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Sample records for mode-locked oscillator flowing

  1. All-fiber Ho-doped mode-locked oscillator based on a graphene saturable absorber

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sotor, J.; Pawliszewska, M.; Sobon, G.; Kaczmarek, P.; Przewolka, A.; Pasternak, I.; Cajzl, Jakub; Peterka, Pavel; Honzátko, Pavel; Kašík, Ivan; Strupinski, W.; Abramski, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 11 (2016), s. 2592-2595 ISSN 0146-9592 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-35256S; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15122 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Fiber lasers * Graphene * Mode-locked oscillators Subject RIV: BH - Optics , Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.416, year: 2016

  2. Coupled opto electronic oscillator with a passively mode locked extended cavity diode laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeongmin; Jang, Gwang Hoon; Yoon, Duseong; Song, Minsoo; Yoon, Tai Hyun [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    An opto electronic oscillator(OEO)has very unique properties compared to the conventional quartz based microwave oscillators in that its oscillation frequency is determined by the beat note frequency of a phase coherent optical frequency comb generated as a side bands to an optical single mode carrier by using an electro optic modulator (EOM)or a direct current modulation of a semiconductor laser. Recently, a different type of OEO called a COEO has been demonstrated, where the optical carrier in the OEO system has been replaced by a mode locked laser so that an EOM or a direct current modulation are no longer necessary, but has potentially a much lower phase noise thanks to the high Q value of the optical frequency comb due to the mode locking mechanism. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a COEO based on a passively mode locked ECDL at 852nm in which the fourth harmonic of the repetition frequency of the ECDL matched exactly the ground state hyperfine splitting frequency of the Cs atoms.

  3. Coupled opto electronic oscillator with a passively mode locked extended cavity diode laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeongmin; Jang, Gwang Hoon; Yoon, Duseong; Song, Minsoo; Yoon, Tai Hyun

    2008-01-01

    An opto electronic oscillator(OEO)has very unique properties compared to the conventional quartz based microwave oscillators in that its oscillation frequency is determined by the beat note frequency of a phase coherent optical frequency comb generated as a side bands to an optical single mode carrier by using an electro optic modulator (EOM)or a direct current modulation of a semiconductor laser. Recently, a different type of OEO called a COEO has been demonstrated, where the optical carrier in the OEO system has been replaced by a mode locked laser so that an EOM or a direct current modulation are no longer necessary, but has potentially a much lower phase noise thanks to the high Q value of the optical frequency comb due to the mode locking mechanism. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a COEO based on a passively mode locked ECDL at 852nm in which the fourth harmonic of the repetition frequency of the ECDL matched exactly the ground state hyperfine splitting frequency of the Cs atoms

  4. Report on first masing and single mode locking in a prebunched beam FEM oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, M.; Eichenbaum, A.; Kleinman, H. [Tel-Aviv Univ., Ramat-Aviv (Israel)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Radiation characteristics of a table-top free electron maser (FEM) are described in this paper. The FEM employs a prebunched electron beam and is operated as an oscillator in the low-gain collective (Raman) regime. Using electron beam prebunching single mode locking at any one of the possible oscillation modes was obtained. The electron beam is prebunched by a microwave tube section before it is injected into the wiggler. By tuning the electron beam bunching frequency, the FEM oscillation frequency can be locked to any eigen frequency of the resonant waveguide cavity which is within the frequency band of net gain of the FEM. The oscillation build up process is sped up, when the FEM operates with a prebunched electron beam, and the build-up time of radiation is shortened significantly. First measurements of masing with and without prebunching and characterization of the emitted radiation are reported.

  5. Short pulse generation from a passively mode-locked fiber optical parametric oscillator with optical time-stretch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yi; Wei, Xiaoming; Du, Shuxin; Wong, Kenneth K Y; Tsia, Kevin K; Xu, Yiqing

    2018-04-16

    We propose a passively mode-locked fiber optical parametric oscillator assisted with optical time-stretch. Thanks to the lately developed optical time-stretch technique, the onset oscillating spectral components can be temporally dispersed across the pump envelope and further compete for the parametric gain with the other parts of onset oscillating sidebands within the pump envelope. By matching the amount of dispersion in optical time-stretch with the pulse width of the quasi-CW pump and oscillating one of the parametric sidebands inside the fiber cavity, we numerically show that the fiber parametric oscillator can be operated in a single pulse regime. By varying the amount of the intracavity dispersion, we further verify that the origin of this single pulse mode-locking regime is due to the optical pulse stretching and compression.

  6. Mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser oscillators pumped by wavelength-multiplexed laser diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Naoto; Tanaka, Hiroki; Kannari, Fumihiko

    2018-05-01

    We directly pumped a Ti:sapphire laser by combining 478 and 520 nm laser diodes to prevent the effect of absorption loss induced by the pump laser of shorter wavelengths (∼450 nm). We obtain a continuous-wave output power of 660 mW at a total incident pump power of 3.15 W. We demonstrate mode locking using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror, and 126 fs pulses were obtained at a repetition rate of 192 MHz. At the maximum pump power, the average output power is 315 mW. Shorter mode-locked pulses of 42 and 48 fs were respectively achieved by Kerr-lens mode locking with average output powers of 280 and 360 mW at a repetition rate of 117 MHz.

  7. Passive mode locking and formation of dissipative solitons in electron oscillators with a bleaching absorber in the feedback loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzburg, N. S., E-mail: ginzburg@appl.sci-nnov.ru; Kocharovskaya, E. R.; Vilkov, M. N.; Sergeev, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Applied Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The mechanisms of passive mode locking and formation of ultrashort pulses in microwave electron oscillators with a bleaching absorber in the feedback loop have been analyzed. It is shown that in the group synchronism regime in which the translational velocity of particles coincides with the group velocity of the electromagnetic wave, the pulse formation can be described by the equations known in the theory of dissipative solitons. At the same time, the regimes in which the translational velocity of electrons differs from the group velocity and the soliton being formed and moving along the electron beam consecutively (cumulatively) receives energy from various electron fractions are optimal for generating pulses with the maximal peak amplitudes.

