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Sample records for model ascomycete fungus

  1. The genome sequence of the model ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espagne, Eric; Lespinet, Olivier; Malagnac, Fabienne; Da Silva, Corinne; Jaillon, Olivier; Porcel, Betina M; Couloux, Arnaud; Aury, Jean-Marc; Ségurens, Béatrice; Poulain, Julie; Anthouard, Véronique; Grossetete, Sandrine; Khalili, Hamid; Coppin, Evelyne; Déquard-Chablat, Michelle; Picard, Marguerite; Contamine, Véronique; Arnaise, Sylvie; Bourdais, Anne; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique; Gautheret, Daniel; de Vries, Ronald P; Battaglia, Evy; Coutinho, Pedro M; Danchin, Etienne Gj; Henrissat, Bernard; Khoury, Riyad El; Sainsard-Chanet, Annie; Boivin, Antoine; Pinan-Lucarré, Bérangère; Sellem, Carole H; Debuchy, Robert; Wincker, Patrick; Weissenbach, Jean; Silar, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The dung-inhabiting ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina is a model used to study various aspects of eukaryotic and fungal biology, such as ageing, prions and sexual development. RESULTS: We present a 10X draft sequence of P. anserina genome, linked to the sequences of a large expressed

  2. Enzymes and bioproducts produced by the ascomycete fungus Paecilomyces variotii.

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    Herrera Bravo de Laguna, I; Toledo Marante, F J; Mioso, R

    2015-12-01

    Due its innate ability to produce extracellular enzymes which can provide eco-friendly solutions for a variety of biotechnological applications, Paecilomyces variotii is a potential source of industrial bioproducts. In this review, we report biotechnological records on the biochemistry of different enzymes produced by the fermentation of the P. variotii fungus, including tannases, phytases, cellulases, xylanases, chitinases, amylases and pectinases. Additionally, the main physicochemical properties which can affect the enzymatic reactions of the enzymes involved in the conversion of a huge number of substrates to high-value bioproducts are described. Despite all the background information compiled in this review, more research is required to consolidate the catalytic efficiency of P. variotii, which must be optimized so that it is more accurate and reproducible on a large scale. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Mn(II) oxidation by an ascomycete fungus is linked to superoxide production during asexual reproduction.

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    Hansel, Colleen M; Zeiner, Carolyn A; Santelli, Cara M; Webb, Samuel M

    2012-07-31

    Manganese (Mn) oxides are among the most reactive minerals within the environment, where they control the bioavailability of carbon, nutrients, and numerous metals. Although the ability of microorganisms to oxidize Mn(II) to Mn(III/IV) oxides is scattered throughout the bacterial and fungal domains of life, the mechanism and physiological basis for Mn(II) oxidation remains an enigma. Here, we use a combination of compound-specific chemical assays, microspectroscopy, and electron microscopy to show that a common Ascomycete filamentous fungus, Stilbella aciculosa, oxidizes Mn(II) to Mn oxides by producing extracellular superoxide during cell differentiation. The reactive Mn oxide phase birnessite and the reactive oxygen species superoxide and hydrogen peroxide are colocalized at the base of asexual reproductive structures. Mn oxide formation is not observed in the presence of superoxide scavengers (e.g., Cu) and inhibitors of NADPH oxidases (e.g., diphenylene iodonium chloride), enzymes responsible for superoxide production and cell differentiation in fungi. Considering the recent identification of Mn(II) oxidation by NADH oxidase-based superoxide production by a common marine bacterium (Roseobacter sp.), these results introduce a surprising homology between some prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms in the mechanisms responsible for Mn(II) oxidation, where oxidation appears to be a side reaction of extracellular superoxide production. Given the versatility of superoxide as a redox reactant and the widespread ability of fungi to produce superoxide, this microbial extracellular superoxide production may play a central role in the cycling and bioavailability of metals (e.g., Hg, Fe, Mn) and carbon in natural systems.

  4. Plant biomass degrading ability of the coprophilic ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina.

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    Couturier, Marie; Tangthirasunun, Narumon; Ning, Xie; Brun, Sylvain; Gautier, Valérie; Bennati-Granier, Chloé; Silar, Philippe; Berrin, Jean-Guy

    2016-01-01

    The degradation of plant biomass is a major challenge towards the production of bio-based compounds and materials. As key lignocellulolytic enzyme producers, filamentous fungi represent a promising reservoir to tackle this challenge. Among them, the coprophilous ascomycete Podospora anserina has been used as a model organism to study various biological mechanisms because its genetics are well understood and controlled. In 2008, the sequencing of its genome revealed a great diversity of enzymes targeting plant carbohydrates and lignin. Since then, a large array of lignocellulose-acting enzymes has been characterized and genetic analyses have enabled the understanding of P. anserina metabolism and development on plant biomass. Overall, these research efforts shed light on P. anserina strategy to unlock recalcitrant lignocellulose deconstruction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A review of the Mycrocylus ulei Ascomycetes fungus, causative agent of South American rubber-leaf blight

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    Ibonne Aydee García-Romero

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The Microcyclus ulei Ascomycetes fungus is the causal agent of south-American leaf blight (SALB, this being one of the most important diseases affecting the natural rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis in Latina-America and has been responsible for numerous economic losses. This fungus has presented high physiological variability, suggesting its great adaptability. HCN tolerance has been described as being one of the mechanisms associated with its virulence. Resistant Hevea clones have been obtained by genetic improvement; however, the mechanisms associated with this are still not well known. Greater knowledge of this pathogen will lead to developing new control strategies and better understanding of the mechanisms associated with host resistance. Key words: Microcyclus ulei, SALB, Hevea brasiliensis.

  6. Mating-type genes from the homothallic fungus Sordaria macrospora are functionally expressed in a heterothallic ascomycete.

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    Pöggeler, S; Risch, S; Kück, U; Osiewacz, H D

    1997-10-01

    Homokaryons from the homothallic ascomycte Sordaria macrospora are able to enter the sexual pathway and to form fertile fruiting bodies. To analyze the molecular basis of homothallism and to elucidate the role of mating-products during fruiting body development, we cloned and sequenced the entire S. macrospora mating-type locus. Comparison of the Sordaria mating-type locus with mating-type idiomorphs from the heterothallic ascomycetes Neurospora crassa and Podospora anserina revealed that sequences from both idiomorphs (A/a and mat-/mat+, respectively) are contiguous in S. macrospora. DNA sequencing of the S. macrospora mating-type region allowed the identification of four open reading frames (ORFs), which were termed Smt-a1, SmtA-1, SmtA-2 and SmtA-3. While Smt-a1, SmtA-1, and SmtA-2 show strong sequence similarities with the corresponding N. crassa mating-type ORFs, SmtA-3 has a chimeric character. It comprises sequences that are similar to the A and a mating-type idiomorph from N. crassa. To determine functionality of the S. macrospora mating-type genes, we show that all ORFs are transcriptionally expressed. Furthermore, we transformed the S. macrospora mating-type genes into mat- and mat+ strains of the closely related heterothallic fungus P. anserina. The transformation experiments show that mating-type genes from S. macrospora induce fruiting body formation in P. anserina.

  7. Sulfonamide inhibition studies of two β-carbonic anhydrases from the ascomycete fungus Sordaria macrospora, CAS1 and CAS2.

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    Vullo, Daniela; Lehneck, Ronny; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2018-12-01

    The two β-carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) recently cloned and purified from the ascomycete fungus Sordaria macrospora, CAS1 and CAS2, were investigated for their inhibition with a panel of 39 aromatic, heterocyclic, and aliphatic sulfonamides and one sulfamate, many of which are clinically used agents. CAS1 was efficiently inhibited by tosylamide, 3-fluorosulfanilamide, and 3-chlorosulfanilamide (K I s in the range of 43.2-79.6 nM), whereas acetazolamide, methazolamide, topiramate, ethoxzolamide, dorzolamide, and brinzolamide were medium potency inhibitors (K I s in the range of 360-445 nM). CAS2 was less sensitive to sulfonamide inhibitors. The best CAS2 inhibitors were 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide (the deacetylated acetazolamide precursor) and 4-hydroxymethyl-benzenesulfonamide, with K I s in the range of 48.1-92.5 nM. Acetazolamide, dorzolamide, ethoxzolamide, topiramate, sulpiride, indisulam, celecoxib, and sulthiame were medium potency CAS2 inhibitors (K I s of 143-857 nM). Many other sulfonamides showed affinities in the high micromolar range or were ineffective as CAS1/2 inhibitors. Small changes in the structure of the inhibitor led to important differences of the activity. As these enzymes may show applications for the removal of anthropically generated polluting gases, finding modulators of their activity may be crucial for designing environmental-friendly CO 2 capture processes.

  8. Process optimization for extraction of carotenoids from medicinal caterpillar fungus, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Sun, Junde; Lian, Tiantian; Wang, Wenzhao; Dong, Cai-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Natural carotenoids have attracted great attention for their important beneficial effects on human health and food coloring function. Cordyceps militaris, a well-known edible and medicinal fungus, is a potential source of natural carotenoids. The present study aimed to optimize the process parameters for carotenoid extraction from this mushroom. The effects of different methods of breaking the fungal cell wall and organic solvents were studied by the one-factor-at-a-time method. Subsequently, the process parameters including the duration of the extraction time, the number of extractions, and the solvent to solid ratio were optimized by using the Box-Behnken design. The optimal extraction conditions included using an acid-heating method to break the cell wall and later extracting three times, each for a 1 h duration, with a 4:1 mixture of acetone: petroleum ether and a solvent: solid ratio of 24:1. The carotenoid content varied from 2122.50 to 3847.50 µg/g dry weights in different commercially obtained fruit bodies of C. militaris. The results demonstrated that the C. militaris contained more carotenoid content in its fruit bodies than other known mushrooms. Stability monitoring by HPLC demonstrated that the carotenoids could be stored at 4°C for 40 d. It is suggested that the carotenoid content should be considered as the quality standard of commercial products of this valued mushroom. These findings will facilitate the exploration of carotenoids from C. militaris.

  9. A review of the Mycrocylus ulei Ascomycetes fungus, causative agent of South American rubber-leaf blight Revisión sobre el hongo Microcyclus ulei, agente causal del mal suramericano de la hoja del caucho

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    Ancízar Aristizábar Fabio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Microcyclus ulei Ascomycetes fungus is the causal agent of south-American leaf blight (SALB, this being one of the most important diseases affecting the natural rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis in Latina-America and has been responsible for numerous economic losses. This fungus has presented high physiological variability, suggesting its great adaptability. HCN tolerance has been described as being one of the mechanisms associated with its virulence. Resistant Hevea clones have been obtained by genetic improvement; however, the mechanisms associated with this are still not well known. Greater knowledge of this pathogen will lead to developing new control strategies and better understanding of the mechanisms associated with host resistance. Key words: Microcyclus ulei, SALB, Hevea brasiliensis.El hongo ascomycete Microcyclus ulei es el agente causal del SALB que es una de las enfermedades más importan­tes del árbol de caucho natural (Hevea brasiliensis en América Latina y ha sido responsable de numerosas pérdidas económicas. Este hongo ha presentado alta variabilidad fisiológica y se sugiere su alta adaptabilidad, dentro de los mecanismos asociados a su virulencia se ha descrito la tolerancia al HCN. Se han obtenido clones de Hevea resistentes mediante mejoramiento genético, sin embargo, aun no son bien conocidos los mecanismos asociados a ésta. Un mayor conocimiento de este patógeno permitirá el desarrollo de nuevas estrategias de control así como el mayor entendimiento de los mecanismos asociados a resistencia del hospedero. Palabras clave: Microcyclus ulei, SALB, Hevea brasiliensis.

  10. Effects of medium components and culture conditions on mycelial biomass and the production of bioactive ingredients in submerged culture of Xylaria nigripes (Ascomycetes), a Chinese medicinal fungus.

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    Chen, Jian-Zhi; Lo, Hui-Chen; Lin, Fang-Yi; Chang, Shih-Liang; Hsieh, Changwei; Liang, Zeng-Chin; Ho, Wai-Jane; Hsu, Tai-Hao

    2014-01-01

    The optimal culture conditions were investigated to maximize the production of mycelial biomass and bioactive ingredients in submerged cultivation of Xylaria nigripes, a Chinese medicinal fungus. The one-factor-at-a-time method was used to explore the effects of medium components, including carbon, nitrogen, mineral sources, and initial pH of the medium and environmental factors, such as culture temperature and rotation speed, on mycelial growth and production of bioactive ingredients. The results indicated that the optimal culture temperature and rotation speed were 25°C and 100 rpm in a medium with 20 g fructose, 6 g yeast extract, and 2 g magnesiun sulfate heptahydrate as carbon, nitrogen, and mineral sources, respectively, in 1 L distilled water with an initial medium pH of 5.5. With optimal medium components and conditions of cultivation, the maximal production of mycelial biomass was 6.64 ± 0.88 g/L, with maximal production of bioactive ingredients such as extracellular polysaccharides (2.36 ± 0.18 mg/mL), intracellular polysaccharides (2.38 ± 0.07 mg/g), adenosine (43.27 ± 2.37 mg/g), total polyphenols (36.57 ± 1.36 mg/g), and triterpenoids (31.29 ± 1.17 mg/g) in a shake flask culture. These results suggest that different bioactive ingredients including intracellular polysaccharides, adenosine, total polyphenols and triterpenoids in mycelia and extracellular polysaccharides in broth can be obtained from one simple medium for submerged cultivation of X. nigripes.

  11. Lignin biodegradation by the ascomycete Chrysonilia sitophila.

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    Rodríguez, J; Ferraz, A; Nogueira, R F; Ferrer, I; Esposito, E; Durán, N

    1997-01-01

    The lignin biodegradation process has an important role in the carbon cycle of the biosphere. The study of this natural process has developed mainly with the use of basidiomycetes in laboratory investigations. This has been a logical approach since most of the microorganisms involved in lignocellulosic degradation belong to this class of fungi. However, other microorganisms such as ascomycetes and also some bacteria, are involved in the lignin decaying process. This work focuses on lignin biodegradation by a microorganism belonging to the ascomycete class, Chrysonilia sitophila. Lignin peroxidase production and characterization, mechanisms of lignin degradation (lignin model compounds and lignin in wood matrix) and biosynthesis of veratryl alcohol are outstanding. Applications of C. sitophila for effluent treatment, wood biodegradation and single-cell protein production are also discussed.

  12. The mating-type chromosome in the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora tetrasperma represents a model for early evolution of sex chromosomes.

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    Audrius Menkis

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We combined gene divergence data, classical genetics, and phylogenetics to study the evolution of the mating-type chromosome in the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora tetrasperma. In this species, a large non-recombining region of the mating-type chromosome is associated with a unique fungal life cycle where self-fertility is enforced by maintenance of a constant state of heterokaryosis. Sequence divergence between alleles of 35 genes from the two single mating-type component strains (i.e. the homokaryotic mat A or mat a-strains, derived from one N. tetrasperma heterokaryon (mat A+mat a, was analyzed. By this approach we were able to identify the boundaries and size of the non-recombining region, and reveal insight into the history of recombination cessation. The non-recombining region covers almost 7 Mbp, over 75% of the chromosome, and we hypothesize that the evolution of the mating-type chromosome in this lineage involved two successive events. The first event was contemporaneous with the split of N. tetrasperma from a common ancestor with its outcrossing relative N. crassa and suppressed recombination over at least 6.6 Mbp, and the second was confined to a smaller region in which recombination ceased more recently. In spite of the early origin of the first "evolutionary stratum", genealogies of five genes from strains belonging to an additional N. tetrasperma lineage indicate independent initiations of suppressed recombination in different phylogenetic lineages. This study highlights the shared features between the sex chromosomes found in the animal and plant kingdoms and the fungal mating-type chromosome, despite fungi having no separate sexes. As is often found in sex chromosomes of plants and animals, recombination suppression of the mating-type chromosome of N. tetrasperma involved more than one evolutionary event, covers the majority of the mating-type chromosome and is flanked by distal regions with obligate crossovers.

  13. Two pheromone precursor genes are transcriptionally expressed in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

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    Pöggeler, S

    2000-06-01

    In order to analyze the involvement of pheromones in cell recognition and mating in a homothallic fungus, two putative pheromone precursor genes, named ppg1 and ppg2, were isolated from a genomic library of Sordaria macrospora. The ppg1 gene is predicted to encode a precursor pheromone that is processed by a Kex2-like protease to yield a pheromone that is structurally similar to the alpha-factor of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ppg2 gene encodes a 24-amino-acid polypeptide that contains a putative farnesylated and carboxy methylated C-terminal cysteine residue. The sequences of the predicted pheromones display strong structural similarity to those encoded by putative pheromones of heterothallic filamentous ascomycetes. Both genes are expressed during the life cycle of S. macrospora. This is the first description of pheromone precursor genes encoded by a homothallic fungus. Southern-hybridization experiments indicated that ppg1 and ppg2 homologues are also present in other homothallic ascomycetes.

  14. Evolutionary History of Ascomyceteous Yeasts

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    Haridas, Sajeet; Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Goker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kurtzman, Cletus P.; Blackwell, Meredith; Grigoriev, Igor; Jeffries, Thomas W.

    2014-06-06

    Yeasts are important for many industrial and biotechnological processes and show remarkable diversity despite morphological similarities. We have sequenced the genomes of 16 ascomycete yeasts of taxonomic and industrial importance including members of Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina. A comparison of these with several other previously published yeast genomes have added increased confidence to the phylogenetic positions of previously poorly placed species including Saitoella complicata, Babjeviella inositovora and Metschnikowia bicuspidata. Phylogenetic analysis also showed that yeasts with alternative nuclear codon usage where CUG encodes serine instead of leucine are monophyletic within the Saccharomycotina. Most of the yeasts have compact genomes with a large fraction of single exon genes with Lipomyces starkeyi and the previously published Pneumocystis jirovecii being notable exceptions. Intron analysis suggests that early diverging species have more introns. We also observed a large number of unclassified lineage specific non-simple repeats in these genomes.

  15. Mycelial pellet formation by edible ascomycete filamentous fungi, Neurospora intermedia.

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    Nair, Ramkumar B; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-12-01

    Pellet formation of filamentous fungi in submerged culture is an imperative topic of fermentation research. In this study, we report for the first time the growth of filamentous ascomycete fungus, Neurospora intermedia in its mycelial pellet form. In submerged culture, the growth morphology of the fungus was successfully manipulated into growing as pellets by modifying various cultivation conditions. Factors such as pH (2.0-10.0), agitation rate (100-150 rpm), carbon source (glucose, arabinose, sucrose, and galactose), the presence of additive agents (glycerol and calcium chloride) and trace metals were investigated for their effect on the pellet formation. Of the various factors screened, uniform pellets were formed only at pH range 3.0-4.0, signifying it as the most influential factor for N. intermedia pellet formation. The average pellet size ranged from 2.38 ± 0.12 to 2.86 ± 0.38 mm. The pellet formation remained unaffected by the inoculum type used and its size showed an inverse correlation with the agitation rate of the culture. Efficient glucose utilization was observed with fungal pellets, as opposed to the freely suspended mycelium, proving its viability for fast-fermentation processes. Scale up of the pelletization process was also carried out in bench-scale airlift and bubble column reactors (4.5 L).

  16. Production of cellulolytic enzymes from ascomycetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gustav Hammerich; Lübeck, Mette; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2015-01-01

    Optimizing production of cellulose degrading enzymes is of great interest in order to increase the feasibility of constructing biorefinery facilities for a sustainable supply of energy and chemical products. The ascomycete phylum has a large potential for the production of cellulolytic enzymes....... Although numerous enzymatic profiles have already been unraveled, the research has been covering only a limited number of species and genera, thus leaving many ascomycetes to be analyzed. Such analysis requires choosing appropriate media and cultivation methods that ensure enzyme profiles with high...... specificities and activities. However, the choice of media, cultivation methods and enzyme assays highly affect the enzyme activity profile observed. This review provides an overview of enzymatic profiles for several ascomycetes covering phylogenetically distinct genera and species. The profiles of cellulose...

  17. Mathematical modeling on obligate mutualism: Interactions between leaf-cutter ants and their fungus garden.

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    Kang, Yun; Clark, Rebecca; Makiyama, Michael; Fewell, Jennifer

    2011-11-21

    We propose a simple mathematical model by applying Michaelis-Menton equations of enzyme kinetics to study the mutualistic interaction between the leaf cutter ant and its fungus garden at the early stage of colony expansion. We derive sufficient conditions on the extinction and coexistence of these two species. In addition, we give a region of initial condition that leads to the extinction of two species when the model has an interior attractor. Our global analysis indicates that the division of labor by worker ants and initial conditions are two important factors that determine whether leaf cutter ants' colonies and their fungus garden can survive and grow or not. We validate the model by comparing model simulations and data on fungal and ant colony growth rates under laboratory conditions. We perform sensitive analysis of the model based on the experimental data to gain more biological insights on ecological interactions between leaf-cutter ants and their fungus garden. Finally, we give conclusions and discuss potential future work. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Evolution of genetic systems in filamentous ascomycetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    A great variety of genetic systems exist in filamentous ascomycetes. The transmission of genetic material does not only occur by (sexual or asexual) reproduction, but it can also follow vegetative fusion of different strains. In this thesis the evolution of this variability is studied,

  19. Discovery of Ascomycete characteristics in Sporothrix schenckii

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    M. Thibaut

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available Sporothrix schenckii has been studied by light microscopy, and also by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Characteristics of Ascomycetes have been oibserved at the level of the cell-wall and in the synaptic system of the hyphae. Also the perfect state has been discovered. The four spored asei are formed directly from the mycelium and there is no fructification. Dolichoascus schenckii is the name suggested for this perfect state which constitutes a new genus of the Endomycetaceae.

  20. The filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora as a genetic model to study fruiting body development.

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    Teichert, Ines; Nowrousian, Minou; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Kück, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are excellent experimental systems due to their short life cycles as well as easy and safe manipulation in the laboratory. They form three-dimensional structures with numerous different cell types and have a long tradition as genetic model organisms used to unravel basic mechanisms underlying eukaryotic cell differentiation. The filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora is a model system for sexual fruiting body (perithecia) formation. S. macrospora is homothallic, i.e., self-fertile, easily genetically tractable, and well suited for large-scale genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics studies. Specific features of its life cycle and the availability of a developmental mutant library make it an excellent system for studying cellular differentiation at the molecular level. In this review, we focus on recent developments in identifying gene and protein regulatory networks governing perithecia formation. A number of tools have been developed to genetically analyze developmental mutants and dissect transcriptional profiles at different developmental stages. Protein interaction studies allowed us to identify a highly conserved eukaryotic multisubunit protein complex, the striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase complex and its role in sexual development. We have further identified a number of proteins involved in chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation of fruiting body development. Furthermore, we review the involvement of metabolic processes from both primary and secondary metabolism, and the role of nutrient recycling by autophagy in perithecia formation. Our research has uncovered numerous players regulating multicellular development in S. macrospora. Future research will focus on mechanistically understanding how these players are orchestrated in this fungal model system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. IDC2 and IDC3, two genes involved in cell non-autonomous signaling of fruiting body development in the model fungus Podospora anserina.

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    Lalucque, Hervé; Malagnac, Fabienne; Green, Kimberly; Gautier, Valérie; Grognet, Pierre; Chan Ho Tong, Laetitia; Scott, Barry; Silar, Philippe

    2017-01-15

    Filamentous ascomycetes produce complex multicellular structures during sexual reproduction. Little is known about the genetic pathways enabling the construction of such structures. Here, with a combination of classical and reverse genetic methods, as well as genetic mosaic and graft analyses, we identify and provide evidence for key roles for two genes during the formation of perithecia, the sexual fruiting bodies, of the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina. Data indicate that the proteins coded by these two genes function cell-non-autonomously and that their activity depends upon conserved cysteines, making them good candidate for being involved in the transmission of a reactive oxygen species (ROS) signal generated by the PaNox1 NADPH oxidase inside the maturing fruiting body towards the PaMpk1 MAP kinase, which is located inside the underlying mycelium, in which nutrients are stored. These data provide important new insights to our understanding of how fungi build multicellular structures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Immunomodulatory constituents from an ascomycete, Microascus tardifaciens.

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    Fujimoto, H; Fujimaki, T; Okuyama, E; Yamazaki, M

    1999-10-01

    Fractionation guided by the immunosuppressive activity of the defatted AcOEt extract of an Ascomycete, Microascus tardifaciens, afforded eight constituents, questin (emodin 8-O-methylether) (1), rubrocristin (2), 5,7-dihydroxy-4-methylphthalide (3), cladosporin (asperentin) (4), cladosporin 8-O-methylether (5), tradioxopiperazine A [cyclo-L-alanyl-5-isopentenyl-2-(1',1'-dimethylallyl)-L-tryptophan] (6), tradioxopiperazine B [cyclo-L-alanyl-7-isopentenyl-2-(1',1'-dimethylallyl)-L-tryptophan] (7), and asperflavin (8), among which 6 and 7 were new compounds. Compounds 1 and 2 showed considerably high immunosuppressive activity, 6 was moderate and, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 8 showed low activity.

  3. A highly diverse spectrum of naphthoquinone derivatives produced by the endophytic fungus Biatriospora sp CCF 4378

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stodůlková, Eva; Man, Petr; Kuzma, Marek; Černý, J.; Císařová, I.; Kubátová, A.; Chudíčková, Milada; Kolařík, Miroslav; Flieger, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2015), s. 259-267 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13039; GA ČR GA13-16565S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : NECTRIA-HAEMATOCOCCA * ASCOMYCETOUS FUNGUS * BIOLOGICAL-ACTIVITY Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.335, year: 2015

  4. Genomic Evolution of the Ascomycete Yeasts

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    Riley, Robert; Haridas, Sajeet; Salamov, Asaf; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Goker, Markus; Hittinger, Chris; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Lopes, Mariana; Meir-Kolthoff, Jan P.; Rokas, Antonis; Rosa, Carlos; Scheuner, Carmen; Soares, Marco; Stielow, Benjamin; Wisecaver, Jennifer H.; Wolfe, Ken; Blackwell, Meredith; Kurtzman, Cletus; Grigoriev, Igor; Jeffries, Thomas

    2015-03-16

    Yeasts are important for industrial and biotechnological processes and show remarkable metabolic and phylogenetic diversity despite morphological similarities. We have sequenced the genomes of 16 ascomycete yeasts of taxonomic and industrial importance including members of Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina. Phylogenetic analysis of these and previously published yeast genomes helped resolve the placement of species including Saitoella complicata, Babjeviella inositovora, Hyphopichia burtonii, and Metschnikowia bicuspidata. Moreover, we find that alternative nuclear codon usage, where CUG encodes serine instead of leucine, are monophyletic within the Saccharomycotina. Most of the yeasts have compact genomes with a large fraction of single exon genes, and a tendency towards more introns in early-diverging species. Analysis of enzyme phylogeny gives insights into the evolution of metabolic capabilities such as methanol utilization and assimilation of alternative carbon sources.

  5. Bioconversion of (+)-valencene in submerged cultures of the ascomycete Chaetomium globosum.

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    Kaspera, Rüdiger; Krings, Ulrich; Nanzad, Tsevegsuren; Berger, Ralf G

    2005-06-01

    Submerged cultures of the ascomycete Chaetomium globosum oxidised the exogenous sesquiterpene (+)-valencene to nootkatone via the stereoselective generation of alpha-nootkatol. Inhibition experiments suggested that the first introduction of oxygen, the rate-limiting step of the bioconversion, may have been catalysed by a cytochrome-P450-monooxygenase. However, nootkatone was not the final metabolite: further flavour-active and inactive, non-volatile oxidation products were identified. (+)-Valencene and the flavour-active mono-oxyfunctionalised transformation products, alpha-nootkatol, nootkatone, and valencene-11,12-epoxide accumulated preferably inside the fungal cells. Di- and poly-oxygenated products, such as nootkatone-11,12-epoxide, were found solely in the culture medium, indicating an active transport of these metabolites into the extracellular compartment during (+)-valencene detoxification. These metabolic properties may have contributed to the high tolerance of the fungus towards the exogenous hydrocarbon.

  6. Isolation of Ascomycetous Fungi from a Tertiary Institution Campus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The predominant Ascomycetous fungi isolated include among others; Aspergillus niger, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium italicum, Fusarium acuminatum, Fusarium culmorum, Candida albicans, Botrytis cinerea, Geotrichum candidum, Trichoderma viride, Verticillium lateritum, Curvularia palescens ...

  7. Biotransformation of fluorophenyl pyridine carboxylic acids by the model fungus Cunninghamella elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Brown, William; Dunne, Brian; Ortin, Yannick; Fox, Mark A; Sandford, Graham; Murphy, Cormac D

    2017-09-01

    1. Fluorine plays a key role in the design of new drugs and recent FDA approvals included two fluorinated drugs, tedizolid phosphate and vorapaxar, both of which contain the fluorophenyl pyridyl moiety. 2. To investigate the likely phase-I (oxidative) metabolic fate of this group, various fluorinated phenyl pyridine carboxylic acids were incubated with the fungus Cunninghamella elegans, which is an established model of mammalian drug metabolism. 3.  19 F NMR spectroscopy established the degree of biotransformation, which varied depending on the position of fluorine substitution, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified alcohols and hydroxylated carboxylic acids as metabolites. The hydroxylated metabolites were further structurally characterised by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), which demonstrated that hydroxylation occurred on the 4' position; fluorine in that position blocked the hydroxylation. 4. The fluorophenyl pyridine carboxylic acids were not biotransformed by rat liver microsomes and this was a consequence of inhibitory action, and thus, the fungal model was crucial in obtaining metabolites to establish the mechanism of catabolism.

  8. Draft genome sequence of a monokaryotic model brown-rot fungus Postia (Rhodonia) placenta SB12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill Gaskell; Phil Kersten; Luis F. Larrondo; Paulo Canessa; Diego Martinez; David Hibbett; Monika Schmoll; Christian P. Kubicek; Angel T. Martinez; Jagjit Yadav; Emma Master; Jon Karl Magnuson; Debbie Yaver; Randy Berka; Kathleen Lail; Cindy Chen; Kurt LaButti; Matt Nolan; Anna Lipzen; Andrea Aerts; Robert Riley; Kerrie Barry; Bernard Henrissat; Robert Blanchette; Igor V. Grigoriev; Dan Cullen

    2017-01-01

    We report the genome of Postia (Rhodonia) placenta MAD-SB12, a homokaryotic wood decay fungus (Basidiomycota, Polyporales). Intensively studied as a representative brown rot decayer, the gene complement is consistent with the rapid depolymerization of cellulose but not lignin.

  9. Identification and Quantification of Cause and Effects in Symbiosis of Corn with Arbuscular Mycorrehiza Fungus using Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jahan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering to necessity and importance of determining mycorrhizal symbiosis level and its effects on crop agroecological characteristics as well as other related factors affecting this relationship, beside, the lack of an assured method for this purpose, the present study designed based on new perspectives and insights for determining cause and effects relations, latent variables using structural equation modeling (SEM approach. A field experiment was conducted during 2 years. A split plots arrangement based on randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications was used. Treatments consisted four cropping systems (high, medium, and low input conventional as well as ecological system and four inoculations (mycorrhizae fungus: Glomus intraradices, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR: (Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter paspali, dual inoculation: (fungus plus bacteria, and no-inoculation (control, which were allocated to main plots and sub plots, respectively. At the first step, a confirmatory factor analyzing was conducted resulted to two distinguished factors, and then the variables which had the most loads (weight on one of these two factors were determined. At the second step, considering ecophysiological basis of crops growth and development, in order to continue analyzing, the first factor (including: leaf area index (LAI, root length colonization percent (RLCP, dry matter (DM, stem diameter (D, SPAD readings and the second factor (including: maximum photosynthesis (Amax, specific root length (SRL, canopy temperature (CT, plant height (H, soil respiration rate (SRR, variable chlorophyll fluorescence to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm, plant tissue phosphorus content (%P determined resource capture latent construct and resource utilization latent construct, respectively. Correlation coefficients, squared multiple correlation coefficients, covariance matrices, direct and indirect path coefficients were calculated

  10. Geosmithia-Ophiostoma: a New Fungus-Fungus Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepori, Alessia L; Bettini, Priscilla P; Comparini, Cecilia; Sarrocco, Sabrina; Bonini, Anna; Frascella, Arcangela; Ghelardini, Luisa; Scala, Aniello; Vannacci, Giovanni; Santini, Alberto

    2018-04-01

    In Europe as in North America, elms are devastated by Dutch elm disease (DED), caused by the alien ascomycete Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. Pathogen dispersal and transmission are ensured by local species of bark beetles, which established a novel association with the fungus. Elm bark beetles also transport the Geosmithia fungi genus that is found in scolytids' galleries colonized by O. novo-ulmi. Widespread horizontal gene transfer between O. novo-ulmi and Geosmithia was recently observed. In order to define the relation between these two fungi in the DED pathosystem, O. novo-ulmi and Geosmithia species from elm, including a GFP-tagged strain, were grown in dual culture and mycelial interactions were observed by light and fluorescence microscopy. Growth and sporulation of O. novo-ulmi in the absence or presence of Geosmithia were compared. The impact of Geosmithia on DED severity was tested in vivo by co-inoculating Geosmithia and O. novo-ulmi in elms. A close and stable relation was observed between the two fungi, which may be classified as mycoparasitism by Geosmithia on O. novo-ulmi. These results prove the existence of a new component in the complex of organisms involved in DED, which might be capable of reducing the disease impact.

  11. Biosorption of heavy metals using a dead macro fungus schizophyllum commune fries: evaluation of equilibrium and kinetic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javid, A.; Bajwa, R.; Javid, A.

    2010-01-01

    Biomass of a wood rotting fungus viz., Schizophyllum commune Fries was utilized for the treatment of electroplating wastewater that contained Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Cr(VI) ions. Preliminary batch assays were conducted with synthetic pure metal-bearing solutions. Results obtained showed that among various parameters studied, solution pH between a range of 2.0-6.0 induced negligible uptake at pH < 3.5 and exhibited maximum at around 4.5-5.5 for Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions, while for Cr(VI) ion the highest was evidenced at pH 2.0-2.5. The kinetics of all metal ions was fast and biosorption equilibrium was established in 1 hour with appropriateness of pseudo-second-order. A temperature change in the range of 15 - 45 deg. C did not affect the biosorption capacity of the candidate fungus. The biosorption of metal ion increased on elevating initial metal ions concentrations (20-100 mg L/sup -1/) in the medium. The maximum biosorption capacity of fungus biomass was 9.0, 21.27, 4.83, 18.54 mg g/sup -1/ for Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) and Cr(VI), respectively. The experimental data was best adjusted by Langmuir, Freundlich and modified Langmuir models. Biosorption assays conducted with actual electroplating effluents under pre-optimized conditions revealed efficiency of 72.01, 53.16, 7.08 and 19.87% for Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Cr(VI) ions, respectively by candidate biomass. (author)

  12. Potential for spread of the white-nose fungus (Pseudogymnoascus destructans) in the Americas: use of Maxent and NicheA to assure strict model transference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Luis E; Lira-Noriega, Andrés; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo; Townsend Peterson, A

    2014-11-01

    Emerging infectious diseases can present serious threats to wildlife, even to the point of causing extinction. Whitenose fungus (Pseudogymnoascus destructans) is causing an epizootic in bats that is expanding rapidly, both geographically and taxonomically. Little is known of the ecology and distributional potential of this intercontinental pathogen. We address this gap via ecological niche models that characterise coarse resolution niche differences between fungus populations on different continents, identifying areas potentially vulnerable to infection in South America. Here we explore a novel approach to identifying areas of potential distribution across novel geographic regions that avoids perilious extrapolation into novel environments. European and North American fungus populations show differential use of environmental space, but rather than niche differentiation, we find that changes are best attributed to climatic differences between the two continents. Suitable areas for spread of the pathogen were identified across southern South America; however caution should be taken to avoid underestimating the potential for spread of this pathogen in South America.

  13. Functions and regulation of the Nox family in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina: a new role in cellulose degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Sylvain; Malagnac, Fabienne; Bidard, Frédérique; Lalucque, Hervé; Silar, Philippe

    2009-10-01

    NADPH oxidases are enzymes that produce reactive oxygen species. Studies in mammals, plants and fungi have shown that they play important roles in differentiation, defence, host/pathogen interaction and mutualistic symbiosis. In this paper, we have identified a Podospora anserina mutant strain impaired for processes controlled by PaNox1 and PaNox2, the two Nox isoforms characterized in this model ascomycete. We show that the gene mutated is PaNoxR, the homologue of the gene encoding the regulatory subunit p67(phox), conserved in mammals and fungi, and that PaNoxR regulates both PaNox1 and PaNox2. Genome sequence analysis of P. anserina reveals that this fungus posses a third Nox isoform, PaNox3, related to human Nox5/Duox and plant Rboh. We have generated a knock-out mutant of PaNox3 and report that PaNox3 plays a minor role in P. anserina, if any. We show that PaNox1 and PaNox2 play antagonist roles in cellulose degradation. Finally, we report for the first time that a saprobic fungus, P. anserina, develops special cell structures dedicated to breach and to exploit a solid cellulosic substrate, cellophane. Importantly, as for similar structures present in some plant pathogens, their proper differentiation requires PaNox1, PaNox2, PaNoxR and the tetraspanin PaPls1.

  14. Genes under positive selection in a model plant pathogenic fungus, Botrytis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguileta, Gabriela; Lengelle, Juliette; Chiapello, Hélène; Giraud, Tatiana; Viaud, Muriel; Fournier, Elisabeth; Rodolphe, François; Marthey, Sylvain; Ducasse, Aurélie; Gendrault, Annie; Poulain, Julie; Wincker, Patrick; Gout, Lilian

    2012-07-01

    The rapid evolution of particular genes is essential for the adaptation of pathogens to new hosts and new environments. Powerful methods have been developed for detecting targets of selection in the genome. Here we used divergence data to compare genes among four closely related fungal pathogens adapted to different hosts to elucidate the functions putatively involved in adaptive processes. For this goal, ESTs were sequenced in the specialist fungal pathogens Botrytis tulipae and Botrytis ficariarum, and compared with genome sequences of Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, responsible for diseases on over 200 plant species. A maximum likelihood-based analysis of 642 predicted orthologs detected 21 genes showing footprints of positive selection. These results were validated by resequencing nine of these genes in additional Botrytis species, showing they have also been rapidly evolving in other related species. Twenty of the 21 genes had not previously been identified as pathogenicity factors in B. cinerea, but some had functions related to plant-fungus interactions. The putative functions were involved in respiratory and energy metabolism, protein and RNA metabolism, signal transduction or virulence, similarly to what was detected in previous studies using the same approach in other pathogens. Mutants of B. cinerea were generated for four of these genes as a first attempt to elucidate their functions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Blast Fungus Decoded: Genomes in Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Langner

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant disease outbreaks caused by fungi are a chronic threat to global food security. A prime case is blast disease, which is caused by the ascomycete fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (syn. Pyricularia oryzae, which is infamous as the most destructive disease of the staple crop rice. However, despite its Linnaean binomial name, M. oryzae is a multihost pathogen that infects more than 50 species of grasses. A timely study by P. Gladieux and colleagues (mBio 9:e01219-17, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01219-17 reports the most extensive population genomic analysis of the blast fungus thus far. M. oryzae consists of an assemblage of differentiated lineages that tend to be associated with particular host genera. Nonetheless, there is clear evidence of gene flow between lineages consistent with maintaining M. oryzae as a single species. Here, we discuss these findings with an emphasis on the ecologic and genetic mechanisms underpinning gene flow. This work also bears practical implications for diagnostics, surveillance, and management of blast diseases.

  16. The Blast Fungus Decoded: Genomes in Flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Thorsten; Białas, Aleksandra; Kamoun, Sophien

    2018-04-17

    Plant disease outbreaks caused by fungi are a chronic threat to global food security. A prime case is blast disease, which is caused by the ascomycete fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (syn. Pyricularia oryzae ), which is infamous as the most destructive disease of the staple crop rice. However, despite its Linnaean binomial name, M. oryzae is a multihost pathogen that infects more than 50 species of grasses. A timely study by P. Gladieux and colleagues (mBio 9:e01219-17, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01219-17) reports the most extensive population genomic analysis of the blast fungus thus far. M. oryzae consists of an assemblage of differentiated lineages that tend to be associated with particular host genera. Nonetheless, there is clear evidence of gene flow between lineages consistent with maintaining M. oryzae as a single species. Here, we discuss these findings with an emphasis on the ecologic and genetic mechanisms underpinning gene flow. This work also bears practical implications for diagnostics, surveillance, and management of blast diseases. Copyright © 2018 Langner et al.

  17. Genomic and proteomic analyses of the fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora provide insights into nematode-trap formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinkui; Wang, Lei; Ji, Xinglai; Feng, Yun; Li, Xiaomin; Zou, Chenggang; Xu, Jianping; Ren, Yan; Mi, Qili; Wu, Junli; Liu, Shuqun; Liu, Yu; Huang, Xiaowei; Wang, Haiyan; Niu, Xuemei; Li, Juan; Liang, Lianming; Luo, Yanlu; Ji, Kaifang; Zhou, Wei; Yu, Zefen; Li, Guohong; Liu, Yajun; Li, Lei; Qiao, Min; Feng, Lu; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2011-09-01

    Nematode-trapping fungi are "carnivorous" and attack their hosts using specialized trapping devices. The morphological development of these traps is the key indicator of their switch from saprophytic to predacious lifestyles. Here, the genome of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora Fres. (ATCC24927) was reported. The genome contains 40.07 Mb assembled sequence with 11,479 predicted genes. Comparative analysis showed that A. oligospora shared many more genes with pathogenic fungi than with non-pathogenic fungi. Specifically, compared to several sequenced ascomycete fungi, the A. oligospora genome has a larger number of pathogenicity-related genes in the subtilisin, cellulase, cellobiohydrolase, and pectinesterase gene families. Searching against the pathogen-host interaction gene database identified 398 homologous genes involved in pathogenicity in other fungi. The analysis of repetitive sequences provided evidence for repeat-induced point mutations in A. oligospora. Proteomic and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses revealed that 90 genes were significantly up-regulated at the early stage of trap-formation by nematode extracts and most of these genes were involved in translation, amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall and membrane biogenesis. Based on the combined genomic, proteomic and qPCR data, a model for the formation of nematode trapping device in this fungus was proposed. In this model, multiple fungal signal transduction pathways are activated by its nematode prey to further regulate downstream genes associated with diverse cellular processes such as energy metabolism, biosynthesis of the cell wall and adhesive proteins, cell division, glycerol accumulation and peroxisome biogenesis. This study will facilitate the identification of pathogenicity-related genes and provide a broad foundation for understanding the molecular and evolutionary mechanisms underlying fungi-nematodes interactions.

  18. Mating system of the filamentous ascomycete, Glomerella cingulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisar, C R; TeBeest, D O

    1999-03-01

    Mating in heterothallic filamentous ascomycetes is typically controlled by a single mating-type locus with two alternate alleles or idiomorphs. In this study, five self-sterile strains of Glomerella cingulata from pecan were crossed in all possible combinations. Four of the five strains could be placed into two mating-type groups, but the fifth strain was sexually compatible with all of the other strains. Single ascospore progeny were isolated from each of the successful crosses, tested for self-fertility, and backcrossed with both parents. In addition, subsets of F1 isolates were crossed with all five of the original strains from pecan and in all possible combinations with each other. Results from the crosses showed that the ascospore progeny had stably inherited the mating pattern of one of the parental strains and that the mating type had segregated 1:1 among the F1 isolates. Furthermore, the five strains from pecan were sexually compatible with five additional heterothallic strains in all but one combination. Data from these experiments are consistent with a mating system composed of a single mating-type locus with multiple alternate alleles. We believe that this is the first report of this type of mating system for an ascomycete species.

  19. Levels of specificity of Xylaria species associated with fungus-growing termites: a phylogenetic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Andre; Ros, V I D; De Beer, Z. W.

    2009-01-01

    of the ascomycete genus Xylaria appear and rapidly cover the fungus garden. This raises the question whether certain Xylaria species are specialised in occupying termite nests or whether they are just occasional visitors. We tested Xylaria specificity at four levels: (1) fungus-growing termites, (2) termite genera...... of the ITS region revealed 16 operational taxonomic units of Xylaria, indicating high levels of Xylaria species richness. Not much of this variation was explained by termite genus, species, or colony; thus, at level 2-4 the specificity is low. Analysis of the large subunit rDNA region, showed that all...... termite-associated Xylaria belong to a single clade, together with only three of the 26 non-termite-associated strains. Termite-associated Xylaria thus show specificity for fungus-growing termites (level 1). We did not find evidence for geographic or temporal structuring in these Xylaria phylogenies...

  20. Comparative Analysis of Secretome Profiles of Manganese(II-Oxidizing Ascomycete Fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn A Zeiner

    Full Text Available Fungal secretomes contain a wide range of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes, including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases, and lignin-degrading accessory enzymes, that synergistically drive litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Aspergillus species have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates or conducted side-by-side comparisons of diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood. Here we use a combination of LC-MS/MS, genomic, and bioinformatic analyses to characterize and compare the protein composition of the secretomes of four recently isolated, cosmopolitan, Mn(II-oxidizing Ascomycetes (Alternaria alternata SRC1lrK2f, Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a, Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a, and Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a. We demonstrate that the organisms produce a rich yet functionally similar suite of extracellular enzymes, with species-specific differences in secretome composition arising from unique amino acid sequences rather than overall protein function. Furthermore, we identify not only a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes that can directly oxidize recalcitrant carbon, but also an impressive suite of redox-active accessory enzymes that suggests a role for Fenton-based hydroxyl radical formation in indirect, non-specific lignocellulose attack. Our findings highlight the diverse oxidative capacity of these environmental isolates and enhance our understanding of the role of filamentous Ascomycetes in carbon turnover in the environment.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Secretome Profiles of Manganese(II)-Oxidizing Ascomycete Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiner, Carolyn A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Zink, Erika M.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Chaput, Dominique L.; Haridas, Sajeet; Wu, Si; LaButti, Kurt; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Henrissat, Bernard; Santelli, Cara M.; Hansel, Colleen M.; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2016-07-19

    Fungal secretomes contain a wide range of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes, including cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases, and lignin-degrading accessory enzymes, that synergistically drive litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Aspergillus species have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates or conducted side-by-side comparisons of diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood. Here we use a combination of LC-MS/MS, genomic, and bioinformatic analyses to characterize and compare the protein composition of the secretomes of four recently isolated, cosmopolitan, Mn(II)-oxidizing Ascomycetes (Alternaria alternata SRC1lrK2f, Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a, Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a, and Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a). We demonstrate that the organisms produce a rich yet functionally similar suite of extracellular enzymes, with species-specific differences in secretome composition arising from unique amino acid sequences rather than overall protein function. Furthermore, we identify not only a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes that can directly oxidize recalcitrant carbon, but also an impressive suite of redox-active accessory enzymes that suggests a role for Fenton-based hydroxyl radical formation in indirect, non-specific lignocellulose attack. Our findings highlight the diverse oxidative capacity of these environmental isolates and enhance our understanding of the role of filamentous Ascomycetes in carbon turnover in the environment.

  2. The influence of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and coumarin on flavonoid production by fungus Phellinus sp.: modeling of production kinetic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Kui; Li, Le; Peterson, Eric Charles; Ruan, Tingting; Duan, Xiaoyi

    2015-11-01

    For the purpose of improving the fungal production of flavonoids, the influence of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and coumarin on flavonoid production by fungus Phellinus sp. P0988 was investigated by developing the corresponding kinetics of flavonoid production in a 7-L bioreactor. Phellinus sp. was confirmed to form flavonoids in pellets and broth when cultivated in basic medium, and the optimum concentration of NAA and coumarin in medium for flavonoid production were determined to be 0.03 and 0.02 g/L, respectively. The developed unstructured mathematical models were in good agreement with the experimental results with respect to flavonoid production kinetic profiles with NAA and coumarin supplementation at optimum levels and revealed significant accuracy in terms of statistical consistency and robustness. Analysis of these kinetic processes indicated that NAA and coumarin supplementations imposed a stronger positive influence on flavonoid production and substrate consumption compared to their effects on cell growth. The separate addition of NAA and coumarin resulted in enhancements in final product accumulation and productivity, achieving final flavonoid concentrations of 3.60 and 2.75 g/L, respectively, and glucose consumption showed a significant decrease compared to the non-supplemented control as well. Also, the separate presence of NAA and coumarin respectively decreased maintenance coefficients (M s) from 2.48 in the control to 1.39 and 0.22, representing decreases of 43.9 and 91.1 %, respectively. The current study is the first known application of mathematical kinetic models to explore the influence of medium components adding on flavonoid production by fungi.

  3. Biotransformation of Progesterone by the Ascomycete Aspergillus niger N402.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savinova, O S; Solyev, P N; Vasina, D V; Tyazhelova, T V; Fedorova, T V; Savinova, T S

    2018-01-01

    The ability of the ascomycete Aspergillus niger N402 to transform exogenous progesterone was investigated. We found that this strain has steroid-hydroxylating activity and can introduce a hydroxyl group into the progesterone molecule mainly at positions C11(α) and C21 with predominant formation of 21-hydroxyprogesterone (deoxycortone). In addition, formation of 6β,11α-dihydroxyprogesterone was also observed. Studying the effects of the growth medium composition and temperature on progesterone conversion by A. niger N402 showed that the most intense accumulation of 21-hydroxyprogesterone occurred in minimal synthetic medium at 28°C. Increasing the cultivation temperature to 37°C resulted in almost complete inhibition of the hydroxylase activity in the minimal medium. In the complete medium, a similar increase in temperature inhibited 11α-hydroxylase activity and completely suppressed 6β-hydroxylase activity, but it produced no effect on 21-hydroxylating activity.

  4. Potential for spread of the white-nose fungus (Pseudogymnoascus destructans in the Americas: use of Maxent and NicheA to assure strict model transference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Escobar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases can present serious threats to wildlife, even to the point of causing extinction. White- nose fungus (Pseudogymnoascus destructans is causing an epizootic in bats that is expanding rapidly, both geographically and taxonomically. Little is known of the ecology and distributional potential of this intercontinental pathogen. We address this gap via ecological niche models that characterise coarse resolution niche differences between fungus populations on dif- ferent continents, identifying areas potentially vulnerable to infection in South America. Here we explore a novel approach to identifying areas of potential distribution across novel geographic regions that avoids perilious extrapolation into novel environments. European and North American fungus populations show differential use of environmental space, but rather than niche differentiation, we find that changes are best attributed to climatic differences between the two continents. Suitable areas for spread of the pathogen were identified across southern South America; however caution should be taken to avoid underestimating the potential for spread of this pathogen in South America.

  5. Multivariate analysis of the Scutellinia umbrorum complex (Pezizales, Ascomycetes) from five ecotopes in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paal, Jaanus; Kullman, Bellis; Huijser, Henk A.

    1998-01-01

    The multivariate structure of the Scutellinia umbrorum complex ( Pezizales, Ascomycetes), based on the morphometrical parameters of 81 specimens from five ecotopes in the Netherlands, was analysed. According to conventional expert estimation, five putative taxa resp. species were established: S.

  6. Sodiomyces alkalinus, a new holomorphic alkaliphilic ascomycete within the Plectosphaerellaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grum-Grzhimaylo, A.A.; Debets, A.J.M.; Diepeningen, van A.D.; Georgieva, M.L.; Bilanenko, E.N.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we reassess the taxonomic reference of the previously described holomorphic alkaliphilic fungus Heleococcum alkalinum isolated from soda soils in Russia, Mongolia and Tanzania. We show that it is not an actual member of the genus Heleococcum (order Hypocreales) as stated before and

  7. Sodiomyces alkalinus, a new holomorphic alkaliphilic ascomycete within the Plectoshaerellaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grum-Grzhimaylo, A.; Debets, A.J.M.; Diepeningen, van A.D.; Georgieva, M.L.; Bilanenko, E.N.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we reassess the taxonomic reference of the previously described holomorphic alkaliphilic fungus Heleococcum alkalinum isolated from soda soils in Russia, Mongolia and Tanzania. We show that it is not an actual member of the genus Heleococcum (order Hypocreales) as stated before and

  8. Biotechnology of non-Saccharomyces yeasts--the ascomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric A

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae and several other yeast species are among the most important groups of biotechnological organisms. S. cerevisiae and closely related ascomycetous yeasts are the major producer of biotechnology products worldwide, exceeding other groups of industrial microorganisms in productivity and economic revenues. Traditional industrial attributes of the S. cerevisiae group include their primary roles in food fermentations such as beers, cider, wines, sake, distilled spirits, bakery products, cheese, sausages, and other fermented foods. Other long-standing industrial processes involving S. cerevisae yeasts are production of fuel ethanol, single-cell protein (SCP), feeds and fodder, industrial enzymes, and small molecular weight metabolites. More recently, non-Saccharomyces yeasts (non-conventional yeasts) have been utilized as industrial organisms for a variety of biotechnological roles. Non-Saccharomyces yeasts are increasingly being used as hosts for expression of proteins, biocatalysts and multi-enzyme pathways for the synthesis of fine chemicals and small molecular weight compounds of medicinal and nutritional importance. Non-Saccharomyces yeasts also have important roles in agriculture as agents of biocontrol, bioremediation, and as indicators of environmental quality. Several of these products and processes have reached commercial utility, while others are in advanced development. The objective of this mini-review is to describe processes currently used by industry and those in developmental stages and close to commercialization primarily from non-Saccharomyces yeasts with an emphasis on new opportunities. The utility of S. cerevisiae in heterologous production of selected products is also described.

  9. Fatal cerebral mycoses caused by the ascomycete Chaetomium strumarium.

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, S P; Sigler, L; McAleer, R; McGough, D A; Rinaldi, M G; Mizell, G

    1995-01-01

    Three cases of fatal cerebral mycosis in males with prior histories of intravenous drug use from the United States and Australia are reported. Infection in each case was limited to brain abscess; no other sites of infection were observed. The fungus seen by histopathology and isolated from the brain tissue in each case was identified as Chaetomium strumarium. This is the first report of human infection by this species, and C. strumarium is the second species of Chaetomium known to cause prima...

  10. Origin and distribution of epipolythiodioxopiperazine (ETP gene clusters in filamentous ascomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardiner Donald M

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes responsible for biosynthesis of fungal secondary metabolites are usually tightly clustered in the genome and co-regulated with metabolite production. Epipolythiodioxopiperazines (ETPs are a class of secondary metabolite toxins produced by disparate ascomycete fungi and implicated in several animal and plant diseases. Gene clusters responsible for their production have previously been defined in only two fungi. Fungal genome sequence data have been surveyed for the presence of putative ETP clusters and cluster data have been generated from several fungal taxa where genome sequences are not available. Phylogenetic analysis of cluster genes has been used to investigate the assembly and heredity of these gene clusters. Results Putative ETP gene clusters are present in 14 ascomycete taxa, but absent in numerous other ascomycetes examined. These clusters are discontinuously distributed in ascomycete lineages. Gene content is not absolutely fixed, however, common genes are identified and phylogenies of six of these are separately inferred. In each phylogeny almost all cluster genes form monophyletic clades with non-cluster fungal paralogues being the nearest outgroups. This relatedness of cluster genes suggests that a progenitor ETP gene cluster assembled within an ancestral taxon. Within each of the cluster clades, the cluster genes group together in consistent subclades, however, these relationships do not always reflect the phylogeny of ascomycetes. Micro-synteny of several of the genes within the clusters provides further support for these subclades. Conclusion ETP gene clusters appear to have a single origin and have been inherited relatively intact rather than assembling independently in the different ascomycete lineages. This progenitor cluster has given rise to a small number of distinct phylogenetic classes of clusters that are represented in a discontinuous pattern throughout ascomycetes. The disjunct heredity of

  11. Preparation, characterization, uranium (VI) biosorption models, and conditions optimization by response surface methodology (RSM) for amidoxime-functionalized marine fungus materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xuechun; Gao, Yang; Jiang, Min; He, Dianxiong; Liao, Sen; Hou, Dan; Yan, Xueming; Long, Wei; Wu, Yaxin; Tan, Ni [Univ. of South China, Hengyang (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2017-08-01

    Amidoxime-functionalized marine fungus Fusarium sp. ZZF51 (ZGDA) was synthesized and studied to adsorb uranium (VI) from the aqueous solution. Different instrumental techniques such as FTIR, SEM, and TGA were employed for the characterization of the manufactured materials, and theirs ability of removal uranium (VI) was optimized using RSM. The experimental results showed the maximum adsorption capacity for the synthesized materials was 230.78 mg g{sup -1} at the following optimization conditions: S-L ratio 150 mg L{sup -1}, pH 5.13, uranium (VI) initial concentration 40 mg L{sup -1}, and equilibrium time 122.40 min. More than 85% of the absorbed uranium (VI) could be desorbed by 0.5 or 1.0 mol L{sup -1} HCl, and the modified mycelium could be reused at least five times. The thermodynamic experimental data of adsorption uranium (VI) could fit better with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms models, and the pseudo-second-order model was better to interpret the kinetics process. The modified fungus materials exhibited the better sorption capacity for uranium (VI) in comparison with raw biomass should be attributed to the strong chelation of amidoxime to uranium (VI) ions.

  12. Genome and physiology of the ascomycete filamentous fungus Xeromyces bisporus, the most xerophilic organism isolated to date

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, Su-lin L.; Lantz, Henrik; Pettersson, Olga V.

    2015-01-01

    -related genes; among these, certain (not all) steps for glycerol synthesis were upregulated. Xeromyces bisporus increased glycerol production during hypo- and hyper-osmotic stress, and much of its wet weight comprised water and rinsable solutes; leaked solutes may form a protective slime. Xeromyces bisporus......Xeromyces bisporus can grow on sugary substrates down to 0.61, an extremely low water activity. Its genome size is approximately 22 Mb. Gene clusters encoding for secondary metabolites were conspicuously absent; secondary metabolites were not detected experimentally. Thus, in its 'dry' but nutrient...... and other food-borne moulds increased membrane fatty acid saturation as water activity decreased. Such modifications did not appear to be transcriptionally regulated in X. bisporus; however, genes modulating sterols, phospholipids and the cell wall were differentially expressed. Xeromyces bisporus...

  13. Antibiotic Resistance and Fungus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-02-28

    Dr. David Denning, President of the Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections and an infectious diseases clinician, discusses antimicrobial resistance and fungus.  Created: 2/28/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/28/2017.

  14. Newly recognised lineages of perithecial ascomycetes: the new orders Conioscyphales and Pleurotheciales

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Réblová, Martina; Seifert, K. A.; Fournier, J.; Štěpánek, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 37, December (2016), s. 57-81 ISSN 0031-5850 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/12/0038 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : Hypocreomycetidae * freshwater ascomycetes * holoblastic conidiogensis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics; EE - Microbiology, Virology (MBU-M) Impact factor: 7.511, year: 2016

  15. Insect symbioses: a case study of past, present, and future fungus-growing ant research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caldera, Eric J; Poulsen, Michael; Suen, Garret

    2009-01-01

    's fungus garden, antibiotic-producing actinobacteria that help protect the fungus garden from the parasite, and a black yeast that parasitizes the ant-actinobacteria mutualism. The fungus-growing ant symbiosis serves as a particularly useful model system for studying insect-microbe symbioses, because...

