiment with the use of Etude for formative assessment in the course on collaborative report writing. Results show that online formative…

  2. Pegase: safety studies - experimental study of burn-out risks in transient operation; Pegase: etude de surete - etude experimentale des risques de burn out en regime transitoire

    Vernier, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    canal chaud se met en etat de calefaction au bout de 0.1 s et que sa temperature atteint 500 C en 0.8 s. Les regimes hydrodynamiques rencontres dans les canaux apres l'accident sont des regimes d'expulsion periodiques de periodes courtes 0.2 a 0.5 s, caracteristiques de l'ebullition a basse pression. L'etude en regime permanent de la redistribution de debit dans un by-pass a donne des flux PHI{sub R} de redistribution de 190 W/cm{sup 2} pour une vitesse de 4.5 m/s a 50 C et de 175 W/cm{sup 2} a 60 C. Ces valeurs sont a majorer de 25 pour cent pour une vitesse de 6 m/s. On a montre la distinction a faire entre flux critique PHI{sub C} en regime periodique d'expulsion et flux de redistribution PHI{sub R} en regime permanent. (auteur)

  3. The Critique of The Moral Worldview

    Ezra Heymann

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:El examen de la visión moral del mundo que Hegel realiza en la Fenomenología del Espíritu VI C es polémico y hostil en sus acentos. Sin embargo, las objeciones puntuales a los planteamientos comunes a la ética kantiana y fichteana son justas y deben ser tenidas en cuenta cuando tratamos de rescatar lo que la ética kantiana tiene de convincente.La crítica de Hegel se centra en la relación que se da en todo actuar entre la conciencia y la naturaleza: tanto la naturaleza a la cual la acción se aplica y en medio de la cual se desenvuelve, como la naturaleza interior que alimenta y da fuerza ejecutiva al pensar y querer. Hegel muestra que la reivindicación de una autarquía de la conciencia moral no es sólo quimérica; ella desconoce la razón de ser y la posibilidad interna de la acción. Al poner de manifiesto la esencial incompletitud de todo saber moral, sea en la forma de una conciencia en general, sea en la de una individualidad que se autoafirma, Hegel abre una perspectiva a su noción de espíritu absoluto, entendido como la conciencia que reconoce en la contrariedad y en su insuficiencia su propio y adecuado elemento vital. Abstract:Hegel's examination of the “moral worldview” in his Phenomenology of Spirit , VI C, is anything but friendly. Nevertheless, his precise objections to the common basis of Kant's and Fichte's ethics are justified, and we must give them due attention if we want to work out what we find convincing in Kantian ethics. Hegel's critique focuses on the relationship between consciousness and nature: both the world in which action takes place and develops, and our inner nature which nurtures and gives executive force to our thought and our inclinations. To consider moral consciousness autarchic is not only unrealistic, according to Hegel; it also means to ignore the rationale and the internal possibility of action. By revealing the essential incompleteness of all moral knowledge, this chapter opens a

  4. The development of a very high stability electrostatic generator (1962); Etude et realisation d'un generateur electrostatique a tres haute stabilite (1962)

    Jonckheere, R E.L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    This thesis deals with the study of an electrostatic high voltage generator having a voltage stability of the order of 10{sup -6} per minute. This equipment should be very useful in electron microscopy. The electrostatic generator is studied as a control system element: transfer function, parasitic signals and noise are determined and a mathematical model is proposed. A theoretical study of the open loop transfer function, stability, transient response, voltage stabilization of five different control systems shows which one should be able to fulfill the requirements There follows a detailed study of drift, a description of the actual system and performance data. (author) [French] Cette etude concerne un generateur electrostatique capable de fournir une tres haute tension continue dont la stabilite relative est de l'ordre de 10{sup -6} pendant une minute. Une telle performance rend cet appareillage tres utile en microscopie electronique. La generatrice electrostatique est etudiee en tant qu'element d'un systeme asservi: on determine successivement la fonction de transfert, les perturbations, le bruit de fond et le modele mathematique. L'etude de cinq differents circuits de regulation en ce qui concerne leur fonction de transfert, stabilite, reponse en regime transitoire, attenuation des perturbations, permettra de choisir le systeme qui semble le mieux repondre aux exigences. Viennent ensuite une etude detaillee de la derive, la description de la realisation pratique et les resultats de mesure. (auteur)

  5. The development of a very high stability electrostatic generator (1962); Etude et realisation d'un generateur electrostatique a tres haute stabilite (1962)

    Jonckheere, R.E.L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    This thesis deals with the study of an electrostatic high voltage generator having a voltage stability of the order of 10{sup -6} per minute. This equipment should be very useful in electron microscopy. The electrostatic generator is studied as a control system element: transfer function, parasitic signals and noise are determined and a mathematical model is proposed. A theoretical study of the open loop transfer function, stability, transient response, voltage stabilization of five different control systems shows which one should be able to fulfill the requirements There follows a detailed study of drift, a description of the actual system and performance data. (author) [French] Cette etude concerne un generateur electrostatique capable de fournir une tres haute tension continue dont la stabilite relative est de l'ordre de 10{sup -6} pendant une minute. Une telle performance rend cet appareillage tres utile en microscopie electronique. La generatrice electrostatique est etudiee en tant qu'element d'un systeme asservi: on determine successivement la fonction de transfert, les perturbations, le bruit de fond et le modele mathematique. L'etude de cinq differents circuits de regulation en ce qui concerne leur fonction de transfert, stabilite, reponse en regime transitoire, attenuation des perturbations, permettra de choisir le systeme qui semble le mieux repondre aux exigences. Viennent ensuite une etude detaillee de la derive, la description de la realisation pratique et les resultats de mesure. (auteur)

  6. Study of the cetuximab-ionizing radiation association on a model of in vitro endothelial cells; Etude de l'association cetuximab-radiations ionisantes sur un modele de cellules endotheliales in vitro

    Vautravers-Dewas, C.; Rebucci, M.; Lansiaux, A. [Centre Oscar-Lambret, Inserm U837, Lab. de Pharmacologie Antitumorale, 59 - Lille (France); Peixoto, P. [Inserm U837, 59 - Lille (France); Lartigau, E. [Centre Oscar-Lambret, Dept. Universitaire de Radiotherapie, 59 - Lille (France)

    2009-10-15

    These data support the existence of functional signalling tracks downstream epidermal growth factor receptor (E.G.F.R.) in endothelial cells. But our in vitro model, in two dimensional calculations, did not allow to show a radiosensitivity by cetuximab. The study of functional consequences of the association cetuximab-irradiation treatment will be relevant in an in vitro three dimensional model and on xenografts. (N.C.)

  7. The Ambivalence of Creative Activism as a Reorganization of Critique

    Harrebye, Silas

    2015-01-01

    This article identifies an emerging type of critique and defines it as creative activism. It is argued why this is distinguishable from earlier similar forms of protests and shown why traditional theories of political art, social movements and citizenship are in themselves insufficient to accurat......This article identifies an emerging type of critique and defines it as creative activism. It is argued why this is distinguishable from earlier similar forms of protests and shown why traditional theories of political art, social movements and citizenship are in themselves insufficient...

  8. Sayyid Quṭb’s critique of fiqh

    Thameem Ushama

    2014-01-01

    Sayyid Quṭb’s views on fiqh (jurisprudence) have been the subject of significant critique. This paper seeks to understand the bases of such criticisms through a qualitative content analysis of his exegesis and other writings. We begin with a brief survey of the views of scholars who have spoken in favour of and against him, followed by a brief biographic profile of Quṭb. This paper focuses on Quṭb’s critique of three key issues. First, the terms “Fiqh al-Awrāq” (jurisprudence of papers) and “...

  9. Study and simulation of a multi-lithology stratigraphic model under maximum erosion rate constraint; Etude et simulation d'un modele statigraphique multi-lithologique sous contrainte de taux d'erosion maximal

    Gervais, V.

    2004-11-01

    The subject of this report is the study and simulation of a model describing the infill of sedimentary basins on large scales in time and space. It simulates the evolution through time of the sediment layer in terms of geometry and rock properties. A parabolic equation is coupled to an hyperbolic equation by an input boundary condition at the top of the basin. The model also considers a unilaterality constraint on the erosion rate. In the first part of the report, the mathematical model is described and particular solutions are defined. The second part deals with the definition of numerical schemes and the simulation of the model. In the first chap-ter, finite volume numerical schemes are defined and studied. The Newton algorithm adapted to the unilateral constraint used to solve the schemes is given, followed by numerical results in terms of performance and accuracy. In the second chapter, a preconditioning strategy to solve the linear system by an iterative solver at each Newton iteration is defined, and numerical results are given. In the last part, a simplified model is considered in which a variable is decoupled from the other unknowns and satisfies a parabolic equation. A weak formulation is defined for the remaining coupled equations, for which the existence of a unique solution is obtained. The proof uses the convergence of a numerical scheme. (author)

  10. 98 Etude Comparative du Systeme Phonematique et Tonal des ...

    98. Etude Comparative du Systeme Phonematique et Tonal des. Deux Parlers: Le Yoruba du Nigeria et L'itsa Parle en. Republique du Benin. Ajani Akinwumi Lateef et Ayuba G. Ajibabi http://dx.doi./org/10.4314/ujah.v18i3.5. Résume. En ce début de l'époque ou la mondialisation et la coexistence des peuples dans le ...

  11. Comparative study of {beta} decays and of the model of the layers for the nucleus with odd a; Etude comparee des desintegrations {beta} et du modele des couches pour les noyaux de a impair

    Trocheris, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-07-01

    The systematic comparison of {beta} decays of the cores of number of odd mass with the predictions of the modal of Mrs. Mayer on spins and parities, has already been made by several authors. It is taken in the present work with more recent experimental data and with a method of classification of the {beta} transitions. A simultaneous comparison to the experience of the model of the layers and the theory of the {beta} transitions can serve to verify one and the other too. In the present work, it appeared more fruitful to try to verify the model of the layers with the help of the very established theory of the {beta} transitions. One will look to verify and perfect the models of the layers for transitions between fundamental states or isomers of the cores. (M.B.) [French] La comparaison systematique des desintegrations {beta} des noyaux de nombre de masse impair avec les predictions du modale de Mme MAYER sur les spins et les parites, a deja ete faite par plusieurs auteurs. Elle est reprise dans le present travail avec des donnees experimentales plus recentes et avec une methode de classification des transitions {beta}. Une comparaison simultanee a l'experience du modele des couches et de la theorie des transitions {beta} peut, a priori, servir a verifier egalement l'un et l'autre. Dans le present travail, il a paru plus fructueux de chercher a verifier le modele des couches a l'aide de la theorie bien etablie des transitions {beta}. On cherchera de verifier et de perfectionner le modele des couches pour les transitions entre etats fondamentaux ou isomeres des noyaux. (M.B.)

  12. Reconstruction de la surface de Fermi dans l'etat normal d'un supraconducteur a haute Tc: Une etude du transport electrique en champ magnetique intense

    Le Boeuf, David

    Des mesures de resistance longitudinale et de resistance de Hall en champ magnetique intense transverse (perpendiculaire aux plans CuO2) ont ete effectuees au sein de monocristaux de YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) demacles, ordonnes et de grande purete, afin d'etudier l'etat fondamental des supraconducteurs a haute Tc dans le regime sous-dope. Cette etude a ete realisee en fonction du dopage et de l'orientation du courant d'excitation J par rapport a l'axe orthorhombique b de la structure cristalline. Les mesures en champ magnetique intense revelent par suppression de la supraconductivite des oscillations magnetiques des resistances longitudinale et de Hall dans YBa2Cu 3O6.51 et YBa2Cu4O8. La conformite du comportement de ces oscillations quantiques au formalisme de Lifshitz-Kosevich, apporte la preuve de l'existence d'une surface de Fermi fermee a caractere quasi-2D, abritant des quasiparticules coherentes respectant la statistique de Fermi-Dirac, dans la phase pseudogap d'YBCO. La faible frequence des oscillations quantiques, combinee avec l'etude de la partie monotone de la resistance de Hall en fonction de la temperature indique que la surface de Fermi d'YBCO sous-dope comprend une petite poche de Fermi occupee par des porteurs de charge negative. Cette particularite de la surface de Fermi dans le regime sous-dope incompatible avec les calculs de structure de bande est en fort contraste avec la structure electronique presente dans le regime surdope. Cette observation implique ainsi l'existence d'un point critique quantique dans le diagramme de phase d'YBCO, au voisinage duquel la surface de Fermi doit subir une reconstruction induite par l'etablissement d'une brisure de la symetrie de translation du reseau cristallin sous-jacent. Enfin, l'etude en fonction du dopage de la resistance de Hall et de la resistance longitudinale en champ magnetique intense suggere qu'un ordre du type onde de densite (DW) est responsable de la reconstruction de la surface de Fermi. L'analogie de

  13. Study on molecular modelling of the selectivity of catalysts for heavy petroleum fractions hydrocracking; Etude sur molecule modele des parametres regissant la selectivite des catalyseurs d'hydrocraquage des charges lourdes

    Leite, L.

    2000-10-19

    Hydrocracking is a catalytic petroleum refining process that is commonly applied to upgrade the heavier fractions obtained from the distillation of crude oils. Nowadays the European demand for good quality middle distillates (kerosene and gas-oil) is high and one important goal for the refining is to transform selectively feedstocks into middle distillates. To understand how this transformation occurs, studies on model compounds have been investigated. Numerous studies have been devoted to paraffin hydrocracking. However theses molecules do not fully represent heavy petroleum fraction. Taking into account that the trend in the future will be to treat heavier feedstocks containing a large quantity of PNA (Polynuclear Aromatic hydrocarbons), the understanding of their transformation under hydrocracking conditions is a key point. In this study, we studied hydrocracking of phenanthrene over platinum on acid solids catalysts. Our main aim was to compare hydrocracking catalysts in term of catalytic activity and selectivity toward primary products thanks to our model reaction and to correlate these catalytic performances with acid solid properties and especially to rationalize the effects due to the acidity and the porosity of the acid solids. Catalytic experiments emphasised an effect of the porous structure on the selectivities. The acidity of the catalysts seemed to impose the catalytic activity but did not permit to explain the selectivities. This 'effect of the structure' has been clarified with the simulation of intermediate products adsorption and diffusion in the studied structures thanks to a molecular modelling study. Indeed, the selectivities obtained during phenanthrene hydrocracking have been linked up with the intermediate products adsorption energies in the structures. The results of this study permit to propose that the key-step for selectivities determination is the physical desorption of the primary products. (author)

  14. New Directions in Education? A Critique of Contemporary Policy Reforms

    Skourdoumbis, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws on facets of Foucault's theoretical resources to critique current education policy reform from within the Australian State of Victoria, namely the Department of Education and Early Childhood Development's (DEECD) discussion paper "New directions for school leadership and the teaching profession." Implicit in the reform…

  15. Using critiquing for improving medical protocols : Harder than it seems

    Marcos, Mar; Berger, Geert; van Harmelen, Frank; ten Teije, Annette; Roomans, Hugo; Miksch, Silvia

    2001-01-01

    Medical protocols are widely recognised to provide clinicians with high-quality and up-to-date recommendations. A critical condition for this is of course that the protocols themselves are of high quality. In this paper we investigate the use of critiquing for improving the quality of medical

  16. Critiquing War in the Classroom: Professor Positionality, Vulnerability, and Possibility

    Taber, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an analytic autoethnographical research study focusing on my experiences developing, delivering, and evaluating course content critiquing war from a feminist anti-militarist perspective as a pre-tenured faculty member. Themes include: professional vulnerability, student resistance, pedagogical possibility, and scholarly…

  17. Competence-Based Education and the Limitations of Critique

    Edwards, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Drawing upon the work of Foucault and Latour, this article reflects on 25 years of critique of competence-based education and its continuing strength as a way of framing education and training. Using an example from England, it rehearses the argument from Foucault that, despite its student-centred discourse, competence-based education can be…

  18. The Critical Purchase of Genealogy: Critiquing Student Participation Projects

    Anderson, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Until recently the dominant critique of "student participation" projects was one based on the theoretical assumptions of critical theory in the form of critical pedagogy. Over the last decade, we have witnessed the emergence of a critical education discourse that theorises and critically analyses such projects using Foucault's notion of…

  19. Medical humanities and their discontents: definitions, critiques, and implications.

    Shapiro, Johanna; Coulehan, Jack; Wear, Delese; Montello, Martha

    2009-02-01

    The humanities offer great potential for enhancing professional and humanistic development in medical education. Yet, although many students report benefit from exposure to the humanities in their medical education, they also offer consistent complaints and skepticism. The authors offer a pedagogical definition of the medical humanities, linking it to medicine as a practice profession. They then explore three student critiques of medical humanities curricula: (1) the content critique, examining issues of perceived relevance and intellectual bait-and-switch, (2) the teaching critique, which examines instructor trustworthiness and perceived personal intrusiveness, and (3) the structural/placement critique, or how and when medical humanities appear in the curriculum. Next, ways are suggested to tailor medical humanities to better acknowledge and reframe the needs of medical students. These include ongoing cross-disciplinary reflective practices in which intellectual tools of the humanities are incorporated into educational activities to help students examine and, at times, contest the process, values, and goals of medical practice. This systematic, pervasive reflection will organically lead to meaningful contributions from the medical humanities in three specific areas of great interest to medical educators: professionalism, "narrativity," and educational competencies. Regarding pedagogy, the implications of this approach are an integrated required curriculum and innovative concepts such as "applied humanities scholars." In turn, systematic integration of humanities perspectives and ways of thinking into clinical training will usefully expand the range of metaphors and narratives available to reflect on medical practice and offer possibilities for deepening and strengthening professional education.

  20. Max Weber's Critique of the Bureaucratisation of Education

    Madan, Amman

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, the author discusses the critique by Max Weber and his views on bureaucratisation of education. The modern school, said Max Weber (1864-1920) over a hundred years ago, has as its educational ideal the bureaucrat and no longer the cultivated elite of older times. The shift to modernity and to its characteristic institution, the…

  1. cyril of alexandria's critique of the term theotokos by nestorius

    Acta Theologica. 2012:2. E. Artemi. CYRIL OF ALEXANDRIA'S CRITIQUE. OF THE ... Paul of Samosata, who had claimed that Christ the Lord of all was simply a human being .... Scriptures, who is by nature what they were of whose seed he was, ..... Athanasius of Alexandria, Gregory of Nyssa, John Chrysostom and by Cyril.

  2. '… Earth's proud empires pass away…': The glorification and critique ...

    Songs and hymns shape faith and play a part in shaping political landscapes. They can be used to build or maintain power as well as to critique and challenge it. This has been true for South Africa, and some brief examples will be given. But this article focuses on hymns and patriotic songs from the time of the British Empire ...

  3. Boot Camps: A Critique and a Proposed Alternative.

    Salerno, Anthony W.

    1994-01-01

    Explores origins of boot camp concept and application of its principles to juvenile delinquents. Offers eight-point critique of concept itself. Concludes with alternative: combination of intermittent incarceration (lasting at least six months and comprised of "no frills" camp for one week, followed by weekends gradually spaced further…

  4. Feminism and psychology: critiques of methods and epistemology.

    Eagly, Alice H; Riger, Stephanie

    2014-10-01

    Starting in the 1960s, many of the critiques of psychological science offered by feminist psychologists focused on its methods and epistemology. This article evaluates the current state of psychological science in relation to this feminist critique. The analysis relies on sources that include the PsycINFO database, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (American Psychological Association, 2010), and popular psychology methods textbooks. After situating the feminist critique within the late-20th-century shift of science from positivism to postpositivism, the inquiry examines feminists' claims of androcentric bias in (a) the underrepresentation of women as researchers and research participants and (b) researchers' practices in comparing women and men and describing their research findings. In most of these matters, psychology manifests considerable change in directions advocated by feminists. However, change is less apparent in relation to some feminists' criticisms of psychology's reliance on laboratory experimentation and quantitative methods. In fact, the analyses documented the rarity in high-citation journals of qualitative research that does not include quantification. Finally, the analysis frames feminist methodological critiques by a consideration of feminist epistemologies that challenge psychology's dominant postpositivism. Scrutiny of methods textbooks and journal content suggests that within psychological science, especially as practiced in the United States, these alternative epistemologies have not yet gained substantial influence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Shaping Up? Three Acts of Education Studies as Textual Critique

    McDougall, Julian; Walker, Stephen; Kendall, Alex

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a study of dominant educational discourses through textual critique and argues that such an approach enables education studies to preserve an important distinction from teacher training. The texts deconstructed here are specific to English education, but the discourses at work have international relevance as the rhetorics of…

  6. Repositioning Ideology Critique in a Critical Theory of Adult Learning.

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Reexamines critical theory as a response to Marxism and repositions ideology critique as a crucial adult learning process. Argues that a critical theory of adult learning should focus on how adults learn to recognize and challenge ideological domination and manipulation. (Contains 31 references.) (SK)

  7. Critique of Rousseau's Philosophy of Education in Relation to the ...

    This paper critiqued Rousseau's philosophy of education in relation to the Nigerian educational system. Rousseau's philosophy of education, which is naturalist based, was examined with particular reference to its aims and syllabus. Rousseau advocated the aims of education should include developing the child's natural ...

  8. The silencing of Kierkegaard in Habermas' critique of genetic enhancement.

    Christiansen, Karin

    2009-06-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to draw attention to an important part of Habermas' critique of genetic enhancement, which has been largely ignored in the discussion; namely his use of Kierkegaard's reflections on the existential conditions for becoming one-self from Either/or and the Sickness unto Death. It will be argued that, although Habermas presents some valuable and highly significant perspectives on the effect of genetic enhancement on the individual's self-understanding and ability to experience him- or herself as a free and equal individual, he does not succeed in working out a consistent argument. The claim is that he fails to explain how the existential analysis is related to his reflections on the sociological and psychological impacts of genetic enhancement in the realm of communicative action. It is this lack of theoretical clarity, which seems to render Habermas vulnerable to some of the critique which has been raised against his theory from a number of different scientific disciplines and areas of research. Hence, the first part of the paper provides some examples of the nature and variety of this critique, the second part presents Habermas' own critique of genetic enhancement in the context of a dispute between so-called 'liberal' and 'conservative' arguments, and finally, the third part discusses the limits and possibilities of his position in a future debate about genetic enhancement.

  9. A Critique of Botswana's Language Policy from a Translanguaging Perspective

    Bagwasi, Mompoloki Mmangaka

    2017-01-01

    This paper critiques the language practices and language-in-education policy of Botswana from a translanguaging perspective. By so doing, it revisits our commonly held perceptions about multilingualism, bilingualism and language and its boundary. We commonly perceive languages as autonomous and as having boundaries and we perceive bilingualism or…

  10. A critique of the ontology of consumer enchantment

    Østergaard, Per; Fitchett, James; Jantzen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The concept of enchantment offers a plausible explanation of the lures and thrills of consumer culture. We examine the theoretical foundation of the concept through a critique of Ritzer's enchantment thesis. We begin by assessing the enchantment/disenchantment discourse through a review of the main...

  11. On Alain Badiou’s ‘Critique of Religion’

    Karlsen, Mads Peter

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines Alain Badiou’s critical engagement with religion. It is argued that there are two central points at which religion enters the scene of Badiou’s philosophy. First, in his critique, the ‘motif of finitude’ Badiou repeatedly refers to religion, claiming that ‘the obsession with f...

  12. Robert Nozick's entitlement theory of justice: a critique | Nnajiofor ...

    The burden of this paper is to critique Robert Nozick's entitlement theory of justice which was drafted as an argument against traditional distribution theories. Nozick's theory of justice claims that whether a distribution is just or not depend entirely on how it came about. By contrast, justice according to equality, need, desert or ...

  13. Automated Guidance for Thermodynamics Essays: Critiquing versus Revisiting

    Donnelly, Dermot F.; Vitale, Jonathan M.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2015-01-01

    Middle school students struggle to explain thermodynamics concepts. In this study, to help students succeed, we use a natural language processing program to analyze their essays explaining the aspects of thermodynamics and provide guidance based on the automated score. The 346 sixth-grade students were assigned to either the critique condition…

  14. An ideology critique of the use-value of mathematics

    Pais, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    the majority of this literature commends the possibility of transfer, thus assuming both the desirability of transfer and the importance of school mathematics for the professional and mundane lives of individuals, I am interested in developing an ideology critique on the beliefs underpinning the research...

  15. Les métropoles et la nouvelle critique urbaine

    Pierre Hamel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La perspective critique élaborée par Henri Lefebvre demeure pertinente pour penser les rapports sociaux à l’espace, y inclus ceux qu’on observe dans les métropoles contemporaines en Amérique du Nord. En examinant la controverse autour de la forme urbaine telle que celle-ci a été remise à l’ordre du jour dans les années 1990 à la faveur du discours néorégionaliste, ce texte pose la question de l’avenir des métropoles et du modèle de ville dans lequel on souhaite vivre. La thèse défendue peut se résumer comme suit : afin de faire échec à la position libérale qui accorde la préséance aux facteurs économiques et aux forces du marché, les acteurs sociaux doivent porter le débat autour de la forme urbaine sur le terrain politique. À cette fin, l’urgence demeure de mobiliser la communauté politique.Henri Lefebvre’s critical approach remains appropriate for thinking about social relationships to space, including those we can now assess in North American metropolis. Through analyzing the controversy about the urban form as it has been highlighted again during the nineties and favored by the new regionalist discourse, this paper poses the question of the future of metropolis and the posterity of the urban model in which one wishes to live. Its thesis could be summarized like this : in order to make fail the liberal position which privileges to economical factors and market forces, social actors have to orientate the debate about the urban form towards the political field. In such a perspective, the emergency remains to mobilize the polity.

  16. A critique of cannabis legalization proposals in Canada.

    Kalant, Harold

    2016-08-01

    An editorial in this issue describes a cannabis policy framework document issued by a major Canadian research centre, calling for legalization of non-medical use under strict controls to prevent increase in use, especially by adolescents and young adults who are most vulnerable to adverse effects of cannabis. It claims that such a system would eliminate the severe personal, social and monetary costs of prohibition, diminish the illicit market, and provide more humane management of cannabis use disorders. It claims that experience with regulation of alcohol and tobacco will enable a system based on public health principles to control access of youth to cannabis without the harm caused by prohibition. The present critique argues that the claims made against decriminalization and for legalization are unsupported, or even contradicted, by solid evidence. Early experience in other jurisdictions suggests that legalization increases use by adolescents and its attendant harms. Regulation of alcohol use does not provide a good model for cannabis controls because there is widespread alcohol use and harm among adolescents and young adults. Government monopolies of alcohol sale have been used primarily as sources of revenue rather than for guarding public health, and no reason has been offered to believe they would act differently with respect to cannabis. Good policy decisions require extensive unbiased information about the individual and social benefits and costs of both drug use and proposed control measures, and value judgments about the benefit/harm balance of each option. Important parts of the necessary knowledge about cannabis are not yet available, so that the value judgments are not yet possible. Therefore, a better case can be made for eliminating some of the harms of prohibition by decriminalization of cannabis possession and deferring decision about legalization until the necessary knowledge has been acquired. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Proton scattering from unstable nuclei {sup 20}O, {sup 30}S, {sup 34}Ar: experimental study and models; Diffusion de protons sur les noyaux instables {sup 20}O, {sup 30}S, {sup 34}Ar: etude experimentale et developpement de modeles

    Khan, Elias [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS - IN2P3, Universite Paris - Sud, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2000-01-28

    Elastic and inelastic proton scattering from the unstable nuclei {sup 20}O, {sup 30}S and {sup 34}Ar were measured in inverse kinematics at the Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds. Secondary beams of {sup 20}O at 43 MeV/A, {sup 30}S at 53 MeV/A and {sup 34}Ar at 47 MeV/A impinged on a (CH{sub 2}){sub n} target. Recoiling protons were detected in the silicon strip array MUST. Energies and angular distributions of the first 2{sup +} and 3{sup -} states were measured. A phenomenological analysis yields values of the deformation parameters {beta}{sub 2} and {beta}{sub 3} of 0.55 (6) and 0.35 (5) for {sup 20}O, 0.32 (3) and 0.22 (4) for {sup 30}S, 0.27 (2) and 0.39 (3) for {sup 34}Ar, respectively, and allows the extraction of the ratio of neutron to proton transition matrix elements (M{sub n}/M{sub p})/(N/Z) for 2{sup +} states: 2.35 (37) for {sup 20}O, 0.93 (20) for {sup 30}S and 1.35 (28) for {sup 34}Ar. Therefore the proton rich nuclei {sup 30}S and {sup 34}Ar show a 2{sup +} excitation of isoscalar character whereas the excitation of {sup 20}O is of isovector character. In order to perform a microscopic analysis of the data, we have developed a QRPA model, using three Skyrme interaction: SIII, SG2, SLy4. This model reproduces measured B(EL) values for the oxygen, sulfur and argon isotopic chains, whereas RPA calculations, which do not take pairing into account, underestimate these values. In the case of the QRPA model the energies of the first 2{sup +} state are overestimated by about 1 MeV, but the evolution along the isotopic chains is well reproduced. (M{sub n}/M{sub p})/(N/Z) ratios for the first 2{sup +} state deduced from the microscopic analysis using QRPA are 1.98 for {sup 20}O, 1.05 for {sup 30}S and 1.00 for {sup 34}Ar, in agreement with the conclusions of the phenomenological analysis. However important discrepancies are observed between the two types of analysis for other isotopes, in particular neutron rich argon and sulfur nuclei. (author)

  18. Integral measurements of lattice properties in the natural uranium-graphite critical facility Marius; Mesures globales de reseaux a graphite dans l'empilement critique marius

    Cogne, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    A systematic study of natural uranium-graphite lattices has been undertaken in the critical facility MARIUS, which was built in 1959 in Marcoule. Integral measurement of lattice properties are carried out by the progressive replacement method. This report describes the experimental methods, the analysis of the experiments and the results obtained for lattices with pitches ranging from 192 to 317 mm and fuel elements with cross sections ranging from 6 to 20 cm{sup 2}. The principles of correlation of the results are also outlined. Additional experimental results are also given, pertaining to the determination of the anisotropy, of both the axial and the radial migration areas, and of the age in graphite. (author) [French] L'empilement critique MARIUS, construit en 1959 a Marcoule, a ete utilise pour l'etude systematique des reseaux a graphite-uranium naturel. Les mesures globales de reseaux sont faites par la methode de remplacement progressif. On decrit ici les methodes experimentales utilisees pour ces mesures globales, les principes du depouillement et les resultats obtenus pour des pas de 192 a 317 mm et des combustibles de 6 a 20 cm{sup 2} d'uranium naturel. On donne d'autre part le principe de correlation des mesures. Un certain nombre de resultats experimentaux complementaires sont donnes, en permettant de determiner l'anisotropie, les aires de migration axiale et radiale, l'age dans le graphite. (auteur)

  19. Conditional discrimination learning: A critique and amplification

    Schrier, Allan M.; Thompson, Claudia R.

    1980-01-01

    Carter and Werner recently reviewed the literature on conditional discrimination learning by pigeons, which consists of studies of matching-to-sample and oddity-from-sample. They also discussed three models of such learning: the “multiple-rule” model (learning of stimulus-specific relations), the “configuration” model, and the “single-rule” model (concept learning). Although their treatment of the multiple-rule model, which seems most applicable to the pigeon data, is generally excellent, the...

  20. Study of cellular retention of HMPAO and ECD in a model simulating the blood-brain barrier; Etude de la retention cellulaire de l`HMPAO et de l`ECD dans un modele simulant la barriere hematoencephalique

    Ponce, C.; Pittet, N.; Slosman, D.O. [HUG, 1211 Geneve 14, (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    The HMPAO and ECD are two technetium-labelled lipophilic agents clinically used in the imagery of cerebral perfusion. These molecules cross the membranes and are retained inside the cell after being converted to a hydrophilic form. The aim of this study is to establish the distribution of this retention at the level of blood-brain barrier (BBB) and nerve cells. The incorporation of HMPAO or ECD was studied on a model of co-culture simulating the BBB by means of a T84 single-cell layer of tight junction separated from another layer of U373 astrocyte cells. The cell quality and tight junction permeability were evaluated by the cellular retention of 111-indium chloride and by para-cellular diffusion of {sup 14}C mannitol,d-1. The values reported below were obtained at 180 minutes when the radiotracers were added near the `T84 layer`. The cell quality is validated by the low cellular retention of the indium chloride(2.3{+-}0.3 {mu}g{sup -1} for the T84 cells and 8.2{+-}5.8 {mu}g{sup -1} for the U373 cells). The activity of {sup 14}C mannitol,d-1 diminishes by 23 {+-} 5 % in the added compartment. The retention of ECD by the U373 cells is significantly higher (20.7 {+-}4.5 g{sup -1}) than that of T84 cells (2.9 {+-} 0.2 {mu}g{sup -1}). For HMPAO a non-significant tendency could be observed (49 {+-} 34 {mu}g{sup -1} for the U373 cells and 38 {+-} 25 {mu}g{sup -1} for the T84 cells)> The results of cellular retention of indium by HMPAO or ECD when added near `U373 layer` are not significantly different.In conclusion, independently of the side exposed to the radiotracers, one observes an enhanced incorporation of the U373 cells. The ensemble of these results represent additional arguments in favour of a specific cellular incorporation of the radiotracers, independent of the BBB permittivity

  1. Study: control of atomic energy power plant; Etude de la regulation d'une installation atomique productrice d'energie

    Dautray, R; Leny, J C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    We are studying the control of a very flexible atomic power plant, able to supply an independent network. Two systems have been examined: in the first the moderator pre-heats the light water, in the second, this preheating is dispensed with, subsequent to a study of the dynamics of the plant. Very complete linear approximation study is being effected on the model of the second system, all effects being taken into account. The reactor is stable at all power levels, though slight reactivity or load variations cause undamped power oscillations around the equilibrium level. (author)Fren. [French] Nous etudions la regulation d'une installation atomique d'une grande souplesse, pouvant eventuellement fournir de l'energie a un reseau isole. Deux versions de l'installation sont etudiees: dans la premiere le moderateur sert a rechauffer l'eau industrielle, mais l'etude dynamique conduit a supprimer ce rechauffage, ce qui donne la deuxieme version. On effectue sur celle-ci une etude en approximation lineaire tres complete ou l'on tient compte de differents effets. L'installation se montre stable a tous les niveaux de puissance. Toutefois, de petites perturbations de reactivite ou de charge entrainent des oscillations de puissance mal amorties autour de la position d'equilibre. (auteur)

  2. Design and study of the performance of a Raman lidar model, combining a pulsed laser source and a holographic grating double monochromator; Realisation et etudes des performances d'une maquette de lidar Raman combinant une source laser impulsionnelle et un double monochromateur a reseaux holographiques

    Nacass, Philippe

    1976-03-16

    The various techniques for the analysis of air constituents are studied briefly to help design an apparatus for detecting, localizing, identifying and measuring atmospheric pollution. The optical methods known under the name of Lidar (Light direction and ranging) appear to give good qualitative and quantitative results since they do not involve any sampling of the observed medium. Amongst these methods, the Raman laser back-scattering in which the characteristic frequency of a molecule can be isolated from those of the other constituents of air is studied in more details. The design and realization, based on the conclusions of this study, and the measurements of the performance of a Raman Lidar preliminary model are then described. Its originality lies in the use of holographic grating monochromators and the overall simplicity of operation of the system. Using this system, it was possible to make in-situ Raman back-scattering measurements on N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O in the atmosphere and on large concentrations of CO{sub 2} at distances between 30 and 40 m, which give a reasonable estimate of the sensitivity and of the range of a full scale, more performing final design. (author) [French] En vue de la realisation d'un dispositif permettant la detection, la localisation, l'identification et le dosage a distance de la pollution atmospherique, les differentes techniques d'analyse des constituants de l'air sont etudiees rapidement. Les methodes optiques appelees Lidar (Light Detection And Ranging) paraissent les plus adaptees pour des mesures qualitatives et quantitatives, car elles ne necessitent pas de prelevement du milieu observe. Parmi ces methodes, la retrodiffusion Raman Laser, qui permet d'isoler la frequence propre caracteristique d'une molecule sans interference avec les autres constituants de l'air est etudiee plus en details. La realisation, basee sur les conclusions de cette etude, puis la mesure des performances d'une maquette preliminaire de Lidar

  3. The use radioactive tracers in the study of solid transport in water streams; Emploi de traceurs radioactifs pour l'etude du transport solide dans les cours d'eau

    Courtois, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Jaffry, P; Heuzel, M [Laboratoire National d' Hydraulique de Chatou, 78 (France)

    1960-07-01

    The Laboratoire National d'Hydraulique which has been studying, during the last few years in conjunction with the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires at Saclay, the development of apparatus and of methods of investigation of sediment transport by radioactive tracer techniques, is at the moment trying to perfect a genuinely quantitative method of investigation. Two experiments have recently been carried out in rivers, the first designed to investigate the transport of pebbles in the river Rhone, the other to investigate the movement of sands in the Niger. This second experiment has been supported by parallel experiments carried out on a reduced scale model of the Niger built at the laboratories of Chatou: in this experiment are used the radiation from {sup 56}Mn and {sup 24}Na obtained by direct activation of the crushed apricot store which represents, in the scale model, the natural sediment on the bed of the Niger. The combined efforts of the laboratories of Chatou and of the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires at Saclay are at the moment directed to the application of radioactive tracers to studies on the scale models with the double aim: a) of having a single investigational method for the actual experiment and for the model making it possible to control the accuracy of the model in the preliminary stage of calibrating this model; b) of making the most of the possibilities of observation and of direct measurement offered by the scale models for studying the possibility of improving the tracer method, in particular with respect to the collecting of quantitative data. (author) [French] La Laboratoire National d'Hydraulique qui, depuis quelques annees a developpe, en collaboration avec le Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, les appareillages et les techniques d'etudes des mouvements de sediments par la methode des traceurs radioactifs, s'efforce actuellement de mettre au point un moyen d'investigation veritablement quantitatif. Deux experiences ont ete effectuees recemment en

  4. Female visibility through Korean literature: Feminist theological critique

    Eun Ok Jeong

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces Korean women’s experience as seen through the lense of social and cultural backgrounds, from the premodern through to the postmodern era. Korean literature is used as a source to investigate Korean women’s experiences and perspectives. By means of feminist critique this article explores men-centered influences in Korean literature. It aims to illustrate the importance of the issue of female visibility through Korean literature from a Korean woman’s perspective. Two texts are analyzed and critiqued: the first is the myth of Korean origin. The second is a story of Gasi Gogi (a thorny fish. The article is intended to stimulate debate on gender, voices, and authority from a feminist perspective, in order to transcend the more traditional interpretations.

  5. Philologie et critique génétique

    Espagne, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Le mérite de la critique génétique est d’avoir rappelé dans un contexte français la nécessité d’étudier non seulement les textes littéraires tels que le public, simple lecteur ou étudiant s’assimilant sa propre tradition littéraire, a pu les percevoir, mais aussi l’atelier au sein duquel les textes ont été produits. La question de la relation entre critique génétique et philologie éditoriale est beaucoup plus facile à envisager dans un contexte francophone où la philologie, qui ne dispose que...

  6. Affective methodologies and experimenting with affirmative critiques of educational leadership

    Staunæs, Dorthe

    concerns suitable methodologies for researching and experiments with affirmative critique of these new forms of educational leadership. In order not to just to ‘quote’, celebrate or reject this affective agenda, I ask how post-human, intra-active and performative approaches developed in Nordic feminist...... and anti-racist education studies may assist in experimenting with concepts and research formats, interrogate the (unforeseen) effects of affects and affective economies intertwined with new forms of educational leadership, and thereby formulate affirmative critiques of these new types of psy-leadership.......This paper will focus upon the identification of suitable and experimental methodologies for interrogating ‘the affective turn’ in European educational leadership. As an answer to the global GERM and the plea for improving learning outcomes, educational leadership in countries like Denmark seems...

  7. Ethics as Critique: Foucault’s Contribution to Research Ethics

    Christensen, Gerd

    The aim of my talk is to discuss how we can consider Michel Foucault’s concept of ethos and his endeavor for endless critique as an important contribution to research ethics in educational research. First, I intend to outline Foucault’s concept of ethos and its link to his concept of critique....... Second, I intend to demonstrate how it can fruitfully be applied to the established research ethics within qualitative research. This will occur through examples culled from a qualitative research project on the application of project studies (PBL) as a method at two Danish universities. The findings...... students. This had a significant impact on the possibilities and educational success of the students: while some students were marginalized or even excluded from the groups (and maybe even from the university) others were subjectivated as successful students. Thus, the findings points at ethics in general...