  8. Electrical tuning of the oscillator strength in type II InAs/GaInSb quantum wells for active region of passively mode-locked interband cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyksik, Mateusz; Motyka, Marcin; Kurka, Marcin; Ryczko, Krzysztof; Misiewicz, Jan; Schade, Anne; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven; Sęk, Grzegorz

    2017-11-01

    Two designs of active region for an interband cascade laser, based on double or triple GaInSb/InAs type II quantum wells (QWs), were compared with respect to passive mode-locked operation in the mid-infrared range around 4 µm. The layer structure and electron and hole wavefunctions under external electric field were engineered to allow controlling the optical transition oscillator strength and the resulting lifetimes. As a result, the investigated structures can mimic absorber-like and gain-like sections of a mode-locked device when properly polarized with opposite bias. A significantly larger oscillator strength tuning range for triple QWs was experimentally verified by Fourier-transform photoreflectance.

  9. Quasi-continuously pumped passively mode-locked 2.4% doped Nd:YAG oscillator-amplifier system in a bounce geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínek, Michal; Kubecek, Vaclav; Cech, Miroslav; Hirsl, Petr

    2010-02-01

    We report on oscillator-amplifier system based on two highly doped 2.4 at. % crystalline Czochralski grown Nd:YAG crystals in a diode pumped bounce geometry configuration under quasi-continuous pumping. The oscillator was passively mode-locked by the semiconductor saturable absorber in transmission mode. The output pulse train consisted of 5 pulses with total energy of 270 μJ and pulse duration of 75 ps. The output train from the oscillator was amplified to the energy of 1 mJ by single pass amplifier.

  10. Self-oscillations in cw solid-state ultrashort-pulse-generating lasers with mode locking by self-focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikov, V L; Krimer, D O; Mejid, F; Poloiko, I G; Mikhailov, V P

    1999-01-01

    Steady-state and transient regimes of ultrashort pulse generation are studied for cw solid-state lasers with mode locking by self-focusing. It is shown that the control parameter, which governs the nature of lasing, is the relationship between self-phase-modulation and the saturation intensity of an efficient shutter, induced by the Kerr self-focusing. Numerical modelling based on mapping the parameters of a quasi-soliton ultrashort pulse, considered in the aberration-free approximation, yields results in good agreement with experiments. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  11. Generation of “gigantic” ultra-short microwave pulses based on passive mode-locking effect in electron oscillators with saturable absorber in the feedback loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, N. S.; Denisov, G. G.; Vilkov, M. N.; Zotova, I. V.; Sergeev, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    A periodic train of powerful ultrashort microwave pulses can be generated in electron oscillators with a non-linear saturable absorber installed in the feedback loop. This method of pulse formation resembles the passive mode-locking widely used in laser physics. Nevertheless, there is a specific feature in the mechanism of pulse amplification when consecutive energy extraction from different fractions of a stationary electron beam takes place due to pulse slippage over the beam caused by the difference between the wave group velocity and the electron axial velocity. As a result, the peak power of generated “gigantic” pulses can exceed not only the level of steady-state generation but also, in the optimal case, the power of the driving electron beam.

  12. A novel mode-locking technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shaoh; Chen Youming; Chen Taolue; Si Xiangdong; Yang Yi; Deng Ximing

    1993-01-01

    A novel mode-locked Nd:YAG oscillator has been developed by using an ultrafast photoconductive feedback controlled loop, and mode-locked pulses with a duration of 100ps have been obtained. The energy instability of the pulse trains is ±5%. In this type of mode-locking technology, a type of deep-level doped GaAs (Cr-doped) photoconductive switch, which has a fast response in time and is free of avalance process, is used to drive a Pockels' cell to realize mode-locking. The dark resistance of this type of photoconductive switch is 6 orders of magnitude higher than that of the intrinsic single-crystal silicon, and it can reach a level as high as 10 9 ohms. Consequently, it is able to withstand longterm operation at several thousand DC volts. By means of the photoconductive ohmic switch characteristics, the authors have designed a positive feedback control network which has a very fast response time, and can couple a voltage of up to a thousand volts. Using this unit in a Nd:YAG laser, they have successfully realized a very stable mode-locked pulse train with pulse width shorter than 100 ps. The operation principle, and the results of the preliminary experiments are presented here. 1 ref., 3 figs

  13. The transient evolution of AM mode locking a TEA CO2laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, F.A.; Bonnie, Ronald J.M.; Witteman, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    The evolution of the pulse in an AM mode-locked TEA CO2laser has been investigated. The experiments have been performed by injecting the mode-locked pulses in a high-pressure slave oscillator at various time intervals after the initiation of the mode-lock process. This technique allows the

  14. Dynamical modeling and experiment for an intra-cavity optical parametric oscillator pumped by a Q-switched self-mode-locking laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Nianqiao; Song, Peng; Zhang, Haikun

    2016-11-01

    The rate-equation-based model for the Q-switched mode-locking (QML) intra-cavity OPO (IOPO) is developed, which includes the behavior of the fundamental laser. The intensity fluctuation mechanism of the fundamental laser is first introduced into the dynamics of a mode-locking OPO. In the derived model, the OPO nonlinear conversion is considered as a loss for the fundamental laser and thus the QML signal profile originates from the QML fundamental laser. The rate equations are solved by a digital computer for the case of an IOPO pumped by an electro-optic (EO) Q-switched self-mode-locking fundamental laser. The simulated results for the temporal shape with 20 kHz EO repetition and 11.25 W pump power, the signal average power, the Q-switched pulsewidth and the Q-switched pulse energy are obtained from the rate equations. The signal trace and output power from an EO QML Nd3+: GdVO4/KTA IOPO are experimentally measured. The theoretical values from the rate equations agree with the experimental results well. The developed model explains the behavior, which is helpful to system optimization.