  16. Made for Each Other: Ascomycete Yeasts and Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Meredith

    2017-06-01

    Fungi and insects live together in the same habitats, and many species of both groups rely on each other for success. Insects, the most successful animals on Earth, cannot produce sterols, essential vitamins, and many enzymes; fungi, often yeast-like in growth form, make up for these deficits. Fungi, however, require constantly replenished substrates because they consume the previous ones, and insects, sometimes lured by volatile fungal compounds, carry fungi directly to a similar, but fresh, habitat. Yeasts associated with insects include Ascomycota (Saccharomycotina, Pezizomycotina) and a few Basidiomycota. Beetles, homopterans, and flies are important associates of fungi, and in turn the insects carry yeasts in pits, specialized external pouches, and modified gut pockets. Some yeasts undergo sexual reproduction within the insect gut, where the genetic diversity of the population is increased, while others, well suited to their stable environment, may never mate. The range of interactions extends from dispersal of yeasts on the surface of insects (e.g., cactus- Drosophila -yeast and ephemeral flower communities, ambrosia beetles, yeasts with holdfasts) to extremely specialized associations of organisms that can no longer exist independently, as in the case of yeast-like symbionts of planthoppers. In a few cases yeast-like fungus-insect associations threaten butterflies and other species with extinction. Technical advances improve discovery and identification of the fungi but also inform our understanding of the evolution of yeast-insect symbioses, although there is much more to learn.

  17. Fatal cerebral mycoses caused by the ascomycete Chaetomium strumarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, S P; Sigler, L; McAleer, R; McGough, D A; Rinaldi, M G; Mizell, G

    1995-10-01

    Three cases of fatal cerebral mycosis in males with prior histories of intravenous drug use from the United States and Australia are reported. Infection in each case was limited to brain abscess; no other sites of infection were observed. The fungus seen by histopathology and isolated from the brain tissue in each case was identified as Chaetomium strumarium. This is the first report of human infection by this species, and C. strumarium is the second species of Chaetomium known to cause primary brain infection. Chaetomium strumarium is unusual among members of the genus Chaetomium in forming ascocarps covered with pale, thin-walled, flexuous hairs, a feature leading to its original placement in the genus Achaetomium. Presence of pinkish exudate droplets and/or crystals associated with hyphae or ascocarps, sometimes accompanied by a pinkish diffusible pigment; good growth at 42 degrees C; and production of small conidia further distinguish this species. The brain abscess isolates were compared with isolates from prior cases of cerebral infection which had been identified as either Chaetomium atrobrunneum or Chaetomium globosum. With reidentification of one isolate originally identified as C. globosum to C. atrobrunneum, only C. strumarium and C. atrobrunneum have been confirmed to cause infection involving the brain.

  18. Beta-carbonic anhydrases play a role in fruiting body development and ascospore germination in the filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skander Elleuche

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO(2 is among the most important gases for all organisms. Its reversible interconversion to bicarbonate (HCO(3 (- reaches equilibrium spontaneously, but slowly, and can be accelerated by a ubiquitous group of enzymes called carbonic anhydrases (CAs. These enzymes are grouped by their distinct structural features into alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta- and zeta-classes. While physiological functions of mammalian, prokaryotic, plant and algal CAs have been extensively studied over the past years, the role of beta-CAs in yeasts and the human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans has been elucidated only recently, and the function of CAs in multicellular filamentous ascomycetes is mostly unknown. To assess the role of CAs in the development of filamentous ascomycetes, the function of three genes, cas1, cas2 and cas3 (carbonic anhydrase of Sordaria encoding beta-class carbonic anhydrases was characterized in the filamentous ascomycetous fungus Sordaria macrospora. Fluorescence microscopy was used to determine the localization of GFP- and DsRED-tagged CAs. While CAS1 and CAS3 are cytoplasmic enzymes, CAS2 is localized to the mitochondria. To assess the function of the three isoenzymes, we generated knock-out strains for all three cas genes (Deltacas1, Deltacas2, and Deltacas3 as well as all combinations of double mutants. No effect on vegetative growth, fruiting-body and ascospore development was seen in the single mutant strains lacking cas1 or cas3, while single mutant Deltacas2 was affected in vegetative growth, fruiting-body development and ascospore germination, and the double mutant strain Deltacas1/2 was completely sterile. Defects caused by the lack of cas2 could be partially complemented by elevated CO(2 levels or overexpression of cas1, cas3, or a non-mitochondrial cas2 variant. The results suggest that CAs are required for sexual reproduction in filamentous ascomycetes and that the multiplicity of isoforms results in redundancy of

  19. Beta-carbonic anhydrases play a role in fruiting body development and ascospore germination in the filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuche, Skander; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2009-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is among the most important gases for all organisms. Its reversible interconversion to bicarbonate (HCO(3) (-)) reaches equilibrium spontaneously, but slowly, and can be accelerated by a ubiquitous group of enzymes called carbonic anhydrases (CAs). These enzymes are grouped by their distinct structural features into alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta- and zeta-classes. While physiological functions of mammalian, prokaryotic, plant and algal CAs have been extensively studied over the past years, the role of beta-CAs in yeasts and the human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans has been elucidated only recently, and the function of CAs in multicellular filamentous ascomycetes is mostly unknown. To assess the role of CAs in the development of filamentous ascomycetes, the function of three genes, cas1, cas2 and cas3 (carbonic anhydrase of Sordaria) encoding beta-class carbonic anhydrases was characterized in the filamentous ascomycetous fungus Sordaria macrospora. Fluorescence microscopy was used to determine the localization of GFP- and DsRED-tagged CAs. While CAS1 and CAS3 are cytoplasmic enzymes, CAS2 is localized to the mitochondria. To assess the function of the three isoenzymes, we generated knock-out strains for all three cas genes (Deltacas1, Deltacas2, and Deltacas3) as well as all combinations of double mutants. No effect on vegetative growth, fruiting-body and ascospore development was seen in the single mutant strains lacking cas1 or cas3, while single mutant Deltacas2 was affected in vegetative growth, fruiting-body development and ascospore germination, and the double mutant strain Deltacas1/2 was completely sterile. Defects caused by the lack of cas2 could be partially complemented by elevated CO(2) levels or overexpression of cas1, cas3, or a non-mitochondrial cas2 variant. The results suggest that CAs are required for sexual reproduction in filamentous ascomycetes and that the multiplicity of isoforms results in redundancy of specific and

  20. DNA barcoding and isolation of vertically transmitted ascomycetes in sorghum from Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Michaela S.; Wulff, Ednar Gadelha; Zida, Elisabeth P.

    2016-01-01

    -day-old seedlings was analyzed by 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) amplicon sequencing. More than 99% of the fungal rDNA was found to originate from ascomycetes. The distribution of ascomycetes at species level was subsequently analyzed by barcoding of ITS2 rDNA. Eighteen Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) were identified......Molecular identification of fungal taxa commonly transmitted through seeds of sorghum in Western Africa is lacking. In the present study, farm-saved seeds, collected from four villages in Northern Burkina Faso, were surface sterilized and the distribution of fungal DNA in seeds and seven...... samples collected in Central Burkina Faso confirming a common occurrence. E. sorghinum was highly predominant in seedlings both measured by DNA analysis and by isolation. The dominance of E. sorghinum was particularly strong in roots from poorly growing seedlings. Pathogenicity of E. sorghinum isolates...

  1. RNA Editing During Sexual Development Occurs in Distantly Related Filamentous Ascomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Ines; Dahlmann, Tim A; Kück, Ulrich; Nowrousian, Minou

    2017-04-01

    RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process that modifies RNA molecules leading to transcript sequences that differ from their template DNA. A-to-I editing was found to be widely distributed in nuclear transcripts of metazoa, but was detected in fungi only recently in a study of the filamentous ascomycete Fusarium graminearum that revealed extensive A-to-I editing of mRNAs in sexual structures (fruiting bodies). Here, we searched for putative RNA editing events in RNA-seq data from Sordaria macrospora and Pyronema confluens, two distantly related filamentous ascomycetes, and in data from the Taphrinomycete Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Like F. graminearum, S. macrospora is a member of the Sordariomycetes, whereas P. confluens belongs to the early-diverging group of Pezizomycetes. We found extensive A-to-I editing in RNA-seq data from sexual mycelium from both filamentous ascomycetes, but not in vegetative structures. A-to-I editing was not detected in different stages of meiosis of S. pombe. A comparison of A-to-I editing in S. macrospora with F. graminearum and P. confluens, respectively, revealed little conservation of individual editing sites. An analysis of RNA-seq data from two sterile developmental mutants of S. macrospora showed that A-to-I editing is strongly reduced in these strains. Sequencing of cDNA fragments containing more than one editing site from P. confluens showed that at the beginning of sexual development, transcripts were incompletely edited or unedited, whereas in later stages transcripts were more extensively edited. Taken together, these data suggest that A-to-I RNA editing is an evolutionary conserved feature during fruiting body development in filamentous ascomycetes. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  2. Carbohydrate-active enzymes from the zygomycete fungus Rhizopus oryzae: a highly specialized approach to carbohydrate degradation depicted at genome level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrissat Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizopus oryzae is a zygomycete filamentous fungus, well-known as a saprobe ubiquitous in soil and as a pathogenic/spoilage fungus, causing Rhizopus rot and mucomycoses. Results Carbohydrate Active enzyme (CAZy annotation of the R. oryzae identified, in contrast to other filamentous fungi, a low number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs and a high number of glycosyl transferases (GTs and carbohydrate esterases (CEs. A detailed analysis of CAZy families, supported by growth data, demonstrates highly specialized plant and fungal cell wall degrading abilities distinct from ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. The specific genomic and growth features for degradation of easily digestible plant cell wall mono- and polysaccharides (starch, galactomannan, unbranched pectin, hexose sugars, chitin, chitosan, β-1,3-glucan and fungal cell wall fractions suggest specific adaptations of R. oryzae to its environment. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genome of the zygomycete fungus R. oryzae and comparison to ascomycetes and basidiomycete species revealed how evolution has shaped its genetic content with respect to carbohydrate degradation, after divergence from the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota.

  3. SmATG7 is required for viability in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolting, Nicole; Bernhards, Yasmine; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2009-08-01

    In filamentous ascomycetes, autophagy is involved in several developmental processes. Nevertheless, until now little is known about its role in fruiting-body development. We therefore isolated a gene of the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora with high sequence similarity to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae autophagy-related gene ATG7, encoding a core autophagy regulator. This is the first characterization of an ATG7 homolog in filamentous ascomycetes. A S. cerevisiae complementation assay demonstrated that the S. macrospora Smatg7 gene functionally replaces the yeast homolog. We were not able to generate a homokaryotic knock-out mutant in S. macrospora, suggesting that Smatg7 is required for viability. However, a heterokaryotic DeltaSmatg7/Smatg7 strain and transformants generated by RNA interference showed considerable morphological phenotypes during fruiting-body development. Using real-time PCR, we demonstrated that in the wild type, the transcriptional expression of Smatg7 is markedly up-regulated under amino acid starvation conditions and at late stages during sexual development. Moreover, we showed that transcriptionally down-regulation of Smatg7 disturbs autophagy in S. macrospora.

  4. Interaction between mating-type proteins from the homothallic fungus Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Sabine; Wittig, Michael; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2002-06-01

    Mating-type genes control sexual development in ascomycetes. Little is known about their function in homothallic species, which are self-fertile and do not require a mating partner for sexual reproduction. The function of mating-type genes in the homothallic fungus Sordaria macrospora was assayed using a yeast system in order to find properties typical of eukaryotic transcription factors. We were able to demonstrate that the mating-type proteins SMTA-1 and SMTa-1 have domains capable of activating transcription of yeast reporter genes. Two-hybrid analysis for heterodimerization and homodimerization revealed the ability of SMTA-1 to interact with SMTa-1 and vice versa. These two proteins are encoded by different mating types in the related heterothallic species Neurospora crassa. The interaction between SMTA-1 and SMTa-1 was defined by experiments with truncated versions of SMTA-1 and in vitro by means of protein cross-linking. Moreover, we gained evidence for homodimerization of SMTA-1. Possible functions of mating-type proteins in the homothallic ascomycete S. macrospora are discussed.

  5. Secretome-based Manganese(II) Oxidation by Filamentous Ascomycete Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiner, C. A.; Purvine, S.; Zink, E.; Paša-Tolić, L.; Chaput, D.; Wu, S.; Santelli, C. M.; Hansel, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Manganese (Mn) oxides are among the strongest oxidants in the environment, and Mn(II) oxidation to Mn(III/IV) (hydr)oxides includes both abiotic and microbially-mediated processes. While white-rot Basidiomycete fungi oxidize Mn(II) using laccases and Mn peroxidases in association with lignocellulose degradation, the mechanisms by which filamentous Ascomycete fungi oxidize Mn(II) and a physiological role for Mn(II) oxidation in these organisms remain poorly understood. Through a combination of chemical and in-gel assays, bulk mass spectrometry, and iTRAQ proteomics, we demonstrate enzymatic Mn(II) oxidation in the secretomes of three phylogenetically diverse Ascomycetes that were isolated from Mn-laden sediments. Candidate Mn(II)-oxidizing enzymes were species-specific and included bilirubin oxidase and tyrosinase in Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a, GMC oxidoreductase in Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a, and FAD-binding oxidoreductases in Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a. These findings were supported by full proteomic characterization of the secretomes, which revealed a lack of Mn, lignin, and versatile peroxidases in these Ascomycetes but a substantially higher proportion of LMCOs and GMC oxidoreductases compared to wood-rot Basidiomycetes. We also identified the potential for indirect enzymatic Mn(II) oxidation by hydroxyl radical, as the secretomes were rich in diverse lignocellulose-degrading enzymes that could participate in Fenton chemistry. A link between Mn(II) oxidation and carbon oxidation analogous to white-rot Basidiomycetes remains unknown in these Ascomycetes. Interestingly, growth rates on rich medium were unaffected by the presence of Mn(II), and the production of Mn(II)-oxidizing proteins in the secretome was constitutive and not inducible by Mn(II). Thus, no physiological benefit of Mn(II) oxidation in these Ascomycetes has yet been identified, and Mn(II) oxidation appears to be a side reaction. Future work will explore the lignin-degrading capacity of

  6. Biological Control of the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma infestans with the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana Combined with an Aggregation Cue: Field, Laboratory and Mathematical Modeling Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Forlani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Current Chagas disease vector control strategies, based on chemical insecticide spraying, are growingly threatened by the emergence of pyrethroid-resistant Triatoma infestans populations in the Gran Chaco region of South America.We have already shown that the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has the ability to breach the insect cuticle and is effective both against pyrethroid-susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans, in laboratory as well as field assays. It is also known that T. infestans cuticle lipids play a major role as contact aggregation pheromones. We estimated the effectiveness of pheromone-based infection boxes containing B. bassiana spores to kill indoor bugs, and its effect on the vector population dynamics. Laboratory assays were performed to estimate the effect of fungal infection on female reproductive parameters. The effect of insect exuviae as an aggregation signal in the performance of the infection boxes was estimated both in the laboratory and in the field. We developed a stage-specific matrix model of T. infestans to describe the fungal infection effects on insect population dynamics, and to analyze the performance of the biopesticide device in vector biological control.The pheromone-containing infective box is a promising new tool against indoor populations of this Chagas disease vector, with the number of boxes per house being the main driver of the reduction of the total domestic bug population. This ecologically safe approach is the first proven alternative to chemical insecticides in the control of T. infestans. The advantageous reduction in vector population by delayed-action fungal biopesticides in a contained environment is here shown supported by mathematical modeling.

  7. Rab-GDI complex dissociation factor expressed through translational frameshifting in filamentous ascomycetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Malagnac

    Full Text Available In the model fungus Podospora anserina, the PaYIP3 gene encoding the orthologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae YIP3 Rab-GDI complex dissociation factor expresses two polypeptides, one of which, the long form, is produced through a programmed translation frameshift. Inactivation of PaYIP3 results in slightly delayed growth associated with modification in repartition of fruiting body on the thallus, along with reduced ascospore production on wood. Long and short forms of PaYIP3 are expressed in the mycelium, while only the short form appears expressed in the maturing fruiting body (perithecium. The frameshift has been conserved over the evolution of the Pezizomycotina, lasting for over 400 million years, suggesting that it has an important role in the wild.

  8. Rab-GDI complex dissociation factor expressed through translational frameshifting in filamentous ascomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagnac, Fabienne; Fabret, Céline; Prigent, Magali; Rousset, Jean-Pierre; Namy, Olivier; Silar, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    In the model fungus Podospora anserina, the PaYIP3 gene encoding the orthologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae YIP3 Rab-GDI complex dissociation factor expresses two polypeptides, one of which, the long form, is produced through a programmed translation frameshift. Inactivation of PaYIP3 results in slightly delayed growth associated with modification in repartition of fruiting body on the thallus, along with reduced ascospore production on wood. Long and short forms of PaYIP3 are expressed in the mycelium, while only the short form appears expressed in the maturing fruiting body (perithecium). The frameshift has been conserved over the evolution of the Pezizomycotina, lasting for over 400 million years, suggesting that it has an important role in the wild.

  9. Integrating models to investigate critical phenological overlaps in complex ecological interactions: The mountain pine beetle-fungus symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrey Addison; James A. Powell; Barbara J. Bentz; Diana L. Six

    2015-01-01

    The fates of individual species are often tied to synchronization of phenology, however, few methods have been developed for integrating phenological models involving linked species. In this paper, we focus on mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) and its two obligate mutualistic fungi, Grosmannia clavigera and Ophiostoma montium. Growth rates of...

  10. The In Vitro Mass-Produced Model Mycorrhizal Fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis, Significantly Increases Yields of the Globally Important Food Security Crop Cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Isabel; Ruiz, Michael; Fernández, Cristhian; Peña, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is formed between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant roots. The fungi provide the plant with inorganic phosphate (P). The symbiosis can result in increased plant growth. Although most global food crops naturally form this symbiosis, very few studies have shown that their practical application can lead to large-scale increases in food production. Application of AMF to crops in the tropics is potentially effective for improving yields. However, a main problem of using AMF on a large-scale is producing cheap inoculum in a clean sterile carrier and sufficiently concentrated to cheaply transport. Recently, mass-produced in vitro inoculum of the model mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis became available, potentially making its use viable in tropical agriculture. One of the most globally important food plants in the tropics is cassava. We evaluated the effect of in vitro mass-produced R. irregularis inoculum on the yield of cassava crops at two locations in Colombia. A significant effect of R. irregularis inoculation on yield occurred at both sites. At one site, yield increases were observed irrespective of P fertilization. At the other site, inoculation with AMF and 50% of the normally applied P gave the highest yield. Despite that AMF inoculation resulted in greater food production, economic analyses revealed that AMF inoculation did not give greater return on investment than with conventional cultivation. However, the amount of AMF inoculum used was double the recommended dose and was calculated with European, not Colombian, inoculum prices. R. irregularis can also be manipulated genetically in vitro, leading to improved plant growth. We conclude that application of in vitro R. irregularis is currently a way of increasing cassava yields, that there is a strong potential for it to be economically profitable and that there is enormous potential to improve this efficiency further in the future. PMID:23950975

  11. The in vitro mass-produced model mycorrhizal fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis, significantly increases yields of the globally important food security crop cassava.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Ceballos

    Full Text Available The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is formed between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and plant roots. The fungi provide the plant with inorganic phosphate (P. The symbiosis can result in increased plant growth. Although most global food crops naturally form this symbiosis, very few studies have shown that their practical application can lead to large-scale increases in food production. Application of AMF to crops in the tropics is potentially effective for improving yields. However, a main problem of using AMF on a large-scale is producing cheap inoculum in a clean sterile carrier and sufficiently concentrated to cheaply transport. Recently, mass-produced in vitro inoculum of the model mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis became available, potentially making its use viable in tropical agriculture. One of the most globally important food plants in the tropics is cassava. We evaluated the effect of in vitro mass-produced R. irregularis inoculum on the yield of cassava crops at two locations in Colombia. A significant effect of R. irregularis inoculation on yield occurred at both sites. At one site, yield increases were observed irrespective of P fertilization. At the other site, inoculation with AMF and 50% of the normally applied P gave the highest yield. Despite that AMF inoculation resulted in greater food production, economic analyses revealed that AMF inoculation did not give greater return on investment than with conventional cultivation. However, the amount of AMF inoculum used was double the recommended dose and was calculated with European, not Colombian, inoculum prices. R. irregularis can also be manipulated genetically in vitro, leading to improved plant growth. We conclude that application of in vitro R. irregularis is currently a way of increasing cassava yields, that there is a strong potential for it to be economically profitable and that there is enormous potential to improve this efficiency further in the future.

  12. Comparative EST analysis provides insights into the basal aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Suely L

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blastocladiella emersonii is an aquatic fungus of the Chytridiomycete class, which is at the base of the fungal phylogenetic tree. In this sense, some ancestral characteristics of fungi and animals or fungi and plants could have been retained in this aquatic fungus and lost in members of late-diverging fungal species. To identify in B. emersonii sequences associated with these ancestral characteristics two approaches were followed: (1 a large-scale comparative analysis between putative unigene sequences (uniseqs from B. emersonii and three databases constructed ad hoc with fungal proteins, animal proteins and plant unigenes deposited in Genbank, and (2 a pairwise comparison between B. emersonii full-length cDNA sequences and their putative orthologues in the ascomycete Neurospora crassa and the basidiomycete Ustilago maydis. Results Comparative analyses of B. emersonii uniseqs with fungi, animal and plant databases through the two approaches mentioned above produced 166 B. emersonii sequences, which were identified as putatively absent from other fungi or not previously described. Through these approaches we found: (1 possible orthologues of genes previously identified as specific to animals and/or plants, and (2 genes conserved in fungi, but with a large difference in divergence rate in B. emersonii. Among these sequences, we observed cDNAs encoding enzymes from coenzyme B12-dependent propionyl-CoA pathway, a metabolic route not previously described in fungi, and validated their expression in Northern blots. Conclusion Using two different approaches involving comparative sequence analyses, we could identify sequences from the early-diverging fungus B. emersonii previously considered specific to animals or plants, and highly divergent sequences from the same fungus relative to other fungi.

  13. Functional Analysis of Developmentally Regulated Genes chs7 and sec22 in the Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traeger, Stefanie; Nowrousian, Minou

    2015-04-14

    During sexual development, filamentous ascomycetes form complex, three-dimensional fruiting bodies for the generation and dispersal of spores. In previous studies, we identified genes with evolutionary conserved expression patterns during fruiting body formation in several fungal species. Here, we present the functional analysis of two developmentally up-regulated genes, chs7 and sec22, in the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. The genes encode a class VII (division III) chitin synthase and a soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein, respectively. Deletion mutants of chs7 had normal vegetative growth and were fully fertile but showed sensitivity toward cell wall stress. Deletion of sec22 resulted in a reduced number of ascospores and in defects in ascospore pigmentation and germination, whereas vegetative growth was normal in the mutant. A SEC22-EGFP fusion construct under control of the native sec22 promoter and terminator regions was expressed during different stages of sexual development. Expression of several development-related genes was deregulated in the sec22 mutant, including three genes involved in melanin biosynthesis. Our data indicate that chs7 is dispensable for fruiting body formation in S. macrospora, whereas sec22 is required for ascospore maturation and germination and thus involved in late stages of sexual development. Copyright © 2015 Traeger and Nowrousian.

  14. The filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora can survive in ambient air without carbonic anhydrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehneck, Ronny; Elleuche, Skander; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2014-06-01

    The rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate (hydrogen carbonate) is catalysed by metalloenzymes termed carbonic anhydrases (CAs). CAs have been identified in all three domains of life and can be divided into five evolutionarily unrelated classes (α, β, γ, δ and ζ) that do not share significant sequence similarities. The function of the mammalian, prokaryotic and plant α-CAs has been intensively studied but the function of CAs in filamentous ascomycetes is mostly unknown. The filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora codes for four CAs, three of the β-class and one of the α-class. Here, we present a functional analysis of CAS4, the S. macrospora α-class CA. The CAS4 protein was post-translationally glycosylated and secreted. The knockout strain Δcas4 had a significantly reduced rate of ascospore germination. To determine the cas genes required for S. macrospora growth under ambient air conditions, we constructed double and triple mutations of the four cas genes in all possible combinations and a quadruple mutant. Vegetative growth rate of the quadruple mutant lacking all cas genes was drastically reduced compared to the wild type and invaded the agar under normal air conditions. Likewise the fruiting bodies were embedded in the agar and completely devoid of mature ascospores. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Molecular Characterization and Functional Analysis of PR-1-Like Proteins Identified from the Wheat Head Blight Fungus Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shunwen; Edwards, Michael C

    2018-04-01

    The group 1 pathogenesis-related (PR-1) proteins originally identified from plants and their homologs are also found in other eukaryotic kingdoms. Studies on nonplant PR-1-like (PR-1L) proteins have been pursued widely in humans and animals but rarely in filamentous ascomycetes. Here, we report the characterization of four PR-1L proteins identified from the ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum, the primary cause of Fusarium head blight of wheat and barley (designated FgPR-1L). Molecular cloning revealed that the four FgPR-1L proteins are all encoded by small open reading frames (612 to 909 bp) that are often interrupted by introns, in contrast to plant PR-1 genes that lack introns. Sequence analysis indicated that all FgPR-1L proteins contain the PR-1-specific three-dimensional structure, and one of them features a C-terminal transmembrane (TM) domain that has not been reported for any stand-alone PR-1 proteins. Transcriptional analysis revealed that the four FgPR-1L genes are expressed in axenic cultures and in planta with different spatial or temporal expression patterns. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that fungal PR-1L proteins fall into three major groups, one of which harbors FgPR-1L-2-related TM-containing proteins from both phytopathogenic and human-pathogenic ascomycetes. Low-temperature sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and proteolytic assays indicated that the recombinant FgPR-1L-4 protein exists as a monomer and is resistant to subtilisin of the serine protease family. Functional analysis confirmed that deletion of the FgPR-1L-4 gene from the fungal genome results in significantly reduced virulence on susceptible wheat. This study provides the first example that the F. graminearum-wheat interaction involves a pathogen-derived PR-1L protein that affects fungal virulence on the host.

  16. Genetic transformation of the white-rot fungus Dichomitus squalens using a new commercial protoplasting cocktail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Paul; Slaghek, Gillian G; Casado López, Sara; Wiebenga, Ad; Hilden, Kristiina S; de Vries, Ronald P; Mäkelä, Miia R

    2017-12-01

    D. squalens, a white-rot fungus that efficiently degrades lignocellulose in nature, can be used in various biotechnological applications and has several strains with sequenced and annotated genomes. Here we present a method for the transformation of this basidiomycete fungus, using a recently introduced commercial ascomycete protoplasting enzyme cocktail, Protoplast F. In protoplasting of D. squalens mycelia, Protoplast F outperformed two other cocktails while releasing similar amounts of protoplasts to a third cocktail. The protoplasts released using Protoplast F had a regeneration rate of 12.5% (±6 SE). Using Protoplast F, the D. squalens monokaryon CBS464.89 was conferred with resistance to the antibiotics hygromycin and G418 via polyethylene glycol mediated protoplast transformation with resistance cassettes expressing the hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph) and neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) genes, respectively. The hph gene was expressed in D. squalens using heterologous promoters from genes encoding β-tubulin or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. A Southern blot confirmed integration of a resistance cassette into the D. squalens genome. An average of six transformants (±2 SE) were obtained when at least several million protoplasts were used (a transformation efficiency of 0.8 (±0.3 SE) transformants per μg DNA). Transformation of D. squalens demonstrates the suitability of the Protoplast F cocktail for basidiomycete transformation and furthermore can facilitate understanding of basidiomycete gene function and development of improved strains for biotechnological applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitative iTRAQ-based secretome analysis reveals species-specific and temporal shifts in carbon utilization strategies among manganese(II)-oxidizing Ascomycete fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiner, Carolyn A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Zink, Erika M.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Chaput, Dominique L.; Wu, Si; Santelli, Cara M.; Hansel, Colleen M.

    2017-09-01

    Fungi generate a wide range of extracellular hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes and reactive metabolites, collectively known as the secretome, that synergistically drive plant litter decomposition in the environment. While secretome studies of model organisms have greatly expanded our knowledge of these enzymes, few have extended secretome characterization to environmental isolates or directly compared temporal patterns of enzyme utilization among diverse species. Thus, the mechanisms of carbon (C) degradation by many ubiquitous soil fungi remain poorly understood. Here we use a combination of iTRAQ proteomics and custom bioinformatic analyses to compare the protein composition of the secretomes of four manganese(II)-oxidizing Ascomycete fungi over a three-week time course. We demonstrate that although the fungi produce a similar suite of extracellular enzymes, they exhibit striking differences in the regulation of these enzymes among species and over time, revealing species-specific and temporal shifts in C utilization strategies as they degrade the same substrate. Specifically, our findings suggest that Paraconiothyrium sporulosum AP3s5-JAC2a and Alternaria alternata SRC1lrK2f employ sequential enzyme secretion patterns concomitant with decreasing resource availability, Stagonospora sp. SRC1lsM3a preferentially degrades proteinaceous substrate before switching to carbohydrates, and Pyrenochaeta sp. DS3sAY3a utilizes primarily peptidases to aggressively attack carbon sources in a concentrated burst. This work highlights the diversity of operative metabolic strategies among cellulose-degrading Ascomycetes and enhances our understanding of their role in C turnover in the environment.

  18. Heterologous production of cellobiose dehydrogenases from the basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea and the ascomycete Podospora anserina and their effect on saccharification of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbe-Doan, Annick; Arfi, Yonathan; Record, Eric; Estrada-Alvarado, Isabel; Levasseur, Anthony

    2013-06-01

    Cellobiose dehydrogenases (CDHs) are extracellular glycosylated haemoflavoenzymes produced by many different wood-degrading and phytopathogenic fungi. Putative cellobiose dehydrogenase genes are recurrently discovered by genome sequencing projects in various phylogenetically distinct fungi. The genomes from the basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea and the ascomycete Podospora anserina were screened for candidate cdh genes, and one and three putative gene models were evidenced, respectively. Two putative cdh genes were selected and successfully expressed for the first time in Aspergillus niger. CDH activity was measured for both constructions (CDHcc and CDHpa), and both recombinant CDHs were purified to homogeneity and subsequently characterised. Kinetic constants were determined for several carbohydrates including β-1,4-linked di- and oligosaccharides. Optimal temperature and pH were 60 °C and 5 for CDHcc and 65-70 °C and 6 for CDHpa. Both CDHs showed a broad range of pH stability between 4 and 8. The effect of both CDHs on saccharification of micronized wheat straw by an industrial Trichoderma reesei secretome was determined. The addition of each CDH systematically decreased the release of total reducing sugars, but to different extents and according to the CDH concentration. Analytical methods were carried out to quantify the release of glucose, xylose and gluconic acid. An increase of glucose and xylose was measured at a low CDHcc concentration. At moderated and high CDHcc and CDHpa concentrations, glucose was severely reduced with a concomitant increase of gluconic acid. In conclusion, these results give new insights into the physical and chemical parameters and diversity of basidiomycetous and ascomycetous CDHs. These findings also demonstrated that CDH drastically influenced the saccharification on a natural substrate, and thus, CDH origin, concentration and potential enzymatic partners should be carefully considered in future artificial secretomes for

  19. Benzoquinones and terphenyl compounds as phosphodiesterase-4B inhibitors from a fungus of the order Chaetothyriales (MSX 47445).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Elimat, Tamam; Figueroa, Mario; Raja, Huzefa A; Graf, Tyler N; Adcock, Audrey F; Kroll, David J; Day, Cynthia S; Wani, Mansukh C; Pearce, Cedric J; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2013-03-22

    Three bioactive compounds were isolated from an organic extract of an ascomycete fungus of the order Chaetothyriales (MSX 47445) using bioactivity-directed fractionation as part of a search for anticancer leads from filamentous fungi. Of these, two were benzoquinones [betulinan A (1) and betulinan C (3)], and the third was a terphenyl compound, BTH-II0204-207:A (2). The structures were elucidated using a set of spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques; the structure of the new compound (3) was confirmed via single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1-3 were evaluated for cytotoxicity against a human cancer cell panel, for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, and for phosphodiesterase (PDE4B2) inhibitory activities. The putative binding mode of 1-3 with PDE4B2 was examined using a validated docking protocol, and the binding and enzyme inhibitory activities were correlated.

  20. Waste biorefineries using filamentous ascomycetes fungi: Present status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jorge A; Mahboubi, Amir; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-09-01

    Filamentous ascomycetes fungi have had important roles in natural cycles, and are already used industrially for e.g. supplying of citric, gluconic and itaconic acids as well as many enzymes. Faster human activities result in higher consumption of our resources and producing more wastes. Therefore, these fungi can be explored to use their capabilities to convert back wastes to resources. The present paper reviews the capabilities of these fungi in growing on various residuals, producing lignocellulose-degrading enzymes and production of organic acids, ethanol, pigments, etc. Particular attention has been on Aspergillus, Fusarium, Neurospora and Monascus genera. Since various species are used for production of human food, their biomass can be considered for feed applications and so biomass compositional characteristics as well as aspects related to culture in bioreactor are also provided. The review has been further complemented with future research avenues. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. DIVERSITY OF SAPROTROPHIC ANAMORPHIC ASCOMYCETES FROM NATIVE FORESTS IN ARGENTINA: AN UPDATED REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Allegrucci

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En Argentina se reconocen ocho regiones de bosques nativos: bosque Andino-Patagónico, Talares de la Región Pampeana, Parque Chaqueño, Selva Misionera, Selva Tucumano-Boliviana, Monte, Espinal y Bosques Pluviales de los ríos Paraguay, Paraná y Uruguay. El objetivo de este trabajo ha sido reunir y revisar la información sobre la biodiversidad de microhongos saprótrofos (Ascomycetes anamórficos citados en los bosques nativos de Argentina, desde las primeras colecciones de Spegazzini hasta el presente. De las regiones anteriormente mencionadas los bosques Andino-Patagónicos, Bosques Pluviales de los ríos Paraguay, Paraná y Uruguay y recientemente los Talares de la provincia de Buenos Aires son aquellos donde se han realizado más exploraciones de microhongos saprótrofos. Por otro lado se obtuvieron muy pocos registros de especies fúngicas del resto de los bosques; para la región de Monte en particular no se han realizado hasta el presente estudios de hongos anamórficos, por lo cual no se cuenta con registros de especies anamórficas de Ascomycetes. Como resultado de una revisión bibliográfica exhaustiva, se registraron 344 especies, de las cuales 81 (23,5% son nuevas especies. Este trabajo pone de manifiesto la falta de exploraciones de áreas de importancia en nuestro país, y muestra la necesidad de incrementar estos estudios.

  2. β-Carbonic Anhydrases Play a Role in Fruiting Body Development and Ascospore Germination in the Filamentous Fungus Sordaria macrospora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuche, Skander; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2009-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is among the most important gases for all organisms. Its reversible interconversion to bicarbonate (HCO3 −) reaches equilibrium spontaneously, but slowly, and can be accelerated by a ubiquitous group of enzymes called carbonic anhydrases (CAs). These enzymes are grouped by their distinct structural features into α-, β-, γ-, δ- and ζ-classes. While physiological functions of mammalian, prokaryotic, plant and algal CAs have been extensively studied over the past years, the role of β-CAs in yeasts and the human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans has been elucidated only recently, and the function of CAs in multicellular filamentous ascomycetes is mostly unknown. To assess the role of CAs in the development of filamentous ascomycetes, the function of three genes, cas1, cas2 and cas3 (carbonic anhydrase of Sordaria) encoding β-class carbonic anhydrases was characterized in the filamentous ascomycetous fungus Sordaria macrospora. Fluorescence microscopy was used to determine the localization of GFP- and DsRED-tagged CAs. While CAS1 and CAS3 are cytoplasmic enzymes, CAS2 is localized to the mitochondria. To assess the function of the three isoenzymes, we generated knock-out strains for all three cas genes (Δcas1, Δcas2, and Δcas3) as well as all combinations of double mutants. No effect on vegetative growth, fruiting-body and ascospore development was seen in the single mutant strains lacking cas1 or cas3, while single mutant Δcas2 was affected in vegetative growth, fruiting-body development and ascospore germination, and the double mutant strain Δcas1/2 was completely sterile. Defects caused by the lack of cas2 could be partially complemented by elevated CO2 levels or overexpression of cas1, cas3, or a non-mitochondrial cas2 variant. The results suggest that CAs are required for sexual reproduction in filamentous ascomycetes and that the multiplicity of isoforms results in redundancy of specific and non-specific functions. PMID:19365544

  3. Fungus-Growing Termites Originated in African Rain Forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur Kornelis; Eggleton, Paul

    2005-01-01

    are consumed (cf. [ [1] and [2] ]). Fungus-growing termites are found throughout the Old World tropics, in rain forests and savannas, but are ecologically dominant in savannas [ 3 ]. Here, we reconstruct the ancestral habitat and geographical origin of fungus-growing termites. We used a statistical model...... of habitat switching [ 4 ] repeated over all phylogenetic trees sampled in a Bayesian analysis of molecular data [ 5 ]. Our reconstructions provide strong evidence that termite agriculture originated in African rain forest and that the main radiation leading to the extant genera occurred there. Because...

  4. Rethinking crop-disease management in fungus-growing ants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, J.J.; Aanen, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    Ant fungus farming has become a prominent model for studying the evolution of mutualistic cooperation, with recent advances in reconstructing the evolutionary origin and elaborations of the symbiosis (1, 2), discovering additional partners and clarifying their interactions (3, 4), and analyzing

  5. Description of Taphrina antarctica f.a. sp. nov., a new anamorphic ascomycetous yeast species associated with Antarctic endolithic microbial communities and transfer of four Lalaria species in the genus Taphrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbmann, Laura; Turchetti, Benedetta; Yurkov, Andrey; Cecchini, Clarissa; Zucconi, Laura; Isola, Daniela; Buzzini, Pietro; Onofri, Silvano

    2014-07-01

    In the framework of a large-scale rock sampling in Continental Antarctica, a number of yeasts have been isolated. Two strains that are unable to grow above 20 °C and that have low ITS sequence similarities with available data in the public domain were found. The D1/D2 LSU molecular phylogeny placed them in an isolated position in the genus Taphrina, supporting their affiliation to a not yet described species. Because the new species is able to grow in its anamorphic state only, the species Taphrina antarctica f.a. (forma asexualis) sp. nov. has been proposed to accommodate both strains (type strain DBVPG 5268(T), DSM 27485(T) and CBS 13532(T)). Lalaria and Taphrina species are dimorphic ascomycetes, where the anamorphic yeast represents the saprotrophic state and the teleomorph is the parasitic counterpart on plants. This is the first record for this genus in Antarctica; since plants are absent on the continent, we hypothesize that the fungus may have focused on the saprotrophic part of its life cycle to overcome the absence of its natural host and adapt environmental constrains. Following the new International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants (Melbourne Code 2011) the reorganization of Taphrina-Lalaria species in the teleomorphic genus Taphrina is proposed. We emend the diagnosis of the genus Taphrina to accommodate asexual saprobic states of these fungi. Taphrina antarctica was registered in MycoBank under MB 808028.

  6. Pheromones and pheromone receptors are required for proper sexual development in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Severine; Weber, Jan M; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2006-03-01

    The homothallic, filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora is self-fertile and produces sexual fruiting bodies (perithecia) without a mating partner. Even so, S. macrospora transcriptionally expresses two pheromone-precursor genes (ppg1 and ppg2) and two pheromone-receptor genes (pre1 and pre2). The proteins encoded by these genes are similar to alpha-factor-like and a-factor-like pheromones and to G-protein-coupled pheromone receptors of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It has been suggested that in S. macrospora, PPG1/PRE2 and PPG2/PRE1 form two cognate pheromone-receptor pairs. To investigate their function, we deleted (delta) pheromone-precursor genes (delta ppg1, delta ppg2) and receptor genes (delta pre1, delta pre2) and generated single- as well as double-knockout strains. No effect on vegetative growth, fruiting-body, and ascospore development was seen in the single pheromone-mutant and receptor-mutant strains, respectively. However, double-knockout strains lacking any compatible pheromone-receptor pair (delta pre2/delta ppg2, delta pre1/delta ppg1) and the double-pheromone mutant (delta ppg1/delta ppg2) displayed a drastically reduced number of perithecia and sexual spores, whereas deletion of both receptor genes (delta pre1/delta pre2) completely eliminated fruiting-body and ascospore formation. The results suggest that pheromones and pheromone receptors are required for optimal sexual reproduction of the homothallic S. macrospora.

  7. Candida neustonensis sp. nov., a novel ascomycetous yeast isolated from the sea surface microlayer in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Feng; Lee, Ching-Fu; Liu, Shiu-Mei

    2010-01-01

    A new ascomycetous yeast species, Candida neustonensis is proposed in this study based on four strains (SN92(T), SN47, SJ22, SJ25) isolated from sea surface microlayer in Taiwan. These four yeast strains were morphologically, physiologically and phylogenetically identical to each other. No sexual reproduction was observed on 5% malt extract agar, corn meal agar, V8 agar, McClary's acetate agar and potato-dextrose agar. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene places C. neustonensis as a member of the Pichia guilliermondii clade, it also reveals that the phylogenetically closest relatives of C. neustonensis are C. fukuyamaensis (4.4% divergence), C. xestobii (4.4% divergence) and P. guilliermondii (4.5% divergence). C. neustonensis also is clearly distinguished from other known species in the P. guilliermondii clade based on the results of physiology tests. From these comparison analyses, the following novel yeast species is proposed: Candida neustonensis sp. nov., with strain SN92(T) (= BCRC 23108(T) = JCM 14892(T) = CBS 11061(T)) as the type strain.

  8. Functional and biophysical studies on four ceratoplatanins from the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, causal agent of the Witche's broom disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsottini, M.; Zaparoli, G.; Garcia, O.; Pereira, G.A.G.; Oliveira, J.F.; Tiezzi, H.O.; Ambrosio, A.L.B.; Dias, S.M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Ceratoplatanin (CP) is a secreted protein of 12.4 kDa initially identified in culture filtrates of the disease ascomycete Ceratocystis fimbriata f. sp. platani, etiological agent of the canker stain disease. CP is also the founding member of the namesake protein family, which contains fungal-secreted proteins involved in various stages of the host-fungus interaction and may act as phytotoxins or elicitors of defense response. Besides the low molecular weight, CPs have a high percentage of hydrophobic residues and share two conserved intramolecular disulfide bonds. It has been suggested that CPs have important physiological functions, including interaction with cell wall or cell membrane and manipulation of the host's defense system. Furthermore, a recent work showed that the ceratoplatanin from C. fimbriata has some degree of affinity for the saccharide 4-N-acetylglucosamine. However, its precise molecular function remains elusive. Five putative CPs have been identified in Moniliophthora perniciosa a basidiomycete fungus responsible for great economic losses in cocoa industry in the form of Witches' broom disease (WBD) , four of which had their crystal structures resolved by our group. In this work we report biophysical and functional studies on these MpCPs aiming at understanding their role and importance during the WBD progression. (author)

  9. The control of fruiting body formation in the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora Auersw. by regulation of hyphal development : An analysis based on scanning electron and light microscopic observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, B; Bahn, M; Walk, R A; Nitschke, U

    1978-01-01

    The morphological effects of biotin and L-arginine on fruiting body formation of the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora are investigated by scanning electron and light microscopy. Biotin is recognized as an elongation factor and arginine as a branching factor in vegetative and reproductive hyphae. In the absence of exogenous biotin, development is blocked after the ascogonium-core hypha stage of protoperithecial morphogenesis, whereas linear growth of the myceliar front is maintained. The addition of exogenous arginine to a biotin deficient culture induces the formation of numerous side branches even in the older mycelium. Fruiting body formation, however, remains blocked at the protoperithecial stage as before, because of the inability of the side branches to elongate. When biotin and arginine are administered simultaneously, a most vigorous branching and growth are induced in the older mycelium, accompanied by a rapid and maximal formation of fruiting bodies. The results are summarized in a model of the exogenous control of hyphal morphogenesis. The model is designed to explain the relationship between fruiting and hyphal density as well as the edge effect on fruiting body formation.

  10. Crystal structures of two tetrameric β-carbonic anhydrases from the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehneck, Ronny; Neumann, Piotr; Vullo, Daniela; Elleuche, Skander; Supuran, Claudiu T; Ficner, Ralf; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2014-04-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are metalloenzymes catalyzing the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate (hydrogen carbonate) and protons. CAs have been identified in archaea, bacteria and eukaryotes and can be classified into five groups (α, β, γ, δ, ζ) that are unrelated in sequence and structure. The fungal β-class has only recently attracted attention. In the present study, we investigated the structure and function of the plant-like β-CA proteins CAS1 and CAS2 from the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. We demonstrated that both proteins can substitute for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae β-CA Nce103 and exhibit an in vitro CO2 hydration activity (kcat /Km of CAS1: 1.30 × 10(6) m(-1) ·s(-1) ; CAS2: 1.21 × 10(6 ) m(-1) ·s(-1) ). To further investigate the structural properties of CAS1 and CAS2, we determined their crystal structures to a resolution of 2.7 Å and 1.8 Å, respectively. The oligomeric state of both proteins is tetrameric. With the exception of the active site composition, no further major differences have been found. In both enzymes, the Zn(2) (+) -ion is tetrahedrally coordinated; in CAS1 by Cys45, His101 and Cys104 and a water molecule and in CAS2 by the side chains of four residues (Cys56, His112, Cys115 and Asp58). Both CAs are only weakly inhibited by anions, making them good candidates for industrial applications. CAS1 and CAS2 bind by x-ray crystallography (View interaction) Structural data have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank database under accession numbers 4O1J for CAS1 and 4O1K for CAS2. © 2014 FEBS.

  11. Functional properties and differential mode of regulation of the nitrate transporter from a plant symbiotic ascomycete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanini, Barbara; Viscomi, Arturo R.; Bolchi, Angelo; Martin, Yusé; Siverio, José M.; Balestrini, Raffaella; Bonfante, Paola; Ottonello, Simone

    2005-01-01

    Nitrogen assimilation by plant symbiotic fungi plays a central role in the mutualistic interaction established by these organisms, as well as in nitrogen flux in a variety of soils. In the present study, we report on the functional properties, structural organization and distinctive mode of regulation of TbNrt2 (Tuber borchii NRT2 family transporter), the nitrate transporter of the mycorrhizal ascomycete T. borchii. As revealed by experiments conducted in a nitrate-uptake-defective mutant of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha, TbNrt2 is a high-affinity transporter (Km=4.7 μM nitrate) that is bispecific for nitrate and nitrite. It is expressed in free-living mycelia and in mycorrhizae, where it preferentially accumulates in the plasma membrane of root-contacting hyphae. The TbNrt2 mRNA, which is transcribed from a single-copy gene clustered with the nitrate reductase gene in the T. borchii genome, was specifically up-regulated following transfer of mycelia to nitrate- (or nitrite)-containing medium. However, at variance with the strict nitrate-dependent induction commonly observed in other organisms, TbNrt2 was also up-regulated (at both the mRNA and the protein level) following transfer to a nitrogen-free medium. This unusual mode of regulation differs from that of the adjacent nitrate reductase gene, which was expressed at basal levels under nitrogen deprivation conditions and required nitrate for induction. The functional and expression properties, described in the present study, delineate TbNrt2 as a versatile transporter that may be especially suited to cope with the fluctuating (and often low) mineral nitrogen concentrations found in most natural, especially forest, soils. PMID:16201972

  12. The ura5 gene of the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora: molecular cloning, characterization and expression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Chevanton, L; Leblon, G

    1989-04-15

    We cloned the ura5 gene coding for the orotate phosphoribosyl transferase from the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora by heterologous probing of a Sordaria genomic DNA library with the corresponding Podospora anserina sequence. The Sordaria gene was expressed in an Escherichia coli pyrE mutant strain defective for the same enzyme, and expression was shown to be promoted by plasmid sequences. The nucleotide sequence of the 1246-bp DNA fragment encompassing the region of homology with the Podospora gene has been determined. This sequence contains an open reading frame of 699 nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequence shows 72% similarity with the corresponding Podospora protein.

  13. Characterization of additional components of the environmental pH-sensing complex in the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianalto, Kaila M; Ost, Kyla S; Brown, Hannah E; Alspaugh, J Andrew

    2018-05-16

    Pathogenic microorganisms must adapt to changes in their immediate surroundings, including alterations in pH, to survive the shift from the external environment to that of the infected host. In the basidiomycete fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans , these pH changes are primarily sensed by the fungal-specific, alkaline pH-sensing Rim/Pal pathway. The C. neoformans Rim pathway has diverged significantly from that described in ascomycete fungi. We recently identified the C. neoformans putative pH sensor Rra1, which activates the Rim pathway in response to elevated pH. In this study, we probed the function of Rra1 by analyzing its cellular localization and performing protein co-immunoprecipitation to identify potential Rra1 interactors. We found that Rra1 does not strongly colocalize or interact with immediate downstream Rim pathway components. However, these experiments identified a novel Rra1 interactor, the previously uncharacterized C. neoformans nucleosome assembly protein 1 (Nap1), which was required for Rim pathway activation. We observed that Nap1 specifically binds to the C-terminal tail of the Rra1 sensor, likely promoting Rra1 protein stability. This function of Nap1 is conserved in fungi closely related to C. neoformans that contain Rra1 orthologs, but not in the more distantly-related ascomycete fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae In conclusion, our findings have revealed the sophisticated, yet distinct, molecular mechanisms by which closely and distantly related microbial phyla rapidly adapt to environmental signals and changes such as alterations in pH. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  15. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  16. Production and New Extraction Method of Polyketide Red Pigments Produced by Ascomycetous Fungi from Terrestrial and Marine Habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Juliana; Venkatachalam, Mekala; Fouillaud, Mireille; Petit, Thomas; Vinale, Francesco; Dufossé, Laurent; Caro, Yanis

    2017-06-28

    The use of ascomycetous fungi as pigment producers opens the way to an alternative to synthetic dyes, especially in the red-dye industries, which have very few natural pigment alternatives. The present paper aimed to bio-prospect and screen out 15 selected ascomycetous fungal strains, originating from terrestrial and marine habitats belonging to seven different genera ( Penicillium , Talaromyces , Fusarium , Aspergillus , Trichoderma , Dreschlera , and Paecilomyces ). We identified four strains, Penicillium purpurogenum rubisclerotium , Fusarium oxysporum , marine strains identified as Talaromyces spp., and Trichoderma atroviride , as potential red pigment producers. The extraction of the pigments is a crucial step, whereby the qualitative and quantitative compositions of each fungal extract need to be respected for reliable identification, as well as preserving bioactivity. Furthermore, there is a growing demand for more sustainable and cost-effective extraction methods. Therefore, a pressurized liquid extraction technique was carried out in this study, allowing a greener and faster extraction step of the pigments, while preserving their chemical structures and bioactivities in comparison to conventional extraction processes. The protocol was illustrated with the production of pigment extracts from P. purpurogenum rubisclerotium and Talaromyces spp. Extracts were analyzed by high-performance liquid-chromatography combined with photodiode array-detection (HPLC-DAD) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS). The more promising strain was the isolate Talaromyces spp. of marine origin. The main polyketide pigment produced by this strain has been characterized as N -threoninerubropunctamine, a non-toxic red Monascus -like azaphilone pigment.

  17. Production of Ethanol and Biomass from Thin Stillage Using Food-Grade Zygomycetes and Ascomycetes Filamentous Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A starch-based ethanol facility producing 200,000 m3 ethanol/year also produces ca. 2 million m3 thin stillage, which can be used to improve the entire process. In this work, five food-grade filamentous fungi, including a Zygomycete and four Ascomycetes were successfully grown in thin stillage containing 9% solids. Cultivation with Neurospora intermedia led to the production of ca. 16 g·L−1 biomass containing 56% (w/w crude protein, a reduction of 34% of the total solids, and 5 g·L−1 additional ethanol. In an industrial ethanol production process (200,000 m3 ethanol/year, this can potentially lead to the production of 11,000 m3 extra ethanol per year. Cultivation with Aspergillus oryzae resulted in 19 g·L−1 biomass containing 48% (w/w crude protein and the highest reduction of the thin stillage glycerol (54% among the Ascomycetes. Cultivation with Rhizopus sp. produced up to 15 g·L−1 biomass containing 55% (w/w crude protein. The spent thin stillage had been reduced up to 85%, 68% and 21% regarding lactic acid, glycerol and total solids, respectively. Therefore, N. intermedia, in particular, has a high potential to improve the ethanol process via production of additional ethanol and high-quality biomass, which can be considered for animal feed applications such as for fish feed.

  18. Metabolites from marine fungus Aspergillus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Rajmanickam, R.; DeSouza, L.

    Chemical examination of a methanolic extract of the marine fungus, Aspergillus sp., isolated from marine grass environment, yielded a steroid, ergosterol peroxide (1), and a mixture of known glyceride esters (2,3) of unsaturated fatty acids...

  19. U.S. National Fungus Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — The U.S. National Fungus Collections (BPI) are the “Smithsonian for fungi” and are the repository for over one million fungal specimens worldwide - the largest such...

  20. Nothing special in the specialist? Draft genome sequence of Cryomyces antarcticus, the most extremophilic fungus from Antarctica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Sterflinger

    Full Text Available The draft genome of the Antarctic endemic fungus Cryomyces antarcticus is presented. This rock inhabiting, microcolonial fungus is extremely stress tolerant and it is a model organism for exobiology and studies on stress resistance in Eukaryots. Since this fungus is a specialist in the most extreme environment of the Earth, the analysis of its genome is of important value for the understanding of fungal genome evolution and stress adaptation. A comparison with Neurospora crassa as well as with other microcolonial fungi shows that the fungus has a genome size of 24 Mbp, which is the average in the fungal kingdom. Although sexual reproduction was never observed in this fungus, 34 mating genes are present with protein homologs in the classes Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes and Dothideomycetes. The first analysis of the draft genome did not reveal any significant deviations of this genome from comparative species and mesophilic hyphomycetes.

  1. Fungus-insect gall of Phlebopus portentosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Xia; He, Ming-Xia; Cao, Yang; Liu, Jing; Gao, Feng; Wang, Wen-Bing; Ji, Kai-Ping; Shao, Shi-Cheng; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Phlebopus portentosus is a popular edible wild mushroom found in the tropical Yunnan, China, and northern Thailand. In its natural habitats, a gall often has been found on some plant roots, around which fungal fruiting bodies are produced. The galls are different from common insect galls in that their cavity walls are not made from plant tissue but rather from the hyphae of P. portentosus. Therefore we have termed this phenomenon "fungus-insect gall". Thus far six root mealy bug species in the family Pseudococcidae that form fungus-insect galls with P. portentosus have been identified: Formicococcus polysperes, Geococcus satellitum, Planococcus minor, Pseudococcus cryptus, Paraputo banzigeri and Rastrococcus invadens. Fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of more than 21 plant species, including Delonix regia, Citrus maxima, Coffea arabica and Artocarpus heterophyllus. Greenhouse inoculation trials showed that fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of A. heterophyllus 1 mo after inoculation. The galls were subglobose to globose, fulvous when young and became dark brown at maturation. Each gall harbored one or more mealy bugs and had a chimney-like vent for ventilation and access to the gall. The cavity wall had three layers. Various shaped mealy bug wax deposits were found inside the wall. Fungal hyphae invaded the epidermis of plant roots and sometimes even the cortical cells during the late stage of gall development. The identity of the fungus inside the cavity was confirmed by molecular methods. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  2. A chloride tolerant laccase from the plant pathogen ascomycete Botrytis aclada expressed at high levels in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittl, Roman; Mueangtoom, Kitti; Gonaus, Christoph; Khazaneh, Shima Tahvilda; Sygmund, Christoph; Haltrich, Dietmar; Ludwig, Roland

    2012-01-20

    Fungal laccases from basidiomycetous fungi are thoroughly investigated in respect of catalytic mechanism and industrial applications, but the number of reported and well characterized ascomycetous laccases is much smaller although they exhibit interesting catalytic properties. We report on a highly chloride tolerant laccase produced by the plant pathogen ascomycete Botrytis aclada, which was recombinantly expressed in Pichia pastoris with an extremely high yield and purified to homogeneity. In a fed-batch fermentation, 495 mg L(-1) of laccase was measured in the medium, which is the highest concentration obtained for a laccase by a yeast expression system. The recombinant B. aclada laccase has a typical molecular mass of 61,565 Da for the amino acid chain. The pI is approximately 2.4, a very low value for a laccase. Glycosyl residues attached to the recombinant protein make up for approximately 27% of the total protein mass. B. aclada laccase exhibits very low K(M) values and high substrate turnover numbers for phenolic and non-phenolic substrates at acidic and near neutral pH. The enzyme's stability increases in the presence of chloride ions and, even more important, its substrate turnover is only weakly inhibited by chloride ions (I(50)=1.4M), which is in sharp contrast to most other described laccases. This high chloride tolerance is mandatory for some applications such as implantable biofuel cells and laccase catalyzed reactions, which suffer from the presence of chloride ions. The high expression yield permits fast and easy production for further basic and applied research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Functional and biophysical studies on four ceratoplatanins from the fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa, causal agent of the Witche's broom disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsottini, M.; Zaparoli, G.; Garcia, O.; Pereira, G.A.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Oliveira, J.F.; Tiezzi, H.O.; Ambrosio, A.L.B.; Dias, S.M.G. [Laboratorio Nacional de Biociencias - LNBIO, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Ceratoplatanin (CP) is a secreted protein of 12.4 kDa initially identified in culture filtrates of the disease ascomycete Ceratocystis fimbriata f. sp. platani, etiological agent of the canker stain disease. CP is also the founding member of the namesake protein family, which contains fungal-secreted proteins involved in various stages of the host-fungus interaction and may act as phytotoxins or elicitors of defense response. Besides the low molecular weight, CPs have a high percentage of hydrophobic residues and share two conserved intramolecular disulfide bonds. It has been suggested that CPs have important physiological functions, including interaction with cell wall or cell membrane and manipulation of the host's defense system. Furthermore, a recent work showed that the ceratoplatanin from C. fimbriata has some degree of affinity for the saccharide 4-N-acetylglucosamine. However, its precise molecular function remains elusive. Five putative CPs have been identified in Moniliophthora perniciosa a basidiomycete fungus responsible for great economic losses in cocoa industry in the form of Witches' broom disease (WBD) , four of which had their crystal structures resolved by our group. In this work we report biophysical and functional studies on these MpCPs aiming at understanding their role and importance during the WBD progression. (author)

  4. RESEARCH ON THE INFLUENCE OF H+ IONS CONCENTRATION ON THE DYNAMICS OF THE ACTIVITIES OF CERTAIN DEHYDROGENASES OF THE KREBS CYCLE IN THE MONILINIA LAXA (ADERH. & RUHL. HONEY FUNGUS PARASITIC ON PLUM TREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutu Elena

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available During the process of nutrition, thus in that of their growth, microorganisms are subject to the influences of certain environmental factors that condition the microbial activity determining either the growth and reproduction, or the inhibition of activity and the inactivation of microorganisms. A well known means of expressing the H+ ions concentration in a certain environment is the pH, an important chemical factor that is closely observed when growing ascomycetes, for any alteration of its value entails conformational alterations of their enzymes, the characteristics of the substrate, such that they can no longer interact with the active site of the enzyme or be subject to catalysis. The present study comprises the results of our research on certain oxidoreductase implied in the steps of the Krebs cycle in the Monilinia laxa (Aderh.&Ruhl. Honey, a fungus that parasites the prune. The enzymatic determinations took place at 7 and 14 days from the mycelium of the fungus cultivated in Leonian media, whose pH was adjusted to values between 2.0 and 9.0 by using NaOH 1N and HCl 0,1N solutions. We registered different values of the dehydrogenasic activity, directly correlated with the physiological condition of the fungus (given its age and with the initial pH value of the culture’s environment.