  8. Critical bioethics: beyond the social science critique of applied ethics.

    Hedgecoe, Adam M

    2004-04-01

    This article attempts to show a way in which social science research can contribute in a meaningful and equitable way to philosophical bioethics. It builds on the social science critique of bioethics present in the work of authors such as Renee Fox, Barry Hoffmaster and Charles Bosk, proposing the characteristics of a critical bioethics that would take social science seriously. The social science critique claims that traditional philosophical bioethics gives a dominant role to idealised, rational thought, and tends to exclude social and cultural factors, relegating them to the status of irrelevancies. Another problem is they way in which bioethics assumes social reality divides down the same lines/categories as philosophical theories. Critical bioethics requires bioethicists to root their enquiries in empirical research, to challenge theories using evidence, to be reflexive and to be sceptical about the claims of other bioethicists, scientists and clinicians. The aim is to produce a rigorous normative analysis of lived moral experience.

  9. What has become of critique? Reassembling sociology after Latour.

    Mills, Tom

    2017-09-06

    This paper offers a defence of sociology through an engagement with Actor Network Theory (ANT) and particularly the critique of 'critical' and politically engaged social science developed by Bruno Latour. It argues that ANT identifies some weaknesses in more conventional sociology and social theory, and suggests that 'critical' and 'public' orientated sociologists can learn from the analytical precision and ethnographic sensibilities that characterize ANT as a framework of analysis and a research programme. It argues, however, that Latour et al. have too hastily dispensed with 'critique' in favour of a value neutral descriptive sociology, and that the symmetrical and horizontalist approach adopted in ANT is particularly ill-suited to the development of scientific knowledge about social structures. It argues that a more straightforwardly realist sociology would share many of the strengths of ANT whilst being better able to interrogate, empirically and normatively, the centres of contemporary social power. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  10. A critique of statistical hypothesis testing in clinical research

    Somik Raha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many have documented the difficulty of using the current paradigm of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs to test and validate the effectiveness of alternative medical systems such as Ayurveda. This paper critiques the applicability of RCTs for all clinical knowledge-seeking endeavors, of which Ayurveda research is a part. This is done by examining statistical hypothesis testing, the underlying foundation of RCTs, from a practical and philosophical perspective. In the philosophical critique, the two main worldviews of probability are that of the Bayesian and the frequentist. The frequentist worldview is a special case of the Bayesian worldview requiring the unrealistic assumptions of knowing nothing about the universe and believing that all observations are unrelated to each other. Many have claimed that the first belief is necessary for science, and this claim is debunked by comparing variations in learning with different prior beliefs. Moving beyond the Bayesian and frequentist worldviews, the notion of hypothesis testing itself is challenged on the grounds that a hypothesis is an unclear distinction, and assigning a probability on an unclear distinction is an exercise that does not lead to clarity of action. This critique is of the theory itself and not any particular application of statistical hypothesis testing. A decision-making frame is proposed as a way of both addressing this critique and transcending ideological debates on probability. An example of a Bayesian decision-making approach is shown as an alternative to statistical hypothesis testing, utilizing data from a past clinical trial that studied the effect of Aspirin on heart attacks in a sample population of doctors. As a big reason for the prevalence of RCTs in academia is legislation requiring it, the ethics of legislating the use of statistical methods for clinical research is also examined.

  11. Urban Regeneration Partnerships: A Figurational Critique of Governmentality Theory

    Lever, John

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a critique of governmentally inspired accounts of urban regeneration and partnership working. Drawing on the work of Norbert Elias and prominent figurational sociologists, it discusses the changes taking place within and through the many partnerships set up by New Labour around the notion of ‘community safety’. Although recognizing the important insights provided by accounts of urban regeneration emerging through studies of governmentality, the article argues that such a...

  12. Manufacturing Consistency: Social Science, Rhetoric and Chomsky’s Critique

    Edgley, Alison

    2009-01-01

    Chomsky’s critique of US foreign policy – and the media coverage it generates – has significant theoretical merit, and deserves to be of considerable interest within the social sciences. His analysis rests upon two distinctive positions. First, he claims that capitalism only survives because of the role played by the state, legislatively and administratively, controversially adding that it operates as an economic agent providing welfare for the rich. While the political and corporate elite ca...

  13. Between critique and affirmation: An interventionist approach to entrepreneurship education

    Resch, Bernhard; Hoyer, Patrizia; Steyaert, Chris

    2018-01-01

    This chapter argues that it is not enough to "simply" question the optimistic politics of entreneurship education. Rather, this is an interplay between critique and affirmation, enabled by "an interventionist approach" that the authors pursue in the master's-level course "Entrepreneurship and Creativity". The described interventions aim at disentangling and reassociating time and space, bodies and motions, people and materials. The authors constantly add new elements to the equation in someti...

  14. Kantian Feeling: Empirical Psychology, Transcendental Critique, and Phenomenology

    Patrick Frierson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between empirical psychology, transcendental critique, and phenomenology in Kant’s discussion of respect for the moral law, particularly as that is found in the Critique of Practical Reason. I first offer an empirical-psychological reading of moral respect, in the context of which I distinguish transcendental and empirical perspectives on moral action and defend H. J. Paton’s claim that moral motivation can be seen from two points of view, where “from one point of view, [respect] is the cause of our action, but from another point of view the moral law is its ground.” Then, after a discussion of a distinction between first- and second-order transcendental/practical perspectives where reasons for action are first-order practical judgments while the conditions of possibility for those reasons’ authority are expressed in second-order judgments, I turn to a third kind of perspective: the properly phenomenological one. I explain the general notion of Kantian phenomenology with an example of the experience of time from Kant’s Anthropology before applying this to a phenomenological reading of the discussion of respect in the Critique of Practical Reason. I end by noting that on my account, in contrast to that of Jeanine Grenberg, the distinctive phenomenology of respect is not systematically important for grounding claims in moral philosophy.

  15. Auguste Comte’s Critique of Political Economy

    Gustavo Biscaia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present Auguste Comte’s critique of the Political Economy of his time as well as the proposals for social reform flowing from it. The methodological framework is built up on the categories proposed by the History of Ideas, in particular those of M. Bevir and Q. Skinner. What we can refer to as “Comtian economic theory” can be found in his “Social Statics”, in the sections dealing with property and the material elements of society, and in his “Social Dynamics”, where reference is made to the interrelationships between political, social and economic changes throughout history. This economic theory establishes dialogs both with liberals and “communists”, on the one hand defending the need for property and on the other, arguing for the subordination of property to social needs and providing a severe critique of individualism. The theory has both direct and indirect consequences: on the one hand, society cannot be reduced to the “market” and the State cannot neglect economic fluctuations; on the other hand, the most immediate conflicts of interest between proletarians and “patricians” cannot deny the social origin of wealth, requiring moral and legal measures for the regulation and resolution of these conflicts. In this regard, Comte may be seen as a precursor of the Welfare State, or at least a theoretician of social justice. Keywords: Auguste Comte, Positivism, Sociology, critique of Political Economy, holist methodology, social justice.

  16. Multicollinearity is a red herring in the search for moderator variables: A guide to interpreting moderated multiple regression models and a critique of Iacobucci, Schneider, Popovich, and Bakamitsos (2016).

    McClelland, Gary H; Irwin, Julie R; Disatnik, David; Sivan, Liron

    2017-02-01

    Multicollinearity is irrelevant to the search for moderator variables, contrary to the implications of Iacobucci, Schneider, Popovich, and Bakamitsos (Behavior Research Methods, 2016, this issue). Multicollinearity is like the red herring in a mystery novel that distracts the statistical detective from the pursuit of a true moderator relationship. We show multicollinearity is completely irrelevant for tests of moderator variables. Furthermore, readers of Iacobucci et al. might be confused by a number of their errors. We note those errors, but more positively, we describe a variety of methods researchers might use to test and interpret their moderated multiple regression models, including two-stage testing, mean-centering, spotlighting, orthogonalizing, and floodlighting without regard to putative issues of multicollinearity. We cite a number of recent studies in the psychological literature in which the researchers used these methods appropriately to test, to interpret, and to report their moderated multiple regression models. We conclude with a set of recommendations for the analysis and reporting of moderated multiple regression that should help researchers better understand their models and facilitate generalizations across studies.

  17. Critique of `Elements of Quantum Probability'

    Gill, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    We analyse the thesis of Kummerer and Maassen that classical probability is unable to model the the stochastic nature of the Aspect experiment in which violation of Bells inequality was experimentally demonstrated According to these authors the experiment shows the need to introduce the extension

  18. Use of hydraulic and aerial mock up to study atmospheric pollution; L'utilisation des maquettes aeriennes et hydrauliques pour l'etude de la pollution atmospherique

    Facy, L; Perrin De Brichambaut, C; Doury, A; Le Quinio, R

    1962-07-01

    Fundamental studies on turbulent atmospheric diffusion of finely divided particles, cannot remain on a purely theoretical basis. Further experimental studies must be considered. - In full scale, from accidental and induced releases. - On a reduced scale, in aerodynamic wind tunnels or hydraulic water tunnels. A first set of studies on reduced scale models has been worked out according to a contract between French 'Meteorologie Nationale' and French 'Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique' and with the Collaboration of Saint-Cyr 'Institut Aerotechnique'. Essentially two kinds of results have been obtained: - The mathematical model of SUTTON for the turbulent diffusion in the atmosphere, deduced from the SUTTON theory, generally used by us, has been correctly verified, qualitatively and quantitatively whenever experiments were consistent with the theory conditions. - The quantitative assays of photographic and cinematographic visualization have given precise details on the phenomena inaccessible to calculations, due to the influence of obstacles and release conditions. - Generally, it can be asserted, that the atmospheric pollution studies are worked out by mock up experimentations and that, in some cases these experiments never can be replaced by mathematically pure models. (authors) [French] Les etudes fondamentales portant sur la diffusion turbulente dans l'atmosphere de quantites de matieres finement divisees, ne peuvent se maintenir sur un plan exclusivement theorique. C'est pourquoi des etudes experimentales complementaires doivent etre obligatoirement envisagees: - en vraie grandeur, a partir d'emissions accidentelles ou provoquees; - sur modeles reduits, en soufflerie aerodynamique ou en veine hydraulique. En ce qui concerne les modeles reduits, une premiere serie d'etudes a pu etre menee a bien, dans le cadre d'un contrat passe entre la Meteorologie Nationale et le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, et avec la collaboration de l'Institut Aerotechnique de Saint

  19. Grasshopper Population Ecology: Catastrophe, Criticality, and Critique

    Dale R. Lockwood

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Grasshopper population dynamics are an important part of the North American rangeland ecosystem and an important factor in the economies that derive from the rangeland. Outbreak dynamics have plagued management strategies in the rangeland, and attempts to find simple, linear and mechanistic solutions to both understanding and predicting the dynamics have proved fruitless. These efforts to ground theory in a correspondence with the "real" world, including whether the population dynamics are ultimately density dependent or density independent, have generated abundant heat but little light. We suggest that a pragmatic approach, in which theories are taken to be "tools" rather than competing claims of truth, has greater promise to move ecological research in a constructive direction. Two recent non-linear approaches exploiting the tools of complexity science provide insights relevant to explaining and forecasting population dynamics. Observation and data collection were used to structure models derived from catastrophe theory and self-organized criticality. These models indicate that nonlinear processes are important in the dynamics of the outbreaks. And the conceptual structures of these approaches provide clear, albeit constrained or contingent, implications for pest managers. We show that, although these two frameworks, catastrophe theory and self-organized criticality, are very different, the frequency distributions of time series from both systems result in power law relationships. Further, we show that a simple lattice-based model, similar to SOC but structured on the biology of the grasshoppers gives a spatial time series similar to data over a 50-year span and the frequency distribution is also a power law relationship. This demonstration exemplifies how a "both-and" rather than an "either-or" approach to ecological modeling, in which the useful elements of particular theories or conceptual structures are extracted, may provide a way forward

  20. A critique of the Active Ageing Index.

    São José, José Manuel de; Timonen, Virpi; Amado, Carla Alexandra Filipe; Santos, Sérgio Pereira

    2017-01-01

    Active ageing and successful ageing are ubiquitous concepts in contemporary societies. In the European Union, active ageing is monitored and promoted chiefly by the Active Ageing Index, a policy tool in use since 2012. We acknowledge that the AAI may contribute to sensitizing people, including policymakers, to the multidimensionality and complexity of the process of "ageing well". However, we note that despite being widely used and promoted, the Active Ageing Index remains under-scrutinized. In this article, we undertake a comprehensive critical analysis of the Active Ageing Index. This critical analysis is supported by the Theory of Model Ageing, the Capability Approach and, to a lesser extent, by relevant literature on composite indices. We conclude that the Active Ageing Index was developed with the paradoxical aim of deriving "the solution" from "the problem". It is an under-theorized and narrowly conceptualized index that contributes to the process of Model Ageing, as its conceptual foundation, and its domains and indicators, convey a certain model of active ageing. This model is expert-based and ingrained with a priori assumptions about the potential of older people, the domains of life and activities they value and how strongly they value them. Finally, the Active Ageing Index measures current achievements, not capabilities (i.e. the opportunity set of achievable "doings" and "beings"), resulting in a valuable but incomplete tool for policymaking purposes. We hope that this critical analysis will initiate a debate on the Active Ageing Index that, in our view, is overdue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Modeling and simulation of critical parameters of the first chamber of the dimuon arm spectrometer of the Alice experiment; Modelisation et simulation de parametres critiques de la premiere station du spectrometre dimuons d'ALICE

    Guez, D

    2003-10-01

    The Alice experiment that is dedicated to the study of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, will take place in the future large hadron collider (LHC) at CERN. The dimuon arm spectrometer of the Alice experiment is devoted to the search of a new signature of the existence of the quark gluon plasma (QGP). The first chapter is dedicated to the physics notions linked to the study of QGP, a few signatures are proposed for the detection of QGP, particularly the signature concerning the production rate of quarkonium. The second chapter deals with particle detection involved in Alice experiment, the dimuon arm spectrometer is a detector dedicated to the track reconstruction of muons issued from the decay of heavy mesons from J/{psi} and {upsilon} families. The third and the fourth chapters present the studies made to integrate a reliable model of the dimuon arm in the global simulation code of Alice (Aliroot). The fifth chapter presents the software TB{sup 2} that has been developed within the framework of this thesis in order to check and control the output data when the detector is tested with a real particle beam. The sixth chapter presents the results of the tests that have been performed with a 7 GeV/c pion beam. These tests have shown that the electronic noise is coherent with the specifications of Alice experiment. A factor 1,8 between the highest and the weakest values of the gain has been measured in the chamber. The detection efficiency of the chamber has been estimated to 99% in the different cases studied. (A.C.)

  2. Contribution to the study of the structure and reactivity of ketones using deuterium substitution of the {alpha} - ketone hydrogens; Contribution a l'etude de la structure et de la reactivite des cetones, par utilisation de la substitution deuteriee des hydrogenes {alpha}-cetoniques

    Frejaville, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-02-01

    This work is an attempt to obtain more knowledge about the structure and the reactivity of ketones; it is also a contribution to conformational analysis based on infrared signals associated with the C-D vibration in mono-deuterated compounds. In the first chapter the various dosage and synthetic methods used in this work are described. In the second chapter the infrared spectra in the 2100-2200 cm{sup -1} region for mono-deuterated ketones are interpreted on the basis of a simple model. This model is then studied in detail, and also critically and precisely, in the case of the mono deuterated acetone molecule. In the third chapter is studied the mechanism of the Favorskii reaction and the reactivity of all the {alpha}-ketonic hydrogens of 2 chloro-cyclohexanone are classified. In a technical appendix is described a counter-current exchange method for obtaining a great variety of solvents and deuterated pure raw materials under advantageous conditions. (author) [French] Ce travail est un effort vers une meilleure connaissance de la structure et de la reactivite des cetones; c'est egalement une contribution a l'analyse conformationnelle d'apres l'etude des signaux infrarouges associes a la vibration C-D dans les composes monodeuteries. Dans le premier chapitre sont decrites les differentes methodes de dosage et de synthese qui ont ete utilisees dans ce travail. Dans le deuxieme chapitre, les spectres infrarouges dans la region 2100-2200 cm{sup -1} de cetones monodeuteriees sont interpretes sur la base d'un modele simple. Ce modele est ensuite etudie de facon detaillee, critique et precise sur la molecule d'acetone monodeuteriee. Dans le troisieme chapitre on etudie le mecanisme de la reaction de FAWORSKII et l'on classe la reactivite de tous les hydrogenes {alpha}-cetoniques de la chloro-2-cyclohexanone. Dons l'appendice technique on decrit la mise en oeuvre d'un appareil d'echange a contre-courant qui permet d'obtenir dans des conditions tres interessantes une

  3. Mary and femininity: A psychological critique.

    Harrington, P A

    1984-09-01

    This essay uses Freud to interpret the symbolism and theology of Mary in modern Catholicism. In her role as the mother of believers, Mary functions to place the Christian in the position of a child who receives illusory gratification from the mother. In her role as model for Christians to emulate, Mary functions to place the Christian in the position of receptivity and dependence which Freud associated with femininity. Reinterpreting Freud from a feminist perspective, I suggest that the kind of femininity Mary represents serves to perpetuate patriachal social structures and to inhibit full psychological maturity.

  4. The Foucault-Habermas Debate: the Reflexive and Receptive Aspects of Critique

    Hansen, Ejvind

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I discuss the relationship between two different approaches to critical theory – the reflective and the receptive approaches. I show how it can be fruitful to discuss the relationship between Habermas and Foucault through this distinction. My point is that whereas Habermas focusses...... on critique as a reflexive activity, Foucault mainly focusses on the receptive conditions for critique to be possible. I argue further that Foucault focusses on the receptive aspects of critique, the quest for universality is not as pressing as it is in Habermas’ approach, because problematizing critique can...

  5. On the study of petroleum system operation: contribution of a two-dimensional modeling; Contribution a l`etude du fonctionnement des systemes petroliers: apport d`une modelisation bi-dimensionnelle

    Burrus, J.

    1997-07-10

    The third volume of this thesis which main objective is to validate concepts used in hydrocarbon generation and migration models, and more especially the Temispack model developed by IFP, is concerned with the study of over-pressures, sub-compaction and the hydro-mechanical properties of shales. A general conclusion is proposed with the validation of physical and chemico-physical laws, the sedimentary dynamics of basins, and a methodology for the implementation of models in the related basins

  6. On the study of petroleum system operation: contribution of a two-dimensional modeling; Contribution a l`etude du fonctionnement des systemes petroliers: apport d`une modelisation bi-dimensionnelle

    Burrus, J

    1997-07-10

    The second volume of this thesis which main objective is to validate concepts used in hydrocarbon generation and migration models, and more especially the Temispack model developed by IFP, is concerned with the study of petroleum genesis and migration in the Viking Graben, the Williston basin, the Paris basin, and in deltas such as Gulf Coast and the Mahakam delta

  7. Study of the dynamic behaviour of the reactor Rapsodie; Etude du comportement dynamique de la pile rapsodie

    Abdon, R; Chaigne, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    . The investigation of the control, carried out on analog computer, served to determine the different possible means of starting and changing the conditions of the reactor as well as its automatic control. The calculations were examined in the totality by the construction of a training simulator composed of a board similar to the control board of the reactor, all of whose commands (reactivity and flows) work on an analogue computer which resolves in the real time the dynamic equations of the reactor and which reproduces simultaneously all the parameters representing the state of the installation (power, period, temperatures, etc. ) in the case of various incidents as well as under normal conditions of functioning. (authors) [French] On sait que le developpement des reacteurs surgenerateurs a neutrons rapides pose des problemes nouveaux d'une part dans les domaines mecanique et thermique et d'autre part en ce qui concerne leur comportement dynamique et leur surete. La pile RAPSODIE a ete l'objet de tres nombreuses etudes dynamiques effectuees sur machines analogiques et digitales, pour deux versions du combustible (metal et oxyde). Apres elaboration des modeles mathematiques representatifs de l'ensemble de l'installation (bloc pile et circuit de refroidissement) tant du point de vue neutronique que du point de vue thermodynamique, on a mis au point les schemas analogiques et les codes digitaux utilisables pour mener a bien les simulations d'incidents, de conduite et de stabilite du reacteur. On s'est attache, par rapport aux methodes habituelles a obtenir une precision plus grande, par un decoupage en zones plus fines, par l'emploi de formulations plus representatives du systeme reel, voire solubles analytiquement. Les etudes d'incidents ont ete effectuees par voie analogique pour l'ensemble de l'installation et par voie digitale pour l'etude du bloc pile seul ou de l'installation fonctionnant avec un seul circuit thermique. Un programme complementaire special - qui, a

  8. Information Flows? A Critique of Transfer Entropies

    James, Ryan G.; Barnett, Nix; Crutchfield, James P.

    2016-06-01

    A central task in analyzing complex dynamics is to determine the loci of information storage and the communication topology of information flows within a system. Over the last decade and a half, diagnostics for the latter have come to be dominated by the transfer entropy. Via straightforward examples, we show that it and a derivative quantity, the causation entropy, do not, in fact, quantify the flow of information. At one and the same time they can overestimate flow or underestimate influence. We isolate why this is the case and propose several avenues to alternate measures for information flow. We also address an auxiliary consequence: The proliferation of networks as a now-common theoretical model for large-scale systems, in concert with the use of transferlike entropies, has shoehorned dyadic relationships into our structural interpretation of the organization and behavior of complex systems. This interpretation thus fails to include the effects of polyadic dependencies. The net result is that much of the sophisticated organization of complex systems may go undetected.

  9. Atmospheric sulfur and climate changes: a modelling study at mid and high-southern latitudes; Soufre atmospherique et changements climatiques: une etude de modelisation pour les moyennes et hautes latitudes Sud

    Castebrunet, H

    2007-09-15

    The mid and high-southern latitudes are still marginally affected by anthropogenic sulfur emissions. They are the only regions in the world where the natural cycle of the atmospheric sulfur may still be observed. Sulfur aerosols are well-known for their radiative impact, and thus interact with climate. Climate can in turn affect atmospheric sulfur sources, distribution and chemistry. Antarctic ice cores provide information on the evolution of climate and sulfur deposition at the surface of the ice sheet at glacial-interglacial time scales. The aim of this thesis is to develop and use modeling towards a better understanding of the atmospheric sulfur cycle in antarctic and sub-antarctic regions. Ice core data are used to validate model results under glacial climate conditions. An Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) coupled to a sulfur chemistry module is used: the LMD-ZTSulfur model, version 4. An update of both the physical and chemical parts of the model. The model was first performed. The impact of there changes on modelled sulfur cycle are evaluated for modern climate. Further, boundary conditions are adapted to simulate the atmospheric circulation and sulfur cycle at the Last Glacial Maximum, approximately 20,000 years ago. In the model, sulfur is found to be highly sensitive to antarctic sea-ice coverage, which is still poorly known during the ice age. An original dataset of ice-age sea-ice coverage was developed. Its impact on the oceanic emissions of dimethyl sulfide, main precursor of sulfur aerosols at high-southern latitudes, is discussed. Using the same oceanic sulfur reservoirs as for present day climate, the model broadly reproduces the glacial deposits of sulfur aerosols on the Antarctic plateau, suggesting little impact of climate on oceanic sulfur production in the Antarctic region. Sensitivity tests were carried out to draw an up-to-date status of major uncertainties and difficulties facing future progress in understanding atmospheric

  10. What's so critical about Critical Neuroscience? Rethinking experiment, enacting critique.

    Fitzgerald, Des; Matusall, Svenja; Skewes, Joshua; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In the midst of on-going hype about the power and potency of the new brain sciences, scholars within "Critical Neuroscience" have called for a more nuanced and sceptical neuroscientific knowledge-practice. Drawing especially on the Frankfurt School, they urge neuroscientists towards a more critical approach-one that re-inscribes the objects and practices of neuroscientific knowledge within webs of social, cultural, historical and political-economic contingency. This paper is an attempt to open up the black-box of "critique" within Critical Neuroscience itself. Specifically, we argue that limiting enactments of critique to the invocation of context misses the force of what a highly-stylized and tightly-bound neuroscientific experiment can actually do. We show that, within the neuroscientific experiment itself, the world-excluding and context-denying "rules of the game" may also enact critique, in novel and surprising forms, while remaining formally independent of the workings of society, and culture, and history. To demonstrate this possibility, we analyze the Optimally Interacting Minds (OIM) paradigm, a neuroscientific experiment that used classical psychophysical methods to show that, in some situations, people worked better as a collective, and not as individuals-a claim that works precisely against reactionary tendencies that prioritize individual over collective agency, but that was generated and legitimized entirely within the formal, context-denying conventions of neuroscientific experimentation. At the heart of this paper is a claim that it was precisely the rigors and rules of the experimental game that allowed these scientists to enact some surprisingly critical, and even radical, gestures. We conclude by suggesting that, in the midst of large-scale neuroscientific initiatives, it may be "experiment", and not "context", that forms the meeting-ground between neuro-biological and socio-political research practices.

  11. Turbulent precipitation of uranium oxalate in a vortex reactor - experimental study and modelling; Precipitation turbulente d'oxalate d'uranium en reacteur vortex - etude experimentale et modelisation

    Sommer de Gelicourt, Y

    2004-03-15

    Industrial oxalic precipitation processed in an un-baffled magnetically stirred tank, the Vortex Reactor, has been studied with uranium simulating plutonium. Modelling precipitation requires a mixing model for the continuous liquid phase and the solution of population balance for the dispersed solid phase. Being chemical reaction influenced by the degree of mixing at molecular scale, that commercial CFD code does not resolve, a sub-grid scale model has been introduced: the finite mode probability density functions, and coupled with a model for the liquid energy spectrum. Evolution of the dispersed phase has been resolved by the quadrature method of moments, first used here with experimental nucleation and growth kinetics, and an aggregation kernel based on local shear rate. The promising abilities of this local approach, without any fitting constant, are strengthened by the similarity between experimental results and simulations. (author)

  12. Models of Educational Attainment: A Theoretical and Methodological Critique

    Byrne, D. S.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Uses cluster analysis techniques to show that egalitarian policies in secondary education coupled with high financial inputs have measurable payoffs in higher attainment rates, based on Max Weber's notion of power'' within a community. (Author/JM)

  13. A User Modelling Approach for Computer-Based Critiquing

    1990-01-01

    example a CAD/CAM system). Com- puters are good for simulating in circumstances where training on the actual equip- 13 ment (for example a power plant or...system. It is an environment in which simulated devices, such as steam plant controllers, can be assembled and operated. Students can assemble a...Con- cordia hypermedia system, graphics can be integrated easily. Concordia is a hy- permedia development and presentation system available on the

  14. The silencing of Kierkegaard in Habermas' critique of genetic enhancement

    Christiansen, Karin

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to draw attention to an important part of Habermas' critique of genetic enhancement, which has been largely ignored in the discussion; namely his use of Kierkegaard's reflections on the existential conditions for becoming one-self from Either/or and The Sickness ...... enhancement in the context of a dispute between so-called ‘liberal' and ‘conservative' arguments, and finally, the third part discusses the limits and possibilities of his position in a future debate about genetic enhancement....

  15. Some Notes and Critiques of Selected Lexicographic Texts in Bikol

    Louward Allen Zubiri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study revolves around notes and critiques of Bikol lexicography. Based on a selection of six dictionaries, the structure and diachronic development of Bikol lexicography were analyzed. Half of the selected dictionaries were authored in full or part by Malcolm Mintz, a renowned Bikol expert. These enabled a linear analysis of changes in lexicography that have occurred within the span of four decades. The dictionaries studied include the earliest and most influential Bikol dictionary of Lisboa (1865. The study presents a preliminary description of lexicographic work done in Bikol and traces the shift in the paradigm of dictionary making from the Spanish era to the present.

  16. The dynamic behaviour of heat exchangers; Etude du comportement dynamique des echangeurs de chaleur

    Fonteray, J; Rozenholc, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    In order to study the dynamics of nuclear power plants, one needs mathematical models made up of ordinary differential equations. This report deals with models for heat exchangers. These models allow exact evaluations of the temperatures for any steady state. The deformation of the temperature maps during transients is taken into account. To do this, average temperatures are evaluated keeping In mind, on one hand the partial differential equations, on the other hand, the physical phenomenons which are involved. Seven ordinary differential equations at most, are necessary for one heat exchanger. Theses models were compared with mathematically exact ones and also with experimental results, that EDF was able to measure on EDF-1 heat exchangers. The results appear to be correct. (authors) [French] Les etudes de dynamique sur les centrales nucleaires exigent l'elaboration de modeles apparaissant sous forme d'equations differentlelles ordinaires. Ce rapport est consacre a la recherche de modeles d'echangeurs. Dans ces modeles les temperatures sont calculees exactement pour n'importe quel regime permanent. Pour tenir compte de la deformation des distributions de temperature en regime transitoire, on evalue les temperatures moyennes dans l'echangeur en s'appuyant, d'une part, sur les equations aux derivees partielles et, d'autre part, sur une analyse des phenomenes physiques. Les modeles contiennent au plus sept equations differentielles ordinaires. Ces modeles ont ete compares aux modeles mathematiques exacts et aussi a des resultats experimentaux, obtenus par l'EDF, sur les echangeurs d'EDF-1. Les resultats paraissent satisfaisants. (auteurs)

  17. Mechanistic study and modeling of radionuclides retention by the hydrated calcium silicates (HCS) of cements; Etude mecanistique et modelisation de la retention de radionucleides par les silicates de calcium hydrates (CSH) des ciments

    Pointeau, I

    2000-09-01

    This work attempts to investigate the modelling of radioisotopes (Cs{sup +}, Pb{sup 2+}, Eu{sup 3+}) immobilization in cement matrix, in the frame of the design of engineered barrier of a deep radwaste repository. The model development concept consists of three major steps: - surface chemistry modelling of the calcium silicate hydrate CSH, used to simulate hydrated cement behaviour; - solid analysis of the batch sorption experiments: identification of the uptake mechanism; - both previous steps are used, with isotherm data, in the modelling of the radioisotopes immobilization in the CSH matrix. Final results: (all modelling are available for all the range of studied Ca/Si ratios and have been validated with predictive calculations). - A thermodynamic modelling of the CSH surface chemistry has been developed. The labile calcium and proton sorption constants on silanol sites (>SiOH) have been extracted. - Cs{sup +} is sorbed on two sites. The silanol site (weak site) has a high site density (10 sites.nm{sup -2}), which accounts for the CSH unsaturation in high [CS{sup +}]. A strong site is also identified. - Pb{sup 2+} immobilization in CSH matrix is modelled with surface equilibria and solubility equilibrium. - Eu{sup 3+} fixation has been investigated with solid analysis: Site-Selective anti Time-Resolved Luminescence Spectroscopy, XPS and SEM-EDS. Eu{sup 3+} thus does not precipitate in CSH water but is sorbed on the CSH surface (high hydroxylated environment). Europium is also (minority site) inserted in the CSH framework. (author)

  18. Study of a class of photovoltaic systems using a bond graph approach. Modeling, analysis and control; Etude d'une classe de systemes photovoltaiques par une approche bond graph. Modelisation, analyse et commande

    Andoulsi, R.

    2001-12-01

    We present in this thesis a study of a class of photovoltaic system by a bond graph approach. This study concerns the modelling, the analysis and the control of some configurations including PV generator, DC/DC converters and DC motor-pumps. The modelling of the different elements of a photovoltaic system is an indispensable stage that must precede all application of sizing, identification or simulation. However, theses PV systems are of hybrid type and their modelling is complex. It is why we use a unified modelling approach based on the bond graph technique. This methodology is completely systematic and has a sufficient flexibility for allowing the introduction of different components in the system. In the first chapter, we recall the principle of functioning of a photovoltaic generator and we treat mainly the MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) working. In the second chapter, we elaborate bond graph models of various photovoltaic system configurations. For the PV source, we elaborate, in a first stage, a complete model taking into account the various physical phenomena influencing the quality of the PV source. In a second stage, we deduce a reduced bond graph model more easy to use for analysis and control purposes. For the DC/DC converters, we recall the bond graph modelling of switching elements and the average bond graph of the DC/DC converters developed in the literature. Thus, we deduce the bond graphs models of the various DC/DC converters to be used. The third chapter presents a dynamic study of some configurations stability in linear procedure. In the fourth chapter, we study the feasibility of non linear controllers by input/output linearization for some configurations of PV systems. In this study, we use the concept of inverse bond graph to determine, by a bond graph approach, the expression of the control input and the nature of the stability of the internal dynamics (dynamics of zeros). The fifth chapter is dedicated for the presentation of some

  19. Size graded sediment dynamics: from the processes characterization to the transport modelling in the English Channel; Dynamique sedimentaire multiclasse: de l'etude des processus a la modelisation en Manche

    Blanpain, O.

    2009-10-15

    The purpose of this work is the implementation of a sediment transport model in the English Channel. The design of such a model requires the identification of the physical processes, their modelling and their in-situ validation. Because of the sedimentary particularities of the study area, modelling of the mechanical behaviour of a non uniform mixture of sediments and particularly of the fine grains within a coarse matrix is required. This study focused on the characterization of the relevant processes by acquisition of experimental and in-situ data. Data acquired in hydro-sedimentary conditions comparable to those found in the English Channel are scarce. A new instrument and image processing technique were specifically conceived and implemented in-situ to observe and measure, with a high temporal resolution, the dynamics of a strongly heterogeneous mixture of particles in a grain-size scale. The data collected compared well with several existing formulations. One of these formulations was chosen to be adapted. The transfer dynamics of fine grains in coarse sediments and their depth of penetration were acquired from stratigraphic samples. The sediment transport model deals with multi-size grains and multi sedimentary layers, it is forced by swell and currents, and accounts for bead load and suspended load transports. It was applied to realistic scenarios for the English Channel. (author)

  20. Modelling and experimental study of the behavior of radon and radon decay products in an enclosure. Application to houses; Modelisation et etude experimentale du comportement du radon et de ses descendants dans une enceinte confinee. Application a une habitation

    Gouronnec, A M

    1995-02-03

    Since the eighties, more and more studies were performed about radon and its decay products in houses with one of the aim being the estimation of the dose received by their inhabitants. Then, the principal objective of this work is to describe the behaviour of radon and its decay products within a dwelling. In the first part to the report, a few definitions are given and data from literature give an idea of indoor radon and radon decay products activities and/or size distribution. Aspects of dosimetry are presented too. In the second part of the work, a mathematical model, called `PRADDO` of Physic of Radon and radon Decay products in Domestic environment is developed on the basis of the classical model written by Jacobi in 1972. On the one hand, it has to predict radon decay products activities in systems consisting in one or more enclosure(s), from radon activity and from ambient aerosol concentration and size distribution. On the other hand, one part of the model is assigned to study the influence of the entry model parameters variation on the calculated quantities. Then, in the third part of the work, two experimental studies are realised in order to compare measurements to modelization. The first experimentation is a laboratory work, made on the test bench ICARE from IPSN, and the second one consists in describing the basement of an occupied house from Brittany. In the two cases, the comparison between experiments and modelling shows a good agreement if particles are present in the air, but any conclusion is made when is no aerosol in the enclosure. (author). 158 refs., 81 figs., 42 tabs.

  1. On the study of petroleum system operation: contribution of a two-dimensional modeling; Contribution a l`etude du fonctionnement des systemes petroliers: apport d`une modelisation bi-dimensionnelle

    Burrus, J

    1997-07-10

    The aim of the thesis is to validate concepts used in hydrocarbon generation and migration models; the model considered is the Temispack model developed by IFP, and the validation is based on the investigation of the thermal and hydraulic evolution in various sedimentary basins. It is shown that, in general, the thermal history of sediments is influenced by external processes (sedimentation rates, lithology, climate changes, regional-scale groundwater circulations) which frequently overprint internal processes (variations of crustal/mantle heat flow). It is found that external processes can frequently explain past thermal events that were erroneously attributed to internal causes (tectonic-thermal events). The origin of over-pressures in young basins with high sedimentation rates is shown to be generally related to compaction disequilibrium. Shale permeability values calibrated against overpressure profiles are consistent with experimental constraints. Compaction models predict too-high porosity in over-pressured sediments; this inconsistency is shown to be related to an inadequate definition of the Biot coefficient. In intracratonic basins with low sedimentation rates, diagenesis and fracturing are responsible for the large variability of shale permeability. Hydrocarbon generation models based on Arrhenius kinetics, and kinetic parameters calibrated on Rock Eval pyrolysis experiments are shown to be consistent with observations. Hydrocarbon expulsion and migration can be approximated by a multiphase Darcy equation using pseudo relative permeabilities. Migration pathways are shown to be very sensitive to the stratigraphic organization of basins. The volume 1 presents a bibliographical review, the Temispack model, and the geodynamics of a passive-type margin, the Gulf of Lion

  2. Numerical study and modeling of turbulence modulation in a sheet flow burdened with particulates; Etude numerique et modelisation de la modulation de la turbulence dans un ecoulement de nappe chargee en particules

    Vermorel, O

    2003-11-15

    This work is devoted to the numerical and theoretical study of turbulence modulation by particles using direct numerical simulation for the continuous phase coupled with a Lagrangian prediction of trajectories of discrete particles. The configuration corresponds to a slab of particles injected at high velocity into an isotropic decaying turbulence. The motion of a particle is supposed to be governed only by the drag force. The particle mass loading is large so that momentum exchange between particles and fluid results in a significant modulation of the turbulence. Collisions are neglected. The momentum transfer between particles and gas causes a strong acceleration of the gas in the slab. In the periphery of the slab, the turbulence is enhanced due to the production by the mean gas velocity gradients. The analysis of the interphase transfer terms in the gas turbulent kinetic energy equation shows that the direct effect of the particles is to damp the turbulence in the core of the slab but to enhance it in the periphery. This last effect is due to a strong correlation between the particle distribution and the instantaneous gas velocity. Another issue concerns the k-{epsilon} model and the validity of its closure assumptions in two phase flows. A new eddy viscosity expression, function of particle parameters, is used to model the Reynolds stress tensor. The modelling of the gas turbulent dissipation rate is questioned. A two-phase Langevin equation is also tested to model drift velocity and fluid-particles velocity covariance equations. (author)

  3. Modelling and characterization of the PEM fuel cell to study interactions with power converters; Modelisation et caracterisation de la pile pem pour l'etude des interactions avec les convertisseurs statiques

    Fontes, G

    2005-09-15

    The climatic and energy challenges were now clearly stated. The use of hydrogen is one of the best ways which gives many hopes. Fuel cells are an essential link in the chain of the use of hydrogen. Thus, a lot of studies have been undertaken throughout the world on fuel cells in many fields of physics. Concerning the field of power electronics, a lot of work on distributed generation technologies using fuel cells has been realised too and a great number of power converters dedicated to fuel cells have been studied. However, very few studies have been undertaken on the interactions between fuel cells and power converters. The goals of this work are to study interactions between fuel cells and power converters. Some requirements for the power electronic engineer can follow from this work. This work proposes high signal dynamic models of a H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} PEM fuel cell. These models include the different physical and chemical phenomena. Specific methods based on a limited number of original experiments (low frequency current sweeps) allow to extract the model parameters. These models are used to study the interactions between fuel cells and power converters which are the most used: buck chopper, boost chopper, inverters. The important part of the double layer capacitors has thus been underlined: they can filter the current harmonics created by the power converters. Finally, some choices of filtering elements to be connected to the fuel cell are proposed. (author)

  4. Modelling and characterization of the PEM fuel cell to study interactions with power converters; Modelisation et caracterisation de la pile pem pour l'etude des interactions avec les convertisseurs statiques

    Fontes, G.

    2005-09-15

    The climatic and energy challenges were now clearly stated. The use of hydrogen is one of the best ways which gives many hopes. Fuel cells are an essential link in the chain of the use of hydrogen. Thus, a lot of studies have been undertaken throughout the world on fuel cells in many fields of physics. Concerning the field of power electronics, a lot of work on distributed generation technologies using fuel cells has been realised too and a great number of power converters dedicated to fuel cells have been studied. However, very few studies have been undertaken on the interactions between fuel cells and power converters. The goals of this work are to study interactions between fuel cells and power converters. Some requirements for the power electronic engineer can follow from this work. This work proposes high signal dynamic models of a H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} PEM fuel cell. These models include the different physical and chemical phenomena. Specific methods based on a limited number of original experiments (low frequency current sweeps) allow to extract the model parameters. These models are used to study the interactions between fuel cells and power converters which are the most used: buck chopper, boost chopper, inverters. The important part of the double layer capacitors has thus been underlined: they can filter the current harmonics created by the power converters. Finally, some choices of filtering elements to be connected to the fuel cell are proposed. (author)

  5. Assimilation of Polder aerosol optical thickness into LMD2-Inca model in order to study aerosol-climate interactions; Etude des interactions entre aerosols et climat: assimilation des observations spatiales de Polder dans LMDz-Inca

    Generoso, S.