  15. Laser dynamics of asynchronous rational harmonic mode-locked fiber soliton lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jyu, Siao-Shan; Jiang, Guo-Hao; Lai, Yinchieh

    2013-01-01

    Laser dynamics of asynchronous rational harmonic mode-locked (ARHM) fiber soliton lasers are investigated in detail. In particular, based on the unique laser dynamics of asynchronous mode-locking, we have developed a new method for determining the effective active modulation strength in situ for ARHM lasers. By measuring the magnitudes of the slowly oscillating pulse timing position and central frequency, the effective phase modulation strength at the multiplication frequency of rational harmonic mode-locking can be accurately inferred. The method can be a very useful tool for developing ARHM fiber lasers. (paper)

  16. An automatic mode-locked system for passively mode-locked fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sha; Xu, Jun; Chen, Guoliang; Mei, Li; Yi, Bo

    2013-12-01

    This paper designs and implements one kind of automatic mode-locked system. It can adjust a passively mode-locked fiber laser to keep steady mode-locked states automatically. So the unsteadiness of traditional passively mode-locked fiber laser can be avoided. The system transforms optical signals into electrical pulse signals and sends them into MCU after processing. MCU calculates the frequency of the signals and judges the state of the output based on a quick judgment algorithm. A high-speed comparator is used to check the signals and the comparison voltage can be adjusted to improve the measuring accuracy. Then by controlling two polarization controllers at an angle of 45degrees to each other, MCU extrudes the optical fibers to change the polarization until it gets proper mode-locked output. So the system can continuously monitor the output signal and get it back to mode-locked states quickly and automatically. States of the system can be displayed on the LCD and PC. The parameters of the steady mode-locked states can be stored into an EEPROM so that the system will get into mode-locked states immediately next time. Actual experiments showed that, for a 6.238MHz passively mode-locked fiber lasers, the system can get into steady mode-locked states automatically in less than 90s after starting the system. The expected lock time can be reduced to less than 20s after follow up improvements.

  17. Mode-locked silicon evanescent lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Brian R; Fang, Alexander W; Cohen, Oded; Bowers, John E

    2007-09-03

    We demonstrate electrically pumped lasers on silicon that produce pulses at repetition rates up to 40 GHz. The mode locked lasers generate 4 ps pulses with low jitter and extinction ratios above 18 dB, making them suitable for data and telecommunication transmitters and for clock generation and distribution. Results of both passive and hybrid mode locking are discussed. This type of device could enable new silicon based integrated technologies, such as optical time division multiplexing (OTDM), wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), and optical code division multiple access (OCDMA).

  18. A Mode Locked UV-FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Parvin, Parviz

    2004-01-01

    An appropriate resonator has been designed to generate femtosecond mode locked pulses in a UV FEL with the modulator performance based on the gain switching. The gain broadening due to electron energy spread affects on the gain parameters, small signal gain (γ0) and saturation intensity (Is), to determine the optimum output coupling as small.

  19. Mode-locking via dissipative Faraday instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Nikita; Perego, Auro M; Churkin, Dmitry V; Staliunas, Kestutis; Turitsyn, Sergei K

    2016-08-09

    Emergence of coherent structures and patterns at the nonlinear stage of modulation instability of a uniform state is an inherent feature of many biological, physical and engineering systems. There are several well-studied classical modulation instabilities, such as Benjamin-Feir, Turing and Faraday instability, which play a critical role in the self-organization of energy and matter in non-equilibrium physical, chemical and biological systems. Here we experimentally demonstrate the dissipative Faraday instability induced by spatially periodic zig-zag modulation of a dissipative parameter of the system-spectrally dependent losses-achieving generation of temporal patterns and high-harmonic mode-locking in a fibre laser. We demonstrate features of this instability that distinguish it from both the Benjamin-Feir and the purely dispersive Faraday instability. Our results open the possibilities for new designs of mode-locked lasers and can be extended to other fields of physics and engineering.

  20. Emergence of resonant mode-locking via delayed feedback in quantum dot semiconductor lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tykalewicz, B; Goulding, D; Hegarty, S P; Huyet, G; Erneux, T; Kelleher, B; Viktorov, E A

    2016-02-22

    With conventional semiconductor lasers undergoing external optical feedback, a chaotic output is typically observed even for moderate levels of the feedback strength. In this paper we examine single mode quantum dot lasers under strong optical feedback conditions and show that an entirely new dynamical regime is found consisting of spontaneous mode-locking via a resonance between the relaxation oscillation frequency and the external cavity repetition rate. Experimental observations are supported by detailed numerical simulations of rate equations appropriate for this laser type. The phenomenon constitutes an entirely new mode-locking mechanism in semiconductor lasers.

  1. Harmonic Mode-Locked Fiber Laser based on Photonic Crystal Fiber Filled with Topological Insulator Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We reported that the photonic crystal fiber (PCF filled with TI:Bi2Te3 nanosheets solution could act as an effective saturable absorber (SA. Employing this TI-PCF SA device; we constructed an ytterbium-doped all-fiber laser oscillator and achieved the evanescent wave mode-locking operation. Due to the large cavity dispersion; the fundamental mode-locking pulse had the large full width at half maximum (FWHM of 2.33 ns with the repetition rate of ~1.11 MHz; and the radio frequency (RF spectrum with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of 61 dB. In addition; the transition dynamics from a bunched state of pulses to harmonic mode-locking (HML was also observed; which was up to 26th order.