  5. RESEARCH ON THE INFLUENCE OF H+ IONS CONCENTRATION ON THE DYNAMICS OF THE ACTIVITIES OF CERTAIN DEHYDROGENASES OF THE KREBS CYCLE IN THE MONILINIA LAXA (ADERH. & RUHL. HONEY FUNGUS PARASITIC ON PLUM TREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tutu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available During the process of nutrition, thus in that of their growth, microorganisms are subject to the influences of certain environmental factors that condition the microbial activity determining either the growth and reproduction, or the inhibition of activity and the inactivation of microorganisms. A well known means of expressing the H+ ions concentration in a certain environment is the pH, an important chemical factor that is closely observed when growing ascomycetes, for any alteration of its value entails conformational alterations of their enzymes, the characteristics of the substrate, such that they can no longer interact with the active site of the enzyme or be subject to catalysis. The present study comprises the results of our research on certain oxidoreductase implied in the steps of the Krebs cycle in the Monilinia laxa (Aderh.&Ruhl. Honey, a fungus that parasites the prune. The enzymatic determinations took place at 7 and 14 days from the mycelium of the fungus cultivated in Leonian media, whose pH was adjusted to values between 2.0 and 9.0 by using NaOH 1N and HCl 0,1N solutions. We registered different values of the dehydrogenasic activity, directly correlated with the physiological condition of the fungus (given its age and with the initial pH value of the culture’s environment.

  6. Combining ChIP-chip and expression profiling to model the MoCRZ1 mediated circuit for Ca/calcineurin signaling in the rice blast fungus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soonok Kim

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been made in defining the central signaling networks in many organisms, but collectively we know little about the downstream targets of these networks and the genes they regulate. To reconstruct the regulatory circuit of calcineurin signal transduction via MoCRZ1, a Magnaporthe oryzae C2H2 transcription factor activated by calcineurin dephosphorylation, we used a combined approach of chromatin immunoprecipitation - chip (ChIP-chip, coupled with microarray expression studies. One hundred forty genes were identified as being both a direct target of MoCRZ1 and having expression concurrently differentially regulated in a calcium/calcineurin/MoCRZ1 dependent manner. Highly represented were genes involved in calcium signaling, small molecule transport, ion homeostasis, cell wall synthesis/maintenance, and fungal virulence. Of particular note, genes involved in vesicle mediated secretion necessary for establishing host associations, were also found. MoCRZ1 itself was a target, suggesting a previously unreported autoregulation control point. The data also implicated a previously unreported feedback regulation mechanism of calcineurin activity. We propose that calcium/calcineurin regulated signal transduction circuits controlling development and pathogenicity manifest through multiple layers of regulation. We present results from the ChIP-chip and expression analysis along with a refined model of calcium/calcineurin signaling in this important plant pathogen.

  7. Selection and evaluation of reference genes for expression studies with quantitative PCR in the model fungus Neurospora crassa under different environmental conditions in continuous culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen D Cusick

    Full Text Available Neurospora crassa has served as a model organism for studying circadian pathways and more recently has gained attention in the biofuel industry due to its enhanced capacity for cellulase production. However, in order to optimize N. crassa for biotechnological applications, metabolic pathways during growth under different environmental conditions must be addressed. Reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR is a technique that provides a high-throughput platform from which to measure the expression of a large set of genes over time. The selection of a suitable reference gene is critical for gene expression studies using relative quantification, as this strategy is based on normalization of target gene expression to a reference gene whose expression is stable under the experimental conditions. This study evaluated twelve candidate reference genes for use with N. crassa when grown in continuous culture bioreactors under different light and temperature conditions. Based on combined stability values from NormFinder and Best Keeper software packages, the following are the most appropriate reference genes under conditions of: (1 light/dark cycling: btl, asl, and vma1; (2 all-dark growth: btl, tbp, vma1, and vma2; (3 temperature flux: btl, vma1, act, and asl; (4 all conditions combined: vma1, vma2, tbp, and btl. Since N. crassa exists as different cell types (uni- or multi-nucleated, expression changes in a subset of the candidate genes was further assessed using absolute quantification. A strong negative correlation was found to exist between ratio and threshold cycle (CT values, demonstrating that CT changes serve as a reliable reflection of transcript, and not gene copy number, fluctuations. The results of this study identified genes that are appropriate for use as reference genes in RT-qPCR studies with N. crassa and demonstrated that even with the presence of different cell types, relative quantification is an acceptable method for measuring

  8. Selection and evaluation of reference genes for expression studies with quantitative PCR in the model fungus Neurospora crassa under different environmental conditions in continuous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusick, Kathleen D; Fitzgerald, Lisa A; Pirlo, Russell K; Cockrell, Allison L; Petersen, Emily R; Biffinger, Justin C

    2014-01-01

    Neurospora crassa has served as a model organism for studying circadian pathways and more recently has gained attention in the biofuel industry due to its enhanced capacity for cellulase production. However, in order to optimize N. crassa for biotechnological applications, metabolic pathways during growth under different environmental conditions must be addressed. Reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is a technique that provides a high-throughput platform from which to measure the expression of a large set of genes over time. The selection of a suitable reference gene is critical for gene expression studies using relative quantification, as this strategy is based on normalization of target gene expression to a reference gene whose expression is stable under the experimental conditions. This study evaluated twelve candidate reference genes for use with N. crassa when grown in continuous culture bioreactors under different light and temperature conditions. Based on combined stability values from NormFinder and Best Keeper software packages, the following are the most appropriate reference genes under conditions of: (1) light/dark cycling: btl, asl, and vma1; (2) all-dark growth: btl, tbp, vma1, and vma2; (3) temperature flux: btl, vma1, act, and asl; (4) all conditions combined: vma1, vma2, tbp, and btl. Since N. crassa exists as different cell types (uni- or multi-nucleated), expression changes in a subset of the candidate genes was further assessed using absolute quantification. A strong negative correlation was found to exist between ratio and threshold cycle (CT) values, demonstrating that CT changes serve as a reliable reflection of transcript, and not gene copy number, fluctuations. The results of this study identified genes that are appropriate for use as reference genes in RT-qPCR studies with N. crassa and demonstrated that even with the presence of different cell types, relative quantification is an acceptable method for measuring gene

  9. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bat, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puechmaille, Sébastien J.; Verdeyroux, Pascal; Fuller, Hubert; Gouilh, Meriadeg Ar; Bekaert, Michaël

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is caused by the fungus Geomyces destructans and is responsible for the deaths of >1,000,000 bats since 2006. This disease and fungus had been restricted to the northeastern United States. We detected this fungus in a bat in France and assessed the implications of this finding. PMID:20113562

  10. Dentigerumycin: a bacterial mediator of an ant-fungus symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oh, Dong-Chan; Poulsen, Michael; Currie, Cameron R

    2009-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants engage in mutualistic associations with both the fungus they cultivate for food and actinobacteria (Pseudonocardia spp.) that produce selective antibiotics to defend that fungus from specialized fungal parasites. We have analyzed one such system at the molecular level and found...

  11. Interspecific Comparison and annotation of two complete mitochondrial genome sequences from the plant pathogenic fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millenbaugh, Bonnie A; Pangilinan, Jasmyn L.; Torriani, Stefano F.F.; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Kema, Gert H.J.; McDonald, Bruce A.

    2007-12-07

    The mitochondrial genomes of two isolates of the wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola were sequenced completely and compared to identify polymorphic regions. This organism is of interest because it is phylogenetically distant from other fungi with sequenced mitochondrial genomes and it has shown discordant patterns of nuclear and mitochondrial diversity. The mitochondrial genome of M. graminicola is a circular molecule of approximately 43,960 bp containing the typical genes coding for 14 proteins related to oxidative phosphorylation, one RNA polymerase, two rRNA genes and a set of 27 tRNAs. The mitochondrial DNA of M. graminicola lacks the gene encoding the putative ribosomal protein (rps5-like), commonly found in fungal mitochondrial genomes. Most of the tRNA genes were clustered with a gene order conserved with many other ascomycetes. A sample of thirty-five additional strains representing the known global mt diversity was partially sequenced to measure overall mitochondrial variability within the species. Little variation was found, confirming previous RFLP-based findings of low mitochondrial diversity. The mitochondrial sequence of M. graminicola is the first reported from the family Mycosphaerellaceae or the order Capnodiales. The sequence also provides a tool to better understand the development of fungicide resistance and the conflicting pattern of high nuclear and low mitochondrial diversity in global populations of this fungus.

  12. Gamarada debralockiae gen. nov. sp. nov.-the genome of the most widespread Australian ericoid mycorrhizal fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, David J; Sutcliffe, Brodie; Greenfield, Paul; Tran-Dinh, Nai

    2018-05-01

    This study describes a novel ericoid mycorrhizal fungus (ErMF), Gamarada debralockiae Midgley and Tran-Dinh gen. nov. sp. nov. Additionally, catabolism was explored from a genomic perspective. The nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of G. debralockiae were sequenced. Morphological characteristics were assessed on various media. Catabolic genes of G. debralockiae were explored using SignalP and dbCAN. Phylogenetic comparisons were undertaken using Phylogeny.fr. The 58.5-Mbp draft genome of G. debralockiae contained 17,075 putative genes. The complete mitochondrial genome was 28,168 bp in length. In culture, G. debralockiae produces slow-growing non-sporulating colonies. Gamarada debralockiae has many putative secreted catabolic enzymes. Phylogeny indicated G. debralockiae was distinct from known ascomycetous ErMF: Pezoloma ericae, Meliniomyces spp., Oidiodendron spp., and Cairneyella variabilis. It is closely related to many undescribed plant root-associated fungi and its nearest described relative is Hyphodiscus brevicollaris. Gamarada debralockiae has been recovered from virtually all Australian ericoid mycorrhizal studies and biogeographic data suggests the taxon is widespread in Australia. Gamarada debralockiae has similar catabolic potential to C. variabilis and co-occurs with C. variabilis at Australian sites. Plants that host multiple ErMF may benefit from subtle differences in catabolism that improve access to nitrogen and phosphorus from within recalcitrant organic matter.

  13. Lumazine Peptides from the Marine-Derived Fungus Aspergillus terreus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjung You

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Terrelumamides A (1 and B (2, two new lumazine-containing peptides, were isolated from the culture broth of the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus terreus. From the results of combined spectroscopic and chemical analyses, the structures of these compounds were determined to be linear assemblies of 1-methyllumazine-6-carboxylic acid, an amino acid residue and anthranilic acid methyl ester connected by peptide bonds. These new compounds exhibited pharmacological activity by improving insulin sensitivity, which was evaluated in an adipogenesis model using human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In addition, the compounds exhibited fluorescence changes upon binding to DNA, demonstrating their potential applications to DNA sequence recognition.

  14. Growth characteristics of the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum in relation to production of mushroom compost.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegant, W.M.

    1992-01-01

    Scytalidium thermophilum is an important thermophilic fungus in the production of mushroom compost. I investigated the characteristics of this organism and present a simple model with which fungal growth in compost can be described. The model is used to predict better circumstances for rapid indoor

  15. Spread of Rare Fungus from Vancouver Island

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-12-20

    Cryptococcus gattii, a rare fungus normally found in the tropics, has infected people and animals on Vancouver Island, Canada. Dr. David Warnock, Director, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases, CDC, discusses public health concerns about further spread of this organism.  Created: 12/20/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/29/2006.

  16. Entomology: A Bee Farming a Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Aanen, Duur K

    2015-11-16

    Farming is done not only by humans, but also by some ant, beetle and termite species. With the discovery of a stingless bee farming a fungus that provides benefits to its larvae, bees can be added to this list. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Death from Fungus in the Soil

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-12-17

    Dr. Shira Shafir, Assistant Professor of Epidemiology at the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, discusses her study about fungus found in soil.  Created: 12/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/18/2012.

  18. Spread of Rare Fungus from Vancouver Island

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Cryptococcus gattii, a rare fungus normally found in the tropics, has infected people and animals on Vancouver Island, Canada. Dr. David Warnock, Director, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases, CDC, discusses public health concerns about further spread of this organism

  19. Botrallin from the endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude methanol extract of the mycelia from the endophytic fungus. Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12, associated with the hybrid 'Neva' of Populus deltoides Marsh × P. nigra L., led to the isolation of one compound coded as P12-1 which was identified as botrallin (1,7-.

  20. A MADS box protein interacts with a mating-type protein and is required for fruiting body development in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolting, Nicole; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2006-07-01

    MADS box transcription factors control diverse developmental processes in plants, metazoans, and fungi. To analyze the involvement of MADS box proteins in fruiting body development of filamentous ascomycetes, we isolated the mcm1 gene from the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora, which encodes a putative homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MADS box protein Mcm1p. Deletion of the S. macrospora mcm1 gene resulted in reduced biomass, increased hyphal branching, and reduced hyphal compartment length during vegetative growth. Furthermore, the S. macrospora Deltamcm1 strain was unable to produce fruiting bodies or ascospores during sexual development. A yeast two-hybrid analysis in conjugation with in vitro analyses demonstrated that the S. macrospora MCM1 protein can interact with the putative transcription factor SMTA-1, encoded by the S. macrospora mating-type locus. These results suggest that the S. macrospora MCM1 protein is involved in the transcriptional regulation of mating-type-specific genes as well as in fruiting body development.

  1. The link between rapid enigmatic amphibian decline and the globally emerging chytrid fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötters, Stefan; Kielgast, Jos; Bielby, Jon; Schmidtlein, Sebastian; Bosch, Jaime; Veith, Michael; Walker, Susan F; Fisher, Matthew C; Rödder, Dennis

    2009-09-01

    Amphibians are globally declining and approximately one-third of all species are threatened with extinction. Some of the most severe declines have occurred suddenly and for unknown reasons in apparently pristine habitats. It has been hypothesized that these "rapid enigmatic declines" are the result of a panzootic of the disease chytridiomycosis caused by globally emerging amphibian chytrid fungus. In a Species Distribution Model, we identified the potential distribution of this pathogen. Areas and species from which rapid enigmatic decline are known significantly overlap with those of highest environmental suitability to the chytrid fungus. We confirm the plausibility of a link between rapid enigmatic decline in worldwide amphibian species and epizootic chytridiomycosis.

  2. Effect of the L499M mutation of the ascomycetous Botrytis aclada laccase on redox potential and catalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipov, Evgeny; Polyakov, Konstantin; Kittl, Roman; Shleev, Sergey; Dorovatovsky, Pavel; Tikhonova, Tamara; Hann, Stephan; Ludwig, Roland; Popov, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    The structures of the ascomycetous B. aclada laccase and its L499M T1-site mutant have been solved at 1.7 Å resolution. The mutant enzyme shows a 140 mV lower redox potential of the type 1 copper and altered kinetic behaviour. The wild type and the mutant have very similar structures, which makes it possible to relate the changes in the redox potential to the L499M mutation Laccases are members of a large family of multicopper oxidases that catalyze the oxidation of a wide range of organic and inorganic substrates accompanied by the reduction of dioxygen to water. These enzymes contain four Cu atoms per molecule organized into three sites: T1, T2 and T3. In all laccases, the T1 copper ion is coordinated by two histidines and one cysteine in the equatorial plane and is covered by the side chains of hydrophobic residues in the axial positions. The redox potential of the T1 copper ion influences the enzymatic reaction and is determined by the nature of the axial ligands and the structure of the second coordination sphere. In this work, the laccase from the ascomycete Botrytis aclada was studied, which contains conserved Ile491 and nonconserved Leu499 residues in the axial positions. The three-dimensional structures of the wild-type enzyme and the L499M mutant were determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.7 Å resolution. Crystals suitable for X-ray analysis could only be grown after deglycosylation. Both structures did not contain the T2 copper ion. The catalytic properties of the enzyme were characterized and the redox potentials of both enzyme forms were determined: E 0 = 720 and 580 mV for the wild-type enzyme and the mutant, respectively. Since the structures of the wild-type and mutant forms are very similar, the change in the redox potential can be related to the L499M mutation in the T1 site of the enzyme

  3. Regulation of melanin biosynthesis via the dihydroxynaphthalene pathway is dependent on sexual development in the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engh, Ines; Nowrousian, Minou; Kück, Ulrich

    2007-10-01

    The filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora accumulates melanin during sexual development. The four melanin biosynthesis genes pks, teh, sdh and tih were isolated and their homology to genes involved in 1,8 dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin biosynthesis was shown. The presence of DHN melanin in S. macrospora was further confirmed by disrupting the pks gene encoding a putative polyketide synthase and by RNA interference-mediated silencing of the sdh gene encoding a putative scytalone dehydratase. Because melanin occurs in fruiting bodies that develop through several intermediate stages within 7 days of growth, a Northern analysis of a developmental time-course was conducted. These data revealed a time-dependent regulation of teh and sdh transcript levels. Comparing the transcriptional expression by real-time PCR of melanin biosynthesis genes in the wild type under conditions allowing or repressing sexual development, a significant downregulation during vegetative growth was detected. Quantitative real-time PCR and Northern blot analysis of melanin biosynthesis gene expression in different developmental mutants confirmed that melanin biosynthesis is linked to fruiting body development and is under the control of specific regulatory genes that participate in sexual differentiation.

  4. Valorization of sugar-to-ethanol process waste vinasse: A novel biorefinery approach using edible ascomycetes filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ramkumar B; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the integration of edible ascomycetes filamentous fungi into the existing sugar- or molasses-to-ethanol processes, to grow on vinasse or stillage and produce ethanol and protein-rich fungal biomass. Two fungal strains, Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae were examined in shake flasks and airlift-bioreactors, resulting in reduction of vinasse COD by 34% and viscosity by 21%. Utilization of glycerol and sugars were observed, yielding 202.4 or 222.8g dry fungal biomass of N. intermedia or A. oryzae respectively, per liter of vinasse. Integration of the current process at an existing ethanol facility producing about 100,000m 3 of ethanol per year could produce around 200,000-250,000tons of dry fungal biomass (40-45% protein) together with about 8800-12,600m 3 extra ethanol (8.8-12.6% of production-rate improvement). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF FIVE PHYLOGENETICALLY DISTANT FUNGI (DIVISION: ASCOMYCETE FROM VELLAR ESTUARY, SOUTHEAST COAST OF INDIA – A PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayachandran Subburaj

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungal taxonomy is dynamically driven towards controversial discipline that consequently requires changes in nomenclature. Scarcity of microbiological expertise particularly for marine fungi is another major setback for these taxonomical differences. Here, five different species pharmacologically important marine fungi under Division Ascomycete were studied for their spectral variation. This work verified the practical applicability of FT-IR microspectroscopy technique for early and rapid identification of these species based on the spectral data showed striking difference with their major biomolecules such as lipids, proteins and nucleic acids produced by them. Spectra of all the species showed striking differences while individual peaks of each spectrum are parallel to each other in their respective spectral regions. Aspergillus oryzae have intense peaks in the lipid and nucleic acid spectral region and moderate bands in the amide spectrum. Phoma herbarum and Trichoderma piluliferum showed intense peaks in the protein spectral region but moderate peaks in the lipid and nucleic acid regions. Hypocrea lixii and Meyerozyma guilliermandii have less intense peaks in all the five spectral regions. This unique spectral representation is concordant with the cluster analysis dendrogram by minimum variance statistical method where low spectroscopic distance was found between H. lixii and M. guilliermondii whereas a higher spectroscopic distance was found between P. herbarum and T. piluliferum. FTIR spectroscopy delivers a combined advantage for efficient fungal classification as well as simultaneous visualization of chemical composition of samples as evident from this study.

  6. Impact of climate change on potential distribution of Chinese caterpillar fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) in Nepal Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Uttam Babu; Bawa, Kamaljit S

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has already impacted ecosystems and species and substantial impacts of climate change in the future are expected. Species distribution modeling is widely used to map the current potential distribution of species as well as to model the impact of future climate change on distribution of species. Mapping current distribution is useful for conservation planning and understanding the change in distribution impacted by climate change is important for mitigation of future biodiversity losses. However, the current distribution of Chinese caterpillar fungus, a flagship species of the Himalaya with very high economic value, is unknown. Nor do we know the potential changes in suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus caused by future climate change. We used MaxEnt modeling to predict current distribution and changes in the future distributions of Chinese caterpillar fungus in three future climate change trajectories based on representative concentration pathways (RCPs: RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, and RCP 6.0) in three different time periods (2030, 2050, and 2070) using species occurrence points, bioclimatic variables, and altitude. About 6.02% (8,989 km2) area of the Nepal Himalaya is suitable for Chinese caterpillar fungus habitat. Our model showed that across all future climate change trajectories over three different time periods, the area of predicted suitable habitat of Chinese caterpillar fungus would expand, with 0.11-4.87% expansion over current suitable habitat. Depending upon the representative concentration pathways, we observed both increase and decrease in average elevation of the suitable habitat range of the species.

  7. Contrasting diversity and host association of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes versus root-associated ascomycetes in a dipterocarp rainforest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotoshi Sato

    Full Text Available Root-associated fungi, including ectomycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi, are among the most diverse and important belowground plant symbionts in dipterocarp rainforests. Our study aimed to reveal the biodiversity, host association, and community structure of ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota and root-associated Ascomycota (including root-endophytic Ascomycota in a lowland dipterocarp rainforest in Southeast Asia. The host plant chloroplast ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (rbcL region and fungal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 region were sequenced using tag-encoded, massively parallel 454 pyrosequencing to identify host plant and root-associated fungal taxa in root samples. In total, 1245 ascomycetous and 127 putative ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetous taxa were detected from 442 root samples. The putative ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota were likely to be associated with closely related dipterocarp taxa to greater or lesser extents, whereas host association patterns of the root-associated Ascomycota were much less distinct. The community structure of the putative ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota was possibly more influenced by host genetic distances than was that of the root-associated Ascomycota. This study also indicated that in dipterocarp rainforests, root-associated Ascomycota were characterized by high biodiversity and indistinct host association patterns, whereas ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota showed less biodiversity and a strong host phylogenetic preference for dipterocarp trees. Our findings lead to the working hypothesis that root-associated Ascomycota, which might be mainly represented by root-endophytic fungi, have biodiversity hotspots in the tropics, whereas biodiversity of ectomycorrhizal Basidiomycota increases with host genetic diversity.

  8. The cross-pathway control system regulates production of the secondary metabolite toxin, sirodesmin PL, in the ascomycete, Leptosphaeria maculans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox Ellen M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sirodesmin PL is a secondary metabolite toxin made by the ascomycetous plant pathogen, Leptosphaeria maculans. The sirodesmin biosynthetic genes are clustered in the genome. The key genes are a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, sirP, and a pathway-specific transcription factor, sirZ. Little is known about regulation of sirodesmin production. Results Genes involved in regulation of sirodesmin PL in L. maculans have been identified. Two hundred random insertional T-DNA mutants were screened with an antibacterial assay for ones producing low levels of sirodesmin PL. Three such mutants were isolated and each transcribed sirZ at very low levels. One of the affected genes had high sequence similarity to Aspergillus fumigatus cpcA, which regulates the cross-pathway control system in response to amino acid availability. This gene was silenced in L. maculans and the resultant mutant characterised. When amino acid starvation was artificially-induced by addition of 3-aminotriazole for 5 h, transcript levels of sirP and sirZ did not change in the wild type. In contrast, levels of sirP and sirZ transcripts increased in the silenced cpcA mutant. After prolonged amino acid starvation the silenced cpcA mutant produced much higher amounts of sirodesmin PL than the wild type. Conclusions Production of sirodesmin PL in L. maculans is regulated by the cross pathway control gene, cpcA, either directly or indirectly via the pathway-specific transcription factor, sirZ.

  9. There Is No Structural Relationship between Nasal Septal Deviation, Concha Bullosa, and Paranasal Sinus Fungus Balls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung-Lung Tsai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the relationship between nasal septal deviation, concha bullosa, and chronic rhinosinusitis by using a definitive pathological and simplified model. Fifty-two consecutive sinus computed tomography scans were performed on patients who received endoscopic sinus surgery and whose final diagnosis was paranasal sinus fungus balls. The incidences of nasal septal deviation and concha bullosa for patients diagnosed with paranasal sinus fungus balls among the study group were 42.3% and 25%, respectively. About 63.6% sinuses with fungus balls were located on the ipsilateral side of the nasal septal deviation, and 46.2% were located on the ipsilateral side of the concha bullosa. When examined by Pearson’s chi-square test and the chi-squared goodness-of-fit test, no significant statistical difference for the presence of paranasal sinus fungus balls between ipsilateral and contralateral sides of nasal septal deviation and concha bullosa was noted (P=0.292 and P=0.593, resp.. In conclusion, we could not demonstrate any statistically significant correlation between the location of infected paranasal sinus, the direction of nasal septal deviation, and the location of concha bullosa, in location-limited rhinosinusitis lesions such as paranasal sinus fungal balls. We conclude that the anatomical variants discussed herein do not predispose patients to rhinosinusitis.

  10. SnoRNAs from the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa: structural, functional and evolutionary insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chun-Long

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SnoRNAs represent an excellent model for studying the structural and functional evolution of small non-coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional modification machinery for rRNAs and snRNAs in eukaryotic cells. Identification of snoRNAs from Neurospora crassa, an important model organism playing key roles in the development of modern genetics, biochemistry and molecular biology will provide insights into the evolution of snoRNA genes in the fungus kingdom. Results Fifty five box C/D snoRNAs were identified and predicted to guide 71 2'-O-methylated sites including four sites on snRNAs and three sites on tRNAs. Additionally, twenty box H/ACA snoRNAs, which potentially guide 17 pseudouridylations on rRNAs, were also identified. Although not exhaustive, the study provides the first comprehensive list of two major families of snoRNAs from the filamentous fungus N. crassa. The independently transcribed strategy dominates in the expression of box H/ACA snoRNA genes, whereas most of the box C/D snoRNA genes are intron-encoded. This shows that different genomic organizations and expression modes have been adopted by the two major classes of snoRNA genes in N. crassa . Remarkably, five gene clusters represent an outstanding organization of box C/D snoRNA genes, which are well conserved among yeasts and multicellular fungi, implying their functional importance for the fungus cells. Interestingly, alternative splicing events were found in the expression of two polycistronic snoRNA gene hosts that resemble the UHG-like genes in mammals. Phylogenetic analysis further revealed that the extensive separation and recombination of two functional elements of snoRNA genes has occurred during fungus evolution. Conclusion This is the first genome-wide analysis of the filamentous fungus N. crassa snoRNAs that aids in understanding the differences between unicellular fungi and multicellular fungi. As compared with two yeasts, a more complex

  11. Purifying Selection and Birth-and-Death Evolution in the Class II Hydrophobin Gene Families of the Ascomycete Trichoderma/Hypocrea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    kubicek, Christian P.; Baker, Scott E.; Gamauf, Christian; Kenerley, Chuck; Druzhinina, Irina S.

    2008-01-10

    Hydrophobins are proteins containing eight conserved cysteine residues that occur uniquely in mycelial fungi, where their main function is to confer hydrophobicity to fungal surfaces in contact with air and during attachment of hyphae to hydrophobic surfaces of hosts, symbiotic partners or of themselves resulting in morphogenetic signals. Based on their hydropathy patterns and their solubility characteristics, they are classified in class I and class II hydrophobins, the latter being found only in ascomycetes. Here we have investigated the mechanisms driving the evolution of the class II hydrophobins in nine species of the mycoparasitic ascomycetous genus Trichoderma/Hypocrea, using three fully sequenced genomes (H. jecorina=T. reesei, H. atroviridis=T. atroviride; H. virens=T. virens) and a total of 14.000 ESTs of six others (T. asperellum, H. lixii=T. harzianum, T. aggressivum var. europeae, T. longibrachiatum, T. cf. viride). The former three contained six, ten and nine members, which is the highest number found in any other ascomycete so far. They all showed the conserved four beta-strands/one helix structure, which is stabilized by four disulfide bonds. In addition, a small number of these HFBs contained an extended N-terminus rich in either praline and aspartate, or glycine-asparagine. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a mosaic of terminal clades contain duplicated genes and shows only three reasonably supported clades. Calculation of the ratio of differences in synonymous vs. non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions provides evidence for strong purifying selection (KS/Ka >> 1). A genome database search for class II HFBs from other ascomycetes retrieved a much smaller number of hydrophobins (2-4) from each species, and most of them were from Pyrenomycetes. A combined phylogeny of these sequences with those of Trichoderma showed that the Trichoderma HFBs mostly formed their own clades, whereas those of other pyrenomycetes occured in shared clades. Our study shows

  12. PaTrx1 and PaTrx3, Two Cytosolic Thioredoxins of the Filamentous Ascomycete Podospora anserina Involved in Sexual Development and Cell Degeneration▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Malagnac, Fabienne; Klapholz, Benjamin; Silar, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    In various organisms, thioredoxins are known to be involved in the reduction of protein disulfide bonds and in protecting the cell from oxidative stress. Genes encoding thioredoxins were found by searching the complete genome sequence of the filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina. Among them, PaTrx1, PaTrx2, and PaTrx3 are predicted to be canonical cytosolic proteins without additional domains. Targeted disruption of PaTrx1, PaTrx2, and PaTrx3 shows that PaTrx1 is the major thioredoxin inv...

  13. Novel fungus-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} bio-nanocomposites as high performance adsorbents for the removal of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Congcong [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230000 (China); Cheng, Wencai [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031 (China); Sun, Yubing, E-mail: sunyb@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031 (China); School for Radiological and Interdisciplinary Sciences (RAD-X), Soochow University and Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, 215123 Suzhou (China); School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Wang, Xiangke, E-mail: xkwang@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031 (China); School for Radiological and Interdisciplinary Sciences (RAD-X), Soochow University and Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, 215123 Suzhou (China); School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Fungus was used as a template for the assembly of nano-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. • Fungal template directed the nano-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} structure from the micro-scale level. • Fungal template enhanced the dispersity and stability of nano-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. • Fungus-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} exhibited high sorption capacity for Sr(II), Th(IV) and U(VI). • Fungus-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} possessed satisfactory regeneration performance and reusability. - Abstract: The bio-nanocomposites of fungus-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} were successfully synthesized using a low-cost self-assembly technique. SEM images showed uniform decoration of nano-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles on fungus surface. The FTIR analysis indicated that nano-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was combined to the fungus surface by chemical bonds. The sorption ability of fungus-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} toward Sr(II), Th(IV) and U(VI) was evaluated by batch techniques. Radionuclide sorption on fungus-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was independent of ionic strength, indicating that inner-sphere surface complexion dominated their sorption. XPS analysis indicated that the inner-sphere radionuclide complexes were formed by mainly bonding with oxygen-containing functional groups (i.e., alcohol, acetal and carboxyl) of fungus-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The maximum sorption capacities of fungus-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} calculated from Langmuir isotherm model were 100.9, 223.9 and 280.8 mg/g for Sr(II) and U(VI) at pH 5.0, and Th(IV) at pH 3.0, respectively, at 303 K. Fungus-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} also exhibited excellent regeneration performance for the preconcentration of radionuclides. The calculated thermodynamic parameters showed that the sorption of radionuclides on fungus-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was a spontaneous and endothermic process. The findings herein highlight the novel synthesis method of fungus-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and its high sorption ability for radionuclides.

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ANAEROBIC FUNGUS FROM LLAMA FECES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARVINSIKKEMA, FD; LAHPOR, GA; KRAAK, MN; GOTTSCHAL, JC; PRINS, RA

    1992-01-01

    An anaerobic fungus was isolated from Hama faeces. Based on its morphological characteristics, polyflagellated zoospores, extensive rhizoid system and the formation of monocentric colonies, the fungus is assigned to the genus Neocallimastix. Neocallimastix sp. L2 is able to grow on several poly-,

  15. Phomalactone from a phytopathogenic fungus infecting Zinnia elegans (Asteraceae) leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinnia elegans plants are infected by a fungus that causes necrosis with dark red spots particularly in late spring to the middle of summer in the Mid-South part of the United States. This fungal disease when untreated causes the leaves to wilt and eventually kills the plant. The fungus was isolated...

  16. ( Azadirachta Indica ) Leaf Extracts on the Rot Fungus ( Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The storage lifespan of kola nuts is challenged by the problem of decay of nuts in storage as a result of the attack by the rot fungus (Fusarium spp). The effect of the neem leaf (Azadirachta indica) extracts on the rot fungus was investigated in order to aid extended kola nuts storage. The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of ...

  17. Microbial transformation of (-)-isolongifolol by plant pathogenic fungus Glomerella cingulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Sakata, Kazuki; Ueda, Masashi

    2010-01-01

    The biotransformation of terpenoids using the plant pathogenic fungus as a biocatalyst to produce useful novel organic compounds was investigated. The biotransformation of sesquiterpen alcohol, (-)-isolongifolol (1) was investigated using plant pathogenic fungus Glomerella cingulata as a biocatalyst. Compound 1 was converted to (-)-(3R)-3-hydroxy-isolongifolol and (-)-(9R)-9-hydroxy-isolongifolol by G. cingulata.

  18. Metacridamides A and B from the biocontrol fungus metarhizium acridum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metarhizium acridum, an entomopathogenic fungus, has been commercialized and used successfully for biocontrol of grasshopper pests in Africa and Australia. As part of an effort to catalog the secondary metabolites of this fungus we discovered that its conidia produce two novel 17-membered macrocycl...

  19. Reciprocal genomic evolution in the ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sanne; Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai

    2016-01-01

    The attine ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis evolved over tens of millions of years, producing complex societies with industrial-scale farming analogous to that of humans. Here we document reciprocal shifts in the genomes and transcriptomes of seven fungus-farming ant species and their fungal...

  20. Medical image of the week: fungus ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosen S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 69 year-old Asian woman living in Arizona with a past medical history of nephrotic syndrome on high-dose steroids had worsening pulmonary symptoms. A computed tomography (CT of the chest (Figure 1 showed a 4.7 cm thin walled cavitary lesion in the right middle lobe compatible with mycetoma. She underwent thoracotomy for mycetoma resection. Surgical pathology confirmed an epithelial-lined cavity containing dense mycelia (Figure 2. Given the patient lived in an endemic area; the cavity was thought to be likely due to coccidioidomycosis. However, the mycetoma was of unclear etiology. No spherules were noted on GMS stain and tissue culture was negative. While of unclear clinical significance which fungus colonizes a pre-existing cavity, a Coccidioides PCR was performed and no Coccidioides genes were amplified making a Coccidioides mycetoma very unlikely. Pulmonary mycetoma or “fungus ball” consists of dense fungal elements and amorphous cellular material within a pre-existing pulmonary cavity. Classically ...

  1. Antimicrobial chemical constituents from endophytic fungus Phomasp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hidayat Hussain; Siegfried Draeger; Barbara Schulz; Karsten Krohn; Ines Kock; Ahmed Al-Harrasi; Ahmed Al-Rawahi; Ghulam Abbas; Ivan R Green; Afzal Shah; Amin Badshah; Muhammad Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of different extracts of the endophytic fungus Phomasp. and the tentative identification of their active constituents.Methods:The extract and compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity using theAgarWellDiffusionMethod. Four compounds were purified using column chromatography and their structures were assigned using1H and13CNMR spectra,DEPT,2DCOSY,HMQC andHMBC experiments.Results:The ethyl acetate fraction ofPhomasp. showed good antifungal, antibacterial, and algicidal properties.One new dihydrofuran derivative, named phomafuranol(1), together with three known compounds, phomalacton(2),(3R)-5-hydroxymellein(3) and emodin(4) were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction ofPhomasp.Preliminary studies indicated that phomalacton(2) displayed strong antibacterial, good antifungal and antialgal activities.Similarly(3R)-5-hydroxymellein (3) and emodin(4) showed good antifungal, antibacterial and algicidal properties.Conclusions:Antimicrobial activities of the ethyl acetate fraction of the endophytic fungusPhomasp. and isolated compounds clearly demonstrate thatPhomasp. and its active compounds represent a great potential for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  2. Ribonucleic acids in different tea fungus beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In human nutrition, nucleic acids have to be balanced and limited up to 2 g/day because purines are degraded to urate, and excessive production of urate is a cause of gout which primarily affects adult males. Tea fungus beverage is a well known drink with high nutritional value and certain curative effects. Its benefits have been proved in a number of studies but it is still necessary to examine some potential harmful effects of this beverage. The aim of this paper was to investigate content of ribonucleic acids (RNA produced during tea fungus fermentation on a usual substrate sweetened black tea, and on Jerusalem artichoke tubers (J.A.T extract using method by Munro and Fleck (1966. pH, ribonucleic acids and also the production of proteins that affect purity of nucleic acids preparations were monitored. A higher value of RNA has been noticed in J.A.T. beverage (0.57 mg/ml and with observation of usual daily dose of the beverage it is completely safe and useful one.

  3. The tomato wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici shares common ancestors with nonpathogenic F. oxysporum isolated from wild tomatoes in the Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Keigo; Kashiwa, Takeshi; Kawabe, Masato; Onokubo-Okabe, Akiko; Ishikawa, Nobuko; Pérez, Enrique Rodríguez; Hozumi, Takuo; Caballero, Liliana Aragón; de Baldarrago, Fatima Cáceres; Roco, Mauricio Jiménez; Madadi, Khalid A; Peever, Tobin L; Teraoka, Tohru; Kodama, Motoichiro; Arie, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is an ascomycetous fungus that is well-known as a soilborne plant pathogen. In addition, a large population of nonpathogenic F. oxysporum (NPF) inhabits various environmental niches, including the phytosphere. To obtain an insight into the origin of plant pathogenic F. oxysporum, we focused on the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and its pathogenic F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL). We collected F. oxysporum from wild and transition Solanum spp. and modern cultivars of tomato in Chile, Ecuador, Peru, Mexico, Afghanistan, Italy, and Japan, evaluated the fungal isolates for pathogenicity, VCG, mating type, and distribution of SIX genes related to the pathogenicity of FOL, and constructed phylogenies based on ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer sequences. All F. oxysporum isolates sampled were genetically more diverse than FOL. They were not pathogenic to the tomato and did not carry SIX genes. Certain NPF isolates including those from wild Solanum spp. in Peru were grouped in FOL clades, whereas most of the NPF isolates were not. Our results suggested that the population of NPF isolates in FOL clades gave rise to FOL by gaining pathogenicity.

  4. Application of response surface methodology for rapid chrysene biodegradation by newly isolated marine-derived fungus Cochliobolus lunatus strain CHR4D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Jwalant K; Ghevariya, Chirag M; Dudhagara, Dushyant R; Rajpara, Rahul K; Dave, Bharti P

    2014-11-01

    For the first time, Cochliobolus lunatus strain CHR4D, a marine-derived ascomycete fungus isolated from historically contaminated crude oil polluted shoreline of Alang-Sosiya ship-breaking yard, at Bhavnagar coast, Gujarat has been reported showing the rapid and enhanced biodegradation of chrysene, a four ringed high molecular weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Mineral Salt Broth (MSB) components such as ammonium tartrate and glucose along with chrysene, pH and trace metal solution have been successfully optimized by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) using central composite design (CCD). A validated, two-step optimization protocol has yielded a substantial 93.10% chrysene degradation on the 4(th) day, against unoptimized 56.37% degradation on the 14(th) day. The results depict 1.65 fold increase in chrysene degradation and 1.40 fold increase in biomass with a considerable decrement in time. Based on the successful laboratory experiments, C. lunatus strain CHR4D can thus be predicted as a potential candidate for mycoremediation of HMW PAHs impacted environments.

  5. Maternal parentage influences spore production but not spore pigmentation in the anisogamous and hermaphroditic fungus Neurospora crassa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmerman, Kolea; Levitis, Daniel; Pringle, Anne

    2014-01-01

    . In this fungus, pigmented spores are viable and unpigmented spores are inviable. These results show that while both parents influence all these traits, maternal influence is strongest on both fertility and mortality traits until the spores are physiologically independent of the maternal cytoplasm.......In this study, we tested the hypothesis that maternal effects on offspring production and quality are greater than paternal effects in both offspring number (fertility) and offspring viability (mortality). We used the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. This fungus is anisogamous......, and various ascospore characteristics. Mixed effects models of these data show that the female parent accounts for the majority of variation in perithecial production, number of spores produced, and spore germination. Surprisingly, both sexes equally influence the percentage of spores that are pigmented...

  6. A STE12 homologue of the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora interacts with the MADS box protein MCM1 and is required for ascosporogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolting, Nicole; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2006-11-01

    The MADS box protein MCM1 controls diverse developmental processes and is essential for fruiting body formation in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. MADS box proteins derive their regulatory specificity from a wide range of different protein interactions. We have recently shown that the S. macrospora MCM1 is able to interact with the alpha-domain mating-type protein SMTA-1. To further evaluate the functional roles of MCM1, we used the yeast two-hybrid approach to identify MCM1-interacting proteins. From this screen, we isolated a protein with a putative N-terminal homeodomain and C-terminal C2/H2-Zn2+ finger domains. The protein is a member of the highly conserved fungal STE12 transcription factor family of proteins and was therefore termed STE12. Furthermore, we demonstrate by means of two-hybrid and far western analysis that in addition to MCM1, the S. macrospora STE12 protein is able to interact with the mating-type protein SMTA-1. Unlike the situation in the closely related heterothallic ascomycete Neurospora crassa, deletion (Delta) of the ste12 gene in S. macrospora neither affects vegetative growth nor fruiting body formation. However, ascus and ascospore development are highly impaired by the Deltaste12 mutation. Our data provide another example of the functional divergence within the fungal STE12 transcription factor family.

  7. Functional characterization of MAT1-1-specific mating-type genes in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora provides new insights into essential and nonessential sexual regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klix, V; Nowrousian, M; Ringelberg, C; Loros, J J; Dunlap, J C; Pöggeler, S

    2010-06-01

    Mating-type genes in fungi encode regulators of mating and sexual development. Heterothallic ascomycete species require different sets of mating-type genes to control nonself-recognition and mating of compatible partners of different mating types. Homothallic (self-fertile) species also carry mating-type genes in their genome that are essential for sexual development. To analyze the molecular basis of homothallism and the role of mating-type genes during fruiting-body development, we deleted each of the three genes, SmtA-1 (MAT1-1-1), SmtA-2 (MAT1-1-2), and SmtA-3 (MAT1-1-3), contained in the MAT1-1 part of the mating-type locus of the homothallic ascomycete species Sordaria macrospora. Phenotypic analysis of deletion mutants revealed that the PPF domain protein-encoding gene SmtA-2 is essential for sexual reproduction, whereas the alpha domain protein-encoding genes SmtA-1 and SmtA-3 play no role in fruiting-body development. By means of cross-species microarray analysis using Neurospora crassa oligonucleotide microarrays hybridized with S. macrospora targets and quantitative real-time PCR, we identified genes expressed under the control of SmtA-1 and SmtA-2. Both genes are involved in the regulation of gene expression, including that of pheromone genes.

  8. Deletion of Smgpi1 encoding a GPI-anchored protein suppresses sterility of the STRIPAK mutant ΔSmmob3 in the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Stefan; Lahmann, Yasmine; Hartmann, Thomas; Seiler, Stephan; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2015-08-01

    The striatin interacting phosphatase and kinase (STRIPAK) complex, which is composed of striatin, protein phosphatase PP2A and kinases, is required for fruiting-body development and cell fusion in the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. Here, we report on the interplay of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein SmGPI1 with the kinase activator SmMOB3, a core component of human and fungal STRIPAK complexes. SmGPI1 is conserved among filamentous ascomycetes and was first identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen using SmMOB3 as bait. The physical interaction of SmMOB3 and SmGPI1 was verified by co-immunoprecipitation. In vivo localization and differential centrifugation revealed that SmGPI1 is predominantly secreted and attached to the cell wall but is also associated with mitochondria and appears to be a dual-targeted protein. Deletion of Smgpi1 led to an increased number of fruiting bodies that were normally shaped but reduced in size. In addition, Smmob3 and Smgpi1 genetically interact. In the sterile ΔSmmob3 background deletion of Smgpi1 restores fertility, vegetative growth as well as hyphal-fusion defects. The suppression effect was specific for the ΔSmmob3 mutant as deletion of Smgpi1 in other STRIPAK mutants does not restore fertility. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Autophagy genes Smatg8 and Smatg4 are required for fruiting-body development, vegetative growth and ascospore germination in the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Oliver; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is a tightly controlled degradation process involved in various developmental aspects of eukaryotes. However, its involvement in developmental processes of multicellular filamentous ascomycetes is largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the impact of the autophagic proteins SmATG8 and SmATG4 on the sexual and vegetative development of the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae complementation assay demonstrated that the S. macrospora Smatg8 and Smatg4 genes can functionally replace the yeast homologs. By generating homokaryotic deletion mutants, we showed that the S. macrospora SmATG8 and SmATG4 orthologs were associated with autophagy-dependent processes. Smatg8 and Smatg4 deletions abolished fruiting-body formation and impaired vegetative growth and ascospore germination, but not hyphal fusion. We demonstrated that SmATG4 was capable of processing the SmATG8 precursor. SmATG8 was localized to autophagosomes, whereas SmATG4 was distributed throughout the cytoplasm of S. macrospora. Furthermore, we could show that Smatg8 and Smatg4 are not only required for nonselective macroautophagy, but for selective macropexophagy as well. Taken together, our results suggest that in S. macrospora, autophagy seems to be an essential and constitutively active process to sustain high energy levels for filamentous growth and multicellular development even under nonstarvation conditions.

  10. Autophagic kinases SmVPS34 and SmVPS15 are required for viability in the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Oliver; Herzog, Britta; Jakobshagen, Antonia; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a tightly controlled degradation process of all eukaryotes. It includes the sequestration of cytoplasmic contents and organelles within a double-membraned autophagosome. Autophagy involves core autophagy related (atg) genes as well as genes regulating vesicle trafficking. Previously, we analyzed the impact of proteins of the core autophagic machinery SmATG7, SmATG8 and SmATG4 on the sexual and vegetative development of the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora. While deletion of Smatg8 and Smatg4 abolished fruiting-body formation and impaired vegetative growth, Smatg7 is required for viability. In yeast, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase vacuolar protein sorting 34 (Vps34) and its myristoylated membrane targeting unit, the protein kinase Vps15 have been shown to be important regulators of autophagy and vacuolar protein sorting. However, their exact role in filamentous ascomycetes remains elusive. To determine the function of Smvps34 and Smvps15 we isolated genes with high sequence similarity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae VPS34 and VPS15. For both genes we were not able to generate a homokaryotic knockout mutant in S. macrospora, suggesting that Smvps34 and Smvps15 are required for viability. Furthermore, we analyzed the repertoire of vps genes encoded by S. macrospora and could identify putative homologs of nearly all of the 61 VPS genes of S. cerevisiae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemical composition of metapleural gland secretions of fungus-growing and non-fungus-growing ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexsandro S; Morgan, E David; Drijfhout, Falko P; Camargo-Mathias, Maria I

    2012-10-01

    The metapleural gland is exclusive to ants, and unusual among exocrine glands in having no mechanism for closure and retention of secretion. As yet, no clear conclusion has been reached as to the function of metapleural gland secretion. Metapleural gland secretions were investigated for fungus-growing ants representing the derived attines Trachymyrmex fuscus, Atta laevigata, and Acromyrmex coronatus, the basal attines Apterostigma pilosum and Mycetarotes parallelus, and non-fungus-growing ants of the tribes Ectatommini (Ectatomma brunneum) and Myrmicini (Pogonomyrmex naegeli). Our results showed that the secretions of leaf-cutting ants (A. laevigata and A. coronatus) and the derived attine, T. fuscus, contain a greater variety and larger quantities of volatile compounds than those of myrmicine and ectatommine ants. The most abundant compounds found in the metapleural glands of A. laevigata and A. coronatus were hydroxyacids, and phenylacetic acid (only in A. laevigata). Indole was present in all groups examined, while skatole was found in large quantities only in attines. Ketones and aldehydes are present in the secretion of some attines. Esters are present in the metapleural gland secretion of all species examined, although mainly in A. laevigata, A. coronatus, and T. fuscus. Compared with basal attines and non-fungus-growing ants, the metapleural glands of leaf-cutting ants produce more acidic compounds that may have an antibiotic or antifungal function.

  12. Bioactive Triterpenes from the Fungus Piptoporus betulinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyad Alresly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the fruiting bodies from the basidiomycete Piptoporus betulinus led to the isolation of a new bioactive lanostane triterpene identified as 3 b -acetoxy-16-hydroxy-24-oxo-5α-lanosta-8- ene-21-oic acid (1. In addition, ten known triterpenes, polyporenic acid A (5, polyporenic acid C (4, three derivatives of polyporenic acid A (8, 10, 11, betulinic acid (3, betulin (2, ergosterol peroxide (6, 9,11-dehydroergosterol peroxide (7, and fomefficinic acid (9, were also isolated from the fungus. All isolated compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as against a fungal strain. The new triterpene and some of the other compounds showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

  13. Comparative studies of the secretome of fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Tore; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Schiøtt, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Leafcutter ants of the species Acromyrmex echinatior live in symbiosis with the fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. The ants harvest fragments of leaves and carry them to the nest where they place the material on the fungal colony. The fungus secretes a wide array of proteins to degrade the leaves...... into nutrients that the ants can feed on. The focus of this study is to discover, characterize and compare the secreted proteins. In order to do so cDNA libraries are constructed from mRNA extracted from the fungus material. The most efficient technology to screen cDNA libraries selectively for secreted...

  14. The ascomycete genus Sordaria

    OpenAIRE

    Guarro, J.; Arx, von, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Sordaria is restricted to coprophilous, soil-, or seed-borne Pyrenomycetes with aseptate, elongate ascospores with a gelatinous, amorphous sheath. The genus is redescribed and a key to fourteen accepted species is given. A checklist of all taxa described as Sordaria is added.

  15. Grafting as a method for studying development in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silar, Philippe

    2011-08-01

    While grafting and transplant experiments have extensively been used to study development in animals and plants, they have seldom been employed to study fungal development. Here, grafting is used to study the interplay between mycelium and multicellular fruiting bodies during maturation in the model ascomycete Podospora anserina. Data indicate that grafts need a competent mycelium to continue their ripening. Vegetative incompatibility does not prevent transplanted fructifications to undergo development. Grafting onto mutant mycelia confirmed a previous model stating that the NADPH oxidase PaNox1 is required in the developing fruiting bodies, while the MAP kinase cascade PaMpk1 is required in the mycelium. Data also show that the IDC1 protein is required not only in the developing fruiting bodies but also in the mycelium, likely because of its role in anastomosis. Finally, entry inside the grafted fruiting bodies of a ribosomal protein tagged with GFP could be detected, suggesting that cellular components are imported from the underlying mycelium during maturation. Copyright © 2011 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A new taxol-producing fungus ( Pestalotiopsis malicola ) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new taxol-producing fungus ( Pestalotiopsis malicola ) and evidence for taxol as a transient product in the culture. ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives.

  17. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenova, Tatyana; Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2011-01-01

    hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results: We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing...... classes. Remarkably, the single symbiont that is shared by species of the crown group of Atta and Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants mostly showed metalloproteinase activity, suggesting that recurrent changes in enzyme production may have occurred throughout the domestication history of fungus-garden symbionts......Background: Attine ants live in symbiosis with a basidiomycetous fungus that they rear on a substrate of plant material. This indirect herbivory implies that the symbiosis is likely to be nitrogen deprived, so that specific mechanisms may have evolved to enhance protein availability. We therefore...

  18. Contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus to red kidney and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... fungus to red kidney and wheat plants tolerance grown in heavy metal-polluted soil. ... artificially contaminated with high oncentrations of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium. ... strategies of remediation of highly heavy metal contaminated soils.

  19. Various Stages of Pink Fungus (Upasia salmonicolor in Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarwati Harsojo Tjokrosoedarmo

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Pink fungus in Java is classified as Upasia salmonicolor (Basidiomycetes: Corticiaceae and its anamorph is Necator decretus. This fungus is a serious pathogen which attacks many woody plants. The pink fungus in Java exhibits five developmental stages on the surface of the host bark: I. An initial cobweb stage as thin, white, cobweb-like hyphal layer, which creeps over the surface of the bark, during which penetration of the host occurs; II. Pseudonodular stage, as conical white pustules occurring only on lenticels or cracks, and only on shady side of branches; III. Teleomorph, occurs as pink incrustation and pink pustules on shady side of branches; IV. Nodular stages, as globose white pustules occurring chiefly on intact bark, but also on the lenticels or cracks, on exposed side of branches; V. Anamorph, as small orange-red sporodochium, on exposed side of branches. Key words: pink fungus, Corticiaceae, Basidiomycetes, Necator

  20. Mucormycosis (Mucor fungus ball) of the maxillary sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hang Sun; Yang, Hoon Shik; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2014-01-01

    A fungus ball is an extramucosal fungal proliferation that completely fills one or more paranasal sinuses and usually occurs as a unilateral infection. It is mainly caused by Aspergillus spp in an immunocompetent host, but some cases of paranasal fungal balls reportedly have been caused by Mucor spp. A Mucor fungus ball is usually found in the maxillary sinus and/or the sphenoid sinus and may be black in color. Patients with mucormycosis, or a Mucor fungal ball infection, usually present with facial pain or headache. On computed tomography, there are no pathognomonic findings that are conclusive for a diagnosis of mucormycosis. In this article we report a case of mucormycosis in a 56-year-old woman and provide a comprehensive review of the literature on the "Mucor fungus ball." To the best of our knowledge, 5 case reports (8 patients) have been published in which the fungus ball was thought to be caused by Mucor spp.

  1. Screening of potent anticancer drug taxol from Entophytic fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muthumary

    2011-02-21

    Feb 21, 2011 ... Isolation and detection of taxol, an anticancer drug produced from ... cancer cell line, taxol produced by the test fungus in MID culture medium was isolated for its .... then plotted on a graph. RESULTS AND ... Wavelength (nm).

  2. Complete life cycle of the lichen fungus Calopadia puiggarii (Pilocarpaceae, Ascomycetes) documented in situ: propagule dispersal, establishment of symbiosis, thallus development, and formation of sexual and asexual reproductive structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, William B

    2014-11-01

    The life histories of lichen fungi are not well known and cannot be readily studied in laboratory culture. This work documents in situ the complete life cycle of the widespread crustose lichen Calopadia puiggarii, which reproduces sexually and asexually on the surfaces of leaves. Plastic cover slips held in a mesh frame were placed over leaves in the field and successively removed for microphotography of colonizing lichens. Macroconidia produced within campylidia encircled photobiont cells and codispersed with them, a feature not reported previously for C. puiggarii. Dispersed macroconidia readily germinated and lichenized the photobionts. Algal cells were often dislodged from the encircling macroconidia, providing a likely source for the free-living populations observed. Aposymbiotically dispersed ascospores germinated and lichenized nearby algal cells soon after dispersal. Thallus areolae merged readily in early development, although adjacent mature thalli were often separated by growth inhibition zones. Pycnidia are reported for the first time in Calopadia; their pyriform microconidia probably function as male gametes (spermatia). Pycnidia, apothecia, and campylidia began development similarly as darkly pigmented primordia on the fungal prothallus. Abundant dispersal of ascospores, conidia, and photobionts allows C. puiggarii to quickly colonize leaves with the dual advantages of sexual and asexual reproduction, and with the added convenience of having its algal partner on hand. Fusions and prothallic capture of additional algae provide many opportunities for multiple mycobiont and photobiont genotypes to be combined in a single thallus, but the outcomes of such events remain to be explored. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  3. ADR: An atypical presentation of rare dematiaceous fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Karthika

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of fungus in allergic fungal rhino sinusitis has been around 200 times in the world literature. As per the available literature, the most common agent identified so far appears to be ASPERGILLUS, though the condition is increasingly associated with Dematiaceous fungi. Here we report for the first time the presence of unusual fungus in allergic rhino sinusitis, which has not been reported so far.

  4. ZnS semiconductor quantum dots production by an endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddandarao, Priyanka, E-mail: uddandaraopriyanka@gmail.com; B, Raj Mohan, E-mail: rajmohanbala@gmail.com

    2016-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus isolated from a medicinal plant Nothapodytes foetida was used for the synthesis of quantum dots. • Morris-Weber kinetic model and Lagergren's pseudo-first-order rate equation were used to study the biosorption kinetics. • Polycrystalline ZnS quantum dots of 18 nm and 58.9 nm from TEM and DLS, respectively. - Abstract: The development of reliable and eco-friendly processes for the synthesis of metal sulphide quantum dots has been considered as a major challenge in the field of nanotechnology. In the present study, polycrystalline ZnS quantum dots were synthesized from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus. It is noteworthy that apart from being rich sources of bioactive compounds, endophytic fungus also has the ability to mediate the synthesis of nanoparticles. TEM and DLS revealed the formation of spherical particles with an average diameter of about 18 nm and 58.9 nm, respectively. The ZnS quantum dots were further characterized using SEM, EDAX, XRD, UV–visible spectroscopy and FTIR. The obtained results confirmed the synthesis of polycrystalline ZnS quantum dots and these quantum dots are used for studying ROS activity. In addition this paper explains kinetics of metal sorption to study the role of biosorption in synthesis of quantum dots by applying Morris-Weber kinetic model. Since Aspergillus flavus is isolated from a medicinal plant Nothapodytes foetida, quantum dots synthesized from this fungus may have great potential in broad environmental and medical applications.

  5. The mitochondrial genome of the ethanol-metabolizing, wine cellar mold Zasmidium cellare is the smallest for a filamentous ascomycete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, Stephen; McCorison, Cassandra B.; Cavaletto, Jessica R.; Culley, David E.; LaButti, Kurt M.; Baker, Scott E.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2016-05-20

    Fungi in the class Dothideomycetes often live in extreme environments or have unusual physiology. One of these, the wine cellar mold Zasmidium cellare, produces thick curtains of mycelial growth in cellars with high humidity, and its ability to metabolize volatile organic compounds including alcohols, esters and formaldehyde is thought to improve air quality. It grows slowly but appears to outcompete ordinarily faster-growing species under anaerobic conditions.Whether these abilities have affected its mitochondrial genome is not known.To fill this gap, its mitochondrial genome was assembled as part of a whole- genome shotgun-sequencing project.The circular-mapping mitochondrial genome of Z. cellare, at only 23,743 bp, is the smallest yet reported for a filamentous fungus.It contains the complete set of 14 protein-coding genes seen typically in other filamentous fungi, along with genes for large and small ribosomal RNA subunits, 25 predicted tRNA genes capable of decoding all 20 amino acids, and a single open reading frame potentially coding for a protein of unknown function.The Z. cellare mitochondrial genome had genes encoded on both strands with a single change of direction, different from most other fungi but consistent with the Dothideomycetes. The high synteny among mitochondrial genomes of fungi in the Eurotiomycetes broke down almost completely in the Dothideomycetes.Only a low level of microsynteny was observed among protein-coding and tRNA genes in comparison with Mycosphaerella graminicola (synonym Zymoseptoria tritici), the only other fungus in the order Capnodiales with a sequenced mitochondrial genome, involving the three gene pairs atp8-atp9, nad2-nad3, and nad4L-nad5.However, even this low level of microsynteny did not extend to other fungi in the Dothideomycetes and Eurotiomycetes. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated protein-coding genes confirmed the relationship between Z. cellare and M. graminicola in the Capnodiales, although conclusions were

  6. Solubilization of diabase and phonolite dust by filamentous fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Andréia Vrba Brandão

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the fungus Aspergillus niger strain CCT4355 in the release of nutrients contained in two types of rock powder (diabase and phonolite by means of in vitro solubilization trials. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 5 x 4 factorial design with three replications. It was evaluated five treatments (phonolite dust + culture medium; phonolite dust + fungus + culture medium; diabase powder + culture medium; diabase powder + fungus + culture medium and fungus + culture medium and four sampling dates (0, 10, 20 and 30 days. Rock dust (0.4% w/v was added to 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 mL of liquid culture medium adapted to A. niger. The flasks were incubated at 30°C for 30 days, and analysis of pH (in water, titratable acidity, and concentrations of soluble potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and manganese were made. The fungus A. niger was able to produce organic acids that solubilized ions. This result indicates its potential to alter minerals contained in rock dust, with the ability to interact in different ways with the nutrients. A significant increase in the amount of K was found in the treatment with phonolite dust in the presence of the fungus. The strain CCT4355 of A. niger can solubilize minerals contained in these rocks dust.