    2004-12-15

    Aerosols influence the Earth radiative budget both through their direct (scattering and absorption of solar radiation) and indirect (impacts on cloud microphysics) effects. The anthropogenic perturbation due to aerosol emissions is of the same order of magnitude than the one due to greenhouse gases, but less well known. To improve our knowledge, we need to better know aerosol spatial and temporal distributions. Indeed, aerosol modeling still suffers from large uncertainties in sources and transport, while satellite observations are incomplete (no detection in the presence of clouds, no information on the vertical distribution or on the chemical nature). Moreover, field campaigns are localized in space and time. This study aims to reduce uncertainties in aerosol distributions, developing assimilation of satellite data into a chemical transport model. The basic idea is to combine information obtained from spatial observation (optical thickness) and modeling studies (aerosol types, vertical distribution). In this study, we assimilate data from the POLDER space-borne instrument into the LMDz-INCA model. The results show the advantage of merging information from different sources. In many regions, the method reduces uncertainties on aerosol distribution (reduction of RMS error). An application of the method to the study of aerosol impact on cloud microphysics is shown. (author)

  6. A Review and Critique of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Etiologies

    Steven Charles Hertler

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present review and critique of extant etiological theories centers on a single finding: Obsessive-compulsive personality is highly heritable (0.78 and not significantly influenced by “common, shared-in-families environmental factors” (Torgersen et al., 2000, p. 424. This finding, though twelve years old, has remained dissociated from existing etiological accounts. Psychoanalytic theories anachronistically maintain that obsessive personality is familially forged. Biological theories, few, unelaborated and weakened by postulating proximate instead of ultimate explanations, fail to seriously reckon with Torgersen’s findings. Truly integrating heritability estimates into a functional etiological account of obsessive character, it is argued in the discussion section, will come from an evolutionary model that understands obsessive personality to be an evolved strategy rather than a dysfunctional disorder.

  7. WHY WORK? A CULTURALLY INFORMED CRITIQUE OF PAST AND PRESENT SHOP FLOOR INTERPRETATIONS OF WORK

    MIHAELA KELEMEN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a cultural critique of the meanings of work as theytranscend different modes of production. Twenty years on from the collapse of state socialism,Western experts are still called upon to prescribe ‘the best way’ for how productive workshould be conducted/managed across the non-Western world (Jankowicz, 1993; 1994; Kostera,1995, Kelemen, 1999. This ‘one best way’ usually assumes that the basic unit of analysis is therational, utility-maximising individual; a species, bred inside Westernized secondary andtertiary educational institutions, business schools, or (vocational training courses, all of theseproducing their special form of ‘learning to labour’ (Willis, 1977. Thus equipped, this species– what we might call, for the time being, the ‘model-worker’ - is bound to inhabit a ratherinhabitable place, an arena of in increasingly global capitalism: the market.

  8. In defence of pedagogy: a critique of the notion of andragogy.

    Darbyshire, P

    1993-10-01

    Malcolm Knowles' theory of andragogy has gained increasing acceptance among nurse educators. Andragogy is espoused as a progressive educational theory, adopted as a theoretical underpinning for curricula and is even considered to be synonymous with a variety of teaching techniques and strategies such as 'problem-based' and 'self-directed' learning. This paper offers a critique of the notion of andragogy which maintains that the distinction created between andragogy and pedagogy is spurious and based upon assumptions which are untenable. It is argued that andragogy has been uncritically accepted within nursing education in much the same way that the nursing process and models of nursing were in their day. Finally, it is claimed that true pedagogy has far more radical, powerful and transformative possibilities for nursing education.

  9. Treatment of effluent at the Saclay Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires (1960); Le traitement des effluents du Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (1960)

    Wormser, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires at Saclay possesses several installations from which liquid radioactive effluent is rejected, and it has thus been found necessary to construct a station for the purification of radioactive liquids and to settle various chemical, analytical and technological problems. This report describes, in the following order: - the disposal possibilities at the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay, - the effluents produced at the centre, - the set-up for collecting effluent, - treatment of the effluent, - results of these treatments. (author) [French] La presence, au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, de plusieurs installations susceptibles de rejeter des effluents liquides radioactifs a necessite la construction d'une station d'epuration d'eaux radioactives et la mise au point de differents problemes chimiques, analytiques et technologiques. Dans ce rapport, nous exposerons successivement: - les possibilites de rejet du Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, - les effluents du centre, - le dispositif de collecte des effluents, - le traitement de ces effluents, - les resultats de ces traitements. (auteur)

  10. Students' Talk about the Climate of Feedback Interventions in the Critique

    Dannels, Deanna P.; Housley Gaffney, Amy L.; Martin, Kelly Norris

    2011-01-01

    Similar to many courses in communication, oral communication is central to the learning goals in the discipline of design. Design critiques, the primary communication activity in design classrooms, occur in every studio course multiple times. One key feature of the critique, as an oral genre, is the amount of time and emphasis placed on feedback.…

  11. International Test Score Comparisons and Educational Policy: A Review of the Critiques

    Carnoy, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Stanford education professor Martin Carnoy examines four main critiques of how international test results are used in policymaking. Of particular interest are critiques of the policy analyses published by the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). Using average PISA scores as a comparative measure of student achievement is misleading…

  12. Adam Smith and the Educative Critique: A Response to My Commentators

    Weinstein, Jack Russell

    2015-01-01

    This paper is both a response to the four reviewers in a special symposium on my book Adam Smith's Pluralism and a substantive discussion of philosophy of education. In it, I introduce what I call "the educative critique," a mode of analysis similar to Marxist, feminist, or postcolonial critiques, but focusing on the educative role of a…

  13. "With Grace under Pressure": How Critique as Signature Pedagogy Fosters Effective Music Performance

    Hastings, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by seminal writings on Critique as Signature Pedagogy in the Arts and performance as Signature Pedagogy in Music, this article unifies these two concepts into a study of how critique as signature pedagogy in music-performance promotes student learning. This essay seeks to first define the notion of different mindsets as musicians perform…

  14. Putting the Steam Back into Critique? "Gathering" for Critical-Dissensual Collaborations in Education Policy Research

    Heimans, Stephen; Singh, Parlo

    2018-01-01

    Bruno Latour famously asked, "Why has critique run out of steam?". In this paper we draw on his ideas to present some resources for "gathering"--for doing education policy research with others--which we term "critical-dissensual collaboration". We believe that our education policy research "critique from…

  15. Evaluating the Evaluators: Comparative Study of High School Newspaper Critique Services.

    Davis, Nancy

    High school publication staffs depend on national critique services as a major means of evaluation and recognition, but most have no measure of how one critique service compares to the others, because they can afford the entry fee for only one evaluation. Thus, a study was conducted to test the validity of three major national critique…

  16. Alienation in Mathematics Education: Critique and Development of Neo-Vygotskian Perspectives

    Williams, Julian

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to critique and develop neo-Vygotskian work in mathematics education from (i) within the Vygotskian and activity theoretic tradition, and where necessary from (ii) a Bourdieusian perspective. First, I critique Roth and Radford's (2011) version of Cultural-historical Activity Theory, suggesting that a classroom episode presented as…

  17. Back to Hegel? On Gillian Rose's critique of sociological reason.

    Fuller, Brian W

    2017-08-22

    Thirty-five years ago, Gillian Rose articulated a significant critique of classical sociological reason, emphasizing its relationship to its philosophical forebears. In a series of works, but most significantly in her Hegel contra Sociology, Rose worked to specify the implications of sociology's failure, both in its critical Marxist and its 'scientific' forms, to move beyond Kant and to fully come to terms with the thought of Hegel. In this article, I unpack and explain the substance of her criticisms, developing the necessary Hegelian philosophical background on which she founded them. I argue that Rose's attempted recuperation of 'speculative reason' for social theory remains little understood, despite its continued relevance to contemporary debates concerning the nature and scope of sociological reason. As an illustration, I employ Rose to critique Chernilo's recent call for a more philosophically sophisticated sociology. From the vantage point of Rose, this particular account of a 'philosophical sociology' remains abstract and rooted in the neo-Kantian contradictions that continue to characterize sociology. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  18. Margaret Cavendish's materialist critique of van Helmontian chymistry.

    Clucas, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    A striking omission in the scholarship on the reception of the chymical philosophy of Jan Baptista van Helmont in England in the seventeenth century is the work of the mid-seventeenth-century natural philosopher Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle. In her Philosophical Letters (1664), Cavendish offers an extended critique of Van Helmont's work (whose Ortus Medicince had recently been translated into English by John Sadler). In this paper, I compare Cavendish's criticisms with those of Robert Boyle in his Sceptical Chymist (1661). Both Boyle and Cavendish attacked Van Helmont for the obscurity of his chymical vocabulary and concepts, and attacked his seminalism. Although their critiques had much in common, they diverged in their attitudes to Van Helmont's experiments. As an opponent of the experimental philosophy, Cavendish had little interest in the quality of Van Helmont's experimental claims, whereas Boyle was critical of their unreplicability. I also try to show that the two writers had very different polemical agendas, with Boyle defending his vision of chymistry based on a corpuscularian natural philosophy, and Cavendish being as much concerned with establishing her religious orthodoxy as with defending the truth claims of her own materialist vitalism. For Cavendish, Van Helmont was an example of the dangers of mingling theology and natural philosophy.

  19. Debating DSM-5: diagnosis and the sociology of critique.

    Pickersgill, Martyn D

    2014-08-01

    The development of the fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-the DSM-5-has reenergised and driven further forward critical discourse about the place and role of diagnosis in mental health. The DSM-5 has attracted considerable criticism, not least about its role in processes of medicalisation. This paper suggests the need for a sociology of psychiatric critique. Sociological analysis can help map fields of contention, and cast fresh light on the assumptions and nuances of debate around the DSM-5; it underscores the importance of diagnosis to the governance of social and clinical life, as well as the wider discourses critical commentaries connect with and are activated by. More normatively, a sociology of critique can indicate which interests and values are structuring the dialogues being articulated, and just how diverse clinical opinion regarding the DSM can actually be. This has implications for the considerations of health services and policy decision-makers who might look to such debates for guidance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Study of the machining of uranium carbide rods obtained by continuous casting under electronic bombardment; Etude de l'usinage de barreaux de carbure d'uranium obtenus par coulee continue sous bombardement electronique

    Rousset, P.; Accary, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The authors consider the various methods of machining uranium mono-carbide and compare them critically in the case of their application to uranium carbide obtained by fusion under an electronic bombardment and continuous casting. This study leads them to propose two mechanical machining methods: cylindrical rectification and center-less rectification, preceded by a preliminary roughing out of a cylinder, the latter appearing more suitable. A study of the machining yields as a function of the diameter of the rough bars and of the diameter of the finished rods has shown that an optimum value of the rough bar diameter exists for each value of the finished rod diameter. It is found that the yield increases as the diameter itself increases, this yield rising from 45 per cent to around 70 per cent as the diameter of the rough bars increases from 25-26 mm to 37-38 mm. (authors) [French] Les auteurs envisagent les differentes methodes d'usinage du monocarbure d'uranium et se livrent a une etude critique de celles-ci, dans le cas de leur application a l'usinage de barreaux de carbure d'uranium obtenus par fusion sous bombardement electronique et coulee continue. Cette etude les conduit a proposer deux methodes d'usinage mecanique: la rectification cylindrique et la rectification 'centerless', precedee d'un ebauchage par carottage, la seconde paraissant la plus appropriee. L'etude des rendements d'usinage en fonction du diametre des barreaux bruts et du diametre des barreaux finis, a mis en evidence une valeur optimale du diametre des barreaux bruts pour chaque valeur du diametre des barreaux usines. Elle a montre que le rendement croit lorsque le diametre croit lui-meme, ce rendement passant d'environ 45 pour cent a environ 70 pour cent, lorsque le diametre des barreaux bruts passe de 25-26 mm a 37-38 mm.

  1. Modeling and experimental study of heat transfer in innovate building components for industrial production; Modelisation et etude experimentale des echanges de chaleur dans des composants innovants de batiment industriels

    Lacena-Neildez, A.

    2000-05-15

    The main objective of the thesis is the study of a new roof thermal behaviour with the thermal transfer by radiation and convection in order to propose an alternative to the mechanical air-conditioning in the overseas islands, and to determine the way of improving the energy performance. Two fundamental results were obtained. First, the coating has a great importance in relation with the radiative properties. Secondly, air channel geometries can complete insufficient coatings in their cooling purpose. In this thesis, both experimental and modelling analyses were carried out. A solar simulator was used for the experiment to carry out a comparative study of prototypes. A performance indicator was defined; it is the eliminated flux, because the temperature is not sufficient to describe the heat exchange. At the same time, the radiative properties of coatings were measured and a characterisation of paints allows to start a new research of innovative infrared reflective paints. A mono-dimensional model was developed describing thermal exchanges in an air channel component. A sensibility study was carried out which allows to determine the main parameters. The experimental study validated the model in rear flux, more realistic than stagnation. Finally, the feasibility of this new steel component was concluded by a technical-economical study. (author)

  2. Etudes sur le Portugal au Temps de l'Humanisme

    J. Cruz Costa

    1953-06-01

    Full Text Available BATAILLON (Marcel. — Etudes sur le Portugal au Temps de l'Humanisme.  Acta Universitatis Conimbrigencis, 1952, 309 pp. (Primeiro Parágrafo do Artigo O Prof. Marcel Bataillon, erudito dos mais inteligentes da França atual, autor de uma obra que é hoje impr:scindível para quem pretenda estudar o humanismo renascentista na Espanha ou em Portugal, diríamos melhor, talvez: para quem pretenda estudar o Humanismo e a Renascença, — acaba de publicar, na coleção Acta Universitatis Conimbrigencis, êste volume no qual reune alguns trabalhos da mais alta importância para o conhecimento de muitos aspectos da vida espiritual portuguêsa do século XVI.

  3. Heat and mass transfer in multi-scale porous structures: application to Diesel particulate filters modelling; Transferts de chaleur et de masse dans des structures poreuses multi-echelles: application a l'etude des filtres a particules Diesel

    Oxarango, L.

    2004-09-15

    Ceramic filters appear to be the most promising solution to deal with the future emission standard requirements for diesel powered vehicles. Indeed, this type of Diesel Particulate Filters provides suitable characteristics for high efficiency soot collection. However, this filtration process is characterised by a dramatic increase of the pressure drop imposed in the exhaust line. Thus, the filter has to be cleaned periodically to insure the proper engine operating conditions. This regeneration phase is based on the oxidation of the carbon particles within the apparatus. This complex thermal process is critical for the safety working of Diesel Particulate Filters. Indeed, thermal stresses induced by the heat released during soot oxidation are involved in most of the filter breaking scenario. Numerous geometrical parameters defining the complex multi-scale structure of the apparatus could influence its thermal response. Thus, the geometrical optimization of these filters is a major problematic for the development of new products. This study aims at modelling heat and mass transfer phenomenon within Diesel Particulate Filters. The studied geometrical configuration is based on a ceramic honeycomb with porous walls and alternately plugged channel known as wall-flow DPF. In a first part, the gas flow, particles transport and collection are considered. Given the apparatus particular structure, the problem has to be treated considering various spatial length-scales. The filtering walls are characterised by a micrometric porous structure. The flow modelling with the Darcy law requires determining a particular effective permeability. The laminar flow problem in millimetric channels with wall suction (or injection) is studied. The asymptotic solution for flow in two-dimensional channels is used to derive a one-dimensional system preserving mass and momentum balances. This approach is then extended to the square channel configuration using direct numerical simulations. The

  4. Developpement d'une methode calorimetrique de mesure des pertes ac pour des rubans supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique

    Dolez, Patricia

    Le travail de recherche effectue dans le cadre de ce projet de doctorat a permis la mise au point d'une methode de mesure des pertes ac destinee a l'etude des supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique. Pour le choix des principes de cette methode, nous nous sommes inspires de travaux anterieurs realises sur les supraconducteurs conventionnels, afin de proposer une alternative a la technique electrique, presentant lors du debut de cette these des problemes lies a la variation du resultat des mesures selon la position des contacts de tension sur la surface de l'echantillon, et de pouvoir mesurer les pertes ac dans des conditions simulant la realite des futures applications industrielles des rubans supraconducteurs: en particulier, cette methode utilise la technique calorimetrique, associee a une calibration simultanee et in situ. La validite de la methode a ete verifiee de maniere theorique et experimentale: d'une part, des mesures ont ete realisees sur des echantillons de Bi-2223 recouverts d'argent ou d'alliage d'argent-or et comparees avec les predictions theoriques donnees par Norris, nous indiquant la nature majoritairement hysteretique des pertes ac dans nos echantillons; d'autre part, une mesure electrique a ete realisee in situ dont les resultats correspondent parfaitement a ceux donnes par notre methode calorimetrique. Par ailleurs, nous avons compare la dependance en courant et en frequence des pertes ac d'un echantillon avant et apres qu'il ait ete endommage. Ces mesures semblent indiquer une relation entre la valeur du coefficient de la loi de puissance modelisant la dependance des pertes avec le courant, et les inhomogeneites longitudinales du courant critique induites par l'endommagement. De plus, la variation en frequence montre qu'au niveau des grosses fractures transverses creees par l'endommagement dans le coeur supraconducteur, le courant se partage localement de maniere a peu pres equivalente entre les quelques grains de matiere

  5. Rheological study of an hydrate slurry as secondary two-phase refrigerant. Experimental results and modelling; Etude rheologique d'une suspension d'hydrates en tant que fluide frigoporteur diphasique: resultats experimentaux et modelisation

    Darbouret, M.

    2005-12-15

    Secondary two-phase fluids are suspensions of solid crystals. Thanks to the melting latent heat, they present a great interest for cold transportation. Moreover, they are a mean of reducing the amount of classical refrigerant. In the refrigeration field, ice slurries are already used. The goal is now to extend this technology to other temperature ranges suitable for other applications like freezing or air-conditioning. For an air-conditioning application, a TBAB (Tetra-Butyl-Ammonium Bromide) aqueous solution is studied. Under atmospheric pressure and for positive temperatures, this solution crystallizes into ice-like compounds named 'hydrates'. First, the physical properties of the aqueous solution and its crystallisation conditions were studied. Two different types of hydrates can appear. The goal of the experimental set-up is to study the rheological behaviour of two-phase fluids. Slurries are made in brushed-surface heat exchanger and pumped into pipes where flow rates and pressure drops are measured. The rheological behaviour of TBAB hydrates slurries can be described using a Bingham fluid model. We highlight that the two rheological parameters, which are the apparent viscosity and the yield shear stress, depend on the volume fraction of crystal of course, but also on the hydrate type, and on the initial concentration of the solution. The yield shear stress is interpreted as the consequence of the Van der Waals inter-particle interaction forces. Finally, possible stratification effects are modelled with a finite difference method. The principle is to calculate particle concentration and velocity profiles following the flow of the slurry. Calculations are validated with experimental velocity profiles published by P. Reghem (2002). This model underlines the influence of the particle distribution in the pipe on pressure drops. (author)

  6. Asymptotic analysis, direct numerical simulation and modeling of premixed turbulent flame-wall interaction; Etude asymptotique, simulation numerique directe et modelisation de l`interaction flamme turbulente premelangee-paroi

    Bruneaux, G.

    1996-05-20

    Premixed turbulent flame-wall interaction is studied using theoretical and numerical analysis. Laminar interactions are first investigated through a literature review. This gives a characterization of the different configurations of interaction and justifies the use of simplified kinetic schemes to study the interaction. Calculations are then performed using Direct Numerical Simulation with a one-step chemistry model, and are compared with good agreements to asymptotic analysis. Flame-wall distances and wall heat fluxes obtained are compared successfully with those of the literature. Heat losses decrease the consumption rate, leading to extinction at the maximum of wall heat flux. It is followed by a flame retreat, when the fuel diffuses into the reaction zone, resulting in low unburnt hydrocarbon levels. Then, turbulent regime is investigated, using two types of Direct Numerical Simulations: 2D variable density and 3D constant density. Similar results are obtained: the local turbulent flame behavior is identical to a laminar interaction, and tongues of fresh gases are expelled from the wall region, near zones of quenching. In the 2D simulations, minimal flame-wall distances and maximum wall heat fluxes are similar to laminar values. However, the structure of the turbulence in the 3D calculations induces smaller flame-wall distances and higher wall heat fluxes. Finally, a flame-wall interaction model is built and validated. It uses the flamelet approach, where the flame is described in terms of consumption speed and flame surface density. This model is simplified to produce a law of the wall, which is then included in a averaged CFD code (Kiva2-MB). It is validated in an engine calculation. (author) 36 refs.

  7. Kinetic modeling of hydrogenation and hydro-denitrogenation mechanisms on sulfurated catalysts; Etude par modelisation cinetique des mecanismes d'hydrogenation et d'hydrodesazotation sur catalyseurs sulfures

    Penet, H.

    1998-10-23

    Toluene hydrogenation on a NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was studied at 350 deg. C as a function of the partial pressures of H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3}. This experimental study shows the following facts: the effect of the H{sub 2}S partial pressure on the hydrogenation rate is complex. The order with respect to H{sub 2}S varies between -0.05 and -0.5 as the pressure varies between 0.125 and 3 bar; in the presence of NH{sub 3}, the H{sub 2}S inhibiting effect is enhanced. Kinetic modeling was performed with the Chemkin II/Surface Chemkin II software package. On the basis of the effect of contact time and H{sub 2}S on toluene hydrogenation, the adsorption by heterolytic dissociation of H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S was selected. H{sub 2} provides hydride species (H{sup -}) attacking the aromatic ring in a first step. Proton addition during the hydrogenation of the first double bond is the limiting step. In the presence of ammonia. the kinetic modeling shows that the catalyst surface is modified and that the displacement of the H{sub 2}S adsorption equilibrium is expected. The NH{sub 3} adsorption mode could not be clearly discriminated between a simple adsorption through coordination and an adsorption through protonation. This model was applied to the hydro-denitrogenation of 2,6-diethyl-aniline at 350 deg. C on NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst and showed that the limitation step is the hydrogenation of the aromatic ring. (author)

  8. Study of point defects in pure iron by means of electrical resistivity; Etude au moyen de la resistivite electrique des defauts ponctuels dans le fer pur

    Minier-Cassayre, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-04-01

    In the first part of this work, after having reviewed the production, observation and the annealing of point defects In metals, we resume the present state of research. In the second part, we explain the techniques we have employed to produce point defects at low temperatures: irradiation, quenching and cold-work; and go on to the study of their migration and annealing. The experimental results obtained for pure iron and for iron containing certain impurities are presented in the third part. In the fourth part we suggest a model which explains the different stages of annealing observed, and their properties. We then compare the energies of interaction between point defects with the values deduced from the theory of elasticity. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie de cette etude, apres avoir passe en revue la production, l'observation et les modes de guerison des defauts ponctuels dans les metaux, nous exposons l'etat actuel des recherches. La seconde partie est consacree aux techniques que nous avons employees pour produire des defauts ponctuels a basse temperature: irradiations, trempe et ecrouissage puis a l'etude de leur migration et de leur guerison. Les resultats experimentaux obtenus dans le fer pur et le fer contenant certaines impuretes sont presentes dans le troisieme chapitre. Nous proposons ensuite un modele qui explique les differents stades de guerison observes et leurs nombreuses proprietes: nous comparons les energies d'interaction entre defauts ponctuels aux valeurs que l'on pourrait deduire d'un modele elastique. (auteur)

  9. Etude Sedimentologique et Esquisse Paleoenvironnementale des ...

    Sedimentological Study and Palaeoenvironmental outline Trainings of fresco. Sedimentological and biostratigraphic ... continental shelf internal bathyal. Keywords : sedimentology, paleoenvironment, geological formations, Fresco, Côte d'Ivoire. ..... depositional models with special reference to the deposits of high-density ...

  10. Synthesis of zirconium by zirconium tetrachloride reduction by magnesio-thermia. Experimental study and modelling; Elaboration de zirconium par reduction de tetrachlorure de zirconium par magnesothermie. Etude experimentale et modelisation

    Basin, N

    2001-01-01

    This work deals with the synthesis of zirconium. The ore is carbo-chlorinated to obtain the tetrachloride which is then purified by selective condensation and extractive distillation. Zirconium tetrachloride is then reduced by magnesium and the pseudo-alloy is obtained according to the global following reaction (Kroll process): ZrCl{sub 4} + 2 Mg = 2 MgCl{sub 2}. By thermodynamics, it has been shown that the volatilization of magnesium chloride and the formation of zirconium sub-chlorides are minimized when the combined effects of temperature and of dilution with argon are limited. With these conditions, the products, essentially zirconium and magnesium chloride, are obtained in equivalence ratio in the magnesio-thermia reaction. The global kinetics of the reduction process has been studied by a thermal gravimetric method. A thermo-balance device has been developed specially for this kinetics study. It runs under a controlled atmosphere and is coupled to a vapor tetrachloride feed unit. The transformation is modelled supposing that the zirconium and magnesium chloride formation result: 1)of the evaporation of magnesium from its liquid phase 2)of the transfer of magnesium and zirconium tetrachloride vapors towards the front of the reaction located in the gaseous phase 3)of the chemical reaction. In the studied conditions, the diffusion is supposed to be the limiting process. The influence of the following parameters: geometry of the reactive zone, temperature, scanning rate of the argon-zirconium tetrachloride mixture, composition of the argon-zirconium tetrachloride mixture has been experimentally studied and confronted with success to the model. (O.M.)

  11. Atomistic modelling study of lanthanide incorporation in the crystal lattice of an apatite; Etude par modelisation atomistique de l'incorporation de lanthanides dans le reseau cristallin d'une apatite phosphocalcique

    Louis-Achille, V

    1999-07-01

    Studies of natural and synthetic apatites allow to propose such crystals as matrix for nuclear waste storage. The neodymium substituted britholite, Ca{sub 9}Nd(PO{sub 4}){sub 5}(SiO{sub 4})F{sub 2}. is a model for the trivalent actinide storage Neodymium can be substituted in two types of sites. The aim of this thesis is to compare the chemical nature of this two sites in fluoro-apatite Ca{sub 9}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}F{sub 2} and then in britholite, using ab initio atomistic modeling. Two approaches are used: one considers the infinite crystals and the second considers clusters. The calculations of the electronic structure for both were performed using Kohn and Sham density functional theory in the local approximation. For solids, pseudopotentials were used, and wave functions are expanded in plane waves. For clusters, a frozen core approximation was used, and the wave functions are expanded in a linear combination of Slater type atomic orbitals. The pseudopotential is semi-relativistic for neodymium, and the Hamiltonian is scalar relativistic for the clusters. The validation of the solid approach is performed using two test cases: YPO{sub 4} and ScPO{sub 4}. Two numerical tools were developed to compute electronic deformation density map, and calculate partial density of stases. A full optimisation of the lattice parameters with a relaxation of the atomic coordinates leads to correct structural and thermodynamic properties for the fluoro-apatite, compared to experience. The electronic deformation density maps do not show any significant differences. between the two calcium sites. but Mulliken analysis on the solid and on the clusters point out the more ionic behavior of the calcium in site 2. A neodymium substituted britholite is then studied. Neodymium location only induces local modifications in; the crystalline structure and few changes in the formation enthalpy. The electronic study points out an increase of the covalent character the bonding involving neodymium

  12. Modelling, development and optimization of integrated power LDMOS transistor. Performance limits in terms of energy; Modelisation, conception et optimisation de composant de puissance lateral DMOS integre. Etude des limites de performance en energie

    Farenc, D.

    1997-12-16

    Technologies for Smart Power Integrated Circuits combine into a single chip Bipolar and CMOS transistors, plus power with lateral or vertical DMOS transistors. Complexity which has been increasing dramatically since the mid-80`s has allowed to integrate, into a single monolithic solution, entire systems. This thesis deals with the modelling, conception and test of the power integrated LDMOS transistor. The power LDMOS transistor is used as a switching device. It is characterized by two parameters which are the Specific On-resistance R{sub sp} and the breakdown voltage BV{sub DSS}. The LDMOS transistor developed for the new Smart Power technology exhibits a Specific On-resistance of 200 m{Omega}{sup *}mm{sup 2} and a breakdown voltage of 60 V. This device is dedicated to automotive applications. A reduction of the power device which is achieved with a low Specific On-resistance puts forward new issues such as the maximum Energy capability. When the power device is switched-off on an inductive load, a certain amount of energy is dissipated; if it is beyond a certain limit, the device is destroyed. Our goal is to determine the energy limits which are associated with our new Power integrated LDMOS transistor. (author) 28 refs.

  13. Theoretical study of silicon carbide under irradiation at the nano scale: classical and ab initio modelling; Etude theorique a l'echelle nanometrique du carbure de silicium sous irradiation: modelisation classique et ab initio

    Lucas, G

    2006-10-15

    The behaviour of silicon carbide under irradiation has been studied using classical and ab initio simulations, focusing on the nano scale elementary processes. First, we have been interested in the calculation of threshold displacement energies, which are difficult to determine both experimentally and theoretically, and also the associated Frenkel pairs. In the framework of this thesis, we have carried out simulations in classical and ab initio molecular dynamics. For the classical approach, two types of potentials have been used: the Tersoff potential, which led to non satisfactory results, and a new one which has been developed during this thesis. This potential allows a better modelling of SiC under irradiation than most of the empirical potentials available for SiC. It is based on the EDIP potential, initially developed to describe defects in silicon, that we have generalized to SiC. For the ab initio approach, the feasibility of the calculations has been validated and average energies of 19 eV for the C and 38 eV for the Si sublattices have been determined, close to the values empirically used in the fusion community. The results obtained with the new potential EDIP are globally in agreement with those values. Finally, the elementary processes involved in the crystal recovery have been studied by calculating the stability of the created Frenkel pairs and determining possible recombination mechanisms with the nudged elastic band method. (author)

  14. Castor and Pollux - shielded cells for studying fuel treatment processes; Castor et Pollux chaines blindees d'etudes de procedes de traitement de combustibles

    Faudot, G; Bathellier, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    CASTOR and POLLUX, two alpha, beta, gamma cells are described in the present paper. They are located in the CEN at Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). They are designed for improvement studies of the various aqueous separation processes used in irradiated fuels reprocessing plants. Located in the same air-tight steel encasement, they arc inter-connected by a pneumatic transfer. These two cells have a similar in-line conception and they include: a gamma shielding in lead of 10 cm of thickness; an inner air-tight box, made with stainless steel and plexiglas, is maintained in lowering in comparison to room pressure. Eleven Hobson model seven master-slave manipulators allow inner manipulations. Then the inner equipment is described briefly. (author) [French] Le present document decrit les cellules alpha, beta, gamma CASTOR et POLLUX edifiees au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses. Elles sont destinees aux etudes visant a l'amelioration des procedes de separation par voie aqueuse utilises dans les usines de retraitement des combustibles irradies. Ces deux chaines, implantees dans le meme caisson et reliees par convoyeur pneumatique, sont de conception identique et comprennent: une protection biologique constituee par 10 cm d'epaisseur de plomb; une enceinte interieure etanche alpha, en acier inoxidable et plexiglas, maintenue en depression. Des telemanipulateurs Hobson, modele 7, permettent les manipulations interieures. On decrit ensuite brievement les installations annexes. (auteur)

  15. A Critique of Block on Abortion and Child Abandonment

    Jakub Bożydar Wiśniewski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper offers a critique of Block on the issues of abortion and child abandonment. Block regards aborting a fetus or abandoning a child as an instance of exercising one’s libertarian right of expelling trespassers from one’s private property. I argue that the above reasoning is flawed due to the lack of the appreciation of the fact that if one voluntarily initiates the causal chain which leads to someone else ending up on his property, the latter person cannot be considered a trespasser. Furthermore, in the light of the above observation, any direct effects resulting from that person’s eviction should be considered the responsibility of the property’s owner. All of this follows from the simple logical fact that in all links of the causal chain under consideration the owner is the ultimate causal agent.

  16. Participation, Power, Critique: Constructing a Standard for Electronic Patient Records

    Bossen, Claus

    2006-01-01

      The scope of participatory design is discussed through the case of a national standard for electronic patient records (EPR) in Denmark. Currently within participatory design, the relationship between participatory methods and techniques on the one hand and critical and emancipatory aims...... on the other hand is discussed. Some argue that participation in itself entails a strive towards democracy, others argue that the tendency to focus upon tools, techniques and the arena of single projects should be supplemented with emancipatory aims, such as technology assessment and critique of dominance....... These issues are discussed through the controversies around the test in late 2004 of a prototype application based on BEHR, a standard developed from 1999 to 2005 for EPRs. I argue that participation is valuable, but that the scope of participatory design should also include critical conceptualizations...

  17. Constructivism in Science and Science Education: A Philosophical Critique

    Nola, Robert

    This paper argues that constructivist science education works with an unsatisfactory account of knowledge which affects both its account of the nature of science and of science education. The paper begins with a brief survey of realism and anti-realism in science and the varieties of constructivism that can be found. In the second section the important conception of knowledge and teaching that Plato develops in the Meno is contrasted with constructivism. The section ends with an account of the contribution that Vico (as understood by constructivists), Kant and Piaget have made to constructivist doctrines. Section three is devoted to a critique of the theory of knowledge and the anti-realism of von Glaserfeld. The final section considers the connection, or lack of it, between the constructivist view of science and knowledge and the teaching of science.

  18. Hackers against technology: Critique and recuperation in technological cycles.

    Maxigas

    2017-12-01

    I offer an interpretation of hackers' technological choices through a theoretical framework of critique and recuperation in technological cycles, building on prior research that brings the pragmatic sociology of Boltanski and Chiapello to bear on matters in Science and Technology Studies. I argue that contextualizing technology choices in the development of capitalism through innovation illuminates their political significance. I start with the counterintuitive observation that some browser extensions popular with hackers, like RequestPolicy, make it considerably harder for them to look at websites. This observation showcases the Luddite aspects of hackerdom, in that they are willing to 'break' popular websites that would otherwise cheat on the user. In line with an undercurrent of hacker studies, in this case study I find hackers fighting technological progress they see as social decline.

  19. Compulsory creativity – a critique of cognitive capitalism

    Larsen, Steen Nepper

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary capitalism can be labelled cognitive capitalism. In this dynamic, demanding and extremely transformative mode of production, knowledge becomes a strategic force of production and an important commodity, while concepts and ideas become items. This article sheds light on some...... of the implications of the emergence of a cognitive capitalism. In response to modern oxymorons, such as compulsory creativity and mandatory originality, this article offers various attempts to interpret and criticise how human inventiveness and a whole range of externalities get attuned to economic and market...... strategies, depriving them their natural, social and individual qualities. The aim of this article is to renew and sharpen a critique of the new type of capitalism and to foster some normative bricks that might be able to inspire alternative ways of thinking and living. Keywords: Cognitive capitalism...

  20. Achievable conservation potential in British Columbia: A review and critique

    Nyboer, J.; Bailie, A.

    1994-01-01

    Energy conservation of British Columbia's Hydro Utility is being reviewed after a two phase report (Synergetic Resources Corp'n, (1994a,1994b)). Phase 2 is the centre of the attention for this review and critique. The information gained in the Phase 1 analysis answered what boundaries were achievable for electrical conservation. Phase 2 was to estimate the conservation potential (1) through technological and operating change and (2) through lifestyle changes of individuals and society in general. The study is part of a new, largely unexplored area of research for electricity utilities, promoting and planning for electricity conservation. While it succeeded in considering the effects of various initiatives on consumers' decisions when purchasing and using technologies, it's shortcomings limit its usefulness. The three main shortcomings of BC Hydro's report are (1) lack of relevant information, (2) questions on the methodology, and (3) lack of connection between Part 1 and Part 2. 2 refs

  1. Knowledge-based critiquing of graphical user interfaces with CHIMES

    Jiang, Jianping; Murphy, Elizabeth D.; Carter, Leslie E.; Truszkowski, Walter F.

    1994-01-01

    CHIMES is a critiquing tool that automates the process of checking graphical user interface (GUI) designs for compliance with human factors design guidelines and toolkit style guides. The current prototype identifies instances of non-compliance and presents problem statements, advice, and tips to the GUI designer. Changes requested by the designer are made automatically, and the revised GUI is re-evaluated. A case study conducted at NASA-Goddard showed that CHIMES has the potential for dramatically reducing the time formerly spent in hands-on consistency checking. Capabilities recently added to CHIMES include exception handling and rule building. CHIMES is intended for use prior to usability testing as a means, for example, of catching and correcting syntactic inconsistencies in a larger user interface.

  2. A Design Anthropology Critique of Active Aging as Ageism

    Linda Tonolli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a design anthropology critique of active aging as ageism in the design of information technologies for seniors. With ageism we refer to narratives coalesced around the label “active aging” in European policies and system design that focus on seniors as a homogeneous group of people in need of help. We discuss the findings of two empirical participatory design projects we have been dealing with: 1 a bottom­-up senior organization in a small village in a mountain area and 2 a series of workshops organized with seniors in an urban area. In both cases, the relations between the anthropologist and the people involved, prompted reflexive moments that brought anthropological relocations of the designers' perspective. In conclusion, we stress how such relocations could benefit participatory designs through the concept of design by subtraction and the adoption of a feminist perspective.

  3. Critique in action. To fight, to play, to break

    Frère, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Le communisme n'est plus, les grands mouvements critiques des années 70 auraient fait long feux et il n'y aurait plus d'espace aujourd'hui que pour l'adaptation au monde tel qu'il est. Les désaffiliés doivent être réinsérés, les migrants assimilés, les jeunes adaptés, les moins jeunes reformés. L'enjeu pour tout un chacun serait aujourd'hui d'augmenter son employabilité, d'assurer sa flexibilité et sa mobilité afin de s'assurer sinon un avenir, en tout cas un statuquo dans une société trans...

  4. Ernesto Laclau and Critical Media Studies: Marxism, Capitalism, and Critique

    Schou, Jannick

    2016-01-01

    im-plications have been either overlooked or forgotten altogether. This paper seeks to reflect on the po-tentials and obstacles within Laclau’s work for critical media studies by engaging with the role of Marx-ism, capitalism and critique. First, the paper addresses the relation between Marxism...... and post-Marxism by arguing that rather than abandoning Marxism, Laclau actively situates his own work as a dialogue with and against this tradition. Second, the paper addresses the relation between Laclau’s analysis of so-called globalised capitalism and political struggle, which leads to a discussion...... and needs to receive further attention by future research. By providing an extended discussion of Laclau’s own work, this paper seeks to contribute to the critical application of discourse theory within the field of media studies and contribute to the on-going dialogue between Marxism, post-Marxism...

  5. Critique and cure: a dream of uniting psychoanalysis and philosophy.

    Webster, Jamieson

    2013-06-01

    Critical theory, whose aim was to historicize philosophy through integrating it with the social sciences, turned to psychoanalysis to find its way through an accounting of philosophy after the Second World War. Over 50 years after this initial project, the rift between philosophy and psychoanalysis has never been greater. If Jacques Lacan could be considered one of the few psychoanalysts to maintain and foster links to philosophical thought in the latter half of the 20th century, his work has sadly remained marginal in the clinical field throughout America and Europe. Both critical theory and Lacan remain skeptical of the direction taken by psychoanalysis after Freud. Reflecting on the history of these two disciplines, as well as through an examination of Theodor Adorno's posthumously published dream journal, critique and cure emerge as two dialectically intertwined themes that gain momentum in the dream of the unification of the philosophical and psychoanalytic projects.

  6. A critique of Jeffrey D. Sachs's The end of poverty.

    Henwood, Doug

    2006-01-01

    Jeffrey Sachs's The End of Poverty is a manifesto and how-to guide on ending extreme poverty around the world; it promotes the U.N. Millennium Development Goals. Sachs achieved fame with his policy package for the "stabilization" of Bolivia (which did nothing to relieve Bolivia's poverty), and became advisor to the Yeltsin government in Russia and to Poland, Slovenia, and Estonia as they began their transitions to capitalism (the last three mixed successes; Russia a thorough disaster). Sachs later became more prominent as a critic of development orthodoxy, and was economic advisor to the Jubilee 2000 movement. The End of Poverty is full of sharp critiques of Western imperialism, but his views on the rest of the development business are more conventional.