  2. Delay differential equations for mode-locked semiconductor lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirov, Andrei G; Turaev, Dmitry; Kozyreff, Gregory

    2004-06-01

    We propose a new model for passive mode locking that is a set of ordinary delay differential equations. We assume a ring-cavity geometry and Lorentzian spectral filtering of the pulses but do not use small gain and loss and weak saturation approximations. By means of a continuation method, we study mode-locking solutions and their stability. We find that stable mode locking can exist even when the nonlasing state between pulses becomes unstable.

  3. Mode-locking in advection-reaction-diffusion systems: An invariant manifold perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Rory A.; Mahoney, John R.; Mitchell, Kevin A.

    2018-01-01

    Fronts propagating in two-dimensional advection-reaction-diffusion systems exhibit a rich topological structure. When the underlying fluid flow is periodic in space and time, the reaction front can lock to the driving frequency. We explain this mode-locking phenomenon using the so-called burning invariant manifolds (BIMs). In fact, the mode-locked profile is delineated by a BIM attached to a relative periodic orbit (RPO) of the front element dynamics. Changes in the type (and loss) of mode-locking can be understood in terms of local and global bifurcations of the RPOs and their BIMs. We illustrate these concepts numerically using a chain of alternating vortices in a channel geometry.

  4. Heat exchanger with oscillating flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Stephen J. (Inventor); Blosser, Max L. (Inventor); Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Various heat exchange apparatuses are described in which an oscillating flow of primary coolant is used to dissipate an incident heat flux. The oscillating flow may be imparted by a reciprocating piston, a double action twin reciprocating piston, fluidic oscillators or electromagnetic pumps. The oscillating fluid flows through at least one conduit in either an open loop or a closed loop. A secondary flow of coolant may be used to flow over the outer walls of at least one conduit to remove heat transferred from the primary coolant to the walls of the conduit.

  5. Commercial mode-locked vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, C. Robin; Paboeuf, David; Ortega, Tiago; Lubeigt, Walter; Bialkowski, Bartlomiej; Lin, Jipeng; Hempler, Nils; Maker, Gareth T.; Malcolm, Graeme P. A.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the latest efforts in the development of commercial optically-pumped semiconductor disk lasers (SDLs) at M Squared Lasers. Two types of SDLs are currently being developed: an ultrafast system and a continuous wave single frequency system under the names of Dragonfly and Infinite, respectively. Both offer a compact, low-cost, easy-to-use and maintenance-free tool for a range of growing markets including nonlinear microscopy and quantum technology. To facilitate consumer uptake of the SDL technology, the performance specifications aim to closely match the currently employed systems. An extended Dragonfly system is being developed targeting the nonlinear microscopy market, which typically requires 1-W average power pulse trains with pulse durations below 200 fs. The pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of the commonly used laser systems, typically Titanium-sapphire lasers, is 80 MHz. This property is particularly challenging for mode-locked SDLs which tend to operate at GHz repetition rates, due to their short upper state carrier lifetime. Dragonfly has found a compromise at 200 MHz to balance mode-locking instabilities with a low PRF. In the ongoing development of Dragonfly, additional pulse compression and nonlinear spectral broadening stages are used to obtain pulse durations as short as 130 fs with an average power of 0.85 W, approaching the required performance. A variant of the Infinite system was adapted to provide a laser source suitable for the first stage of Sr atom cooling at 461 nm. Such a source requires average powers of approximately 1 W with a sub-MHz linewidth. As direct emission in the blue is not a viable approach at this stage, an SDL emitting at 922 nm followed by an M Squared Lasers SolTiS ECD-X doubler is currently under development. The SDL oscillator delivered >1 W of single frequency (RMS frequency noise <150kHz) light at 922 nm.

  6. Scaling laws for mode lockings in circle maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvitanovic, P.; Shraiman, B.; Soederberg, B.

    1985-06-01

    The self-similar structure of mode lockings for circle maps is studied by means of the associated Farey trees. We investigate numerically several classes of scaling relations implicit in the Farey organization of mode lockings and discuss the extent to which they lead to universal scaling laws. (orig.)

  7. Heterogeneous Silicon III-V Mode-Locked Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Michael Loehrlein

    Mode-locked lasers are useful for a variety of applications, such as sensing, telecommunication, and surgical instruments. This work focuses on integrated-circuit mode-locked lasers: those that combine multiple optical and electronic functions and are manufactured together on a single chip. While this allows production at high volume and lower cost, the true potential of integration is to open applications for mode-locked laser diodes where solid state lasers cannot fit, either due to size and power consumption constraints, or where small optical or electrical paths are needed for high bandwidth. Unfortunately, most high power and highly stable mode-locked laser diode demonstrations in scientific literature are based on the Fabry-Perot resonator design, with cleaved mirrors, and are unsuitable for use in integrated circuits because of the difficulty of producing integrated Fabry-Perot cavities. We use silicon photonics and heterogeneous integration with III-V gain material to produce the most powerful and lowest noise fully integrated mode-locked laser diode in the 20 GHz frequency range. If low noise and high peak power are required, it is arguably the best performing fully integrated mode-locked laser ever demonstrated. We present the design methodology and experimental pathway to realize a fully integrated mode-locked laser diode. The construction of the device, beginning with the selection of an integration platform, and proceeding through the fabrication process to final optimization, is presented in detail. The dependence of mode-locked laser performance on a wide variety of design parameters is presented. Applications for integrated circuit mode-locked lasers are also discussed, as well as proposed methods for using integration to improve mode-locking performance to beyond the current state of the art.