  7. Malaria mosquitoes attracted by fatal fungus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin George

    Full Text Available Insect-killing fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are being evaluated as possible active ingredients for use in novel biopesticides against mosquito vectors that transmit malaria. Fungal pathogens infect through contact and so applications of spores to surfaces such as walls, nets, or other resting sites provide possible routes to infect mosquitoes in and around domestic dwellings. However, some insects can detect and actively avoid fungal spores to reduce infection risk. If true for mosquitoes, such behavior could render the biopesticide approach ineffective. Here we find that the spores of B. bassiana are highly attractive to females of Anopheles stephensi, a major anopheline mosquito vector of human malaria in Asia. We further find that An. stephensi females are preferentially attracted to dead and dying caterpillars infected with B. bassiana, landing on them and subsequently becoming infected with the fungus. Females are also preferentially attracted to cloth sprayed with oil-formulated B. bassiana spores, with 95% of the attracted females becoming infected after a one-minute visit on the cloth. This is the first report of an insect being attracted to a lethal fungal pathogen. The exact mechanisms involved in this behavior remain unclear. Nonetheless, our results indicate that biopesticidal formulations comprising B. bassiana spores will be conducive to attraction and on-source visitation by malaria vectors.

  8. Comparative vesicle proteomics reveals selective regulation of protein expression in chestnut blight fungus by a hypovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinzi; Wang, Fangzhen; Feng, Youjun; Mi, Ke; Chen, Qi; Shang, Jinjie; Chen, Baoshan

    2013-01-14

    The chestnut blight fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica) and hypovirus constitute a model system to study fungal pathogenesis and mycovirus-host interaction. Knowledge in this field has been gained largely from investigations at gene transcription level so far. Here we report a systematic analysis of the vesicle proteins of the host fungus with/without hypovirus infection. Thirty-three differentially expressed protein spots were identified in the purified vesicle protein samples by two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Down-regulated proteins were mostly cargo proteins involved in primary metabolism and energy generation and up-regulated proteins were mostly vesicle associated proteins and ABC transporter. A virus-encoded protein p48 was found to have four forms with different molecular mass in vesicles from the virus-infected strain. While a few of the randomly selected differentially expressed proteins were in accordance with their transcription profiles, majority were not in agreement with their mRNA accumulation patterns, suggesting that an extensive post-transcriptional regulation may have occurred in the host fungus upon a hypovirus infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the Principal Subject of Fission Yeast Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egel, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe is a primitive ascomycetous fungus, also known as fission yeast. It has been extensively used in general and molecular genetics, and its genome is fully sequenced. It is considered a very useful model organism for experimental research on fundamental properties of eukary......Schizosaccharomyces pombe is a primitive ascomycetous fungus, also known as fission yeast. It has been extensively used in general and molecular genetics, and its genome is fully sequenced. It is considered a very useful model organism for experimental research on fundamental properties...

  10. Termite-egg mimicry by a sclerotium-forming fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Kenji

    2006-05-22

    Mimicry has evolved in a wide range of organisms and encompasses diverse tactics for defence, foraging, pollination and social parasitism. Here, I report an extraordinary case of egg mimicry by a fungus, whereby the fungus gains competitor-free habitat in termite nests. Brown fungal balls, called 'termite balls', are frequently found in egg piles of Reticulitermes termites. Phylogenetic analysis illustrated that termite-ball fungi isolated from different hosts (Reticulitermes speratus, Reticulitermes flavipes and Reticulitermes virginicus) were all very similar, with no significant molecular differences among host species or geographical locations. I found no significant effect of termite balls on egg survivorship. The termite-ball fungus rarely kills termite eggs in natural colonies. Even a termite species (Reticulitermes okinawanus) with no natural association with the fungus tended termite balls along with its eggs when it was experimentally provided with termite balls. Dummy-egg bioassays using glass beads showed that both morphological and chemical camouflage were necessary to induce tending by termites. Termites almost exclusively tended termite balls with diameters that exactly matched their egg size. Moreover, scanning electron microscopic observations revealed sophisticated mimicry of the smooth surface texture of eggs. These results provide clear evidence that this interaction is beneficial only for the fungus, i.e. termite balls parasitically mimic termite eggs.

  11. The Physiology of Microbial Symbionts in Fungus-Farming Termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues da Costa, Rafael

    . The termites provide the fungus with optimal growth conditions (e.g., stable temperature and humidity), as well as with constant inoculation of growth substrate and protection against alien fungi. In reward, the fungus provides the termites with a protein-rich fungal biomass based diet. In addition...... with their symbionts are main decomposer of organic matter in Africa, and this is reflect of a metabolic complementarity to decompose plant biomass in the genome of the three organisms involved in this symbiosis. Many of the physiological aspects of this symbiosis remain obscure, and here I focus on physiology...... of microbial symbionts associated with fungus-growing termites. Firstly, by using a set of enzyme assays, plant biomass compositional analyses, and RNA sequencing we gained deeper understanding on what enzymes are produced and active at different times of the decomposition process. Our results show that enzyme...

  12. Multifarious plant growth promotion by an entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium psalliotae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil Kumar, C M; Jacob, T K; Devasahayam, S; Thomas, Stephy; Geethu, C

    2018-03-01

    An entomopathogenic fungus, Lecanicillium psalliotae strain IISR-EPF-02 previously found infectious to cardamom thrips, Sciothrips cardamomi promoted plant growth in cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum. The isolate exhibited direct plant growth promoting traits by production of indole-3-acetic acid and ammonia and by solubilizing inorganic phosphate and zinc. It also showed indirect plant growth promoting traits by producing siderophores and cell wall-degrading enzymes like, α-amylases, cellulases and proteases. In pot culture experiments, application of the fungus at the root zone of cardamom seedlings significantly increased shoot and root length, shoot and root biomass, number of secondary roots and leaves and leaf chlorophyll content compared to untreated plants. This is the first report on the plant growth promoting traits of this fungus. The entomopathogenic and multifarious growth promoting traits of L. psalliotae strain IISR-EPF-02 suggest that it has great potential for exploitation in sustainable agriculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Isolation and identification of iron ore-solubilising fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damase Khasa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Potential mineral-solubilising fungi were successfully isolated from the surfaces of iron ore minerals. Four isolates were obtained and identified by molecular and phylogenetic methods as close relatives of three different genera, namely Penicillium (for isolate FO, Alternaria (for isolates SFC2 and KFC1 and Epicoccum (for isolate SFC2B. The use of tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO42in phosphate-solubilising experiments confirmed isolate FO as the only phosphate solubiliser among the isolated fungi. The bioleaching capabilities of both the fungus and its spent liquid medium were tested and compared using two types of iron ore materials, conglomerate and shale, from the Sishen Iron Ore Mine as sources of potassium (K and phosphorus (P. The spent liquid medium removed more K (a maximum of 32.94% removal, from conglomerate, than the fungus (a maximum of 21.36% removal, from shale. However, the fungus removed more P (a maximum of 58.33% removal, from conglomerate than the spent liquid medium (a maximum of 29.25% removal, from conglomerate. The results also indicated a potential relationship between the removal of K or P and the production of organic acids by the fungus. A high production of gluconic acid could be related to the ability of the fungus to reduce K and P. Acetic, citric and maleic acids were also produced by the fungus, but in lower quantities. In addition, particle size and iron ore type were also shown to have significant effects on the removal of potassium and phosphorus from the iron ore minerals. We therefore conclude that the spent liquid medium from the fungal isolate FO can potentially be used for biobeneficiation of iron ore minerals.

  14. Noninvasive medical management of fungus ball uropathy in a premature infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkalay, A L; Srugo, I; Blifeld, C; Komaiko, M S; Pomerance, J J

    1991-09-01

    Unilateral renal obstruction secondary to fungus balls is described in a premature infant. Noninvasive medical management, which included amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine therapy and forced diuresis, resulted in disappearance of fungus balls and resolution of the obstruction.

  15. Exploring the Potential for Actinobacteria as Defensive Symbionts in Fungus-Growing Termites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.A.; Mesquita Nobre, T.; Currie, C.R.; Aanen, D.K.; Poulsen, M.

    2012-01-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play a

  16. Experimental study of Aspergillus flavus fungus from uranium mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusak, V. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague. Ustav Experimentalni Mediciny)

    1982-06-01

    Cultivation is discussed of fungus strain Aspergillus flavus obtained from materials from uranium mines. It was found that an addition of 0.6 g of uranium in form of uranyl acetate or of 0.6 g of thorium in form on thorium nitrate in 1000 ml of the standard medium had stimulating effects on the growth and sporulation of Aspergillus flavus. Irradiating the cultivated fungus through a polyethylene foil did not show a stimulating effect. It is stated that uranium and its daughters must be directly present in the culture medium for their stimulating effect on growth and sporulation to manifest itself.

  17. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Fine Licht Henrik H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae, wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. Results We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Conclusion Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily

  18. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Biedermann, Peter H W

    2012-06-06

    In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae), wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow) and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i) 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii) four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4)-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily accessible hemicellulose components of the ray

  19. Biotransformation of (+)-cycloisolongifolol by plant pathogenic fungus Glomerella cingulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Sakata, Kazuki

    2007-05-01

    The biotransformation of terpenoids using the plant pathogenic fungus as a biocatalyst to produce useful novel organic compounds was investigated. The biotransformation of sesquiterpen alcohol, (+)-cycloisolongifolol (1) was investigated using plant pathogenic fungus Glomerella cingulata as a biocatalyst. Compound 1 gave one major metabolic product and a number of minor metabolic products. Major product was dehydration at the C-8 position to (+)-dehydrocycloisolongifolene (2). The structure of the product was determined by their spectroscopic data. Glomerella cingulata gave dehydration in the specifically and over 70% conversion.

  20. Experimental study of Aspergillus flavus fungus from uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusak, V.

    1982-01-01

    Cultivation is discussed of fungus strain Aspergillus flavus obtained from materials from uranium mines. It was found that an addition of 0.6 g of uranium in form of uranyl acetate or of 0.6 g of thorium in form on thorium nitrate in 1000 ml of the standard medium had stimulating effects on the growth and sporulation of Aspergillus flavus. Irradiating the cultivated fungus through a polyethylene foil did not show a stimulating effect. It is stated that uranium and its daughters must be directly present in the culture medium for their stimulating effect on growth and sporulation to manifest itself. (H.S.)

  1. Infection of silkworm larvae by the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucineia de Fátima Chasko Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The isolate E9 of Metarhizium anisopliae was used in commercial hybrids of Bombyx mori larvae to evaluate its biological effect. Symptomatological analyses showed typical signs of fungal infection. Histopathology revealed the presence of large numbers of hemocytes in the hemocoel, and on the sixth dpi the bodies of the insects appeared to be colonised by the fungus. The isolate E9 is pathogenic to larvae B. mori and; therefore, death of the insects was caused by the colonization of fungus in the epidermal and mesodermal tissues.

  2. Towards an integrated understanding of the consequences of fungus domestication on the fungus-growing termite gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas-Poulsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 30 million years ago (MYA), the subfamily of higher termites Macrotermitinae domesticated a fungus, Termitomyces, as the main plant decomposer and food source for the termite host. The origin of fungiculture shifted the composition of the termite gut microbiota, and some of the func......Approximately 30 million years ago (MYA), the subfamily of higher termites Macrotermitinae domesticated a fungus, Termitomyces, as the main plant decomposer and food source for the termite host. The origin of fungiculture shifted the composition of the termite gut microbiota, and some...... will be powerful, particularly if executed in comparative analyses across the well-established congruent termite-fungus phylogenies. This will allow for testing if gut communities have evolved in parallel with their hosts, with implications for our general understanding of the evolution of gut symbiont communities...

  3. Detection of Phakopsora pachyrhizi fungus by Polymerase Chain Reaction technique (PCR) after soy grains treatment by electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanaro, G.B.; Aquino, S.; Guedes, R.L.; Crede, R.G.; Sabundjian, I.T.; Ruiz, M.O.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.

    2005-01-01

    Today Brazil, as the largest soy exporter in the world, has undergone the consequences of the contamination of these crops by the Asian dust fungus, being harmed since the plantation up to the harvest, with losses in its productivity ranging 10-80%. As it is a new disease in the Americas, there are not any resistant species to this fungus attack. The grains contamination harms the exportation for countries which do not want to have their crops contaminated, affecting therefore the international commerce and agro-business relationship with those countries Brazil has trade with. The Asian dust is caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi and its dissemination is of difficult control, since occurs through the wind dispersion. The P. pachyrhizi is an Asian fungus and was recently found in South Africa, Paraguay, Argentina and Brazil. As an alternative process to minimize these losses is the process to preserve the grains by radiation, the use of the electron accelerator was indicated, since its advantage for the grains exportation industry is fundamental. Besides the possibility of being disconnected when not in use, this source does not need to be recharged, is easily available and has high dose rate, streamlining the process and reducing logistics costs. The present work aims to identify, by the Polymerase Chain Reaction technique (PCR), the P. pachyrhizi fungus presence in the irradiated soy grains, at doses 1 and 2 kGy, at the IPEN-CNEN electron Accelerator, a Dynamitron Machine (Radiation Dynamics Co. model JOB, New York, USA), with 1.5 MeV power and 2.5 mA electrical current. (author)

  4. Optimized integration of T-DNA in the taxol-producing fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We previously reported a taxol-producing fungus Pestalotiopsis malicola. There, we described the transformation of the fungus mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. T-DNA carrying the selection marker was transferred into the fungus and randomly integrated into the genome as shown by Southern blotting.

  5. Fungus infection in immunocompromised rabbits: correlation of thin-section CT findings and histopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Feng; Liu Shiyuan; Xie Lixuan; Liu Kai; Zhang Jian; Chen Yousan; Li Huimin; He Jin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare the thin-section CT findings of pulmonary candidiasis, aspergillosis and cryptococcosis with histopathology in immunocompromised rabbits and improve the diagnostic accuracy of fungus infection. Methods: Healthy New Zealand white rabbits were used for immunocompromised animal models. Thin-section CT scan was performed before and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 d after inoculation. The pattern and distribution of the pulmonary abnormalities were retrospectively assessed by two thoracic radiologists and compared with histopathology. The granulocyte count was compared before and after administration of immunosuppressive agents. The paired t test, chi square test and the Fisher's exact test were used for the statistics. Results: Fourteen rabbits had candidiasis, 16 rabbits had eryptococcosis, 15 rabbits had aspergillosis. The granulocyte counts before and after administration of immunosuppressive agents were (2.91±0.92) and (0.35±0.19) x 10 9 /L respectively in candidiasis group, there was a significant difference (t=12.484, P 9 /L in aspergillosis group, there was a significant difference (t=5.792, P 9 /L in cryptococcosis group, there was a significant difference (t=8.199, P 0.05). Ground glass opacity (GGO) and consolidation were the two most common findings in immunocompromised rabbits with three fungus infections, areas of GGO was correlated with the congestion, hemorrhage, inflammatory cell infiltration and interstitial hyperplasia in pathology. Consolidation was correlated with the severe congestion, hemorrhage, inflammatory cell infiltration, interstitial hyperplasia, necrosis and vascular embolism in pathology. Conclusion: GGO and consolidation are the two most common findings of fungus infections in immunocompromised animal models and thin-section CT findings can reflect the pathological changes. (authors)

  6. Lignocellulose pretreatment in a fungus-cultivating termite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongjie Li; Daniel J. Yelle; Chang Li; Mengyi Yang; Jing Ke; Ruijuan Zhang; Yu Liu; Na Zhu; Shiyou Liang; Xiaochang Mo; John Ralph; Cameron R. Currie; Jianchu Mo

    2017-01-01

    Depolymerizing lignin, the complex phenolic polymer fortifying plant cell walls, is an essential but challenging starting point for the lignocellulosics industries. The variety of ether– and carbon–carbon interunit linkages produced via radical coupling during lignification limit chemical and biological depolymerization efficiency. In an ancient fungus-cultivating...

  7. Volatile antimicrobials from Muscodor crispans, a novel endophytic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Angela M; Strobel, Gary A; Moore, Emily; Robison, Richard; Sears, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Muscodor crispans is a recently described novel endophytic fungus of Ananas ananassoides (wild pineapple) growing in the Bolivian Amazon Basin. The fungus produces a mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); some of the major components of this mixture, as determined by GC/MS, are propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-; 1-butanol, 3-methyl-;1-butanol, 3-methyl-, acetate; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-methylbutyl ester; and ethanol. The fungus does not, however, produce naphthalene or azulene derivatives as has been observed with many other members of the genus Muscodor. The mixture of VOCs produced by M. crispans cultures possesses antibiotic properties, as does an artificial mixture of a majority of the components. The VOCs of the fungus are effective against a wide range of plant pathogens, including the fungi Pythium ultimum, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Mycosphaerella fijiensis (the black sigatoka pathogen of bananas), and the serious bacterial pathogen of citrus, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. In addition, the VOCs of M. crispans killed several human pathogens, including Yersinia pestis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus. Artificial mixtures of the fungal VOCs were both inhibitory and lethal to a number of human and plant pathogens, including three drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The gaseous products of Muscodor crispans potentially could prove to be beneficial in the fields of medicine, agriculture, and industry.

  8. Identification of a taxol-producing endophytic fungus EFY-36

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... Morphological and molecular methods were used to identify the statues of an isolate, EFY-36, a taxol- ... of the spores. The analysis of endophytic fungus. 18S ribosome RNA sequence used PCR cloning technology. DNA was extracted by the CTAB method. ... of the fungal mycelium (magnification: 400 ×).

  9. Identification and characterization of glucoamylase from the fungus, Thermomyces lanuginosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Thor Seneca; Johnsen, Anders; Josefsen, K.

    2006-01-01

    the thermophilic fungus Talaromyces emersonii. cDNA encoding Thermomyces lanuginosus glucoamylase was expression cloned into Pichia pastoris, producing approximately 7.4 U/ml. It was concluded that alternative mRNA splicing as it might occur in Aspergillus niger glucoamylase is not responsible for the occurrence...

  10. Leucopaxillus lepistoides, a new steppe fungus in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Łuszczyński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents information on Leucopaxillus lepistoides (Maire Singer, a new species for Poland. This fungus was found in two localities: the neighbourhood of Busko Zdrój and Chęciny (Little Polish Upland, S-Poland. Both localities were in the xerothermic grasslands belonging to the Cirsio-Brachypodion Order, Festuco-Brometea Class.

  11. The role of enzymes in fungus-growing ant evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard

    behaviour. Here we report the first large-scale comparative study on fungus garden enzyme profiles and show that various interesting changes can be documented. A more detailed analysis of laccase expression, an enzyme that is believed to oxidize phenols in defensive secondary plant compounds such as tannins...

  12. A new polyoxygenated farnesylcyclohexenone from Fungus Penicillium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yabin; Yang, Fangfang; Zhao, Lixing; Duang, Rongting; Chen, Guangyi; Li, Xiaozhan; Li, Qiling; Qin, Shaohuan; Ding, Zhongtao

    2016-01-01

    A new polyoxygenated farnesylcyclohexenone, peniginsengin A (1), was isolated from the fermentation of Penicillium sp. YIM PH30003, an endophytic fungus associated with Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen. The structure was assigned based on a combination of 1 D and 2 D NMR and mass spectral data. The cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activities of compound 1 were investigated.

  13. The origin of Ceratocystis fagacearum, the oak wilt fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Juzwik; Thomas C. Harrington; William L. MacDonald; David N. Appel

    2008-01-01

    The oak wilt pathogen, Ceratocystis fagacearum, may be another example of a damaging, exotic species in forest ecosystems in the United States. Though C. fagacearum has received much research attention, the origin of the fungus is unknown. The pathogen may have been endemic at a low incidence until increased disturbances, changes...

  14. An entomopathogenic fungus for control of adult African malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Ng'habi, K.R.N.; Kihonda, J.; Takken, W.; Paaijmans, K.P.; Abdulla, S.; Killeen, G.F.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Biological control of malaria mosquitoes in Africa has rarely been used in vector control programs. Recent developments in this field show that certain fungi are virulent to adult Anopheles mosquitoes. Practical delivery of an entomopathogenic fungus that infected and killed adult Anopheles gambiae,

  15. Consistent association of fungus Fusarium mangiferae Britz with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In exotic ones, maximum and minimum infections of 97.33 and 70.67% were noted in the cultivars Sensation and Pop, respectively. Light and transmission electron microscopy proved helpful in investigating the morphological matrix and ultrastructure of the propagules of fungus F. mangiferae. Key words: Mangifera indica, ...

  16. Comparative nutritional evaluation of fungus and alkali treated rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding trial was conducted with growing white albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) for 56 days to determine whether alkali (NaOH) or fungus (Mushroom) treatment of rice husk would affect rat's performance. The treated rice husk comprised 10% of the rat's diets, the rests of which were 50% maize, 20% soybeans, 19% ...

  17. A Brazilian social bee must cultivate fungus to survive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Cristiano; Vollet-Neto, Ayrton; Marsaioli, Anita Jocelyne; Zampieri, Davila; Fontoura, Isabela Cardoso; Luchessi, Augusto Ducati; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia

    2015-11-02

    The nests of social insects provide suitable microenvironments for many microorganisms as they offer stable environmental conditions and a rich source of food [1-4]. Microorganisms in turn may provide several benefits to their hosts, such as nutrients and protection against pathogens [1, 4-6]. Several examples of symbiosis between social insects and microorganisms have been found in ants and termites. These symbioses have driven the evolution of complex behaviors and nest structures associated with the culturing of the symbiotic microorganisms [5, 7, 8]. However, while much is known about these relationships in many species of ants and termites, symbiotic relationships between microorganisms and social bees have been poorly explored [3, 4, 9, 10]. Here, we report the first case of an obligatory relationship between the Brazilian stingless bee Scaptotrigona depilis and a fungus of the genus Monascus (Ascomycotina). Fungal mycelia growing on the provisioned food inside the brood cell are eaten by the larva. Larvae reared in vitro on sterilized larval food supplemented with fungal mycelia had a much higher survival rate (76%) compared to larvae reared under identical conditions but without fungal mycelia (8% survival). The fungus was found to originate from the material from which the brood cells are made. Since the bees recycle and transport this material between nests, fungus would be transferred to newly built cells and also to newly founded nests. This is the first report of a fungus cultivation mutualism in a social bee. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Consistent association of fungus Fusarium mangiferae Britz with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... F. mangiferae proved to be the dominant fungus hosting majority of the malformed tissues. Among the indigenous ... tion amongst fruit crops due to its specific nature, growth pattern and ... It is affected by various animate and ...

  19. Autophagy-Associated Protein SmATG12 Is Required for Fruiting-Body Formation in the Filamentous Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Antonia; Herzog, Britta; Frey, Stefan; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    In filamentous fungi, autophagy functions as a catabolic mechanism to overcome starvation and to control diverse developmental processes under normal nutritional conditions. Autophagy involves the formation of double-membrane vesicles, termed autophagosomes that engulf cellular components and bring about their degradation via fusion with vacuoles. Two ubiquitin-like (UBL) conjugation systems are essential for the expansion of the autophagosomal membrane: the UBL protein ATG8 is conjugated to the lipid phosphatidylethanolamine and the UBL protein ATG12 is coupled to ATG5. We recently showed that in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora autophagy-related genes encoding components of the conjugation systems are required for fruiting-body development and/or are essential for viability. In the present work, we cloned and characterized the S. macrospora (Sm)atg12 gene. Two-hybrid analysis revealed that SmATG12 can interact with SmATG7 and SmATG3. To examine its role in S. macrospora, we replaced the open reading frame of Smatg12 with a hygromycin resistance cassette and generated a homokaryotic ΔSmatg12 knockout strain, which displayed slower vegetative growth under nutrient starvation conditions and was unable to form fruiting bodies. In the hyphae of S. macrospora EGFP-labeled SmATG12 was detected in the cytoplasm and as punctate structures presumed to be phagophores or phagophore assembly sites. Delivery of EGFP-labelled SmATG8 to the vacuole was entirely dependent on SmATG12.

  20. The phocein homologue SmMOB3 is essential for vegetative cell fusion and sexual development in the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhards, Yasmine; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2011-04-01

    Members of the striatin family and their highly conserved interacting protein phocein/Mob3 are key components in the regulation of cell differentiation in multicellular eukaryotes. The striatin homologue PRO11 of the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora has a crucial role in fruiting body development. Here, we functionally characterized the phocein/Mob3 orthologue SmMOB3 of S. macrospora. We isolated the gene and showed that both, pro11 and Smmob3 are expressed during early and late developmental stages. Deletion of Smmob3 resulted in a sexually sterile strain, similar to the previously characterized pro11 mutant. Fusion assays revealed that ∆Smmob3 was unable to undergo self-fusion and fusion with the pro11 strain. The essential function of the SmMOB3 N-terminus containing the conserved mob domain was demonstrated by complementation analysis of the sterile S. macrospora ∆Smmob3 strain. Downregulation of either pro11 in ∆Smmob3, or Smmob3 in pro11 mutants by means of RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in synthetic sexual defects, demonstrating for the first time the importance of a putative PRO11/SmMOB3 complex in fruiting body development.

  1. Autophagy-Associated Protein SmATG12 Is Required for Fruiting-Body Formation in the Filamentous Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Werner

    Full Text Available In filamentous fungi, autophagy functions as a catabolic mechanism to overcome starvation and to control diverse developmental processes under normal nutritional conditions. Autophagy involves the formation of double-membrane vesicles, termed autophagosomes that engulf cellular components and bring about their degradation via fusion with vacuoles. Two ubiquitin-like (UBL conjugation systems are essential for the expansion of the autophagosomal membrane: the UBL protein ATG8 is conjugated to the lipid phosphatidylethanolamine and the UBL protein ATG12 is coupled to ATG5. We recently showed that in the homothallic ascomycete Sordaria macrospora autophagy-related genes encoding components of the conjugation systems are required for fruiting-body development and/or are essential for viability. In the present work, we cloned and characterized the S. macrospora (Smatg12 gene. Two-hybrid analysis revealed that SmATG12 can interact with SmATG7 and SmATG3. To examine its role in S. macrospora, we replaced the open reading frame of Smatg12 with a hygromycin resistance cassette and generated a homokaryotic ΔSmatg12 knockout strain, which displayed slower vegetative growth under nutrient starvation conditions and was unable to form fruiting bodies. In the hyphae of S. macrospora EGFP-labeled SmATG12 was detected in the cytoplasm and as punctate structures presumed to be phagophores or phagophore assembly sites. Delivery of EGFP-labelled SmATG8 to the vacuole was entirely dependent on SmATG12.

  2. PaTrx1 and PaTrx3, Two Cytosolic Thioredoxins of the Filamentous Ascomycete Podospora anserina Involved in Sexual Development and Cell Degeneration▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagnac, Fabienne; Klapholz, Benjamin; Silar, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    In various organisms, thioredoxins are known to be involved in the reduction of protein disulfide bonds and in protecting the cell from oxidative stress. Genes encoding thioredoxins were found by searching the complete genome sequence of the filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina. Among them, PaTrx1, PaTrx2, and PaTrx3 are predicted to be canonical cytosolic proteins without additional domains. Targeted disruption of PaTrx1, PaTrx2, and PaTrx3 shows that PaTrx1 is the major thioredoxin involved in sulfur metabolism. Deletions have no effect on peroxide resistance; however, data show that either PaTrx1 or PaTrx3 is necessary for sexual reproduction and for the development of the crippled growth cell degeneration (CG), processes that also required the PaMpk1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Since PaTrx1 PaTrx3 mutants show not an enhancement but rather an impairment in CG, it seems unlikely that PaTrx1 and PaTrx3 thioredoxins participate in the inhibition of this MAPK pathway. Altogether, these results underscore a role for thioredoxins in fungal development. PMID:17933907

  3. PaTrx1 and PaTrx3, two cytosolic thioredoxins of the filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina involved in sexual development and cell degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagnac, Fabienne; Klapholz, Benjamin; Silar, Philippe

    2007-12-01

    In various organisms, thioredoxins are known to be involved in the reduction of protein disulfide bonds and in protecting the cell from oxidative stress. Genes encoding thioredoxins were found by searching the complete genome sequence of the filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina. Among them, PaTrx1, PaTrx2, and PaTrx3 are predicted to be canonical cytosolic proteins without additional domains. Targeted disruption of PaTrx1, PaTrx2, and PaTrx3 shows that PaTrx1 is the major thioredoxin involved in sulfur metabolism. Deletions have no effect on peroxide resistance; however, data show that either PaTrx1 or PaTrx3 is necessary for sexual reproduction and for the development of the crippled growth cell degeneration (CG), processes that also required the PaMpk1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Since PaTrx1 PaTrx3 mutants show not an enhancement but rather an impairment in CG, it seems unlikely that PaTrx1 and PaTrx3 thioredoxins participate in the inhibition of this MAPK pathway. Altogether, these results underscore a role for thioredoxins in fungal development.

  4. Metabolites from nematophagous fungi and nematicidal natural products from fungi as an alternative for biological control. Part I: metabolites from nematophagous ascomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenkolb, Thomas; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are estimated to cause global annual losses of more than US$ 100 billion. The number of registered nematicides has declined substantially over the last 25 years due to concerns about their non-specific mechanisms of action and hence their potential toxicity and likelihood to cause environmental damage. Environmentally beneficial and inexpensive alternatives to chemicals, which do not affect vertebrates, crops, and other non-target organisms, are therefore urgently required. Nematophagous fungi are natural antagonists of nematode parasites, and these offer an ecophysiological source of novel biocontrol strategies. In this first section of a two-part review article, we discuss 83 nematicidal and non-nematicidal primary and secondary metabolites found in nematophagous ascomycetes. Some of these substances exhibit nematicidal activities, namely oligosporon, 4',5'-dihydrooligosporon, talathermophilins A and B, phomalactone, aurovertins D and F, paeciloxazine, a pyridine carboxylic acid derivative, and leucinostatins. Blumenol A acts as a nematode attractant. Other substances, such as arthrosporols and paganins, play a decisive role in the life cycle of the producers, regulating the formation of reproductive or trapping organs. We conclude by considering the potential applications of these beneficial organisms in plant protection strategies.

  5. Microbial inhibitors of the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causal agent of white-nose syndrome in bats

    OpenAIRE

    Micalizzi, Emma W.; Mack, Jonathan N.; White, George P.; Avis, Tyler J.; Smith, Myron L.

    2017-01-01

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the fungus that causes white-nose syndrome in hibernating bats, has spread across eastern North America over the past decade and decimated bat populations. The saprotrophic growth of P. destructans may help to perpetuate the white-nose syndrome epidemic, and recent model predictions suggest that sufficiently reducing the environmental growth of P. destructans could help mitigate or prevent white-nose syndrome-associated bat colony collapse. In this study, we scre...

  6. Generalized antifungal activity and 454-screening of Pseudonocardia and Amycolatopsis bacteria in nests of fungus-growing ants

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Ruchira; Ishak, Heather D.; Estrada, Dora; Dowd, Scot E.; Hong, Eunki; Mueller, Ulrich G.

    2009-01-01

    In many host-microbe mutualisms, hosts use beneficial metabolites supplied by microbial symbionts. Fungus-growing (attine) ants are thought to form such a mutualism with Pseudonocardia bacteria to derive antibiotics that specifically suppress the coevolving pathogen Escovopsis, which infects the ants' fungal gardens and reduces growth. Here we test 4 key assumptions of this Pseudonocardia-Escovopsis coevolution model. Culture-dependent and culture-independent (tag-encoded 454-pyrosequencing) ...

  7. Draft genome of the fungus-growing termite pathogenic fungus Ophiocordyceps bispora (Ophiocordycipitaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin H. Conlon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article documents the public availability of genome sequence data and assembled contigs representing the partial draft genome of Ophiocordyceps bispora. As one of the few known pathogens of fungus-farming termites, a draft genome of O. bispora represents the opportunity to further the understanding of disease and resistance in these complex termite societies. With the ongoing attempts to resolve the taxonomy of the Hypocralaean family, more genetic data will also help to shed light on the phylogenetic relationship between sexual and asexual life stages. Next generation sequence data is available from the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA under accession PRJEB13655; run numbers: ERR1368522, ERR1368523, and ERR1368524. Genome assembly available from ENA under accession numbers: FKNF01000001–FKNF01000302. Gene prediction available as protein fasta, nucleotide fasta and GFF file from Mendeley Data with accession doi:10.17632/r99fd6g3s4.2 (http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/r99fd6g3s4.2.

  8. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aqueous media by the marine fungus NIOCC 312: Involvement of lignin-degrading enzymes and exopolysaccharides

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Shailaja, M.S.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Singh, S.K.

    (Shimadzu, Model RF 1501, Japan). The fungal biomass was extracted in a Soxhlet apparatus in 20 volumes of alkaline methanol (by addition of 1% KOH) twice, each for 3 h, pooled, concentrated, dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 and the residual... of the lignin- degrading enzymes, lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase in a marine isolate of the white-rot fungus, NIOCC #312 obtained from decaying seagrass in a coral lagoon. This fungus efficiently decolorized bleach plant...

  9. Cellular Immune Reactions of the Sunn Pest, Eurygaster integriceps, to the Entomopathogenic Fungus, Beauveria bassiana and Its Secondary Metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibaee, Arash; Bandani, Ali Reza; Talaei-Hassanlouei, Reza; Malagoli, Davide

    2011-01-01

    In this study, five morphological types of circulating hemocytes were recognized in the hemolymph of the adult sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae), namely prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, adipohemocytes, and oenocytoids. The effects of the secondary metabolites of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana on cellular immune defenses of Eurygaster integriceps were investigated. The results showed that the fungal secondary metabolites inhibited phagocytic activity of E. integriceps hemocytes and hampered nodule formation. A reduction of phenoloxidase activity was also observed. The data suggest that B. bassiana produce secondary metabolites that disable several immune mechanisms allowing the fungus to overcome and then kill its host. This characteristic makes B. bassiana a promising model for biological control of insect pests such as E. integriceps. PMID:22233481

  10. Inter-chromosomal transfer of immune regulation during infection of barley with the powdery mildew pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildews infect over 9,500 plant species, causing critical yield loss. Powdery mildew disease of barley is caused by the Ascomycete fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh) and has become a model for the interactions among obligate biotrophs and their cereal hosts. Successful infection r...

  11. Substrate Interactions during the Biodegradation of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenze, and Xylene (BTEX) Hydrocarbons by the Fungus Cladophialophora sp. Strain T1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenafeta-Boldú, F.X.; Vervoort, J.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2002-01-01

    The soil fungus Cladophialophora sp. strain T1 (= ATCC MYA-2335) was capable of growth on a model water-soluble fraction of gasoline that contained all six BTEX components (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and the xylene isomers). Benzene was not metabolized, but the alkylated benzenes (toluene,

  12. White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bats, Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas; Hellmann, David; Weishaar, Manfred; Barlow, Alex; Veith, Michael; Prüger, Julia; Görföl, Tamás; Grosche, Lena; Bontadina, Fabio; Zöphel, Ulrich; Seidl, Hans Peter; Seidl, Hans Peter; Blehert, David S

    2010-08-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus.

  13. White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bats, Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibbelt, G.; Kurth, A.; Hellmann, D.; Weishaar, M.; Barlow, A.; Veith, M.; Pruger, J.; Gorfol, T.; Grosche, T.; Bontadina, F.; Zophel, U.; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, P.M.; Blehert, D.S.

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they potentially coevolved with the fungus.

  14. Formulation of the endophytic fungus Cladosporium oxysporum Berk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensaci Oussama Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two formulations containing culture filtrates and conidial suspensions of the endophytic fungus Cladosporium oxysporum Berk. & M.A. Curtis, isolated previously from stems of Euphorbia bupleuroides subsp. luteola (Kralik Maire, were experimentally tested for their aphicid activity against the black bean aphid Aphis fabae Scop. found in Algeria. It was shown that invert emulsions are more effective against aphids, than using aqueous suspensions. This was especially true for formulations containing culture filtrates. The relatively insignificant mortalities obtained by formulations containing conidial suspensions indicated a low infectious potential towards the aphids. The proteolytic activity seemed to be more important than the chitinolytic activity of the fungus against the black bean aphid A. fabae

  15. Chemically armed mercenary ants protect fungus-farming societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adams, Rachelle Martha Marie; Liberti, Joanito; Illum, Anders A.

    2013-01-01

    guest ants are sufficient to kill raiders that invariably exterminate host nests without a cohabiting guest ant colony. We also show that the odor of guest ants discourages raider scouts from recruiting nestmates to host colonies. Our results imply that Sericomyrmex fungus-growers obtain a net benefit......The ants are extraordinary in having evolved many lineages that exploit closely related ant societies as social parasites, but social parasitism by distantly related ants is rare. Here we document the interaction dynamics among a Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ant host, a permanently associated...... parasitic guest ant of the genus Megalomyrmex, and a raiding agro-predator of the genus Gnamptogenys. We show experimentally that the guest ants protect their host colonies against agro-predator raids using alkaloid venom that is much more potent than the biting defenses of the host ants. Relatively few...

  16. EVOLUTIONARY TRANSITIONS IN ENZYME ACTIVITY OF ANT FUNGUS GARDENS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Schiøtt, Morten; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2010-01-01

    an association with a monophyletic clade of specialized symbionts. In conjunction with the transition to specialized symbionts, the ants advanced in colony size and social complexity. Here we provide a comparative study of the functional specialization in extracellular enzyme activities in fungus gardens across...... the attine phylogeny. We show that, relative to sister clades, gardens of higher-attine ants have enhanced activity of protein-digesting enzymes, whereas gardens of leaf-cutting ants also have increased activity of starch-digesting enzymes. However, the enzyme activities of lower-attine fungus gardens...... are targeted primarily towards partial degradation of plant cell walls, reflecting a plesiomorphic state of non-domesticated fungi. The enzyme profiles of the higher-attine and leaf-cutting gardens appear particularly suited to digest fresh plant materials and to access nutrients from live cells without major...

  17. Rapid identification of ascomycetous yeasts from clinical specimens by a molecular method based on flow cytometry and comparison with identifications from phenotypic assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Brent T; Shields, Christine E; Merz, William G; Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2006-09-01

    This study was designed to compare the identification of ascomycetous yeasts recovered from clinical specimens by using phenotypic assays (PA) and a molecular flow cytometric (FC) method. Large-subunit rRNA domains 1 and 2 (D1/D2) gene sequence analysis was also performed and served as the reference for correct strain identification. A panel of 88 clinical isolates was tested that included representatives of nine commonly encountered species and six infrequently encountered species. The PA included germ tube production, fermentation of seven carbohydrates, morphology on corn meal agar, urease and phenoloxidase activities, and carbohydrate assimilation tests when needed. The FC method (Luminex) employed species-specific oligonucleotides attached to polystyrene beads, which were hybridized with D1/D2 amplicons from the unidentified isolates. The PA identified 81 of 88 strains correctly but misidentified 4 of Candida dubliniensis, 1 of C. bovina, 1 of C. palmioleophila, and 1 of C. bracarensis. The FC method correctly identified 79 of 88 strains and did not misidentify any isolate but did not identify nine isolates because oligonucleotide probes were not available in the current library. The FC assay takes approximately 5 h, whereas the PA takes from 2 h to 5 days for identification. In conclusion, PA did well with the commonly encountered species, was not accurate for uncommon species, and takes significantly longer than the FC method. These data strongly support the potential of FC technology for rapid and accurate identification of medically important yeasts. With the introduction of new antifungals, rapid, accurate identification of pathogenic yeasts is more important than ever for guiding antifungal chemotherapy.

  18. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus (Geomyces destructans) in Bats, Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas; Hellmann, David; Weishaar, Manfred; Barlow, Alex; Veith, Michael; Prüger, Julia; Görföl, Tamás; Grosche, Lena; Bontadina, Fabio; Zöphel, Ulrich; Seidl, Hans-Peter; Cryan, Paul M.; Blehert, David S.

    2010-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences...

  19. The Kinome of Edible and Medicinal Fungus Wolfiporia cocos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wolfiporia cocos is an edible and medicinal fungus that grows in association with pine trees, and its dried sclerotium, known as Fuling in China, has been used as a traditional medicine in East Asian countries for centuries. Nearly 10% of the traditional Chinese medicinal preparations contain W. cocos. Currently, the commercial production of Fuling is limited because of the lack of pine-based substrate and paucity of knowledge about the sclerotial development of the fungus. Since protein kinase (PKs play significant roles in the regulation of growth, development, reproduction and environmental responses in filamentous fungi, the kinome of W. cocos was analyzed by identifying the PKs genes, studying transcript profiles and assigning PKs to orthologous groups. Of the 10 putative PKs, 11 encode atypical PKs, and 13, 10, 2, 22, and 11 could encoded PKs from the AGC, CAMK, CK, CMGC, STE and TLK Groups, respectively. The level of transcripts from PK genes associated with sclerotia formation in the mycelium and sclerotium stages were analyzed by qRT-PCR. Based on the functions of the orthologues in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (a sclerotia-formation fungus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the potential roles of these W. cocos PKs were assigned. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first identification and functional discussion of the kinome in the edible and medicinal fungus W. cocos. Our study systematically suggests potential roles of W. cocos PKs and provide comprehensive and novel insights into W. cocos sclerotial development and other economically important traits. Additionally, based on our result, genetic engineering can be employed for over expression or interference of some significant PKs genes to promote sclerotial growth and the accumulation of active compounds.

  20. Yarsagumba Fungus: Health Problems in the Himalayan Gold Rush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, Pranawa; Pandit, Bidur; Phuyal, Pratibha; Zafren, Ken

    2017-09-01

    Seasonal migration of people in search of Yarsagumba fungus creates a population of collectors that faces hardship and health risks in austere high-altitude settings. In 2016, our 4-person team performed a 2-day health-needs survey of people collecting Yarsagumba fungus near the village of Yak Kharka (4020 m) in the Manang District of Nepal. There were approximately 800 people, both male and female, from age 10 to over 60, collecting Yarsagumba fungus. They had paid high prices for permits, hoping to recoup the cost and make a profit by selling specimens of Yarsagumba, but the fungus seemed scarce in 2016, resulting in a bleak economic forecast. Most collectors were living in austere conditions, walking long hours to the collection areas early in the morning and returning in the late afternoon. Most were subsisting on 1 daily meal. Health problems, including acute mountain sickness as well as respiratory and gastrointestinal illnesses, were common. Yarsagumba has become harder to find in recent years, increasing hardships and risk of injury. Medical care was almost nonexistent. As abundance decreases and demand increases, there is increasing pressure on collectors to find Yarsagumba. The collectors are an economically disadvantaged population who live in austere conditions at high altitude with poor shelter and sanitation, strenuous work, and limited availability of food. Health care resources are very limited. There are significant risks of illness, injury, and death. Targeted efforts by government entities and nongovernmental organizations might be beneficial in meeting the health needs. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The yeast spectrum of the 'tea fungus Kombucha'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayser, P; Fromme, S; Leitzmann, C; Gründer, K

    1995-01-01

    The tea fungus 'Kombucha' is a symbiosis of Acetobacter, including Acetobacter xylinum as a characteristic species, and various yeasts. A characteristic yeast species or genus has not yet been identified. Kombucha is mainly cultivated in sugared black tea to produce a slightly acidulous effervescent beverage that is said to have several curative effects. In addition to sugar, the beverage contains small amounts of alcohol and various acids, including acetic acid, gluconic acid and lactic acid, as well as some antibiotic substances. To characterize the yeast spectrum with special consideration given to facultatively pathogenic yeasts, two commercially available specimens of tea fungus and 32 from private households in Germany were analysed by micromorphological and biochemical methods. Yeasts of the genera Brettanomyces, Zygosaccharomyces and Saccharomyces were identified in 56%, 29% and 26% respectively. The species Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Candida kefyr were only demonstrated in isolated cases. Furthermore, the tests revealed pellicle-forming yeasts such as Candida krusei or Issatchenkia orientalis/occidentalis as well as species of the apiculatus yeasts (Kloeckera, Hanseniaspora). Thus, the genus Brettanomyces may be a typical group of yeasts that are especially adapted to the environment of the tea fungus. However, to investigate further the beneficial effects of tea fungus, a spectrum of the other typical genera must be defined. Only three specimens showed definite contaminations. In one case, no yeasts could be isolated because of massive contamination with Penicillium spp. In the remaining two samples (from one household), Candida albicans was demonstrated. The low rate of contamination might be explained by protective mechanisms, such as formation of organic acids and antibiotic substances. Thus, subjects with a healthy metabolism do not need to be advised against cultivating Kombucha. However, those suffering from immunosuppression should preferably

  2. Antibacterial polyketides from the jellyfish-derived fungus Paecilomyces variotii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Li, Famei; Kim, Eun La; Li, Jian Lin; Hong, Jongki; Bae, Kyung Sook; Chung, Hae Young; Kim, Hyung Sik; Jung, Jee H

    2011-08-26

    Four new polyketides (1-4) were isolated from the fungus Paecilomyces variotii, which was derived from the jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai. The planar structures and relative configurations of these polyketides were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including 2D NMR experiments. The compounds showed inhibitory activity against pathogenic bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 3089 and multi-drug-resistant Vibrio parahemolyticus 7001 with MIC values in the range 5-40 μg/mL.

  3. Symbiotic Fungus of Marine Sponge Axinella sp. Producing Antibacterial Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trianto, A.; Widyaningsih, S.; Radjasa, OK; Pribadi, R.

    2017-02-01

    The emerging of multidrug resistance pathogenic bacteria cause the treatment of the diseaseshave become ineffective. There for, invention of a new drug with novel mode of action is an essential for curing the disease caused by an MDR pathogen. Marine fungi is prolific source of bioactive compound that has not been well explored. This study aim to obtain the marine sponges-associated fungus that producing anti-MDR bacteria substaces. We collected the sponge from Riung water, NTT, Indonesia. The fungus was isolated with affixed method, followed with purification with streak method. The overlay and disk diffusion agar methods were applied for bioactivity test for the isolate and the extract, respectively. Molecular analysis was employed for identification of the isolate. The sponge was identified based on morphological and spicular analysis. The ovelay test showed that the isolate KN15-3 active against the MDR Staphylococcus aureus and Eschericia coli. The extract of the cultured KN15-3 was also inhibited the S. aureus and E. coli with inhibition zone 2.95 mm and 4.13 mm, respectively. Based on the molecular analysis, the fungus was identified as Aspergillus sydowii. While the sponge was identified as Axinella sp.

  4. Pigment Production by the Edible Filamentous Fungus Neurospora Intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Gmoser

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The production of pigments by edible filamentous fungi is gaining attention as a result of the increased interest in natural sources with added functionality in the food, feed, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and textile industries. The filamentous fungus Neurospora intermedia, used for production of the Indonesian food “oncom”, is one potential source of pigments. The objective of the study was to evaluate the fungus’ pigment production. The joint effect from different factors (carbon and nitrogen source, ZnCl2, MgCl2 and MnCl2 on pigment production by N. intermedia is reported for the first time. The scale-up to 4.5 L bubble column bioreactors was also performed to investigate the effect of pH and aeration. Pigment production of the fungus was successfully manipulated by varying several factors. The results showed that the formation of pigments was strongly influenced by light, carbon, pH, the co-factor Zn2+ and first- to fourth-order interactions between factors. The highest pigmentation (1.19 ± 0.08 mg carotenoids/g dry weight biomass was achieved in a bubble column reactor. This study provides important insights into pigmentation of this biotechnologically important fungus and lays a foundation for future utilizations of N. intermedia for pigment production.

  5. Datasheet: Pseudogymnoascus destructans (white-nose syndrome fungus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blehert, David; Lankau, Emily W.

    2017-01-01

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans is a psychrophilic (cold-loving) fungus that causes white-nose syndrome (WNS), an emerging disease of North American bats that has caused unprecedented population declines. The fungus is believed to have been introduced to North America from Europe or Asia (where it is present but does not cause significant mortality), but the full extent of its native range is unknown. The route of introduction is also unknown. In North America, hibernating bats become infected with P. destructans when body temperature decreases during winter torpor into the range permissive for growth of this fungus. Infected bats may develop visible fungal growth on the nose or wings, awaken more frequently from torpor, and experience a cascade of physiologic changes that result in weight loss, dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and death. P. destructans persists in the environments of underground bat hibernation sites (hibernacula) and is believed to spread primarily by natural movements of infected bats. The first evidence of WNS in North America is from a photograph of a hibernating bat taken during winter of 2005-2006 in a hibernaculum near Albany, New York. P. destructans subsequently spread rapidly from the northeastern United States throughout much of the eastern portions of the United States and Canada, and most recently (as of May 2017) was detected in Washington State. It has killed millions of bats, threatening some species with regional extirpation and putting at risk the valuable environmental services that bats provide by eating harmful insects.

  6. Evolutionary transitions in enzyme activity of ant fungus gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Schiøtt, Morten; Mueller, Ulrich G; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2010-07-01

    Fungus-growing (attine) ants and their fungal symbionts passed through several evolutionary transitions during their 50 million year old evolutionary history. The basal attine lineages often shifted between two main cultivar clades, whereas the derived higher-attine lineages maintained an association with a monophyletic clade of specialized symbionts. In conjunction with the transition to specialized symbionts, the ants advanced in colony size and social complexity. Here we provide a comparative study of the functional specialization in extracellular enzyme activities in fungus gardens across the attine phylogeny. We show that, relative to sister clades, gardens of higher-attine ants have enhanced activity of protein-digesting enzymes, whereas gardens of leaf-cutting ants also have increased activity of starch-digesting enzymes. However, the enzyme activities of lower-attine fungus gardens are targeted primarily toward partial degradation of plant cell walls, reflecting a plesiomorphic state of nondomesticated fungi. The enzyme profiles of the higher-attine and leaf-cutting gardens appear particularly suited to digest fresh plant materials and to access nutrients from live cells without major breakdown of cell walls. The adaptive significance of the lower-attine symbiont shifts remains unclear. One of these shifts was obligate, but digestive advantages remained ambiguous, whereas the other remained facultative despite providing greater digestive efficiency.

  7. Efficacy of in-house fluorescent stain for fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. L. Surya Kirani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Mycotic infections are gaining importance in the present day medicine, and definite demonstration of fungus is essential for diagnosis. Small numbers of organisms in the smear can be identified by fluorescence microscopy. Calcofluor white (CFW fluorescent stain is a textile brightener mixed with Evans blue. It is expensive and not easily available. Aims: (1 To assess the efficacy of in-house CFW fluorescent stain for fungus in relation to conventional CFW stain, histopathology, and culture. (2 To determine sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV, and positive predictive value (PPV with culture as gold standard. Settings and Design: One hundred cases of suspected dermatophytosis and 15 cases of systemic mycosis were included in the study. Subjects and Methods: The local whitener Ranipal is added with Robin blue, another brightener, and was used to stain teased fungal cultures. Skin, hair, and nails require pretreatment with potassium hydroxide (KOH. Biopsy slides require deparaffinization and pretreatment with KOH before staining. Conventional calcofluor stain, histopathology, and culture were done. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using sensitivity, specificity, NPV, and PPV. Results: The results are consistently comparable with conventional stain. The sensitivity was 100%, specificity was 93.3%, NPV was 100%, and PPV was 85.7%. It is also cost effective when compared to commercial stains. Conclusions: In-house stain can be used for screening of fungus in direct samples, biopsies as alternative in resource-constrained laboratories.

  8. Effect of Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycete), Cypermethrin, and D-Limonene, Alone and Combined, on Larval Mortality of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado-Rebolledo, Omar Francisco; Molina-Ochoa, Jaime; Lezama-Gutiérrez, Roberto; García-Márquez, Luis Jorge; Minchaca-Llerenas, Yureida B; Morales-Barrera, Eduardo; Tellez, Guillermo; Hargis, Billy; Skoda, Steven R; Foster, John E

    2017-09-01

    The effect of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae Ma14 strain, D-limonene, and cypermethrin, alone and combined, on the mortality of Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille larvae was evaluated. Eight separate groups with 25 tick larvae were inoculated with the fungus, cypermethrin, and D-limonene, and four groups were used as untreated controls. The groups were inoculated with serial dilutions of each treatment material: for example, conidial concentrations were 1 × 101, 1 × 102, 1 × 103, 1 × 104, 1 × 105, 1 × 106, 1 × 107, and 1 × 108. A complete randomized experimental design was used. Significant differences were obtained between fungal concentrations, with larval mortalities ranging from 29 to 100%; the D-limonene concentrations showed significant differences, with mortalities that ranged from 47.9 to 82.6%, and cypermethrin mortalities ranged from 69.9 to 89.9% when each was applied alone. In the combined application, the serial dilution of the Ma14 fungus plus cypermethrin at 0.1% concentration caused mortalities ranging from 92.9 to 100%; the mix of serially diluted Ma14 plus D-limonene at 0.1% caused mortalities from 10.3 to 100%; and the mix consisting of serially diluted D-limonene plus cypermethrin at 0.1% caused mortalities from 7.4 to 35.9%. Further laboratory and field research could show that these materials, alone and in combinations, are useful in future tick management and control programs. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Assessing the Threat of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus in the Albertine Rift: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimon, Tracie A.; Ayebare, Samuel; Sekisambu, Robert; Muhindo, Emmanuel; Mitamba, Guillain; Greenbaum, Eli; Menegon, Michele; Pupin, Fabio; McAloose, Denise; Ammazzalorso, Alyssa; Meirte, Danny; Lukwago, Wilbur; Behangana, Mathias; Seimon, Anton; Plumptre, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the cause of chytridiomycosis, is a pathogenic fungus that is found worldwide and is a major contributor to amphibian declines and extinctions. We report results of a comprehensive effort to assess the distribution and threat of Bd in one of the Earth’s most important biodiversity hotspots, the Albertine Rift in central Africa. In herpetological surveys conducted between 2010 and 2014, 1018 skin swabs from 17 amphibian genera in 39 sites across the Albertine Rift were tested for Bd by PCR. Overall, 19.5% of amphibians tested positive from all sites combined. Skin tissue samples from 163 amphibians were examined histologically; of these two had superficial epidermal intracorneal fungal colonization and lesions consistent with the disease chytridiomycosis. One amphibian was found dead during the surveys, and all others encountered appeared healthy. We found no evidence for Bd-induced mortality events, a finding consistent with other studies. To gain a historical perspective about Bd in the Albertine Rift, skin swabs from 232 museum-archived amphibians collected as voucher specimens from 1925–1994 were tested for Bd. Of these, one sample was positive; an Itombwe River frog (Phrynobatrachus asper) collected in 1950 in the Itombwe highlands. This finding represents the earliest record of Bd in the Democratic Republic of Congo. We modeled the distribution of Bd in the Albertine Rift using MaxEnt software, and trained our model for improved predictability. Our model predicts that Bd is currently widespread across the Albertine Rift, with moderate habitat suitability extending into the lowlands. Under climatic modeling scenarios our model predicts that optimal habitat suitability of Bd will decrease causing a major range contraction of the fungus by 2080. Our baseline data and modeling predictions are important for comparative studies, especially if significant changes in amphibian health status or climactic conditions are

  10. Removal of phenanthrene in contaminated soil by combination of alfalfa, white-rot fungus, and earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shuguang; Zeng, Defang

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of phenanthrene by combination of alfalfa, white-rot fungus, and earthworms in soil. A 60-day experiment was conducted. Inoculation with earthworms and/or white-rot fungus increased alfalfa biomass and phenanthrene accumulation in alfalfa. However, inoculations of alfalfa and white-rot fungus can significantly decrease the accumulation of phenanthrene in earthworms. The removal rates for phenanthrene in soil were 33, 48, 66, 74, 85, and 93% under treatments control, only earthworms, only alfalfa, earthworms + alfalfa, alfalfa + white-rot fungus, and alfalfa + earthworms + white-rot fungus, respectively. The present study demonstrated that the combination of alfalfa, earthworms, and white-rot fungus is an effective way to remove phenanthrene in the soil. The removal is mainly via stimulating both microbial development and soil enzyme activity.

  11. Characterization of a Newly Isolated Marine Fungus Aspergillus dimorphicus for Optimized Production of the Anti-Tumor Agent Wentilactones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Xu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential anti-tumor agent wentilactones were produced by a newly isolated marine fungus Aspergillus dimorphicus. This fungus was derived from deep-sea sediment and identified by polyphasic approach, combining phenotypic, molecular, and extrolite profiles. However, wentilactone production was detected only under static cultures with very low yields. In order to improve wentilactone production, culture conditions were optimized using the response surface methodology. Under the optimal static fermentation conditions, the experimental values were closely consistent with the prediction model. The yields of wentilactone A and B were increased about 11-fold to 13.4 and 6.5 mg/L, respectively. The result was further verified by fermentation scale-up for wentilactone production. Moreover, some small-molecule elicitors were found to have capacity of stimulating wentilactone production. To our knowledge, this is first report of optimized production of tetranorlabdane diterpenoids by a deep-sea derived marine fungus. The present study might be valuable for efficient production of wentilactones and fundamental investigation of the anti-tumor mechanism of norditerpenoids.

  12. Degradation of Phenanthrene by a chilean white rot fungus Anthracophyllum discolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo, F.; Cuevas, R.; Rubilar, O.; Tortella, G.; Diez, M. C.

    2009-01-01

    Anthracophyllum discolor, a white rot fungus of southern Chile, has been an efficient degrader of clorophenols and azo dyes. This fungus produces ligninolytic enzymes being manganese peroxidase (Mn)) the major one produced. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of phenanthrene concentration of ligninolytic activity of A. Discolor measured by poly R-478 decolorazation, and to evaluate the potential of this fungus for degrading phenanthrene in liquid media. (Author)

  13. Treatment of bark beetle attacked trees with entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin

    OpenAIRE

    Jakuš, Rastislav; Blaženec, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    We carried out an experiment with using the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. for sanitation of active infested trees. We used 15 active infested trees from which 5 stems were treated with an insecticide, 5 were treated with solution of the tested entomopathogenic fungus and 5 were left as control. The used insecticide was pyretroid Fury 10 EW. We used a biopreparation based on the entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana in form of wettable powder. The material was diluted...

  14. Degradation of Phenanthrene by a chilean white rot fungus Anthracophyllum discolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo, F.; Cuevas, R.; Rubilar, O.; Tortella, G.; Diez, M. C.

    2009-07-01

    Anthracophyllum discolor, a white rot fungus of southern Chile, has been an efficient degrader of clorophenols and azo dyes. This fungus produces ligninolytic enzymes being manganese peroxidase (Mn) the major one produced. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of phenanthrene concentration of ligninolytic activity of A. Discolor measured by poly R-478 decolorazation, and to evaluate the potential of this fungus for degrading phenanthrene in liquid media. (Author)

  15. Carbon dioxide sensing in an obligate insect-fungus symbiosis: CO2 preferences of leaf-cutting ants to rear their mutualistic fungus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Römer

    Full Text Available Defense against biotic or abiotic stresses is one of the benefits of living in symbiosis. Leaf-cutting ants, which live in an obligate mutualism with a fungus, attenuate thermal and desiccation stress of their partner through behavioral responses, by choosing suitable places for fungus-rearing across the soil profile. The underground environment also presents hypoxic (low oxygen and hypercapnic (high carbon dioxide conditions, which can negatively influence the symbiont. Here, we investigated whether workers of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lundii use the CO2 concentration as an orientation cue when selecting a place to locate their fungus garden, and whether they show preferences for specific CO2 concentrations. We also evaluated whether levels preferred by workers for fungus-rearing differ from those selected for themselves. In the laboratory, CO2 preferences were assessed in binary choices between chambers with different CO2 concentrations, by quantifying number of workers in each chamber and amount of relocated fungus. Leaf-cutting ants used the CO2 concentration as a spatial cue when selecting places for fungus-rearing. A. lundii preferred intermediate CO2 levels, between 1 and 3%, as they would encounter at soil depths where their nest chambers are located. In addition, workers avoided both atmospheric and high CO2 levels as they would occur outside the nest and at deeper soil layers, respectively. In order to prevent fungus desiccation, however, workers relocated fungus to high CO2 levels, which were otherwise avoided. Workers' CO2 preferences for themselves showed no clear-cut pattern. We suggest that workers avoid both atmospheric and high CO2 concentrations not because they are detrimental for themselves, but because of their consequences for the symbiotic partner. Whether the preferred CO2 concentrations are beneficial for symbiont growth remains to be investigated, as well as whether the observed preferences for fungus

  16. Biosorption of thorium(IV) from aqueous solution by living biomass of marine-derived fungus Fusarium sp. ZZF51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, S.K.; Tan, N.; Wu, W.L.; Hou, X.J.; Xiang, K.X.; Lin, Y.C.