  7. Beyond Construction: Five arguments for the role and value of critique in learning science

    Henderson, J. Bryan; MacPherson, Anna; Osborne, Jonathan; Wild, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    This paper argues that science education has overemphasized the importance of construction at the expense of critique. In doing so, it draws on two key premises-Ford's argument that the construction of knowledge requires a dialectic between construction and critique and Mercier and Sperber's theory of argumentative reasoning that critique is essential for epistemic vigilance. Five separate cases are presented which argue that the absence of critique within school science limits the opportunities for students to engage in scientific reasoning making the learning of science less effective. These five arguments incorporate research literature surrounding the nature of science, epistemology, literacy, pedagogy, and motivation. Furthermore, we draw on data collected from cognitive think-aloud interviews to show that students can, with the appropriate prompts, engage in the important epistemic activity of critique. We conclude by examining the implications for the teaching and learning of science. In essence, we argue that the undervaluing of critique within the curriculum and pedagogy of school science results in a failure to develop the analytical faculties which are the valued hall mark of the practicing scientist; a misrepresentation of the nature of science; and, more importantly, a less effective learning experience. Critique, therefore, needs to play a central role in the teaching and learning of science.

  8. Boundedness beyond reification: cosmopolitan teacher education as critique

    Claudia Schumann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain strands of cosmopolitanism have been criticized on various occasions for merely mirroring the mental framework of a global elite that stresses positive attitudes to mobility, flexibility, and disinterested objective detachment to the detriment of ‘rooted’, local and national values. In this way, it is argued, it presents a one-sided opportunistic or naively affirmative picture of processes of globalization rather than taking seriously the challenges posed by the inherently normative dimension of cosmopolitan thought and practice. The present paper will argue for a return to the critical core of the cosmopolitan idea and proposes that the critique of reification, which recently received renewed interest by philosophers of the so-called third generation Frankfurt School, can serve as a vital tool for re-imagining cosmopolitan teacher education as critique. In particular, the discussion around the recent turn towards a standards and competencies oriented teacher education in Germany will be critically examined in this regard. Rather than presenting a mere factual description of our thinking, judgments and actions, a cosmopolitan orientation should be concerned with reminding us of the importance of a continuous critical challenge of their validity. Firstly, the concept of reification will be shown to provide the conceptual resources to describe and select relevant characteristics of contemporary social pathologies that cannot be adequately captured within liberal social philosophies. A closer analysis of reification as a deficient relation to oneself, to others, or to the world will then lead to the second question of how to conceive of non-reifying forms of relatedness, commitment and boundedness as enabling new forms of expressive freedom. Instead of one-sided, narrow and hasty reactions towards a perceived ‘global challenge’—either fetishizing borders or their transgression, an critical educational cosmopolitanism should bring

  9. Study of neutrino production in the Cannonball model of Gamma ray bursts: possibility of observation of these neutrinos with the Antares neutrinos telescope, and study of the optical background recorded with the prototype sector line; Etude de la production de neutrinos associes aux Sursauts Gamma dans le modele du Boulet de canon: possibilite d'observation de ces neutrinos par le detecteur ANTARES, et etude du bruit de fond optique enregistre par le prototype d'un secteur de ligne

    Ferry, S

    2004-09-15

    ANTARES is a future neutrino telescope which will be build at 40 km off the french coast (Toulon), at a 2500 m depth. The interaction of a neutrino with matter produces a muon which emits Cerenkov light while propagating in water. This light is detected with 900 photomultipliers distributed over 12 lines. Gamma ray bursts (GRB) are violent cosmological phenomenon observed once per day. In the Cannonball Model, bursts are produced by the interaction of a jet made of cannonballs (CB) with a supernova remnant (SNR). Forward shocks propagate in the SNR, reverse ones in the CB and neutrinos are produced at the shock fronts. An estimation of the neutrino production is given and is studied over a large parameter range. For a typical GRB, 0.002 to 0.3 v{sub {mu}}, cm{sup -2} can be produced. Depending on the viewing angle, ANTARES could detect 1 to 10 v{sub {mu}} per year in correlation with GRBs. The ambient optical background has been recorded by the ANTARES prototype sector line. The analysis is about the background influence on the detector performance and about the organisms activity which produces it. For example, it appears a 17.6 to 20.4 h periodicity which is compatible with the liquid masses movement imposed by the Coriolis force at the ANTARES latitude. (author)

  10. Thousand Islands River : study of solutions to address critically low water levels : summary report; Riviere des Milles Iles : etude des solutions de soutien des etiages critiques : rapport sommaire

    Cyr, J F; Fontin, M [Centre d' Expertise Hydrique du Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Service de la Securite des Barrages

    2005-07-01

    A study was conducted to find solutions to very low water flow in the Thousand Islands River, near the Island of Montreal, Quebec. It was launched in response to the critically low water levels that were experienced in 2001 and 2002. In the summer of 2001, municipalities served by the Thousand Island River were faced with problems in the supply of drinking water when the river flow reached approximately 13 cubic metres per second. Since 1970, the minimal values of flow observed for this time of year had seldom passed under 20 cubic metres per second. Under such conditions of flow, the dilution of any water discharged into the river became so weak that the aging water treatment facilities had to work beyond their capacity. In addition, the population served by this river has increased significantly in the past 2 decades. During this episode of critically low water levels, Quebec's Center of Water Expertise (CEHQ)intervened in an emergency measure to drain flows from a water reservoir in the catchment area to ensure a minimal flow of approximately 25 cubic metres per second. Thereafter, the affected municipalities had to ask the Quebec Environment Ministry to define permanent interventions to ensure a minimal flow the river in the event of similar episodes. The CEHQ carried out a preliminary study of possible solutions to address the critically low water levels and presented its report in the spring 2002. In the winter of 2002, CEHQ created an emergency management procedure in preparation of a repeat episode. 28 refs., 11 figs.

  11. Milles Iles River : study of solutions to address critically low water levels; Riviere des Milles Iles : etude des solutions de soutien des etiages critiques

    Cyr, J F; Fontin, M [Centre d' Expertise Hydrique du Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Service de la Securite des Barrages

    2006-07-01

    Water management for the Mille Iles River, which supplies drinking water to 400,000 people, was discussed with reference to solutions for critically low water flow which was experienced in 2001 and 2002. The river is part of the Lac des Deux Montagnes watershed in the region of Montreal which is characterized as a high population growth area. In the summer of 2001, municipalities served by the Mille Iles River were faced with problems in the supply of drinking water when the river flow reached only 13 cubic metres per second. The minimal values of flow observed for this time of year have rarely been under 20 cubic metres per second since 1970. The quality of water was reduced under such conditions of flow because the dilution of wastewater discharged into the river became so weak that the aging water treatment facilities had to work beyond their capacity. Quebec's Center of Water Expertise (CEHQ) intervened in an emergency measure to ensure water quality. This study investigated the following 3 possible scenarios for a solution to this problem: (1) to increase the Mille Iles River capacity at the Lac des Deux Montagnes outlet, (2) to reduce the flow discharged by the 3 other outlets of Lac des Deux Montagnes, and (3) to increase the inflow to Lac des Deux Montagnes from reservoirs located in the Ottawa River watershed. The first solution was favoured. 2 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  12. Etude du point critique des paliers lisses alimentés à la graisse Study of Critical Point on Plain Bearings Lubricated by Grease

    Delneuville P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article est essentiellement consacré à l'étude du fonctionnement limite des paliers lisses lubrifiés à la graisse ; son but est de permettre la détermination des conditions nécessaires à l'obtention d'un film lubrifiant d'épaisseur suffisante. L'auteur cherche à cette occasion une loi théorique qui permet de départager les régimes de lubrification, non plus empiriquement, mais sur la base de lois statistiques. La formulation finale doit permettre aux utilisateurs de situer correctement les conditions de fonctionnement d'un palier lisse et d'en estimer la sécurité du régime. This article deals essentially with the boundary behaviour of plain bearings lubricated by grease. Its aim is to determine the conditions required to obtain a sufficiently thick lubricating film. The author proposes a theoretical law for separating lubrication types. This law is not empirical but is based on statistical laws. The final formulation should enable users to correctly situate the operating conditions of a plain bearing and to evaluate the safety factor during running.

  13. Milles Iles River : study of solutions to address critically low water levels; Riviere des Milles Iles : etude des solutions de soutien des etiages critiques

    Cyr, J.F.; Fontin, M. [Centre d' Expertise Hydrique du Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Service de la Securite des Barrages

    2006-07-01

    Water management for the Mille Iles River, which supplies drinking water to 400,000 people, was discussed with reference to solutions for critically low water flow which was experienced in 2001 and 2002. The river is part of the Lac des Deux Montagnes watershed in the region of Montreal which is characterized as a high population growth area. In the summer of 2001, municipalities served by the Mille Iles River were faced with problems in the supply of drinking water when the river flow reached only 13 cubic metres per second. The minimal values of flow observed for this time of year have rarely been under 20 cubic metres per second since 1970. The quality of water was reduced under such conditions of flow because the dilution of wastewater discharged into the river became so weak that the aging water treatment facilities had to work beyond their capacity. Quebec's Center of Water Expertise (CEHQ) intervened in an emergency measure to ensure water quality. This study investigated the following 3 possible scenarios for a solution to this problem: (1) to increase the Mille Iles River capacity at the Lac des Deux Montagnes outlet, (2) to reduce the flow discharged by the 3 other outlets of Lac des Deux Montagnes, and (3) to increase the inflow to Lac des Deux Montagnes from reservoirs located in the Ottawa River watershed. The first solution was favoured. 2 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  14. Thousand Islands River : study of solutions to address critically low water levels : summary report; Riviere des Milles Iles : etude des solutions de soutien des etiages critiques : rapport sommaire

    Cyr, J.F.; Fontin, M. [Centre d' Expertise Hydrique du Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Service de la Securite des Barrages

    2005-07-01

    A study was conducted to find solutions to very low water flow in the Thousand Islands River, near the Island of Montreal, Quebec. It was launched in response to the critically low water levels that were experienced in 2001 and 2002. In the summer of 2001, municipalities served by the Thousand Island River were faced with problems in the supply of drinking water when the river flow reached approximately 13 cubic metres per second. Since 1970, the minimal values of flow observed for this time of year had seldom passed under 20 cubic metres per second. Under such conditions of flow, the dilution of any water discharged into the river became so weak that the aging water treatment facilities had to work beyond their capacity. In addition, the population served by this river has increased significantly in the past 2 decades. During this episode of critically low water levels, Quebec's Center of Water Expertise (CEHQ)intervened in an emergency measure to drain flows from a water reservoir in the catchment area to ensure a minimal flow of approximately 25 cubic metres per second. Thereafter, the affected municipalities had to ask the Quebec Environment Ministry to define permanent interventions to ensure a minimal flow the river in the event of similar episodes. The CEHQ carried out a preliminary study of possible solutions to address the critically low water levels and presented its report in the spring 2002. In the winter of 2002, CEHQ created an emergency management procedure in preparation of a repeat episode. 28 refs., 11 figs.

  15. Study of magnetic fluctuations in superconducting cuprates with high critical temperature; Etude des fluctuations magnetiques dans les cuprates supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique

    Sidis, Y

    1995-11-27

    Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering has been used to study the magnetic properties of YBa{sub 2} Cu{sub 3} O{sub 6+x} (YBCO) and of La{sub 2} CuO{sub 4} (LSCO), non-doped and doped with Zn or various amounts of oxygen. The influence of the variation of the composition on magnetic and superconducting properties has been measured. (C.B.) 182 refs.

  16. Contribution to the study of several chemical hazards in the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires of Fontenay-aux-Roses; Contribution a l'etude de quelques nuisances chimiques au centre d'etudes nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses

    Megemont, C; Grau, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-10-01

    From the checking of 2750 index cards of hazards, the study relates the distribution of the chemical hazards in the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires of Fontenay-aux-Roses. Those concerning the greatest number of agents in the Centre are classified according to the categories corresponding to the different conditions of working. Thus, the most important are put forward. Then, the authors rapidly make a review of hazards which may have some special interest because they appear more specific of the nuclear energy or because they are the most frequently noted on the index cards of hazards. The case of the tributylphosphate is studied more precisely. (authors) [French] A partir de l'examen de 2750 fiches de nuisances, l'etude porte sur la repartition des nuisances chimiques au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses. Celles qui concernent le plus grand nombre d'agents du Centre sont classees selon les categories correspondant aux differentes conditions de travail. Les plus importantes d'entre elles sont ainsi mises en evidence. | Les auteurs passent ensuite en revue, rapidement, les nuisances qui peuvent presenter un interet particulier soit parce qu'elles semblent plus specifiques de l'Energie Nucleaire, soit parce qu'on les rencontre le plus frequemment sur les fiches de nuisances. Le cas du tributylphosphate est envisage de facon plus detaillee. (auteurs)

  17. Research with a Natural-Uranium Light-Water Subcritical Assembly; Recherches au Moyen d'un Ensemble Sous-Critique a Uranium Naturel et a Eau Ordinaire; Issledovaniya na podkriticheskoj sborke,rabotayushchej na prirodnom urane i obychnoj vode; Investigaciones con un Conjunto Subcritico de Uranio Natural y Agua Ligera

    Koskinen, H. [Institute of Technical Physics, Otaniemi (Finland)

    1964-02-15

    des coordonnees spatiales. Cette particularite contribue a simplifier la forme des equations du flux et bien souvent permet de ttouver une analogie avec les systemes critiques. Par une analyse approfondie des repartitions du flux dans un tel systeme, on peut obtenir des renseignements sur la validite de-modeles speciaux de ralentissement. On peut aussi obtenir quelques eclaircissements sur des problemes comme la fission rapide par interaction et la probabilite de fuite par resonance en fonction de l'espace. L'auteur estime que l'ensemble sous-critique, ralenti par un liquide, a cause de ses utilisations multiples et de sa securite, constitue presque la seule possiblite d'etude systematique de reseaux non uniformes. On se propose d'ajouter, a cet assemblage, des elements contenant du combustible enrichi. On pourra alors passer a l'etude systematique de reseaux mixtes. De plus, la recherche avec d'autres facteurs de non- uniformite sera plus facile parce que le flux sera plus haut. Le memoire donne quelques apercus sur le programme futur. (author) [Spanish] El autor informa sobre las investigaciones realizadas con un conjunto de uranio natural y agua ligera, y presenta algunos de los temas que constituiran el objeto de un programa futuro. La mayor parte de los datos son ineditos. Una parte reviste caracter provisional debido a que estan todavia en curso los trabajos experimentales y el analisis de los resultados. Los estudios se han concentrado en dos objetivos principales: 1. Estudio experimental de la validez de los metodos de calculos que se emplearan, particularmente en casos de geometrias especiales (distribuciones no uniformes del combustible, configuracion de subconjuntos, fronteras de forma especial, etc.). En estos casos, los estudios teoricos entranan con frecuencia ciertas dificultades de convergencia, por lo que es necesario comparar sus resultados con las distribuciones de flujo medidas. 2. Estudio de las propiedades especiales de los reticulados de uranio

  18. Etude de la qualité physico-chimique et biologique des eaux du ...

    Etude de la qualité physico-chimique et biologique des eaux du fleuve Niger à Niamey. ... le récepteur principal des rejets d'eaux usées de la ville de Niamey, capital du ... La description de ces taxons montre une variation de la structure des ...

  19. English Department Reforms at the Hautes Etudes Commerciales: Entering the Nineties.

    Shanahan, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the reforms made in the fall of 1990 in the English department at the Ecole Hautes Etudes Commerciales (Paris, France), which were based on the basis of a combination of literature-culture and second- and foreign-language acquisition pedagogical biases. (four references) (VWL)

  20. Contribution a l'etude des plantes alimentaires mineures dans la ...

    Contribution a l'etude des plantes alimentaires mineures dans la prefecture de Dankpen (Togo). AB Kebenzikato, S Akpavi, K Batawila, K Wala, M Dourma, K Kossi-Titrikou, KS Amouzou, I Butare, H Dantsey-Barry, K Akpagana ...

  1. 152 Etude de cas sur l'impact des amendements organiques vis-à ...

    john mukalay

    Etude de cas sur l'impact des amendements organiques vis-à-vis de la salinité en culture de bananier. Michel Mazinga KWEY1, Séverin Kalala BANZE2 et John Banza MUKALAY2*. 1Laboratoire des cultures in vitro, Département de phytotechnie, Faculté des sciences agronomiques,. Université de Lubumbashi, BP 1825, ...

  2. 186 Etude théorique du transport électronique par la simulation ...

    youness

    Choukria SAYAH et al. 186. Etude théorique du ... For that we carried out the microscopic simulations, based on the Monte. Carlo method. ... intervalles, piezoelectric as well as the interactions of alloy and on ionized impurities. ..... SAYA et al. 198. [5] - R. W. Hockney, J. W. Eastwood, "Computer simulation using particles",.

  3. Etude comparative de la flore aux abords des cours d'eau dans les ...

    Etude comparative de la flore aux abords des cours d'eau dans les zones hypo et hyper endémiques d'ulcère de Buruli en Côte d'Ivoire. C. Cisse Boni, E. Ehouman, D. Soro, M.W. Kone, A. Bakayoko, F. Dembele, K. Bauthire, M Dosso ...

  4. Atoms Want to Be Free Too! Expanding the Critique of Intellectual Property to Physical Goods

    Johan Söderberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available “Atoms are the new bits”. That is the latest buzz arising from the Californian trade press. What do we get when this dictum is sampled with the old rallying cry: “Information wants to be free”? We suggest that the predominant, bounded critique of intellectual property is thereby destabilised. Constitutive of that critique was the exceptionality attributed to information goods (bits vis-a-vis tangible goods (atoms. It was thus intellectual property could be presented as something altogether different from private property. We recognise that this way of framing the issue has had tactical advantages, but contend that it has stood in the way of a deeper understanding of what intellectual property is. When the critique of proprietary software is expanded by an emerging movement for open hardware development, however, the boundary between intellectual property and property as such crumbles. This enables us to renew our critique of the political economy of information.

  5. A Critique of the Establishment of the Marketing Boards in Nigeria in ...

    A Critique of the Establishment of the Marketing Boards in Nigeria in the 1940s. ... The Cocoa Marketing Board was set up in 1947, while the Groundnut, Cotton and Palm Produce Marketing Boards ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  6. An Analysis of the Critique of Kant’s “Categorical”

    A Azhdar

    2012-09-01

    This rule underpins an important ethical school which is known as “Obligationism”. Although this school has attracted many scholars of ethics philosophy, there are also many critiques against it. This article aims to study and analyze “the critique of maximal categorical” in such school with regard to Islamic ethics in order to show that the attempts of those who have tried to prove the compatibility of this rule with Islamic ethics are in vain and lead to no result.

  7. Writing on patriarchal missiles: the chauvinism of the 'Gulf War' and the limits of critique

    M Sparke

    1994-01-01

    The limits of critique are politically significant. Such politics become examinable through deconstruction as a form of interested closure. To do this, however, it is first necessary to distinguish the Derridean deconstruction of writing from the purely literalist interpretations it is commonly but mistakenly given. The example subsequently used as an illustration of limited critique is a conference paper on the 'Gulf War' previously presented by the author in 1991. This paper drew on feminis...

  8. Contribution to the study of samarium-151 excited levels; Contribution a l'etude des niveaux excites du samarium-151

    Locard, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, 38 (France)

    1967-07-01

    The nucleus of {sup 151}Sm, which has 89 neutrons, happens to be on the lower edge of the deformed nuclei of region II. Therefore, the study of its levels is very interesting for the verification of the goodness of the collective models for deformed nuclei when the deformation is small (we introduce these models in the first chapter). {sup 151}Sm has often been studied, but the direct gamma spectrum measured with a lithium drift-germanium detector (chapter 3) shows many high energy transitions which did not appear in the previous level schemes. In order to settle these transitions, we have undertaken gamma-gamma coincidence spectra (as well as sum-coincidence spectra) experiments with a scintillation spectrometer designed in our laboratory (chapter 2). The investigation of the intensities of these coincidences leads us to modify the last proposed level schemes: we suppress the levels at 405,5 and 650 keV, we add levels at 245,6 - 306,6 - 522 - 952 and 962 keV. We have also verified the multipolarities of the main transitions and measured the half-lives of a few levels (chapter 3) (we find a half-life of 1.1 {+-} 0.5 nanosecond for the level at 167,7 keV). In chapter 4, we compare our results to the predictions of the models described in chapter 1. (author) [French] Le noyau de {sup 151}Sm, qui possede 89 neutrons, se trouve a la limite inferieure des noyaux deformes de la region II. L'etude de ses niveaux excites est donc d'un interet tout particulier pour la verification de la validite des differents modeles collectifs pour les noyaux deformes, lorsque la deformation est petite (nous introduisons ces modeles dans un premier chapitre). Le {sup 151}Sm a deja fait l'objet de nombreuses etudes, mais le spectre gamma direct fait avec une jonction de germanium compense au lithium (chapitre 3), nous a montre l'existence d'un grand nombre de transitions de hautes energies qui ne sont pas placees dans les schemas proposes jusqu'a ce jour. Pour preciser la place de ces

  9. Baby fission chambers; Etude de chambres a fission miniatures

    Guery, U; Tachon, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    The present report is intended, on the one band, as a study of the main types of fission chambers produced to date, and on the other, to deal more generally with this type of detector. Originally, it was with a view to the charting of neutron scatter in 'Proserpine' that the authors undertook the study of these chambers. During the course of the task, it was considered worth tbe trouble of developing its scope to include a more general application: neutron scatter measurement of various energy neutrons within a reduced volume with slight local disturbance. (author) [French] Le present rapport se propose, d'une part, d'exposer les principales realisations de chambres a fission, d'autre part de faire une mise au point a caractere plus general sur ces detecteurs. Au depart, c'est surtout en vue des mesures de densite neutronique dans 'Proserpine' que les auteurs ont etudie ces chambres; au cours de la mise au point, il a paru interessant de developper leur etude pour des applications plus generales: mesures de densites de neutrons de differentes energies dans un element de volume tres reduit et avec faible perturbation locale. (auteur)

  10. SEPA (Service d'etudes, de Procedes et Analyses)

    2017-01-01

    The SEPA (Service d'etudes, de Procedes et Analyses), is an engineering department specializing in the analysis and processing of uranium ore. It comes from a long tradition of mining in France that began sixty-five years ago with the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and that has been carried on by COGEMA and then Areva. SEPA brings a combination of experience and excellence to its activities thanks to its multidisciplinary staff (mineralogists, chemists, mechanical engineers, instrumentation specialists...), who come from diverse cultural backgrounds. Today, the SEPA draws on its wealth of know-how and expertise to devise and develop new methods for processing and valorizing ores everywhere in the world. Its mission is to: - Develop and conduct laboratory tests on methods for processing uranium and other valuable elements such as molybdenum, vanadium, rare earths, niobium, tantalum and thorium; - Analyze ores obtained during prospecting at locations all over the world; -Serve as an advisor in the commissioning of Areva industrial units and ore processing plants; -Perform environmental analyses during the full period of mining operations; -Conduct audits and provide advice on processes and analysis methods; -Carry out research and development in all aspects of minerals treatment (including the filing of patents). The SEPA combines experience, skills and a global approach to technologies used in ore processing. Its role is to continually improve the processes for extracting, processing and valorizing ores while protecting the environment

  11. Baby fission chambers; Etude de chambres a fission miniatures

    Guery, U.; Tachon, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1957-07-01

    The present report is intended, on the one band, as a study of the main types of fission chambers produced to date, and on the other, to deal more generally with this type of detector. Originally, it was with a view to the charting of neutron scatter in 'Proserpine' that the authors undertook the study of these chambers. During the course of the task, it was considered worth tbe trouble of developing its scope to include a more general application: neutron scatter measurement of various energy neutrons within a reduced volume with slight local disturbance. (author) [French] Le present rapport se propose, d'une part, d'exposer les principales realisations de chambres a fission, d'autre part de faire une mise au point a caractere plus general sur ces detecteurs. Au depart, c'est surtout en vue des mesures de densite neutronique dans 'Proserpine' que les auteurs ont etudie ces chambres; au cours de la mise au point, il a paru interessant de developper leur etude pour des applications plus generales: mesures de densites de neutrons de differentes energies dans un element de volume tres reduit et avec faible perturbation locale. (auteur)

  12. Coupling of a reservoir model and of a poro-mechanical model. Application to the study of the compaction of petroleum reservoirs and of the associated subsidence; Couplage d'un modele de gisement et d'un modele mecanique. Application a l'etude de la compaction des reservoirs petroliers et de la subsidence associee

    Bevillon, D.

    2000-11-30

    The aim of this study is to provide a better description of the rock contribution to fluid flows in petroleum reservoirs. The production of oil/gas in soft highly compacting reservoirs induces important reduction of the pore volume, which increases oil productivity. This compaction leads to undesirable effects such as surface subsidence or damage of well equipment. Analysis of compaction and subsidence can be performed using either engineering reservoir models or coupled poro-mechanical models. Poro-mechanical model offers a rigorous mechanical framework, but does not permit a complete description of the fluids. The reservoir model gives a good description of the fluid phases, but the description of the mechanic phenomenon is then simplified. To satisfy the set of equations (mechanical equilibrium and diffusivity equations), two simulators can be used together sequentially. Each of the two simulators solves its own system independently, and information passed both directions between simulators. This technique is usually referred to the partially coupled scheme. In this study, reservoir and hydro-mechanical simulations show that reservoir theory is not a rigorous framework to represent the evolution of the high porous rocks strains. Then, we introduce a partially coupled scheme that is shown to be consistent and unconditionally stable, which permits to describe correctly poro-mechanical theory in reservoir models. (author)

  13. Notes on a methodological discussion: autobiography, critique and time

    Gunvor Løkken

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available After having tried for some time to overview the contemporary field of qualitative research to give a lecture for a professorship in that area, my idea at the outset of writing this article was to address whether changes in qualitative research should be viewed as recurrent revolutions as highlighted by Denzin and Lincoln (2000; 2005, or as a field of continuing key themes and long-standing tensions, as conceptualized by Atkinson, Coffey and Delamont (2003. However, during my writing, after one detour into the May 2009 issue of Current Sociology and a second detour into the July 2009 issue of Qualitative Research, my attention focused on to how critical debate and review are displayed in different methodological positions of qualitative research. In my reading, the discussion in Current Sociology between main stream and postmodern methodological positioning revealed an utterly one-way feminist critique; this was also the case in one of three book reviews of The Handbook of Qualitative Research (Denzin and Lincoln, 2005 in the referred issue of Qualitative Research. My puzzle over this critical stance, and my third detour, into Yvonne Lincoln’s discussion of twenty-five years of qualitative and new paradigm research in the January 2010 Issue of Qualitative Inquiry, helped evolve the following notes on a methodological discussion. The notes are partly structured by a temporal narrative over personally lived qualitative research, and partly by an epistemological narrative of a methodological discussion, interwoven with the passing of time when writing.

  14. Critiquing bachelor candidates' theses: are the criteria useful?

    Kapborg, I; Berterö, C

    2002-06-01

    Nursing education programmes should be at an academic level and connected to research. In Sweden, empirical studies are generally required in order to obtain a Bachelor's degree; hence, in some cases, these studies are replaced by a literature review. A study was conducted using 11 criteria. Thirteen theses produced in a department of nursing science were examined, elaborated and reproduced by reviewing international and national literature. Thereafter, the criteria themselves were scrutinized. Principal findings when critiquing the theses were that in eight theses the purpose was dearly identified and well defined in relation to the study accomplished; in three theses the purpose was indistinct and vague; and in two the definitions and research questions were lacking. The topic was relevant for the area of nursing in all theses. General problems identified were poor spelling and grammar, and unsatisfactory thesis structure. This article discusses whether criteria are useful when examining the Bachelor candidates' theses. The authors report that the criteria seemed to be useful, giving some guidance for scrutinizing theses and facilitating correspondence. Criteria could be appropriate guidelines for using to increase the quality of the theses as well as the quality of nursing.

  15. The problematization of medical tourism: a critique of neoliberalism.

    Smith, Kristen

    2012-04-01

    The past two decades have seen the extensive privatisation and marketisation of health care in an ever reaching number of developing countries. Within this milieu, medical tourism is being promoted as a rational economic development strategy for some developing nations, and a makeshift solution to the escalating waiting lists and exorbitant costs of health care in developed nations. This paper explores the need to problematize medical tourism in order to move beyond one dimensional neoliberal discourses that have, to date, dominated the arena. In this problematization, the paper discusses a range of understandings and uses of the term 'medical tourism' and situates it within the context of the neoliberal economic development of health care internationally. Drawing on theory from critical medical anthropology and health and human rights perspectives, the paper critically analyzes the assumed independence between the medical tourism industry and local populations facing critical health issues, where social, cultural and economic inequities are widening in terms of access, cost and quality of health care. Finally, medical tourism is examined in the local context of India, critiquing the increasingly indistinct roles played by government and private sectors, whilst linking these shifts to global market forces. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Eugenics and modern biology: critiques of eugenics, 1910-1945.

    Allen, Garland E

    2011-05-01

    Eugenics in most western countries in the first four decades of the 20th century was based on the idea that genes control most human phenotypic traits, everything from physical features such as polydactyly and eye colour to physiological conditions such as the A-B-O blood groups to mental and personality traits such as "feeblemindedness," alcoholism and pauperism. In assessing the development of the eugenics movement-its rise and decline between 1900 and 1950-it is important to recognise that its naïve assumptions and often flawed methodologies were openly criticised at the time by scientists and nonscientists alike. This paper will present a brief overview of the critiques launched against eugenicists' claims, particularly criticisms of the American school led by Charles B. Davenport. Davenport's approach to eugenics will be contrasted to his British counterpart, Karl Pearson, founder and first editor of the Annals of Eugenics. It was not the case that nearly everyone in the early 20th century accepted eugenic conclusions as the latest, cutting-edge science. There are lessons from this historical approach for dealing with similar naïve claims about genetics today. © 2011 The Author Annals of Human Genetics © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/University College London.

  17. A cultural critique of community psychiatry in India.

    Jain, Sumeet; Jadhav, Sushrut

    2008-01-01

    This article is the first comprehensive cultural critique of India's official community mental health policy and program. Data are based on a literature review of published papers, conference proceedings, analyses of official policy and popular media, interviews with key Indian mental health professionals, and fieldwork in Kanpur district, Uttar Pradesh (2004-2006). The authors demonstrate how three influences have shaped community psychiatry in India: a cultural asymmetry between health professionals and the wider society, psychiatry's search for both professional and social legitimacy, and WHO policies that have provided the overall direction to the development of services. Taken together, the consequences are that rural community voices have been edited out. The authors hypothesize that community psychiatry in India is a bureaucratic and culturally incongruent endeavor that increases the divide between psychiatry and local rural communities. Such a claim requires sustained ethnographic fieldwork to reveal the dynamics of the gap between community and professional experiences. The development of culturally sensitive psychiatric theory and clinical services is essential to improve the mental health of rural citizens who place their trust in India's biomedical network.

  18. Surveillance, Snowden, and Big Data: Capacities, consequences, critique

    David Lyon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Snowden revelations about National Security Agency surveillance, starting in 2013, along with the ambiguous complicity of internet companies and the international controversies that followed provide a perfect segue into contemporary conundrums of surveillance and Big Data. Attention has shifted from late C20th information technologies and networks to a C21st focus on data, currently crystallized in “Big Data.” Big Data intensifies certain surveillance trends associated with information technology and networks, and is thus implicated in fresh but fluid configurations. This is considered in three main ways: One, the capacities of Big Data (including metadata intensify surveillance by expanding interconnected datasets and analytical tools. Existing dynamics of influence, risk-management, and control increase their speed and scope through new techniques, especially predictive analytics. Two, while Big Data appears to be about size, qualitative change in surveillance practices is also perceptible, accenting consequences. Important trends persist – the control motif, faith in technology, public-private synergies, and user-involvement – but the future-orientation increasingly severs surveillance from history and memory and the quest for pattern-discovery is used to justify unprecedented access to data. Three, the ethical turn becomes more urgent as a mode of critique. Modernity's predilection for certain definitions of privacy betrays the subjects of surveillance who, so far from conforming to the abstract, disembodied image of both computing and legal practices, are engaged and embodied users-in-relation whose activities both fuel and foreclose surveillance.

  19. Mind-body Dualism: A critique from a Health Perspective.

    Mehta, Neeta

    2011-01-01

    Philosophical theory about the nature of human beings has far reaching consequences on our understanding of various issues faced by them. Once taken as self-evident, it becomes the foundation on which knowledge gets built. The cause of concern is that this theoretical framework rarely gets questioned despite its inherent limitations and self-defeating consequences, leading to crisis in the concerned field. The field, which is facing crisis today, is that of medicine, and the paradigmatic stance that is responsible for the crisis is Cartesian dualism-a view that mind and body are essentially separate entities. This paper discusses Cartesian dualism in the context of the practice of medicine. Focusing more closely on how disease, health and treatment are defined through this position, the paper builds up its critique by throwing light on its accomplishments, limitations and self-defeating consequences. The paper also seeks to understand why this dualism is still alive despite its disavowal from philosophers, health practitioners and lay people.

  20. Mind-body Dualism: A critique from a Health Perspective**

    Mehta, Neeta

    2011-01-01

    Philosophical theory about the nature of human beings has far reaching consequences on our understanding of various issues faced by them. Once taken as self-evident, it becomes the foundation on which knowledge gets built. The cause of concern is that this theoretical framework rarely gets questioned despite its inherent limitations and self-defeating consequences, leading to crisis in the concerned field. The field, which is facing crisis today, is that of medicine, and the paradigmatic stance that is responsible for the crisis is Cartesian dualism—a view that mind and body are essentially separate entities. This paper discusses Cartesian dualism in the context of the practice of medicine. Focusing more closely on how disease, health and treatment are defined through this position, the paper builds up its critique by throwing light on its accomplishments, limitations and self-defeating consequences. The paper also seeks to understand why this dualism is still alive despite its disavowal from philosophers, health practitioners and lay people. PMID:21694971

  1. 'Trick', 'manipulation' and 'farce': Albert Moll's critique of occultism.

    Wolffram, Heather

    2012-04-01

    In July 1925, the psychiatrist Albert Moll appeared before the district court in Berlin-Schöneberg charged with having defamed the medium Maria Vollhardt (alias Rudloff) in his 1924 book Der Spiritismus [Spiritism]. Supported by some of Berlin's most prominent occultists, the plaintiff--the medium's husband--argued that Moll's use of terms such as 'trick', 'manipulation' and 'farce' in reference to Vollhardt's phenomena had been libellous. In the three-part trial that followed, however, Moll's putative affront to the medium--of which he was eventually acquitted--was overshadowed, on the one hand, by a debate over the scientific status of parapsychology, and on the other, by the question of who--parapsychologists, occultists, psychiatrists or jurists--was entitled to claim epistemic authority over the occult. This paper will use the Rudloff-Moll trial as a means of examining Moll's critique of occultism, not only as it stood in the mid-1920s, but also as it had developed since the 1880s. It will also provide insight into the views of Germany's occultists and parapsychologists, who argued that their legitimate bid for scientific credibility was hindered by Dunkelmänner [obscurantists] such as Albert Moll.

  2. Etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs de dioxyde de carbone operant dans des conditions de givrage

    Bendaoud, Adlane Larbi

    . Dans la partie theorique, un modele traitant les aspects thermique, hydrodynamique et massique a ete elabore. Sur la base de ce modele a ete ecrit un programme informatique en langage FORTRAN 6.6. Il est base sur la discretisation du serpentin en volumes de controle, est entierement automatise et peut traiter des echangeurs de chaleur avec des circuits de refrigerant complexes pouvant avoir des entrees et sorties multiples ainsi que des bifurcations. La presence simultanee des trois phases thermodynamiques du refrigerant (liquide sous refroidi, fluide sature, vapeur surchauffee) dans le serpentin est aussi prise en charge. Le modele a ete valide pour un fonctionnement avec et sans formation de givre en utilisant des donnees experimentales disponibles dans la litterature et celles obtenues sur le banc d'essai de CanmetENERGIE. Celui-ci a ete mis a jour pour les besoins de la presente recherche et pour cela, un systeme de surchauffe et d'injection de la vapeur d'eau dans une enceinte a tres basse temperature a ete dimensionne, fabrique et installe. Un dispositif de visualisation de la formation de givre, ainsi qu'un equipement de mesure de la temperature, de la pression et de l'humidite relative de l'air ont aussi ete ajoutes. Une fois le modele valide, des simulations numeriques sur le serpentin avec et sans formation de givre ont ete effectuees. Un premier cas de base a servi comme reference pour d'autres cas pour lesquels une etude parametrique sur la geometrie et le fonctionnement a ete menee. Il a ete montre par rapport au cas de base que : 1. la diminution de la densite des ailettes sur des rangees specifiques du serpentin donne une surface minimale (Amin) plus grande, retardant ainsi l'obstruction totale du serpentin par le givre et permet donc un temps de fonctionnement plus grand et une frequence de degivrage plus faible. 2. une bonne configuration de circuit de refrigerant augmente le temps de fonctionnement du serpentin de 200 % et delivre une puissance

  3. Being Itself and the Being of Beings : Reading Aristotle’s Critique of Parmenides (Physics 1.3) after Metaphysics

    Backman, Jussi

    2018-01-01

    The essay studies Aristotle’s critique of Parmenides (Physics 1.3) in the light of the Heideggerian account of Platonic-Aristotelian metaphysics as an approach to being (Sein) in terms of beings (das Seiende). Aristotle’s critique focuses on the presuppositions of the Parmenidean thesis of the unity of being. It is argued that a close study of the presuppositions of Aristotle’s own critique reveals an important difference between the Aristotelian metaphysical framework and the ...

  4. Contribution to the study of deformed heavy nuclei by means of nuclear reactions; Contribution a l'etude des noyaux lourds deformes au moyen de reactions nucleaires

    Gastebois, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-06-01

    The experimental results obtained in the study of the (d,p) reactions, at E{sub d} = 12 MeV, on the three even-even deformed nuclei {sup 170}Yb, {sup 172}Yb and {sup 174}Yb have been analysed in terms of DWBA calculations. The spectroscopic information relative to the odd final nuclei have been compared with the predictions of the collective model and of the Nilsson's model. The effect of various parameters used in the DWBA analysis (form factors, optical wave functions) has been carefully studied. The observed differences between the three final nuclei are qualitatively reproduced in the experimental study of resonances, seen in excitation functions of elastically and inelastically scattered protons on the same target nuclei, and corresponding to analogue states in the three nuclei {sup 171}Lu, {sup 173}Lu and {sup 175}Lu. (author) [French] Les resultats experimentaux de l'etude des reactions (d.p) a E{sub d} = 12 MeV, sur les noyaux deformes pairs-pairs {sup 170}Yb, {sup 172}Yb et {sup 174}Yb ont ete interpretes dans le cadre de l'approximation de Born des ondes deformees. Les informations spectroscopiques relatives aux noyaux impairs finals ont ete comparees aux predictions du modele collectif et du modele de Nilsson, apres avoir examine avec soin l'influence des differents parametres (facteurs de forme, fonctions d'onde 'optiques') utilises lors de l'analyse. Les differences observees entre les trois noyaux finals sont qualitativement reproduites par les resultats experimentaux de l'etude de resonances dans les fonctions d'excitation de diffusion elastique et inelastique de protons sur les memes noyaux-cibles, lors de la recherche d'etats analogues dans les noyaux {sup 171}Lu, {sup 173}Lu et {sup 175}Lu. (auteur)

  5. The theory of social representations: overview and critique

    Matej Černigoj

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that the theory of social representations is one of the most popular, but at the same time one of the most controversial theories in contemporary social psychology. Its author, Serge Moscovici, conceived it with the explicit intention to create an alternative to the prevailing individualistic and psychologising, North-American social psychology. The theory of social representations is aimed at being a new social-psyhological paradigm, which would enable this scientific field to occupy a central place among the social sciencies. This place is supposed to be reserved for the field that would be able to connect the individual and the collective level of explanation of human behaviour. Because of such promisses, the theory of social representations took over the immagination of many european scholars, and research that refers to it in some way is abundant. However, there is also a darker side to the theory. It is incomplete and full of internal inconsistencies. Some authors repeatedly stress these points, but apparently without any considerable success. The theory of social representations has recently been presented in Slovenia (Vec, 1999, but without any serious attempt of evaluation and therefore, in my view, in an unsatisfactory way. Here I try to fill this gap, and so I focus on the logical structure of the theory and at its existing critiques. At the same time I try to explain the reasons for the theory's great popularity from a historical and socio-psychological point of view. In order to accomplish all that, I try to present the theory of social representations first, which — although already attempted many times — is by no means an easy task.