  8. Interband optical pulse injection locking of quantum dot mode-locked semiconductor laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jimyung; Delfyett, Peter J

    2008-07-21

    We experimentally demonstrate optical clock recovery from quantum dot mode-locked semiconductor lasers by interband optical pulse injection locking. The passively mode-locked slave laser oscillating on the ground state or the first excited state transition is locked through the injection of optical pulses generated via the opposite transition bands, i.e. the first excited state or the ground state transition from the hybridly mode-locked master laser, respectively. When an optical pulse train generated via the first excited state from the master laser is injected to the slave laser oscillating via ground state, the slave laser shows an asymmetric locking bandwidth around the nominal repetition rate of the slave laser. In the reverse injection case of, i.e. the ground state (master laser) to the first excited state (slave laser), the slave laser does not lock even though both lasers oscillate at the same cavity frequency. In this case, the slave laser only locks to higher injection rates as compared to its own nominal repetition rate, and also shows a large locking bandwidth of 6.7 MHz.

  9. Testing ultrafast mode-locking at microhertz relative optical linewidth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael J; Foreman, Seth M; Schibli, T R; Ye, Jun

    2009-01-19

    We report new limits on the phase coherence of the ultrafast mode-locking process in an octave-spanning Ti:sapphire comb.We find that the mode-locking mechanism correlates optical phase across a full optical octave with less than 2.5 microHZ relative linewidth. This result is at least two orders of magnitude below recent predictions for quantum-limited individual comb-mode linewidths, verifying that the mode-locking mechanism strongly correlates quantum noise across the comb spectrum.

  10. Testing ultrafast mode-locking at microhertz relative optical linewidth

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Michael J.; Foreman, Seth M.; Schibli, T. R.; Ye, Jun

    2008-01-01

    We report new limits on the phase coherence of the ultrafast mode-locking process in an octave-spanning Ti:sapphire comb. We find that the mode-locking mechanism correlates optical phase across a full optical octave with less than 2.5 micro Hz relative linewidth. This result is at least two orders of magnitude below recent predictions for quantum-limited individual comb-mode linewidths, verifying that the mode-locking mechanism strongly correlates quantum noise across the comb spectrum.

  11. Monolithic Hybrid and Passive Mode-Locked 40GHz Quantum Dot Laser Diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, M. G.; Larsson, David; Rae, A. R.

    2006-01-01

    For the first time hybrid and passive mode-locking jitter performance is investigated in 40GHz quantum-dot mode-locked lasers. Record low passive mode-locking jitter of 219fs is presented, along with promising hybrid mode-locking results of 124fs.......For the first time hybrid and passive mode-locking jitter performance is investigated in 40GHz quantum-dot mode-locked lasers. Record low passive mode-locking jitter of 219fs is presented, along with promising hybrid mode-locking results of 124fs....

  12. Self-mode-locked Nd3+:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, A K; Komarov, K P; Kuch'yanov, Aleksandr S

    2003-01-01

    Self-mode-locking was observed in a Nd 3+ :YAG laser with a negative feedback without introducing any nonlinear elements into the laser cavity. The laser generates during pumping 300 - 500-ps single pulses on an axial period. (lasers)

  13. Mode-Locked Semiconductor Lasers for Optical Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yvind, Kresten; Larsson, David; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2005-01-01

    We present investigations on 10 and 40 GHz monolithic mode-locked lasers for applications in optical communications systems. New all-active lasers with one to three quantum wells have been designed, fabricated and characterized....

  14. Optimizing the active region of interband cascade lasers for passive mode-locking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ryczko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The work proposes possible designs of active regions for a mode-locked interband cascade laser emitting in the mid infrared. For that purpose we investigated the electronic structure properties of respectively modified GaSb-based type II W-shaped quantum wells, including the effect of external bias in order to simultaneously fulfil the requirements for both the absorber as well as the gain sections of a device. The results show that introducing multiple InAs layers in type II InAs/GaInSb quantum wells or introducing a tensely-strained GaAsSb layer into “W-shaped” type II QWs offers significant difference in optical transitions’ oscillator strengths (characteristic lifetimes of the two oppositely polarized parts of such a laser, being promising for utilization in mode-locked devices.

  15. Diode-pumped Kerr-lens mode-locked femtosecond Yb:YAG ceramic laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi-Ye, Gao; Jiang-Feng, Zhu; Ke, Wang; Jun-Li, Wang; Zhao-Hua, Wang; Zhi-Yi, Wei

    2016-02-01

    We experimentally demonstrated a diode-pumped Kerr-lens mode-locked femtosecond laser based on an Yb:YAG ceramic. Stable laser pulses with 97-fs duration, 2.8-nJ pulse energy, and 320-mW average power were obtained. The femtosecond oscillator operated at a central wavelength of 1049 nm and a repetition rate of 115 MHz. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a Kerr-lens mode-locked operation in a diode-pumped Yb:YAG ceramic laser with sub-100 fs pulse duration. Project supported by the National Major Scientific Instrument Development Project of China (Grant No. 2012YQ120047), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61205130), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. JB140502).

  16. Compressible flow in fluidic oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Emilio; Hirsch, Damian; Gharib, Mory

    2013-11-01

    We present qualitative observations on the internal flow characteristics of fluidic oscillator geometries commonly referred to as sweeping jets in active flow control applications. We also discuss the effect of the geometry on the output jet in conditions from startup to supersonic exit velocity. Supported by the Boeing Company.