    2015-01-01

    The biosportion of Th(IV) by the marine-derived Fungus Fusarium sp. ZZF51 was study. The Biosorption was found to be at a maximum (79.24 %), in a solution containing 50 mg Th/L, at pH 5.0, with 0.28 g dry biomass. The Temkin isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model was found to fit the data very well over the entire range of concentrations. The FTIR analysis reveals that the carboxyl, amino and hydroxyl groups on the cell wall of Fusarium sp. ZZF51 play an important role in Th(IV) biosorption process. (author)

  17. Effect of paraquat-induced oxidative stress on gene expression and aging of the filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Wiemer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aging of biological systems is influenced by various factors, conditions and processes. Among others, processes allowing organisms to deal with various types of stress are of key importance. In particular, oxidative stress as the result of the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS at the mitochondrial respiratory chain and the accumulation of ROS-induced molecular damage has been strongly linked to aging. Here we view the impact of ROS from a different angle: their role in the control of gene expression. We report a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of the fungal aging model Podospora anserina grown on medium containing paraquat (PQ. This treatment leads to an increased cellular generation and release of H2O2, a reduced growth rate, and a decrease in lifespan. The combined challenge by PQ and copper has a synergistic negative effect on growth and lifespan. The data from the transcriptome analysis of the wild type cultivated under PQ-stress and their comparison to those of a longitudinal aging study as well as of a copper-uptake longevity mutant of P. anserina revealed that PQ-stress leads to the up-regulation of transcripts coding for components involved in mitochondrial remodeling. PQ also affects the expression of copper-regulated genes suggesting an increase of cytoplasmic copper levels as it has been demonstrated earlier to occur during aging of P. anserina and during senescence of human fibroblasts. This effect may result from the induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore via PQ-induced ROS, leading to programmed cell death as part of an evolutionary conserved mechanism involved in biological aging and lifespan control.

  18. Functional Characterization of MAT1-1-Specific Mating-Type Genes in the Homothallic Ascomycete Sordaria macrospora Provides New Insights into Essential and Nonessential Sexual Regulators▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klix, V.; Nowrousian, M.; Ringelberg, C.; Loros, J. J.; Dunlap, J. C.; Pöggeler, S.

    2010-01-01

    Mating-type genes in fungi encode regulators of mating and sexual development. Heterothallic ascomycete species require different sets of mating-type genes to control nonself-recognition and mating of compatible partners of different mating types. Homothallic (self-fertile) species also carry mating-type genes in their genome that are essential for sexual development. To analyze the molecular basis of homothallism and the role of mating-type genes during fruiting-body development, we deleted each of the three genes, SmtA-1 (MAT1-1-1), SmtA-2 (MAT1-1-2), and SmtA-3 (MAT1-1-3), contained in the MAT1-1 part of the mating-type locus of the homothallic ascomycete species Sordaria macrospora. Phenotypic analysis of deletion mutants revealed that the PPF domain protein-encoding gene SmtA-2 is essential for sexual reproduction, whereas the α domain protein-encoding genes SmtA-1 and SmtA-3 play no role in fruiting-body development. By means of cross-species microarray analysis using Neurospora crassa oligonucleotide microarrays hybridized with S. macrospora targets and quantitative real-time PCR, we identified genes expressed under the control of SmtA-1 and SmtA-2. Both genes are involved in the regulation of gene expression, including that of pheromone genes. PMID:20435701

  19. Secretome analysis of the fungus Trichoderma harzianum grown on cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Vale, Luis H F; Gómez-Mendoza, Diana P; Kim, Min-Sik; Pandey, Akhilesh; Ricart, Carlos A O; Ximenes F Filho, Edivaldo; Sousa, Marcelo V

    2012-08-01

    Trichoderma harzianum is a mycoparasitic filamentous fungus that produces and secretes a wide range of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes used in cell wall degradation. Due to its potential in biomass conversion, T. harzianum draws great attention from biofuel and biocontrol industries and research. Here, we report an extensive secretome analysis of T. harzianum. The fungus was grown on cellulose medium, and its secretome was analyzed by a combination of enzymology, 2DE, MALDI-MS and -MS/MS (Autoflex II), and LC-MS/MS (LTQ-Orbitrap XL). A total of 56 proteins were identified using high-resolution MS. Interestingly, although cellulases were found, the major hydrolytic enzymes secreted in the cellulose medium were chitinases and endochitinases, which may reflect the biocontrol feature of T. harzianum. The glycoside hydrolase family, including chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14), endo-N-acetylglucosaminidases (EC 3.2.1.96), hexosaminidases (EC 3.2.1.52), galactosidases (EC 3.2.1.23), xylanases (EC 3.2.1.8), exo-1,3-glucanases (EC 3.2.1.58), endoglucanases (EC 3.2.1.4), xylosidases (EC 3.2.1.37), α-L-arabinofuranosidase (EC 3.2.1.55), N-acetylhexosaminidases (EC 3.2.1.52), and other enzymes represented 51.36% of the total secretome. Few representatives were classified in the protease family (8.90%). Others (17.60%) are mostly intracellular proteins. A considerable part of the secretome was composed of hypothetical proteins (22.14%), probably because of the absence of an annotated T. harzianum genome. The T. harzianum secretome composition highlights the importance of this fungus as a rich source of hydrolytic enzymes for bioconversion and biocontrol applications. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Sporulosol, a New Ketal from the Fungus Paraconiothyrium sporulosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Sporulosol (1, a new ketal, together with four known compounds, has been isolated from the liquid fermentation cultures of a wetland-soil-derived fungus, Paraconiothyrium sporulosum. Its structure was elucidated primarily by NMR experiments, and was further confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Sporulosol was obtained as a racemic mixture and the resolved two enantiomers racemized immediately after chiral separation. Sporulosol appears to be the first ketal derived from a 6H-benzo[c]chromen-6-one and a benzofuranone unit. The compound showed modest cytotoxicity toward the human tumor cell line T24, with an IC50 value of 18.2 µM.

  1. Elemental variations in the germinating fungus Phytophthora palmivora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzolini, A.P.; Sealock, R.M.; Legge, G.J.F.; Grant, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    We have measured the elemental variations between zoospores and germinating cystospores of the fungus Phytophthora palmivora, using a scanning proton microprobe. Averaged over a number of individual cells, our results indicate that the level of Ca is much lower in germinating cystospores than in zoospores. The levels of S, Cl, and Zn also appear to be lower, and the level of K appears to be higher. The spatial distribution of elements within the germinating cystospore is very similar for P, S, Cl, K, Mn, Fe, and Cu, but significantly different for Ca and Zn. (orig.)

  2. Elemental variations in the germinating fungus Phytophthora palmivora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzolini, A. P.; Grant, B. R.; Sealock, R. M.; Legge, G. J. F.

    1991-03-01

    We have measured the elemental variations between zoospores and germinating cystospores of the fungus Phytophthora palmivora, using a scanning proton microprobe. Averaged over a number of individual cells, our results indicate that the level of Ca is much lower in germinating cystospores than in zoospores. The levels of S, Cl, and Zn also appear to be lower, and the level of K appears to be higher. The spatial distribution of elements within the germinating cystospore is very similar for P, S, Cl, K, Mn, Fe, and Cu, but significantly different for Ca and Zn.

  3. Three new compounds from the marine fungus Penicillium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong-Hua; Tian, Li; Feng, Bao-Min; Li, Zhi-Feng; Zhang, Qi-Hui; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2010-01-01

    Continuous research on the ethyl acetate extract of the fermentation broth of the marine fungus Y26-02 (Penicillium sp.) led to the purification of one known and three new compounds. Their structures were elucidated, respectively, as butyl 2-(4-oxo-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-3-yl) acetate (1), 4-hydroxyphenethyl 2-(4-oxo-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-3-yl) acetate (2), 3-hydroxybenzyl 2-(4-oxo-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-3-yl) acetate (3), and desoxypatulinic acid (4) on the basis of their spectroscopic and physico-chemical properties.

  4. Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of fungus Phomopsis stipata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Andrade de Prince

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose was to determine the anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of the metabolites produced by the endophitic fungus Phomopsis stipata (Lib. B. Sutton, (Diaporthaceae, cultivated in different media. The antimycobacterial activity was assessed through the Resazurin Microtiter Assay (REMA and the cytotoxicity test performed on macrophage cell line. The extracts derived from fungi grown on Corn Medium and Potato Dextrose Broth presented the smallest values of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and low cytotoxicity, which implies a high selectivity index. This is the first report on the chemical composition and antitubercular activity of metabolites of P. stipata, as well as the influence of culture medium on these properties.

  5. Cultivation of tea fungus on malt extract medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Dragoljub D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of application of malt extract as a source of carbohydrate in a medium for tea fungus was investigated. The beverage obtained on such medium was compared with that prepared in a traditional way with sucrose medium. The presence of easily adoptable sugars, glucose and fructose, as dominant in malt medium results in a very effective fermentation, which gives much more sour beverage for the same time and makes it possible to reduce the fermentation period. The obtained beverage has satisfactory sensorial characteristics.

  6. Anthelmintic efficacy of gold nanoparticles derived from a phytopathogenic fungus, Nigrospora oryzae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradip Kumar Kar

    Full Text Available Exploring a green chemistry approach, this study brings to the fore, the anthelmintic efficacy of gold nanoparticles, highlighting the plausible usage of myconanotechnology. Gold nanoparticles of ∼6 to ∼18 nm diameter were synthesized by treating the mycelia-free culture filtrate of the phytopathogenic fungus with gold chloride. Their size and morphology were confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, DLS data, AFM and TEM images. The XRD studies reveal a crystalline nature of the nanoparticles, which are in cubic phase. The FTIR spectroscopic studies before and after the formation of nanoparticles show the presence of possible functional groups responsible for the bio-reduction and capping of the synthesized gold nanoparticles. The latter were tested as vermifugal agents against a model cestode Raillietina sp., an intestinal parasite of domestic fowl. Further, ultrastructural and biochemical parameters were used to corroborate the efficacy study.

  7. Future potential distribution of the emerging amphibian chytrid fungus under anthropogenic climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödder, Dennis; Kielgast, Jos; Lötters, Stefan

    2010-11-01

    Anthropogenic climate change poses a major threat to global biodiversity with a potential to alter biological interactions at all spatial scales. Amphibians are the most threatened vertebrates and have been subject to increasing conservation attention over the past decade. A particular concern is the pandemic emergence of the parasitic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which has been identified as the cause of extremely rapid large-scale declines and species extinctions. Experimental and observational studies have demonstrated that the host-pathogen system is strongly influenced by climatic parameters and thereby potentially affected by climate change. Herein we project a species distribution model of the pathogen onto future climatic scenarios generated by the IPCC to examine their potential implications on the pandemic. Results suggest that predicted anthropogenic climate change may reduce the geographic range of B. dendrobatidis and its potential influence on amphibian biodiversity.

  8. Identification and functional analysis of endogenous nitric oxide in a filamentous fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengkit, Anchalee; Jeon, Seong Sil; Son, Soo Ji; Shin, Jae Ho; Baik, Ku Yeon; Choi, Eun Ha; Park, Gyungsoon

    2016-07-18

    In spite of its prevalence in animals and plants, endogenous nitric oxide (NO) has been rarely reported in fungi. We present here our observations on production of intracellular NO and its possible roles during development of Neurospora crassa, a model filamentous fungus. Intracellular NO was detected in hypha 8-16 hours after incubation in Vogel's minimal liquid media and conidiophores during conidiation using a fluorescent indicator (DAF-FM diacetate). Treatment with cPTIO, an NO scavenger, significantly reduced fluorescence levels and hindered hyphal growth in liquid media and conidiation, whereas exogenous NO enhanced hyphal extension on VM agar media and conidia formation. NO scavenging also dramatically diminished transcription of con-10 and con-13, genes preferentially expressed during conidiation. Our results suggest that intracellular NO is generated in young hypha growing in submerged culture and during conidia development and regulate mycelial development and conidia formation.

  9. New Polyphenols from a Deep Sea Spiromastix sp. Fungus, and Their Antibacterial Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwen Niu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Eleven new polyphenols namely spiromastols A–K (1–11 were isolated from the fermentation broth of a deep sea-derived fungus Spiromastix sp. MCCC 3A00308. Their structures were determined by extensive NMR data and mass spectroscopic analysis in association with chemical conversion. The structures are classified as diphenyl ethers, diphenyl esters and isocoumarin derivatives, while the n-propyl group in the analogues is rarely found in natural products. Compounds 1–3 exhibited potent inhibitory effects against a panel of bacterial strains, including Xanthomanes vesicatoria, Pseudomonas lachrymans, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Ralstonia solanacearum, Bacillus thuringensis, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values ranging from 0.25 to 4 µg/mL. The structure-activity relationships are discussed, while the polychlorinated analogues 1–3 are assumed to be a promising structural model for further development as antibacterial agents.

  10. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of PR-1-like proteins identified from the wheat head blight fungus Fusarium graminearum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The group 1 pathogenesis-related (PR-1) proteins originally identified from plants and their homologues are also found in other eukaryotic kingdoms. Studies on non-plant PR-1-like (PR-1L) proteins have been pursued widely in humans/animals but rarely in filamentous ascomycetes. Here we report the ch...

  11. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus in a 1918 Bat Specimen from France

    OpenAIRE

    Campana, Michael G.; Kurata, Naoko P.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Helgen, Lauren E.; Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Helgen, Kristofer M.

    2017-01-01

    White-nose syndrome, first diagnosed in North America in 2006, causes mass deaths among bats in North America. We found the causative fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, in a 1918 sample collected in Europe, where bats have now adapted to the fungus. These results are consistent with a Eurasian origin of the pathogen.

  12. Partial resistance of tomatoes against Phytophthora infestans, the late blight fungus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkensteen, L.J.

    1973-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the source of inoculum of the late blight fungus on tomatoes is the late blight fungus on potato crops. In regions of Europe mentioned, where tomatoes are grown in the open, P. infestans on tomatoes is the main source of inoculum. Especially in

  13. White-Nose Syndrome Fungus in a 1918 Bat Specimen from France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, Michael G; Kurata, Naoko P; Foster, Jeffrey T; Helgen, Lauren E; Reeder, DeeAnn M; Fleischer, Robert C; Helgen, Kristofer M

    2017-09-01

    White-nose syndrome, first diagnosed in North America in 2006, causes mass deaths among bats in North America. We found the causative fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, in a 1918 sample collected in Europe, where bats have now adapted to the fungus. These results are consistent with a Eurasian origin of the pathogen.

  14. Structure, dynamics and domain organization of the repeat protein Cin1 from the apple scab fungus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesarich, C.H.; Schmitz, M.; Tremouilhac, P.; McGillivray, D.J.; Templeton, M.D.; Dingley, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Venturia inaequalis is a hemi-biotrophic fungus that causes scab disease of apple. A recently-identified gene from this fungus, cin1 (cellophane-induced 1), is up-regulated over 1000-fold in planta and considerably on cellophane membranes, and encodes a cysteine-rich secreted protein of 523 residues

  15. Using copper sulfate to control egg fungus at Keo Fish Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keo Fish Farm is the biggest producer of hybrid striped bass fry in the world. The hatchery manager asked about treatments to control fungus on eggs which occurred fairly often. Our lab has been working on gaining FDA-approval to use copper sulfate to control fungus on catfish eggs, so we were con...

  16. First localities in Poland of the recently described fungus Cordyceps bifusispora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bujakiewicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Two localities of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bifusispora, hitherto not reported from Poland, are characterised by their site conditions and co-occurring macrofungi during the period of the appearance of its stromata. Description of this fungus culture is given and some remarks on the resemblance of its teleomorphs and anamorphs from different collections are discussed.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence and Gene Annotation of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Verticillium hemipterigenum

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Fabian; Habel, Andreas; Scharf, Daniel H.; Dworschak, Jan; Brakhage, Axel A.; Guthke, Reinhard; Hertweck, Christian; Linde, J?rg

    2015-01-01

    Verticillium hemipterigenum (anamorph Torrubiella hemipterigena) is an entomopathogenic fungus and produces a broad range of secondary metabolites. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of the fungus, including gene structure and functional annotation. Genes were predicted incorporating RNA-Seq data and functionally annotated to provide the basis for further genome studies.

  18. Microsatellite variability in the entomopathogenic fungus Paeciolomyces fumosoroseus: genetic diversity and population structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hyphomycete Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Pfr) is a geographically widespread fungus capable of infecting various insect hosts. The fungus has been used for the biological control of several important insect pests of agriculture. However knowledge of the fungus’ genetic diversity and population str...

  19. Serpula lacrymans, the dry rot fungus and tolerance towards copper-based wood preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Christine Steenkjaer Hastrup; Frederick Green; Carol Clausen; Bo Jensen

    2005-01-01

    Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen : Fries) Schröter, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in temperate regions of the world i.e. northern Europe, Japan and Australia. Previously copper based wood preservatives were the most commonly used preservatives for pressure treatment of wood for building constructions. Because of a...

  20. Does origin of mycorrhizal fungus on mycorrhizal plant influence effectiveness of the mycorrhizal symbiosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der E.W.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2001-01-01

    Mycorrhizal effectiveness depends on the compatibility between fungus and plant. Therefore, genetic variation in plant and fungal species affect the effectiveness of the symbiosis. The importance of mycorrhizal plant and mycorrhizal fungus origin was investigated in two experiments. In the first

  1. Lead immobilization by geological fluorapatite and fungus Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Wang, Fuwei; Bai, Tongshuo; Tao, Jinjin; Guo, Jieyun; Yang, Mengying; Wang, Shimei; Hu, Shuijin

    2016-12-15

    Phosphate solubilizing fungi have high ability to secrete organic acids. In this study, fungus Aspergillus niger and geological fluorapatite were applied in lead remediation in aqueous solution. Formation and morphology of the lead minerals, e.g., pyromorphite and lead oxalate, were investigated by SEM, XRD, and ATR-IR. The total quantity of organic acids reached the maximum at the sixth day, which improved the concentration of soluble P up to ∼370mg/L from ∼0.4mg/L. The organic acids, especially the oxalic acid, enhance the solubility of fluorapatite significantly. The stable fluoropyromorphite [Pb 5 (PO 4 ) 3 F] is precipitated with the elevated solubility of fluorapatite in the acidic environment. Furthermore, A. niger grows normally with the presence of lead cations. It is shown that >99% lead cations can be removed from the solution. However, immobilization caused by the precipitation of lead oxalate cannot be ignored if the fungus A. niger was cultured in the Pb solution. This study elucidates the mechanisms of lead immobilization by FAp and A. niger, and sheds its perspective in lead remediation, especially for high Pb concentration solution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. No sex in fungus-farming ants or their crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himler, Anna G; Caldera, Eric J; Baer, Boris C; Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2009-07-22

    Asexual reproduction imposes evolutionary handicaps on asexual species, rendering them prone to extinction, because asexual reproduction generates novel genotypes and purges deleterious mutations at lower rates than sexual reproduction. Here, we report the first case of complete asexuality in ants, the fungus-growing ant Mycocepurus smithii, where queens reproduce asexually but workers are sterile, which is doubly enigmatic because the clonal colonies of M. smithii also depend on clonal fungi for food. Degenerate female mating anatomy, extensive field and laboratory surveys, and DNA fingerprinting implicate complete asexuality in this widespread ant species. Maternally inherited bacteria (e.g. Wolbachia, Cardinium) and the fungal cultivars can be ruled out as agents inducing asexuality. M. smithii societies of clonal females provide a unique system to test theories of parent-offspring conflict and reproductive policing in social insects. Asexuality of both ant farmer and fungal crop challenges traditional views proposing that sexual farmer ants outpace coevolving sexual crop pathogens, and thus compensate for vulnerabilities of their asexual crops. Either the double asexuality of both farmer and crop may permit the host to fully exploit advantages of asexuality for unknown reasons or frequent switching between crops (symbiont reassociation) generates novel ant-fungus combinations, which may compensate for any evolutionary handicaps of asexuality in M. smithii.

  3. One fungus, one name promotes progressive plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Michael J; De Beer, Z Wilhelm; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Brenda D; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Lombard, Lorenzo; Crous, Pedro W

    2012-08-01

    The robust and reliable identification of fungi underpins virtually every element of plant pathology, from disease diagnosis to studies of biology, management/control, quarantine and, even more recently, comparative genomics. Most plant diseases are caused by fungi, typically pleomorphic organisms, for which the taxonomy and, in particular, a dual nomenclature system have frustrated and confused practitioners of plant pathology. The emergence of DNA sequencing has revealed cryptic taxa and revolutionized our understanding of relationships in the fungi. The impacts on plant pathology at every level are already immense and will continue to grow rapidly as new DNA sequencing technologies continue to emerge. DNA sequence comparisons, used to resolve a dual nomenclature problem for the first time only 19 years ago, have made it possible to approach a natural classification for the fungi and to abandon the confusing dual nomenclature system. The journey to a one fungus, one name taxonomic reality has been long and arduous, but its time has come. This will inevitably have a positive impact on plant pathology, plant pathologists and future students of this hugely important discipline on which the world depends for food security and plant health in general. This contemporary review highlights the problems of a dual nomenclature, especially its impact on plant pathogenic fungi, and charts the road to a one fungus, one name system that is rapidly drawing near. © 2011 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology © 2011 BSPP and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Molecular characteristics of fungus trichoderma viride irradiated gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadang Sudrajat; Nana Mulyana; Tri Retno DL; Rika Heriyani; Almaida

    2016-01-01

    Information about the genetic changes due to irradiation on the fungus Trichoderma viride is indispensable in order to improve the ability of these isolates for the delignification of lignocellulose. This study aims to determine the molecular characteristics of isolates fungus Trichoderma viride after irradiation with gamma rays through an approach expression of protein profiles and molecular markers random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Irradiation doses used in this study are 6 levels i.e 0; 75; 125; 250; 375; 500 and 750 Gy with a dose rate of 0.21 kGy / hour. Protein and DNA extraction isolate is done using the method of extracting phosphate buffer pH 7 and CTAB- phenol-chloroform extraction. Protein in the supernatant was analyzed by electrophoresis (SDS-gel polyacrylamide) to produce a protein fingerprint profile. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to estimate the genetic variations between 7 isolates of irradiated Trichoderma viride which were RAPD reactions using 3 random primers. The results showed that protein profiles generated by irradiation isolates and the control (no irradiation) gave a different pattern, especially at doses of irradiation 250-750 Gy based dendrogram analysis. DNA-RAPD profile showed a high genetic variation between the isolates were irradiated at a dose of 250; 375; 500 and 750 Gy and isolates the control (0 Gy); 75; 125 Gy with 5 cluster formation. Dendrogram analysis showed the coefficient of similarity between 0.62 to 0.68. (author)

  5. Biotransformation of an africanane sesquiterpene by the fungus Mucor plumbeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Braulio M; Díaz, Carmen E; Amador, Leonardo J; Reina, Matías; López-Rodriguez, Matías; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2017-03-01

    Biotransformation of 8β-hydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one angelate by the fungus Mucor plumbeus afforded as main products 6α,8β-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 8β-angelate and 1α,8β-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 8β-angelate, which had been obtained, together with the substrate, from transformed root cultures of Bethencourtia hermosae. This fact shows that the enzyme system involved in these hydroxylations in both organisms, the fungus and the plant, acts with the same regio- and stereospecificity. In addition another twelve derivatives were isolated in the incubation of the substrate, which were identified as the (2'R,3'R)- and (2'S,3'S)-epoxy derivatives of the substrate and of the 6α- and 1α-hydroxy alcohols, the 8β-(2'R,3'R)- and 8β-(2'S,3'S)-epoxyangelate of 8β,15-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one, the hydrolysis product of the substrate, and three isomers of 8β-hydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 2ξ,3ξ-dihydroxy-2-methylbutanoate. The insect antifeedant effects of the pure compounds were tested against chewing and sucking insect species along with their selective cytotoxicity against insect (Sf9) and mammalian (CHO) cell lines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cytotoxic acyl amides from the soil fungus Gymnascella dankaliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschmidt, Lena; Aly, Amal H; Abdel-Aziz, Mohammed; Müller, Werner E G; Lin, Wenhan; Daletos, Georgios; Proksch, Peter

    2015-02-15

    The soil fungus Gymnascella dankaliensis was collected in the vicinity of the Giza pyramids, Egypt. When grown on solid rice medium the fungus yielded four new compounds including 11'-carboxygymnastatin N (1), gymnastatin S (2), dankamide (3), and aranorosin-2-methylether (4), the latter having been reported previously only as a semisynthetic compound. In addition, six known metabolites (5-10) were isolated. Addition of NaCl or KBr to the rice medium resulted in the accumulation of chlorinated or brominated compounds as indicated by LC-MS analysis due to the characteristic isotope patterns observed. From the rice medium spiked with 3.5% NaCl the known chlorinated compounds gymnastatin A (11) and gymnastatin B (12) were obtained. All isolated compounds were unambiguously structurally elucidated on the basis of comprehensive spectral analysis (1D and 2D NMR, and mass spectrometry), as well as by comparison with the literature. Compounds 4, 7 and 11 showed potent cytotoxicity against the murine lymphoma cell line L5178Y (IC50 values 0.44, 0.58 and 0.64μM, respectively), whereas 12 exhibited moderate activity with an IC50 value of 5.80μM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exploring the potential for actinobacteria as defensive symbionts in fungus-growing termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Anna A.; Nobre, Tânia; Currie, Cameron R.

    2012-01-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play...... a role as defensive symbionts against Pseudoxylaria in fungus-growing termites. We sampled for Actinobacteria from 30 fungus-growing termite colonies, spanning the three main termite genera and two geographically distant sites. Our isolations yielded 360 Actinobacteria, from which we selected subsets...... for morphological (288 isolates, grouped in 44 morphotypes) and for 16S rRNA (35 isolates, spanning the majority of morphotypes) characterisation. Actinobacteria were found throughout all sampled nests and colony parts and, phylogenetically, they are interspersed with Actinobacteria from origins other than fungus...

  8. A novel trapping system for the detection of reactive drug metabolites using the fungus Cunninghamella elegans and high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydevik, Axel; Hansson, Annelie; Hellqvist, Anna; Bondesson, Ulf; Hedeland, Mikael

    2015-07-01

    A new model is presented that can be used to screen for bioactivation of drugs. The evaluation of toxicity is an important step in the development of new drugs. One way to detect possible toxic metabolites is to use trapping agents such as glutathione. Often human liver microsomes are used as a metabolic model in initial studies. However, there is a need for alternatives that are easy to handle, cheap, and can produce large amounts of metabolites. In the presented study, paracetamol, mefenamic acid, and diclofenac, all known to form reactive metabolites in humans, were incubated with the fungus Cunninghamella elegans and the metabolites formed were characterized with ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer. Interestingly, glutathione conjugates formed by the fungus were observed for all three drugs and their retention times and MS/MS spectra matched those obtained in a comparative experiment with human liver microsomes. These findings clearly demonstrated that the fungus is a suitable trapping model for toxic biotransformation products. Cysteine conjugates of all three test drugs were also observed with high signal intensities in the fungal incubates, giving the model a further indicator of drug bioactivation. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the use of a fungal model for the formation and trapping of reactive drug metabolites. The investigated model is cheap, easy to handle, it does not involve experimental animals and it can be scaled up to produce large amounts of metabolites. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Defending against parasites: fungus-growing ants combine specialized behaviours and microbial symbionts to protect their fungus gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Ainslie E F; Murakami, Takahiro; Mueller, Ulrich G; Currie, Cameron R

    2006-03-22

    Parasites influence host biology and population structure, and thus shape the evolution of their hosts. Parasites often accelerate the evolution of host defences, including direct defences such as evasion and sanitation and indirect defences such as the management of beneficial microbes that aid in the suppression or removal of pathogens. Fungus-growing ants are doubly burdened by parasites, needing to protect their crops as well as themselves from infection. We show that parasite removal from fungus gardens is more complex than previously realized. In response to infection of their fungal gardens by a specialized virulent parasite, ants gather and compress parasitic spores and hyphae in their infrabuccal pockets, then deposit the resulting pellet in piles near their gardens. We reveal that the ants' infrabuccal pocket functions as a specialized sterilization device, killing spores of the garden parasite Escovopsis. This is apparently achieved through a symbiotic association with actinomycetous bacteria in the infrabuccal pocket that produce antibiotics which inhibit Escovopsis. The use of the infrabuccal pocket as a receptacle to sequester Escovopsis, and as a location for antibiotic administration by the ants' bacterial mutualist, illustrates how the combination of behaviour and microbial symbionts can be a successful defence strategy for hosts.

  10. Social transfer of pathogenic fungus promotes active immunisation in ant colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Konrad

    Full Text Available Due to the omnipresent risk of epidemics, insect societies have evolved sophisticated disease defences at the individual and colony level. An intriguing yet little understood phenomenon is that social contact to pathogen-exposed individuals reduces susceptibility of previously naive nestmates to this pathogen. We tested whether such social immunisation in Lasius ants against the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is based on active upregulation of the immune system of nestmates following contact to an infectious individual or passive protection via transfer of immune effectors among group members--that is, active versus passive immunisation. We found no evidence for involvement of passive immunisation via transfer of antimicrobials among colony members. Instead, intensive allogrooming behaviour between naive and pathogen-exposed ants before fungal conidia firmly attached to their cuticle suggested passage of the pathogen from the exposed individuals to their nestmates. By tracing fluorescence-labelled conidia we indeed detected frequent pathogen transfer to the nestmates, where they caused low-level infections as revealed by growth of small numbers of fungal colony forming units from their dissected body content. These infections rarely led to death, but instead promoted an enhanced ability to inhibit fungal growth and an active upregulation of immune genes involved in antifungal defences (defensin and prophenoloxidase, PPO. Contrarily, there was no upregulation of the gene cathepsin L, which is associated with antibacterial and antiviral defences, and we found no increased antibacterial activity of nestmates of fungus-exposed ants. This indicates that social immunisation after fungal exposure is specific, similar to recent findings for individual-level immune priming in invertebrates. Epidemiological modeling further suggests that active social immunisation is adaptive, as it leads to faster elimination of the disease and lower

  11. Protein profiling of the dimorphic, pathogenic fungus, Penicillium marneffei

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    Rundle William T

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Penicillium marneffei is a pathogenic fungus that afflicts immunocompromised individuals having lived or traveled in Southeast Asia. This species is unique in that it is the only dimorphic member of the genus. Dimorphism results from a process, termed phase transition, which is regulated by temperature of incubation. At room temperature, the fungus grows filamentously (mould phase, but at body temperature (37°C, a uninucleate yeast form develops that reproduces by fission. Formation of the yeast phase appears to be a requisite for pathogenicity. To date, no genes have been identified in P. marneffei that strictly induce mould-to-yeast phase conversion. In an effort to help identify potential gene products associated with morphogenesis, protein profiles were generated from the yeast and mould phases of P. marneffei. Results Whole cell proteins from the early stages of mould and yeast development in P. marneffei were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Selected proteins were recovered and sequenced by capillary-liquid chromatography-nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. Putative identifications were derived by searching available databases for homologous fungal sequences. Proteins found common to both mould and yeast phases included the signal transduction proteins cyclophilin and a RACK1-like ortholog, as well as those related to general metabolism, energy production, and protection from oxygen radicals. Many of the mould-specific proteins identified possessed similar functions. By comparison, proteins exhibiting increased expression during development of the parasitic yeast phase comprised those involved in heat-shock responses, general metabolism, and cell-wall biosynthesis, as well as a small GTPase that regulates nuclear membrane transport and mitotic processes in fungi. The cognate gene encoding the latter protein, designated RanA, was subsequently cloned and characterized. The P. marneffei RanA protein

  12. Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria Bassiana and Gamma Irradiation Against the Greater Date Moth, Arenipses Sabella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhaiel, A.A.; Abul Fadl, H.A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) was isolated locally from dead larvae of the greater date moth, Arenipses sabella (Hampson) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The effect of three exposure methods and two environmental factors (temperature and relative humidity) on pathogenicity of the fungus with different concentrations to A. sabella second instar larvae were examined. The study demonstrated that the entomopathogenic fungus was most efficient in the control of second instar larvae at 25 degree C and 100% humidity and the percent of mortality was increased when increasing the concentration of fungus. The mode of exposure of fungus to larvae directly sprayed, larvae exposed to the treated dates or larvae both sprayed and exposed to the treated dates showed 56.66, 26.66 and 75% mortality, respectively, at concentration 1x10 10 spores/ml and three days post-treatment. The F1 larvae resulting from irradiated male pupae with 150 Gy were more susceptible to pathogenic fungus at low concentration ((1x10 8 spores/ml) than non-irradiated ones. The scanning electron microscope was used to delineate the morphological stages of fungus to the germinated conidia and the hyphae penetrating the larva cuticle.

  13. Sperm length evolution in the fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, B.; Dijkstra, M. B.; Mueller, U. G.

    2009-01-01

    -growing ants, representing 9 of the 12 recognized genera, and mapped these onto the ant phylogeny. We show that average sperm length across species is highly variable and decreases with mature colony size in basal genera with singly mated queens, suggesting that sperm production or storage constraints affect...... the evolution of sperm length. Sperm length does not decrease further in multiply mating leaf-cutting ants, despite substantial further increases in colony size. In a combined analysis, sexual dimorphism explained 63.1% of the variance in sperm length between species. As colony size was not a significant...... predictor in this analysis, we conclude that sperm production trade-offs in males have been the major selective force affecting sperm length across the fungus-growing ants, rather than storage constraints in females. The relationship between sperm length and sexual dimorphism remained robust...

  14. Exploitation Strategies in Social Parasites of Fungus Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Janni Dolby

    One of the most remarkable and complex parasitic interactions is social parasitism, where a parasite exploits a complete society, rather than an individual organism. By integrating into a society the parasite gains protection against predators and diseases, and can redirect resources from the host...... to increase its own fitness. The host will use a sophisticated recognition system in order to accept nestmates and expel intruders from their societies. However this defence barrier can be overcome by parasites. Among the most specialized social parasites are the inquilines that exploit social insect colonies...... to this are Acromyrmex insinuator and Acromyrmex ameliae, parasites of fungus-growing ants. By still producing a worker caste both species offers a rare opportunity to study adaptive features in parasite worker behaviour. Furthermore can closely related inquiline-host combinations give us an insight in the trade...

  15. Antimicrobial metabolites from the plant endophytic fungus Penicillium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Hua; Li, Tian-Xiao; Wang, Ying; Liu, Rui-Huan; Luo, Jun; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Five rare dichloro aromatic polyketides (1-5) were obtained from an endophytic fungus Penicillium sp., along with five known metabolites (6-10). Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis, Mosher methods, as well as [Rh 2 (OCOCF 3 ) 4 ]-induced electronic circular dichroism (ECD) experiments. Compounds 2-4 and 6 structurally involved acyclic 1.3-diols, the uneasy configuration determinations of which were well carried out by double-derivation NMR methods. Compounds 1-10 were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities against five strains of human pathogenic microorganisms. Helvolic acid (7) showed potent inhibitory effects against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) values of 5.8 and 4.6μg/mL, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Proteome analysis on interaction between Anoectochilus roxburghii and Mycorrhizal fungus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chuan; Guo, Shun-Xing; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Juan; Zhang, Li-Chun

    2012-12-01

    To study the mechanism of plant growing promoted by Mycorrhizal fungus through the difference of proteomes. The differential proteomes between uninoculated and inoculated endophytic fungi, Epulorhiza sp. on Anoectochilus roxburghii were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrum. Twenty-seven protein spots were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Twenty-two candidate proteins were identified by database comparisons. The function of these proteins mostly involved in signal transduction, metabolic regulation, as well as photosynthesis and substance metabolism. The results indicate that the regulator control system of plant is influenced by fungi action, and the positive regulation improves substance metabolism and photosynthesis, which results in strong plant and higher resistance. It is also deduced that silent genes may exist in endosymbiosis plants.

  17. Cytotoxic and antibacterial naphthoquinones from an endophytic fungus, Cladosporium sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Imdadul Huque Khan

    Full Text Available Objective: Endophytes have the potential to synthesize various bioactive secondary metabolites. The aim of the study was to find new cytotoxic and antibacterial metabolites from endophytic fungus, Cladosporium sp. isolated from the leaves of Rauwolfia serpentina (L. Benth. ex Kurz. (Fam: Apocyanaceae. Materials and methods: The endophytic fungus was grown on potato dextrose agar medium and extracted using ethyl acetate. Secondary metabolites were isolated by chromatographic separation and re-crystallization, and structures were confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectroscopic data. The cytotoxicity was determined by WST-1 assay and brine shrimp lethality bioassay, while antibacterial activity was assessed by disc diffusion method. Results: Two naphthoquinones, namely anhydrofusarubin (1 and methyl ether of fusarubin (2, were isolated from Cladosporium sp. The isolated compounds 1 and 2, by WST-1 assay against human leukemia cells (K-562 showed potential cytotoxicity with IC50 values of 3.97 μg/mL and 3.58 μg/mL, respectively. Initial screening of crude ethyl acetate extract and column fractions F-8 and F-10 exhibited noticeable cytotoxicity to brine shimp nauplii with LC50 values of 42.8, 1.2 and 2.1 μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the isolated compound 2 (40 μg/disc showed prominent activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus megaterium with an average zone of inhibition of 27 mm, 25 mm, 24 mm and 22 mm, respectively and the activities were compared with kanamycin (30 μg/disc. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that anhydrofusarubin (1 and methyl ether of fusarubin (2 might be useful lead compounds to develop potential cytotoxic and antimicrobial drugs. Keywords: Endophytic fungi, Cladosporium species, Fusarubin, Cytoxicity, Antibacterial activity

  18. Chemically armed mercenary ants protect fungus-farming societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rachelle M. M.; Liberti, Joanito; Illum, Anders A.; Jones, Tappey H.; Nash, David R.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2013-01-01

    The ants are extraordinary in having evolved many lineages that exploit closely related ant societies as social parasites, but social parasitism by distantly related ants is rare. Here we document the interaction dynamics among a Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ant host, a permanently associated parasitic guest ant of the genus Megalomyrmex, and a raiding agro-predator of the genus Gnamptogenys. We show experimentally that the guest ants protect their host colonies against agro-predator raids using alkaloid venom that is much more potent than the biting defenses of the host ants. Relatively few guest ants are sufficient to kill raiders that invariably exterminate host nests without a cohabiting guest ant colony. We also show that the odor of guest ants discourages raider scouts from recruiting nestmates to host colonies. Our results imply that Sericomyrmex fungus-growers obtain a net benefit from their costly guest ants behaving as a functional soldier caste to meet lethal threats from agro-predator raiders. The fundamentally different life histories of the agro-predators and guest ants appear to facilitate their coexistence in a negative frequency-dependent manner. Because a guest ant colony is committed for life to a single host colony, the guests would harm their own interests by not defending the host that they continue to exploit. This conditional mutualism is analogous to chronic sickle cell anemia enhancing the resistance to malaria and to episodes in human history when mercenary city defenders offered either net benefits or imposed net costs, depending on the level of threat from invading armies. PMID:24019482

  19. Chemically armed mercenary ants protect fungus-farming societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rachelle M M; Liberti, Joanito; Illum, Anders A; Jones, Tappey H; Nash, David R; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2013-09-24

    The ants are extraordinary in having evolved many lineages that exploit closely related ant societies as social parasites, but social parasitism by distantly related ants is rare. Here we document the interaction dynamics among a Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ant host, a permanently associated parasitic guest ant of the genus Megalomyrmex, and a raiding agro-predator of the genus Gnamptogenys. We show experimentally that the guest ants protect their host colonies against agro-predator raids using alkaloid venom that is much more potent than the biting defenses of the host ants. Relatively few guest ants are sufficient to kill raiders that invariably exterminate host nests without a cohabiting guest ant colony. We also show that the odor of guest ants discourages raider scouts from recruiting nestmates to host colonies. Our results imply that Sericomyrmex fungus-growers obtain a net benefit from their costly guest ants behaving as a functional soldier caste to meet lethal threats from agro-predator raiders. The fundamentally different life histories of the agro-predators and guest ants appear to facilitate their coexistence in a negative frequency-dependent manner. Because a guest ant colony is committed for life to a single host colony, the guests would harm their own interests by not defending the host that they continue to exploit. This conditional mutualism is analogous to chronic sickle cell anemia enhancing the resistance to malaria and to episodes in human history when mercenary city defenders offered either net benefits or imposed net costs, depending on the level of threat from invading armies.

  20. The control of fruiting body formation in the ascomycete Sordaria macrospora Auersw. by arginine and biotin: a two-factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molowitz, R; Bahn, M; Hock, B

    1976-01-01

    Fruiting body formation of Sordaria macrospora Auersw. is controlled by L-arginine and biotin when the fungus is grown on a synthetic nutrient medium containing optimal concentrations of fructose, KNO3, KH2PO4, MgSO4, and ZnSO4. Arginine and biotin operate in very low concentrations which exclude unspecific nutrient effects. In spite of the complicated interactions of arginine and biotin which are shown qualitatively (Figs. 3 and 4a) and quantitatively (Figs. 2 and 4b), the following conclusions are reached: 1. In the absence of biotin, the development of Sordaria macrospora is blocked at the stage of small protoperithecia. The external addition of biotin (optimal concentration: 3-12 μg/l) allows the formation of fertile fruiting bodies. This effect cannot be imitated by arginine. The biotin effect is discussed in connection with stimulated RNA synthesis.-2. The developmental velocity is influenced by the external addition of arginine. Without arginine but at permissible biotin concentrations, the total life cycle takes about 10 days, in the presence of arginine (1 mM), however, about 6 days.-3. The hyphal density, as well as the total number of fruiting bodies being produced, is controlled in a similar manner by biotin and arginine. The induction of fruiting body formation obviously takes place after the transgression of a critical hyphal density.

  1. Reaction of some soybean mutant lines to natural rust fungus caused by (phakopsora pachyrhizi syd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratma, R.

    1988-01-01

    Reaction of some soybean mutant lines to natural rust fungus caused by (phakopsora pachyhizi syd). Eleven soybean mutant lines of orba variety derived from gamma fungus disease in the wet season 1985/86 at the experimental station of Citayam, Bogor. Based on IWGSR rating system, soybean mutant lines No 18/PsJ was moderately resistant to rust fungus disease. The other mutant lines, 14/PsJ, 15/PsJ, 20/PsJ, 102/PsJ, 106/PsJ, 111/PsJ, 118/PsJ, 119/PsJ and 220/PsJ were susceptible. (author). 4 figs.; 8 refs

  2. Metagenomic insights into metabolic capacities of the gut microbiota in a fungus-cultivating termite (Odontotermes yunnanensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Liu

    Full Text Available Macrotermitinae (fungus-cultivating termites are major decomposers in tropical and subtropical areas of Asia and Africa. They have specifically evolved mutualistic associations with both a Termitomyces fungi on the nest and a gut microbiota, providing a model system for probing host-microbe interactions. Yet the symbiotic roles of gut microbes residing in its major feeding caste remain largely undefined. Here, by pyrosequencing the whole gut metagenome of adult workers of a fungus-cultivating termite (Odontotermes yunnanensis, we showed that it did harbor a broad set of genes or gene modules encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes relevant to plant fiber degradation, particularly debranching enzymes and oligosaccharide-processing enzymes. Besides, it also contained a considerable number of genes encoding chitinases and glycoprotein oligosaccharide-processing enzymes for fungal cell wall degradation. To investigate the metabolic divergence of higher termites of different feeding guilds, a SEED subsystem-based gene-centric comparative analysis of the data with that of a previously sequenced wood-feeding Nasutitermes hindgut microbiome was also attempted, revealing that SEED classifications of nitrogen metabolism, and motility and chemotaxis were significantly overrepresented in the wood-feeder hindgut metagenome, while Bacteroidales conjugative transposons and subsystems related to central aromatic compounds metabolism were apparently overrepresented here. This work fills up our gaps in understanding the functional capacities of fungus-cultivating termite gut microbiota, especially their roles in the symbiotic digestion of lignocelluloses and utilization of fungal biomass, both of which greatly add to existing understandings of this peculiar symbiosis.

  3. Reconstruction of the High-Osmolarity Glycerol (HOG) Signaling Pathway from the Halophilic Fungus Wallemia ichthyophaga in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konte, Tilen; Terpitz, Ulrich; Plemenitaš, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The basidiomycetous fungus Wallemia ichthyophaga grows between 1.7 and 5.1 M NaCl and is the most halophilic eukaryote described to date. Like other fungi, W. ichthyophaga detects changes in environmental salinity mainly by the evolutionarily conserved high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) signaling pathway. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the HOG pathway has been extensively studied in connection to osmotic regulation, with a valuable knock-out strain collection established. In the present study, we reconstructed the architecture of the HOG pathway of W. ichthyophaga in suitable S. cerevisiae knock-out strains, through heterologous expression of the W. ichthyophaga HOG pathway proteins. Compared to S. cerevisiae, where the Pbs2 (ScPbs2) kinase of the HOG pathway is activated via the SHO1 and SLN1 branches, the interactions between the W. ichthyophaga Pbs2 (WiPbs2) kinase and the W. ichthyophaga SHO1 branch orthologs are not conserved: as well as evidence of poor interactions between the WiSho1 Src-homology 3 (SH3) domain and the WiPbs2 proline-rich motif, the absence of a considerable part of the osmosensing apparatus in the genome of W. ichthyophaga suggests that the SHO1 branch components are not involved in HOG signaling in this halophilic fungus. In contrast, the conserved activation of WiPbs2 by the S. cerevisiae ScSsk2/ScSsk22 kinase and the sensitivity of W. ichthyophaga cells to fludioxonil, emphasize the significance of two-component (SLN1-like) signaling via Group III histidine kinase. Combined with protein modeling data, our study reveals conserved and non-conserved protein interactions in the HOG signaling pathway of W. ichthyophaga and therefore significantly improves the knowledge of hyperosmotic signal processing in this halophilic fungus.

  4. Phylogenomics and Divergence Dating of Fungus-Farming Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae of the Genera Sericomyrmex and Apterostigma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ješovnik

    Full Text Available Fungus-farming ("attine" ants are model systems for studies of symbiosis, coevolution, and advanced eusociality. A New World clade of nearly 300 species in 15 genera, all attine ants cultivate fungal symbionts for food. In order to better understand the evolution of ant agriculture, we sequenced, assembled, and analyzed transcriptomes of four different attine ant species in two genera: three species in the higher-attine genus Sericomyrmex and a single lower-attine ant species, Apterostigma megacephala, representing the first genomic data for either genus. These data were combined with published genomes of nine other ant species and the honey bee Apis mellifera for phylogenomic and divergence-dating analyses. The resulting phylogeny confirms relationships inferred in previous studies of fungus-farming ants. Divergence-dating analyses recovered slightly older dates than most prior analyses, estimating that attine ants originated 53.6-66.7 million of years ago, and recovered a very long branch subtending a very recent, rapid radiation of the genus Sericomyrmex. This result is further confirmed by a separate analysis of the three Sericomyrmex species, which reveals that 92.71% of orthologs have 99% - 100% pairwise-identical nucleotide sequences. We searched the transcriptomes for genes of interest, most importantly argininosuccinate synthase and argininosuccinate lyase, which are functional in other ants but which are known to have been lost in seven previously studied attine ant species. Loss of the ability to produce the amino acid arginine has been hypothesized to contribute to the obligate dependence of attine ants upon their cultivated fungi, but the point in fungus-farming ant evolution at which these losses occurred has remained unknown. We did not find these genes in any of the sequenced transcriptomes. Although expected for Sericomyrmex species, the absence of arginine anabolic genes in the lower-attine ant Apterostigma megacephala strongly

  5. The histone chaperone ASF1 is essential for sexual development in the filamentous fungus Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesing, Stefan; Schindler, Daniel; Fränzel, Benjamin; Wolters, Dirk; Nowrousian, Minou

    2012-05-01

    Ascomycetes develop four major types of fruiting bodies that share a common ancestor, and a set of common core genes most likely controls this process. One way to identify such genes is to search for conserved expression patterns. We analysed microarray data of Fusarium graminearum and Sordaria macrospora, identifying 78 genes with similar expression patterns during fruiting body development. One of these genes was asf1 (anti-silencing function 1), encoding a predicted histone chaperone. asf1 expression is also upregulated during development in the distantly related ascomycete Pyronema confluens. To test whether asf1 plays a role in fungal development, we generated an S. macrospora asf1 deletion mutant. The mutant is sterile and can be complemented to fertility by transformation with the wild-type asf1 and its P. confluens homologue. An ASF1-EGFP fusion protein localizes to the nucleus. By tandem-affinity purification/mass spectrometry as well as yeast two-hybrid analysis, we identified histones H3 and H4 as ASF1 interaction partners. Several developmental genes are dependent on asf1 for correct transcriptional expression. Deletion of the histone chaperone genes rtt106 and cac2 did not cause any developmental phenotypes. These data indicate that asf1 of S. macrospora encodes a conserved histone chaperone that is required for fruiting body development. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. A role for antioxidants in acclimation of marine derived pathogenic fungus (NIOCC 1) to salt stress

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran, C.; Varatharajan, G.R.; Rajasabapathy, R.; Vijayakanth, S.; HarishKumar, A.; Meena, R.M.

    stresses were analyzed and discussed for their possible role in the stress mechanism. The marine derived fungus was identified as Phialosimplex genus, which is associated with infections in dogs. Thus the present study elucidates that the scavenging...

  7. Active pharmaceutical ingredient (api) from an estuarine fungus, Microdochium nivale (Fr.)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosale, S.H.; Patil, K.B.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Jagtap, T.G.

    Various marine habitats sustain variety of bio-sources of ecological and biotech potentials. Pharmaceutical potential compound Cyclosporine A was reported from marine fungus Microdochium nivale associated with Porteresia coarctata, a marine salt...

  8. Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukhari, S.T.; Middelman, A.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Entomopathogenic fungi have shown great potential for the control of adult malaria vectors. However, their ability to control aquatic stages of anopheline vectors remains largely unexplored. Therefore, how larval characteristics (Anopheles species, age and larval density), fungus (species

  9. The use of Amazon fungus ( Trametes sp.) in the production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of Amazon fungus (Trametes sp.) in the production of cellulase and xylanase. Salony Aquino Pereira, Rafael Lopes e Oliveira, Sergio Duvoisin Jr, Leonor Alves de Oliveira da Silva, Patrícia Melchionna Albuquerque ...

  10. Biodegradation of hazardous waste using white rot fungus: Project planning and concept development document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luey, J.; Brouns, T.M.; Elliott, M.L.

    1990-11-01

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been shown to effectively degrade pollutants such as trichlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and other halogenated aromatic compounds. These refractory organic compounds and many others have been identified in the tank waste, groundwater and soil of various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The treatment of these refractory organic compounds has been identified as a high priority for DOE's Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) waste treatment programs. Unlike many bacteria, the white rot fungus P. chrysosporium is capable of degrading these types of refractory organics and may be valuable for the treatment of wastes containing multiple pollutants. The objectives of this project are to identify DOE waste problems amenable to white rot fungus treatment and to develop and demonstrate white rot fungus treatment process for these hazardous organic compounds. 32 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  11. Biosynthesis of size-controlled gold nanoparticles using fungus, Penicillium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaorong; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Wang, Yonghong; Li, Huimin; Tan, Weihong

    2009-10-01

    The unique optoelectronic and physicochemical properties of gold nanoparticles are significantly dependent on the particle size, shape and structure. In this paper, biosynthesis of size-controlled gold nanoparticles using fungus Penicillium sp. is reported. Fungus Penicillium sp. could successfully bioreduce and nucleate AuCl4(-) ions, and lead to the assembly and formation of intracellular Au nanoparticles with spherical morphology and good monodispersity after exposure to HAuCl4 solution. Reaction temperature, as an important physiological parameter for fungus Penicillium sp. growth, could significantly control the size of the biosynthesized Au nanoparticles. The biological compositions and FTIR spectra analysis of fungus Penicillium sp. exposed to HAuCl4 solution indicated the intracellular reducing sugar played an important role in the occurrence of intracellular reduction of AuCl4(-) ions and the growth of gold nanoparticles. Furthermore, the intracellular gold nanoparticles could be easily separated from the fungal cell lysate by ultrasonication and centrifugation.

  12. Co-evolution of enzyme function in the attine ant-fungus symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Schiøtt, Morten; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    Introduction: Fungus-growing ants cultivate specialized fungi in the tribe Leucocoprineae (Lepiotaceae: Basidiomycota) inside their nests. The conspicuous leaf-cutting ants in the genus Atta build huge nests displacing several cubic meters of soil, whereas lower attine genera such as Cyphomyrmex ...... garden. This system can be viewed as ant induced crop optimization similar to human agricultural practices....... have small nests with a fungus garden the size of a table-tennis ball. Only the leaf-cutting ants are specialized on using fresh leaves as substrate for their fungus gardens, whereas the more basal attine genera use substrates such as dry plant material (leaf litter and small twigs) and also insect...... feces and insect carcasses. This diverse array of fungal substrates across the attine lineage implies that the symbiotic fungus needs different enzymes to break down the plant material that the ants provide or different efficiencies of enzyme function. Methods: (1.) We made a literature survey...

  13. Cell wall modifications during conidial maturation of the human pathogenic fungus Pseudallescheria boydii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghamrawi, Sarah; Rénier, Gilles; Saulnier, Patrick; Cuenot, Stéphane; Zykwinska, Agata; Dutilh, Bas E; Thornton, Christopher; Faure, Sébastien; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe

    Progress in extending the life expectancy of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients remains jeopardized by the increasing incidence of fungal respiratory infections. Pseudallescheria boydii (P. boydii), an emerging pathogen of humans, is a filamentous fungus frequently isolated from the respiratory

  14. Cell Wall Modifications during Conidial Maturation of the Human Pathogenic Fungus Pseudallescheria boydii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghamrawi, S.; Renier, G.; Saulnier, P.; Cuenot, S.; Zykwinska, A.; Dutilh, B.E.; Thornton, C.; Faure, S.; Bouchara, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Progress in extending the life expectancy of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients remains jeopardized by the increasing incidence of fungal respiratory infections. Pseudallescheria boydii (P. boydii), an emerging pathogen of humans, is a filamentous fungus frequently isolated from the respiratory

  15. Mass spectrometric identification of isoforms of PR proteins in xylem sap of fungus-infected tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rep, Martijn; Dekker, Henk L.; Vossen, Jack H.; de Boer, Albert D.; Houterman, Petra M.; Speijer, Dave; Back, Jaap W.; de Koster, Chris G.; Cornelissen, Ben J. C.

    2002-01-01

    The protein content of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) xylem sap was found to change dramatically upon infection with the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Peptide mass fingerprinting and mass spectrometric sequencing were used to identify the most abundant proteins appearing during

  16. Fungal metabolites: Tetrahydroauroglaucin and isodihydroauroglaucin from the marine fungus,iEurotium sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gawas, D.; PrabhaDevi; Tilvi, S.; Naik, C.G.; Parameswaran, P.S.

    Two poly substituted aromatic compounds: tetrahydroauroglaucin 1 and isodihydroauroglaucin 2 were identified from a marine fungus, Eurotium sp. isolated from leaves of the mangrove, Porteresia coarctata (Roxb). These compounds were reported earlier...

  17. Traumatic cerrebral fungus: Experience from an institution in North East India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binoy Kumar Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic brain fungus is manifestation of neglected head injury. Although rare it is not uncommon. The patients are usually intact with good Glasgow coma (GCS score inspite of complex injuries and exposed brain parenchyma but morbidity and mortality is very high with time if no proper and timely management is offered. There is very less study on traumatic brain fungus with no defined management protocols. So an attempt was made to explain in details the surgical strategies and other management techniques in patients with traumatic brain fungus. Aims: To study and evaluate the pattern of causation, clinical presentations, modalities of management of traumatic brain fungus and outcome after treatment. Methods: All patients with fungus cerebri, admitted to our centre from January 2012 to December 2015 were studied prospectively. All the patients were examined clinically and triaged urgently for surgery. CT head was done in all patients to look for any brain parenchymal injury. All patients were managed surgically. Outcome was assessed as per the Glassgow Outcome Score. Results: Total 10 patients were included in the study. 8 were men and 2 women. The patients' ages ranged from 3-48 years (mean 31.6 years. The interval between initial injury and protrusion ranged from 3 days to 6 days (mean 4.1 days. Mean GCS at the time of presentation was 13.2.60% of the patients (n = 6 sustained moderate head injury. (GCS-9-13. Size of the fungus ranged from 5cm×3cm to 8cm×10cm. Conclusion: Early and proper local wound treatment prevents fungus formation. Pre-emptive antibiotics, AEDs and cerebral decongestants are recommended. Loose water-tight duroplasty prevents CSF leak. But mortality and morbidity can be reduced significantly if brain fungus is managed properly by applying basic surgical principles and antibiotic protocols combined with newer surgical modalities.

  18. Control of Root-Knot Nematodes on Tomato by the Endoparasitic Fungus Meria coniospora

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Hans-Börje; Jeyaprakash, A.; Zuckerman, Bert M.

    1985-01-01

    The endoparasitic nematophagous fungus Meria coniospora reduced root-knot nematode galling on tomatoes in greenhouse pot trials. The fungus was introduced to pots by addition of conidia at several inoculum levels directly to the soil or addition of nematodes infected with M. coniospora to the soil; both methods reduced root galling by root-knot nematodes. These studies represent a part of a recently initiated effort to evaluate the potential of endoparasitic nematophagous fungi for biocontrol...

  19. Exploring the potential for actinobacteria as defensive symbionts in fungus-growing termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Anna A; Nobre, Tânia; Currie, Cameron R; Aanen, Duur K; Poulsen, Michael

    2012-05-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play a role as defensive symbionts against Pseudoxylaria in fungus-growing termites. We sampled for Actinobacteria from 30 fungus-growing termite colonies, spanning the three main termite genera and two geographically distant sites. Our isolations yielded 360 Actinobacteria, from which we selected subsets for morphological (288 isolates, grouped in 44 morphotypes) and for 16S rRNA (35 isolates, spanning the majority of morphotypes) characterisation. Actinobacteria were found throughout all sampled nests and colony parts and, phylogenetically, they are interspersed with Actinobacteria from origins other than fungus-growing termites, indicating lack of specificity. Antibiotic-activity screening of 288 isolates against the fungal cultivar and competitor revealed that most of the Actinobacteria-produced molecules with antifungal activity. A more detailed bioassay on 53 isolates, to test the specificity of antibiotics, showed that many Actinobacteria inhibit both Pseudoxylaria and Termitomyces, and that the cultivar fungus generally is more susceptible to inhibition than the competitor. This suggests that either defensive symbionts are not present in the system or that they, if present, represent a subset of the community isolated. If so, the antibiotics must be used in a targeted fashion, being applied to specific areas by the termites. We describe the first discovery of an assembly of antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria occurring in fungus-growing termite nests. However, due to the diversity found, and the lack of both phylogenetic and bioactivity specificity, further work is necessary for a better understanding of the putative role of antibiotic-producing bacteria in the fungus

  20. The dynamics of plant cell-wall polysaccharide decomposition in leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel E Moller

    Full Text Available The degradation of live plant biomass in fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants is poorly characterised but fundamental for understanding the mutual advantages and efficiency of this obligate nutritional symbiosis. Controversies about the extent to which the garden-symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus degrades cellulose have hampered our understanding of the selection forces that induced large scale herbivory and of the ensuing ecological footprint of these ants. Here we use a recently established technique, based on polysaccharide microarrays probed with antibodies and carbohydrate binding modules, to map the occurrence of cell wall polymers in consecutive sections of the fungus garden of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We show that pectin, xyloglucan and some xylan epitopes are degraded, whereas more highly substituted xylan and cellulose epitopes remain as residuals in the waste material that the ants remove from their fungus garden. These results demonstrate that biomass entering leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens is only partially utilized and explain why disproportionally large amounts of plant material are needed to sustain colony growth. They also explain why substantial communities of microbial and invertebrate symbionts have evolved associations with the dump material from leaf-cutting ant nests, to exploit decomposition niches that the ant garden-fungus does not utilize. Our approach thus provides detailed insight into the nutritional benefits and shortcomings associated with fungus-farming in ants.