  6. "Successful aging," gerontological theory and neoliberalism: a qualitative critique.

    Rubinstein, Robert L; de Medeiros, Kate

    2015-02-01

    This article is a critique of the successful aging (SA) paradigm as described in the Rowe and Kahn book, Successful Aging (1998). The major point of this article is that two key ideas in the book may be understood as consonant with neoliberalism, a social perspective that came into international prominence at the same time the SA paradigm was initially promoted. These two key ideas are (a) the emphasis on individual social action applied to the nature of the aging experience and (b) the failure to provide a detailed policy agenda for the social and cultural change being promoted and, particularly, for older adults who may be left behind by the approach to change the book suggests. The article provides no evidence for a direct connection between SA and neoliberalism, but rather shows how similarities in their approaches to social change characterize both of them. In sum, the article shows (a) how the implicit social theory developed in the book, in a manner similar to neoliberalism, elevates the individual as the main source of any changes that must accompany the SA paradigm and (b) the focus on SA as individual action does not provide for those older adults who do not or will not age "successfully." This, we conclude, implicitly sets up a two-class system of older adults, which may not be an optimal means of addressing the needs of all older adults. The article also reviews a number of studies about SA and shows how these, too, may emphasize its similarities to neoliberalism and other issues that the SA paradigm does not adequately address. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Development of mercury porosimeter. Application to nuclear graphite studies (1961); Mise au point d'un porosimetre a mercure. Application a l'etude des graphites nucleaires (1961)

    Bocquet, M; Genisson, J; Sailleau, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    A mercury porosimeter, model IFP-CEA, has been developed for application to nuclear graphite studies. The apparatus is based on the capillary depression phenomenon. The relationship between the radius of a pore and the pressure at which mercury fills it is pr = -2 {sigma} cos {theta} ( {sigma} is the surface tension, {theta} the angle of contact of the mercury). After some theoretical consideration, the apparatus is described. The mercury pressure is increased step-wise from 0 to 1000 kg/cm{sup 2} thus yielding the complete distribution of pores from 92 {mu} to 75 A. Results are, then presented concerning nuclear graphites which show the evolution of the porous structure under the effect of bitumen impregnation. In general, the volume of the large pores decreases while that of the small pores increases. The structure of impregnated products appears to depend to a certain extent on that of the starting materials. It has also been possible to study other products with this porosimeter; the range of measurements possible is such that it may be used for the study of the majority of porous materials. (authors) [French] Un porosimetre a mercure modele IFP-CEA a ete mis au point en vue de son application a l'etude de graphites nucleaires. Le fonctionnement de l'appareil repose sur le phenomene de depression capillaire. On etablit la relation existant entre le rayon r d'un pore et la pression p pour laquelle le mercure peut y penetrer: pr = -2 {sigma} cos {theta} ( {sigma} tension superficielle, {theta} angle de contact du mercure). Apres quelques considerations theoriques, l'appareil utilise est decrit. Il permet de faire varier par palier la pression du mercure entre 0 et 1000 kg/cm{sup 2} et d'etablir ainsi la distribution complete des rayons de pores compris entre 92 {mu} et 75 A. Les resultats d'une etude faite sur des graphites nucleaires sont alors presentes faisant apparaitre l'evolution de la structure poreuse sous l'effet des impregnations au brai. D'une facon

  8. Critique of Caplan’s The Myth of the Rational Voter

    Stuart Farrand

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Bryan Caplan’s 2007 book, The Myth of the Rational Voter, created some controversy by stating that voters make irrational political decisions. While it has commonly been accepted in public choice discourse that citizens are ignorant of the complexities of politics, Caplan takes the argument one step further and states that citizens hold extreme anti-economic biases that invoke certain irrational demands of politicians. Caplan also asserts that democratic failure is thoroughly a result of the these irrational biases, and that citizens deserve the primary blame for problems within the American political system. This critique analyzes several inconsistencies in Caplan’s assessment of the political condition, which include his doctrine of rational irrationality, his skepticism towards democratic failure, and his apologetic attitude towards politicians. Under closer scrutiny, one can see that Caplan’s main thesis, the concept of rational irrationality, is largely unfounded. Furthermore, the theoretical model he constructs is largely incomplete, since he focuses primarily on the failures of citizens, but does not take into account numerous other factors within the political process that can lead to democratic failure.

  9. Magnetic study of solid uranium-fluorine complexes; Contribution a l'etude magnetique de composes fluores solides de l'uranium

    Dianoux, A J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-06-01

    A study of the magnetic susceptibility of uranium V fluorine complexes and of the magnetic resonance of fluorine atoms in uranium VI fluorine complexes has made it possible to put forward a structural model for these compounds for which it is impossible, because of the lack of suitable single crystals for X-ray diffraction work, to deduce the exact position of the fluorine atoms. It is shown that it is difficult to interpret the paramagnetism of uranium fluorides, because the uranium ions are in low-symmetry sites. A theoretical study of the magnetism of the U{sup V} ion in complex fluorides of the type M{sub 3}UF{sub 8} (M = NH{sub 4}, Na, Rb, Cs) leads to an interpretation based on a trigonal deformation of the eight fluorine atom structure surrounding the uranium atom. By applying a Hamiltonian spin formalism and making a systematic use of group theory, it is possible to present the susceptibility calculations very concisely. Study of the resonance and of the relaxation of the fluorine atoms in powdered uranium VI complex fluorides suggests a structural model in the case of NaUF{sub 7}. It is shown that the shape of the magnetic resonance absorption lines is strongly affected by the presence of large anisotropic chemical shifts. In the model proposed here, six fluorine atoms are linked to the uranium, atom by strongly covalent bonds in a deformed UF{sub 6} octahedral structure; the seventh fluorine atom remains ionic. The occurrence of a rotational movement of the octahedron is confirmed by a study of the longitudinal relaxation of the fluorine atoms, the activation energy being 0.46 eV. (author) [French] L'etude de la susceptibilite magnetique de complexes fluores d'uranium V et la resonance magnetique des fluors dans des complexes fluores d'uranium VI permettent de proposer un modele structural pour ces composes, ou la diffraction des rayons X, en l'absence de monocristaux convenables, est incapable de preciser la position des atomes de fluor. Nous montrons

  10. Magnetic study of solid uranium-fluorine complexes; Contribution a l'etude magnetique de composes fluores solides de l'uranium

    Dianoux, A.J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-06-01

    A study of the magnetic susceptibility of uranium V fluorine complexes and of the magnetic resonance of fluorine atoms in uranium VI fluorine complexes has made it possible to put forward a structural model for these compounds for which it is impossible, because of the lack of suitable single crystals for X-ray diffraction work, to deduce the exact position of the fluorine atoms. It is shown that it is difficult to interpret the paramagnetism of uranium fluorides, because the uranium ions are in low-symmetry sites. A theoretical study of the magnetism of the U{sup V} ion in complex fluorides of the type M{sub 3}UF{sub 8} (M = NH{sub 4}, Na, Rb, Cs) leads to an interpretation based on a trigonal deformation of the eight fluorine atom structure surrounding the uranium atom. By applying a Hamiltonian spin formalism and making a systematic use of group theory, it is possible to present the susceptibility calculations very concisely. Study of the resonance and of the relaxation of the fluorine atoms in powdered uranium VI complex fluorides suggests a structural model in the case of NaUF{sub 7}. It is shown that the shape of the magnetic resonance absorption lines is strongly affected by the presence of large anisotropic chemical shifts. In the model proposed here, six fluorine atoms are linked to the uranium, atom by strongly covalent bonds in a deformed UF{sub 6} octahedral structure; the seventh fluorine atom remains ionic. The occurrence of a rotational movement of the octahedron is confirmed by a study of the longitudinal relaxation of the fluorine atoms, the activation energy being 0.46 eV. (author) [French] L'etude de la susceptibilite magnetique de complexes fluores d'uranium V et la resonance magnetique des fluors dans des complexes fluores d'uranium VI permettent de proposer un modele structural pour ces composes, ou la diffraction des rayons X, en l'absence de monocristaux convenables, est incapable de preciser la position des atomes de

  11. 'Hypotheses, everywhere only hypotheses!': on some contexts of Dilthey's critique of explanatory psychology.

    Feest, Uljana

    2007-03-01

    In 1894, Wilhelm Dilthey published an article in which he formulated a critique of what he called 'explanatory psychology', contrasting it with his own conception of 'descriptive psychology'. Dilthey's descriptive psychology, in turn, was to provide the basis for Dilthey's specific philosophy of the human sciences (Geisteswissenschaften). In this paper, I contextualize Dilthey's critique of explanatory psychology. I show that while this critique comes across as very broad and sweeping, he in fact had specific opponents in mind, namely, scholars who, like him, attempted to theorize about the relationship between the individual and society, between psychology and the other human sciences. Dilthey's critique of explanatory psychology is the flipside of his critique of sociology, which he had already formulated. He challenged both because he felt that they gave the wrong kind of answer to the task of overcoming metaphysics within the human sciences. In particular, I identify the founders of Völkerpsychologie, Moritz Lazarus and Heymann Steinthal, and (more importantly) their student, Georg Simmel, as Dilthey's targets. I provide textual and historical evidence for this thesis.

  12. Magnetic resonance studies of solid polymers; Etude des polymeres solides par resonance magnetique

    Lenk, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    This paper is a review of the application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to solid polymers. In the first, theoretical part, the elements of the theory of NMR, which are necessary for the study of the properties of solid polymers are discussed: the moments method, nuclear relaxation and the distribution of correlation times. In the second part the experimental results are presented. (author) [French] Cette etude est une recherche bibliographique sur l'application de la resonance magnetique nucleaire (RMN) aux polymeres solides. Dans la premiere partie theorique on discute les elements de la theorie de RMN, necessaires pour l'etude des proprietes des polymeres solides: la methode des moments, la relaxation nucleaire et la distribution des temps de correlation. La deuxieme partie presente les resultats des experiences. (auteur)

  13. A Reply to the Current Critiques Formulated Against Hoppe's Argumentation Ethics

    Marian Eabrasu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article responds to current critiques directed against Hoppe’s justification by performative contradiction of the self-ownership axiom. Maintaining that ethics should be grounded on sound principles, Hoppe observes that only self-ownership can pass the test of performative contradiction. From this idea, he concludes that only libertarianism (the ethical system grounded on the axiom of self-ownership can be justified. Any other ethic is self-defeating. An important debate in ethics was stimulated by numerous critiques formulated against the performative contradiction and more precisely against the use that Hoppe makes of it in justifying libertarianism. Without endorsing Hoppe’s argumentation, this article prevents some common misunderstandings, systemizes the types of critiques and thoroughly replies to them.

  14. Singing as a Therapeutic Agent, inThe Etude, 1891-1949.

    Hunter

    1999-01-01

    The Etude music magazine, founded by Theodore Presser, was one of a number of popular music magazines published in the years prior to the establishment of the music therapy profession in 1950. During its publication run from 1883 to 1957, over 100 music therapy related articles appeared, including 13 on the health benefits of singing published between 1891 and 1949. Written by authors with diverse backgrounds, such as the famous Battle Creek, Michigan physician John Harvey Kellogg and Boston music critic Louis C. Elson, the articles contained consistent and adamant support regarding the health benefits of singing. The advantages described were both physical and psychological, and were recommended prophylactically for well persons and therapeutically for ill persons. Although the articles varied in perspective, from philosophical to theoretical to pedagogical, there is a consistent holistic medicine theme that appeared almost ahead of its time and no doubt linked to the push for vocal music education in that era. The importance of The Etude in promulgating ideas that helped shape the early practice of music therapy should not be underestimated. For much of its publication run The Etude was the largest music periodical in print, reaching its peak circulation of 250,000 copies per month in 1924.

  15. Medical approaches to suffering are limited, so why critique Improving Access to Psychological Therapies from the same ideology.

    Binnie, James

    2018-04-01

    Although the article by Scott rightly questions the dynamics of the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies system and re-examines the recovery rates, finding quite shocking results, his recommendations are ultimately flawed. There is a strong critique of the diagnostic procedures in Improving Access to Psychological Therapies services, but the answer is not to diagnose more rigorously and to adhere more strictly to a manualised approach to psychotherapy. The opposite may be required. Alternatives to the medical model of distress offer a less stigmatising and more human approach to helping people with their problems. Perhaps psychological therapists and the people they work alongside would be better served by a psychological approach rather than a psychiatric one.

  16. How to Rage Against the Dying of the Light? A Critique of Ritzer's McDonaldization Thesis.

    A. Peper (Bram)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractRitzer presents his 'The McDonalization of Society' as a social critique on the nationalization of modern society. In this article I will analyze the underlying assumptions of his critique. By means of a meta-theoretical analysis, I examine Ritzer's views on modernity and rationality.

  17. Critique: A Communicative Event in Design Education--A Qualitative Research on Western Faculty and Asian Students

    Wong, Ho Lan Helena

    2011-01-01

    Critique is a communicative and sociable event in which students present their design and critics provide feedback. Students often find it difficult to explain their work and articulate their thoughts because most design knowledge is tacit by nature. If design is about new concepts, then in a critique, students have to describe and clearly present…

  18. Studies of the Stabilization of Superconductor Coils; Etudes sur la Stabilisation des Bobines Supraconductrices

    Donadieu, L.; Maldy, J. [Compagnie Generale d' Electricite Marcoussis (France)

    1966-12-15

    operation of the coil will be stable and the passage of the I-B characteristic of the material will be reversible; (b) Ic < Im, the operation of the coil is unstable and any sufficiently large disturbances (flux jump, movement of windings, etc. ) can produce blocking. This is inevitably the case with the large coils whose operational limit tends towards Im. Different coils have been constructed with more or leas stabilised materials and the results of tests on them are analysed as a' function of the previous theories. There Is a full discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of coil stabilizations. (author) [French] La stabilisation de l'intensite du courant dans les bobinages supra-conducteurs, qui apparait d'une importance capitale pour la construction de bobinages de grande taille , est etudiee a la fois du point de vue theorique et du point de vue experiment a l. L'etude de la dynamique de la transition d'un supraconducteur transportant du courant, entre l ' e t at supraconducteur a resistance nulle et l ' e tat a resistance normale ( l e blocage), revele l'existence d'une intensite caracteristique, Im, pour laquelle la vitesse de propagation de la region normale est nulle. Cette intensite depend directement des echanges de chaleur entre le supraconducteur et le milieu ambiant, et de la resistance du materiau a l ' e t a t normal; Im depend indirectement de l'intensite du champ magnetique. Si un supraconducteur est utilise avec une intensite de courant inferieure a Im, la vitesse de propagation est negative et le supraconducteur est capable eventuellement de realiser la transition inverse de l ' e t a t normal a l ' e t a t supraconducteur. On peut montrer que pour une intensite Is telle que Is = Im/ Square-Root 2 , la vitesse de propagation qui est negative devient infiniment grande. L'existence de ces 2 intensites caracteristiques permet de distinguer trois cas de comportement differents selon l'intensite du courant qui parcourt le supraconducteur. L'auteur a

  19. Bruno Latour, actor-networks, and the critique of critical sociology

    Spasić Ivana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the theoretical opus of Bruno Latour and his treatment of the concept of critique. In the first section "actor-network theory" is presented through its key notions (actant, network, translation, associations together with Latour’s theory of modernity. In the second section various aspects of the relation between Latour and critique are discussed - first his own criticism of others (standard sociology and especially "critical", i.e. Bourdieu’s sociology, then the criticisms aimed at his work, to conclude with the political ambivalences of Latour’s attempt to develop an "acritical" social theory. .

  20. A Consumer Protection Model for Regulating Lawyers.

    Chalfie, Deborah M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes and critiques the "discipline model" of lawyer regulation from a consumer point of view and outlines an alternative model for regulating lawyers that is grounded in consumer protection principles. (JOW)

  1. Reconfiguring the optics of the critical gaze in science education (after the critique of critique): (re)thinking "what counts" through Foucaultian prismatics

    Higgins, Marc

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore what Michel Foucault refers to as "the" critical attitude and its relationship to science education, drawing from Foucault's (The politics of truth. Semiotext(e), New York, 1997) insight that the critical attitude is but a critical attitude. This article is a rejoinder to Anna Danielsonn, Maria Berge, and Malena Lidar's paper, "Knowledge and power in the technology classroom: a framework for studying teachers and students in action". Where Danielsonn and colleagues think with Foucaultian power/knowledge to examine and (re)consider teacher-student didactic relations in science and technology education, this article critically examines the power/knowledge relationship between science educators and science education to critically explore the modes of criticality produced and produceable. Particularly, I explore possibilities for and of critique that stem from and respond to what Bruno Latour (Politics of nature: How to bring the sciences into democracy. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1993) refers to as the crisis and critique of critique.

  2. Theoretical, physical and experimental study of fissile aqueous media; Etudes theorique, physique et experimentale des milieux fissiles aqueux

    Caizergues, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-04-01

    This thesis consists of a set of theoretical and experimental studies. a) Theoretical calculation methods used for cross-sections and the critical parameters; b) Comparison of the theoretical and experimental results: it is shown that the agreement between these results cannot be improved above a certain limit because of the accuracy with which are known the composition and the dimensions of the media and the microscopic cross-sections; c) Determination of the ratios {eta}{sup 9}-bar / {eta}{sup 5}-bar, {eta}{sup 3}-bar / {eta}{sup 5}-bar for fissile aqueous media ({eta}-bar: number of neutrons emitted per neutron absorbed, averaged over the reactor neutron spectrum). Evaluation of the accuracy to which these ratios are known; d) Effect of {sup 240}Pu: the measurements are carried out on Pu with a {sup 240}Pu content of 1.5 per cent, 3.11 per cent and 9.95 per cent; Calculation of the resonance integral I240 using the experimental results gives values in reasonable agreement with the results obtained by other more conventional methods. e) Measurement of the spectrum indices for aqueous media containing Pu, U5 and U3. With these latter it is possible to obtain mean fission cross-section ratios {sigma}f239-bar / {sigma}f235-bar for these different spectra. A calculation-experiment comparison is carried out using various theoretical methods. (author) [French] Cette these groupe un ensemble d'etudes theoriques et experimentales. a) Methodes theoriques de calcul utilisees pour les sections efficaces et les parametres critiques; b) Comparaisons des resultats theoriques et experimentaux: on montre que l'accord entre ces resultats ne peut etre ameliore au-dela de certaines limites vu la precision avec laquelle sont connues la composition et les dimensions des milieux et les sections efficaces macroscopiques; c) Determination des rapports {eta}{sup 9}-bar / {eta}{sup 5}-bar, {eta}{sup 3}-bar / {eta}{sup 5}-bar pour les milieux fissiles aqueux ({eta}: nombre de

  3. Theoretical, physical and experimental study of fissile aqueous media; Etudes theorique, physique et experimentale des milieux fissiles aqueux

    Caizergues, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-04-01

    This thesis consists of a set of theoretical and experimental studies. a) Theoretical calculation methods used for cross-sections and the critical parameters; b) Comparison of the theoretical and experimental results: it is shown that the agreement between these results cannot be improved above a certain limit because of the accuracy with which are known the composition and the dimensions of the media and the microscopic cross-sections; c) Determination of the ratios {eta}{sup 9}-bar / {eta}{sup 5}-bar, {eta}{sup 3}-bar / {eta}{sup 5}-bar for fissile aqueous media ({eta}-bar: number of neutrons emitted per neutron absorbed, averaged over the reactor neutron spectrum). Evaluation of the accuracy to which these ratios are known; d) Effect of {sup 240}Pu: the measurements are carried out on Pu with a {sup 240}Pu content of 1.5 per cent, 3.11 per cent and 9.95 per cent; Calculation of the resonance integral I240 using the experimental results gives values in reasonable agreement with the results obtained by other more conventional methods. e) Measurement of the spectrum indices for aqueous media containing Pu, U5 and U3. With these latter it is possible to obtain mean fission cross-section ratios {sigma}f239-bar / {sigma}f235-bar for these different spectra. A calculation-experiment comparison is carried out using various theoretical methods. (author) [French] Cette these groupe un ensemble d'etudes theoriques et experimentales. a) Methodes theoriques de calcul utilisees pour les sections efficaces et les parametres critiques; b) Comparaisons des resultats theoriques et experimentaux: on montre que l'accord entre ces resultats ne peut etre ameliore au-dela de certaines limites vu la precision avec laquelle sont connues la composition et les dimensions des milieux et les sections efficaces macroscopiques; c) Determination des rapports {eta}{sup 9}-bar / {eta}{sup 5}-bar, {eta}{sup 3}-bar / {eta}{sup 5}-bar pour les milieux fissiles aqueux ({eta}: nombre de neutrons emis

  4. The Use of a Probit Model for the Validation of Selection Procedures.

    Dagenais, Denyse L.

    1984-01-01

    After a review of the disadvantages of linear models for estimating the probability of academic success from previous school records and admission test results, the use of a probit model is proposed. The model is illustrated with admissions data from the Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales in Montreal. (Author/BW)

  5. Critique of the quantum power of judgment. A transcendental foundation of quantum objectivity

    Pringe, H.

    2007-01-01

    In this book Kant's critique of pure ratio is considered in the framework of quantum mechanics. In this connections Bohr's thought is considered with a short view on the EPR paradox. Finally a transcendental foundation of quantum mechanics is presented. (HSI)

  6. Critique of the quantum power of judgment. A transcendental foundation of quantum objectivity

    Pringe, H.

    2007-07-01

    In this book Kant's critique of pure ratio is considered in the framework of quantum mechanics. In this connections Bohr's thought is considered with a short view on the EPR paradox. Finally a transcendental foundation of quantum mechanics is presented. (HSI)

  7. Foucault and the Use of Critique: Breaching the Self-Evidence of Educational Practices

    Bye, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    This paper poses methodological questions about the role and limits of Foucault's concept of governmentality in education research. Firstly, it argues for the utility of governmentality as a means of exploring questions of power regardless of domain or scale. Secondly, it explores the boundary between the tasks of formulating critique and…

  8. Social Diversity and Democracy in Higher Education in the 21st Century: Towards a Feminist Critique

    David, Miriam E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes a feminist perspective on the UK literature on mass higher education in the 21st century, building on US critiques about marketization, neo-liberalism and "academic capitalism". Concepts of equality and diversity have been transformed by neo-liberalism and how these changes have constrained democratic contributions to UK…

  9. The Critique of Scholastic Language in Renaissance Humanism and Early Modern Philosophy

    Nauta, Lodi; Muratori, Cecilia; Paganini, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    This article studies some key moments in the long tradition of the critique of scholastic language, voiced by humanists and early-modern philosophers alike. It aims at showing how the humanist idiom of “linguistic usage,” “convention,” “custom,” “common” and “natural” language, and “everyday speech”

  10. Critique of the economic case for the fast reactor. Chapter 12

    Sweet, C.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; critique of the cost stereotypes; the fast reactor fuel cycle (reprocessing and refabrication costs; out-of-reactor time and economic optimisation; the doubling time and the logistics of the fast breeder programme). (U.K.)

  11. Countering the Pedagogy of Extremism: Reflective Narratives and Critiques of Problem-Based Learning

    Woo, Chris W. H.; Laxman, Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a critique against "purist" pedagogies found in the literature of student-centred learning. The article reproves extremism in education and questions the absolutism and teleological truths expounded in exclusive problem-based learning. The paper articulates the framework of a unifying pedagogical practice through Eve…

  12. Dialectic of the university: a critique of instrumental reason in graduate nursing education.

    Petrovskaya, Olga; McDonald, Carol; McIntyre, Marjorie

    2011-10-01

    Our analysis in this paper unfolds on two levels: a critique of the 'realities' of graduate nursing education and an argument to sustain its 'ideals'. We open for discussion an aspect of graduate nursing education dominated by instrumental reason, namely the research industry, using an internal critique approach developed by Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno of the Early Frankfurt School. As we explain, internal critique arises out of, and relies on, the mismatch between goals, or 'ideals', and existing realities. Thinking about 'ideals' of the academy, we draw on Hans-Georg Gadamer's view of the university as a place to think freely, creatively, and critically. The contemporary realities of the university, on the other hand, that emphasize the market values of the research industry forcefully shape nursing academic scholarship in a particular direction. In our attempt to recognize and disrupt the forces of the research industry with its instrumental reason, we consider Judith Butler's writings on how norms operate in society. We show that our growing involvement in the research industry makes it very difficult to disentangle ourselves from that situation. The values of the research industry actually suppress the very ideals of education and scholarship that we would like to uphold. As a contra-force, the internal critique of the 'existing realities' in the graduate nursing education unmasks the tyranny of the research industry and makes visible the importance of sustaining the higher goals and ideals in nursing scholarship. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Beyond Content, Deeper than Delivery: What Critique Feedback Reveals about Communication Expectations in Design Education

    Dannels, Deanna; Gaffney, Amy Housley; Martin, Kelly Norris

    2008-01-01

    In design education, the critique is a communication event in which students present their design and critics provide feedback. Presumably, the feedback gives the students information about their progress on the design. Yet critic feedback also serves a socializing function--providing students information about what it means to communicate well in…

  14. The frontiers of empirical science: A Thomist-inspired critique of ...

    The frontiers of empirical science: A Thomist-inspired critique of scientism. Callum Scott. Abstract. Scientistic conceptualisations hold to the positivistic positions that science is limitless in its potential representations of material phenomena and that it is the only sure path to knowledge. In recent popular scientific literature, ...

  15. A Critique on the Concept of Social Accountability in Higher Education

    Pedroza Flores, René; Villalobos Monroy, Guadalupe; Reyes Fabela, Ana María

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to present a critique of the concept and meaning of the term social accountability at university level from a critical point of view. The main objective is to analyze and re-build the term accountability in order to contextualize it for public universities. First, we present the importance of the idea of accountability in…

  16. Using a Collaborative Critiquing Technique to Develop Chemistry Students' Technical Writing Skills

    Carr, Jeremy M.

    2013-01-01

    The technique, termed "collaborative critiquing", was developed to teach fundamental technical writing skills to analytical chemistry students for the preparation of laboratory reports. This exercise, which can be completed prior to peer-review activities, is novel, highly interactive, and allows students to take responsibility for their…

  17. A Critique of Koh's (2014) "Doing Class Analysis in Singapore's Elite Education"

    Kabel, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Aaron Koh contributed to a collection of multi-site global ethnographic articles published here (2014, Vol. 12, No. 2) that present class reproduction as operationalised in elite education. While the collection adds to the current international critique of meritocracy, a close look at Koh's contribution reveals that critical ethnography can lose…

  18. Managing for wilderness experiences in the 21st Century: Responding to the recent wilderness critique

    Joseph W. Roggenbuck

    2012-01-01

    This essay describes five major critiques of the wilderness idea and how wilderness managers might shape experience opportunities in wilderness in response. These challenges include the notions that the wilderness idea separates people from nature, that it denies the human story in "pristine" lands, that it privileges a kind of recreation favored by elites...

  19. Knowledge, Power and Meanings Shaping Quality Assurance in Higher Education: A Systemic Critique

    Houston, Don; Paewai, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, quality assurance schemes persist despite long-standing dissatisfaction and critique of their impact and outcomes. Adopting a critical systems perspective, the article explores the relationships between the knowledge, power and meanings that stakeholder groups bring to the design and implementation of quality assurance systems.…

  20. The Feminist Critique in Epistemological Perspective: Questions of Context in Family Therapy.

    Taggart, Morris

    1985-01-01

    Presents the feminist critique of systems-based family therapy. Discusses the functions of "punctuation,""boundary," and "closure" in systemic epistemology. Explores implications of a new context for family therapy with respect to women's issues, clinical epistemology, and the challenge to raise novel questions in family therapy. (BH)

  1. Formative versus Reflective Measurement in Executive Functions: A Critique of Willoughby et al.

    Peterson, Eric; Welsh, Marilyn C.

    2014-01-01

    Research into executive functioning (EF) has indeed grown exponentially across the past few decades, but as the Willoughby et al. critique makes clear, there remain fundamental questions to be resolved. The crux of their argument is built upon an examination of the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) approach to understanding executive processes.…

  2. Judith Butler and the Public Dimension of the Body: Education, Critique and Corporeal Vulnerability

    Vlieghe, Joris

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I discuss some thoughts Judith Butler presents regarding corporeal vulnerability. This might help to elucidate the problem of whether critical education is still possible today. I first explain why precisely the possibility of critique within education is a problem for us today. This is because the traditional means of enhancing a…

  3. Critiquing Human Resource Development's Dominant Masculine Rationality and Evaluating Its Impact

    Bierema, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to critique human resource development's (HRD) dominant philosophy, practices, and research; illustrate how they negatively affect women HRD practitioners and recipients; and recommend alternative conceptualizations of the field. This article is grounded in a critical feminist theoretical framework, draws on critical…

  4. The Impact of Standards-Based Reform: Applying Brantlinger's Critique of "Hierarchical Ideologies"

    Bacon, Jessica; Ferri, Beth

    2013-01-01

    Brantlinger's [2004b. "Ideologies Discerned, Values Determined: Getting past the Hierarchies of Special Education." In "Ideology and the Politics of (in)Exclusion," edited by L. Ware, 11-31. New York: Peter Lang Publishing] critique of hierarchical ideologies lays bare the logics embedded in standards-based reform. Drawing on…

  5. The Resource-Based View: A Review and Assessment of Its Critiques

    Kraaijenbrink, Jeroen; Spender, J.C.; Groen, Arend J.

    2010-01-01

    The resource-based view (RBV) of the firm has been around for over 20 years—during which time it has been both widely taken up and subjected to considerable criticism. The authors review and assess the principal critiques evident in the literature, arguing they fall into eight categories. They

  6. Critiquing Un/Critical Pedagogies to Move toward a Pedagogy of Responsibility in Teacher Education

    Berchini, Christina N.

    2017-01-01

    Transformative work with teacher candidates relies on a critique of the tenets of Critical Pedagogy and subsequent Critical Whiteness Studies (CWS). I employ analyses of extant scholarship to argue that these specific domains, as popularly framed, might be responsible for uncritical examinations of the White teacher education students who…

  7. Elements of anti-Islam populism : Critiquing Geert Wilders' politics of offense with Marcuse and Adorno

    Bot, Michiel

    2017-01-01

    The political performances of Dutch anti-Islam populist Geert Wilders revolve around a combination of giving and taking offense. In this article, I develop a critique of Wilders’ politics of offense by revisiting two classic texts of Frankfurt School critical theory that combine social theory with

  8. Effect of WhatsApp on Critique Writing Proficiency and Perceptions toward Learning

    Awada, Ghada

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the results of an experimental study on the effectiveness of mobile technology (WhatsApp) in improving the critique writing skills of English as a Foreign Language learners and increasing their motivation for learning. The participants (n = 52) are Average-English proficient learners enrolled in two writing courses given at…

  9. The Assessor Assessed: A "Revisionist" Looks at a Critique of the Sandia Report.

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    1995-01-01

    In critiquing the Sandia Report, Lawrence Stedman faulted it and other revisionist reports for emphasizing trend data rather than quality and not acknowledging educational requirements within a democratic society. The article addresses the issues, presenting evidence from additional studies to argue that none of Stedman's general contentions…

  10. Critiquing Research Methodology: Comments on Broader Concerns about Complex Statistical Studies. A Response to Ross

    Stapleton, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Steven Ross's (2005) recent paper empirically measuring the efficacy of formative assessment compared to the summative variety found that the former produced positive effects on some aspects of language learning. In this critique, it is contended that Ross's study is flawed because his two groups of learners, one receiving summative assessment and…

  11. Inquiry, Critique, and Dissemination of Knowledge: Graduate Students Contributing to Wikipedia

    Simmons, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Graduate students use existing knowledge and are ultimately expected to add to that knowledge. Students in a Masters of Education entry course were asked to find a Wikipedia page related to the course topics, critique it, and make improvements to it to begin to develop these skills. In this paper, I examine ways in which their perspectives were…

  12. Critique: Can Children with AD/HD Learn Relaxation and Breathing Techniques through Biofeedback Video Games?

    Wright, Craig; Conlon, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a critique on K. Amon and A. Campbell's "Can children with AD/HD learn relaxation and breathing techniques through biofeedback video games?". Amon and Campbell reported a successful trial of a commercially available biofeedback program, "The Wild Divine", in reducing symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)…

  13. Sinnott-Armstrong's Empirical Challenge to Moral Intuitionism : A Novel Critique

    Hermann, J.S.

    This paper provides a novel critique of Walter Sinnott-Armstrong’s influential argument against epistemological moral intuitionism, the view that some people are noninferentially justified in believing some moral propositions. At the beginning of the twentyfirst century, this view experienced a

  14. Responses to the 1983 Expulsion of Aliens from Nigeria: A Critique ...

    This paper attempts a critique of this plethora of criticisms and submits that the Nigerian government of Shehu Shagari acted in conformity with the Nigerian immigration law of 1963 as informed by the exigencies of national interest. Government should therefore be exonerated from all the said criticisms. Keywords: Expulsion ...

  15. On the Genealogy of Kitsch and the Critique of Ideology: A Reflection on Method

    Andrius Bielskis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines similarities and differences between the genealogical approach to social critique and the Marxist critique of ideology. Given the key methodological aspects of Michel Foucault’s genealogy—the fusion of power and discourse and the Nietzschean notion of the aesthetization of life—the paper argues that Hollywood kitsch maybe interpreted as a new dispositif. A key task of the genealogy of kitsch is to analyze the effects of fake Hollywood narratives: how they form and normalize us, what kind of subjectivities they produce, and what type of social relations they create. La La Land, a 2016 American musical, is discussed as a way of illustration. Theorists of the Frankfurt School also advanced their critiques of the popular culture and its forms of kitsch; yet they followed Marx and his conception of ideology. The paper concludes that the differences between genealogy and the critique of ideology are philosophical. Foucault rejected the Marxist conception of history and the notion of ideology as false consciousness. Kitsch, for a genealogist, is formative rather than repressive; it makes people pursue banal dreams. For a Marxist critic, popular culture as a form of ideology dulls our critical capacities and, therefore, leaves the status quo of alienation intact.

  16. Paralympism, Paralympic values and disability sport: a conceptual and ethical critique.

    McNamee, M J

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the conceptual content of Paralympism. It exists by exploring the nascent normative framework that the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) has begun to construct around its constituent sports. The IPC sets out four values: Courage, Determination, Inspiration and Equality. Drawing on philosophical ethical methods it offers a critical evaluation of the four values that comprise the IPC position. While courage is undoubtedly a moral virtue, there is more than one conception that might inform Paralympism with either/both active and passive content. It is argued that Determination is an instrumental character trait that is not necessarily ethically praiseworthy. While potentially inspiring, the efforts and abilities of Paralympic athletes need not depend on the reception of spectators whom they have no control over. Finally, being an important ethical idea, it is neither clear what kind of equality is aimed for nor how it would be operationalized within sports with respect to access to expensive technology that is often the precondition of Paralympic sporting success. It is concluded that the Paralympic movement has not yet invested sufficient intellectual effort to articulate its ethical basis, and while these four values may have something to do with Paralympism, they are insufficient to articulate the concept. Implications for Rehabilitation Athletes with disabilities are governed by a range of normative frameworks that affect their preparation for and participation in the Paralympic games and associated events. Medical models often espouse a conception of biostatistical normality that derogates persons with disabilities, yet in elite sports abnormalities in structure and function can be highly valued. There is a lack of clarity about the ethical goals for those assisting Paralympic athletes. Governing bodies in disability sports, such as the International Paralympic Committee need to more critically and coherently spell out their ethical

  17. Worldwide incidence of malaria in 2009: estimates, time trends, and a critique of methods.

    Richard E Cibulskis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Measuring progress towards Millennium Development Goal 6, including estimates of, and time trends in, the number of malaria cases, has relied on risk maps constructed from surveys of parasite prevalence, and on routine case reports compiled by health ministries. Here we present a critique of both methods, illustrated with national incidence estimates for 2009. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compiled information on the number of cases reported by National Malaria Control Programs in 99 countries with ongoing malaria transmission. For 71 countries we estimated the total incidence of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax by adjusting the number of reported cases using data on reporting completeness, the proportion of suspects that are parasite-positive, the proportion of confirmed cases due to each Plasmodium species, and the extent to which patients use public sector health facilities. All four factors varied markedly among countries and regions. For 28 African countries with less reliable routine surveillance data, we estimated the number of cases from model-based methods that link measures of malaria transmission with case incidence. In 2009, 98% of cases were due to P. falciparum in Africa and 65% in other regions. There were an estimated 225 million malaria cases (5th-95th centiles, 146-316 million worldwide, 176 (110-248 million in the African region, and 49 (36-68 million elsewhere. Our estimates are lower than other published figures, especially survey-based estimates for non-African countries. CONCLUSIONS: Estimates of malaria incidence derived from routine surveillance data were typically lower than those derived from surveys of parasite prevalence. Carefully interpreted surveillance data can be used to monitor malaria trends in response to control efforts, and to highlight areas where malaria programs and health information systems need to be strengthened. As malaria incidence declines around the world, evaluation of control efforts

  18. Analysis of in-R12 CHF data: influence of hydraulic diameter and heating length; test of Weisman boiling crisis model; Analyse de donnees de flux critique en R12: influence du diametre hydraulique et de la longueur chauffante; test du modele de Weisman

    Czop, V; Herer, C; Souyri, A; Garnier, J

    1993-09-01

    In order to progress on the comprehensive modelling of the boiling crisis phenomenon, Electricite de France (EDF), Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique (CEA) and FRAMATOME have set up experimental programs involving in-R12 tests: the EDF APHRODITE program and the CEA-EDF-FRAMATOME DEBORA program. The first phase in these programs aims to acquire critical heat flux (CHF) data banks, within large thermal-hydraulic parameter ranges, both in cylindrical and annular configurations, and with different hydraulic diameters and heating lengths. Actually, three data banks have been considered in the analysis, all of them concerning in-R12 round tube tests: - the APHRODITE data bank, obtained at EDF with a 13 mn inside diameter, - the DEBORA data bank, obtained at CEA with a 19.2 mm inside diameter, - the KRISTA data bank, obtained at KfK with a 8 mm inside diameter. The analysis was conducted using CHF correlations and with the help of an advanced mathematical tool using pseudo-cubic thin plate type Spline functions. Two conclusions were drawn: -no influence of the heating length on our CHF results, - the influence of the diameter on the CHF cannot be simply expressed by an exponential function of this parameter, as thermal-hydraulic parameters also have an influence. Some calculations with Weisman and Pei theoretical boiling crisis model have been compared to experimental values: fairly good agreement was obtained, but further study must focus on improving the modelling of the influence of pressure and mass velocity. (authors). 12 figs., 4 tabs., 21 refs.

  19. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: An Islamic critique

    Anke Iman Bouzenita; Aisha Wood Boulanouar

    2016-01-01

    Abraham Maslow’s model of the hierarchy of needs is pervasive in many academic specialisations. After a short description of the model, this article summarises the existing criticisms. While criticism on the empirical validity of the model and its ethno-centricity are frequently mentioned in the literature, the authors of this article give special focus on the missing consideration of the spiritual aspect of human existence in Maslow’s model. The study explores reasons for the commodification...

  20. Etude de l'impact de la variation de la température sur les activités ...

    Etude de l'impact de la variation de la température sur les activités microbiennes : application à une population de Listeria monocytogenes CIP 7831, Listeria monocytogenes Scott A CIP 103575 et Escherichia coli ATCC 25922.