  17. Oscillating liquid flow ICF Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzoldt, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Oscillating liquid flow in a falling molten salt inertial confinement fusion reactor is predicted to rapidly clear driver beam paths of residual liquid droplets. Oscillating flow will also provide adequate neutron and x-ray protection for the reactor structure with a short (2-m) fall distance permitting an 8 Hz repetition rate. A reactor chamber configuration is presented with specific features to clear the entire heavy-ion beam path of splashed molten salt. The structural components, including the structure between beam ports, are shielded. 3 refs., 12 figs

  18. Measuring a Fiber-Optic Delay Line Using a Mode-Locked Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Meirong; McKee, Michael R.; Pak, Kyung S.; Yu, Nan

    2010-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts a laboratory setup for determining the optical length of a fiber-optic delay line at a precision greater than that obtainable by use of optical time-domain reflectometry or of mechanical measurement of length during the delay-line-winding process. In this setup, the delay line becomes part of the resonant optical cavity that governs the frequency of oscillation of a mode-locked laser. The length can then be determined from frequency-domain measurements, as described below. The laboratory setup is basically an all-fiber ring laser in which the delay line constitutes part of the ring. Another part of the ring - the laser gain medium - is an erbium-doped fiber amplifier pumped by a diode laser at a wavelength of 980 nm. The loop also includes an optical isolator, two polarization controllers, and a polarizing beam splitter. The optical isolator enforces unidirectional lasing. The polarization beam splitter allows light in only one polarization mode to pass through the ring; light in the orthogonal polarization mode is rejected from the ring and utilized as a diagnostic output, which is fed to an optical spectrum analyzer and a photodetector. The photodetector output is fed to a radio-frequency spectrum analyzer and an oscilloscope. The fiber ring laser can generate continuous-wave radiation in non-mode-locked operation or ultrashort optical pulses in mode-locked operation. The mode-locked operation exhibited by this ring is said to be passive in the sense that no electro-optical modulator or other active optical component is used to achieve it. Passive mode locking is achieved by exploiting optical nonlinearity of passive components in such a manner as to obtain ultra-short optical pulses. In this setup, the particular nonlinear optical property exploited to achieve passive mode locking is nonlinear polarization rotation. This or any ring laser can support oscillation in multiple modes as long as sufficient gain is present to overcome

  19. Semiconductor Mode-Locked Lasers for Optical Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yvind, Kresten

    2003-01-01

    The thesis deals with the design and fabrication of semiconductor mode-locked lasers for use in optical communication systems. The properties of pulse sources and characterization methods are described as well as requirements for application in communication systems. Especially, the importance of...

  20. Material Engineering for Monolithic Semiconductor Mode-Locked Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulkova, Irina

    This thesis is devoted to the materials engineering for semiconductor monolithic passively mode-locked lasers (MLLs) as a compact energy-efficient source of ultrashort optical pulses. Up to the present day, the achievement of low-noise sub-picosecond pulse generation has remained a challenge...

  1. Mode locking of Yb:GdYAG ceramic lasers with an isotropic cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, C W; Tang, D Y; Zhu, H Y; Zhang, J

    2013-01-01

    We report on the passive mode locking of a diode pumped Yb:GdYAG ceramic laser with a near isotropic cavity. It is found that the laser could simultaneously mode lock in the two orthogonal principal polarization directions of the cavity, and the mode locked pulses of the two polarizations have identical features and are temporally perfectly synchronized. However, their pulse energy varies out-of-phase periodically, manifesting the antiphase dynamics of mode locked lasers. (letter)

  2. Diode array pumped, non-linear mirror Q-switched and mode-locked

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A non-linear mirror consisting of a lithium triborate crystal and a dichroic output coupler are used to mode-lock (passively) an Nd : YVO4 laser, pumped by a diode laser array. The laser can operate both in cw mode-locked and simultaneously Q-switched and mode-locked (QML) regime. The peak power of the laser while ...

  3. Dispersion engineering of mode-locked fibre lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, R. I.

    2018-03-01

    Mode-locked fibre lasers are important sources of ultrashort pulses, where stable pulse generation is achieved through a balance of periodic amplitude and phase evolutions. A range of distinct cavity pulse dynamics have been revealed, arising from the interplay between dispersion and nonlinearity in addition to dissipative processes such as filtering. This has led to the discovery of numerous novel operating regimes, offering significantly improved laser performance. In this Topical Review, we summarise the main steady-state pulse dynamics reported to date through cavity dispersion engineering, including average solitons, dispersion-managed solitons, dissipative solitons, giant-chirped pulses and similaritons. Characteristic features and the stabilisation mechanism of each regime are described, supported by numerical modelling, in addition to the typical performance and limitations. Opportunities for further pulse energy scaling are discussed, in addition to considering other recent advances including automated self-tuning cavities and fluoride-fibre-based mid-infrared mode-locked lasers.

  4. Color center lasers passively mode locked by quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.N.; Soccolich, C.E.; Bar-Joseph, I.; Sauer, N.; Chang, T.Y.; Miller, B.I.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes how, using multiple quantum well (MQW) saturable absorbers, the authors passively mode locked a NaCl color center laser to produce 275 fs transform-limited, pedestal-free pulses with as high as 3.7 kW peak power. The pulses are tunable from λ = 1.59 to 1.7 μm by choosing MQW's with different bandgaps. They shortened the output pulses from the laser to 25 fs using the technique of soliton compression in a fiber. The steady-state operation of the laser requires the combination of a fast saturable absorber and gain saturation. In addition to the NaCl laser, they passively mode locked a Tl 0 (1):KCl color center laser and produced -- 22 ps pulses. Although the 275 fs pulses from the NaCl laser are Gaussian, when broadened, the pulses acquire an asymmetric spectrum because of carrier-induced refractive index changes

  5. Mode-locked solid state lasers using diode laser excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtom, Gary R [Boston, MA

    2012-03-06

    A mode-locked laser employs a coupled-polarization scheme for efficient longitudinal pumping by reshaped laser diode bars. One or more dielectric polarizers are configured to reflect a pumping wavelength having a first polarization and to reflect a lasing wavelength having a second polarization. An asymmetric cavity provides relatively large beam spot sizes in gain medium to permit efficient coupling to a volume pumped by a laser diode bar. The cavity can include a collimation region with a controlled beam spot size for insertion of a saturable absorber and dispersion components. Beam spot size is selected to provide stable mode locking based on Kerr lensing. Pulse durations of less than 100 fs can be achieved in Yb:KGW.