  1. The fungus gardens of leaf-cutter ants undergo a distinct physiological transition during biomass degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Eric L.; Aylward, Frank O.; Kim, Young-Mo; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Hu, Zeping; Metz, Thomas O.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.; Currie, Cameron R.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.

    2014-08-01

    Leaf-cutter ants are dominant herbivores in ecosystems throughout the Neotropics. Rather than directly consuming the fresh foliar biomass they harvest, these ants use it to cultivate specialized fungus gardens. Although recent investigations have shed light on how plant biomass is degraded in fungus gardens, the cycling of nutrients that takes place in these specialized microbial ecosystems is still not well understood. Here, using metametabolomics and metaproteomics techniques, we examine the dynamics of nutrient turnover and biosynthesis in these gardens. Our results reveal that numerous free amino acids and sugars are depleted throughout the process of biomass degradation, indicating that easily accessible nutrients from plant material are readily consumed by microbes in these ecosystems. Accumulation of cellobiose and lignin derivatives near the end of the degradation process is consistent with previous findings of cellulases and laccases produced by Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the fungus cultivated by leaf-cutter ants. Our results also suggest that ureides may be an important source of nitrogen in fungus gardens, especially during nitrogen-limiting conditions. No free arginine was detected in our metametabolomics experiments despite evidence that the host ants cannot produce this amino acid, suggesting that biosynthesis of this metabolite may be tightly regulated in the fungus garden. These results provide new insights into the dynamics of nutrient cycling that underlie this important ant-fungus symbiosis.

  2. Efficient degradation of Azo dyes by a newly isolated fungus Trichoderma tomentosum under non-sterile conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Ling; Song, Chao; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Ning; Xu, Lei; Han, Xin; Wei, Dong-Sheng

    2018-04-15

    A fast-growing fungus with remarkable ability to degrade several azo dyes under non-sterile conditions was isolated and identified. This fungus was identified as Trichoderma tomentosum. Textile effluent of ten-fold dilution could be decolorized by 94.9% within 72h before optimization. Acid Red 3R model wastewater with a concentration of 85.5mgL -1 could be decolorized by 99.2% within the same time after optimization. High-level of manganese peroxidase and low-level of lignin peroxidase activities were detected during the process of decolorization from the culture supernatant, indicating the possible involvement of two enzymes in azo dye decolorization. No aromatic amine products were detected from the degradation products of Acid Red 3R by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis, indicating the possible involvement of a special symmetrical oxidative degradation pathway. Phytotoxicity assay confirmed the lower toxicity toward the test plant seeds of the degradation products when compared to the original dye. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Massive Changes in Genome Architecture Accompany the Transition to Self-Fertility in the filamentous Fungus Neurospora tetrasperma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, Christoper; Stajich, Jason; Jacobson, David; Nativ, Donald; Lapidus, Alla; Foster, Brian; Aerts, Andrea; Riley, Robert; Lindquist, Erika; Grigoriev, Igor; Taylor, John

    2011-05-16

    A large region of suppressed recombination surrounds the sex-determining locus of the self-fertile fungus Neurospora tetrasperma. This region encompasses nearly one-fifth of the N. tetrasperma genome and suppression of recombination is necessary for self-fertility. The similarity of the N. tetrasperma mating chromosome to plant and animal sex chromosomes and its recent origin (5 MYA), combined with a long history of genetic and cytological research, make this fungus an ideal model for studying the evolutionary consequences of suppressed recombination. Here we compare genome sequences from two N. tetrasperma strains of opposite mating type to determine whether structural rearrangements are associated with the nonrecombining region and to examine the effect of suppressed recombination for the evolution of the genes within it. We find a series of three inversions encompassing the majority of the region of suppressed recombination and provide evidence for two different types of rearrangement mechanisms: the recently proposed mechanism of inversion via staggered single-strand breaks as well as ectopic recombination between transposable elements. In addition, we show that the N. tetrasperma mat a mating-type region appears to be accumulating deleterious substitutions at a faster rate than the other mating type (mat A) and thus may be in the early stages of degeneration.

  4. Cryptoendolithic Antarctic Black Fungus Cryomyces antarcticus Irradiated with Accelerated Helium Ions: Survival and Metabolic Activity, DNA and Ultrastructural Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pacelli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Space represents an extremely harmful environment for life and survival of terrestrial organisms. In the last decades, a considerable deal of attention was paid to characterize the effects of spaceflight relevant radiation on various model organisms. The aim of this study was to test the survival capacity of the cryptoendolithic black fungus Cryomyces antarcticus CCFEE 515 to space relevant radiation, to outline its endurance to space conditions. In the frame of an international radiation campaign, dried fungal colonies were irradiated with accelerated Helium ion (150 MeV/n, LET 2.2 keV/μm, up to a final dose of 1,000 Gy, as one of the space-relevant ionizing radiation. Results showed that the fungus maintained high survival and metabolic activity with no detectable DNA and ultrastructural damage, even after the highest dose irradiation. These data give clues on the resistance of life toward space ionizing radiation in general and on the resistance and responses of eukaryotic cells in particular.

  5. Two Rab5 Homologs Are Essential for the Development and Pathogenicity of the Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng D. Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, infects many economically important cereal crops, particularly rice. It has emerged as an important model organism for studying the growth, development, and pathogenesis of filamentous fungi. RabGTPases are important molecular switches in regulation of intracellular membrane trafficking in all eukaryotes. MoRab5A and MoRab5B are Rab5 homologs in M. oryzae, but their functions in the fungal development and pathogenicity are unknown. In this study, we have employed a genetic approach and demonstrated that both MoRab5A and MoRab5B are crucial for vegetative growth and development, conidiogenesis, melanin synthesis, vacuole fusion, endocytosis, sexual reproduction, and plant pathogenesis in M. oryzae. Moreover, both MoRab5A and MoRab5B show similar localization in hyphae and conidia. To further investigate possible functional redundancy between MoRab5A and MoRab5B, we overexpressed MoRAB5A and MoRAB5B, respectively, in MoRab5B:RNAi and MoRab5A:RNAi strains, but neither could rescue each other’s defects caused by the RNAi. Taken together, we conclude that both MoRab5A and MoRab5B are necessary for the development and pathogenesis of the rice blast fungus, while they may function independently.

  6. Distinct RNAi Pathways in the Regulation of Physiology and Development in the Fungus Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Vázquez, Rosa M; Nicolás, Francisco E; Torres-Martínez, Santiago; Garre, Victoriano

    2015-01-01

    The basal fungus Mucor circinelloides has become, in recent years, a valuable model to study RNA-mediated gene silencing or RNA interference (RNAi). Serendipitously discovered in the late 1900s, the gene silencing in M. circinelloides is a landscape of consensus and dissents. Although similar to other classical fungal models in the basic design of the essential machinery that is responsible for silencing of gene expression, the existence of small RNA molecules of different sizes generated during this process and the presence of a mechanism that amplifies the silencing signal, give it a unique identity. In addition, M. circinelloides combines the components of RNAi machinery to carry out functions that not only limit themselves to the defense against foreign genetic material, but it uses some of these elements to regulate the expression of its own genes. Thus, different combinations of RNAi elements produce distinct classes of endogenous small RNAs (esRNAs) that regulate different physiological and developmental processes in response to environmental signals. The recent discovery of a new RNAi pathway involved in the specific degradation of endogenous mRNAs, using a novel RNase protein, adds one more element to the exciting puzzle of the gene silencing in M. circinelloides, in addition to providing hints about the evolutionary origin of the RNAi mechanism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic structure of the fungal grapevine pathogen Eutypa lata from four continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The generalist ascomycete fungus Eutypa lata causes Eutypa dieback of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) worldwide. To decipher the cosmopolitan distribution of this fungus, the population genetic structure of 17 geographic samples was investigated from four continental regions (Australia, California, Europ...

  8. Antifungal Monoterpene Derivatives from the Plant Endophytic Fungus Pestalotiopsis foedan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Zhang, Bing-Yang; Yang, Xiao-Long

    2016-10-01

    A new monoterpene lactone, (1R,4R,5R,8S)-8-hydroxy-4,8-dimethyl-2-oxabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-3-one (1), along with one related known compound, (2R)-2-[(1R)-4-methylcyclohex-3-en-1-yl]propanoic acid (2), were isolated from the liquid culture of the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis foedan obtained from the branch of Bruguiera sexangula. The structure and absolute configuration of 1 were determined on the basis of extensive analysis of NMR spectra combined with computational methods via calculation of the optical rotation (OR) and 13 C-NMR. Both compounds exhibited strong antifungal activities against Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora nicotianae with MIC values of 3.1 and 6.3 μg/ml, respectively, which are comparable to those of the known antifungal drug ketoconazole. Compound 2 also showed modest antifungal activity against Candida albicans with a MIC value of 50 μg/ml. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  9. Cytotoxic effects of Oosporein isolated from endophytic fungus Cochliobolus kusanoi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rmaesha eA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, oosporein, a fungal toxic secondary metabolite known to be a toxic agent causing chronic disorders in animals, was isolated from fungus Cochliobolus kusanoi of Nerium oleander L. Toxic effects of oosporein and the possible mechanisms of cytotoxicity as well as the role of oxidative stress in cytotoxicity to MDCK kidney cells and RAW 264.7 splene cells were evaluated in-vitro. Also to know the possible in-vivo toxic effects of oosporein on kidney and spleen, Balb/C mouse were treated with different concentrations of oosporein ranging from 20 uM to 200 µM. After 24 hrs of post exposure histopathological observations were made to know the effects of oosporein on target organs. Oosporein induced elevated levels of ROS generation and high levels of MDA, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, induced glutathione hydroxylase production was observed in a dose depended manner. Effects oosporein on chromosomal DNA damage was assessed by Comet assay, and increase in DNA damage were observed in both the studied cell lines by increasing the oosprin concentration. Further, oosporein treatment to studied cell lines indicated significant suppression of oxidative stress related gene (SOD1 and CAT expression, and increased levels of mRNA expression in apoptosis or oxidative stress

  10. [Furfural degradation by filamentous fungus Amorphotheca resinae ZN1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Jian; Xin, Xiujuan; Bao, Jie

    2012-09-01

    Some degradation products from lignocellulose pretreatment strongly inhibit the activities of cellulolytic enzymes and ethanol fermentation strains, thus the efficient removal of the inhibitor substances ("detoxification") is the inevitable step for the biotransformation processes. In this study, the biological detoxification of furfural by a newly isolated fungus, Amorphotheca resinae ZN1, was studied and the metabolic pathways of furfural degradation was analyzed. The metabolic pathway of furfural degradation in A. resinae ZN1 was described as follows: first, furfural was quickly converted into the low toxic furfuryl alcohol; then the furfuryl alcohol was gradually converted into furfural again but under the low concentration under aerobic condition, which was not lethal to the growth of the fungi; furfural continued to be oxidized to furoic acid by A. resinae ZN1. It is likely that furoic acid was further degraded in the TCA cycle to complete the biological degradation of furfural. The present study provided the important experimental basis for speeding up the biodetoxification of furfural by A. resinae ZN1 and the rate-limiting step in the lignocellulose biotransformation to ethanol.

  11. Acrophialophora, a Poorly Known Fungus with Clinical Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Sutton, Deanna A.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Guarro, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Acrophialophora fusispora is an emerging opportunistic fungus capable of causing human infections. The taxonomy of the genus is not yet resolved and, in order to facilitate identification of clinical specimens, we have studied a set of clinical and environmental Acrophialophora isolates by morphological and molecular analyses. This set included the available type strains of Acrophialophora species and similar fungi, some of which were considered by various authors to be synonyms of A. fusispora. Sequence analysis of the large subunit (LSU) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA and a fragment of the β-tubulin (Tub) gene revealed that Acrophialophora belongs in the family Chaetomiaceae and comprises three different species, i.e., A. fusispora, Acrophialophora levis, and Acrophialophora seudatica; the latter was previously included in the genus Ampullifera. The most prevalent species among clinical isolates was A. levis (72.7%), followed by A. fusispora (27.3%), both of which were isolated mostly from respiratory specimens (72.7%), as well as subcutaneous and corneal tissue samples. In general, of the eight antifungal drugs tested, voriconazole had the greatest in vitro activity, while all other agents showed poor in vitro activity against these fungi. PMID:25716450

  12. Ethanol Production from Lignocellulose by the Dimorphic Fungus Mucor Indicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennartsson, P.R.; Taherzadeh, M.J. (School of Engineering, Univ. of Boraas, SE-50190, Boraas (Sweden)). e-mail: Patrik.Lennartsson@hb.se; Karimi, K. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan Univ. of Technology, 84156-83111, Isfahan (IR)); Edebo, L. (Dept. of Clinical Bacteriology, Univ. of Goeteborg, SE-41346, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-10-15

    Ethanol production from dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolyzate by the dimorphic fungus Mucor indicus was investigated. A mixture of different forest wood chips dominated by spruce was hydrolyzed with 0.5 g/L sulfuric acid at 15 bar for 10 min, yielding different sugars including galactose, glucose, mannose, and xylose, but also different fermentation inhibitors such as acetic acid, furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), and phenolic compounds. We induced different morphological growth of M. indicus from purely filamentous, mostly filamentous, mostly yeast-like to purely yeast-like. The different forms were then used to ferment the hydrolyzate. They tolerated the presence of the inhibitors under anaerobic batch cultivation well and the ethanol yield was 430-440 g/kg consumed sugars. The ethanol productivity depended on the morphology. Judging from these results, we conclude that M. indicus, is useful for ethanol production from toxic substrates independent of its morphology. Keywords: bio-ethanol, lignocellulosic materials, dilute acid hydrolysis, Mucor indicus, dimorphic fungi

  13. Five New Cytotoxic Metabolites from the Marine Fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri

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    Wen-Jian Lan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The marine fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri was isolated from Acanthaster planci from the South China Sea. In a preliminary bioactivity screening, the crude methanol extract of the fungal mycelia showed significant inhibitory activity against the Sf9 cell line from the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda. Five novel compounds, including 5-olefin phenylpyropene A (1, 13-dehydroxylpyripyropene A (4, deacetylsesquiterpene (7, 5-formyl-6-hydroxy-8-isopropyl-2- naphthoic acid (9 and 6,8-dihydroxy-3-((1E,3E-penta-1,3-dien-1-ylisochroman-1-one (10, together with eleven known compounds, phenylpyropene A (2 and C (3, pyripyropene A (5, 7-deacetylpyripyropene A (6, (1S,2R,4aR,5R,8R,8aR-1,8a-dihydroxy-2-acetoxy-3,8-dimethyl-5- (prop-1-en-2-yl-1,2,4a, 5,6,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalene (8, isochaetominine C (11, trichodermamide A (12, indolyl-3-acetic acid methyl ester (13, 1-acetyl-β-carboline (14, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-hydroxyl-2-methyl-l,3,4-trioxopyrazino[l,2-a]-indole (15 and fumiquinazoline F (16, were obtained. The structures of these compounds were determined mainly by MS and NMR data. The absolute configuration of 9 was assigned by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Compounds 1–11 and 15 showed significant cytotoxicity against the Sf9 cells from S. frugiperda.

  14. A phosphate transporter from the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus versiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, M J; van Buuren, M L

    1995-12-07

    Vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic associations with the roots of most terrestrial plants, including many agriculturally important crop species. The fungi colonize the cortex of the root to obtain carbon from their plant host, while assisting the plant with the uptake of phosphate and other mineral nutrients from the soil. This association is beneficial to the plant, because phosphate is essential for plant growth and development, especially during growth under nutrient-limiting conditions. Molecular genetic studies of these fungi and their interaction with plants have been limited owing to the obligate symbiotic nature of the VA fungi, so the molecular mechanisms underlying fungal-mediated uptake and translocation of phosphate from the soil to the plant remain unknown. Here we begin to investigate this process by identifying a complementary DNA that encodes a transmembrane phosphate transporter (GvPT) from Glomus versiforme, a VA mycorrhizal fungus. The function of the protein encoded by GvPT was confirmed by complementation of a yeast phosphate transport mutant. Expression of GvPT was localized to the external hyphae of G. versiforme during mycorrhizal associations, these being the initial site of phosphate uptake from the soil.

  15. Oxygen requirement for denitrification by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z; Takaya, N; Sakairi, M A; Shoun, H

    2001-01-01

    The effects of dioxygen (O2) on the denitrification activity of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum MT-811 in fed-batch culture in a stirred jar fermentor were examined. The results revealed that fungal denitrifying activity requires a minimal amount of O2 for induction, which is repressed by excess O2. The optimal O2 supply differed between the denitrification substrates : 690 micromol O2 x h(-1) (g dry cell wt.)(-1) for nitrate (NO3-) and about 250 micromol O2 x h(-1) (g dry cell wt.)(-1) for nitrite (NO2-). The reduction of NO3- required more O2 than that of NO2- . With an optimal O2 supply, 80% and 52% of nitrogen atoms in NO3- and NO2-, respectively, were recovered as the denitrification product N2O. These features of F. oxysporum differ from those of bacterial denitrifiers that work exclusively under anoxic conditions. The denitrification activity of F. oxysporum MT-811 mutants with impaired NO3- assimilation was about double that of the wild-type strain, suggesting competition for the substrate between assimilatory and dissimilatory types of NO3- reduction. These results showed that denitrification by F. oxysporum has unique features, namely, a minimal O2 requirement and competition with assimilatory NO3-.

  16. Biosynthesis of vanillin by the fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus MIP 95001

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    Sabrina Moro Villela Pacheco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vanillin (a substance popularly known as vanilla flavor is one of the most widely used compounds, mainly by food and pharmaceutical industries. This substance can be obtained from the orchid Vanilla planifolia, but this is costly and time consuming. Thus, other methods for obtaining vanillin have been studied. Within this context, the aim of this work was to study the biosynthesis of vanillin by three strains of Pycnoporus sanguineus through the use of vanillic acid as a precursor. The strains were cultured in Petri dishes with a potato dextrose agar medium. Fragments of the media with the fungus were then inoculated in Erlenmeyer flasks with a liquid medium of potato broth and 0.3 g.L-1 of vanillic acid. The flasks remained in a shaker for eight days at 28°C and 120 rpm. Samples were withdrawn once a day (0.8 mL.day-1 for analysis of vanillin, glucose, total phenols, total proteins, and laccase. The results showed that only the MIP 95001 strain promoted the biosynthesis of vanillin. The highest concentration of vanillin was detected on the fourth day of cultivation (8.75 mg.dL-1. The results illustrate the ability to biosynthesize vanillin using Pycnoporus sanguineus (MIP 95001, which suggests a possible route for the biotechnological production of this flavor.

  17. Bioturbation by the Fungus-Gardening Ant, Trachymyrmex septentrionalis.

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    Walter R Tschinkel

    Full Text Available Soil invertebrates such as ants are thought to be important manipulators of soils in temperate and tropical ecosystems. The fungus gardening ant, Trachymyrmex septentrionalis, is an important agent of biomantling, that is, of depositing soil excavated from below onto the surface, and has been suggested as an agent of bioturbation (moving soil below ground as well. The amount of bioturbation by this ant was quantified by planting queenright colonies in sand columns consisting of 5 layers of different colored sand. The amount of each color of sand deposited on the surface was determined from April to November 2015. In November, colonies were excavated and the color and amount of sand deposited below ground (mostly as backfill in chambers was determined. Extrapolated to one ha, T. septentrionalis deposited 800 kg of sand per annum on the surface, and an additional 200 kg (17% of the total excavated below ground. On average, this mixes 1.3% of the sand from other layers within the top meter of soil per millennium, but this mixing is unlikely to be homogeneous, and probably occurs as "hotspots" in both horizontal and vertical space. Such mixing is discussed as a challenge to sediment dating by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL.

  18. Direct electrochemistry of nitrate reductase from the fungus Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalimuthu, Palraj; Ringel, Phillip; Kruse, Tobias; Bernhardt, Paul V

    2016-09-01

    We report the first direct (unmediated) catalytic electrochemistry of a eukaryotic nitrate reductase (NR). NR from the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, is a member of the mononuclear molybdenum enzyme family and contains a Mo, heme and FAD cofactor which are involved in electron transfer from NAD(P)H to the (Mo) active site where reduction of nitrate to nitrite takes place. NR was adsorbed on an edge plane pyrolytic graphite (EPG) working electrode. Non-turnover redox responses were observed in the absence of nitrate from holo NR and three variants lacking the FAD, heme or Mo cofactor. The FAD response is due to dissociated cofactor in all cases. In the presence of nitrate, NR shows a pronounced cathodic catalytic wave with an apparent Michaelis constant (KM) of 39μM (pH7). The catalytic cathodic current increases with temperature from 5 to 35°C and an activation enthalpy of 26kJmol(-1) was determined. In spite of dissociation of the FAD cofactor, catalytically activity is maintained. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Transcriptome of an entomophthoralean fungus (Pandora formicae) shows molecular machinery adjusted for successful host exploitation and transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malagocka, Joanna; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Lange, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Pandora formicae is an obligate entomopathogenic fungus from the phylum Entomophthoromycota, known to infect only ants from the genus Formica. In the final stages of infection, the fungus induces the so-called summit disease syndrome, manipulating the host to climb up vegetation prior to death......, but the fungus had not grown out through the cuticle and (2) when the fungus was growing out from host cadaver and producing spores. These phases mark the switch from within-host growth to reproduction on the host surface, after fungus outgrowth through host integument. In this first de novo transcriptome...... of an entomophthoralean fungus, we detected expression of many pathogenicity-related genes, including secreted hydrolytic enzymes and genes related to morphological reorganization and nutrition uptake. Differences in expression of genes in these two infection phases were compared and showed a switch in enzyme expression...

  20. Integrated Metabolomics and Morphogenesis Reveal Volatile Signaling of the Nematode-Trapping Fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bai-Le; Chen, Yong-Hong; He, Jia-Ning; Xue, Hua-Xi; Yan, Ni; Zeng, Zhi-Jun; Bennett, Joan W; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Niu, Xue-Mei

    2018-05-01

    The adjustment of metabolic patterns is fundamental to fungal biology and plays vital roles in adaptation to diverse ecological challenges. Nematode-trapping fungi can switch their lifestyle from saprophytic to pathogenic by developing specific trapping devices induced by nematodes to infect their prey as a response to nutrient depletion in nature. However, the chemical identity of the specific fungal metabolites used during the switch remains poorly understood. We hypothesized that these important signal molecules might be volatile in nature. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to carry out comparative analysis of fungal metabolomics during the saprophytic and pathogenic lifestyles of the model species Arthrobotrys oligospora Two media commonly used in research on this species, cornmeal agar (CMA) and potato dextrose agar (PDA), were chosen for use in this study. The fungus produced a small group of volatile furanone and pyrone metabolites that were associated with the switch from the saprophytic to the pathogenic stage. A. oligospora fungi grown on CMA tended to produce more traps and employ attractive furanones to improve the utilization of traps, while fungi grown on PDA developed fewer traps and used nematode-toxic furanone metabolites to compensate for insufficient traps. Another volatile pyrone metabolite, maltol, was identified as a morphological regulator for enhancing trap formation. Deletion of the gene AOL_s00079g496 in A. oligospora led to increased amounts of the furanone attractant (2-fold) in mutants and enhanced the attractive activity (1.5-fold) of the fungus, while it resulted in decreased trap formation. This investigation provides new insights regarding the comprehensive tactics of fungal adaptation to environmental stress, integrating both morphological and metabolomic mechanisms. IMPORTANCE Nematode-trapping fungi are a unique group of soil-living fungi that can switch from the saprophytic to the pathogenic lifestyle once they come

  1. Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi

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    Takken Willem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi have shown great potential for the control of adult malaria vectors. However, their ability to control aquatic stages of anopheline vectors remains largely unexplored. Therefore, how larval characteristics (Anopheles species, age and larval density, fungus (species and concentration and environmental effects (exposure duration and food availability influence larval mortality caused by fungus, was studied. Methods Laboratory bioassays were performed on the larval stages of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi with spores of two fungus species, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. For various larval and fungal characteristics and environmental effects the time to death was determined and survival curves established. These curves were compared by Kaplan Meier and Cox regression analyses. Results Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae caused high mortality of An. gambiae and An. stephensi larvae. However, Beauveria bassiana was less effective (Hazard ratio (HR Metarhizium anisopliae. Anopheles stephensi and An. gambiae were equally susceptible to each fungus. Older larvae were less likely to die than young larvae (HR Conclusions This study shows that both fungus species have potential to kill mosquitoes in the larval stage, and that mortality rate depends on fungus species itself, larval stage targeted, larval density and amount of nutrients available to the larvae. Increasing the concentration of fungal spores or reducing the exposure time to spores did not show a proportional increase and decrease in mortality rate, respectively, because the spores clumped together. As a result spores did not provide uniform coverage over space and time. It is, therefore, necessary to develop a formulation that allows the spores to spread over the water surface. Apart from formulation appropriate delivery methods are also necessary to avoid exposing non-target organisms to fungus.

  2. Single nucleus genome sequencing reveals high similarity among nuclei of an endomycorrhizal fungus.

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    Kui Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclei of arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungi have been described as highly diverse due to their asexual nature and absence of a single cell stage with only one nucleus. This has raised fundamental questions concerning speciation, selection and transmission of the genetic make-up to next generations. Although this concept has become textbook knowledge, it is only based on studying a few loci, including 45S rDNA. To provide a more comprehensive insight into the genetic makeup of arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungi, we applied de novo genome sequencing of individual nuclei of Rhizophagus irregularis. This revealed a surprisingly low level of polymorphism between nuclei. In contrast, within a nucleus, the 45S rDNA repeat unit turned out to be highly diverged. This finding demystifies a long-lasting hypothesis on the complex genetic makeup of arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungi. Subsequent genome assembly resulted in the first draft reference genome sequence of an arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungus. Its length is 141 Mbps, representing over 27,000 protein-coding gene models. We used the genomic sequence to reinvestigate the phylogenetic relationships of Rhizophagus irregularis with other fungal phyla. This unambiguously demonstrated that Glomeromycota are more closely related to Mucoromycotina than to its postulated sister Dikarya.

  3. DNA mutations mediate microevolution between host-adapted forms of the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans.

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    Denise A Magditch

    Full Text Available The disease cryptococcosis, caused by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, is acquired directly from environmental exposure rather than transmitted person-to-person. One explanation for the pathogenicity of this species is that interactions with environmental predators select for virulence. However, co-incubation of C. neoformans with amoeba can cause a "switch" from the normal yeast morphology to a pseudohyphal form, enabling fungi to survive exposure to amoeba, yet conversely reducing virulence in mammalian models of cryptococcosis. Like other human pathogenic fungi, C. neoformans is capable of microevolutionary changes that influence the biology of the organism and outcome of the host-pathogen interaction. A yeast-pseudohyphal phenotypic switch also happens under in vitro conditions. Here, we demonstrate that this morphological switch, rather than being under epigenetic control, is controlled by DNA mutation since all pseudohyphal strains bear mutations within genes encoding components of the RAM pathway. High rates of isolation of pseudohyphal strains can be explained by the physical size of RAM pathway genes and a hypermutator phenotype of the strain used in phenotypic switching studies. Reversion to wild type yeast morphology in vitro or within a mammalian host can occur through different mechanisms, with one being counter-acting mutations. Infection of mice with RAM mutants reveals several outcomes: clearance of the infection, asymptomatic maintenance of the strains, or reversion to wild type forms and progression of disease. These findings demonstrate a key role of mutation events in microevolution to modulate the ability of a fungal pathogen to cause disease.

  4. Expressed sequences tags of the anther smut fungus, Microbotryum violaceum, identify mating and pathogenicity genes

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    Devier Benjamin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The basidiomycete fungus Microbotryum violaceum is responsible for the anther-smut disease in many plants of the Caryophyllaceae family and is a model in genetics and evolutionary biology. Infection is initiated by dikaryotic hyphae produced after the conjugation of two haploid sporidia of opposite mating type. This study describes M. violaceum ESTs corresponding to nuclear genes expressed during conjugation and early hyphal production. Results A normalized cDNA library generated 24,128 sequences, which were assembled into 7,765 unique genes; 25.2% of them displayed significant similarity to annotated proteins from other organisms, 74.3% a weak similarity to the same set of known proteins, and 0.5% were orphans. We identified putative pheromone receptors and genes that in other fungi are involved in the mating process. We also identified many sequences similar to genes known to be involved in pathogenicity in other fungi. The M. violaceum EST database, MICROBASE, is available on the Web and provides access to the sequences, assembled contigs, annotations and programs to compare similarities against MICROBASE. Conclusion This study provides a basis for cloning the mating type locus, for further investigation of pathogenicity genes in the anther smut fungi, and for comparative genomics.

  5. Monoclonal antibodies against peptidorhamnomannans of Scedosporium apiospermum enhance the pathogenicity of the fungus.

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    Livia C L Lopes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Scedosporium apiospermum is part of the Pseudallescheria-Scedosporium complex. Peptidorhamnomannans (PRMs are cell wall glycopeptides present in some fungi, and their structures have been characterized in S. apiospermum, S. prolificans and Sporothrix schenckii. Prior work shows that PRMs can interact with host cells and that the glycopeptides are antigenic. In the present study, three monoclonal antibodies (mAbs, IgG1 to S. apiospermum derived PRM were generated and their effects on S. apiospermum were examined in vitro and in vivo. The mAbs recognized a carbohydrate epitope on PRM. In culture, addition of the PRM mAbs increased S. apiospermum conidia germination and reduced conidial phagocytosis by J774.16 macrophages. In a murine infection model, mice treated with antibodies to PRM died prior to control animals. Thus, PRM is involved in morphogenesis and the binding of this glycopeptide by mAbs enhanced the virulence of the fungus. Further insights into the effects of these glycopeptides on the pathobiology of S. apiospermum may lead to new avenues for preventing and treating scedosporiosis.

  6. Host Specialization in the Charcoal Rot Fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, G; Suh, S O; Schneider, R W; Russin, J S

    2001-02-01

    ABSTRACT To investigate host specialization in Macrophomina phaseolina, the fungus was isolated from soybean, corn, sorghum, and cotton root tissue and soil from fields cropped continuously to these species for 15 years in St. Joseph, LA. Chlorate phenotype of each isolate was determined after growing on a minimal medium containing 120 mM potassium chlorate. Consistent differences in chlorate sensitivity were detected among isolates from different hosts and from soil versus root. To further explore genetic differentiation among fungal isolates from each host, these isolates were examined by restriction fragment length polymorphism and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. No variations were observed among isolates in restriction patterns of DNA fragments amplified by polymerase chain reaction covering the internal transcribed spacer region, 5.8S rRNA and part of 25S rRNA, suggesting that M. phaseolina constitutes a single species. Ten random primers were used to amplify the total DNA of 45 isolates, and banding patterns resulting from RAPD analysis were compared with the neighbor-joining method. Isolates from a given host were genetically similar to each other but distinctly different from those from other hosts. Chlorate-sensitive isolates were distinct from chlorate-resistant isolates within a given host. In greenhouse tests, soybean, sorghum, corn, and cotton were grown separately in soil infested with individual isolates of M. phaseolina that were chosen based on their host of origin and chlorate phenotype. Root colonization and plant weight were measured after harvesting. More colonization of corn roots occurred when corn was grown in soil containing corn isolates compared with isolates from other hosts. However, there was no host specialization in isolates from soybean, sorghum, or cotton. More root colonization in soybean occurred with chlorate-sensitive than with chlorate-resistant isolates.

  7. Genes involved in virulence of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Jiménez, Claudio A; Wiegers, Harm; Zwaan, Bas J; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; van Kan, Jan A L

    2016-01-01

    Pest insects cause severe damage to global crop production and pose a threat to human health by transmitting diseases. Traditionally, chemical pesticides (insecticides) have been used to control such pests and have proven to be effective only for a limited amount of time because of the rapid spread of genetic insecticide resistance. The basis of this resistance is mostly caused by (co)dominant mutations in single genes, which explains why insecticide use alone is an unsustainable solution. Therefore, robust solutions for insect pest control need to be sought in alternative methods such as biological control agents for which single-gene resistance is less likely to evolve. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has shown potential as a biological control agent of insects, and insight into the mechanisms of virulence is essential to show the robustness of its use. With the recent availability of the whole genome sequence of B. bassiana, progress in understanding the genetics that constitute virulence toward insects can be made more quickly. In this review we divide the infection process into distinct steps and provide an overview of what is currently known about genes and mechanisms influencing virulence in B. bassiana. We also discuss the need for novel strategies and experimental methods to better understand the infection mechanisms deployed by entomopathogenic fungi. Such knowledge can help improve biocontrol agents, not only by selecting the most virulent genotypes, but also by selecting the genotypes that use combinations of virulence mechanisms for which resistance in the insect host is least likely to develop. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Genomic insight into pathogenicity of dematiaceous fungus Corynespora cassiicola

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    Hong Keat Looi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corynespora cassiicola is a common plant pathogen that causes leaf spot disease in a broad range of crop, and it heavily affect rubber trees in Malaysia (Hsueh, 2011; Nghia et al., 2008. The isolation of UM 591 from a patient’s contact lens indicates the pathogenic potential of this dematiaceous fungus in human. However, the underlying factors that contribute to the opportunistic cross-infection have not been fully studied. We employed genome sequencing and gene homology annotations in attempt to identify these factors in UM 591 using data obtained from publicly available bioinformatics databases. The assembly size of UM 591 genome is 41.8 Mbp, and a total of 13,531 (≥99 bp genes have been predicted. UM 591 is enriched with genes that encode for glycoside hydrolases, carbohydrate esterases, auxiliary activity enzymes and cell wall degrading enzymes. Virulent genes comprising of CAZymes, peptidases, and hypervirulence-associated cutinases were found to be present in the fungal genome. Comparative analysis result shows that UM 591 possesses higher number of carbohydrate esterases family 10 (CE10 CAZymes compared to other species of fungi in this study, and these enzymes hydrolyses wide range of carbohydrate and non-carbohydrate substrates. Putative melanin, siderophore, ent-kaurene, and lycopene biosynthesis gene clusters are predicted, and these gene clusters denote that UM 591 are capable of protecting itself from the UV and chemical stresses, allowing it to adapt to different environment. Putative sterigmatocystin, HC-toxin, cercosporin, and gliotoxin biosynthesis gene cluster are predicted. This finding have highlighted the necrotrophic and invasive nature of UM 591.

  9. Biochemical Characterization of Fungus Isolated during In vitro Propagation of Bambusa balcooa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Bhawna; Tewari, Salil; Dubey, Ashutosh

    2018-01-01

    Bambusa balcooa ( Poaceae: Bambusoideae ) is a multipurpose bamboo species, which is native of the Indian subcontinent. B. balcooa is regarded as one of the best species for scaffolding and building purposes because of its strong culm. Other uses include paper pulp, handicrafts, and products of the wood chip industry. Due to these various uses in industries, this species has been identified as one of the priority bamboos by the National Bamboo Mission. This study is designed to analyze the identification of fungus and develop the strategy to eliminate the contamination during in vitro establishment of B. balcooa through nodal part. Fungus contamination is a problem which is encountered during in vitro establishment of B. balcooa cultures. In the present study, fungus contamination from in vitro cultured plant has been isolated and subjected to partial sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene to identify the fungus strain. Experiments were designed to develop a strategy for removal of the fungus contamination with the help of antifungal compounds and commercial antimicrobial supplement supplied by HiMedia. Fusarium equiseti was identified as endophytic fungus. It was observed that antimicrobial supplement at concentration of 500 μl/l was more effective concentration to remove fungus contamination and not showed any detrimental effect on growth parameters of shoot. This experiment would help in identification and to get rid of fungal contamination and improve the in vitro establishment of B. balcooa cultures for large-scale propagation. Endogenous fungus was isolated from contaminated culture of B. balcooa , and it was identified as Fusarium equiseti and submitted to NCBI under accession no. KP274872. The endophytic fungus had shown substantial production of amylase, cellulase, and protease media. Gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) production by F. equiseti was maximum on the 7 th day on inoculation. Abbreviations used: B. balcooa : Bambusa balcooa , F. equiseti : Fusarium

  10. Determinação da CL90 e TL90 do isolado IBCB66 de Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycetes: Clavicipitaceae para o controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae Determination of LC 90 and LT 90 of IBCB66 Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycetes: Clavicipitaceae isolate for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barci Leila A. G.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a patogenicidade e a virulência do isolado IBCB66 de Beauveria bassiana para larvas de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. O isolado IBCB66 foi utilizado como padrão, com a finalidade de determinar a CL50 (Concentração Letal, CL90, TL50 (Tempo Letal e TL90. O isolado IBCB66 foi testado em seis concentrações diferentes (5 × 10(6, 10(7, 5 × 10(7, 10(8, 5 × 10(8 e 10(9 para determinar a porcentagem de mortalidade. A mortalidade total de larvas foi observada 18 dias após o início do teste no grupo tratado com 5 × 10(9 conídios.mL-1. A análise de Probit dos dados consignados apontou a CL50 e CL90 concentrações de 3 × 10(7 e 5 × 10(8 conídios.mL-1 e para TL50 e TL90, foram 10 e 16 dias, respectivamente.The objective of this research was to evaluate the pathogenicity and the virulence of the IBCB66 isolate of Beauveria bassiana on infected larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. The IBCB66 fungus strain was used as standard isolates of B. bassiana against R. (B. microplus larvae. The larval bioassay tests using the IBCB66 isolate were carried out to determine the (Lethal Concentration LC50, LC90, (Lethal Time LT50 and LT90. The IBCB66 fungus strain was tested at six different concentrations (5 × 10(6, 10(7, 5 × 10(7, 10(8, 5 × 10(8 and 10(9 conidia.mL-1 to determine the percentage of larval mortality. In addition, a Probit analysis was also performed. Total larval mortality was observed eighteen days after the beginning of the test in the group treated with 5 × 10(9 conidia.mL-1. The LC50 and LC90 were 3 × 10(7 and 5 × 10(8 respectively and the LT50 and LT90 were 10 and 16 days.

  11. The Hidden Habit of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana: First Demonstration of Vertical Plant Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; López-Díaz, Cristina; Landa, Blanca Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae), endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PCR protocol and DNA extracted from surface-sterilised leaf pieces or seeds of B. bassiana-inoculated opium poppy plants, the fungus was detected within the plant beginning at the growth stage of rosette building and them throughout the entire plant growth cycle (about 120–140 days after sowing). The fungus was also detected in seeds from 50% of the capsules sampled. Seeds that showed positive amplification for B. bassiana were planted in sterile soil and the endophyte was again detected in more than 42% of the plants sampled during all plant growth stages. Beauveria bassiana was transmitted to seeds in 25% of the plants from the second generation that formed a mature capsule. These results demonstrate for the first time the vertical transmission of an entomopathogenic fungus from endophytically colonised maternal plants. This information is crucial to better understand the ecological role of entomopathogenic fungi as plant endophytes and may allow development of a sustainable and cost effective strategy for I. luteipes management in P. somniferum. PMID:24551242

  12. The nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium and its nematicidal activity on Angiostrongylus vasorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Filippe Elias de Freitas; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Lima, Walter dos Santos; de Queiroz, José Humberto

    2015-01-01

    The dog acts as a reservoir and environmental disseminator of potentially zoonotic parasites. The objective of this work was to study the fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium regarding its nematicidal potential in laboratory trials and its proteolytic profile. The in vitro test was carried out through two assays (A and B). In assay A, conidia of the fungus N34a were added in positive coprocultures for Angiostrongylus vasorum. In assay B, crude extract (treated group) and distilled water (control group) were added to coprocultures. Next, the proteolytic profile of crude extract of the nematophagous fungus M. thaumasium (NF34a) was revealed by performing a zymogram. There was a reduction (p<0.01) in the averages of larvae recovered from the treated groups (conidia and crude extract) in relation to control groups. The zymogram suggested that the nematophagous fungus M. thaumasium produces a protease of approximately 40 kDa. The results of this work confirm that the conidia as well as the crude extract of the fungus M. thaumasium may be used to control A. vasorum L1. The proteolytic profile suggested the presence of one protease (Mt1) of approximately 40 kDa that in the future may be used in biological control of L1 of this nematode. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. The hidden habit of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: first demonstration of vertical plant transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; López-Díaz, Cristina; Landa, Blanca Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae), endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PCR protocol and DNA extracted from surface-sterilised leaf pieces or seeds of B. bassiana-inoculated opium poppy plants, the fungus was detected within the plant beginning at the growth stage of rosette building and them throughout the entire plant growth cycle (about 120-140 days after sowing). The fungus was also detected in seeds from 50% of the capsules sampled. Seeds that showed positive amplification for B. bassiana were planted in sterile soil and the endophyte was again detected in more than 42% of the plants sampled during all plant growth stages. Beauveria bassiana was transmitted to seeds in 25% of the plants from the second generation that formed a mature capsule. These results demonstrate for the first time the vertical transmission of an entomopathogenic fungus from endophytically colonised maternal plants. This information is crucial to better understand the ecological role of entomopathogenic fungi as plant endophytes and may allow development of a sustainable and cost effective strategy for I. luteipes management in P. somniferum.

  14. The fungus Ustilago maydis and humans share disease-related proteins that are not found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinberg Gero

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis is a well-established model system for molecular phytopathology. In addition, it recently became evident that U. maydis and humans share proteins and cellular processes that are not found in the standard fungal model Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This prompted us to do a comparative analysis of the predicted proteome of U. maydis, S. cerevisiae and humans. Results At a cut off at 20% identity over protein length, all three organisms share 1738 proteins, whereas both fungi share only 541 conserved proteins. Despite the evolutionary distance between U. maydis and humans, 777 proteins were shared. When applying a more stringent criterion (≥ 20% identity with a homologue in one organism over at least 50 amino acids and ≥ 10% less in the other organism, we found 681 proteins for the comparison of U. maydis and humans, whereas the both fungi share only 622 fungal specific proteins. Finally, we found that S. cerevisiae and humans shared 312 proteins. In the U. maydis to H. sapiens homology set 454 proteins are functionally classified and 42 proteins are related to serious human diseases. However, a large portion of 222 proteins are of unknown function. Conclusion The fungus U. maydis has a long history of being a model system for understanding DNA recombination and repair, as well as molecular plant pathology. The identification of functionally un-characterized genes that are conserved in humans and U. maydis opens the door for experimental work, which promises new insight in the cell biology of the mammalian cell.

  15. Visual cues for woodpeckers: light reflectance of decayed wood varies by decay fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Daniels, Sean T.; Kesler, Dylan C.; Mihail, Jeanne D.; Webb, Elisabeth B.; Werner, Scott J.

    2018-01-01

    The appearance of wood substrates is likely relevant to bird species with life histories that require regular interactions with wood for food and shelter. Woodpeckers detect decayed wood for cavity placement or foraging, and some species may be capable of detecting trees decayed by specific fungi; however, a mechanism allowing for such specificity remains unidentified. We hypothesized that decay fungi associated with woodpecker cavity sites alter the substrate reflectance in a species-specific manner that is visually discriminable by woodpeckers. We grew 10 species of wood decay fungi from pure cultures on sterile wood substrates of 3 tree species. We then measured the relative reflectance spectra of decayed and control wood wafers and compared them using the receptor noise-limited (RNL) color discrimination model. The RNL model has been used in studies of feather coloration, egg shells, flowers, and fruit to model how the colors of objects appear to birds. Our analyses indicated 6 of 10 decayed substrate/control comparisons were above the threshold of discrimination (i.e., indicating differences discriminable by avian viewers), and 12 of 13 decayed substrate comparisons were also above threshold for a hypothetical woodpecker. We conclude that woodpeckers should be capable of visually detecting decayed wood on trees where bark is absent, and they should also be able to detect visually species-specific differences in wood substrates decayed by fungi used in this study. Our results provide evidence for a visual mechanism by which woodpeckers could identify and select substrates decayed by specific fungi, which has implications for understanding ecologically important woodpecker–fungus interactions.

  16. Heterogeneous occupancy and density estimates of the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in waters of North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Chestnut

    Full Text Available Biodiversity losses are occurring worldwide due to a combination of stressors. For example, by one estimate, 40% of amphibian species are vulnerable to extinction, and disease is one threat to amphibian populations. The emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the aquatic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, is a contributor to amphibian declines worldwide. Bd research has focused on the dynamics of the pathogen in its amphibian hosts, with little emphasis on investigating the dynamics of free-living Bd. Therefore, we investigated patterns of Bd occupancy and density in amphibian habitats using occupancy models, powerful tools for estimating site occupancy and detection probability. Occupancy models have been used to investigate diseases where the focus was on pathogen occurrence in the host. We applied occupancy models to investigate free-living Bd in North American surface waters to determine Bd seasonality, relationships between Bd site occupancy and habitat attributes, and probability of detection from water samples as a function of the number of samples, sample volume, and water quality. We also report on the temporal patterns of Bd density from a 4-year case study of a Bd-positive wetland. We provide evidence that Bd occurs in the environment year-round. Bd exhibited temporal and spatial heterogeneity in density, but did not exhibit seasonality in occupancy. Bd was detected in all months, typically at less than 100 zoospores L(-1. The highest density observed was ∼3 million zoospores L(-1. We detected Bd in 47% of sites sampled, but estimated that Bd occupied 61% of sites, highlighting the importance of accounting for imperfect detection. When Bd was present, there was a 95% chance of detecting it with four samples of 600 ml of water or five samples of 60 mL. Our findings provide important baseline information to advance the study of Bd disease ecology, and advance our understanding of amphibian exposure to free

  17. A comparison of the transcriptome of Drosophila melanogaster in response to entomopathogenic fungus, ionizing radiation, starvation and cold shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalev, Alexey; Zhikrivetskaya, Svetlana; Krasnov, George; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Proshkina, Ekaterina; Borisoglebsky, Dmitry; Danilov, Anton; Peregudova, Darya; Sharapova, Irina; Dobrovolskaya, Eugenia; Solovev, Ilya; Zemskaya, Nadezhda; Shilova, Lyubov; Snezhkina, Anastasia; Kudryavtseva, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that determine the organism's response to a variety of doses and modalities of stress factors are not well understood. We studied effects of ionizing radiation (144, 360 and 864 Gy), entomopathogenic fungus (10 and 100 CFU), starvation (16 h), and cold shock (+4, 0 and -4°C) on an organism's viability indicators (survival and locomotor activity) and transcriptome changes in the Drosophila melanogaster model. All stress factors but cold shock resulted in a decrease of lifespan proportional to the dose of treatment. However, stress-factors affected locomotor activity without correlation with lifespan. Our data revealed both significant similarities and differences in differential gene expression and the activity of biological processes under the influence of stress factors. Studied doses of stress treatments deleteriously affect the organism's viability and lead to different changes of both general and specific cellular stress response mechanisms.

  18. The dynamics of plant cell-wall polysaccharide decomposition in leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Isabel Eva; de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Harholt, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    communities of microbial and invertebrate symbionts have evolved associations with the dump material from leaf-cutting ant nests, to exploit decomposition niches that the ant garden-fungus does not utilize. Our approach thus provides detailed insight into the nutritional benefits and shortcomings associated......The degradation of live plant biomass in fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants is poorly characterised but fundamental for understanding the mutual advantages and efficiency of this obligate nutritional symbiosis. Controversies about the extent to which the garden-symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus......, to map the occurrence of cell wall polymers in consecutive sections of the fungus garden of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We show that pectin, xyloglucan and some xylan epitopes are degraded, whereas more highly substituted xylan and cellulose epitopes remain as residuals in the waste...

  19. Extraction of DNA from plant and fungus tissues in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Almakarem Amal S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When samples are collected in the field and transported to the lab, degradation of the nucleic acids contained in the samples is frequently observed. Immediate extraction and precipitation of the nucleic acids reduces degradation to a minimum, thus preserving accurate sequence information. An extraction method to obtain high quality DNA in field studies is described. Findings DNA extracted immediately after sampling was compared to DNA extracted after allowing the sampled tissues to air dry at 21°C for 48 or 72 hours. While DNA extracted from fresh tissues exhibited little degradation, DNA extracted from all tissues exposed to 21°C air for 48 or 72 hours exhibited varying degrees of degradation. Yield was higher for extractions from fresh tissues in most cases. Four microcentrifuges were compared for DNA yield: one standard electric laboratory microcentrifuge (max rcf = 16,000×g, two battery-operated microcentrifuges (max rcf = 5,000 and 3,000 ×g, and one manually-operated microcentrifuge (max rcf = 120×g. Yields for all centrifuges were similar. DNA extracted under simulated field conditions was similar in yield and quality to DNA extracted in the laboratory using the same equipment. Conclusions This CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide DNA extraction method employs battery-operated and manually-operated equipment to isolate high quality DNA in the field. The method was tested on plant and fungus tissues, and may be adapted for other types of organisms. The method produced high quality DNA in laboratory tests and under simulated field conditions. The field extraction method should prove useful for working in remote sites, where ice, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen are unavailable; where degradation is likely to occur due to the long distances between the sample site and the laboratory; and in instances where other DNA preservation and transportation methods have been unsuccessful. It may be possible to adapt

  20. Transcriptional responses in honey bee larvae infected with chalkbrood fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronstein, Katherine A; Murray, Keith D; Saldivar, Eduardo

    2010-06-21

    Diseases and other stress factors working synergistically weaken honey bee health and may play a major role in the losses of bee populations in recent years. Among a large number of bee diseases, chalkbrood has been on the rise. We present here the experimental identification of honey bee genes that are differentially expressed in response to infection of honey bee larvae with the chalkbrood fungus, Ascosphaera apis. We used cDNA-AFLP Technology to profile transcripts in infected and uninfected bee larvae. From 64 primer combinations, over 7,400 transcriptionally-derived fragments were obtained A total of 98 reproducible polymorphic cDNA-AFLP fragments were excised and sequenced, followed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of these and additional samples.We have identified a number of differentially-regulated transcripts that are implicated in general mechanisms of stress adaptation, including energy metabolism and protein transport. One of the most interesting differentially-regulated transcripts is for a chitinase-like enzyme that may be linked to anti-fungal activities in the honey bee larvae, similarly to gut and fat-body specific chitinases found in mosquitoes and the red flour beetle. Surprisingly, we did not find many components of the well-characterized NF-kappaB intracellular signaling pathways to be differentially-regulated using the cDNA-AFLP approach. Therefore, utilizing qRT-PCR, we probed some of the immune related genes to determine whether the lack of up-regulation of their transcripts in our analysis can be attributed to lack of immune activation or to limitations of the cDNA-AFLP approach. Using a combination of cDNA-AFLP and qRT-PCR analyses, we were able to determine several key transcriptional events that constitute the overall effort in the honey bee larvae to fight natural fungal infection. Honey bee transcripts identified in this study are involved in critical functions related to transcriptional regulation, apoptotic

  1. Horizontal transmission of Candida albicans and evidence of a vaccine response in mice colonized with the fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Jim E; Corti, Miriam; Lambert, Patrick; Ferris, Michael; Xin, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Disseminated candidiasis is the third leading nosocomial blood stream infection in the United States and is often fatal. We previously showed that disseminated candidiasis was preventable in normal mice by immunization with either a glycopeptide or a peptide synthetic vaccine, both of which were Candida albicans cell wall derived. A weakness of these studies is that, unlike humans, mice do not have a C. albicans GI flora and they lack Candida serum antibodies. We examined the influence of C. albicans GI tract colonization and serum antibodies on mouse vaccination responses to the peptide, Fba, derived from fructose bisphosphate aldolase which has cytosolic and cell wall distributions in the fungus. We evaluated the effect of live C. albicans in drinking water and antimicrobial agents on establishment of Candida colonization of the mouse GI tract. Body mass, C. albicans in feces, and fungal-specific serum antibodies were monitored longitudinally. Unexpectedly, C. albicans colonization occurred in mice that received only antibiotics in their drinking water, provided that the mice were housed in the same room as intentionally colonized mice. The fungal strain in unintentionally colonized mice appeared identical to the strain used for intentional GI-tract colonization. This is the first report of horizontal transmission and spontaneous C. albicans colonization in mice. Importantly, many Candida-colonized mice developed serum fungal-specific antibodies. Despite the GI-tract colonization and presence of serum antibodies, the animals made antibodies in response to the Fba immunogen. This mouse model has potential for elucidating C. albicans horizontal transmission and for exploring factors that induce host defense against disseminated candidiasis. Furthermore, a combined protracted GI-tract colonization with Candida and the possibility of serum antibody responses to the presence of the fungus makes this an attractive mouse model for testing the efficacy of vaccines

  2. Horizontal transmission of Candida albicans and evidence of a vaccine response in mice colonized with the fungus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim E Cutler

    Full Text Available Disseminated candidiasis is the third leading nosocomial blood stream infection in the United States and is often fatal. We previously showed that disseminated candidiasis was preventable in normal mice by immunization with either a glycopeptide or a peptide synthetic vaccine, both of which were Candida albicans cell wall derived. A weakness of these studies is that, unlike humans, mice do not have a C. albicans GI flora and they lack Candida serum antibodies. We examined the influence of C. albicans GI tract colonization and serum antibodies on mouse vaccination responses to the peptide, Fba, derived from fructose bisphosphate aldolase which has cytosolic and cell wall distributions in the fungus. We evaluated the effect of live C. albicans in drinking water and antimicrobial agents on establishment of Candida colonization of the mouse GI tract. Body mass, C. albicans in feces, and fungal-specific serum antibodies were monitored longitudinally. Unexpectedly, C. albicans colonization occurred in mice that received only antibiotics in their drinking water, provided that the mice were housed in the same room as intentionally colonized mice. The fungal strain in unintentionally colonized mice appeared identical to the strain used for intentional GI-tract colonization. This is the first report of horizontal transmission and spontaneous C. albicans colonization in mice. Importantly, many Candida-colonized mice developed serum fungal-specific antibodies. Despite the GI-tract colonization and presence of serum antibodies, the animals made antibodies in response to the Fba immunogen. This mouse model has potential for elucidating C. albicans horizontal transmission and for exploring factors that induce host defense against disseminated candidiasis. Furthermore, a combined protracted GI-tract colonization with Candida and the possibility of serum antibody responses to the presence of the fungus makes this an attractive mouse model for testing the

  3. Gamma radiation effects on the frequency of toxigenic fungus on sene (Cassia angustifolia) and green tea (Camelia sinensis) samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, S.; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.

    2006-01-01

    The levels of contamination and gamma radiation effects were analyzed in the reduction of toxigenic filamentous fungus in two types of medicinal plants. Aspergillus and Penicillium were the predominant genders and 73,80% of the samples showed high levels of fungus contamination

  4. Genetic diversity and population structure of Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, a fungus associated with oak mortality in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. -S. Kim; P. A. Hohenlohe; K. -H. Kim; S. -T. Seo; Ned Klopfenstein

    2016-01-01

    Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae is a fungus associated with oak wilt and deemed to cause extensive oak mortality in South Korea. Since the discovery of this fungus on a dead Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) in 2004, the mortality continued to spread southwards in South Korea. Despite continued expansion of the disease and associated significant impacts on forest...

  5. Fingerprints of a forest fungus: Swiss needle cast, carbon isotopes, carbohydrates, and growth in Douglas-fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea Watts; Frederick Meinzer; Brandy J. Saffell

    2014-01-01

    Swiss needle cast is caused by a fungus native to the Pacific Northwest. Its host is Douglas-fir, an iconic evergreen tree in the region. The fungus does not kill its host, but it adversely affects the tree's growth. The fungal fruiting bodies block the stomata, small openings on the underside of the needle where carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases are...

  6. Direct ethanol production from starch, wheat bran and rice straw by the white rot fungus Trametes hirsuta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okamoto, Kenji; Nitta, Yasuyuki; Maekawa, Nitaro; Yanase, Hideshi

    2011-01-01

    The white rot fungus Trametes hirsuta produced ethanol from a variety of hexoses: glucose, mannose, cellobiose and maltose, with yields of 0.49. 0.48, 0.47 and 0.47 g/g of ethanol per sugar utilized, respectively. In addition, this fungus showed relatively favorable xylose consumption and ethanol

  7. Metabolism of carbohydrates in the fungus Aspergillus niger under the action of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebotarev, L.N.; Yaremina, Y.A.

    1988-01-01

    Effect of visible light with 410, 520 and 610 nm wave lengths on carbonhydrate transformation and absorption by Aspergillus niger fungus is studied. It is shown that the light stimulates the absorption by the fungus of the medium carbohydrates and their biochemical modifications. This leads to amplification of biomass accumulation and citric acid liberation to the medium. An increase of citric acid content in the cultural liquid is counected either with producer biomass growth or with amplification of biomass unit ability to citrate biosynthesis or with simultaneous realization of the both ways indicated

  8. Cyclodepsipeptides, sesquiterpenoids, and other cytotoxic metabolites from the filamentous fungus Trichothecium sp. (MSX 51320).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy-Cordero, Arlene A; Graf, Tyler N; Adcock, Audrey F; Kroll, David J; Shen, Qi; Swanson, Steven M; Wani, Mansukh C; Pearce, Cedric J; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2011-10-28

    Two new cyclodepsipeptides (1 and 2), two new sesquiterpenoids (3 and 4), and the known compounds guangomide A (5), roseotoxin S, and three simple trichothecenes were isolated from the cytotoxic organic extract of a terrestrial filamentous fungus, Trichothecium sp. The structures were determined using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Absolute configurations of the cyclodepsipeptides were established by employing chiral HPLC, while the relative configurations of 3 and 4 were determined via NOESY data. The isolation of guangomide A was of particular interest, since it was reported previously from a marine-derived fungus.

  9. Caste-specific symbiont policing by workers of Acromyrmex fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivens, Aniek B.F.; Nash, David R.; Poulsen, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between leaf-cutting ants and their fungus garden mutualists is ideal for studying the evolutionary stability of interspecific cooperation. Although the mutualism has a long history of diffuse coevolution, there is ample potential for conflicts between the partners over the mixing...... and transmission of symbionts. Symbiont transmission is vertical by default, and both the ants and resident fungus actively protect the fungal monoculture growing in their nest against secondary introductions of genetically dissimilar symbionts from other colonies. An earlier study showed that mixtures of major...

  10. Process for producing ethanol from plant biomass using the fungus Paecilomyces sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J.F.

    1985-08-08

    A process for producing ethanol from plant biomass is disclosed. The process includes forming a substrate from the biomass with the substrate including hydrolysates of cellulose and hemicellulose. A species of the fungus Paecilomyces which has the ability to ferment both cellobiose and xylose to ethanol is then selected and isolated. The substrate is inoculated with this fungus, and the inoculated substrate is then fermented under conditions favorable for cell viability and conversion of hydrolysates to ethanol. Finally, ethanol is recovered from the fermented substrate. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Meroterpenoids and isoberkedienolactone from endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. associated with Dysosma versipellis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-Wei; Duan, Rui-Gang; Zou, Jian-Hua; Chen, Ri-Dao; Chen, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Jun-Gui

    2014-06-01

    Seven meroterpenoids and five small-molecular precursors were isolated from Penicillium sp., an endophytic fungus from Dysosma versipellis. The structures of new compounds, 11beta-acetoxyisoaustinone (1) and isoberkedienolactone (2) were elucidated based on analysis of the spectral data, and the absolute configuration of 2 was established by TDDFT ECD calculation with satisfactory match to its experimental ECD data. Meroterpenoids originated tetraketide and pentaketide precursors, resepectively, were found to be simultaneously produced in specific fungus of Penicillium species. These compounds showed weak cytotoxicity in vitro against HCT-116, HepG2, BGC-823, NCI-H1650, and A2780 cell lines with IC 50 > 10 micromol x L(-1).