  1. Bio-metric study of pig karyotype; Etude biometrique du caryotype du porc

    Haag, J; Lacourly, N; Nizza, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    This study has a twofold purpose, the former is to determine the swine karyotype as accurately as possible, the latter is to try and develop a method of automatic classification and to show its possibilities and limits. (authors) [French] Cette etude a un double objet: d'une part, de definir de la facon aussi precise que possible le caryotype du porc et d'autre part, de tenter une methode de classification automatique et d'en montrer les possibilites ainsi que les limites. (auteurs)

  2. Brouillons scolaires et critique génétique : nouveaux regards, nouveaux égards ?

    Fabre-Cols, Claudine

    2011-01-01

    En s’interrogeant sur ce qui a commencé de changer dans la réflexion et les pratiques en didactique de l’écriture depuis la prise en compte de la critique génétique au début des années quatre-vingt, l’auteur dégage un bilan en trois points : La critique génétique propose un ancrage théorique et une méthode d'analyse des activités d'écriture.La critique génétique permet de (se) représenter toute écriture comme un travail et une recherche.La critique génétique place le sujet scripteur au centre...

  3. Syracuse/NASA program: A historical critique: Multidisciplinary studies in management and development programs in the public sector

    Barzelay, M. E.

    1974-01-01

    A historical critique is presented of the Syracuse/NASA program on management and development programs. Brief summaries are included of each of the major projects undertaken, including identification of the principal investigators and the university departments and disciplines involved.

  4. FCJ-151 The modulation and ordering of affect: from emotion recognition technology to the critique of class composition

    Mark Gawne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the workplace have seen the intensification of methods to elicit and capture value within and across the affective encounter, notably through the introduction of technologies to monitor and measure the production of affect and emotion in service workers. This paper develops the beginning of a critique of these technologies through a discussion of affective HCI, OKAO Vision and an engagement with the compositionist critique developed in (post-Operaismo.

  5. Power Reactor Design at Zero Power; Etudes de Reacteurs de Puissance, au Moyen de Machines de Puissance Zero; Konstruktsiya ehnergeticheskogo reaktora nulevoj moshchnosti; Diseno de Reactores Generadores con Ayuda de Reactores de Potencia Nula

    Redman, W. C.; Plumlee, K. E.; Baird, Q. L. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1964-02-15

    reliance placed in the past on exponential and critical systems for fulfilling Argonne's responsibilities in reactor development. An indication of their future role is provided by a brief summary of the current and planned programmes for the existing members of, and anticipated additions to, Argonne's family of operating zero-power reactors. (author) [French] Avec le reacteur de puissance zero du Laboratoire national d'Argonne, on a procede a des etudes de reacteurs tres divers; reacteurs de recherche, generatrices nucleaires, reacteurs pour la propulsion, pour la production de radioisotopes et reacteurs experimentaux; les ensembles associes - exponentiels et critiques non empoisonnes - ont fourni les donnees debase. Afin de rendre compte d'experiences recentes et de montrer quelle masse de renseignements sur la physique des reacteurs on peut obtenir avec des systemes a bas flux, les auteurs exposent les programmes experimentaux ci-apres: 1. Etude des proprietes des elements combustibles en oxydes d'uranium et de thorium, immerges dans l'eau lourde, en s'attachant particulierement aux donnees necessaires pour l'etude d'un deuxieme coeur pour le reacteur experimental a eau bouillante du Laboratoire d'Argonne; 2. Maquette d'un reacteur de recherche a haut flux, qui permettra de verifier les calculs faits au cours de l'etude, de determiner la geometrie optimale et d'estimer l'effet du taux de combustion; 3. Determination des repartitions energetiques et de l'effet de l'immersion des cartouches sur la reactivite pour un reacteur experimental a ebullition et a surchauffe combinees; 4. Etude d'un coeur de reacteur surgenerateur plutonigene a neutrons rapides, alimente en U{sup 235} et refroidi au sodium qui constituerait la charge initiale du Deuxieme reacteur surgenerateur experimental d'Argonne; 5. Etude des caracteristiques d'un reacteur a deux regions, l'une thermique et l'autre rapide, en interaction. Dans l'expose de ces programmes, les auteurs expliquent pourquoi on a

  6. Self-defense: Deflecting Deflationary and Eliminativist Critiques of the Sense of Ownership

    Shaun Gallagher

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available I defend a phenomenological account of the sense of ownership as part of a minimal sense of self from those critics who propose either a deflationary or eliminativist critique. Specifically, I block the deflationary critique by showing that in fact the phenomenological account is itself a deflationary account insofar as it takes the sense of ownership to be implicit or intrinsic to experience and bodily action. I address the eliminativist view by considering empirical evidence that supports the concept of pre-reflective self-awareness, which underpins the sense of ownership. Finally, I respond to claims that phenomenology does not offer a positive account of the sense of ownership by showing the role it plays in an enactivist (action-oriented view of embodied cognition.

  7. Obstetrics in a Time of Violence: Mexican Midwives Critique Routine Hospital Practices.

    Zacher Dixon, Lydia

    2015-12-01

    Mexican midwives have long taken part in a broader Latin American trend to promote "humanized birth" as an alternative to medicalized interventions in hospital obstetrics. As midwives begin to regain authority in reproductive health and work within hospital units, they come to see the issue not as one of mere medicalization but of violence and violation. Based on ethnographic fieldwork with midwives from across Mexico during a time of widespread social violence, my research examines an emergent critique of hospital birth as a site of what is being called violencia obstétrica (obstetric violence). In this critique, women are discussed as victims of explicit abuse by hospital staff and by the broader health care infrastructures. By reframing obstetric practices as violent-as opposed to medicalized-these midwives seek to situate their concerns about women's health care in Mexico within broader regional discussions about violence, gender, and inequality. © 2015 by the American Anthropological Association.

  8. Danish Soldiers Narrate Civil-Military Interaction: Experience, Critique and "Identifying Best Practices"

    Brønd, Thomas Vladimir

    In the aftermath of military engagements in Iraq and Afghanistan, Western militaries have been grabbling not only with these – for many – ‘failed missions’, but also with how to deal with a contemporary moment of hybrid wars and ‘chronic crisis’ (Vigh 2008). While numerous political commissions...... missions. Based on ongoing ethnographic fieldwork and extensive interviews as part of a larger research initiative ‘Perception and Legitimacy in CivilMilitary Interaction’, the paper excavates and discusses two selected cases on the basis of soldiers’ own experience and memory of what constitutes...... theory? By triangulating with other sources (field reports, media sources and others), the paper demonstrates how the discussion of these cases serves theoretically as a window into the tensions of critique in the military as part of a world where critique has – in the words of Bruno Latour (2004) – ‘run...

  9. Beyond discovery: A review of the critique of the discovery view of opportunities

    Korsgaard, Steffen T.

    This paper systematically reviews and synthesises the critique since 2000 of the discovery view's interpretation of entrepreneurial opportunities. The review shows that the framing of the debate as polarised between two oppositions, the discovery view versus the creation view, is oversimplified....... The issue of whether opportunities are discovered or created is simply one of several key issues in play in the debate. These key issues include questions concerning agency, process, and the role of subjectivity, creativity and interpretation. Propositions for future research are developed from the critique......, emphasising distributed agency, non-linear processes, opportunities as formed, and the role of creativity. However, the paper also points to unresolved issues in relation to all four propositions that require further empirical and conceptual work....

  10. Research integrity and rights of indigenous peoples: appropriating Foucault's critique of knowledge/power.

    Swazo, Norman K

    2005-09-01

    In this paper I appropriate the philosophical critique of Michel Foucault as it applies to the engagement of Western science and indigenous peoples in the context of biomedical research. The science of population genetics, specifically as pursued in the Human Genome Diversity Project, is the obvious example to illustrate (a) the contraposition of modern science and 'indigenous science', (b) the tendency to depreciate and marginalize indigenous knowledge systems, and (c) the subsumption of indigenous moral preferences in the juridical armature of international human rights law. I suggest that international bioethicists may learn from Foucault's critique, specifically of the need for vigilance about the knowledge/power relation expressed by the contraposition of modern science and 'indigeneity'.

  11. Subject Between Negativity and Aufhebung/désoeuvrement. Refutation of the Cryptotheological Critique of Agamben

    Mikołaj Ratajczak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is a detailed analysis of the critique concerning the conceptof subjectivity in Giorgio Agamben’s philosophy made by the Polish philosopherAgata Bielik-Robson arguing for her own conceptualization of subject’s ethicalformation. The main thesis states that by situating Agamben in the conceptualhorizon he aims to overcome, her critique stopped halfway. In doing so, the articleshows that the common ground of both Agamben’s and Bielik-Robson’s views onthe subject is the philosophy of Hegel and the differences between them can beexplicated as the difference in choosing one of two strategies of subject’s formationderiving from Hegel: while Bielik-Robson radicalizes the moment of negativity,Agamben tries to elaborate a different (messianic logic of Aufhebung.

  12. Medicine and Mind-Body Dualism: A Reply to Mehta's Critique.

    Joubert, Callie

    2014-01-01

    Neeta Mehta recently advanced the thesis that medical practice is facing a crisis today. In her paper "Mind-body dualism: a critique from a health perspective" she attributes the crisis to the philosophy of Descartes and set out to understand why this dualism is still alive despite its disavowal from philosophers, health practitioners and lay people. The aim of my reply to her critique is three-fold. First, I draw attention to a more fundamental problem and show that dualism is inescapable-scientifically and commonsensically. I then focus on the self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt and remorse, and argue that the self is not identical with a brain. The third section draws attention to the crisis in psychiatry and stipulates some of the main reasons why this is so. Contrary to Mehta's thesis, the health profession faces a crisis because of physicalism and biological reductionism.

  13. Medical Critique [Krytyka Lekarska]: a journal of medicine and philosophy-1897-1907.

    Löwy, I

    1990-12-01

    Medico-philosophical reflections were developed in the 19th and the 20th centuries by three consecutive generations of Polish physicians, active in what was later named the Polish School of Philosophy of Medicine. The second generation of this school published its own journal, Medical Critique [Krytika Lekarska], from 1897 to 1907. Medical Critique included numerous articles on the nature of medical knowledge, the reductionism versus holism debate in biology and medicine, the importance of teleologically-oriented approaches in medicine, the influence of theories and of a priori ideas on clinical observations and on 'clinical facts', the problem of classification of diseases, the normative and ethical dimension of medicine, and the ion relationships between philosophy, history and medicine. The existence of a journal dealing specifically with theoretical reflections on medicine undoubtedly contributed to the propagation of original work in the philosophy of medicine in Poland.

  14. time-consciuosness: a presentation and critique of Husserl's phenomenology on the consciousness of internal time

    Nissen Løje, Kamille; Mommer, Trine Kirstine; Sørensen, Emma Amalie Forum; Rasmussen, Nina Randrup; Lundkvist, Silas

    2009-01-01

    The project is based on Edmund Husserl’s lectures from 1905, On the Phenomenology of the Consciousness of Internal Time (1893-1917). The project is twofold; the first part is an account of Husserl’s branch of phenomenology. The second part consists of a discussion- and critique of some of the concepts in his phenomenology, which was needed to answer our problem definition. Discussions were among others, a distinction between recollection and retention, and protention and anticipation. Further...

  15. MSFC Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount. [a technical history and management critique

    Morse, A. R.

    1974-01-01

    A technical history and management critique of the Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) from initial conception through the design, manufacturing, testing and prelaunch phases is presented. A mission performance summary provides a general overview of the ATM's achievements in relationship to its design goals. Recommendations and conclusions applicable to hardware design, test program philosophy and performance, and program management techniques for the ATM with potential application to future programs are also discussed.

  16. Decision and intuition during organizational change : an evolutionary critique of dual process theory

    Talat, U; Chang, K; Nguyen, B

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review intuition in the context of organizational change. We argue that intuition as a concept requires attention and its formulation is necessary prior to its application in organizations. The paper provides a critique of Dual Process Theory and highlights shortcomings in organization theorizing of intuition.\\ud Design/methodology/approach: The paper is conceptual and provides in-depth theoretical discussions by drawing from the literature on decision...

  17. 'In this Interregnum' : dialectical themes in the critique of criminal justice

    Carvalho, Henrique; Norrie, Alan W.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we offer a critical examination of the long and rich history of criminal justice scholarship in the pages of Social & Legal Studies. We do so by identifying and exploring a dialectical tension in such scholarship, between the recognition of the role of criminal justice as an instrument of violence, exclusion and control on the one hand, and the effort to seek, through or perhaps beyond the critique of criminal justice, an emancipatory project. We explore this tension by exami...

  18. CRITIQUE OF FUNCTIONALISM IN THE WORKS OF ANTHONY GIDDENS AND NORBERT ELIAS: A COMPARISON

    Šņitņikovs, Aleksejs

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to assess the arguments of the critique of functionalism by Anthony Giddens and Norbert Elias. After being subject to severe criticism, terminology of functionalism is still a part of the lexicon of social scientists nowadays. Functionalist reasoning and concepts of functionalism are used in sociology, political science and economics, even though often without full awareness of its theoretical implications. Recent revival of interest in the works by Elias is connec...

  19. “Feminism” as Ideology: Sarah Palin’s Anti-feminist Feminism and Ideology Critique

    Michelle Rodino-Colocino

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The point of this essay is threefold: to describe the main tenets of Marx’s theory of ideology by critically engaging in the work of Marx and Engels, to flesh out the claim that Sarah Palin’s  “feminism” works ideologically as Marx and Engels describe, and consequently, to demonstrate that ideology critique is important intellectual work for feminist Marxist scholars. As I suggest in the conclusion, this is work that should inform scholars’ political activism.

  20. Developing a normative critique of international trade law: special & differential treatment

    Garcia, Frank J.

    2007-01-01

    Although the problem of trade and inequality is central to the resolution of the WTO Doha Round and to contemporary trade policy in general, it is currently undertheorized from a normative perspective. In this paper I develop a normative critique of WTO special and differential treatment law, as a case study of how normative political theory can be applied to international economic law. Using Rawls' theory of Justice as Fairness, I argue both that special and differential treatment can play a...

  1. Écriture (auto)biographique dans l'Examen critique d'Alexandre de Humboldt

    Julian Drews

    2016-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Der Bezug auf Kolumbus ist ein Gemeinplatz der Humboldtbiographik. Humboldt selbst betont ihn besonders in seinem Examen critique, wo er eine autobiographische Dimension gewinnt. Der Beitrag geht aus literaturwissenschaftlicher Perspektive dem Material und den Formen der Inszenierung nach, mit denen ein Leben über ein anderes dargestellt wird.  Résumé La référence à Colomb est un lieu commun de la biographie humboldtienne. Humboldt lui-même le souligne particulière...

  2. "Dirty little secret" or "Untidy quilt"? A critique of the strategic process literature

    Laljani, Narendra

    2005-01-01

    This literature critique forms the starting point of a research project on the development of strategic capability within the context of the realities of the strategic process. We begin by addressing the definitions of strategic process and exploring its importance. We then examine the evolution of the domain, a selection of archetypes of the strategic process, as well as some “sense-making“ devices. The role of the strategist is discussed, and we also ask if strategy-making ca...

  3. The Madoffization of Irish society: from Ponzi finance to sociological critique.

    Monaghan, Lee F; O'Flynn, Micheal

    2017-12-01

    Financialization and neoliberal policy created the Celtic Tiger. This economic 'miracle' furthered creditors' and property developers' speculative interests, leading to an unstable financial pyramid that eventually imploded in 2008 with catastrophic consequences for Irish society. Using the sociological imagination as social critique, this paper offers a lens on fictitious capital and Ponzi finance in the context of Ireland's boom and bust. Critique is advanced using the Madoffization of society thesis, a sociological heuristic that draws formal comparisons between Bernie Madoff's US$65 billion Ponzi scheme, which collapsed in 2008, and financialized capitalism. The Madoff case exhibits five main elements or forms which, it has been argued, underlie the varying content of life on a much broader scale: accumulation by debt expansion, mass deception, efforts to maintain secrecy and silence, obfuscation, and scapegoating. In conclusion, a crucial difference between the Madoff case and the Madoffization of Irish society is underscored. Discussion also moves from critique to hope amidst calls to renew sociology and transform financialized capitalism. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  4. Study of the point defects formed in cobalt by electron bombardment; Etude des defauts ponctuels crees par bombardement electronique dans le cobalt

    Sulpice, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 38 - Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-12-01

    A study of the point defects formed in cobalt by electron bombardment is presented. The results are compared with those previously obtained for two other ferromagnetic metals of different structure, iron and nickel. In the first part we give a review of the literature concerning the creation of point defects, their contribution to resistivity and their annihilation mode in the three structure types. We then describe the experimental techniques adapted, in particular the study of the resistivity increase during a linear temperature rise. Our investigations concern the following, essential points : the observation of the successive annihilation stages of the point defects formed in pure cobalt, a study of the variations with respect to the doses and energy of the incident particles, and the determination of the annealing kinetics and the corresponding activation energies. The results are finally compared with the various models of point defect annihilation proposed for other metals: none of these interpretations is in perfect agreement with our results. In the case of cobalt we are thus led to modify the model proposed by our laboratory for iron an nickel. The difference between these three metals is explained by the anisotropic character of the cobalt matrix. (author) [French] Nous presentons une etude des defauts ponctuels crees par bombardement electronique dans le cobalt et comparons nos resultats a ceux obtenus precedemment dans deux autres metaux ferromagnetiques de structure differente, le fer et le nickel. Dans une premiere partie nous faisons une mise au point bibliographique comparee sur la creation des defauts, leur contribution a la resistivite et leur mode d'annihilation dans les trois types de structure. Nous decrivons ensuite les techniques experimentales mises au point, en particulier l'etude du revenu de la resistivite au cours d'une montee lineaire de temperature. Au cours de ce travail, nous avons mis en evidence les stades successifs d

  5. Study of the heavy ions (Au+Au at 150 AMeV) collisions with the FOPI detector. Comparison with the Landau-Vlasov model; Etude des collisions d`ions lourds AU+AU a 150 A.MeV avec le detecteur FOPI. Comparaison avec le modele de Landau-Vlasov

    Boussange, S

    1995-09-15

    In this thesis, heavy ions (Au+Au) collisions experiments are made at 150 AMeV.In the first part, a general study of the nuclear matter equation is presented. Then the used Landau-Vlasov theoretical model is describe. The third part presents the FOPI experience and the details of how to obtain this theoretical predictions (filter, cuts, corrections, possible centrality selections).At the end, experimental results and comparisons with the Landau-Vlasov model are presented. (TEC). 105 refs., 96 figs., 14 tabs.

  6. Composes inter-halogenes sous pression: etude des transformations structurales dans le monobromure d'iode sous forme dense

    Bouchard, Alexandre

    La famille des composes halogenes et inter-halogenes representent des solides moleculaires adoptant des phases denses communes avec des solides moleculaires diatomiques comme l'azote et l'hydrogene. Parmi les transformations structurales et electroniques induites sous haute pression et observees dans ces solides, on note, entre autres, la dissociation moleculaire et la metallisation. De plus, l'etude des phases denses de l'iode a permis recemment l'observation d'une structure cristalline possedant une modulation dite incommensurable, c'est-a-dire une modulation possedant une periodicite differente de celle de la structure cristalline, jetant ainsi une lumiere nouvelle sur le processus de dissociation moleculaire dans les solides halogenes. Dans ce memoire, on propose d'etudier les changements structuraux dans monobromure d'iode (IBr), un compose inter-halogene possedant des proprietes structurales semblables a celles de deux composes halogenes, soit l'iode (I 2) et le brome (Br2) sous leur forme solide. Des experiences de diffraction des rayons X de poudres en utilisant un rayonnement synchrotron ont ete realisees a temperature ambiante sur l'IBr en variant la pression jusqu'aux environs de 60 GPa. La nature chimique particuliere du compose IBr a necessite la mise au point de techniques de chargement d'echantillon destinees a preserver l'integrite chimique de la substance utilisee. On rapporte egalement l'observation d'une phase de l'IBr presentant une modulation incommensurable. Les phases observees dans l'IBr permettent d'etablir des paralleles avec les phases denses rapportees dans I2 et Br2 par le biais d'un modele phenomenologique decrivant la sequence structurale des solides halogenes sous forme condensee.

  7. Contribution to the study of the uranium-hydrogen system; Contribution a l'etude du systeme uranium-hydrogene

    Chevallier, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-01-01

    Previous work on uranium-hydrogen system is reviewed. The U-H{sub 2}-UH{sub n} equilibrium is then investigated at pressures below one atmosphere, i.e. at temperatures lower than 430 deg. C. The hydride obtained at equilibrium is deficient in hydrogen (UH{sub n<3}), the hydrogen deficit increasing as the temperature rises. Thermodynamic functions for the formation of non-stoichiometric hydride and of one hydrogen vacancy are derived from pressure composition isotherms, in U-H phase diagram is proposed. The hydrogenation of U-UC alloys is also examined at pressures below one atmosphere with regard to the equilibrium: (free U + UC) - H{sub 2}-UH{sub n}. The equilibrium conditions are found different from that observed for pure uranium. (author) [French] Une etude bibliographique du systeme uranium-hydrogene est exposee. L'equilibre U-H{sub 2}-UH{sub n} est ensuite etudie sous des pressions inferieures a une atmosphere, soit aux temperatures inferieures a environ 430 degs. C. L'hydrure obtenu a l'equilibre est deficitaire en hydrogene - UH{sub n<3} - et d'autant plus que la temperature s'eleve. Les grandeurs thermodynamiques relatives a la formation et a la saturation de l'hydrure, ainsi qu'a la formation d'une lacune d'hydrogene sont deduites des pressions d'equilibre. Un modele de diagramme de phases U-H est propose. L'hyduration des alliages U-UC est etudiee egalement sous des pressions inferieures a l'atmosphere, au point de vue de l'equilibre (U libre + UC) - H{sub 2}-UH{sub n}. Les conditions d'equilibre sont trouvees differentes de celles observees sur l'uranium pur. (auteur)

  8. Marx and the critique of capitalist society: critique of labor/Marx e a crítica ontológica da sociedade capitalista: crítica do trabalho

    Mario Duayer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper seeks to emphasize what in my opinion can be consideredthe main thrust of Marxian work: the critique of political economy as an ontological critique of the modern capitalist society. Such critique begins to take its ultimate form with the Grundrisse. The argument runs as follows. Firstly, it tries to show briefly the debilitating effects, both in theory and practice, brought about in the last decades by the dissolution of the Marxian ontological critique. Secondly, it argues that real critique is ontological critique and, consequently, has to explain what such a critique consists of. Finally, agreeing with Postone’s suggested reinterpretation of Marx’s ideas, but diverging from him precisely with respect to ontology, it suggests that the ontological critique produced by Marx is a critique of labor or, in other words, critique of the centrality of labor, which is specific of the capitalist society.O artigo pretende destacar o que constitui para mim o propósitocentral da obra marxiana que, nos Grundrisse, começa a tomar forma acabada,a saber, a crítica da economia política como crítica ontológica da modernasociedade capitalista. O argumento está assim estruturado. Em primeiro lugar,inicio procurando mostrar de maneira sintética os efeitos paralisantes, teóricose práticos, da dissolução da crítica ontológica marxiana nas últimas décadas.Em segundo lugar, e justamente por isso, tento sustentar que crítica de fato écrítica ontológica e, em consequência, devo mostrar de que se trata essa crítica.Por último, concordando com a interpretação da obra de Marx proposta porMoishe Postone, mas diferindo dela precisamente no que diz respeito à onto-logia, procuro demonstrar que a crítica ontológica elaborada por Marx é críticado trabalho, ou, caso se queira, crítica da centralidade do trabalho, própria eespecífica da sociedade capitalista.

  9. The formation of scientists and technicians at the 'Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires' at Saclay

    Debiesse, J.

    1958-01-01

    The considerable needs in research workers and scientists which are asked by the nuclear energy obliged the Commissariat a l'Energie atomique to deal with a particular effort to increase the quantitative and qualitative formation of scientists. Most various ways have been used. 1- A National Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Nuclear Techniques was created, by a joint decree of the Prime Minister and the Minister for National Education (june 18, 1957). This Institute of Higher Teaching (250 students) indulges in the following matters: atomic engineering, quantum mechanics, theory and technic of particle accelerators, special metallurgy, radiobiology, thermic and mechanics of fluids. 2- An associated centre of the 'Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers' was created (200 students) for technical assistants, drawers, etc. 3- In contribution with both electronic industry and Ministry of Work, the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires contributes to an accelerated formation of technical assistants into Professional Centres. Conclusion: Training of scientists and research workers is one of the most important activities of the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay. Without losing its technical efficiency, it has supplied and varied means adapted to the various purposes that we shall reach. (author) [fr

  10. Critique and Contribute: A Practice-Based Framework for Improving Critical Data Studies and Data Science.

    Neff, Gina; Tanweer, Anissa; Fiore-Gartland, Brittany; Osburn, Laura

    2017-06-01

    What would data science look like if its key critics were engaged to help improve it, and how might critiques of data science improve with an approach that considers the day-to-day practices of data science? This article argues for scholars to bridge the conversations that seek to critique data science and those that seek to advance data science practice to identify and create the social and organizational arrangements necessary for a more ethical data science. We summarize four critiques that are commonly made in critical data studies: data are inherently interpretive, data are inextricable from context, data are mediated through the sociomaterial arrangements that produce them, and data serve as a medium for the negotiation and communication of values. We present qualitative research with academic data scientists, "data for good" projects, and specialized cross-disciplinary engineering teams to show evidence of these critiques in the day-to-day experience of data scientists as they acknowledge and grapple with the complexities of their work. Using ethnographic vignettes from two large multiresearcher field sites, we develop a set of concepts for analyzing and advancing the practice of data science and improving critical data studies, including (1) communication is central to the data science endeavor; (2) making sense of data is a collective process; (3) data are starting, not end points, and (4) data are sets of stories. We conclude with two calls to action for researchers and practitioners in data science and critical data studies alike. First, creating opportunities for bringing social scientific and humanistic expertise into data science practice simultaneously will advance both data science and critical data studies. Second, practitioners should leverage the insights from critical data studies to build new kinds of organizational arrangements, which we argue will help advance a more ethical data science. Engaging the insights of critical data studies will

  11. Etude hyperfrequence et ultrasonore des supraconducteurs organiques kappa-(ET)(2)X (X = copper(thiocyanogen), copper[N(CN)(2)]bromine)

    Frikach, Kamal

    2001-09-01

    Dans ce travail je presente une etude de l'impedance de surface, ainsi que de l'attenuation et la variation de la vitesse ultrasonores dans les etats normal et supraconducteur sur les composes organiques k-(ET)2X (X = Cu(SCN) 2, Cu[N(CN)2]Br). A partir des mesures d'impedance de surface, les deux composantes sigma 1 et sigma2 de la conductivite complexe sont extraites en utilisant le modele de Drude. Ces mesures montrent que la symetrie du parametre d'ordre dans ces composes est differente de celle du cas BCS. Afin de comprendre le profil de sigma1 (T) nous avons etudie les fluctuations supraconductrices a partir de la paraconductivite sigma'( T). Cette etude est rendue possible grace a la structure quasi-2D des composes k-(ET)2X dans lesquelles les fluctuations supraconductrices sont fortes. Ces dernieres sont observees sur deux decades de temperatures dans le Cu(SCN)2. L'application du modele de Aslamazov-Larkin 2D et 3D montre la possibilite du passage du regime 2D a haute temperature au regime 3D au voisinage de Tc. En se basant sur ce resultat, nous avons calcule la paraconductivite en utilisant une approche a l'ordre d'une boucle a partir du modele de Lawrence-Doniach. En tenant compte de la correction par la self energie dans la limite dynamique (17 GHz), l'ajustement de la paraconductivite calculee est en bon accord avec les donnees experimentales. Le couplage interplan obtenu est compatible avec le caractere quasi-2D des composes organiques. Le temps de relaxation des quasi-particules dans l'etat supraconducteur est ensuite extrait pour la premiere fois dans ces composes dont le comportement en fonction de la temperature est compatible avec la presence des noeuds dans le gap. Dans l'etat normal, la variation de la vitesse ultrasonore presente un comportement anormal caracterise par un fort ramollissement a T = 38 K et 50 K dans k-(ET) 2Cu(SCN)2 et k-(ET)2Cu[N(CN) 2]Br respectivement dont l'amplitude est independante du champ magnetique jusqu'a H = Hc 2

  12. The cognitive based approach of capacity assessment in psychiatry: a philosophical critique of the MacCAT-T.

    Breden, Torsten Marcus; Vollmann, Jochen

    2004-12-01

    This article gives a brief introduction to the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Treatment (MacCAT-T) and critically examines its theoretical presuppositions. On the basis of empirical, methodological and ethical critique it is emphasised that the cognitive bias that underlies the MacCAT-T assessment needs to be modified. On the one hand it has to be admitted that the operationalisation of competence in terms of value-free categories, e.g. rational decision abilities, guarantees objectivity to a great extent; but on the other hand it bears severe problems. Firstly, the cognitive focus is in itself a normative convention in the process of anthropological value-attribution. Secondly, it misses the complexity of the decision process in real life. It is therefore suggested that values, emotions and other biographic and context specific aspects should be considered when interpreting the cognitive standards according to the MacArthur model. To fill the gap between cognitive and non-cognitive approaches the phenomenological theory of personal constructs is briefly introduced. In conclusion some main demands for further research to develop a multi-step model of competence assessment are outlined.

  13. Critica della teoria neoclassica della crescita e della distribuzione (A Critique of the Neoclassical Theory of Growth and Income Distribution

    Luigi Pasinetti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper surveys the main theories of income distribution in their relationship with the theories of economic growth. First, the Classical approach is considered, focusing on the Ricardian theory. Then the neoclassical theory is discussed, highlighting its origins (Bohm-Bawerk, Wicksell, Clark and the role of the aggregate production function. The emergence of a "Keynesian" theory of income distribution in the wake of Harrod's model of growth is then recalled together with the surprising resurgence of the neoclassical theory (following the contributions of Solow and Meade. But, as the paper shows, the neoclassical theory of income distribution lacks logical consistency and has shaky foundations, as has been revealed by the severe critiques moved to the neoclassical production function. Mainstream economic literature circumvents this problem by simply ignoring it; while the models of endogenous growth exclude the issue of distribution theory from their consideration. However, while mainstream economics bypasses the problems of income distribution, this is too relevant an issue to be ignored and a number of new research lines, briefly surveyed, try new approaches to it.          JEL Codes: O41, E25Keywords: Distribution, Economic Growth, Growth, Income Distribution, Income

  14. Test theories of special relativity: a general critique

    Maciel, A.K.A.; Tiomno, J.

    1988-01-01

    Absolute Spacetime Theories conceived for the purpose of testing Special Relativity (SR) are reviewed. It is found that most theories proposed were in fact SR in different coordinate systems, since in general no specific SR violations were introduced. Models based on possible SR violating mechanisms are considered. Misconceptions in recently published papers are examined. (author) [pt

  15. The Politics of Functional Family Therapy: A Feminist Critique.

    Avis, Judith Myers

    1985-01-01

    Discusses whether the Functional Family Therapy (FFT) model takes a covert political stance which reinforces traditional gender roles in both family and therapist. Examines FFT's affirmation of existing political functions in the family as well as suggested therapist use of self. Discusses implications and recommends changes. (BH)

  16. Google Spain : Addressing critiques and misunderstandings one year later

    de Hert, Paul; Papakonstantinou, V.

    2015-01-01

    In the text that follows the authors will rst highlight some subjectively important facts that need to be kept under consideration while assessing the Court’s decision against the business model currently employed by US internet companies (section 1). In section 2 the authors will engage with

  17. The OptIC Data Assimilation Intercomparison: A Statistical Critique

    Enting, I. G.; Clisby, N.

    2008-12-01

    The development of improved terrestrial carbon models has assumed great importance because of concerns about significant climate-to-carbon feedback processes. The complexity of the interactions leads to considerable difficulties in the process of model calibration. The OptIC intercomparison explored some aspects of model calibration, using an idealised terrestrial carbon model. Participants were invited to estimate model parameters in various cases defined by specified time series of the model state, with various forms of added noise. The study identified the crucial importance of the choice of cost function. The present analysis revisits the OptIC study, by considering it as an exercise in statistical estimation. This treats the observations as random variables. Consequently parameter estimates, â, based on observations will also be random variables whose distribution is known as the 'sampling distribution'. Key questions for any specific case are: Are departures from â/a_true =1 indication of bias or sampling error? Under what circumstance are uncertainty estimates (of Var[â]) reliable? We consider cases where the estimate is obtained by minimising a cost function, ΘX. Assuming that we know the true form of ℓ, the log likelihood, there are three different characterisations of uncertainty that should be distinguished: (i) The uncertainty from maximum-likelihood estimates, corresponding (either exactly or asymptotically) to the Cramer-Rao bound. In a realistic calibration situation, we won't be able to determine this because the 'true' form of the likelihood is unknown. (ii) The actual uncertainty associated with using a particular cost function. If the true noise distribution is known, this can be calculated in simple cases and determined from simulations in more complicated cases. (iii) The 'formal uncertainty' based on assuming (usually incorrectly) that ΘX is the true likelihood. In the first stage of the analysis, the distinctions are illustrated by

  18. The Nursing Leadership Institute program evaluation: a critique

    Havaei F

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Farinaz Havaei, Maura MacPhee School of Nursing, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Abstract: A theory-driven program evaluation was conducted for a nursing leadership program, as a collaborative project between university faculty, the nurses' union, the provincial Ministry of Health, and its chief nursing officers. A collaborative logic model process was used to engage stakeholders, and mixed methods approaches were used to answer evaluation questions. Despite demonstrated, successful outcomes, the leadership program was not supported with continued funding. This paper examines what happened during the evaluation process: What factors failed to sustain this program? Keywords: leadership development, theory-driven evaluation, mixed methods, collaborative logic modeling

  19. Une espérance post-critique ? Enjeux critiques de la conception ricœurienne de l'imaginaire social

    PEGGY AVEZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available RésuméLa fondation anthropologique de la fonction critique – socialement endossée par l’imaginaire utopique – et son lien dynamique avec la tâche intégrative de l’idéologie permettent à Ricœur de repenser sur le plan socio-politique la double nécessité du soupçon et de l’espérance. En reliant l’analyse de la structure contradictoire et analogisante de l’imaginaire social aux perspectives antérieurement développées sur “la liberté selon l’espérance,” notre propos vise à expliciter ses enjeux émancipateurs. Les apories auxquelles les médiations symboliques contraignent l’agir doivent nourrir la double nécessité d’un “devoir de vigilance” et d’une “timide espérance”: telle est à la fois la difficulté irréductible et la force critique de l’analyse ricœurienne de l’imagination socialisante.Mots-clés: imaginaire social, critique, idéologie, utopie, espérance.AbstractThe anthropological foundation of the critical function—endorsed by the utopian imaginary—and its dynamic relation with the integrative task of ideology allow Ricœur to rethink, at a social and political level, the necessity of both suspicion and hope. Linking Ricœur’s analysis of the contradictory and analogizing structure of the social imaginary to perspectives on “freedom in the light of hope,” which were developed earlier, it is my intention to make explicit certain emancipatory issues. The aporiae to which symbolic mediations constrict acting must provide for the necessity of both an “obligation for vigilance” and a “tentative hope.” Such is the irreducible difficulty but also the critical force of Ricœur’s analysis of the socializing imagination.Keywords: Social Imaginary, Criticism, Ideology, Utopia, Hope.

  20. Interaction and transport of cysteamine (MEA) through membrane models. {sup 15}N-NMR et {sup 1}H-NMR; Interaction et transport de la cysteamine (MEA) a travers des membranes modeles. Etude par {sup 15}N-RMN et {sup 1}H-RMN

    Lagoueyte, C.; Subra, G.; Bonnet, P.A.; Chapat, J.P.; Debouzy, J.C.; Fauvelle, F.; Berleur, F.; Roman, V.; Fatome, M.; Fernandez, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    We investigated by {sup 15}N-NMR the interactions of [{sup 15}N]-MEA, a radio-protecting aminothiol, with model membranes (SUVs and LUVs) of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidic acid. We prepared LUVs with a pH gradient between the intravesicular space and the bulk medium. Even though the external pH was low, MEA penetrates into the vesicles. With SUVs, {sup 1}H-NMR revealed that the interactions of unlabeled MEA within the hydrophobic core of the bilayer vary with external pH value. (author). 5 refs.

  1. Capital in the twenty-first century: a critique.

    Soskice, David

    2014-12-01

    I set out and explain Piketty's model of the dynamics of capitalism based on two equations and the r > g inequality (his central contradiction of capitalism). I then take issue with Piketty's analysis of the rebuilding of inequality from the 1970s to the present on three grounds: First, his model is based on the (neo-classical) assumption that companies are essentially passive actors who invest the amount savers choose to accumulate at equilibrium output - leading to the counterintuitive result that companies respond to the secular fall in growth (and hence their product markets) from the 1970s on by increasing their investment relative to output; this does indeed imply increased inequality on Piketty's β measure, the ratio of capital to output. I suggest a more realistic model in which businesses determine investment growth based on their expectations of output growth, with monetary policy bringing savings into line with business-determined investment; the implication of this model is that β does not change at all. And in fact as other recent empirical work which I reference has noted, β has not changed significantly over these recent decades. Hence Piketty's central analysis of the growth of contemporary inequality requires rethinking. Second, despite many references to the need for political economic analysis, Piketty's analysis of the growth of inequality in the period from the 1970s to the present is almost devoid of it, his explanatory framework being purely mathematical. I sketch what a political economic framework might look like during a period when politics was central to inequality. Third, inequality in fact rose on a variety of dimensions apart from β (including poverty which Piketty virtually makes no reference to in this period), but it is unclear what might explain why inequality rose in these other dimensions. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  2. The NICE ADHD health technology assessment: A review and critique

    Schlander Michael

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health technology assessments (HTAs by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE enjoy high levels of international attention. The present analysis addresses NICE's appraisal of methylphenidate, atomoxetine and dexamphetamine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in children and adolescents, published in March 2006. Methods A qualitative study of NICE Technology Appraisal No. 98 was done focusing on the >600-page technology assessment report, which aimed at evaluating ADHD treatment strategies by a clinical effectiveness review and an economic analysis using meta-analytical techniques and a cost-effectiveness model. Results The technology assessment was unable to differentiate between the various drugs in terms of efficacy, and its economic model was ultimately driven by cost differences. While the assessment concluded that the economic model "clearly identified an optimal treatment strategy" with first-line dexamphetamine, the NICE appraisal committee subsequently found it impossible to distinguish between the different strategies on grounds of cost-effectiveness. Analyzing the assessment reveals gaps and inconsistencies concerning data selection (ultimately relying on a small number of short-term studies only, data synthesis (pooling of heterogeneous study designs and clinical endpoints, and economic model structure (identifying double-counting of nonresponders as a likely source of bias, alongside further methodological anomalies. Conclusion Many conclusions of the NICE technology assessment rest on shaky grounds. There remains a need for a new, state-of-the-art systematic review of ADHD treatment strategies including economic evaluation, which ideally should address outcomes beyond children's health-related quality of life, such as long-term sequelae of the disorder and caregiver burden.