  6. Mode locking in overdamped charge-density-wave systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alstroem, P.; Levinsen, M.T.

    1988-01-01

    We show that the rich mode-locking structure observed in overdamped charge-density-wave (CDW) systems can be understood in terms of a simple model of driven damped 'particles' without inertia in a non-sinusoidal periodic potential. The analysis shows that the nonchaotic system of a driven overdamped CDW without inertia in general has a 'close-to-chaotic' behavior in an appropriate frequency range. Our results also provide a natural basis for studies of spatially extended CDW systems. (orig.)

  7. Modelling colliding-pulse mode-locked semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Svend

    or to determine the optimum operation conditions. The purpose of this thesis is to elucidate some of the physics of interest in the field of semiconductor laser modelling, semiconductor optics and fiber optics. To be more specific we will investigate: The Colliding-Pulse Mode-Locked (CPM) Quantum Well (QW) laser...... diode; the excitonic semiconductor response for varying material thickness in the case of linear optics; and modulational instability of electromagnetic waves in media with spatially varying non-linearity....

  8. Chirp of monolithic colliding pulse mode-locked diode lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, M.; Bischoff, S.; Franck, Thorkild

    1997-01-01

    Spectrally resolved streak camera measurements of picosecond pulses emitted by hybridly colliding pulse mode-locked (CPM) laser diodes are presented in this letter. Depending on the modulation frequency both blue-chirped (upchirped) and red-chirped (downchirped) pulses can be observed. The two...... different regimes and the transition between them are characterized experimentally and the behavior is explained on the basis of our model for the CPM laser dynamics. (C) 1997 American Institute of Physics....

  9. Self-mode-locked AlGaInP-VECSEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bek, R.; Großmann, M.; Kahle, H.; Koch, M.; Rahimi-Iman, A.; Jetter, M.; Michler, P.

    2017-10-01

    We report the mode-locked operation of an AlGaInP-based semiconductor disk laser without a saturable absorber. The active region containing 20 GaInP quantum wells is used in a linear cavity with a curved outcoupling mirror. The gain chip is optically pumped by a 532 nm laser, and mode-locking is achieved by carefully adjusting the pump spot size. For a pump power of 6.8 W, an average output power of up to 30 mW is reached at a laser wavelength of 666 nm. The pulsed emission is characterized using a fast oscilloscope and a spectrum analyzer, demonstrating stable single-pulse operation at a repetition rate of 3.5 GHz. Intensity autocorrelation measurements reveal a FWHM pulse duration of 22 ps with an additional coherence peak on top, indicating noise-like pulses. The frequency spectrum, as well as the Gaussian beam profile and the measured beam propagation factor below 1.1, shows no influence of higher order transverse modes contributing to the mode-locked operation.

  10. Cascade mode locking: a possible route to chaos in the two-waves hamiltonian system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gell, Y.; Nakach, R.

    1989-06-01

    We present a numerical study of the two-waves Hamiltonian system which reveals the route to large scale stochasticity as a process based on the mode-locking phenomenon. The final chaos is reached after a cascade of lockings, appearing successively for different independent modes of oscillation in the system. Using a Fourier analysis, the different steps in this cascade process are detected by following the change in the frequency of the pronounced modes in the power spectrum; when changing the strength of the pertubation, one observes the locking of the relevant mode to a fixed frequency inherent to the system. It is shown that this mechanism allows for the generation of low frequency oscillations which, due to the nonlinear coupling existing in the system, combine with all the existing peaks into a raised spectrum consisting of broad diffuse patterns, which is the signature of chaotic motion

  11. Influence of the nuclear Zeeman effect on mode locking in pulsed semiconductor quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beugeling, Wouter; Uhrig, Götz S.; Anders, Frithjof B.

    2017-09-01

    The coherence of the electron spin in a semiconductor quantum dot is strongly enhanced by mode locking through nuclear focusing, where the synchronization of the electron spin to periodic pulsing is slowly transferred to the nuclear spins of the semiconductor material, mediated by the hyperfine interaction between these. The external magnetic field that drives the Larmor oscillations of the electron spin also subjects the nuclear spins to a Zeeman-like coupling, albeit a much weaker one. For typical magnetic fields used in experiments, the energy scale of the nuclear Zeeman effect is comparable to that of the hyperfine interaction, so that it is not negligible. In this work, we analyze the influence of the nuclear Zeeman effect on mode locking quantitatively. Within a perturbative framework, we calculate the Overhauser-field distribution after a prolonged period of pulsing. We find that the nuclear Zeeman effect can exchange resonant and nonresonant frequencies. We distinguish between models with a single type and with multiple types of nuclei. For the latter case, the positions of the resonances depend on the individual g factors, rather than on the average value.

  12. Dynamics of temporally localized states in passively mode-locked semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelte, C.; Javaloyes, J.; Gurevich, S. V.

    2018-05-01

    We study the emergence and the stability of temporally localized structures in the output of a semiconductor laser passively mode locked by a saturable absorber in the long-cavity regime. For large yet realistic values of the linewidth enhancement factor, we disclose the existence of secondary dynamical instabilities where the pulses develop regular and subsequent irregular temporal oscillations. By a detailed bifurcation analysis we show that additional solution branches that consist of multipulse (molecules) solutions exist. We demonstrate that the various solution curves for the single and multipeak pulses can splice and intersect each other via transcritical bifurcations, leading to a complex web of solutions. Our analysis is based on a generic model of mode locking that consists of a time-delayed dynamical system, but also on a much more numerically efficient, yet approximate, partial differential equation. We compare the results of the bifurcation analysis of both models in order to assess up to which point the two approaches are equivalent. We conclude our analysis by the study of the influence of group velocity dispersion, which is only possible in the framework of the partial differential equation model, and we show that it may have a profound impact on the dynamics of the localized states.