  12. Buwchfawromyces eastonii gen. nov., sp. nov.: a new anaerobic fungus (Neocallimastigomycota isolated from buffalo faeces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Martin Callaghan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The novel anaerobic fungus Buwchfawromyces eastonii gen. nov., sp. nov., belonging to order Neocallimastigales (phylum Neocallimastigomycota is described. Morphologically similar to Piromyces but genetically quite distinct, this fungus (isolate GE09 was first isolated from buffalo faeces in west Wales and then subsequently isolated from sheep, cattle and horse in the same area. Phylogenetic analysis of LSU and ITS sequence confirmed that B. eastonii isolates formed a distinct clade close to the polycentric Anaeromyces spp. The morphology of GE09 is monocentric with monoflagellate zoospores. However, the sporangial stalk (sporangiophore is often distinctly swollen and the proximal regions of the rhizoidal system twisted in appearance.

  13. Conditions for selective degradation of lignin by the fungus Ganoderma australis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, S.; Eyzaguirre, J. (Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Lab. de Bioquimica)

    1992-08-01

    The white-rot fungus Ganoderma australis selectively degrades lignin in the ecosystem 'palo podrido'. Using conditions that simulate those of 'palo podrido' in the laboratory, it was found that low nitrogen content and low O{sub 2} tension stimulate the production of manganese peroxidase and lignin degradation, and depress cellulose degradation and cellulase production. The inverse is found at high nitrogen concentration and high O{sub 2} tension. This agrees with previous results indicating that low O{sub 2} tension and low nitrogen stimulate selective lignin degradation by this fungus. (orig.).

  14. Formation of Ramified Colony of Fungus Aspergillus Oryzae on Agar Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Shu; Miyazima, Sasuke

    Ramified colonies of fungus Aspergillus oryzae have been found to grow at a low growth rate on "liquid-like" agar media with low concentrations of agar and glucose. Box-counting fractal dimensions of the individual colony branches have been found to decrease with the time of incubation. Addition of glucose solution in the interior of branched colonies has brought about the production of the hyphal filaments almost only at the apical region of the colony branches. Active growth of the ramified colonies is localized in the peripheral zone, and this growth manner implies that the fungus is exhibiting a positive exploitation.

  15. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices on accumulation of radiocaesium by plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubchak, S.V.

    2012-01-01

    The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices in 134 Cs isotope by different plant species is studied. The impact of radiocaesium on mycorrhizal development and functioning of plant photosynthetic apparatus is considered. The possibility of mycorrhizal symbiosis application in phyto remediation of radioactively contaminated areas is analyzed. It is found that colonization pf plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus resulted in significant decrease of radiocesium concentration in their aboveground parts, while it did not have considerable impact on the radionuclide uptake by plant root system

  16. Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intra-radices on accumulation of radiocaesium by plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudchak, S.V.

    2012-01-01

    The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intra-radices in 134 Cs isotope uptake by different plant species is studied. The impact of radiocaesium on mycorrhizal development and functioning of plant photosynthetic apparatus is considered. The possibility of mycorrhizal symbiosis application in phytoremediation of radioactively contaminated areas is analyzed.It is found that colonization of plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus resulted in significant decrease of radiocaesium concentration in their aboveground parts, while it did not have considerable impact on the radionuclide uptake by plant root system

  17. Biscogniauxone, a New Isopyrrolonaphthoquinone Compound from the Fungus Biscogniauxia mediterranea Isolated from Deep-Sea Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The properties and the production of new metabolites from the fungal strain LF657 isolated from the Herodotes Deep (2800 m depth in the Mediterranean Sea are reported in this study. The new isolate was identified as Biscogniauxia mediterranea based on ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and 28S rRNA gene sequences. A new isopyrrolonaphthoquinone with inhibitory activity against glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3β was isolated from this fungus. This is the first report of this class of compounds from a fungus isolated from a deep-sea sediment, as well as from a Biscogniauxia species.

  18. Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers for the Tetrapolar Anther-Smut Fungus Microbotryum saponariae Based on Genome Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Taiadjana M.; Snirc, Alodie; Badouin, Hélène; Gouzy, Jérome; Siguenza, Sophie; Esquerre, Diane; Le Prieur, Stéphanie; Shykoff, Jacqui A.; Giraud, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Background Anther-smut fungi belonging to the genus Microbotryum sterilize their host plants by aborting ovaries and replacing pollen by fungal spores. Sibling Microbotryum species are highly specialized on their host plants and they have been widely used as models for studies of ecology and evolution of plant pathogenic fungi. However, most studies have focused, so far, on M. lychnidis-dioicae that parasitizes the white campion Silene latifolia. Microbotryum saponariae, parasitizing mainly Saponaria officinalis, is an interesting anther-smut fungus, since it belongs to a tetrapolar lineage (i.e., with two independently segregating mating-type loci), while most of the anther-smut Microbotryum fungi are bipolar (i.e., with a single mating-type locus). Saponaria officinalis is a widespread long-lived perennial plant species with multiple flowering stems, which makes its anther-smut pathogen a good model for studying phylogeography and within-host multiple infections. Principal Findings Here, based on a generated genome sequence of M. saponariae we developed 6 multiplexes with a total of 22 polymorphic microsatellite markers using an inexpensive and efficient method. We scored these markers in fungal individuals collected from 97 populations across Europe, and found that the number of their alleles ranged from 2 to 11, and their expected heterozygosity from 0.01 to 0.58. Cross-species amplification was examined using nine other Microbotryum species parasitizing hosts belonging to Silene, Dianthus and Knautia genera. All loci were successfully amplified in at least two other Microbotryum species. Significance These newly developed markers will provide insights into the population genetic structure and the occurrence of within-host multiple infections of M. saponariae. In addition, the draft genome of M. saponariae, as well as one of the described markers will be useful resources for studying the evolution of the breeding systems in the genus Microbotryum and the

  19. Ecology of Fungus Gnats (Bradysia spp.) in Greenhouse Production Systems Associated with Disease-Interactions and Alternative Management Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyd, Raymond A

    2015-04-09

    Fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.) are major insect pests of greenhouse-grown horticultural crops mainly due to the direct feeding damage caused by the larvae, and the ability of larvae to transmit certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Currently, insecticides and biological control agents are being used successively to deal with fungus gnat populations in greenhouse production systems. However, these strategies may only be effective as long as greenhouse producers also implement alternative management strategies such as cultural, physical, and sanitation. This includes elimination of algae, and plant and growing medium debris; placing physical barriers onto the growing medium surface; and using materials that repel fungus gnat adults. This article describes the disease-interactions associated with fungus gnats and foliar and soil-borne diseases, and the alternative management strategies that should be considered by greenhouse producers in order to alleviate problems with fungus gnats in greenhouse production systems.

  20. Ecology of Fungus Gnats (Bradysia spp. in Greenhouse Production Systems Associated with Disease-Interactions and Alternative Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond A. Cloyd

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungus gnats (Bradysia spp. are major insect pests of greenhouse-grown horticultural crops mainly due to the direct feeding damage caused by the larvae, and the ability of larvae to transmit certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Currently, insecticides and biological control agents are being used successively to deal with fungus gnat populations in greenhouse production systems. However, these strategies may only be effective as long as greenhouse producers also implement alternative management strategies such as cultural, physical, and sanitation. This includes elimination of algae, and plant and growing medium debris; placing physical barriers onto the growing medium surface; and using materials that repel fungus gnat adults. This article describes the disease-interactions associated with fungus gnats and foliar and soil-borne diseases, and the alternative management strategies that should be considered by greenhouse producers in order to alleviate problems with fungus gnats in greenhouse production systems.

  1. Multilevel Methodology for Simulation of Spatio-Temporal Systems with Heterogeneous Activity; Application to Spread of Valley Fever Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammalamadaka, Rajanikanth

    2009-01-01

    This report consists of a dissertation submitted to the faculty of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Graduate College, The University of Arizona, 2008. Spatio-temporal systems with heterogeneity in their structure and behavior have two major problems associated with them. The first one is that such complex real world systems extend over very large spatial and temporal domains and consume so many computational resources to simulate that they are infeasible to study with current computational platforms. The second one is that the data available for understanding such systems is limited because they are spread over space and time making it hard to obtain micro and macro measurements. This also makes it difficult to get the data for validation of their constituent processes while simultaneously considering their global behavior. For example, the valley fever fungus considered in this dissertation is spread over a large spatial grid in the arid Southwest and typically needs to be simulated over several decades of time to obtain useful information. It is also hard to get the temperature and moisture data (which are two critical factors on which the survival of the valley fever fungus depends) at every grid point of the spatial domain over the region of study. In order to address the first problem, we develop a method based on the discrete event system specification which exploits the heterogeneity in the activity of the spatio-temporal system and which has been shown to be effective in solving relatively simple partial differential equation systems. The benefit of addressing the first problem is that it now makes it feasible to address the second problem. We address the second problem by making use of a multilevel methodology based on modeling and simulation and systems theory. This methodology helps us in the construction of models with different resolutions (base and

  2. Nest enlargement in leaf-cutting ants: relocated brood and fungus trigger the excavation of new chambers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Römer

    Full Text Available During colony growth, leaf-cutting ants enlarge their nests by excavating tunnels and chambers housing their fungus gardens and brood. Workers are expected to excavate new nest chambers at locations across the soil profile that offer suitable environmental conditions for brood and fungus rearing. It is an open question whether new chambers are excavated in advance, or will emerge around brood or fungus initially relocated to a suitable site in a previously-excavated tunnel. In the laboratory, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the excavation of new nest chambers in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lundi. Specifically, we asked whether workers relocate brood and fungus to suitable nest locations, and to what extent the relocated items trigger the excavation of a nest chamber and influence its shape. When brood and fungus were exposed to unfavorable environmental conditions, either low temperatures or low humidity, both were relocated, but ants clearly preferred to relocate the brood first. Workers relocated fungus to places containing brood, demonstrating that subsequent fungus relocation spatially follows the brood deposition. In addition, more ants aggregated at sites containing brood. When presented with a choice between two otherwise identical digging sites, but one containing brood, ants' excavation activity was higher at this site, and the shape of the excavated cavity was more rounded and chamber-like. The presence of fungus also led to the excavation of rounder shapes, with higher excavation activity at the site that also contained brood. We argue that during colony growth, workers preferentially relocate brood to suitable locations along a tunnel, and that relocated brood spatially guides fungus relocation and leads to increased digging activity around them. We suggest that nest chambers are not excavated in advance, but emerge through a self-organized process resulting from the aggregation of workers and their density

  3. Climate forcing of an emerging pathogenic fungus across a montane multi-host community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Frances C; Halder, Julia B; Daniel, Olivia; Bielby, Jon; Semenov, Mikhail A; Jombart, Thibaut; Loyau, Adeline; Schmeller, Dirk S; Cunningham, Andrew A; Rowcliffe, Marcus; Garner, Trenton W J; Bosch, Jaime; Fisher, Matthew C

    2016-12-05

    Changes in the timings of seasonality as a result of anthropogenic climate change are predicted to occur over the coming decades. While this is expected to have widespread impacts on the dynamics of infectious disease through environmental forcing, empirical data are lacking. Here, we investigated whether seasonality, specifically the timing of spring ice-thaw, affected susceptibility to infection by the emerging pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) across a montane community of amphibians that are suffering declines and extirpations as a consequence of this infection. We found a robust temporal association between the timing of the spring thaw and Bd infection in two host species, where we show that an early onset of spring forced high prevalences of infection. A third highly susceptible species (the midwife toad, Alytes obstetricans) maintained a high prevalence of infection independent of time of spring thaw. Our data show that perennially overwintering midwife toad larvae may act as a year-round reservoir of infection with variation in time of spring thaw determining the extent to which infection spills over into sympatric species. We used future temperature projections based on global climate models to demonstrate that the timing of spring thaw in this region will advance markedly by the 2050s, indicating that climate change will further force the severity of infection. Our findings on the effect of annual variability on multi-host infection dynamics show that the community-level impact of fungal infectious disease on biodiversity will need to be re-evaluated in the face of climate change.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'. © 2016 The Authors.

  4. The Mosquito Melanization Response Is Implicated in Defense against the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osta, Mike A.

    2012-01-01

    Mosquito immunity studies have focused mainly on characterizing immune effector mechanisms elicited against parasites, bacteria and more recently, viruses. However, those elicited against entomopathogenic fungi remain poorly understood, despite the ubiquitous nature of these microorganisms and their unique invasion route that bypasses the midgut epithelium, an important immune tissue and physical barrier. Here, we used the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae as a model to investigate the role of melanization, a potent immune effector mechanism of arthropods, in mosquito defense against the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana, using in vivo functional genetic analysis and confocal microscopy. The temporal monitoring of fungal growth in mosquitoes injected with B. bassiana conidia showed that melanin eventually formed on all stages, including conidia, germ tubes and hyphae, except the single cell hyphal bodies. Nevertheless, melanin rarely aborted the growth of any of these stages and the mycelium continued growing despite being melanized. Silencing TEP1 and CLIPA8, key positive regulators of Plasmodium and bacterial melanization in A. gambiae, abolished completely melanin formation on hyphae but not on germinating conidia or germ tubes. The detection of a layer of hemocytes surrounding germinating conidia but not hyphae suggested that melanization of early fungal stages is cell-mediated while that of late stages is a humoral response dependent on TEP1 and CLIPA8. Microscopic analysis revealed specific association of TEP1 with surfaces of hyphae and the requirement of both, TEP1 and CLIPA8, for recruiting phenoloxidase to these surfaces. Finally, fungal proliferation was more rapid in TEP1 and CLIPA8 knockdown mosquitoes which exhibited increased sensitivity to natural B. bassiana infections than controls. In sum, the mosquito melanization response retards significantly B. bassiana growth and dissemination, a finding that may be exploited to design transgenic

  5. Genome-wide transcriptional response of Silurana (Xenopus tropicalis to infection with the deadly chytrid fungus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Bree Rosenblum

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases are of great concern for both wildlife and humans. Several highly virulent fungal pathogens have recently been discovered in natural populations, highlighting the need for a better understanding of fungal-vertebrate host-pathogen interactions. Because most fungal pathogens are not fatal in the absence of other predisposing conditions, host-pathogen dynamics for deadly fungal pathogens are of particular interest. The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (hereafter Bd infects hundreds of species of frogs in the wild. It is found worldwide and is a significant contributor to the current global amphibian decline. However, the mechanism by which Bd causes death in amphibians, and the response of the host to Bd infection, remain largely unknown. Here we use whole-genome microarrays to monitor the transcriptional responses to Bd infection in the model frog species, Silurana (Xenopus tropicalis, which is susceptible to chytridiomycosis. To elucidate the immune response to Bd and evaluate the physiological effects of chytridiomycosis, we measured gene expression changes in several tissues (liver, skin, spleen following exposure to Bd. We detected a strong transcriptional response for genes involved in physiological processes that can help explain some clinical symptoms of chytridiomycosis at the organismal level. However, we detected surprisingly little evidence of an immune response to Bd exposure, suggesting that this susceptible species may not be mounting efficient innate and adaptive immune responses against Bd. The weak immune response may be partially explained by the thermal conditions of the experiment, which were optimal for Bd growth. However, many immune genes exhibited decreased expression in Bd-exposed frogs compared to control frogs, suggesting a more complex effect of Bd on the immune system than simple temperature-mediated immune suppression. This study generates important baseline data for ongoing

  6. Structural characterization of bioactive heteropolysaccharides from the medicinal fungus Inonotus obliquus (Chaga)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wold, Christian Winther; Kjeldsen, Christian; Corthay, Alexandre

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to perform a comprehensive characterization of polysaccharides isolated from the interior (IOI) and exterior (IOE) parts of the fungus Inonotus obliquus. Pre-extraction with DCM and MeOH, followed by water and alkali extraction and ethanol precipitation gave two water ex...

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotterman, M.

    1998-01-01

    Outline of this thesis
    In this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations,

  8. Temperature determines symbiont abundance in a multipartite bark beetle-fungus ectosymbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. L. Six; B. J. Bentz

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we report evidence that temperature plays a key role in determining the relative abundance of two mutualistic fungi associated with an economically and ecologically important bark beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae. The symbiotic fungi possess different optimal temperature ranges. These differences determine which fungus is vectored by...

  9. Identifying the Transition between Single and Multiple Mating of Queens in Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Murakami, Takahiro; Schultz, Ted R.

    2002-01-01

    Obligate mating of females (queens) with multiple males has evolved only rarely in social Hymenoptera (ants, social bees, social wasps) and for reasons that are fundamentally different from those underlying multiple mating in other animals. The monophyletic tribe of ('attine') fungus-growing ants...

  10. Solubilization of animal bonechar by a filamentous fungus employed in solid state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolay, Vassilev; Medina, A.; Gilberto, Mendes; Antonia, Galvez; Vanessa, Martos; Maria, Vassileva

    Abstract Experts are concerned by the scarcity of rock phosphate and the vulnerability of the modern agricultural systems which is highly dependent on the existing fertilizer industry based exclusively of this natural, finite, non-renewable resource. In this work, the filamentous fungus Aspergillus

  11. Greater taxol yield of fungus Pestalotiopsis hainanensis from dermatitic scurf of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yu; Wang, Yanlin; Ma, Xiaoping; Wang, Chengdong; Yue, Guizhou; Zhang, Yuetian; Zhang, Yunyan; Li, Shanshan; Ling, Shanshan; Liu, Xiaomin; Wen, Xintian; Cao, Sanjie; Huang, Xiaobo; Deng, Junliang; Zuo, Zhicai; Yu, Shumin; Shen, Liuhong; Wu, Rui

    2015-01-01

    While taxol yields of fungi from non-animal sources are still low, whether Pestalotiopsis hainanensis isolated from the scurf of a dermatitic giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, provides a greater taxol yield remains unknown. The objective of the study was to determine the corresponding taxol yield. The structure of the taxol produced by the fungus was evaluated by thin layer chromatography (TLC), ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR), and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS), with standard taxol as a control. The results demonstrated that the P. hainanensis fungus produced taxol, which had the same structure as the standard taxol and yield of 1,466.87 μg/L. This fungal taxol yield from the dermatitic giant panda was significantly greater than those of fungus from non-animal sources. The taxol-producing fungus may be a potential candidate for the production of taxol on an industrial scale.

  12. Treatment of a Textile Effluent from Dyeing with Cochineal Extracts Using Trametes versicolor Fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Arroyo-Figueroa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Trametes versicolor (Tv fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the effluent used in the cotton dyeing process with cochineal extract by means of Tv fungus were done. Treatments to determine decolorization in the presence or absence of Kirk's medium, glucose, and fungus, with an addition of 50% (v v-1 of nonsterilized effluent were performed. Physicochemical characterization was performed at the start and end of the treatment. Degradation kinetics were determined. A direct relationship was found between the dry weight of fungi, pH, and the decolorization system, with higher decolorization at lower pH levels (pH ~4.3. High decolorization (81% ± 0.09; 88% ± 0.17; and 99% ± 0.04 for three of the eight treatments (Kirk's medium without glucose, Kirk's medium with glucose, and without medium with glucose, respectively was found. Toxicity tests determined an increase in the initial effluent toxicity (7.33 TU compared with the final treatment (47.73 TU in a period of 11 days. For this system, a degradation sequence of the carminic acid structure present in the effluent by the Tv fungus is suggested, in which it is seen that metabolites still containing aromatic structures are generated.

  13. Aspiperidine oxide, a piperidine N-oxide from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus indologenus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lene Maj; Kildgaard, Sara; Jaspars, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    A novel secondary metabolite, aspiperidine oxide, was isolated from the filamentous fungus, Aspergillus indologenus. The structure of aspiperidine oxide was determined from extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis supported by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The structure revealed a rare...

  14. Using the fungus Entomophthora muscae (chon Fresenius to eliminate some larval roles of Musca domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Yas Lahmood

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Studied effect serial concentrations from spores filtrate of fungus Entomophthora muscae on some larval roles of musca domestica in laboratory. Results were made clear that the insect roles are sensitive to fungus, and treated the food larva of musca domestica and sprinkle it by concentration 2.8×106 , 2.8×107, 2.8×108 (spore/ml has led to get rates of destruction of cumulative faculty certified on the concentration and time its magnitude 16.60 , 47.67, 53.30 % respectively , also recorded some phenotypic distortion infected dead larva represent by contraction and blackening body. The treatment of pupael by sprinkling the previous fungus concentration recorded rate of destruction of accumulative faculty its magnitude 13.33, 26.67, 33.33% respectively, also the rates emergence of adults ranged between 66.67 – 86.67 % in comparison with rates of emergence of adults in control treatment 96.67% The results are made clear that adults treatment by sprinkle with last concentration from fungus spore filtrate recorded rates of distraction its magnitude 46.61, 56.67, 70% respectively after one week from treatment .

  15. Polymorphic sequence-characterized codominant loci in the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. E. Davis; Thomas L. Kubisiak; M. G. Milgroom

    2005-01-01

    Studies on the population biology of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, have previously been carried out with dominant restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) fingerprinting markers. In this study, we described the development of 11 condominant markers from randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs). RAPD fragments were...

  16. Chytrid Fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis , in Wild Populations of the Lake Titicaca Frog, Telmatobius culeus, in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguel, Raul A; Elias, Roberto K; Weaver, Thomas J; Reading, Richard P

    2016-10-01

    The Lake Titicaca frog (Telmatobius culeus) is critically endangered, primarily from overexploitation. However, additional threats, such as chytrid fungus ( Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis ), are poorly studied. We found moderate levels of chytrid infection using quantitative PCR. Our results enhance our understanding of chytrid tolerance to high pH and low water temperature.

  17. Caste-specific symbiont policing by workers of Acromyrmex fungus-growing ants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivens, Aniek B. F.; Nash, David R.; Poulsen, Michael; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between leaf-cutting ants and their fungus garden mutualists is ideal for studying the evolutionary stability of interspecific cooperation. Although the mutualism has a long history of diffuse coevolution, there is ample potential for conflicts between the partners over the mixing

  18. Infectivity of the conidia of the rice blast fungus treated with the different fungicidal solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashioka, Y; Ikegami, H

    1959-01-01

    Infectivity of the conidia of Piricularia oryzae (rice blast fungus) which had been treated with different fungicides was examined. Germination of conidia treated with phenylmercuric acetate was severely repressed. Copper sulfate had a mild inhibitory effect. Organosulfur compounds also had a slight inhibitory effect.

  19. Seasonal dynamics of ectomycorrhizal fungus assemblages on oak seedlings in the southeastern Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Walker; Orson K. Jr. Miller; Jonathan L. Horton

    2008-01-01

    The potential for seasonal dynamics in ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal assemblages has important implications for the ecology of both the host trees and the fungal associates. We compared EM fungus distributions on root systems of out-planted oak seedlings at two sites in mixed southeastern Appalachian Mountain forests at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in North Carolina...

  20. Antiangiogenic, wound healing and antioxidant activity of Cladosporium cladosporioides (Endophytic Fungus isolated from seaweed (Sargassum wightii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath M. Hulikere

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi from marine seaweeds are the less studied group of organisms with vast medical applications. The aim of the present study was to evaluate antioxidant, antiangiogenic as well as wound healing potential of the endophytic fungus isolated from the seaweed Sargassum wightii. The morphological characters and the rDNA internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis (BLAST search in Gen Bank database was used for the identification of endophytic fungus. The antioxidant potential of the ethyl acetate extract of endophytic fungus was assessed by, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical scavenging method. The fungal extract was also analysed for reducing power, total phenolic and flavonoid content. Antiangiogenic activity of the fungal extract was studied in vitro by inhibition of wound healing scratch assay and in vivo by Chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. The endophytic fungus was identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides (Gen Bank ID – KT384175. The ethyl acetate extract of C. cladosporioides showed a significant antioxidant and angiosuppressive activity. The ESI-LC-MS analysis of the extract revealed the presence of wide range of secondary metabolites. Results suggest that C. cladosporioides extract could be exploited as a potential source for angiogenic modulators.

  1. Ethanol Production from Various Sugars and Cellulosic Biomass by White Rot Fungus Lenzites betulinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Kyung Hoan; Nguyen, Trung Kien; Choi, Jaehyuk; Lee, Tae Soo

    2016-03-01

    Lenzites betulinus, known as gilled polypore belongs to Basidiomycota was isolated from fruiting body on broadleaf dead trees. It was found that the mycelia of white rot fungus Lenzites betulinus IUM 5468 produced ethanol from various sugars, including glucose, mannose, galactose, and cellobiose with a yield of 0.38, 0.26, 0.07, and 0.26 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed, respectively. This fungus relatively exhibited a good ethanol production from xylose at 0.26 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed. However, the ethanol conversion rate of arabinose was relatively low (at 0.07 g of ethanol per gram sugar). L. betulinus was capable of producing ethanol directly from rice straw and corn stalks at 0.22 g and 0.16 g of ethanol per gram of substrates, respectively, when this fungus was cultured in a basal medium containing 20 g/L rice straw or corn stalks. These results indicate that L. betulinus can produce ethanol efficiently from glucose, mannose, and cellobiose and produce ethanol very poorly from galactose and arabinose. Therefore, it is suggested that this fungus can ferment ethanol from various sugars and hydrolyze cellulosic materials to sugars and convert them to ethanol simultaneously.

  2. A Rare Case of Intracavitary Fungus Ball (Aspergilloma in the Old Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majzoobi MM

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pulmonary fungus ball is a rare complication in pre-existing pulmonary cavitary lesions, due to some chronic pulmonary diseases including tuberculosis, lung abscess and sarcoidosis. Fungus ball is mostly caused by aspergillus. In many patients, fungus ball is asymptomatic, but in a significant number of them it can develop cough and hemoptysis, which may be massive and fatal. The cornerstone of assessment is chest imaging, along with sputum culture or aspergillus antibody in patient's serum. The purpose of this report is increment in attention to this complication in patients with previous pulmonary tuberculosis (TB. Case Presentation: The patient was a 23-year-old woman with chief complaint of fever, cough and hemoptysis, who was hospitalized in the Infectious Diseases Ward of Farshchian Sina hospital in March 2016. She had a history of anti-TB therapy from two years before. Sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL were negative for cytology and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but cultures of both samples were positive for Aspergillus niger. Her lung contrast-enhanced computerized tomography (CECT scan revealed the presence of a fungus ball inside the upper lobe cavity of right lung. After lobectomy, fungal mass was confirmed by histopathology. Conclusions: In patients with pulmonary complaints (especially hemoptysis and history of cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis, the differential diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia, lung abscess, reactivation of tuberculosis and lung cancer as well as fungal infections should be considered.

  3. Reduced biological control and enhanced chemical pest management in the evolution of fungus farming in ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Zimmerman, Jess K; Nash, David R

    2009-01-01

    To combat disease, most fungus-growing ants (Attini) use antibiotics from mutualistic bacteria (Pseudonocardia) that are cultured on the ants' exoskeletons and chemical cocktails from exocrine glands, especially the metapleural glands (MG). Previous work has hypothesized that (i) Pseudonocardia a...

  4. Patterns of interaction specificity of fungus-growing termites and Termitomyces symbionts in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur K; Ros, Vera I D; de Fine Licht, Henrik H

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae live in a mutualistic symbiosis with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Termitomyces. Here, we explored interaction specificity in fungus-growing termites using samples from 101 colonies in South-Africa and Senegal, belonging to eight species di...

  5. Patterns of interaction specificity of fungus-growing termites and Termitomyces symbionts in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanen, D.K.; Ros, V.I.D.; Fine Licht, de H.H.; Mitchell, J.; Beer, de Z.W.; Slippers, B.; Rouland-Lefevre, C.; Boomsma, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae live in a mutualistic symbiosis with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Termitomyces. Here, we explored interaction specificity in fungus-growing termites using samples from 101 colonies in South-Africa and Senegal, belonging to eight species

  6. Laccase detoxification mediates the nutritional alliance between leaf-cutting ants and fungus-garden symbionts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Schiøtt, Morten; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-cutting ants combine large-scale herbivory with fungus farming to sustain advanced societies. Their stratified colonies are major evolutionary achievements and serious agricultural pests, but the crucial adaptations that allowed this mutualism to become the prime herbivorous component of neo...

  7. Treatment of a textile effluent from dyeing with cochineal extracts using Trametes versicolor fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Figueroa, Gabriela; Ruiz-Aguilar, Graciela M L; López-Martínez, Leticia; González-Sánchez, Guillermo; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Germán; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio

    2011-05-05

    Trametes versicolor (Tv) fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the effluent used in the cotton dyeing process with cochineal extract by means of Tv fungus were done. Treatments to determine decolorization in the presence or absence of Kirk's medium, glucose, and fungus, with an addition of 50% (v v-1) of nonsterilized effluent were performed. Physicochemical characterization was performed at the start and end of the treatment. Degradation kinetics were determined. A direct relationship was found between the dry weight of fungi, pH, and the decolorization system, with higher decolorization at lower pH levels (pH ~4.3). High decolorization (81% ± 0.09; 88% ± 0.17; and 99% ± 0.04) for three of the eight treatments (Kirk's medium without glucose, Kirk's medium with glucose, and without medium with glucose, respectively) was found. Toxicity tests determined an increase in the initial effluent toxicity (7.33 TU) compared with the final treatment (47.73 TU) in a period of 11 days. For this system, a degradation sequence of the carminic acid structure present in the effluent by the Tv fungus is suggested, in which it is seen that metabolites still containing aromatic structures are generated.

  8. Two New Alkaloids from a Marine-derived Fungus Neosartorya fischeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of EtOAc extract from the fermentation broth of the fungus Neosartorya fischeri led to the isolation of two novel alkaloids and one known compound with antitumor activity against HL-60 cell lines. Their structures were elucidated mainly by NMR and HR-TOF-MS, as well as on comparison with the reported data.

  9. Preliminary data on growth and enzymatic abilities of soil fungus Humicolopsis cephalosporioides at different incubation temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elíades, Lorena Alejandra; Cabello, Marta N; Pancotto, Verónica; Moretto, Alicia; Rago, María Melisa; Saparrat, Mario C N

    2015-01-01

    Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp & Endl.) Krasser, known as "lenga" is the most important timber wood species in southernmost Patagonia (Argentina). Humicolopsis cephalosporioides Cabral & Marchand is a soil fungus associated with Nothofagus pumilio forests, which has outstanding cellulolytic activity. However, there is no information about the ability of this fungus to use organic substrates other than cellulose, and its ability to produce different enzyme systems, as well as its response to temperature. The aim of this study was to examine the role of H. cephalosporioides in degradation processes in N. pumilio forests in detail by evaluating the in vitro ability of four isolates of this fungus to grow and produce different lytic enzyme systems, and their response to incubation temperature. The ability of the fungi to grow and produce enzyme systems was estimated by inoculating them on agar media with specific substrates, and the cultures were incubated at three temperatures. A differential behavior of each strain in levels of growth and enzyme activity was found according to the medium type and/or incubation temperature. A intra-specific variability was found in H. cephalosporioides. Likewise a possible link between the saprotrophic role of this fungus in N. pumilio forests and the degradation of organic matter under stress conditions, such as those from frosty environments, was also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. The relationship between an endangered North American tree and an endophytic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J C; Yang, X; Schwartz, M; Strobel, G; Clardy, J

    1995-11-01

    The Florida torreya (Torreya taxifolia) began a catastrophic decline in the late 1950s and is now the rarest tree in North America for which a full species designation has been established. The trees have common plant disease symptoms, but the reason for the decline has never been identified. T. taxifolia's imminent extinction gains special poignancy through its close relationship to the Pacific yew (Taxus brevifolia), which produces the potent anticancer agent, taxol. An examination of the endophytic fungal communities of wild torreyas consistently found a filamentous fungus, Pestalotiopsis microspora, associated with diseased trees and also with most symptomless trees. P. microspora can be cultured in the laboratory, and when it is introduced into greenhouse-grown torreyas, it causes disease symptoms similar to those seen in the field. The fungus can then be reisolated from these deliberately infected trees. The phytotoxins pestalopyrone, hydroxypestalopyrone and pestaloside have been isolated and characterized from axenic fungal cultures, and both pestalopyrone and hydroxypestalopyrone can be isolated from artificially infected torreyas. In addition, pestaloside has antifungal activity against other fungal endophytes of T. taxifolia. The filamentous fungus, P. microspora, has an endophytic-pathologic relationship with T. taxifolia. The fungus resides in the inner bark of symptomless trees, and physiological or environmental factors could trigger its pathological activity. P. microspora produces the phytotoxins pestalopyrone, hydroxypestalopyrone, and pestaloside which give rise to the disease. Pestaloside, which also has antifungal activity, could reduce competition from other fungal endophytes within the host.

  11. Influence of Populus Genotype on Gene Expression by the Wood Decay Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jill Gaskell; Amber Marty; Michael Mozuch; Philip J. Kersten; Sandra Splinter Bondurant; Grzegorz Sabat; Ali Azarpira; John Ralph; Oleksandr Skyba; Shawn D. Mansfield; Robert A. Blanchette; Dan Cullen

    2014-01-01

    We examined gene expression patterns in the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium when it colonizes hybrid poplar (Populus alba tremula) and syringyl (S)-rich transgenic derivatives. Acombination ofmicroarrays and liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) allowed detection of a total of 9,959 transcripts and 793...

  12. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE (TNT) BY A PLANT-ASSOCIATED FUNGUS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The capability of a plant-associated fungus, Fusarium oxyvorum, to transform TNT in liquid cultures was investigated. TNT was transformed into 2-amino-4, 6-dinitrotoluene (2-A-DNT), 4-amino-2, 6-dinitrotoluene (4-A- DNT), and 2, 4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2, 4-DAT) via 2- and 4-hy...

  13. Effectiveness of Defatted Mustard Meals Used to Control Fungus Gnats: 2000-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCaffrey, J. P.; Morra, M. J.

    2005-07-01

    Our objective is to develop a pesticidal product from mustard meals that can be used to control insect pests. We have focused our efforts on fungus gnats. This report details our current progress in developing a pesticidal product that can be used to control this plant pest.

  14. The alkalophilic fungus Sodiomyces alkalinus hosts beta- and gammapartitiviruses together with a new fusarivirus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabáková, Lenka; Grum-Grzhimaylo, A. A.; Koloniuk, Igor; Debets, A.J. M.; Sarkisova, Tatiana; Petrzik, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 11 (2017), č. článku e0187799. E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : double-stranded-rna * plant-pathogenic fungus * molecular characterization * confers hypovirulence Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  15. Oxalic acid: a signal molecule for fungus-feeding bacteria of the genus Collimonas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudnick, M.B.; van Veen, J. A.; De Boer, Wietse

    2015-01-01

    Mycophagous (=fungus feeding) soil bacteria of the genus Collimonas have been shown to colonize and grow on hyphae of different fungal hosts as the only source of energy and carbon. The ability to exploit fungal nutrient resources might require a strategy for collimonads to sense fungi in the soil

  16. Biotransformation of alpha-bulnesene using a plant pathogenic fungus, Glomerella cingulata as a biocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Sugawara, Atsushi

    2005-02-01

    The biotransformation of a sesquiterpene having a guaiane skeleton, namely (+)-alpha-bulnesene was investigated using the plant pathogenic fungus, Glomerella cingulata as a biocatalyst. (+)-alpha-Bulnesene was oxidized at the double bond of the isopropenyl group and hydroxylated at the allylic methyl group to (4S,5S,7R)-1(10)-guaien-11,13,15-triol.

  17. New Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpenoids from the Mangrove-Derived Endophytic Fungus Penicillium sp. J-54

    OpenAIRE

    Liuming Qiu; Pei Wang; Ge Liao; Yanbo Zeng; Caihong Cai; Fandong Kong; Zhikai Guo; Peter Proksch; Haofu Dai; Wenli Mei

    2018-01-01

    Four new eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids, penicieudesmol A–D (1–4), were isolated from the fermentation broth of the mangrove-derived endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. J-54. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods, the in situ dimolybdenum CD method, and modified Mosher’s method. The bioassays results showed that 2 exhibited weak cytotoxicity against K-562 cells.

  18. New Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpenoids from the Mangrove-Derived Endophytic Fungus Penicillium sp. J-54.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Liuming; Wang, Pei; Liao, Ge; Zeng, Yanbo; Cai, Caihong; Kong, Fandong; Guo, Zhikai; Proksch, Peter; Dai, Haofu; Mei, Wenli

    2018-03-28

    Four new eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids, penicieudesmol A-D ( 1 - 4 ), were isolated from the fermentation broth of the mangrove-derived endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. J-54. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods, the in situ dimolybdenum CD method, and modified Mosher's method. The bioassays results showed that 2 exhibited weak cytotoxicity against K-562 cells.

  19. The rust fungus Gymnosporangium in Korea including two new species, G. monticola and G. unicorne

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey was conducted of species of the rust fungus Gymnosporangium in Korea. The previously known species were recollected, namely Gymnosporangium asiaticum, G. clavariiforme, G. globosum, G. japonicum, and G. yamadae. Although G. cornutum was reported from Korea, collections similar to that speci...

  20. Effect of biochar soil-amendments on Allium porrum growth, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: Examine the interaction of biochar addition and arbuscular mycorrhizal [AM] fungus inoculation upon growth and Zn and Cu uptake by Allium porrum L. in heavy metal amended soil mix, and relate these responses to physicochemical properties of the biochars. Methods: The experiment was a complete ...

  1. Fungus cultivation by ambrosia beetles: Behavior and laboratory breeding success in three Xyleborine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Biedermann; Kier Klepzig; Taborsky Michael

    2009-01-01

    Fungus cultivation by ambrosia beetles is one of the four independently evolved cases of agriculture known in animals. Such cultivation is most advanced in the highly social subtribe Xyleborina (Scolytinae), which is characterized by haplodiploidy and extreme levels of inbreeding. Despite their ubiquity in forests worldwide, the behavior of these beetles remains poorly...

  2. Sugar beet waste and its component ferulic acid inhibits external mycelium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medina, Almudena; Jakobsen, Iver; Egsgaard, Helge

    2011-01-01

    and absent in ASB. We compared the effects of the water extracts of SB and ASB and ferulic acid upon the growth of Glomus intraradices in in vitro monoxenic cultures. Hyphal growth of the AM fungus G. intraradices was extremely reduced in ferulic acid and SB treatments. Moreover, AM hyphae appeared...

  3. Draft Genome Sequences of the Black Rock Fungus Knufia petricola and Its Spontaneous Nonmelanized Mutant

    OpenAIRE

    Tesei, Donatella; Tafer, Hakim; Poyntner, Caroline; Piñar, Guadalupe; Lopandic, Ksenija; Sterflinger, Katja

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The fungal genus Knufia mostly comprises extremotolerant species from environmental sources, especially rock surfaces. The draft genome sequence of the rock fungus Knufia petricola presented here is the first whole-genome sequence of the only species among black fungi known to have a nonmelanized spontaneous mutant.

  4. Convergent coevolution in the domestication of coral mushrooms by fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkacsi, A B; Nees, Jan Pan; Villesen, Palle

    2004-01-01

    Comparisons of phylogenetic patterns between coevolving symbionts can reveal rich details about the evolutionary history of symbioses. The ancient symbiosis between fungus-growing ants, their fungal cultivars, antibiotic-producing bacteria and cultivar-infecting parasites is dominated by a patter...

  5. Dynamic disease management in trachymyrmex fungus-growing ants (Attini: Formicidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Bruner, Gaspar; Gomez, Ernesto B.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Multipartner mutualisms have potentially complex dynamics, with compensatory responses when one partner is lost or relegated to a minor role. Fungus-growing ants (Attini) are mutualistic associates of basidiomycete fungi and antibiotic-producing actinomycete bacteria; the former are atta...

  6. Using copper sulfate on hybrid striped bass eggs to control fungus and increase survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major obstacle in fish hatcheries is the inevitable fungal growth on eggs. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is commonly used for fungus control in channel catfish hatcheries that use troughs, but effectiveness on fish eggs hatched using different systems has only recently been investigated. Fish were spawn...

  7. Copper sulfate controls fungus on mat-spawned largemouth bass eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is widely used by the catfish and hybrid striped bass industries as an economical treatment to control fungus (Saprolegnia spp.) on eggs; these industries use hatching troughs and McDonald jars, respectively, in moderate alkalinity waters. This study determined the effectivene...

  8. A New Eudesmane Sesquiterpene from Nigrospora oryzae, an Endophytic Fungus of Aquilaria sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, 11 -hydroxy capitulatin B (1 , along with a known related sesquiterpene, capitulatin B (2, was isolated from the endophytic fungus Nigrospora oryzae A8 from Aquilaria sinensis, the only plant resource for agarwood production in China. This research demonstrates that the endophytic fungi from A. sinensis might play a role in the formation of agarwood.

  9. Effects of the Chytrid fungus on the Tarahumara frog (Rana tarahumarae) in Arizona and Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen F. Hale; Philip C. Rosen; James L. Jarchow; Gregory A. Bradley

    2005-01-01

    We conducted histological analyses on museum specimens collected 1975-1999 from 10 sites in Arizona and Sonora to test for the pathogenic chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) in ranid frogs, focusing on the Tarahumara frog (Rana tarahumarae). During 1981-2000, frogs displaying disease signs were found in the field, and...

  10. Towards a better understanding of the evolution of specialized parasites of fungus-growing ant crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yek, Sze Huei; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Poulsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants have interacted and partly coevolved with specialised microfungal parasites of the genus Escovopsis since the origin of ant fungiculture about 50 million years ago. Here, we review the recent progress in understanding the patterns of specificity of this ant-parasite associatio...

  11. Gene Expression Analysis of Copper Tolerance and Wood Decay in the Brown Rot Fungus Fibroporia radiculosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. D. Tang; L. A. Parker; A. D. Perkins; T. S. Sonstegard; S. G. Schroeder; D. D. Nicholas; S. V. Diehl

    2013-01-01

    High-throughput transcriptomics was used to identify Fibroporia radiculosa genes that were differentially regulated during colonization of wood treated with a copper-based preservative. The transcriptome was profiled at two time points while the fungus was growing on wood treated with micronized copper quat (MCQ). A total of 917 transcripts were...

  12. Identifying the transition between single and multiple mating of queens in fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Murakami, Takahiro; Schultz, Ted R

    2002-01-01

    Obligate mating of females (queens) with multiple males has evolved only rarely in social Hymenoptera (ants, social bees, social wasps) and for reasons that are fundamentally different from those underlying multiple mating in other animals. The monophyletic tribe of ('attine') fungus-growing ants...

  13. Presumptive horizontal symbiont transmission in the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fine Licht, de H.H.; Boomsma, J.J.; Aanen, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    All colonies of the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis studied so far are associated with a single genetically variable lineage of Termitomyces symbionts. Such limited genetic variation of symbionts and the absence of sexual fruiting bodies (mushrooms) on M. natalensis mounds would be

  14. Effects of selenium oxyanions on the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    KAUST Repository

    Espinosa-Ortiz, Erika J.; Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Saikaly, Pascal; van Hullebusch, Eric D.; Lens, Piet N L

    2014-01-01

    and substrate consumption when supplied at 10 mg L−1 in the growth medium, whereas selenate did not have such a strong influence on the fungus. Biological removal of selenite was achieved under semi-acidic conditions (pH 4.5) with about 40 % removal efficiency

  15. Dissolved oxygen levels affect dimorphic growth by the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea

    Science.gov (United States)

    The entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea is capable of dimorphic growth (hyphal or yeast-like) in submerged culture. In shake flask studies, we evaluated the impact of aeration on the mode of growth of I. fumosorosea. Using 250 mL baffled Erlenmeyer flasks, culture volumes of 50, 100, 150, a...

  16. Susceptibility of Seven Termite Species (Isoptera) to the Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae

    OpenAIRE

    Chouvenc , Thomas; Su , Nan-Yao; Robert , Alain

    2009-01-01

    Seven termite species (Isoptera) from five families were tested for disease susceptibility against the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae using a standard protocol: Mastotermes darwiniensis (Mastotermitidae), Hodotermopsis sjoestedti (Termopsidae), Hodotermes mossambicus (Hodotermitidae), Kalotermes flavicollis (Kalotermitidae), Reticulitermes flavipes and Prorhinotermes canalifrons (Rhinotermitidae), and Nasutitermes voeltzkowi (Termitidae). Our results showed a large diversity i...

  17. Infection of adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes a laboratory investigation on the use of the insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. At a dosage of 1.6 × 1010 conidia/m2, applied on material that served as a mosquito resting site, an average of 87.1 ± 2.65% of

  18. Cuticle hydrolysis in four medically important fly species by enzymes of the entomopathogenic fungus Conidiobolus coronatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguś, M I; Włóka, E; Wrońska, A; Kaczmarek, A; Kazek, M; Zalewska, K; Ligęza-Żuber, M; Gołębiowski, M

    2017-03-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi infect insects via penetration through the cuticle, which varies remarkably in chemical composition across species and life stages. Fungal infection involves the production of enzymes that hydrolyse cuticular proteins, chitin and lipids. Host specificity is associated with fungus-cuticle interactions related to substrate utilization and resistance to host-specific inhibitors. The soil fungus Conidiobolus coronatus (Constantin) (Entomophthorales: Ancylistaceae) shows virulence against susceptible species. The larvae and pupae of Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Calliphora vomitoria (Linnaeus), Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Musca domestica (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Muscidae) are resistant, but adults exposed to C. coronatus quickly perish. Fungus was cultivated for 3 weeks in a minimal medium. Cell-free filtrate, for which activity of elastase, N-acetylglucosaminidase, chitobiosidase and lipase was determined, was used for in vitro hydrolysis of the cuticle from larvae, puparia and adults. Amounts of amino acids, N-glucosamine and fatty acids released were measured after 8 h of incubation. The effectiveness of fungal enzymes was correlated with concentrations of compounds detected in the cuticles of tested insects. Positive correlations suggest compounds used by the fungus as nutrients, whereas negative correlations may indicate compounds responsible for insect resistance. Adult deaths result from the ingestion of conidia or fungal excretions. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  19. Metacridamides A and B, bioactive macrocycles from conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metarhizium acridum, an entomopathogenic fungus, has been commercialized and used successfully for biocontrol of grasshopper pests in Africa and Australia. Its conidia produce two novel 17-membered macrocycles, metacridamides A (1) and B (2), which consist of a Phe unit condensed with a nonaketide....

  20. An in vivo transcriptome for entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii ARSEF 2575

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenic process of the insect pathogen Metarhizium robertsii ARSEF 2575 in its host are only partially understood. To probe the transcriptional responses of the fungus during the interaction with insects, we have developed a method to specifically recover patho...

  1. Entomopathogenicity and Biological Attributes of Himalayan Treasured Fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Yarsagumba)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Bikash

    2017-01-01

    Members of the entomophagous fungi are considered very crucial in the fungal domain relative to their natural phenomenon and economic perspectives; however, inadequate knowledge of their mechanisms of interaction keeps them lagging behind in parallel studies of fungi associated with agro-ecology, forest pathology and medical biology. Ophiocordyceps sinensis (syn. Cordyceps sinensis), an intricate fungus-caterpillar complex after it parasitizes the larva of the moth, is a highly prized medicinal fungus known widely for ages due to its peculiar biochemical assets. Recent technological innovations have significantly contributed a great deal to profiling the variable clinical importance of this fungus and other related fungi with similar medicinal potential. However, a detailed mechanism behind fungal pathogenicity and fungal-insect interactions seems rather ambiguous and is poorly justified, demanding special attention. The goal of the present review is to divulge an update on the published data and provides promising insights on different biological events that have remained underemphasized in previous reviews on fungal biology with relation to life-history trade-offs, host specialization and selection pressures. The infection of larvae by a fungus is not a unique event in Cordyceps; hence, other fungal species are also reviewed for effective comparison. Conceivably, the rationale and approaches behind the inheritance of pharmacological abilities acquired and stored within the insect framework at a time when they are completely hijacked and consumed by fungal parasites, and the molecular mechanisms involved therein, are clearly documented. PMID:29371523

  2. Low prevalence of chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) in amphibians of U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake R. Hossack; Michael J. Adams; Evan H. Campbell Grant; Christopher A. Pearl; James B. Bettaso; William J. Barichivich; Winsor H. Lowe; Kimberly True; Joy L. Ware; Paul Stephen Corn

    2010-01-01

    Many declines of amphibian populations have been associated with chytridiomycosis, a disease caused by the aquatic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Despite the relatively high prevalence of chytridiomycosis in stream amphibians globally, most surveys in North America have focused primarily on wetland-associated species, which are frequently infected. To...

  3. Draft genome sequence of the white-rot fungus Obba rivulosa 3A-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto Miettinen; Robert Riley; Kerrie Barry; Daniel Cullen; Ronald P. de Vries; Matthieu Hainaut; Annele Hatakka; Bernard Henrissat; Kristiina Hilden; Rita Kuo; Kurt LaButti; Anna Lipzen; Miia R. Makela; Laura Sandor; Joseph W. Spatafora; Igor V. Grigoriev; David S. Hibbett

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first genome sequence of the white-rot fungus Obba rivulsa (Polyporales, Basidiomycota), a polypore known for its lignin-decomposing ability. The genome is based on the homokaryon 3A-2 originating in Finland. The genome is typical in size and carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZy) content for wood-decomposing basidiomycetes.

  4. The potential application of fungus Trichoderma harzianum Rifai in biodegradation of detergent and industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Violeta D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential application of fungus Trichoderma harzianum Rifai in biodegradation of commercial detergent (MERIX, Henkel, Serbia was in the focus of this study. The fungus was isolated from wastewater samples of the Rasina River, downstream where the industrial wastewaters of factory Henkel (Krusevac, Serbia discharge into river. The fungus was cultivated in liquid growth medium by Czapek with addition of detergent at a concentration of 0.3% during 16 days. Analysis of fermentation broth evaluated the chemical and biochemical changes of pH, redox potential, activity of alkaline and acid invertase as well as activity of alkaline protease. In addition, the influence of detergent on fungal growth and total dry weight biomass was determined. At the same time, detergent disappearance in terms of methylene blue active substances in the medium was measured. The detergent at a concentration of 0.3% influenced significant decrease of pH value and increase of redox potential. The detergent showed inhibitory effect on acid invertase activity and stimulatory effect on alkaline invertase and protease activity. The fungus decomposed about 74.24% of tested detergent during 16 days, but total dry weight biomass reduced about 20% in relation to control. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43004

  5. The ability of fungus Mucor racemosus Fresenius to degrade high concentration of detergent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Violeta D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of fungus Mucor racemosus Fresenius to decompose high concentration of commercial detergent (MERIX, Henkel, Serbia was investigated in this study. Fungus was cultivated in liquid growth medium by Czapek with addition of detergent at concentration 0.5% during 16 days. The biochemical changes of pH, redox potential, amount of free and total organic acids, and activity of alkaline phosphatase were evaluated by analysis of fermentation broth. Simultaneously, biodegradation percentage of anionic surfactant of tested detergent was confirmed by MBAS assay. At the same time, the influence of detergent on fungal growth and total dry weight biomass was determined. Detergent at concentration 0.5% influenced on decreasing of pH value and increasing of redox potential as well as increasing of free and total organic acids. Enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase was reduced by detergent at concentration 0.5%. The fungus was decomposed about 62% of anionic surfactant during 16 day. Due to fungus was produced higher dry weight biomass (53% in relation to control. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43004

  6. Carbon availability for the fungus triggers nitrogen uptake and transport in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is characterized by a transfer of nutrients in exchange for carbon. We tested the effect of the carbon availability for the AM fungus Glomus intraradices on nitrogen (N) uptake and transport in the symbiosis. We followed the uptake and transport of 15N and ...

  7. Variation in fungal enzyme spectra may affect mutualistic division of labour between ants and fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    partners vary in metabolic performance, division of labour may not always be optimized and co-evolutionary trajectories become less predictable. The higher fungus-growing (attine) ants consist of the leafcutter ants (Acromyrmex and Atta), which rear a single fungal species throughout their Latin American...

  8. Three alpha-subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins and an adenylyl cyclase have distinct roles in fruiting body development in the homothallic fungus Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamerewerd, Jens; Jansson, Malin; Nowrousian, Minou; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Kück, Ulrich

    2008-09-01

    Sordaria macrospora, a self-fertile filamentous ascomycete, carries genes encoding three different alpha-subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins (gsa, G protein Sordaria alpha subunit). We generated knockout strains for all three gsa genes (Deltagsa1, Deltagsa2, and Deltagsa3) as well as all combinations of double mutants. Phenotypic analysis of single and double mutants showed that the genes for Galpha-subunits have distinct roles in the sexual life cycle. While single mutants show some reduction of fertility, double mutants Deltagsa1Deltagsa2 and Deltagsa1Deltagsa3 are completely sterile. To test whether the pheromone receptors PRE1 and PRE2 mediate signaling via distinct Galpha-subunits, two recently generated Deltapre strains were crossed with all Deltagsa strains. Analyses of the corresponding double mutants revealed that compared to GSA2, GSA1 is a more predominant regulator of a signal transduction cascade downstream of the pheromone receptors and that GSA3 is involved in another signaling pathway that also contributes to fruiting body development and fertility. We further isolated the gene encoding adenylyl cyclase (AC) (sac1) for construction of a knockout strain. Analyses of the three DeltagsaDeltasac1 double mutants and one Deltagsa2Deltagsa3Deltasac1 triple mutant indicate that SAC1 acts downstream of GSA3, parallel to a GSA1-GSA2-mediated signaling pathway. In addition, the function of STE12 and PRO41, two presumptive signaling components, was investigated in diverse double mutants lacking those developmental genes in combination with the gsa genes. This analysis was further completed by expression studies of the ste12 and pro41 transcripts in wild-type and mutant strains. From the sum of all our data, we propose a model for how different Galpha-subunits interact with pheromone receptors, adenylyl cyclase, and STE12 and thus cooperatively regulate sexual development in S. macrospora.

  9. First radiobiological results of LDEF-1 experiment A0015 with Arabidopsis seed embryos and Sordaria fungus spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, M. W.; Gartenbach, K. E.; Kranz, A. R.

    1994-10-01

    This article highlights the first results of investigations on the general vitality and damage endpoints caused by cosmic ionizing radiation in dry, dormant plant seeds of the crucifer plant Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Hennh. and the ascomycete Sordaria fimicola after 69 month stay in space. Wild-type and mutant gene marker lines were included in Free Flyer Biostack containers and exposed on earth and side tray of the LDEF-1 satellite. The damage in biological endpoints observed in the seeds increased in the side tray sample compared to the earth tray sample. For the ascospores we found different effects depending on the biological endpoints investigated for both expositions.

  10. Increasing incidence of Geomyces destructans fungus in bats from the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Martínková

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: White-nose syndrome is a disease of hibernating insectivorous bats associated with the fungus Geomyces destructans. It first appeared in North America in 2006, where over a million bats died since then. In Europe, G. destructans was first identified in France in 2009. Its distribution, infection dynamics, and effects on hibernating bats in Europe are largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened hibernacula in the Czech Republic and Slovakia for the presence of the fungus during the winter seasons of 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. In winter 2009/2010, we found infected bats in 76 out of 98 surveyed sites, in which the majority had been previously negative. A photographic record of over 6000 hibernating bats, taken since 1994, revealed bats with fungal growths since 1995; however, the incidence of such bats increased in Myotis myotis from 2% in 2007 to 14% by 2010. Microscopic, cultivation and molecular genetic evaluations confirmed the identity of the recently sampled fungus as G. destructans, and demonstrated its continuous distribution in the studied area. At the end of the hibernation season we recorded pathologic changes in the skin of the affected bats, from which the fungus was isolated. We registered no mass mortality caused by the fungus, and the recorded population decline in the last two years of the most affected species, M. myotis, is within the population trend prediction interval. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: G. destructans was found to be widespread in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, with an epizootic incidence in bats during the most recent years. Further development of the situation urgently requires a detailed pan-European monitoring scheme.

  11. Utilizing fungus myceliated grain for molt induction and performance in commercial laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, W L; Isikhuemhen, O S; Allen, J W; Byers, A; King, K; Thomas, C

    2009-10-01

    Molting in poultry is used to rejuvenate hens for a second or third laying cycle. Feed withdrawal was once the most effective method used for molt induction; however, it has being phased out due to food safety and animal welfare concerns. This study evaluated the utilization of fungus myceliated grain as a safe and effective alternative for inducing molt, enhancing immunity, reducing Salmonella growth, and returning to egg production. Laying hens were subjected to 1 of 5 treatments: 1) nonfed (NF), 2) full-fed (FF), 3) fungus myceliated meal (FM), 4) 90% fungus myceliated meal+10% standard layer ration (FM-90), and 5) 90% alfalfa meal+10% fungus myceliated meal (AF-90). Each treatment condition was replicated 9 times during a 9-d molt period. The results revealed that egg production for treatments 1 and 3 ceased completely by d 5, whereas hens in treatments 4 and 5 ceased egg production by d 6. The percentage of BW loss decreased significantly (P<0.05) in treatments 1 (57%), 2 (8%), 3 (35%), 4 (37%), and 5 (44%). Ovary weights of hens fed all molting diets decreased significantly from the full-fed control but did not differ significantly (P<0.05) from each other. Salmonella population in the crop, ovary, and ceca from hens differed significantly (P<0.05) among treatments. Return to egg production differed between treatments with higher production beginning in treatment 3 and ending in treatment 5. Antibody titers did differ (P<0.05) among treatments. From these results, fungus myceliated meal appears to be a viable alternative to conventional feed withdrawal and other methods for the successful induction of molt and retention of postmolt performance.

  12. Bioactive Constituents from an Endophytic Fungus, Penicillium polonicum NFW9, Associated with Taxus fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Nighat; Sripisut, Tawanun; Youn, Ui J; Ahmed, Safia; Ul-Haq, Ihsan; Munoz-Acuna, Ulyana; Simmons, Charles J; Qazi, Muneer A; Jadoon, Muniba; Tan, Ghee T; de Blanco, Esperanza J C; Chang, Leng C

    2017-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are being recognized as vital and untapped sources of a variety of structurally novel and unique bioactive secondary metabolites in the field of natural products drug discovery. Herein, this study reports the isolation and characterization of secondary metabolites from an endophytic fungus Penicillium polonicum (NFW9) associated with Taxus fuana. The extracts of the endophytic fungus cultured on potato dextrose agar were purified using several chromatographic techniques. Biological evaluation was performed based on their abilities to inhibit tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and cytotoxicity assays. Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of a fermentation culture of an endophytic fungus, Penicillium polonicum led to the isolation of a dimeric anthraquinone, (R)- 1,1',3,3',5,5'-hexahydroxy-7,7'-dimethyl[2,2'-bianthracene]-9,9',10,10'-tetraone (1), a steroidal furanoid (-)-wortmannolone (2), along with three other compounds (3-4). Moreover, this is the first report on the isolation of compound 1 from an endophytic fungus. All purified metabolites were characterized by NMR and MS data analyses. The stereo structure of compound 1 was determined by the measurement of specific optical rotation and CD spectrum. The relative stereochemistry of 2 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 2-3 showed inhibitory activities in the TNF-α-induced NF-κB assay with IC50 values in the range of 0.47-2.11 µM. Compounds 1, 4 and 5 showed moderate inhibition against NF-κB and cancer cell lines. The endophytic fungus Penicillium polonicum of Taxus fuana is capable of producing biologically active natural compounds. Our results provide a scientific rationale for further chemical investigations into endophyte-producing natural products, drug discovery and development. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Ecology of coarse wood decomposition by the saprotrophic fungus Fomes fomentarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Větrovský, Tomáš; Voříšková, Jana; Snajdr, Jaroslav; Gabriel, Jiří; Baldrian, Petr

    2011-07-01

    Saprotrophic wood-inhabiting basidiomycetes are the most important decomposers of lignin and cellulose in dead wood and as such they attracted considerable attention. The aims of this work were to quantify the activity and spatial distribution of extracellular enzymes in coarse wood colonised by the white-rot basidiomycete Fomes fomentarius and in adjacent fruitbodies of the fungus and to analyse the diversity of the fungal and bacterial community in a fungus-colonised wood and its potential effect on enzyme production by F. fomentarius. Fungus-colonised wood and fruitbodies were collected in low management intensity forests in the Czech Republic. There were significant differences in enzyme production by F. fomentarius between Betula pendula and Fagus sylvatica wood, the activity of cellulose and xylan-degrading enzymes was significantly higher in beech wood than in birch wood. Spatial analysis of a sample B. pendula log segment proved that F. fomentarius was the single fungal representative found in the log. There was a high level of spatial variability in the amount of fungal biomass detected, but no effects on enzyme activities were observed. Samples from the fruiting body showed high β-glucosidase and chitinase activities compared to wood samples. Significantly higher levels of xylanase and cellobiohydrolase were found in samples located near the fruitbody (proximal), and higher laccase and Mn-peroxidase activities were found in the distal ones. The microbial community in wood was dominated by the fungus (fungal to bacterial DNA ratio of 62-111). Bacterial abundance composition was lower in proximal than distal parts of wood by a factor of 24. These results show a significant level of spatial heterogeneity in coarse wood. One of the explanations may be the successive colonization of wood by the fungus: due to differential enzyme production, the rates of biodegradation of coarse wood are also spatially inhomogeneous.