  3. Search for Kaluza-Klein gravitons of the Randall-Sundrum model in the dimuon channel with the D0 detector at Tevatron; Etude de la production de graviton de Kaluza-Klein dans ses desintegrations en paires de muons dans le modele de Randall-Sundrum aupres de l'experience D0 au Tevatron

    Lahrichi, N

    2004-07-01

    In this thesis we have put the first constraints on the fundamental parameters of the Randall-Sundrum model of extra dimensions, k/M{sub Pl} which is proportional to the coupling of the graviton to the standard model fields and M{sub G} which is the mass of the first excited state of the Kaluza-Klein graviton. The analysis performed on Monte Carlo sample of the signal allowed to find an error in the PYTHIA generator. The elaboration of an independent generator dedicated for this special analysis helped to find out and correct the error. The data sample used for the analysis covers the period running from november 2002 up to july 2003 taken by the D0 collaboration at Tevatron, which corresponds to an accumulated luminosity of 107,8 pb{sup -1}. The search for the graviton in the dimuon channel allowed to measure the Z production cross-section multiplied by the branching ratio in dimuons. (author)

  4. Evidence for fluctuations in statistical model cross sections from the study of {sup 27}Al(d,{alpha}) {sup 25}Mg reaction; Mise en evidence des fluctuations de sections efficaces du modele statistique par l'etude de la reaction {sup 27}Al(d,{alpha}) {sup 25}Mg

    Papineau born Heller, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-06-01

    A complete set of experimental data has been obtained for the reaction {sup 27}Al(d, {alpha}){sup 25}Mg for excitation energies in the compound nucleus {sup 29}Si between 19.7 and 27.4 MeV, in order to compare with the theoretical predictions of the statistical model of nuclear reactions including fluctuations. Numerical calculations of the theoretical cross sections were made and contributions to methods of analysis of fluctuating excitation functions are given. The results confirm strong evidence for statistical fluctuations in nuclear cross sections. (author) [French] On a obtenu un ensemble complet de donnees experimentales de la reaction {sup 27}Al(d, {alpha}){sup 25}Mg pour des energies d'excitation du noyau compose {sup 29}Si comprises entre 19,7 et 27,4 MeV, permettant la comparaison avec les previsions theoriques du modele statistique des reactions nucleaires dans sa version complete comprenant les fluctuations. Des calculs numeriques de sections efficaces theoriques ont ete effectues et des contributions ont ete apportees aux methodes d'analyse de fonctions d'excitation presentant des fluctuations. Les resultats ont clairement confirme l'existence de fluctuations statistiques de sections efficaces. (auteur)

  5. Contribution to the study of {beta} disintegration and of nuclear structure using experiments on certain {beta}-{gamma} cascades: 198{sub Au}, 86{sub Rb}, 170{sub Tm}; Contribution a l'etude de la desintegration beta et a l'etude de la structure nucleaire a l'aide d'experiences sur certaines cascades beta-gamma: 198{sub Au}, 86{sub Rb}, 170{sub Tm}

    Lachkar, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes; Paris-11 Univ., fabulte des Sciences 91 - Orsay (France)

    1969-07-01

    {beta}{gamma} directional angular correlations and shapes of inner beta spectra leading to the first excited level of the final nucleus enable one to determine the nuclear matrix elements typical of the {beta} transition. In the three observed first forbidden cases: {sup 170}Tm, {sup 86}Rb, {sup 198}Au, these matrix elements do not confirm the independent shell model theory. Other hypotheses are then suggested and discussed. (author) [French] Les experiences de correlation angulaire {beta}{gamma} et l'etude du spectre {beta} conduisant au premier niveau excite du noyau final permettent de determiner les elements de matrices nucleaires caracteristiques de cette transition. Dans les trois cas etudies (transitions une fois interdites): {sup 170}Tm, {sup 86}Rb, {sup 198}Au, ces elements de matrices ne peuvent etre retrouves a l'aide du modele en couches et a particules independantes. D'autres hypotheses sont alors emises et discutees. (auteur)

  6. Contribution to the study of {beta} disintegration and of nuclear structure using experiments on certain {beta}-{gamma} cascades: 198{sub Au}, 86{sub Rb}, 170{sub Tm}; Contribution a l'etude de la desintegration beta et a l'etude de la structure nucleaire a l'aide d'experiences sur certaines cascades beta-gamma: 198{sub Au}, 86{sub Rb}, 170{sub Tm}

    Lachkar, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes; Paris-11 Univ., fabulte des Sciences 91 - Orsay (France)

    1969-07-01

    {beta}{gamma} directional angular correlations and shapes of inner beta spectra leading to the first excited level of the final nucleus enable one to determine the nuclear matrix elements typical of the {beta} transition. In the three observed first forbidden cases: {sup 170}Tm, {sup 86}Rb, {sup 198}Au, these matrix elements do not confirm the independent shell model theory. Other hypotheses are then suggested and discussed. (author) [French] Les experiences de correlation angulaire {beta}{gamma} et l'etude du spectre {beta} conduisant au premier niveau excite du noyau final permettent de determiner les elements de matrices nucleaires caracteristiques de cette transition. Dans les trois cas etudies (transitions une fois interdites): {sup 170}Tm, {sup 86}Rb, {sup 198}Au, ces elements de matrices ne peuvent etre retrouves a l'aide du modele en couches et a particules independantes. D'autres hypotheses sont alors emises et discutees. (auteur)

  7. Contribution to the study of point defects formed in nickel by electron bombardment; Contribution a l'etude des defauts ponctuels crees par bombardement electronique dans le nickel

    Oddou, J L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 38 - Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-12-01

    After a short account of the experimental techniques employed in our studies, the experimental results obtained on pure nickel samples are exposed. The apparition of the successive annihilation stages of point defects created by electron bombardment is established by isochronal heat treatments: the annihilation kinetics and the corresponding activation energies are determined. The effect of the incident particle doses is also studied. The experimental results are then compared with R.A. Johnson's theoretical calculations of the stability and the migration of point defects in nickel, and taking into account the results obtained by Peretto in magnetic after effect measurements. This leads us to a model in good agreement with calculations and experiment for the first stages. In a second chapter the behaviour of nickel doped by certain impurities is studied. First, the results concerning the rate of increase of resistivity (function of sample purity) is investigated. Two possible explanations of the observed phenomenon are proposed: either a deviation with respect to Mathiessen's law, or an increase of the number of defects formed in the presence of impurity atoms. Finally, a study of the resistivity recovery of the doped samples permits us to suggest an order of magnitude for the binding energy interstitial/impurity atom in the nickel matrix. (author) [French] Apres avoir brievement rappele les techniques experimentales que nous avons utilisees pour cette etude, nous exposons les resultats experimentaux obtenus sur des echantillons de nickel pur. Les stades successifs d'annihilation des defauts ponctuels crees par bombardement electronique sont mis en evidence par traitements thermiques isochrones; les cinetiques de disparition, et les energies d'activation correspondantes sont determinees. Nous etudions egalement l'effet de la dose des particules incidentes. Les resultats experimentaux sont ensuite compares avec les calculs theoriques de R.A JOHNSON sur la stabilite

  8. Consequences of Windscale accident (October 1957) and study of the validity of the Sutton's mathematical model of atmospheric diffusion (1960); Etude des consequences de l'accident de Windscale (Octobre 1957) et de la validite du modele mathematique de diffusion atmospherique de Sutton (1960)

    Doury, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (S.C.R.G.R.) Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Martin, J J [Electricite de France (EDF)(S.L.P.R.), 37 - Chinon (France)

    1960-07-01

    The reactor accident that happens at the number 1 pile of Windscale in 1957 was followed by a discharge of radioactive products into the atmosphere from the 1.X.1957 at 4.30 PM to the 12.X.1957 at 3.10 PM. On october the 11{sup th} it was possible to say that there was no more risk either of external irradiation or inhalation. But in adopting a M.A.C. of 0,1 {mu}curie of iodine 131 per litre of milk, the Authority had to control the milk delivery till november 23{sup rd} on a 500 km{sup 2} area. On the other hand, this exceptional accident permit to verify that Sutton's atmospheric diffusion model could give an easy means to foresee, with a sufficient approximation, the consequences of a dispersion of radioactive products into the atmosphere. (author) [French] L'accident survenu a la pile numero 1 de Windscale en 1957 a entraine l'emission de matieres radioactives dans l'atmosphere du 10 octobre a 16h30 au 12 octobre a 15h10. Le 11 octobre, on pouvait dire qu'il n'y avait plus de risque d'irradiation externe ni de danger par inhalation. Mais en adoptant une C.M.A. de 0,1 {mu}curie d'iode 131 par litre de lait, les autorites ont du reglementer la consommation du lait jusqu'au 23 novembre sur une etendue d'environ 500 km{sup 2}. D'autre part, cet accident exceptionnel a permis de verifier que le modele de diffusion atmospherique de Sutton pouvait fournir un moyen commode de prevoir avec une approximation suffisante les consequences d'une dispersion de produits radioactifs dans l'atmosphere. (auteur)

  9. Experimental study of Au+Au collisions at E/A=150 and 400 MeV: comparison with the GQMD-matrix model; Etude experimentale des collisions Au+Au a E/A=150 et 400 MeV: comparaison avec le modele matrice-GQMD

    Ramillien, V

    1995-07-01

    We present new experimental data obtained with the FOPI detector at the SIS Heavy ions accelerator (Darmstadt, Germany), for the Au + Au heavy ion collisions at 150 and 400 A.MeV incident energy. The sideward flow, determined form the method of Danielewicz without reaction plane reconstruction, and the nuclear stopping are studied as a function of the centrality of the collisions and as a function of the fragment charge. In order to study the nuclear in-medium effects, which act on the N-N cross-sections and potential and hence on experimental observables like the nuclear matter flow and stopping, these results are compared with the predictions of two different QMD versions. The first one (GQMD) offers a fully microscopic calculation of the cross-sections and potential in the G-matrix formalism and naturally includes the in-medium effects. This version is for the first time confronted to experiment. The second one (IQMD) uses a standard Skyrme potential plus a momentum dependent term in order to mimic the in-medium effects. We find that the experimental stopping is overestimated for 30-40% in the models IQMD and GQMD. Concerning the flow, we find that the momentum dependence of the potential in GQMD is somewhat stronger as can be seen for the more peripheral events and fits better the data in this case. On the other hand, the model GQMD clearly lacks of density dependence to reproduce the more central events. (author). 52 refs., 57 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Study of superconductors of the second type in the lead-thallium system; Etude des supraconducteurs de la deuxieme espece du systeme plomb-thallium

    Bon Mardion, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The author has shown by magnetization measurements on lead-thallium alloys having from 5 to 70 atom per cent of thallium, that superconductors of the second type definitively exist. The results obtained, in particular on the upper critical field H{sub C2} are in good agreement with the models of Ginzburg, Landau, Abrikosov, Gorkov and Goodman. Finally resistivity measurements have confirmed the occurrence of a fourth upper critical field, the existence of which has been theoretically predicted by St James and de Gennes. (author) [French] L'auteur par des mesures d'aimantation sur les alliages plomb-thallium, de composition variant de 5 pour cent a 70 pour cent At. de thallium, a montre qu'il fallait admettre definitivement l'existence des supraconducteurs de la deuxieme espece. Les resultats obtenus, en particulier sur le champ critique superieur H{sub c2} sont en bon accord avec les modeles de Ginzburg, Landau, Abrikosov, Gorkov et Goodman. Enfin des mesures de resistivite ont confirme l'existence d'un quatrieme champ critique superieur H{sub c3}, existence prevue theoriquement par St James et de Gennes. (auteur)

  11. Critique of the neoclassical theory of growth and distribution

    Luigi L. Pasinetti

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper surveys the main theories of income distribution in their relationship with the theories of economic growth. First, the Classical approach is considered, focusing on the Ricardian theory. Then the neoclassical theory is discussed, highlighting its origins (Bohm-Bawerk, Wicksell, Clark and the role of the aggregate production function. The emergence of a "Keynesian" theory of income distributionin the wake of Harrod's model of growth is then recalled together with the surprising resurgence of the neoclassical theory (following the contributions of Solow and Meade. But, as the paper shows, the neoclassical theory of income distributionlacks logical consistency and has shaky foundations, as has been revealed by the severecritiques moved to the neoclassical production function. Mainstream economic literature circumvents this problem by simply ignoring it, while the models of endogenous growth exclude the issue of distribution theory from their consideration. However, while mainstream economics bypasses the problems of incomedistribution, this is too relevant an issue to be ignored and a number of new research lines, briefly surveyed, try new approaches to it.

  12. Law in Afghanistan: A Critique of Post-2001 Reconstruction

    Antonio de Lauri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a critical reflection on the efforts at legal reconstruction initiated in 2001 by the international community and the Afghan government. Its aim is to highlight some of the more controversial factors that accompany the implementation of a foreign model of justice inspired by the ideology of the rule of law. Following Operation Enduring Freedom and the consequent arrival of various international agencies on Afghan soil, the international community (led by the United States has attempted to bring political stability and democracy to Afghanistan. This endeavor has evolved into a more extensive, and rather controversial, process of reconstruction, which has called into question the mantra of democratization and modernization used to ideologically justify the US-led coalition control of a pro-Western Afghan government. By introducing a reflection on restorative justice and judicial mediation, I argue that the standardization and global circulation of specific models of justice present a series of problems often hidden behind legalistic interpretations. While in Western countries jurists and legal practitioners promote the industry of ‘alternative dispute resolution’ (ADR and emphasize the recourse to mediation and conciliation, in Afghanistan governments and international agencies implement the rule of law, thus condemning and marginalizing customary practices in the resolution of disputes. Once taken away from the rules of the judicial order, judicial mediation becomes caught in a logic of compromise and deteriorates.

  13. A constructive critique of the three standard systems

    Wilczek, F.

    2004-01-01

    It has become conventional to say that our knowledge of fundamental physical law is summarized in a Standard Model. But this convention lumps together two quite different conceptual structures, and leaves out another. I think it is more accurate and informative to say that our current, working description of fundamental physics is based on three standard conceptual systems. These systems are very different; so different that it is not inappropriate to call them the Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. They concern, respectively, the coupling of vector gauge particles, gravitons, and Higgs particles. It is quite a remarkable fact, in itself, that every nonlinear interaction we need to summarize our present knowledge of the basic (i.e., irreducible) laws of physics involves one or another of these particles. (author)

  14. Global designs, postcolonial critiques: rethinking Canada in dialogue with diaspora

    Diana Brydon

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches the comparative examination of Brazil and Canada in the context of engagements with postcolonial theory obliquely, rather than directly, through reframing the comparison within the contexts posed by Paul Gilroy in The Black Atlantic, and by contemporary globalization theories and indigenous global activism, when considered through a postcolonial lens. Accepting John Tomlinson’s idea (in Globalization and Culture that the “complex connectivities” of globalizing practices and discourses “confound” conventional social science practices, this paper suggests that literary texts that engage these issues may enjoy an advantage in negotiating such complexities. But it also argues that new configurations of diaspora and globalization offer writers and readers the chance to shift literature away from its conventional constructions as both autonomous and transcendent, on the one hand, and nation-affirming, on the other. Through a close comparative reading of Okanagan writer Jeannette Armstrong’s novel, Whispering in Shadows, and Caribbean-Canadian Nalo Hopkinson’s utopian science fiction, Brown Girl in the Ring, I seek to model a postcolonial reading practice attentive to cultural difference and global challenges. Each story addresses colonial legacies and global designs through the reconstruction of a relational autonomy that redefines humanity and community through re-energizing beliefs and practices abandoned under colonial modernity. Each text challenges mainstream models for mapping Canadian identity and its place within the Americas. They work to break the illusion of Western progress that fuels contemporary globalization and to redefine global connectivities from within the perspectives of formerly subjugated knowledge systems and a local ground.

  15. Context of culture: Critique of the primitive mind

    Božilović Nikola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The author of this paper has the intention to reach the new meaning and sense of the primitive mentality by analyzing it in early social communities. He also wants to point out the possible reflections of the spirit and consciousness of our ancestors on us, here and now. The first part of the paper is dedicated to a critical deliberation on anthropological conflicts which have arisen concerning the reasoning power of the so-called primitives. The crucial question lies in the following: Is the difference between the “primitive” and the “civilized” mentality fundamental or is it possible only to a certain degree. The author takes the notion of primitive mentality through time and points to the medieval understandings, which are occupied by teratological themes, then to the renaissance comprehension, which relies on the first experiential observations, and, finally, to the enlightenment ideas of exotic peoples out of which the myth of “the good savage” is born. The nineteenth and twentieth centuries introduce the notions of “people’s character” and “national spirit”. The opinions are polarized, on the one hand of ethnocentrism, carried by the prejudice of people and ethnic groups and, on the other hand, of cultural relativism, based on the understanding and appreciation of cultural differences. In the end, the author also recognizes the modern primitive man, one who is not ready to deal with the challenges of his age. The modern primitive recalls the spirits of the past, the surviving and anachronic models of behavior, unaware of the fact that these are the same models that he has ascribed to “savages”. However, while such thinking and acting was justified by the cultural level at which our ancestors had lived, the mental frame of the contemporary primitives is significantly in contrast with the high level of civilization development.

  16. Un-thought out metaphysics in analytical psychology: a critique of Jung's epistemological basis for psychic reality.

    Brooks, Robin McCoy

    2011-09-01

    The author investigates the relation of Kant, Schopenhauer and Heidegger to Jung's attempts to formulate theory regarding the epistemological conundrum of what can and what cannot be known and what must remain uncertain. Jung's ambivalent use and misuse of Kant's division of the world into phenomenal and noumenal realms is highlighted in discussion of concepts such as the psychoid archetype which he called 'esse in anima' and his use of Schopenhauer's concept of 'will' to justify a transcendence of the psyche/soma divide in a postulation of a 'psychoid' realm. Finally, the author describes Jung's reaction to Heidegger's theories via his assertion that Heidegger's 'pre-given world design' was an alternate formulation of his concept of the archetypes. An underlying theme of the paper is a critique of Jung's foundationalism which perpetuates the myth of an isolated mind. This model of understanding subjectivity is briefly contrasted with Heidegger's 'fundamental ontology' which focuses on a non-Cartesian 'understanding' of the 'presencing of being' in everyday social and historical contexts. © 2011, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  17. Appraisal of alternative skin model for the study of epidermal restoration following exposure to various environmental stress agents: ionising radiation and UV B; Evaluation d'un modele alternatif de peau dans l'etude de l'atteinte epidermique apres exposition a differents agents de stress environnementaux: rayonnements ionisants (RI) et ultra-violets B (UVB)

    Isoir, M

    2006-06-15

    Human skin is a major target tissue for ionising radiation (IR) and UV B. We developed a skin explant model and used 2 types of keratinocytes to study survival and oxidative stress induced by these radiations. We examined oxidative damages by measuring R.O.S. produced and cellular anti-oxidant defenses induced. We observed into skin exposed to IR a modulation of genes expression implied in the control of oxidative stress, confirmed by the decrease of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzymatic activities. The imbalance observed between anti- and pro-apoptotic genes expression shows that keratinocytes apoptosis may be partly dependent on radio-induced R.O.S. production. We showed the difference of radiosensitivity between N.H.E.K. and Ha Ca.T., which may be linked to their differential oxidative responses. In addition, during re-epithelialising, we demonstrated that activated N.H.E.K. after IR express keratin 6, release pro-inflammatory cytokines and proliferate, without modification of their differentiation. Treatment of N.H.E.K. with geranyl geranylacetone (G.G.A.) has a beneficial effect on their radio-induced activation by increasing IL-1 release, their migration in scrapped area and their survival. G.G.A. has an anti apoptotic ability (induction of Hsp70- caspase-3 pathway) and migratory properties (P38/RhoA activation) on N.H.E.K., but after IR, only caspase-3 pathway is induced. This work thus contributes to the understanding of cutaneous damages after IR and G.G.A. mechanism of action which accelerates re-epithelialising. (author)

  18. Appraisal of alternative skin model for the study of epidermal restoration following exposure to various environmental stress agents: ionising radiation and UV B; Evaluation d'un modele alternatif de peau dans l'etude de l'atteinte epidermique apres exposition a differents agents de stress environnementaux: rayonnements ionisants (RI) et ultra-violets B (UVB)

    Isoir, M

    2006-06-15

    Human skin is a major target tissue for ionising radiation (IR) and UV B. We developed a skin explant model and used 2 types of keratinocytes to study survival and oxidative stress induced by these radiations. We examined oxidative damages by measuring R.O.S. produced and cellular anti-oxidant defenses induced. We observed into skin exposed to IR a modulation of genes expression implied in the control of oxidative stress, confirmed by the decrease of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzymatic activities. The imbalance observed between anti- and pro-apoptotic genes expression shows that keratinocytes apoptosis may be partly dependent on radio-induced R.O.S. production. We showed the difference of radiosensitivity between N.H.E.K. and Ha Ca.T., which may be linked to their differential oxidative responses. In addition, during re-epithelialising, we demonstrated that activated N.H.E.K. after IR express keratin 6, release pro-inflammatory cytokines and proliferate, without modification of their differentiation. Treatment of N.H.E.K. with geranyl geranylacetone (G.G.A.) has a beneficial effect on their radio-induced activation by increasing IL-1 release, their migration in scrapped area and their survival. G.G.A. has an anti apoptotic ability (induction of Hsp70- caspase-3 pathway) and migratory properties (P38/RhoA activation) on N.H.E.K., but after IR, only caspase-3 pathway is induced. This work thus contributes to the understanding of cutaneous damages after IR and G.G.A. mechanism of action which accelerates re-epithelialising. (author)

  19. Initiation of detonation by impact on granular explosives; Contribution a l'etude de la generation de la detonation provoquee par impact sur un explosif

    Bernier, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-05-15

    A good number of experiments have shown up the particular behaviour of granular explosives when they are detonated by barrier transmitted shocks. Similar results can be obtained when the shock is induced by impact. In this case the pressure signal shape applied at the explosive is better known and both its intensity and duration can be varied. By using a mathematical model in which the law of chemical kinetics is a linear function of pressure, and different temperatures are used for solids and gases, it is possible to describe most of the behaviour of detonation initiation in solid granular explosives. (author) [French] De nombreuses etudes experimentales ont montre le comportement particulier des explosifs granulaires lors de la detonation provoquee par choc transmis a travers une barriere. Les memes resultats peuvent etre obtenus lorsque la detonation est engendree par impact. Dans ce cas, la forme du signal de pression induit dans l'explosif est mieux connue, et il est possible d'en faire varier l'intensite et la duree d'application. Un modele mathematique utilisant une loi de cinetique chimique fonction lineaire de la pression et ou les temperatures des etats solide et gazeux pendant la reaction sont differenciees, permet de retrouver la plupart des caracteres specifiques de la generation dans un explosif solide granulaire. (auteur)

  20. A guide to critiquing a research paper. Methodological appraisal of a paper on nurses in abortion care.

    Lipp, Allyson; Fothergill, Anne

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we have taken a previously published article on nurses' judgements in abortion care performing a systematic critique of the merits of this research using a recognised critiquing framework. The qualitative paper chosen for the critique is a grounded theory design and the research terms and terminology associated with this method such as symbolic interactionism are defined. The published paper reported on findings from a study exploring the characteristics of nurses in abortion care. A published critiquing tool has been applied. It was chosen because it is pragmatic, clearly laid out and accessible as full text to the people likely to need it. It comprises two stages, the first of which centres on the believability of the research. The second stage is more detailed and examines the research process and establishes the credibility of the research in its application to practice. Develop critical and analytical skills through methodically appraising the merits of published research. Nursing as an evidence-based profession requires nurses at both pre- and post-registration levels to be able to understand, synthesise and critique research, this being a fundamental part of many nursing curricula. These have become core skills to acquire since implementing up to date evidence is the cornerstone of contemporary nursing practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Some ways for the investigation of the solar modulation of cosmic electrons; Moyens d'etude de la modulation solaire des electrons cosmiques

    Mercier, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    In this report, we are investigating the solar modulation of cosmic electrons, in different ways. By comparing the calculated intensity with the measured intensity of positrons, we can evaluate the solar modulation of positrons, hence the modulation of negatons, since the modulation of negatons is probably the same that for positrons. By comparing the electron spectrum in interstellar space needed to explain the galactic background radio emission with that observed near the earth, we can deduce information about the modulation of electrons. We can investigate the modulation through the observation of its variations during the solar cycle. This different ways lead us to compatible results. In spite of the fact that the precision of the experimental data is poor, the modulation can be represented by: a constant or a form in exp(- K/Ro{beta}) under the rigidity Ro {approx_equal} 0,5 BV; a form in exp(- K/R) or exp(- K/R{beta}) above this rigidity. In addition, the investigation of both electrons and protons displays that the diffusion-convection theory is inadequate to explain all the features of the solar modulation. (author) [French] Dans le present rapport, nous etudions la modulation solaire des electrons cosmiques a l'aide de plusieurs methodes. Par comparaison entre l'intensite calculee et l'intensite mesuree des positons, on peut evaluer la modulation solaire des positons, et aussi des negatons, puisque la modulation des negatons est probablement la meme que celle des positons. Par le calcul, a partir du bruit de fond radio, du flux des electrons a l'exterieur du systeme solaire et sa confrontation avec le flux observe a l'orbite de la Terre permet l'etude de la modulation solaire des electrons. On peut aussi analyser ce phenomene de modulation pour l'etude de ses variations au cours du cycle solaire. Ces diverses methodes donnent des resultats compatibles. En depit de la precision mediocre des donnees experimentales, on peut caracteriser la modulation par: une

  2. Evaluating Complex Healthcare Systems: A Critique of Four Approaches

    Heather Boon

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to bring clarity to the emerging conceptual and methodological literature that focuses on understanding and evaluating complex or ‘whole’ systems of healthcare. An international working group reviewed literature from interdisciplinary or interprofessional groups describing approaches to the evaluation of complex systems of healthcare. The following four key approaches were identified: a framework from the MRC (UK, whole systems research, whole medical systems research described by NCCAM (USA and a model from NAFKAM (Norway. Main areas of congruence include acknowledgment of the inherent complexity of many healthcare interventions and the need to find new ways to evaluate these; the need to describe and understand the components of complex interventions in context (as they are actually practiced; the necessity of using mixed methods including randomized clinical trials (RCTs (explanatory and pragmatic and qualitative approaches; the perceived benefits of a multidisciplinary team approach to research; and the understanding that methodological developments in this field can be applied to both complementary and alternative medicine (CAM as well as conventional therapies. In contrast, the approaches differ in the following ways: terminology used, the extent to which the approach attempts to be applicable to both CAM and conventional medical interventions; the prioritization of research questions (in order of what should be done first especially with respect to how the ‘definitive’ RCT fits into the process of assessing complex healthcare systems; and the need for a staged approach. There appears to be a growing international understanding of the need for a new perspective on assessing complex healthcare systems.

  3. Public policies and reproductive technology: a feminist critique.

    Mccormack, T

    1991-01-01

    Reproductive technology comprises abortion, contraception, amniocentesis (more than 40 genetic disorders can be diagnosed), chorionic villus sampling, genetic screening (to reduce the risk of chromosomal defects such as Down syndrome, sickle cell anemia, Tay-Sachs disease, and cystic fibrosis), in vitro fertilization, artificial insemination by spouse or donor, the development of sperm banks, storage of frozen sperm (cryopreservation), the development of artificial wombs, techniques for predetermining the sex of a fetus, and nursery environments to maintain a fetus removed from the womb in the 1st trimester. In recent years, the demand for these services has increased because of higher infertility and the drop in the number of babies available for adoption. Surrogacy is especially controversial: it has become a symbol of the dehumanization of modern life and the exploitation of women. The feminist perspective discloses how patriarchal values about the subordinate status of women, about the nature of motherhood, infertility, and the family are both implicit and explicit in prevailing thinking about reproduction. The new technology offers women who wish to remain unmarried the opportunity to have a family, and it enables lesbian women to bear children. The research literature favors a Eurocentric nuclear family without any awareness that in Canada, and in the Western world, new forms of family life have been evolving as couples marry, divorce, and remarry. There is no awareness either that in other cultures this Eurocentric nuclear model is dysfunctional. Because of the rigid notion of the 2-parent nuclear family, the 3rd parties who are involved in either surrogate relationships or artificial insemination are deprecated. The feminist literature is more critical of the nuclear family, but it has been sometimes inconsistent on the relevant issues.

  4. Les origines de la critique de science-fiction : de Kepler à Wells

    Arthur B. Evans

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Des notes de 1634 de Johannes Kepler sur son Songe aux essais d’H. G. Wells au début du xxe siècle, il y a eu de nombreuses explorations critiques de la littérature que nous appelons à présent science-fiction. Les commentaires de ces premiers critiques (souvent oubliés importent principalement parce qu’ils exprimaient nombre des inquiétudes (sinon toutes qui deviendraient plus tard centrales à la critique de la SF du xxe siècle : l’impact de la science et de la technologie sur les valeurs humaines, la logistique du voyage spatial, les frontières fluctuantes entre le réel et l’imaginaire, la description de l’« altérité » radicale, et les futurs possibles de notre monde. Bien plus, elles soulevaient invariablement des questions essentielles concernant les traits définitoires du genre lui-même dans sa forme en constante évolution : ses thèmes de prédilection, ses visées sociales, son didactisme scientifique et moral, son degré de vraisemblance constitutif, et sa place dans le canon littéraire occidental. Enfin, à l’aube du nouveau millénaire, il semble pertinent de regarder notre passé lointain pour redécouvrir ce que ces premiers commentateurs avaient à dire des nombreux ouvrages de science-fiction de leur époque : ceci sert à approfondir notre connaissance de la continuité historique du débat actuel sur la SF et à nous faire prendre conscience de la façon dont les choses ont à la fois beaucoup et peu changé à travers les siècles.

  5. Global designs, postcolonial critiques: rethinking Canada in dialogue with diaspora Global designs, postcolonial critiques: rethinking Canada in dialogue with diaspora

    Diana Brydon

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches the comparative examination of Brazil and Canada in the context of engagements with postcolonial theory obliquely, rather than directly, through reframing the comparison within the contexts posed by Paul Gilroy in The Black Atlantic, and by contemporary globalization theories and indigenous global activism, when considered through a postcolonial lens. Accepting John Tomlinson’s idea (in Globalization and Culture that the “complex connectivities” of globalizing practices and discourses “confound” conventional social science practices, this paper suggests that literary texts that engage these issues may enjoy an advantage in negotiating such complexities. But it also argues that new configurations of diaspora and globalization offer writers and readers the chance to shift literature away from its conventional constructions as both autonomous and transcendent, on the one hand, and nation-affirming, on the other. Through a close comparative reading of Okanagan writer Jeannette Armstrong’s novel, Whispering in Shadows, and Caribbean-Canadian Nalo Hopkinson’s utopian science fiction, Brown Girl in the Ring, I seek to model a postcolonial reading practice attentive to cultural difference and global challenges. Each story addresses colonial legacies and global designs through the reconstruction of a relational autonomy that redefines humanity and community through re-energizing beliefs and practices abandoned under colonial modernity. Each text challenges mainstream models for mapping Canadian identity and its place within the Americas. They work to break the illusion of Western progress that fuels contemporary globalization and to redefine global connectivities from within the perspectives of formerly subjugated knowledge systems and a local ground. This paper approaches the comparative examination of Brazil and Canada in the context of engagements with postcolonial theory obliquely, rather than directly, through

  6. On the 209Po half-life error and its confirmation. A critique

    Colle, R.; Colle, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    A recent report on 209 Po claimed to have made a determination of the 125-a half-life from measurements made over 0.8 % of one half-life. A careful reanalysis of the original data with a more complete and rigorous consideration of the underlying uncertainties demonstrates that this claim cannot withstand critical scrutiny. More importantly, this critique examines the larger issue as to what constitutes a valid half-life determination, and highlights that a careful and realistic analysis beyond the mere fitting of decay data to an exponential function is required for the measurement and reporting of half-life values. (author)

  7. Physiatrie and German maternal feminism: Dr. Anna Fischer-Dückelmann critiques academic medicine.

    Meyer, Paulette

    2006-01-01

    Alternative medicine and reform strategies made Anna Fischer-Dückelmann a most controversial, notorious, and widely read women doctor before World War I. She published a dozen titles in 13 languages asserting that national well-being depended on maternal prowess. To her critics, Fischer-Dückelmann's commitment to medical self-help and practices of Physiatrie amounted to medical quackery. Her career has been largely unexamined, yet her feminist critiques and social concerns are not far removed from modern social medicine. For this pioneering doctor, treating physical and emotional ills and promoting the health of families were first steps toward healing the divisions of a world at war.

  8. The Economic Rationality of "Doing Good to Do Well" and Three Critiques, 1990 to the Present

    Christiansen, Christian O.

    2017-01-01

    of justification and excitement for participants in the capitalist market system, and as it provides answers to critiques increasingly directed against global capitalism since the 1990s. I propose to subsume these tendencies under the heading of ‘civic capitalism’, as the central idea is that corporations can...... inquiry into the relationship between the rhetoric of corporations and their practice, asking whether corporations actually ‘practice what they preach’. Second, an ‘ethical check’: critics can ask which kinds of ethics are typically assumed in mainstream CSR or e.g. corporate philanthropy. From...

  9. The Egyptian Islamic Group’s Critique of Al-Qaeda’s Interpretation of Jihad

    Paul Kamolnick

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A specific branch of Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh al-jihad regulates the waging of the jihad of the sword (jihad bis saif. In this article, a detailed exposition is presented of the Egyptian Islamic Group’s (IG; Al-Gama’a Al-Islamiyya use of fiqh al jihad against Al-Qaeda. The present author’s ‘jihad-realist’ approach is first briefly described; the IG’s critique of AQ systematically outlined; and in conclusion, implications are derived for counter-radicalisation strategies.

  10. Wittgenstein’s Critique of Frazer and Realism/Anti-realism Concerning Religion

    Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the impact the reception of Wittgenstein’s works has had on philosophy of religion and the study of religion. Wittgenstein’s critique of Frazer has inspired the current fundamental dichotomy between two views on religious belief: a cognitivist, realist interpretation...... and an expressivist, anti-realist interpretation. Wittgenstein’s account provides an interpretation of religious language that makes sense of existential and non-literal meaning of religious practices and cognitive content, and his account has become a stepping stone for a tradition in philosophy of religion...

  11. Conceptual Divergence - Canons and Taboos - and Critique

    Høyrup, Jens

    2004-01-01

    of notational imperfection versus conceptual divergence is none the less too simplistic, since differences may also be due to deliberate choices and exclusions on the part of the authors of the ancient texts—for instance because such a choice helps to fence off a profession, because it expresses appurtenance...... to a real or imagined tradition, or as a result of a critique in the Kantian sense, an elimination of expressions and forms of reasoning that are found theoretically incoherent. The argument is based throughout on historical examples....

  12. Towards a Benjaminian Critique of Hermann Cohen’s Logical Idealism

    Homburg, Phillip

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to examine the relationship between Walter Benjamin and neo-Kantianism, particularly Herman Cohen’s logical idealism. I divide the article into two major sections: first, I examine the development of Cohen’s philosophy and its relationship to Hermann von Helmholtz and Friedrich Albert Lange’s early neo-Kantianism; second, I examine Benjamin’s critique of Cohen. I focus specifically on two of Benjamin’s early philosophical works — the fragment “On Perception” and the text “On...

  13. The relevance and impact of Ethical Consciousness on Environmental Management in Zambia: A philosophical critique

    Mweshi, John

    2004-01-01

    This dissertation is informed by the need for adequate ethical consciousness in view of the perceived need for public responsibility, cooperation and participation in ensuring sound environmental management. It investigates and critiques the extent to which an adequate range of ethical principles has been incorporated in Zambia's attempts to address environmental issues.The investigation focused on the role of government policy, education system and the mass media in promoting responsible environmental management and practices by raising environmental ethical consciousness. The study confirmed the preponderance of economic utilitarianism with regard to environmental issues. (author)

  14. A reassessment of the Hypoglossum group (Delesseriaceae, Rhodophyta), with a critique of its genera

    Wynne, M. J.

    1988-09-01

    A reassessment of the Hypoglossum group (Delesseriaceae, Rhodophyta), with a critique of its genera. Eight genera are assigned to the Hypoglossum Kützing, Phitymophora J. Agardh, Pseudobranchioglossum Bodard, and Zellera Martens. The circumscription of the group is emended to include forms with network-forming ( Zellera) an dspirally twisted ( Duckerella) thalli. The definition of the group is lalso modified to include members (e.g. some species of Hypoglossum) in which tetrasporangia are produced by primary cells as in the Caloglossa group. Exogenous branching, a distinguishing feature of the closely related Caloglossa group, never occurs in the Hypoglossum group.

  15. Ethos and Critique: a Contribution to Ethics in Research and Education

    Christensen, Gerd

    The aim of this paper is to discuss Michel Foucault’s concept of ethos and the possibilities and limitations of this position. In addition, I will argue that Foucault’s insistently critical stance and power/knowledge concept can be considered as an ethical stance different from both deontology...... as well as to supervise the students in group dynamics and not just – as it is currently done – in the academic skills and content matters. Thus, it points at the ethical qualities of the critical work of Foucault: that critique is an appeal to be constantly aware of what we are doing, and that what we...

  16. Generalities on the dynamic behaviour of rapid reactors. Preliminary studies on Rapsodie; Generalites sur le comportement dynamique des piles rapides. Etudes preliminaires de rapsodie

    Campan, J L; Chaumont, J P; Clauzon, P P; Ghesquiere, G; Leduc, J; Schmitt, A P; Zaleski, C P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The study of the dynamic behaviour of fast reactors may be divided into three section: 1. Stability studies around equilibrium power only the linear case was examining. S. Transient studies in the case of usual reactor operation (shut down, scram, etc.) with thermal shocks evaluation, for instance. 3. Explosion studies, for the maximum credible accidents. This report presents the status of the studies performed at the 'Physics Research Department' at Cadarache. Methods used are detailed and illustrated with the results obtained on a preliminary metallic core of the Rapsodie Reactor. (authors) [French] Le comportement dynamique des piles rapides, se presente tout naturellement sous trois aspects: 1. Etude de stabilite autour d'un regime d'equilibre (nous nous sommes bornes ici au cas lineaire). 2. Etude de regimes transitoires lors des operations normales de pile (arret, arret d'urgence, etc.) avec evaluation des chocs thermiques par exemple. 3. Etude des regimes transitoires de caractere explosif lors des accidents les plus graves possibles. Ce rapport presente l'etat des etudes a la date du 20 decembre 1961 a la Section d'Etudes de Piles Rapides a CADARACHE. Les methodes employees ont ete detaillees et illustrees a partir des resultats obtenus sur une premiere version 'combustible metallique' de Rapsodie. (auteurs)

  17. Etude cinétique de la dégradation de l'Endosufane en solution ...

    Etude cinétique de la dégradation de l'Endosufane en solution. S Traore, K Mamadou, A Dembele, V Yao, Y Bekro, P Mazellier, B Legube, P Houenou. Abstract. Les pesticides sont fréquemment utilisés en Côte d'Ivoire. Leur détection dans les eaux de forage témoigne de leur mauvais usage et d'un grave problème ...

  18. Experimental study of an ion cyclotron instability in a magnetic well confined plasma; Etude experimentale d'une instabilite cyclotronique ionique dans un plasma confine dans un puits magnetique

    Brossier, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    This report is a contribution to the study of microinstabilities in macroscopically stable plasmas, in the low-{beta} limit. Ion cyclotron instabilities, with k{sub ||} = 0, have been numerically studied in detail; the computation of the density thresholds and growth rates of the different harmonics showed the relative role played by the following energy sources: density gradient, perpendicular distribution function and cold plasma component. This theoretical model has been compared with the results of a detailed study (density thresholds, wave structure, frequency spectrum, wavelengths, growth rate, amplitude of the electric field) of the instability observed in the DECA II device. This comparison gave a good agreement which shows the destabilising role played by the cold plasma component on a hot plasma with a loss cone distribution function. (author) [French] Ce rapport est une contribution a l'etude des microinstabilites dans les plasmas macroscopiquement stables, dans la limite des {beta} << 1. Les instabilites cyclotroniques ioniques, a k{sub ||} = 0, ont ete etudiees numeriquement en detail; le calcul des seuils de densite et taux de croissance des differents harmoniques a permis de preciser l'importance relative des facteurs destabilisants suivants: gradient de densite, fonction de distribution perpendiculaire, presence de plasma froid. Ce modele theorique a ete confronte avec les resultats d'une etude detaillee (seuils de densite, structure de l'onde, spectres de frequence, longueurs d'onde, taux de croissance, amplitude du champ electrique) de l'instabilite observee dans l'experience DECA II, Cette confrontation aboutit a un accord satisfaisant qui montre le role destabilisant joue par le plasma froid sur un plasma chaud presentant une distribution de cone de pertes. (auteur)

  19. Study of the tributyl phosphate - 30% dodecane solvent; Etude du solvant phosphate tributylique - 30 % dodecane

    Leroy, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses. Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, 92 (France)

    1967-07-01

    This study, originating mainly from a literature survey, gives the principal chemical and physical features of the tributyl-phosphate (TBP) agent diluted at 30 volumes per cent in dodecane. The mixture is a very commonly used extractant in nuclear fuel processing. In this paper, the main following points are reported: -) the components (TBP and diluents) -) the TBP-diluents systems (non-loaded), -) the TBP-diluents-water systems, -) TBP-diluents-water-nitric acid systems, and -) industrial solvents. (author) [French] Cette etude, d'origine bibliographique, regroupe les caracteristiques physico-chimiques essentielles du phosphate tributylique (TBP) dilue a 30% en volume dans du dodecane. Ce melange constitue un agent d'extraction tres utilise dans le traitement des combustibles nucleaires. Les principaux points traites sont les suivants: -) les constituants (TBP et diluants), -) les systemes TBP-diluants non charges, -) les systemes TBP-diluants-eau, -) les systemes TBP-diluants-eau-acide nitrique, et -) les solvants industriels. (auteur)

  20. An economic study of the site of Marcoule; Etude economique du site de Marcoule

    Duprat, H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The study of this site of the Marcoule Center shows that its regional economical influence is limited to the buying power distributed among its personnel. This entails distortions between first this supplementary buying power and the overall markets within the possible Marcoule influence zone, and secondly the concentration on Bagnols-sur-Ceze and this town's normal extension possibilities. (author) [French] L'etude du site de Marcoule demontre que son influence economique se limite, pour la region, au pouvoir d'achat distribue a son personnel. Ceci entraine une disproportion d'une part entre ce pouvoir d'achat supplementaire et l'ensemble des marches contenus dans l'aire d'influence possible de Marcoule, d'autre part entre la concentration realisee a Bagnole-sur-Ceze et la capacite d'extension normale de cette agglomeration. (auteur)

  1. Neutronic study of the two french heavy water reactors; Etude neutronique des deux piles francaises a eau lourde

    Horowitz, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The two french reactors - the reactor of Chatillon, named Zoe, and the reactor of Saclay - P2 - were the object of detailed neutronic studies which the main ideas are exposed in this report. These studies were mostly done by the Department of the Reactor Studies (D.E.P.). We have thus studied the distribution of neutronic fluxes; the factors influencing reactivity; the link between reactivity and divergence with the formula of Nordheim; the mean time life of neutrons; neutron spectra s of P2; the xenon effect; or the effect of the different adjustments of the plates and controls bar. (M.B.) [French] Les deux reacteurs francais - la pile de Chatillon, appelee ZOE, et la pile de Saclay, designee dans la suite par P2 - ont fait l'objet d'etudes neutroniques detaillees dont les principales sont exposees dans ce rapport. Ces etudes ont ete pour la plupart effectuees dans le cadre du Departement des Etudes de Piles (D.E.P.). Nous avons ainsi entre autre etudie la distribution du flux neutronique; les facteurs influencants la reactivite; le lien entre reactivite et divergence par la formule de Nordheim; le temps de vie moyen des neutrons; les spectres de neutrons de P2; l'effet xenon; ou encore l'effet des differents reglages des plaques et barres de controles. (M.B.)