  14. Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens Are Biphasic Mixed Microbial Bioreactors That Convert Plant Biomass to Polyols with Biotechnological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somera, Alexandre F.; Lima, Adriel M.; dos Santos-Neto, Álvaro J.; Lanças, Fernando M.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf-cutter ants use plant matter to culture the obligate mutualistic basidiomycete Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. This fungus mediates ant nutrition on plant resources. Furthermore, other microbes living in the fungus garden might also contribute to plant digestion. The fungus garden comprises a young sector with recently incorporated leaf fragments and an old sector with partially digested plant matter. Here, we show that the young and old sectors of the grass-cutter Atta bisphaerica fungus garden operate as a biphasic solid-state mixed fermenting system. An initial plant digestion phase occurred in the young sector in the fungus garden periphery, with prevailing hemicellulose and starch degradation into arabinose, mannose, xylose, and glucose. These products support fast microbial growth but were mostly converted into four polyols. Three polyols, mannitol, arabitol, and inositol, were secreted by L. gongylophorus, and a fourth polyol, sorbitol, was likely secreted by another, unidentified, microbe. A second plant digestion phase occurred in the old sector, located in the fungus garden core, comprising stocks of microbial biomass growing slowly on monosaccharides and polyols. This biphasic operation was efficient in mediating symbiotic nutrition on plant matter: the microbes, accounting for 4% of the fungus garden biomass, converted plant matter biomass into monosaccharides and polyols, which were completely consumed by the resident ants and microbes. However, when consumption was inhibited through laboratory manipulation, most of the plant polysaccharides were degraded, products rapidly accumulated, and yields could be preferentially switched between polyols and monosaccharides. This feature might be useful in biotechnology. PMID:25911490

  15. Polysaccharides from the fungus Scleroderma nitidum with anti-inflammatory potential modulate cytokine levels and the expression of Nuclear Factor kB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília S. Nascimento

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Several pharmacological properties are attributed to polysaccharides and glucans derived from fungi such as tumor, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activity. In this work, the anti-inflammatory potential of polysaccharides from the fungus Scleroderma nitidum and their possible action mechanism were studied. The effect of these polymers on the inflammatory process was tested using the carrageenan and histamine-induced paw edema model and the sodium thioglycolate and zymosan-induced model. The polysaccharides from S. nitidum were effective in reducing edema (73% at 50 mg/kg and cell infiltrate (37% at 10 mg/kg in both inflammation models tested. Nitric oxide, a mediator in the inflammatory process, showed a reduction of around 26% at 10 mg/kg of body weight. Analysis of pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines showed that in the groups treated with polysaccharides from S. nitidum there was an increase in cytokines such as IL-1ra, IL-10, and MIP-1β concomitant with the decrease in INF-γ (75% and IL-2 (22%. We observed the influence of polysaccharides on the modulation of the expression of nuclear factor κB. This compound reduced the expression of NF-κB by up to 64%. The results obtained suggest that NF-κB modulation an mechanisms that explain the anti-inflammatory effect of polysaccharides from the fungus S. nitidum.

  16. Myco-fluidics: The fluid dynamics of fungal chimerism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Marcus; Hickey, Patrick; Dressaire, Emilie; Roch, Sebastien

    2012-11-01

    Chimeras-fantastical creatures formed as amalgams of many animals-have captured the human imagination since Ancient times. But they are also surprisingly common in Nature. The syncytial cells of filamentous fungi harbor large numbers of nuclei bathed in a single cytoplasm. As a fungus grows these nuclei become genetically diverse, either from mutation or from exchange of nuclei between different fungal individuals, a process that is known to increase the virulence of the fungus and its adaptability. By directly measuring nuclear movement in the model ascomycete fungus Neurospora crassa, we show that the fungus' tolerance for internal genetic diversity is enabled by hydrodynamic mixing of nuclei acting at all length scales within the fungal mycelium. Mathematical modeling and experiments in a mutant with altered mycelial morphology reveal some of the exquisite hydraulic engineering necessary to create these mixing flows from spatially coarse pressure gradients.

  17. Heterogeneous occupancy and density estimates of the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in waters of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestnut, Tara E.; Anderson, Chauncey; Popa, Radu; Blaustein, Andrew R.; Voytek, Mary; Olson, Deanna H.; Kirshtein, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Biodiversity losses are occurring worldwide due to a combination of stressors. For example, by one estimate, 40% of amphibian species are vulnerable to extinction, and disease is one threat to amphibian populations. The emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the aquatic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is a contributor to amphibian declines worldwide. Bd research has focused on the dynamics of the pathogen in its amphibian hosts, with little emphasis on investigating the dynamics of free-living Bd. Therefore, we investigated patterns of Bd occupancy and density in amphibian habitats using occupancy models, powerful tools for estimating site occupancy and detection probability. Occupancy models have been used to investigate diseases where the focus was on pathogen occurrence in the host. We applied occupancy models to investigate free-living Bd in North American surface waters to determine Bd seasonality, relationships between Bd site occupancy and habitat attributes, and probability of detection from water samples as a function of the number of samples, sample volume, and water quality. We also report on the temporal patterns of Bd density from a 4-year case study of a Bd-positive wetland. We provide evidence that Bd occurs in the environment year-round. Bd exhibited temporal and spatial heterogeneity in density, but did not exhibit seasonality in occupancy. Bd was detected in all months, typically at less than 100 zoospores L−1. The highest density observed was ∼3 million zoospores L−1. We detected Bd in 47% of sites sampled, but estimated that Bd occupied 61% of sites, highlighting the importance of accounting for imperfect detection. When Bd was present, there was a 95% chance of detecting it with four samples of 600 ml of water or five samples of 60 mL. Our findings provide important baseline information to advance the study of Bd disease ecology, and advance our understanding of amphibian exposure

  18. Study of the rheological properties of a fermentation broth of the fungus Beauveria bassiana in a bioreactor under different hydrodynamic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Ramírez, Diola Marina; Medina-Torres, Luis; Valencia-López, José Javier; Calderas, Fausto; López Miranda, Javier; Medrano-Roldán, Hiram; Solís-Soto, Aquiles

    2012-11-01

    Fermentation with filamentous fungi in a bioreactor is a complex dynamic process that is affected by flow conditions and the evolution of the rheological properties of the medium. These properties are mainly affected by the biomass concentration and the morphology of the fungus. In this work, the rheological properties of a fermentation with the fungus Beauveria bassiana under different hydrodynamic conditions were studied and the rheological behavior of this broth was simulated through a mixture of carboxymethyl cellulose sodium and cellulose fibers (CMCNa-SF). The bioreactor was a 10 L CSTR tank operated at different stir velocities. Rheological results were similar at 100 and 300 rpm for both systems. However, there was a significant increase in the viscosity accompanied by a change in the consistence index, calculated according to the power law model, for both systems at 800 rpm. The systems exhibited shear-thinning behavior at all stir velocities, which was determined with the power law model. The mixing time was observed to increase as the cellulose content in the system increased and, consequently, the efficiency of mixing diminished. These results are thought to be due to the rheological and morphological similarities of the two fungal systems. These results will help in the optimization of scale-up production of these fungi.

  19. First record of entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales on pleasing fungus beetle Episcapha quadrimacula (Coleoptera: Erotylidae in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.K. Goh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana on Pleasing Fungus Beetle Episcapha quadrimacula has been reported on fruiting bodies of Ganoderma boninense for the first time in Malaysia.

  20. Development of a greenhouse-based inoculation protocol for the fungus Colletotrichum cereale pathogenic to annual bluegrass (Poa annua)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Colletotrichum cereale incites anthracnose disease on Poa annua (annual bluegrass) turfgrass. Anthracnose disease is geographically widespread highly destructive, with infections by C. cereale resulting in extensive turfgrass loss. Comprehensive research aimed at controlling turfgrass a...

  1. Pathogenicity of the bioherbicide fungus chondrostereum purpureum to some trees and shrubs of southern Vancouver Island. FRDA report No. 246

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, R.E.

    1996-11-01

    Chondrostereum purpureum is a common stem-invading fungus of trees and shrubs. The fungus has attracted interest as a bioherbicide, but a better understanding of its biology is required. This study was undertaken to determine the range of virulence of isolates of C. purpureum from a given region on major hardwood species in British Columbia. The investigators inoculated wounds of stems of standing red alder (Alnus rubra) and bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) saplings with 11 isolates of the fungus and measured the resulting stem cankers as an index of virulence. They also inoculated eight hardwood and shrub species with two isolates to demonstrate the range of susceptibility of species to the fungus, as well as the intraspecific variation.

  2. Compatibility of the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana with neem against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, on eggplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study on the compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) with neem was conducted against sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), on eggplant. Initially, three concentrations of B. bassiana (106, 1...

  3. Aerial application of the insect-killing fungus Lecanicillium muscarium in a microfactory formulation for hemlock woolly adelgid suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Costa; Karen Felton; Bradley Onken; Richard Reardon; Rusty. Rhea

    2011-01-01

    Forest populations of hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) were reduced using an operational formulation of the insect-killing fungus Lecanicillium muscarium when it was supported by microfactory formulation technology.

  4. The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica enhances Arabidopsis thaliana growth and modulates Na + /K + homeostasis under salt stress conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelaziz, Mohamed Ewis; Kim, Dongjin; Ali, Shawkat; Fedoroff, Nina V.; Al-Babili, Salim

    2017-01-01

    The mutualistic, endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica has been shown to confer biotic and abiotic stress tolerance to host plants. In this study, we investigated the impact of P. indica on the growth of Arabidopsis plants under normal and salt

  5. An ultrastructural study of cell-cell interactions in capture organs of the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhuis, Marten; Nordbring-Hertz, Birgit; Harder, Willem

    1985-01-01

    A detailed ultrastructural analysis was made of interactions between individual cells within the same adhesive network (trap) of the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora. These interactions were confined to traps which had captured nematodes, and occurred concurrently with the

  6. Rosalia longicorn Rosalia alpina (LINNAEUS, 1758 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae as a host of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana LI, LI, HUANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartnik Czesław

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes, for the first time, the occurrence of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana (anamorph: Beauveria bassiana on the imago of the endangered beetle Rosalia longicorn Rosalia alpina from the Low Beskid Mountains (the Carpathians, SE Poland. Furthermore, an isolate of the saprotrophic fungus Hypoxylon fragiforme was obtained as a result of laboratory tests on R. alpina specimens. Relationships between the identified fungi and R. alpina are discussed.

  7. Molecular Characterization of a Heterothallic Mating System in Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Fungus Causing White-Nose Syndrome of Bats

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Jonathan M.; Kubatova, Alena; Novakova, Alena; Minnis, Andrew M.; Kolarik, Miroslav; Lindner, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) of bats has devastated bat populations in eastern North America since its discovery in 2006. WNS, caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, has spread quickly in North America and has become one of the most severe wildlife epidemics of our time. While P. destructans is spreading rapidly in North America, nothing is known about the sexual capacity of this fungus. To gain insight into the genes involved in sexual reproduction, we characterized the mating-type ...

  8. Neem oil increases the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for the control of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Simone A.; Paula, Adriano R.; Ribeiro, Anderson; Moraes, Catia O. P.; Santos, Jonathan W. A. B.; Silva, Carlos P.; Samuels, Richard I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Entomopathogenic fungi are potential candidates for use in integrated vector management and many isolates are compatible with synthetic and natural insecticides. Neem oil was tested separately and in combination with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against larvae of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. Our aim was to increase the effectiveness of the fungus for the control of larval mosquito populations. Methods Commercially available neem oil was used at concentrati...

  9. Growing plants on oily, nutrient-poor soil using a native symbiotic fungus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy S Repas

    Full Text Available The roots of land plants associate with microbes, including fungal symbionts that can confer abiotic stress tolerance. Bitumen extraction following oil-sand surface mining in the Athabasca region of Alberta, Canada removes plant nutrients but leaves a petrochemical residue, making the coarse tailings (CT hostile to both plants and microbes. We isolated an endophyte strain of the Ascomycete Trichoderma harzianum we call TSTh20-1 (hereafter, TSTh from a dandelion that was naturally growing on CT. TSTh colonization allowed tomato, wheat, and remediation seed mixtures to germinate and their seedlings to flourish on CT without the use of fertilizer. Compared to control plants, TSTh increased germination speed, percent germination, and biomass accumulation. TSTh also improved plant water use efficiency and drought recovery. TSTh-colonized plants secreted twice the level of peroxidase into CT as did plants alone. Over two months, plants colonized with TSTh doubled the petrochemical mobilization from CT over plants alone, suggesting a peroxide-mediated mechanism for petrochemical degradation. TSTh grew on autoclaved CT, bitumen, and other petrochemicals as sole carbon sources. Further, TSTh is a micro-aerobe that could metabolize 13C-phenanthrene to 13CO2 in 0.5% oxygen. TSTh has excellent potential for contributing to revegetating and remediating petrochemical contamination.

  10. The telomerase reverse transcriptase subunit from the dimorphic fungus Ustilago maydis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Bautista-España

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the reverse transcriptase subunit of telomerase in the dimorphic fungus Ustilago maydis. This protein (Trt1 contains 1371 amino acids and all of the characteristic TERT motifs. Mutants created by disrupting trt1 had senescent traits, such as delayed growth, low replicative potential, and reduced survival, that were reminiscent of the traits observed in est2 budding yeast mutants. Telomerase activity was observed in wild-type fungus sporidia but not those of the disruption mutant. The introduction of a self-replicating plasmid expressing Trt1 into the mutant strain restored growth proficiency and replicative potential. Analyses of trt1 crosses in planta suggested that Trt1 is necessary for teliospore formation in homozygous disrupted diploids and that telomerase is haploinsufficient in heterozygous diploids. Additionally, terminal restriction fragment analysis in the progeny hinted at alternative survival mechanisms similar to those of budding yeast.

  11. Complement and innate immune evasion strategies of the human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shanshan; Skerka, Christine; Kurzai, Oliver; Zipfel, Peter F

    2013-12-15

    Candida albicans is a medically important fungus that can cause a wide range of diseases ranging from superficial infections to disseminated disease, which manifests primarily in immuno-compromised individuals. Despite the currently applied anti-fungal therapies, both mortality and morbidity caused by this human pathogenic fungus are still unacceptably high. Therefore new prophylactic and therapeutic strategies are urgently needed to prevent fungal infection. In order to define new targets for combating fungal disease, there is a need to understand the immune evasion strategies of C. albicans in detail. In this review, we summarize different sophisticated immune evasion strategies that are utilized by C. albicans. The description of the molecular mechanisms used for immune evasion does on one hand help to understand the infection process, and on the other hand provides valuable information to define new strategies and diagnostic approaches to fight and interfere with Candida infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Identifying the transition between single and multiple mating of queens in fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Murakami, Takahiro; Schultz, Ted R

    2002-01-01

    Obligate mating of females (queens) with multiple males has evolved only rarely in social Hymenoptera (ants, social bees, social wasps) and for reasons that are fundamentally different from those underlying multiple mating in other animals. The monophyletic tribe of ('attine') fungus-growing ants...... is known to include evolutionarily derived genera with obligate multiple mating (the Acromyrmex and Atta leafcutter ants) as well as phylogenetically basal genera with exclusively single mating (e.g. Apterostigma, Cyphomyrmex, Myrmicocrypta). All attine genera share the unique characteristic of obligate...... dependence on symbiotic fungus gardens for food, but the sophistication of this symbiosis differs considerably across genera. The lower attine genera generally have small, short-lived colonies and relatively non-specialized fungal symbionts (capable of living independently of their ant hosts), whereas...

  13. Penicillosides A and B: new cerebrosides from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar S.A. Murshid

    Full Text Available Abstract In the course of our ongoing effort to identify bioactive compounds from marine-derived fungi, the marine fungus, Penicillium species was isolated from the Red Sea tunicate, Didemnum species. Two new cerebrosides, penicillosides A and B were isolated from the marine-derived fungus, Penicillium species using different chromatographic methods. Their structures were established by different spectroscopic data including 1D (1H NMR and 13C NMR and 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC studies as well as high-resolution mass spectral data. Penicilloside A displayed antifungal activity against Candida albicans while penicilloside B illustrated antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in the agar diffusion assay. Additionally, both compounds showed weak activity against HeLa cells.

  14. Hydroxylation of a hederagenin derived saponin by a Xylareaceous fungus found in fruits of Sapindus saponaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murgu, Michael; Santos, Luiz F. Arruda; Souza, Gezimar D. de; Daolio, Cristina; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Schneider, Bernd [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Beutenberg Campus, Jena (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    During our screening of tropical plants for endophyte microorganisms, a Xylareaceous fungus was found living on the internal part of Sapindus saponaria fruits. The fruits of S. saponaria accumulate great amounts of triterpenoidal and sesquiterpenoidal saponins. The saponin 3-O-({beta}-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1{yields}3)-{alpha}-L -rhamnopyranosyl-(1{yields}2)-{alpha}-L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin was isolated using chromatographic methods, after alkaline hydrolysis of the crude extract obtained from S. saponaria fruits and added to the culture medium used to grows the fungus. A new saponin was isolated from this experiment by preparative scale HPLC and characterized as a 22{alpha}-hydroxy derivative. The structure of this hydroxylated saponin was elucidated based on interpretation of MS/MS data and NMR spectra. (author)

  15. Hydroxylation of a hederagenin derived saponin by a Xylareaceous fungus found in fruits of Sapindus saponaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murgu, Michael; Santos, Luiz F. Arruda; Souza, Gezimar D. de; Daolio, Cristina; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson

    2008-01-01

    During our screening of tropical plants for endophyte microorganisms, a Xylareaceous fungus was found living on the internal part of Sapindus saponaria fruits. The fruits of S. saponaria accumulate great amounts of triterpenoidal and sesquiterpenoidal saponins. The saponin 3-O-(β-D-xylopyranosyl)-(1→3)-α-L -rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-hederagenin was isolated using chromatographic methods, after alkaline hydrolysis of the crude extract obtained from S. saponaria fruits and added to the culture medium used to grows the fungus. A new saponin was isolated from this experiment by preparative scale HPLC and characterized as a 22α-hydroxy derivative. The structure of this hydroxylated saponin was elucidated based on interpretation of MS/MS data and NMR spectra. (author)

  16. Fungus mediated biosynthesis of WO3 nanoparticles using Fusarium solani extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, N. S.; Venkatesh, K. S.; Palani, N. S.; Ilangovan, R.

    2017-05-01

    Currently nanoparticles were synthesized by emphasis bioremediation process due to less hazardous, eco-friendly and imperative applications on biogenic process. Fungus mediated biosynthesis strategy has been developed to prepare tungsten oxide nanoflakes (WO3, NFs) using the plant pathogenic fungus F.solani. The powder XRD pattern revealed the monoclinic crystal structure with improved crystalline nature of the synthesized WO3 nanoparticles. FESEM images showed the flake-like morphology of WO3, with average thickness and length around 40 nm and 300 nm respectively. The Raman spectrum of WO3 NFs showed their characteristic vibration modes that revealed the defect free nature of the WO3 NFs. Further, the elemental analysis indicated the stoichiometric composition of WO3 phase.

  17. [Fungus microbiota in air conditioners in intensive care units in Teresina, Piauí].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobin, Mitra; do Amparo Salmito, Maria

    2006-01-01

    With the aim of identifying the fungus microbiota in air conditioners in intensive care units (ICUs) within public and private hospitals in Teresina, Piauí, solid material was collected from ten different ICUs. Thirty-three species of Moniliaceae and Dematiaceae were isolated, which was the first report of these in Piauí. High frequencies of Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem (60%), Aspergillus fumigatus Fres (50%), Trichoderma koningii Oudem (50%) and Aspergillus flavus Link: Fr. (40%) were recorded. The air conditioner cleanliness validity had expired in all the ICUs, and the quantity of colony-forming units exceeded the levels permitted by Law 176/00 from the Ministry of Health. It is important to provide individual protection equipment for professionals, adopt hospital infection control measures, raise the awareness of the presence of fungus infection, improve air circulation around the environment, periodically clean the air conditioners, and make health professionals alert to the importance of these fungi in the hospital environment.

  18. Real-Time PCR Detection of Dogwood Anthracnose Fungus in Historical Herbarium Specimens from Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stephen; Masuya, Hayato; Zhang, Jian; Walsh, Emily; Zhang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Cornus species (dogwoods) are popular ornamental trees and important understory plants in natural forests of northern hemisphere. Dogwood anthracnose, one of the major diseases affecting the native North American Cornus species, such as C. florida, is caused by the fungal pathogen Discula destructiva. The origin of this fungus is not known, but it is hypothesized that it was imported to North America with its host plants from Asia. In this study, a TaqMan real-time PCR assay was used to detect D. destructiva in dried herbarium and fresh Cornus samples. Several herbarium specimens from Japan and China were detected positive for D. destructiva, some of which were collected before the first report of the dogwood anthracnose in North America. Our findings further support that D. destructiva was introduced to North America from Asia where the fungus likely does not cause severe disease.

  19. Tea fungus fermentation on a substrate with iron(ii-ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron is essential element for human metabolism and it is a constituent of both heme- containing and nonheme proteins. Its deficiency can cause serious diseases, i.e. iron-deficiency anemia, with some fatal consequences. Tea fungus beverage has high nutritional value and some pharmaceutical effects. It is widely consumed allover the world and its benefits were proved a number of times. The aim of this paper was to investigate tea fungus fermentation on a substrate containing iron(II-ions and the possibility of obtaining a beverage enriched with iron. We monitored pH, iron content and also the production of L-ascorbic acid, which is very important for iron absorption in humans.

  20. Production of cellulases by a thermophilic fungus, Thermoascus aurantiacus A-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamori, M; Takayama, K; Takasawa, S

    1987-01-01

    A thermophilic fungus, strain A-131, isolated from a soil sample produced cellulases in the culture fluid. The fungus (strain A-131) was identified as Thermoascus aurantiacus Miehe from its taxonomical characteristics. The cellulases of T. aurantiacus A-131 were produced constitutively without cellulase inducers. Moreover, their production was induced markedly by amorphous polysaccharides containing beta-1, 4 linkages such as alkali-treated bagasse and xylan rather than crystalline cellulose. The cultivation of T. aurantiacus A-131 at 45 degrees C with 4% alkali-treated bagasse led to the production of about 70 U/ml of CMCase after four days. The thermostability of the cellulolytic enzymes of T. aurantiacus A-131 was excellent and virtually no decreases in their activities were seen after preincubation at 60 degrees C for 24 hours. (Refs. 21).

  1. Oak protein profile alterations upon root colonization by an ectomycorrhizal fungus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebastiana, Mónica; Martins, Joana; Figueiredo, Andreia

    2017-01-01

    in the roots. Consistent with the results of the biochemical analysis, the proteome analysis of the mycorrhizal roots suggests a decreasing utilization of sucrose for the metabolic activity of mycorrhizal roots which is consistent with an increased allocation of carbohydrates from the plant to the fungus...... to ectomycorrhizae formation using a proteomics approach complemented by biochemical analysis of carbohydrate levels. Comparative proteome analysis between mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal cork oak plants revealed no differences at the foliar level. However, the protein profile of 34 unique oak proteins was altered...... in order to sustain the symbiosis. In addition, a promotion of protein unfolding mechanisms, attenuation of defense reactions, increased nutrient mobilization from the plant-fungus interface (N and P), as well as cytoskeleton rearrangements and induction of plant cell wall loosening for fungal root...

  2. Bioactive secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebel R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the chemical investigation and cytotoxic activity of the secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. isolated from Salvia officinalis growing in Morocco. This plant was collected from the Beni-Mellal Mountain in Morocco and belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is named in Morocco “Salmia”. The endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. was isolated from the tissues of the stem of this plant. The fungal strain was identified by PCR. The crude organic extract of the fungal strain was proven to be active when tested for cytotoxicity against L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. Chemical investigation of the secondary metabolites showed that cochliodinol is the main component beside isocochliodinol. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined on the basis of NMR analysis (1H, 13C, COSY and HMBC as well as by mass spectrometry using ESI (Electron Spray Ionisation as source.

  3. Growth in rice cells requires de novo purine biosynthesis by the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Jessie; Yang, Kuan Ting; Cornwell, Kathryn M.; Wright, Janet D.; Wilson, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing incidences of human disease, crop destruction and ecosystem perturbations are attributable to fungi and threaten socioeconomic progress and food security on a global scale. The blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is the most devastating pathogen of cultivated rice, but its metabolic requirements in the host are unclear. Here we report that a purine-requiring mutant of M. oryzae could develop functional appressoria, penetrate host cells and undergo the morphogenetic transition to elaborate bulbous invasive hyphae from primary hyphae, but further in planta growth was aborted. Invasive hyphal growth following rice cell ingress is thus dependent on de novo purine biosynthesis by the pathogen and, moreover, plant sources of purines are neither available to the mutant nor required by the wild type during the early biotrophic phase of infection. This work provides new knowledge about the metabolic interface between fungus and host that might be applicable to other important intracellular fungal pathogens. PMID:23928947

  4. Identification and sequence determination of a new chrysovirus infecting the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria javanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Noemi

    2017-04-01

    A new double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycovirus has been identified in the isolate NB IFR-19 of the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria javanica. Isaria javanica chrysovirus-1 (IjCV-1) constitutes a new member of the Chrysoviridae family, and its genome is made up of four dsRNA elements designated dsRNA1, 2, 3 and 4 from largest to smallest. dsRNA1 and dsRNA2 encode an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and a coat protein (CP), respectively. dsRNA3 and 4 encode hypothetical proteins of unknown function. IjCV-1 constitutes the first report of a chrysovirus infecting the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria javanica.

  5. Laccase production by Monotospora sp., an endophytic fungus in Cynodon dactylon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J W; Wu, J H; Huang, W Y; Tan, R X

    2006-03-01

    The effects of the carbon and nitrogen sources, initial pH and incubation temperature on laccase production by the endophytic fungus Monotospora sp. were evaluated. The optimal temperature and initial pH for laccase production by Monotospora sp. in submerged culture were found to be 30 degrees C and 8.5, respectively. Maltose (2 g l(-1)) and ammonium tartrate (10 g l(-1)) were the most suitable carbon and nitrogen source for laccase production. Under optimal culture medium, the maximum laccase activity was determined to be 13.55 U ml(-1), which was approximately four times higher than that in basal medium. This is the first report on laccase production by an endophytic fungus.

  6. Leucoagaricus gongylophorus Produces Diverse Enzymes for the Degradation of Recalcitrant Plant Polymers in Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylward, Frank O. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tringe, Susannah G. [Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Teiling, Clotilde [Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Tremmel, Daniel [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Moeller, Joseph [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Scott, Jarrod J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barry, Kerrie W. [Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Piehowski, Paul D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nicora, Carrie D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Malfatti, Stephanie [Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Monroe, Matthew E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Purvine, Samuel O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Smith, Richard D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weinstock, George [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MS (United States); Gerardo, Nicole [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States); Suen, Garret [Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Lipton, Mary S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Currie, Cameron R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smothsonian Tropical Research Inst., Balboa (Panama)

    2013-06-12

    Plants represent a large reservoir of organic carbon comprised largely of recalcitrant polymers that most metazoans are unable to deconstruct. Many herbivores gain access to nutrients in this material indirectly by associating with microbial symbionts, and leaf-cutter ants are a paradigmatic example. These ants use fresh foliar biomass as manure to cultivate fungus gardens composed primarily of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, a basidiomycetous symbiont that produces specialized hyphal swellings that serve as a food source for the host ant colony. Although leaf-cutter ants are conspicuous herbivores that contribute substantially to carbon turnover in Neotropical ecosystems, the process through which plant biomass is degraded in their fungus gardens is not well understood. Here we present the first draft genome of L. gongylophorus, and using genomic, metaproteomic, and phylogenetic tools we investigate its role in lignocellulose degradation in the fungus gardens of both Atta cephalotes and Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutter ants. We show that L. gongylophorus produces a diversity of lignocellulases in fungus gardens, and is likely the primary driver of plant biomass degradation in these ecosystems. We also show that this fungus produces distinct sets of lignocellulases throughout the different stages of biomass degradation, including numerous cellulases and laccases that may be playing an important but previously uncharacterized role in lignocellulose degradation. Our study provides a comprehensive analysis of plant biomass degradation in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens and provides insight into the molecular dynamics underlying the symbiosis between these dominant herbivores and their obligate fungal cultivar.

  7. Induced autolysis of fungus Aspergillus terreus AT-490 grown on agricultural and food industry wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aladashvili, N.V.; Tkeshelashvili, M.Ya.; Berikashvili, V.Sh.; Babayan, T.L.; Latov, V.K.; Belikov, V.M.; Kvesitadze, G.I.

    1991-01-01

    Autolysis of the biomass of fungus Aspergillus terreus AT-490 grown on citrus meal and tomato residues was studied. The optimal conditions of conducting it were determined: preliminary ultrasonic treatment for 5 min, temperature 55 degrees C, concentration of dry materials 50 g/liter, duration 23 hr, inducer 3% ethanol. The amino acid composition of the biomass of A. terreus AT-490 was determined

  8. Polyancora globosa gen. sp. nov., an aeroaquatic fungus from Malaysian peat swamp forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voglmayr, Hermann; Yule, Catherine M

    2006-10-01

    During an investigation of submerged leaves and twigs sampled from tropical peat swamp forests located in Peninsular Malaysia, an anamorphic fungus not attributable to a described genus was detected and isolated in pure culture. Conidial ontogeny was thoroughly studied and illustrated using both light and SEM, which revealed a unique conidial morphology. Analysis of partial nuLSU rDNA and ITS data revealed a phylogenetic position within the Xylariales (Ascomycota), but family affiliation remained unclear.

  9. Genome Sequence of an Endophytic Fungus, Fusarium solani JS-169, Which Has Antifungal Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung A; Jeon, Jongbum; Park, Sook-Young; Kim, Ki-Tae; Choi, Gobong; Lee, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Yangsun; Yang, Hee-Sun; Yeo, Joo-Hong; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Soonok

    2017-10-19

    An endophytic fungus, Fusarium solani strain JS-169, isolated from a mulberry twig, showed considerable antifungal activity. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain. The assembly comprises 17 scaffolds, with an N 50 value of 4.93 Mb. The assembled genome was 45,813,297 bp in length, with a G+C content of 49.91%. Copyright © 2017 Kim et al.

  10. Isolation and Structural Elucidation of Chondrosterins F–H from the Marine Fungus Chondrostereum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jian Lan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The marine fungus Chondrostereum sp. was collected from a soft coral of the species Sarcophyton tortuosum from the South China Sea. Three new compounds, chondrosterins F–H (1, 4 and 5, together with three known compounds, incarnal (2, arthrosporone (3, and (2E-decene-4,6,8-triyn-1-ol (6, were isolated. Their structures were elucidated primarily based on NMR and MS data. Incarnal (2 exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against various cancer cell lines.

  11. [Secondary metabolites of a marine mangrove fungus (Penicillium sp. no. 2556) from South China Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Yuan; Ding, Wei-Jia; Shao, Chang-Lun; She, Zhi-Gang; Lin, Yong-Cheng

    2008-07-01

    The metabolites of a marine mangrove fungus (Penicillium sp. No. 2556) were studied in this paper and six compounds were isolated from the fermentation liquid. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopy methods as Sch54796 (1), Sch54794 (2), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (3), urail (4), succinic acid (5), Vermopyrone (6). Among them, compounds 1, 2 and 6 were firstly isolated from Penicillium sp., Coumpounds 1 and 2 remarkably inhibited the growth of cancer cell lines hep2 and hepG2.

  12. Microbial community structure of leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens and refuse dumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jarrod J; Budsberg, Kevin J; Suen, Garret; Wixon, Devin L; Balser, Teri C; Currie, Cameron R

    2010-03-29

    Leaf-cutter ants use fresh plant material to grow a mutualistic fungus that serves as the ants' primary food source. Within fungus gardens, various plant compounds are metabolized and transformed into nutrients suitable for ant consumption. This symbiotic association produces a large amount of refuse consisting primarily of partly degraded plant material. A leaf-cutter ant colony is thus divided into two spatially and chemically distinct environments that together represent a plant biomass degradation gradient. Little is known about the microbial community structure in gardens and dumps or variation between lab and field colonies. Using microbial membrane lipid analysis and a variety of community metrics, we assessed and compared the microbiota of fungus gardens and refuse dumps from both laboratory-maintained and field-collected colonies. We found that gardens contained a diverse and consistent community of microbes, dominated by Gram-negative bacteria, particularly gamma-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. These findings were consistent across lab and field gardens, as well as host ant taxa. In contrast, dumps were enriched for Gram-positive and anaerobic bacteria. Broad-scale clustering analyses revealed that community relatedness between samples reflected system component (gardens/dumps) rather than colony source (lab/field). At finer scales samples clustered according to colony source. Here we report the first comparative analysis of the microbiota from leaf-cutter ant colonies. Our work reveals the presence of two distinct communities: one in the fungus garden and the other in the refuse dump. Though we find some effect of colony source on community structure, our data indicate the presence of consistently associated microbes within gardens and dumps. Substrate composition and system component appear to be the most important factor in structuring the microbial communities. These results thus suggest that resident communities are shaped by the plant degradation

  13. The Ant Cardiocondyla elegans as Host of the Enigmatic Endoparasitic Fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Giehr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on host species and the distribution of the endoparasitic fungus Myrmicinosporidium durum increased continuously in recent decades. Here, we add the ant Cardiocondyla elegans as new host species. Colonies of the monogynous species were found infested in the region of Languedoc-Roussillon (South France. Samples from the nest indicate high infection rates. All castes and sexes were infected by the spores. Variations of infection rates between sampling methods and species are discussed.

  14. A Laboratory Maintenance Regime for a Fungus-Growing Termite Macrotermes gilvus (Blattodea: Termitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Chen; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2015-06-01

    The optimum maintenance conditions of the fungus-growing termite, Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen) (Blattodea: Termitidae), in the laboratory were studied. Termites were kept on a matrix of moist sand and with fungus comb as food. The survival of groups of termites was measured when maintained at different population densities by changing group size and container volume. Larger groups (≥0.6 g) were more vigorous and had significant higher survival rates than smaller groups (≤0.3 g). The population density for optimal survival of M. gilvus is 0.0025 g per container volume (ml) or 0.0169 g per matrix volume (cm(3)), i.e., 1.2 g of termites kept in a 480-ml container filled with 71 cm3 of sand. In termite groups of smaller size (i.e., 0.3 g) or groups maintained in smaller container (i.e., 100 ml) the fungus comb was overgrown with Xylaria spp., and subsequently all termites died within the study period. The insufficient number of workers for regulating the growth of unwanted fungi other than Termitomyces spp. in the fungus comb is the most likely reason. Unlike some other mound-building termite species, M. gilvus showed satisfactory survival when maintained in non-nutritious matrix (i.e., sand). There was no significant difference in the survival rate between different colonies of M. gilvus (n=5), with survival in the range of 78.5-84.4% after 4 wk. Advances in the maintenance of Macrotermes will enable researchers to study with more biological relevance many aspects of the biology, behavior, and management of this species. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Anti-Mycobacterial Activity of Marine Fungus-Derived 4-Deoxybostrycin and Nigrosporin

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Cong; Wang, Juan; Huang, Yuhong; Chen, Hong; Li, Yan; Zhong, Lili; Chen, Yi; Chen, Shengping; Wang, Jun; Kang, Juling; Peng, Yi; Yang, Bin; Lin, Yongcheng; She, Zhigang; Lai, Xiaomin

    2013-01-01

    4-Deoxybostrycin is a natural anthraquinone compound isolated from the Mangrove endophytic fungus Nigrospora sp. collected from the South China Sea. Nigrosporin is the deoxy-derivative of 4-deoxybostrycin. They were tested against mycobacteria, especially Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility test, they both had inhibition zone sizes of over 25 mm. The results of the absolute concentration susceptibility test suggested that they had inhibitory effects ag...

  16. A new biphenyl derivative from the mangrove endophytic fungus Phomopsis longicolla HL-2232.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Bao; Chen, Guang-Ying; Liu, Rui-Jie; Zheng, Cai-Juan; Song, Xin-Ming; Han, Chang-Ri

    2017-10-01

    A new biphenyl derivative 5,5'-dimethoxybiphenyl-2,2'-diol (1), together with five known compounds (2-5), was isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus Phomopsis longicolla HL-2232. The structures of these compounds were elucidated using comprehensive spectroscopic methods. The absolute configuration of 4 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction for the first time. The inhibitory activities of all compounds against two Vibrio bacteria were evaluated.

  17. Three new drimane sesquiterpenoids from cultures of the fungus Penicillium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jian-Hai; Ding, Zhang-Gui; Chunyu, Wei-Xun; Zhao, Jiang-Yuan; Wang, Hai-Bin; Liu, Shi-Wei; Wang, Fei

    2017-08-01

    Three new drimane sesquiterpenoids, 12-hydroxyalbrassitriol (1), drim-8(12)-en-6β,7α, 9α,11-tetraol (2), and drim-68(12)-dien-9α,11-diol (3), along with one known analog albrassitriol (4), were isolated from cultures of the tin mine tailings-associated fungus Penicillium sp. The new structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. All compounds were tested for their cytotoxicities against five human cancer cell lines.

  18. A New Terminal Cyano Group-containing Benzodiazepine Alkaloid from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Penicillium sp. .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhong, Yi-sheng; Yuan, Jie; Zhu, Xun; Lu, Yong-jun; Lin, Yong-cheng; Liu, Lan

    2015-09-01

    A new benzodiazepine alkaloid containing terminal cyano group has been isolated from a mangrove endophytic fungus, Penicillium 299#. Structure elucidation was determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and the absolute configuration was determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD). The new compound showed no cytotoxic activities in vitro against human cancer lines MDA-MB-435, HepG2, HCT-116, and Calu-3.

  19. Metabolites of the endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. FJ-1 of Acanthus ilicifolius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Fang; Chen, Wei-Jie; Xin, Ben-Ru; Lu, Jie

    2014-06-01

    Two new compounds, named as (2R,3S)-pinobanksin-3-cinnamate (1), and 15alpha-hydroxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-3,5,8(14),22-tetraen-7-one (2), were isolated from the endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. FJ-1 of Acanthus ilicifolius Linn. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Additionally, compound 1 exhibited potent neuroprotective effects on corticosterone-damaged PC12 cells, and compound 2 showed potent cytotoxicity on glioma cell lines.

  20. Penicillipyrones A and B, meroterpenoids from a marine-derived Penicillium sp. fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Lijuan; Lee, Jung-Ho; You, Minjung; Choi, Tae Joon; Park, Wanki; Lee, Sang Kook; Oh, Dong-Chan; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon

    2014-02-28

    Penicillipyrones A (1) and B (2), two novel meroterpenoids, were isolated from the marine-derived fungus Penicillium sp. On the basis of the results of combined spectroscopic analyses, these compounds were structurally elucidated to be sesquiterpene γ-pyrones from a new skeletal class derived from a unique linkage pattern between the drimane sesquiterpene and pyrone moieties. Compound 2 elicited significant induction of quinone reductase.

  1. Polyketides with Immunosuppressive Activities from Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Penicillium sp. ZJ-SY₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongju; Chen, Senhua; Liu, Weiyang; Liu, Yayue; Huang, Xishan; She, Zhigang

    2016-11-25

    Nine polyketides, including two new benzophenone derivatives, peniphenone ( 1 ) and methyl peniphenone ( 2 ), along with seven known xanthones ( 3 - 9 ) were obtained from mangrove endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. ZJ-SY₂ isolated from the leaves of Sonneratia apetala . Their structures were elucidated on the basis of MS, 1D, and 2D NMR data. Compounds 1 , 3 , 5 , and 7 showed potent immunosuppressive activity with IC 50 values ranging from 5.9 to 9.3 μg/mL.

  2. New Eudesmane-Type Sesquiterpenoids from the Mangrove-Derived Endophytic Fungus Penicillium sp. J-54

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuming Qiu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Four new eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids, penicieudesmol A–D (1–4, were isolated from the fermentation broth of the mangrove-derived endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. J-54. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods, the in situ dimolybdenum CD method, and modified Mosher’s method. The bioassays results showed that 2 exhibited weak cytotoxicity against K-562 cells.

  3. Efficacy of chemical disinfectants for the containment of the salamander chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans

    OpenAIRE

    Van Rooij, Pascale; Pasmans, Frank; Coen, Yanaïka; Martel, An

    2017-01-01

    The recently emerged chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) causes European salamander declines. Proper hygiene protocols including disinfection procedures are crucial to prevent disease transmission. Here, the efficacy of chemical disinfectants in killing Bsal was evaluated. At all tested conditions, Biocidal (R), Chloramine-T (R), Dettol medical (R), Disolol (R), ethanol, F10 (R), Hibiscrub (R), potassium permanganate, Safe4 (R), sodium hypochlorite, and Virkon S (R), were ...

  4. UV-B-irradiation effect on growth reactions of phytopathogenic fungus fusarium solani

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gushcha, M.Yi.; Dyachenko, A.Yi.; Dmitryijev, O.P.

    2002-01-01

    The UV-B irradiation effect on spore germination and hyphae growth of phythopathogenic fungus Fusarium solani was studied. Spores irradiation by small doses of 0,1 - 1,0 kJ/m 2 results in growth stimulation of primary hyphae. Adaptive effect of UV-B small doses for fungi was shown. Preliminary irradiation in doses of 0,1 - 0,5 kJ/m 2 increased spore radioresistance and diminished the effect of the next damaging dose

  5. Microstructure of Cell Wall-Associated Melanin in the Human Pathogenic Fungus cryptococcus neoformans

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenman, H.C.; Nosanchuk, J.D.; Webber, J. Beau W.; Emerson, T.A.; Casadevall, A.

    2005-01-01

    Melanin is a virulence factor for many pathogenic fungal species,including Cryptococcus neoformans. Melanin is deposited in the cell wall, and melanin isolated from this fungus retains the shape of the cells, resulting in hollow spheres called ``ghosts''. In this study, atomic force, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy revealed that melanin ghosts are covered with roughly spherical granular particles approximately 40-130 nm in diameter, and that the melanin is arranged in ...

  6. New Cytochalasin from Rosellinia sanctae-cruciana, an Endophytic Fungus of Albizia lebbeck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nisha; Kushwaha, Manoj; Arora, Divya; Jain, Shreyans; Singamaneni, Venugopal; Sharma, Sonia; Shankar, Ravi; Bhushan, Shashi; Gupta, Prasoon; Jaglan, Sundeep

    2018-03-24

    To explore the potential of Rosellinia sanctae-cruciana an endophytic fungus associated with Albizia lebbeck for pharmaceutically important cytotoxic compounds. One novel cytochalasin, named Jammosporin A (1) and four known analogues (2-5) were isolated from the culture of the endophytic fungus Rosellinia sanctae-cruciana, harbored from the leaves of medicinal plant Albizia lebbeck. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D and 2D NMR data along with MS data and by comparison with literature reports. In preliminary screening the ethyl acetate extract of the fungal culture was tested for the cytotoxic activity against a panel of four cancer cell lines (MOLT-4, A549, MIA PaCa -2 and MDA-MB-231), was found to be active against MOLT-4 with IC 50 value of 10 μg/mL. Owing to the remarkable cytotoxic activity of the extract the isolated compounds (1-5) were evaluated for their cytototoxicity against MOLT-4 cell line by MTT assay. Interestingly, compounds 1-2, 4 and 5 showed considerable cytotoxic potential against the human leukemia cancer cell line (MOLT-4) with IC 50 values of 20.0, 10.0, 8.0 and 6.0 μM, respectively, while compound 3 showed IC 50 value of 25 μM. This is the first report of existence of this class of secondary metabolites in Rosellinia sanctae-cruciana fungus. This study discovered a novel compound, named Jammosporin A, isolated for the first time from Rosellinia sanctae-cruciana, an endophytic fungus of Albizia lebbeck with anticancer activity against MOLT-4 cell line. Rosellinia sanctae-cruciana represents an interesting source of a new compound with bioactive potential as a therapeutic agent against human leukemia cancer cell line (MOLT-4). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Isolation, Culture and Characterization of Hirsutella sinensis Mycelium from Caterpillar Fungus Fruiting Body

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Yun-Fei; Liau, Jian-Ching; Lee, Chien-Sheng; Chiu, Chen-Yaw; Martel, Jan; Lin, Chuan-Sheng; Tseng, Shun-Fu; Ojcius, David M.; Lu, Chia-Chen; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Young, John D.

    2017-01-01

    The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (previously called Cordyceps sinensis) has been used for centuries in Asia as a tonic to improve health and longevity. Recent studies show that O. sinensis produces a wide range of biological effects on cells, laboratory animals and humans, including anti-fatigue, anti-infection, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-tumor activities. In view of the rarity of O. sinensis fruiting bodies in nature, cultivation of its anamorph mycelium represent...

  8. A novel monopartite dRNA virus isolated from the entomopathogenic and nematophagous fungus Purpureocillium lilacinum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Herrero, Noemi

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 12 (2016), s. 3375-3384 ISSN 0304-8608 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12105 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 - MODBIOLIN Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Purpureocillium lilacinum * dsRNA * entomopathogenic and nematophagous fungus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.058, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00705-016-3045-y

  9. Pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycetes) to Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhioua, E.; Browning, M.; Johnson, P.W.; Ginsberg, H.S.; LeBrun, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is highly pathogenic to the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis. Spore concentrations of 108/ml for engorged larvae and 107/ml for engorged females resulted in 100% tick mortality, 2 wk post-infection. The LC50 value for engorged larvae (concentration to kill 50% of ticks) was 107 spores/ml. Metarhizium anisopliae shows considerable potential as a microbial control agent for the management of Ixodes scapularis.

  10. Antifungal Activity Against Plant Pathogens of Metabolites from the Endophytic Fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaoning; Radwan, Mohamed M.; Taráwneh, Amer H.; Gao, Jiangtao; Wedge, David E.; Rosa, Luiz H.; Cutler, Horace G.; Cutler, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fresen.) de Vries extracts led to the isolation of four compounds, including cladosporin, 1, isocladosporin, 2, 5′-hydroxyasperentin, 3, and cladosporin-8-methyl ether, 4. An additional compound 5′,6-diacetyl cladosporin, 5, was synthesized by acetylation of compound 3. Compounds 1-5 were evaluated for antifungal activity against plant pathogens. Phomopsis viticola was the most sensitive fungus to the tested compounds. At 30 μM, c...

  11. A Hair & a Fungus: Showing Kids the Size of a Microbe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Dana L.

    2013-01-01

    A simple method is presented to show kids the size of a microbe--a fungus hypha--compared to a human hair. Common household items are used to make sterile medium on a stove or hotplate, which is dispensed in the cells of a weekly plastic pill box. Mold fungi can be easily and safely grown on the medium from the classroom environment. A microscope…

  12. Ethanol effect on metabolic activity of the ethalogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschos, Thomas; Xiros, Charilaos; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2015-03-12

    Fusarium oxysporum is a filamentous fungus which has attracted a lot of scientific interest not only due to its ability to produce a variety of lignocellulolytic enzymes, but also because it is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses to ethanol. Although this fungus has been studied a lot as a cell factory, regarding applications for the production of bioethanol and other high added value products, no systematic study has been performed concerning its ethanol tolerance levels. In aerobic conditions it was shown that both the biomass production and the specific growth rate were affected by the presence of ethanol. The maximum allowable ethanol concentration, above which cells could not grow, was predicted to be 72 g/L. Under limited aeration conditions the ethanol-producing capability of the cells was completely inhibited at 50 g/L ethanol. The lignocellulolytic enzymatic activities were affected to a lesser extent by the presence of ethanol, while the ethanol inhibitory effect appears to be more severe at elevated temperatures. Moreover, when the produced ethanol was partially removed from the broth, it led to an increase in fermenting ability of the fungus up to 22.5%. The addition of F. oxysporum's system was shown to increase the fermentation of pretreated wheat straw by 11%, in co-fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The assessment of ethanol tolerance levels of F. oxysporum on aerobic growth, on lignocellulolytic activities and on fermentative performance confirmed its biotechnological potential for the production of bioethanol. The cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes of this fungus could be exploited within the biorefinery concept as their ethanol resistance is similar to that of the commercial enzymes broadly used in large scale fermentations and therefore, may substantially contribute to a rational design of a bioconversion process involving F. oxysporum. The SSCF experiments on liquefied wheat straw rich in hemicellulose indicated that the

  13. Host status of false brome grass to the leaf rust fungus Puccinia brachypodii and the stripe rust fungus P. Striiformis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barbieri, M.; Marcel, T.C.; Niks, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    Purple false brome grass (Brachypodium distachyon) has recently emerged as a model system for temperate grasses and is also a potential model plant to investigate plant interactions with economically important pathogens such as rust fungi. We determined the host status of five Brachypodium species

  14. Combined effects of agitation and aeration on the chitinolytic enzymes production by the Antarctic fungus Lecanicillium muscarium CCFEE 5003

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The Antarctic fungus Lecanicillium muscarium CCFEE 5003 is one of the most powerful chitinolytic organisms. It can produce high level of chitinolytic enzymes in a wide range of temperatures (5-30°C). Chitinolytic enzymes have lot of applications but their industrial production is still rather limited and no cold-active enzymes are produced. In view of massive production of L. muscarium chitinolytic enzymes, its cultivation in bioreactors is mandatory. Microbial cultivation and/or their metabolite production in bioreactors are sometime not possible and must be verified and optimized for possible exploitation. Agitation and aeration are the most important parameters in order to allow process up-scaling to the industrial level. Results In this study, submerged cultures of L. muscarium CCFEE 5003 were carried out in a 2-L bench-top CSTR bioreactor in order to optimise the production of chitinolytic enzymes. The effect of stirrer speed (range 200-500 rpm) and aeration rate (range 0.5-1.5 vvm) combination was studied, by Response Surface Methodology (RSM), in a medium containing 1.0% yeast nitrogen base and 1% colloidal chitin. Optimization was carried out, within a "quadratic D-optimal" model, using quantitative and quantitative-multilevel factors for aeration and agitation, respectively. The model showed very good correlation parameters (R2, 0.931; Q2, 0.869) and the maximum of activity (373.0 U/L) was predicted at ca. 327 rpm and 1.1 vvm. However, the experimental data showed that highest activity (383.7 ± 7.8 U/L) was recorded at 1 vvm and 300 rpm. Evident shear effect caused by stirrer speed and, partially, by high aeration rates were observed. Under optimized conditions in bioreactor the fungus was able to produce a higher number of chitinolytic enzymes than those released in shaken flasks. In addition, production was 23% higher. Conclusions This work demonstrated the attitude of L. muscarium CCFEE 5003 to grow in bench-top bioreactor; outlined the

  15. Combined effects of agitation and aeration on the chitinolytic enzymes production by the Antarctic fungus Lecanicillium muscarium CCFEE 5003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenice Massimiliano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Antarctic fungus Lecanicillium muscarium CCFEE 5003 is one of the most powerful chitinolytic organisms. It can produce high level of chitinolytic enzymes in a wide range of temperatures (5-30°C. Chitinolytic enzymes have lot of applications but their industrial production is still rather limited and no cold-active enzymes are produced. In view of massive production of L. muscarium chitinolytic enzymes, its cultivation in bioreactors is mandatory. Microbial cultivation and/or their metabolite production in bioreactors are sometime not possible and must be verified and optimized for possible exploitation. Agitation and aeration are the most important parameters in order to allow process up-scaling to the industrial level. Results In this study, submerged cultures of L. muscarium CCFEE 5003 were carried out in a 2-L bench-top CSTR bioreactor in order to optimise the production of chitinolytic enzymes. The effect of stirrer speed (range 200-500 rpm and aeration rate (range 0.5-1.5 vvm combination was studied, by Response Surface Methodology (RSM, in a medium containing 1.0% yeast nitrogen base and 1% colloidal chitin. Optimization was carried out, within a "quadratic D-optimal" model, using quantitative and quantitative-multilevel factors for aeration and agitation, respectively. The model showed very good correlation parameters (R2, 0.931; Q2, 0.869 and the maximum of activity (373.0 U/L was predicted at ca. 327 rpm and 1.1 vvm. However, the experimental data showed that highest activity (383.7 ± 7.8 U/L was recorded at 1 vvm and 300 rpm. Evident shear effect caused by stirrer speed and, partially, by high aeration rates were observed. Under optimized conditions in bioreactor the fungus was able to produce a higher number of chitinolytic enzymes than those released in shaken flasks. In addition, production was 23% higher. Conclusions This work demonstrated the attitude of L. muscarium CCFEE 5003 to grow in bench

  16. Probiotics for Plants? Growth Promotion by the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana Depends on Nutrient Availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall, Susanna; Meyling, Nicolai V

    2018-03-28

    Cultivation of crops requires nutrient supplements which are costly and impact the environment. Furthermore, global demands for increased crop production call for sustainable solutions to increase yield and utilize resources such as nutrients more effectively. Some entomopathogenic fungi are able to promote plant growth, but studies over such effects have been conducted under optimal conditions where nutrients are abundantly available. We studied the effects of Beauveria bassiana (strain GHA) seed treatment on the growth of maize (Zea mays) at high and low nutrient conditions during 6 weeks in greenhouse. As expected, B. bassiana seed treatment increased plant growth, but only at high nutrient conditions. In contrast, the seed treatment did not benefit plant growth at low nutrient conditions where the fungus potentially constituted a sink and tended to reduce plant growth. The occurrence of endophytic B. bassiana in experimental plant tissues was evaluated by PCR after 6 weeks, but B. bassiana was not documented in any of the above-ground plant tissues indicating that the fungus-plant interaction was independent of endophytic establishment. Our results suggest that B. bassiana seed treatment could be used as a growth promoter of maize when nutrients are abundantly available, while the fungus does not provide any growth benefits when nutrients are scarce.

  17. Resistance of some early mutant lines of soybean to rust fungus (Phakospora pachyrhizi Syd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratma, Rivaie

    1984-01-01

    A trial for resistance to rust fungus (Phakospora pachyrhizi Syd.) was conducted on 11 early mutant lines of soybean M6 (derived from Orba variety with a dose of 0.4 kGy of Co-60) at Citayam Experimental Station, Bogor, in the wet season of 80/81. Based on IWGSR rating system, soybean mutant lines number M6/40/6 was moderately susceptible to rust fungus (Phakospora pachyrhizi Syd). While 10 other soybean mutant lines M6/40/1, M6/40/2, M6/40/3, M6/40/4, M6/40/5, M6/40/7, M6/40/8, M6/40/9, M6/40/10 and M6/40/11 were susceptible to rust fungus. Significant differences in yield were observed between the early mutant lines M6/40/6 (moderate susceptible), 10 other mutant lines (susceptible) and ringgit variety (susceptible). However, a significant lower yield was produced by those mutant lines compared with the yield of orba variety. (author)

  18. Mycelial fermentation and medicinal properties of a valuable medicinal fungus Cordyceps sinensis Cs-HK1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jianyong

    2014-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (Cs) or Dongchongxiacao in Chinese is a rare and precious medicinal mushroom. In this work,a Tolypocladium sp. fungus named Cs-HK1 was isolated from a natural Cs fruiting body,and its ultraviolet (UV),infrared (IR) and high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) spectra all exhibited high degrees of matching to those of natural Cs,indicating the similarity of chemical composition. A crude polysac-charide (PS) fraction isolated from Cs-HK1 fungal mycelium showed significant antitumor activity,inhibiting melanoma tumor growth in mice. The PS-treated mice showed significantly higher serum interferon-γ(IFN-γ) level and higher proliferation rate of lymphocytes ex vivo than the control animals,suggestive of the immuno-modulatory activity of the PS fraction. In cell cultures,the PS fraction caused a significant and dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the proliferation of two cancer cell lines ,B16/neu mouse melanoma and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells,but not on normal spleen lymphocytes in vitro. Most of these bioactivities of the Cs-HK1 fungus were comparable to or even greater than those of natural Cs. The results showed that Cs-HK1 fun-gus may be a functional substitute for the natural Cs in health food and herbal medicine.

  19. Abscisic acid negatively regulates post-penetration resistance of Arabidopsis to the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiang; Cheng, Xi; Yin, Kangquan; Li, Huali; Qiu, Jin-Long

    2017-08-01

    Pytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays important roles in defense responses. Nonetheless, how ABA regulates plant resistance to biotrophic fungi remains largely unknown. Arabidopsis ABA-deficient mutants, aba2-1 and aba3-1, displayed enhanced resistance to the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus Golovinomyces cichoracearum. Moreover, exogenously administered ABA increased the susceptibility of Arabidopsis to G. cichoracearum. Arabidopsis ABA perception components mutants, abi1-1 and abi2-1, also displayed similar phenotypes to ABA-deficient mutants in resistance to G. cichoracearum. However, the resistance to G. cichoracearum is not changed in downstream ABA signaling transduction mutants, abi3-1, abi4-1, and abi5-1. Microscopic examination revealed that hyphal growth and conidiophore production of G. cichoracearum were compromised in the ABA deficient mutants, even though pre-penetration and penetration growth of the fungus were not affected. In addition, salicylic acid (SA) and MPK3 are found to be involved in ABA-regulated resistance to G. cichoracearum. Our work demonstrates that ABA negatively regulates post-penetration resistance of Arabidopsis to powdery mildew fungus G. cichoracearum, probably through antagonizing the function of SA.

  20. Differential Selection by Nematodes on an Introduced Biocontrol Fungus vs. Indigenous Fungi in Nonsterile Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Gwan; Knudsen, Guy R

    2018-03-15

    Trophic interactions of introduced biocontrol fungi with soil animals can bea key determinant in the fungal proliferation and activity.This study investigated trophic interaction of an introduced biocontrol fungus with soil nematodes. The biocontrol fungus Trichoderma harzianum ThzID1-M3 and the fungivorous nematode Aphelenchoides sp. (10 per gram of soil) were added to nonsterile soil, and microbial populations were monitored for 40 days. Similar results were obtained when the experiment was duplicated. ThzID1-M3 stimulated the population growth of indigenous nematodes ( p nematodes did not increase in number and the added Aphelenchoides sp. nematodes almost disappeared by day 10. With ThzID1-M3, population growth of nematodes was rapid between 5 and 10 days after treatment. ThzID1-M3 biomass peaked on day 5, dropped at day 10, and then almost disappeared at day 20, which was not influenced by the addition of nematodes.In contrast, a large quantity of ThzID1-M3 hyphae were present in a heat-treated soil in which nematodes were eliminated.Total fungal biomass in all treatments peaked on day 5 and subsequently decreased.Addition of nematodes increased the total fungal biomass ( p nematode population growth; however, hyphae of the introduced fungus when densely localized did.The results suggest that soil fungivorous nematodes are an important constraint onhyphal proliferation of fungal agents introduced into natural soils.