  2. Smoking Trajectories during the Perinatal Period and Their Risk Factors: The Nationally Representative French ELFE (Etude Longitudinale Française Depuis l'Enfance) Birth Cohort Study.

    El-Khoury, Fabienne; Sutter-Dallay, Anne-Laure; Van Der Waerden, Judith; Surkan, Pamela; Martins, Silvia; Keyes, Katherine; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Charles, Marie-Aline; Melchior, Maria

    2017-01-01

    In France, rates of perinatal smoking are among the highest worldwide; however, perinatal smoking trajectories and associated factors have still not been adequately researched. Among women participating in the French nationally representative etude longitudinale française depuis l'enfance birth cohort (n = 15,540), perinatal smoking trajectories were estimated using group-based modelling. Associated characteristics were studied using multinomial logistic regression. Four trajectories were identified: non-smokers (59%), quitters (20%), persistent moderate (12%) and persistent heavy (9%) smokers. Older age, being native French, low socioeconomic position, persistent psychological difficulties and alcohol use in pregnancy, lack of social support, partner's smoking, mistimed pregnancy, and child formula feeding at birth were associated with persistent heavy smoking. Most of these factors were also associated, but to a lesser extent, with persistent moderate smoking, except for age and migrant status, which had opposite effects. Women who successfully lost weight prior to pregnancy had higher levels of quitting smoking. Women's long-term smoking trajectories vary in terms of initial tobacco consumption level but also in relation to socio-demographic, psychological, behavioral and partner characteristics. Health professionals in contact with pregnant smokers should address perceived risks and benefits of smoking, including partner's smoking and weight-gain concerns. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Development of a method for studying non-linear phenomena in plasma; Mise au point d'une methode d'etude des phenomenes non lineaires dans un plasma

    Gonfalone, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-03-01

    gaz d'electrons est a la base des meilleures methodes de mesure des frequences de collisions electroniques dans l'ionosphere. Dans les plasmas de laboratoire l'apparition de ces phenomenes est liee a un champ critique de valeur elevee. Tout en n'utilisant qu'une source electromagnetique de puissance relativement faible, nous avons mis au point une methode hyperfrequence simple qui permet de mettre ces phenomenes en evidence, de les mesurer et d'en donner une interpretation elementaire. Une onde electromagnetique, fournie par un klystron de 1 W de puissance, interagit avec une decharge HF (25 MHz) dans le volume d'une cavite TE{sub 111}. Le tube contenant la decharge et l'axe de la cavite cylindrique sont colineaires a un champ magnetique pouvant atteindre une valeur telle que la frequence de l'onde soit egale a la frequence gyromagnetique des electrons. La courbe de resonance de la cavite, qui depend de la densite electronique et de la frequence des collisions, devient d'autant plus dissymetrique que la puissance absorbee est grande et que la frequence gyromagnetique des electrons est voisine de la frequence de l'onde incidente. L'etude de la resonance permet de calculer les coefficients de proportionnalite qui relient les variations de la densite et de la frequence de collisions a la puissance absorbee. Les experiences ont ete faites en faisant varier separement: la puissance UHF incidente, la densite electronique initiale, la pression du gaz neutre ambiant, ainsi que le champ magnetique axial. La variation de la densite electronique en fonction du champ magnetique pour une puissance UHF forte, montre une resonance de forme dissymetrique avec quelquefois un pic aigu, au voisinage de {omega}{sub H}. L'application eventuelle des proprietes mises en evidence a la realisation de dispositifs pratiques est envisagee. (auteur)

  4. Was epicurus a buddhist? An examination and critique of the theories of negative happiness in buddha and epicurus

    Adam Barkman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2008v7n2p286Comparisons betw western philosophies are uncommon and this, among other things, hinders global philosophical discourse. Thus, in this essay I want to compare the philosophies of the Buddha and Epicurus for similarities, particular in regard to what I call "negative happiness." Once I have establish this, I want to give a brief critique of negative happiness, which subsequently amounts to a selective critique of Buddhism and Epicureanism.

  5. MARTIN HEIDEGGER’S BLACK NOTEBOOKS AND POLITICAL ECONOMY OF CONTEMPORARY PHILOSOPHICAL CRITIQUE

    A. O. Karpenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to determine the key strategies of philosophical criticism of Heidegger’s Black Notebooks, whose achievement is realized in the following tasks: 1 to identify the body of texts that represent the discourse of philosophical criticism of Heidegger notes; 2 to reveal the typological features of the different strategies of interpreting Black Notebooks; 3 to reconstruct a thematic horizon of Heidegger studies, opened up by discussion on published notes. The methodology combines elements of discourse analysis with traditional methods of historical and philosophical criticism. Scientific novelty is expressed in the following: 1 philosophical discourse of the Notebooks’ reception includes texts of narrowly specialized character (Gatherings collection of articles, as well as reflections of key philosophers (A. Badiou, J.-L. Nancy 2 basic strategies in philosophical critique of Black Notebooks convey the overall structure of the discourse of interpretation of Heidegger’s legacy, distributed between apologetics and ideological criticism; 3 Black Notebooks have exacerbated the problem of architectonics of Gesammtausgabe and formed the textual basis for the study of "silence" period in philosophical life of Heidegger. Conclusions. The discourse of philosophical critique of Heidegger’s notes proves evidence for ideological charge of philosophizing and justifies socially oriented approaches of historical and philosophical studies examining philosophizing as a special cultural practice, not as a form of sublime creativity.

  6. The precarity of critique: Cultures of mistrust and the refusal of justification

    Witte Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reflects on recent developments towards authoritarianism and right-wing populism that have become apparent in a number of Western societies and aims at pinpointing possible cultural foundations for this trend. Using the example of the German PEGIDA movement and the wider milieu in which it is embedded, it identifies and describes a rapidly spreading culture of mistrust and discusses some of its political and epistemological implications. In a second step, the paper draws on Luc Boltanski’s theory of justification in order to attain a better understanding of this political movement’s specificities. It is argued that it is a quasi-violent refusal of justification which is constitutive for the movement in question, thereby transcending the reach of Boltanski’s framework to some extent. In a third step, a closer look is taken at the epistemological paradox that results from the fact that a number of the PEGIDA movement’s crucial points of criticism are effectively shared by a larger part of the overall population, raising severe problems for the question of sociological critique. The paper utilizes ideas by Bruno Latour in order to illuminate this paradox further and examine its consequences. It closes with remarks on the possibility to “reassemble” trust and critique as crucial but contested - and, hence, precarious - foundations of modern society.

  7. Critique Matters

    Holck, Lotte; Muhr, Sara Louise

    to cross-cultural training offered to Danish officers on a pre-departure course as well as at a leadership seminar for the top-management team in Greenland Police. The paper demonstrates how critical-affirmative interventions of tempered radicalism might instigate small scale practitioner-relevant changes......Concerned with tackling central issues within organizational diversity such as power inequality, managerial control and domination, critical diversity research has a potential for real, substantive changes. Yet this potential is by and large untapped, as critical diversity researcher have...... a tradition for passive methods with the researcher standing on the ‘outside’ pointing to problematic organizational practices. Echoing Lewin’s (1946) assentation that ‘to understand a system, you have to try and change it’, this paper explores how intervention-based research can be a way to conduct...

  8. Etudes optiques de nouveaux materiaux laser: Des orthosilicates dopes a l'ytterbium: Le yttrium (lutetium,scandium) pentoxide de silicium

    Denoyer, Aurelie

    La decouverte et l'elaboration de nouveaux materiaux laser solides suscitent beaucoup d'interet parmi la communaute scientifique. En particulier les lasers dans la gamme de frequence du micron debouchent sur beaucoup d'applications, en telecommunication, en medecine, dans le domaine militaire, pour la, decoupe des metaux (lasers de puissance), en optique non lineaire (doublage de frequence, bistabilite optique). Le plus couramment utilise actuellement est le Nd:YAG dans cette famille de laser, mais des remplacants plus performants sont toujours recherches. Les lasers a base d'Yb3+ possedent beaucoup d'avantages compares aux lasers Nd3+ du fait de leur structure electronique simple et de leur deterioration moins rapide. Parmi les matrices cristallines pouvant accueillir l'ytterbium, les orthosilicates Yb:Y 2SiO5, Yb:Lu2SiO5 et Yb:Sc2SiO 5 se positionnent tres bien, du fait de leur bonne conductivite thermique et du fort eclatement de leur champ cristallin necessaire a l'elaboration de lasers quasi-3 niveaux. De plus l'etude fine et systematique des proprietes microscopiques de nouveaux materiaux s'avere toujours tres interessante du point de vue de la recherche fondamentale, c'est ainsi que de nouveaux modeles sont concus (par exemple pour le champ cristallin) ou que de nouvelles proprietes inhabituelles sont decouvertes, menant a de nouvelles applications. Ainsi d'autres materiaux dopes a l'ytterbium sont connus pour leurs proprietes de couplage electron-phonon, de couplage magnetique, d'emission cooperative ou encore de bistabilite optique, mais ces proprietes n'ont encore jamais ete mises en evidence dans Yb:Y 2SiO5, Yb:Lu2SiO5 et Yb:Sc2SiO 5. Ainsi, cette these a pour but l'etude des proprietes optiques et des interactions microscopiques dans Yb:Y2SiO 5, Yb:Lu2SiO5 et Yb:Sc2SiO5. Nous utilisons principalement les techniques d'absorption IR et de spectroscopie Raman pour determiner les excitations du champ cristallin et les modes de vibration dans le materiau

  9. "Bildung" and the Historical and Genealogical Critique of Contemporary Culture: Wilhelm von Humboldt's Neo-Humanistic Theory of "Bildung" and Nietzsche's Critique of Neo-Humanistic Ideas in Classical Philology and Education

    Zelic, Tomislav

    2018-01-01

    To answer the question as to the relation of the idea of "Bildung" and the historical and genealogical critique of contemporary culture, this article takes a detour through nineteenth-century German thought to recall the primary ideas, institutions, and processes such as the university, knowledge/scholarship ("Wissenschaft"),…

  10. La théorie du 0 %. Petite étude critique de la critique en bande dessinée

    Jean-Philippe Martin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Si la naissance de la bande dessinée s’accompagne d’une théorisation à travers les travaux d’un Töpffer cherchant à circonscrire l'ensemble des possibles qui s'offrent à lui, force est de constater que la veine va bien vite se tarir. Rapidement exclue du champ critique, la bande dessinée semble ne bénéficier d'aucune analyse sérieuse qui soit de nature à lui forger des repères. L'Histoire montre que c'est de manière empirique qu'elle a travaillé sa substance, parfois avec génie (McCay, Hergé… souvent sans âme, à l’exception de quelques tentatives que le présent article entend présenter.If the birth of comic strips is accompanied by a theorical effort through the work of a Töpffer seeking to circumscribe all possible available to them, it is clear that the vein will soon dry up. Quickly removed from the critical field, the comic seems to benefit from any serious analysis that could help authors and readers in their practises. Through History, Comics has worked empirically it its substance, sometimes with genius (McCay, Hergé ... often soulless, with the exception of some attempts that this article intends to present.

  11. الأسس النظرية لنقد النقد Theoretical foundations to critique criticism

    Rasheed Haroon رشيد هارون

    2012-06-01

    features and reveals factors appearances and incentives "(. This means that the status of criticism Monetary still need the efforts of scholars to Taeselha, projecting on a solid scientific basis. And there are those who go to the "writings in the areas of cash cash on plentiful and diverse, has remained until now orbiting literary criticism, and respond to allegations of theoretical and applied, and did not play, making them the theory of independent literary criticism and in spite of the The presence of a large number of studies and articles that have exercised criticism cash and put the term (Cash Money in Anoanadtha, or referred to in the content "(by. And of those books and studies include: (critique and critics Contemporaries (. (Mohamed Mandour Arabian Monetary and laparoscopy (. (Monetary criticism, novel learning (a. (Contribution in literary criticism (. (Arabian Monetary problematic new (. (critique criticism and contemporary Arabian Monetary arthroscopy (. (New Arab literary criticism in the story and the novel and narrative (. (Mirror المتخالف, cash approaches in contemporary Arab thought (. (Analysis of literary discourse on (sic light modernist critique criticism, study in the criticism of criticism (. (Technical standards in the criticism of modern criticism (. (critique criticism in the Arab heritage book ideals stepper in literature writer and poet model (. And university theses and dissertations that addressed the subject of critique criticism recall: (Abdul-Jabbar Abbas as critic (. (Stubbornness Ghazwan as critic (. (Jalal Khayat as critic (. (Fadhil Thamer ascritic (a. (The language of modern criticism in Iraq, the second half of the twentieth century (.

  12. Impact of entrainment and impingement on fish populations in the Hudson River Estuary. Volume II. Impingement impact analyses, evaluations of alternative screening devices, and critiques of utility testimony relating to density-dependent growth, the age-composition of the striped bass spawning stock, and the LMS real-time life cycle model

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Van Winkle, W.; Golumbek, J.; Cada, G.F.; Goodyear, C.P.; Christensen, S.W.; Cannon, J.B.; Lee, D.W.

    1982-04-01

    This volume includes a series of four exhibits relating to impacts of impingement on fish populations, together with a collection of critical evaluations of testimony prepared for the utilities by their consultants. The first exhibit is a quantitative evaluation of four sources of bias (collection efficiency, reimpingement, impingement on inoperative screens, and impingement survival) affecting estimates of the number of fish killed at Hudson River power plants. The two following exhibits contain, respectively, a detailed assessment of the impact of impingement on the Hudson River white perch population and estimates of conditional impingement mortality rates for seven Hudson River fish populations. The fourth exhibit is an evaluation of the engineering feasibility and potential biological effectiveness of several types of modified intake structures proposed as alternatives to cooling towers for reducing impingement impacts. The remainder of Volume II consists of critical evaluations of the utilities' empirical evidence for the existence of density-dependent growth in young-of-the-year striped bass and white perch, of their estimate of the age-composition of the striped bass spawning stock in the Hudson River, and of their use of the Lawler, Matusky, and Skelly (LMS) Real-Time Life Cycle Model to estimate the impact of entrainment and impingement on the Hudson River striped bass population

  13. Physical and numerical modelling of corium spreading with solidification in safety studies of pressurized water reactors; Modelisation physique et numerique de l`etalement d`un fluide avec solidification dans le cadre des etudes de surete pour les reacteurs eau sous pression

    Eberle Patrick [Service d`Etude et de Modelisation en Thermohydrolique, CEA/DRN/DTP/SMTH, Grenoble (France)]|[Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 Annecy (France)

    1997-12-12

    In the frame of severe accidents of nuclear pressurized water reactor, it is important to understand and to model phenomena of corium spreading with solidification. The first part of the study describes experiments with simulating materials as well as simple models of the literature. We deduce a model where the equations of conservation are averaged over the volume. This model gives interesting results for continuous spreading but it is not convenient for discontinuous phenomena. A more precise model is then necessary. In the second part of this study, we present a complete model from which the basic idea is to average the conservation equations over the fluid height, supposing the characteristic fluid thickness is small in comparison with the characteristic spreading length. This model describes the thermalhydraulic aspects of the spreading as well as the mechanical behaviour of the upper crust. The liquid phases are supposed to be stratified and have a Newtonian fluid behaviour. The dynamical crust model takes into account a non-linear behaviour law. This law depends on the deformation tensor whereas the liquid behaviour low, depends on the rate of deformation tensor, so it is necessary to link this two notions by supplementary equations. The operation of averaging the equations gives terms at the interfaces which must be determined by constitutive laws. We deduce laws by fixing the velocity and temperature profile in the fluid height. The previous system of equations is discretized by finite volumes and semi-implicit methods. The discretized models are included in the specific code THEMA. The results of the model show good agreement with available experimental results. (author) 9 refs., 45 figs., 42 tabs.

  14. Contribution to thermodynamics and kinetics of argon, krypton and xenon at very low temperatures; Contribution a l'etude thermodynamique et cinetique de l'argon, du krypton et du xenon aux tres basses temperatures

    Levenson, L L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    A critical analysis of the main theories of condensation, which are due to Zwanzig, Cabrera, Mc Caroll and Ehrlich, Wanlass, Armand, and Yu and Soo, is made. A condensation coefficient equal to unity is expected from these theories, except Armand and Yu and Soo, when the temperature of the gas impinging on its own solid phase is equal or less than 300 K. Using a resonating quartz microbalance the sensitivity of which is 10{sup -9} g. cm{sup 2} the experimental data agree with these theories when the temperature of the solid is less than 20 K. However the agreement must be interpreted for the more sophisticated theories of Armand and Yu and Soo. Regarding the sublimation of the rare gases one is faced with the theories of Salter, Eyring, Goodman and Armand. Within an order of magnitude the experimental data given here agree with the expected values. Moreover Armand theory is able to give the physical meaning of the observed results for argon sublimation from a krypton or a xenon crystalline substrate: localized modes of surface vibration occur. The relaxation time for the thermalization of the argon deposit is found greater than twelve hours at 25 K. (author) [French] Ce travail inclut l'etude critique des principales theories de la condensation dues a Zwanzig, Cabrera, Mc Caroll et Ehrlich, Wanlass, Armand, et Yu et Soo. Ces theories, sauf les deux dernieres, prevoient un coefficient de condensation egal a 1 lorsque le gaz incident sur son propre solide a une temperature inferieure ou egale a 300 K. Les mesures effectuees a l'aide d'une microbalance a quarz resonnant sensible a 10{sup -9} g. cm{sup 2} ont confirme ces theories dans le cas ou la temperature du solide est inferieure a 20 K. Cet accord doit cependant etre interprete pour les theories plus completes d'Armand d'une part, Yu et Soo d'autre part. Pour la sublimation des gaz rares on se trouve en presence des theories de Salter, Eyring, Goodman et Armand. Leurs previsions sont en accord, a un ordre de

  15. A study of internal contamination levels resulting from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs environmental pollution. The influence of different factors; Etude des niveaux de contamination interne resultant d'une pollution de l'environnement par le {sup 90}Sr et le {sup 137}Cs influence des differents parametres

    Garnier, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    This study includes two parts. The purpose of the former one is to try and evaluate the amounts of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs dietary intakes as a function of age with a view to assessing internal exposure doses and estimating the critical age, and to study the relative significance of the several factors it depends on. The data used are both the results of dietary surveys made in 11 districts of the European community from which the evolution of the consumed amounts of 13 groups of foodstuffs, as a function of age was derived, and the mean factors of contamination pathways. The variability of some factors is very large and an attempt is made to assess their significance on the whole contamination; also, the influence of the various diets has been emphasized. The purpose of the second part is to assess, doses as a function of age in the case of protracted exposure on the basis of the aforesaid results and radiobiological factors derived from bibliographic states of the arts. An assessment is made of body burdens and mean doses (either to the skeleton or the whole body according to the radionuclides) originating either from a direct unitary exposure or from situations implying both modes of exposure. As assumed only the diets vary with the districts, thus the results reflect their significance which should be corrected, for a more accurate assessment of the dose variability, by the significance of human and transfer factors. (author) [French] Cette etude comprend deux parties. L'objet de la premiere partie est a la fois un essai d'evaluation en fonction de l'age des quantites de strontium 90 et de cesium 137 ingerees avec les aliments dans la perspective d'une application a l'estimation des doses d'irradiation interne et a la recherche de l'age critique, et une etude de l'influence relative des divers parametres dont elle depend. Les donnees utilisees sont, d'une part, les resultats des enquetes alimentaires faites en onze regions de la Communaute Europeenne dont on

  16. A study of internal contamination levels resulting from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs environmental pollution. The influence of different factors; Etude des niveaux de contamination interne resultant d'une pollution de l'environnement par le {sup 90}Sr et le {sup 137}Cs influence des differents parametres

    Garnier, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    This study includes two parts. The purpose of the former one is to try and evaluate the amounts of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs dietary intakes as a function of age with a view to assessing internal exposure doses and estimating the critical age, and to study the relative significance of the several factors it depends on. The data used are both the results of dietary surveys made in 11 districts of the European community from which the evolution of the consumed amounts of 13 groups of foodstuffs, as a function of age was derived, and the mean factors of contamination pathways. The variability of some factors is very large and an attempt is made to assess their significance on the whole contamination; also, the influence of the various diets has been emphasized. The purpose of the second part is to assess, doses as a function of age in the case of protracted exposure on the basis of the aforesaid results and radiobiological factors derived from bibliographic states of the arts. An assessment is made of body burdens and mean doses (either to the skeleton or the whole body according to the radionuclides) originating either from a direct unitary exposure or from situations implying both modes of exposure. As assumed only the diets vary with the districts, thus the results reflect their significance which should be corrected, for a more accurate assessment of the dose variability, by the significance of human and transfer factors. (author) [French] Cette etude comprend deux parties. L'objet de la premiere partie est a la fois un essai d'evaluation en fonction de l'age des quantites de strontium 90 et de cesium 137 ingerees avec les aliments dans la perspective d'une application a l'estimation des doses d'irradiation interne et a la recherche de l'age critique, et une etude de l'influence relative des divers parametres dont elle depend. Les donnees utilisees sont, d'une part, les resultats des enquetes alimentaires faites en

  17. Race, Gender, and Critique: African-American Women, White Women, and Domestic Violence in the 1980s and 1990s.

    Weis, Lois

    2001-01-01

    Focusing on young adult working class and poor African American women and white women, who currently live in a largely inhospitable economy, this paper examines where these women lodge social critique (where they place the cause and imagine the remedy for their troubles). Data from indepth interviews indicate that respondents see the world with a…

  18. Learning to Critique and Adapt Science Curriculum Materials: Examining the Development of Preservice Elementary Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Beyer, Carrie J.; Davis, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Teachers often engage in curricular planning by critiquing and adapting existing curriculum materials to contextualize lessons and compensate for their deficiencies. Designing instruction for students is shaped by teachers' ability to apply a variety of personal resources, including their pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). This study…

  19. Rotational Critique System as a Method of Culture Change in an Architecture Design Studio: Urban Design Studio as Case Study

    Fasli, Mukaddes; Hassanpour, Badiossadat

    2017-01-01

    In this century, all educational efforts strive to achieve quality assurance standards. Therefore, it will be naive to deny the existence of problems in architectural education. The current design studio critique method has been developed upon generations of students and educators. Architectural education is changing towards educating critical…

  20. Conflicts of Interest and Incentives to Bias: A Microeconomic Critique of Google’s Tangled Position on the Web

    Rieder, B.; Sire, G.

    2014-01-01

    Media scholars have studied and critiqued search engines - and in particular the dominant commercial actor, Google - for over a decade. Several conceptual and methodological problems, such as a lack of technological transparency, have made a detailed analysis of concrete power relations and their

  1. Gendered Practices in the Contemporary Workplace: A Critique of What Often Constitutes Front Page News in "The Wall Street Journal."

    Buzzanell, Patrice M.

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes and critiques a front-page article in the "Wall Street Journal." Finds that, underlying an image of fun and equitable workplace, is a disquieting depiction of adversarial gendered relationships, and of career advice that can damage the competence assessments and long-term advancement of women. (SR)

  2. At the Garden Gate: Community Building through Food--Revisiting the Critique of "Food, Folk and Fun" in Multicultural Education

    Richardson, Troy A.

    2011-01-01

    This essay takes up a re-evaluation of the ossified view of food events that have circulated in the canonical texts of multicultural education. While agreeing with the critique by progressive multiculturalists against a "touristic" approach to diversity, the author argues that such a conception of food-centered events in schools has obscured how…

  3. The Veil of Professionalism: An Autoethnographic Critique of White Positional Identities in the Figured Worlds of White Research Performance

    Pennington, Julie L.; Prater, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Two white researchers critique the professional veil of silence they created as they reflected on a qualitative study they performed 12 years earlier. Autoethnography and performance ethnography are utilized to examine the ways in which whiteness can remain unexamined throughout the research process due to the construction of white positional…

  4. Can Religious Expression and Sexual Orientation Affirmation Coexist in Social Work? A Critique of Hodge's Theoretical, Theological, and Conceptual Frameworks

    Dessel, Adrienne; Bolen, Rebecca; Shepardson, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Social work strives to be inclusive of all cultural groups and religious identities. However, a tension exists in the profession between freedom of religious expression and full acceptance of lesbian, gay, and bisexual people. David Hodge and others claim social work is oppressive to evangelical Christians. This article critiques primarily Hodge's…

  5. Foucault and the Imperatives of Education: Critique and Self-Creation in a Non-Foundational World

    Olssen, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This article outlines Foucault's conception of critique in relation to his writings on Kant. In that Kant saw Enlightenment as a process of release from the status of immaturity in that we accept someone else's authority to lead us in areas where the use of reason is called for, it is claimed in this article that Foucault's notion of critique…

  6. Toward a Polanyian Critique of Technology: Attending "from" the Indwelling of Tools "to" the Course of Technological Civilization

    van Pelt, James Clement

    2011-01-01

    As a scientist, Michael Polanyi made significant advances in chemistry and economics. From that deep hands-on experience, he derived a powerful critique of prevailing ideas of knowledge and the proper role of science. He demonstrated that disregarding or eliminating the personal embodiment of knowing in the tacit dimension in pursuit of purely…

  7. Experimental study and modelling of competitive adsorption equilibria of aromatics in liquid phase on X and Y faujasites; Etude experimentale et modelisation des equilibres d'adsorption competitive d'aromatiques en phase liquide sur des faujasites X et Y

    Tournier, H.

    2000-10-13

    The separation of p-xylene from C{sub 8} aromatics is performed industrially by selective adsorption on zeolitic molecular sieves. The aim of this work is to study and model adsorption equilibria of C{sub 8} and C{sub 10} aromatics on X and Y zeolites. The experimental data are obtained by an entirely automated equipment allowing to work in a large range of temperature (50 deg. C - 250 deg. C). With this equipment, we can follow the evolution of the composition of the liquid phase and determine the composition of the adsorbed phase at equilibrium by a mass balance calculation and with an inert component. Two analytical techniques are used to determine the composition of the liquid phase: (1) a classical method using a gas chromatograph (GC) allowed to measure selectivities in the concentration range (3%-97%) in a component; (2) an original method based on the use and on the measure of {sup 13}C labelled xylenes was developed to investigate the ranges of strongly contrasting concentrations [0-3%] and [97%-100%] in a component, which are representative of high purity domains. Lastly, three thermodynamic models are used to describe the adsorption equilibria: the Langmuir-Freundlich model, the quasi-chemical model and the statistical model. The last model is the more interesting, because it is based on physical considerations. A new statistical model has been developed with taking into account some observations coming from adsorption phenomenon in zeolites. (author)

  8. Critical experiments and nuclear calculations - LAMPRE-I; Experiences critiques et calculs nucleaires concernant le LAMPRE-I; Kriticheskie opyty i yadernye raschety - LAMPRE-I; Experimentos criticos u calculos nucleares relativos al LAMPRE-I

    Battat, M E [Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, University of California, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1962-03-15

    As part of a programme to develop plutonium fuels for fast-breeder reactors, the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has constructed and is operating a 1-MW sodium-cooled test reactor whose core contains a molten alloy of plutonium andiron (90 at. % Pu, 10 at. % Fe, m.p. 410 deg. C). Reactivity control is provided by the use of a stainless-steel reflector and four nickel control-rods located external to the core. Experiments have been performed at core temperatures (isothermal) of 80, 160 and 480 deg. C to determine critical mass and reflector worth at each of these temperatures. Control-rod worths, from period measurements, and temperature coefficient of reactivity were also measured. Calculations have been made, using the S{sub n} method for solving the neutron transport problem, to determine the basic nuclear parameters of the system. The comparison between calculated and measured values of parameters such as temperature coefficient, control-element worths, and critical mass is also of interest in evaluating the reliability of the design calculations. (author) [French] Un reacteur d'essais de 1 MW refroidi au sodium, dont le coeur contient un alliage fondu de plutonium et defer (90 at. % Pu, 10 at. % Fe, p. f. 410 deg. C), a ete construit et est en fonctionnement au Laboratoire scientifique de Los Alamos, dans le cadre d'un programme d'etudes sur les combustibles au plutonium pour reacteurs surgenerateurs a neutrons rapides. Le controle de la reactivite est assure au moyen d'un reflecteur en acier inoxydable et de quatre barres de controle en nickel, a l'exterieur du coeur. On a fait des experiences a des temperatures du coeur de 80, 160 et 480 deg. C afin de determiner la masse critique et la quantite de reflecteur qui correspond a chacune de ces temperatures. On a aussi mesure l'efficacite des barres de controle, a partir de mesures de periode, ainsi que le coefficient thermique de reactivite. Afin de determiner les parametres nucleaires de base du reacteur, on a

  9. Modelling the cracking of pressurised water reactor fuel pellets and its consequences on the mechanical behaviour of the fuel rod; Etude de l'impact de la fissuration des combustibles nucleaires oxyde sur le comportement normal et incidentel des crayons combustible

    Helfer, Th

    2006-03-15

    This thesis aims to model the cracking of pressurised water reactor fuel pellets and its consequences on the mechanical behaviour of the fuel rod. Fuel cracking has two main consequences. It relieves the stress in the pellet, upon which the majority of the mechanical and physico-chemical phenomena are dependent. It also leads to pellet fragmentation. Taking fuel cracking into account is therefore necessary to adequately predict the mechanical loading of the cladding during the course of an irradiation. The local approach to fracture was chosen to describe fuel pellet cracking. Practical considerations brought us to favour a quasi-static description of fuel cracking by means of a local damage models. These models describe the appearance of cracks by a local loss of rigidity of the material. Such a description leads to numerical difficulties, such as mesh dependency of the results and abrupt changes in the equilibrium state of the mechanical structure during unstable crack propagations. A particular attention was paid to these difficulties because they condition the use of such models in engineering studies. This work was performed within the framework of the ALCYONE fuel performance package developed at CEA/DEC/SESC which relies on the PLEIADES software platform. ALCYONE provides users with various approaches for modelling nuclear fuel behaviour, which differ in terms of the type geometry considered for the fuel rod. A specific model was developed and implemented to describe fuel cracking for each of these approaches. The 2D axisymmetric fuel rod model is the most innovative and was particularly studied. We show that it is able to assess, thanks to an appropriate description of fuel cracking, the main geometrical changes of the fuel rod occurring under normal and off-normal operating conditions. (author)

  10. Duty or dream? Edwin G. Conklin's critique of eugenics and support for American individualism.

    Cooke, Kathy J

    2002-01-01

    This paper assesses ideas about moral and reproductive duty in American eugenics during the early twentieth century. While extreme eugenicists, including Charles Davenport and Paul Popenoe, argued that social leaders and biologists must work to prevent individuals who were "unfit" from reproducing, moderates, especially Edwin G. Conklin, presented a different view. Although he was sympathetic to eugenic goals and participated in eugenic organizations throughout his life, Conklin realized that eugenic ideas rarely could meet strict hereditary measures. Relying on his experience as an embryologist, Conklin instead attempted to balance more extreme eugenic claims - that emphasized the absolute limits posed by heredity - with his own view of "the possibilities of development." Through his critique he argued that most human beings never even begin to approach their hereditary potential; he moderated his own eugenic rhetoric so that it preserved individual opportunity and responsibility, or what has often been labeled the American Dream.

  11. Henri Mitterand – Critique génétique et sociocritique

    Mitterand, Henri; Biasi, Pierre-Marc de; Herschberg Pierrot, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Henri Mitterand est l’un des fondateurs de la sociocritique en France, et de la génétique zolienne. Il est aussi linguiste, sémioticien et stylisticien. Nous l’avons interrogé sur les relations complexes de la génétique et de la sociocritique. Sociocritique et sociogenèse Pierre-Marc de Biasi – Après une trentaine d’années de recul et d’expérience, quelle place donneriez-vous à la sociocritique et à la sociogenèse dans la construction du nouveau rapport critique qui s’est institué avec les ma...

  12. Accounting for social accountability: developing critiques of social accountability within medical education.

    Ritz, Stacey A; Beatty, Kathleen; Ellaway, Rachel H

    2014-01-01

    The concept of the social accountability of medical schools has garnered many followers, in response to a broad desire for greater social justice in health care. As its use has spread, the term 'social accountability' has become a meta-narrative for social justice and an inevitable and unquestionable good, while at the same time becoming increasingly ambiguous in its meaning and intent. In this article, we use the lenses of postmodernism and critical reflexivity to unpack the multiple meanings of social accountability. In our view, subjecting the concept of 'social accountability' to critique will enhance the ability to appraise the ways in which it is understood and enacted. We contend that critical reflexivity is necessary for social accountability to achieve its aspirations, and hence we must be prepared to become accountable not only for our actions, but also for the ideologies and discourses underlying them.

  13. Doctors, apologies, and the law: an analysis and critique of apology laws.

    Wei, Marlynn

    2007-01-01

    This Article analyzes and critiques apology laws, their potential use, and effectiveness, both legally and ethically, in light of the strong professional norms that shape physicians' reaction to medical errors. Physicians are largely reluctant to disclose medical errors to patients, patients' families, and even other physicians. Some states have passed so-called apology laws in order to encourage physicians to disclose medical errors to patients. Apology laws allow defendants to exclude statements of sympathy made after accidents from evidence in a liability lawsuit. This Article examines potential barriers to physicians' disclosure of medical mistakes and demonstrates how the underlying problem may actually be rooted in professional norms-norms that will remain outside the scope of law's influence. The Article also considers other legal and policy changes that could help to encourage disclosure.

  14. Critique to the contemporaneous cynic reason: life and learning relationship review.

    Diana Milena Peñuela Contreras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present article it is proposed to think about life and learning relationship from the turn produced by the introduction of the cynical reason in the contemporaneous societies. Three stages form this writing. In the first one, the ways of functioning of the critique to the cynical reason, from Sloterdjik and Deleuze, are contextualized. In the second one, the implications of such cynical reason, designated by Sloterdjik as reversion of the life’s effects on the learning and their relationship are discussed. And in the third one, the Jacotot’s experience, reconstructed by Jaques Ranciere, is picked up in order to give other senses and understandings to today’s life-learning relationship.

  15. Make me wanna holler: Meshell Ndegeocello, Black queer aesthetics, and feminist critiques.

    Richardson, Matt

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the music and performance of Meshell Ndegeocello, arguing that they are part of a cross-Atlantic conversation that pushes the boundaries of Black feminist thought on masculinity and desire. From the time of her debut album in 1993, Ndegeocello has resisted categorization both in her public personae and in her music. Ndegeocello's refusal to be restricted in her stage performance and in her musical expression has created a rich text through which to read Black female masculinity. Her work has been particularly productive in rethinking (Black) feminist couplings of patriarchy with male anatomy. Ndegeocello's music challenges any one representation of female masculinity, mixing critiques of masculine privilege and violence with celebrations of pleasure and pansexual desire.

  16. The denial of death thesis: sociological critique and implications for palliative care.

    Zimmermann, Camilla; Rodin, Gary

    2004-03-01

    It has become commonplace to say that contemporary western society is 'death-denying'. This characterization, which sociologists have termed the 'denial of death thesis', first arose in the social science, psychological and clinical medical literature in the period between 1955 and 1985. During the same time period, the hospice and palliative care movements were developing and in part directed themselves against the perceived cultural denial of death in western society. While the denial of death has been taken for granted by the lay public as well as by clinicians, in the sociological literature it has been increasingly questioned. In this paper we use sociological critiques of the denial of death thesis to raise critical questions about the theory and practice of contemporary palliative care. In particular, we argue that the emphasis of palliative care should not be on extinguishing the denial of death but on the relief of suffering.

  17. The Contested White Lady: A Critique of New Zealand Cultural Heritage Politics

    Lindsay Neill

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article critiques New Zealand’s cultural heritage politics by positing that vernacular items, like an iconic eatery called the White Lady, does not meet the legislative criteria enabling cultural heritage status. If vernacular artefacts, including ‘kiwiana’, are to be integrated within cultural heritage, then changes within legislation, definitions and participant preconceptions are necessary. This study argues that cultural heritage is dominated by artefacts and historic places; that ‘kiwiana’ and other vernacular items of social history, practice and tradition are relegated. Items of ‘kiwiana’ act as touchstones of identity for New Zealanders. Therefore, their omission distorts the view of New Zealand’s cultural heritage. The application of cultural heritage status to the White Lady is important because of its transcendence of time and social change, its aesthetic, and also because of its present-day hospitality offering.

  18. Critique of the „official critique” of neoliberal reforms in higher education

    Oskar Szwabowski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I criticise theoretical structure which is employed in critiquesof higher education reforms within the domain of pedagogy. I argue thatcritique of neoliberalism in education doesn’t recognise the dynamics of change and„necessity” of transformation. Both critique and defense of neoliberal reforms donot transcend capitalist „separation” and institutionalization typical of particularorders. In practical terms, it results in reactive resistance, either in the form of defenseof privileges of „leisure class or attempt to brink back the period of „class compromise”.In this way, it is not able to develop a radical practice, transcend „ideologicalstate apparatus” and produce a radical practice as well as education based on democracyand equality.

  19. Socializing the public: invoking Hannah Arendt's critique of modernity to evaluate reproductive technologies.

    Sperling, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    The article examines the writings of one of the most influential political philosophers, Hannah Arendt, and specifically focuses on her views regarding the distinction between the private and the public and the transformation of the public to the social by modernity. Arendt's theory of human activity and critique of modernity are explored to critically evaluate the social contributions and implications of reproductive technologies especially where the use of such technologies is most dominant within Western societies. Focusing on empirical studies on new reproductive technologies in Israel, it is argued, powerfully demonstrates Arendt's theory, and broadens the perspectives through which society should evaluate these new technologies towards a more reflective understanding of its current laws and policies and their affect on women more generally.

  20. Technical critique on radiation test facilities for the CTR surface and materials program

    Persiani, P.J.

    1975-02-01

    Major radiation test facilities will be necessary in the near-term (5 years) and long-term (greater than 10 years) future for the timely development and understanding of fusion confinement systems and of prototype fusion power reactors. The study includes the technical justifications and requirements for CTR Neutron and Plasma Radiation Test Facilities. The initial technical critique covers the feasibility and design problems: in upgrading the performance of the accelerator-rotating (solid TiT) target systems, and in transforming the accelerator-supersonic jet target concept into a radiation testing facility. A scoping assessment on the potential of a pulsed high-beta plasma device (dense plasma focus) is introduced to explore plasma concepts as near-term neutron and plasma radiation sources for the CTR Surface and Materials Program. (U.S.)