  13. Structure of picosecond pulses of a Q-switched and mode-locked diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donin, V I; Yakovin, D V; Gribanov, A V [Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-31

    The pulse duration of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser, in which Q-switching with mode-locking (QML regime) is achieved using a spherical mirror and a travelling-wave acousto-optic modulator, is directly measured with a streak camera. It is found that the picosecond pulses can have a non-single-pulse structure, which is explained by excitation of several competing transverse modes in the Q-switching regime with a pulse repetition rate of 1 kHz. In the case of cw mode-locking (without Q-switching), a new (auto-QML) regime is observed, in which the pulse train repetition rate is determined by the frequency of the relaxation oscillations of the laser field while the train contains single picosecond pulses. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  14. Narrow Q-switching pulse width and low mode-locking repetition rate Q-switched mode locking with a new coupled laser cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, J Y; Zheng, Y; Shen, J P; Shi, Y X

    2013-01-01

    An original diode-pumped Q-switched and mode-locked solid state Nd:GdVO 4 laser is demonstrated. The laser operates with double saturable absorbers and a new coupled laser cavity. The Q-switching envelope width is compressed to be about 15 ns and the mode-locking repetition rate is as low as 90 MHz. (paper)

  15. Inter-comb synchronization by mode-to-mode locking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Byung Jae; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2016-08-01

    Two combs of fiber femtosecond lasers are synchronized through the optical frequency reference created by injection-locking of a diode laser to a single comb mode. Maintaining a mHz-level narrow linewidth, the optical frequency reference permits two combs to be stabilized by mode-to-mode locking with a relative stability of 1.52  ×  10-16 at 10 s with a frequency slip of 2.46 mHz. This inter-comb synchronization can be utilized for applications such as dual-comb spectroscopy or ultra-short pulse synthesis without extra narrow-linewidth lasers.

  16. Class-A mode-locked lasers: Fundamental solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Anton V.; Viktorov, Evgeny A.

    2017-11-01

    We consider a delay differential equation (DDE) model for mode-locked operation in class-A semiconductor lasers containing both gain and absorber sections. The material processes are adiabatically eliminated as these are considered fast in comparison to the delay time for a long cavity device. We determine the steady states and analyze their bifurcations using DDE-BIFTOOL [Engelborghs et al., ACM Trans. Math. Software 28, 1 (2002)]. Multiple forms of coexistence, transformation, and hysteretic behavior of stable steady states and fundamental periodic regimes are discussed in bifurcation diagrams.

  17. Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser pumped by a single laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopylov, D. A.; Esaulkov, M. N.; Kuritsyn, I. I.; Mavritskiy, A. O.; Perminov, B. E.; Konyashchenko, A. V.; Murzina, T. V.; Maydykovskiy, A. I.

    2018-04-01

    The performance of a Ti:sapphire laser pumped by a single 461 nm laser diode is presented for both the continuous-wave and the mode-locked regimes of operation. We introduce a simple astigmatism correction scheme for the laser diode beam consisting of two cylindrical lenses affecting the pump beam along the fast axis of the laser diode, which provides the mode-matching between the nearly square-shaped pump beam and the cavity mode. The resulting efficiency of the suggested Ti:Sapphire oscillator pumped by such a laser diode is analyzed for the Ti:sapphire crystals of 3 mm, 5 mm and 10 mm in length. We demonstrate that such a system provides the generation of ultrashort pulses up to 15 fs in duration with the repetition rate of 87 MHz, the average power being 170 mW.

  18. Deep-red semiconductor monolithic mode-locked lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, L.; Bajek, D.; White, S. E.; Forrest, A. F.; Cataluna, M. A.; Wang, H. L.; Pan, J. Q.; Wang, X. L.; Cui, B. F.; Ding, Y.

    2014-01-01

    A deep-red semiconductor monolithic mode-locked laser is demonstrated. Multi-section laser diodes based on an AlGaAs multi-quantum-well structure were passively mode-locked, enabling the generation of picosecond optical pulses at 752 nm, at pulse repetition rates of 19.37 GHz. An investigation of the dependence of the pulse duration as a function of reverse bias revealed a predominantly exponential decay trend of the pulse duration, varying from 10.5 ps down to 3.5 ps, which can be associated with the concomitant reduction of absorption recovery time with increasing applied field. A 30-MHz-tunability of the pulse repetition rate with bias conditions is also reported. The demonstration of such a compact, efficient and versatile ultrafast laser in this spectral region paves the way for its deployment in a wide range of applications such as biomedical microscopy, pulsed terahertz generation as well as microwave and millimeter-wave generation, with further impact on sensing, imaging and optical communications

  19. Optimum phase noise reduction and repetition rate tuning in quantum-dot mode-locked lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habruseva, T. [CAPPA, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork (Ireland); Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland); Aston University, Aston Triangle, B4 7ET Birmingham (United Kingdom); Arsenijević, D.; Kleinert, M.; Bimberg, D. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Huyet, G.; Hegarty, S. P. [CAPPA, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork (Ireland); Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Cork (Ireland)

    2014-01-13

    Competing approaches exist, which allow control of phase noise and frequency tuning in mode-locked lasers, but no judgement of pros and cons based on a comparative analysis was presented yet. Here, we compare results of hybrid mode-locking, hybrid mode-locking with optical injection seeding, and sideband optical injection seeding performed on the same quantum dot laser under identical bias conditions. We achieved the lowest integrated jitter of 121 fs and a record large radio-frequency (RF) tuning range of 342 MHz with sideband injection seeding of the passively mode-locked laser. The combination of hybrid mode-locking together with optical injection-locking resulted in 240 fs integrated jitter and a RF tuning range of 167 MHz. Using conventional hybrid mode-locking, the integrated jitter and the RF tuning range were 620 fs and 10 MHz, respectively.

  20. Optimum phase noise reduction and repetition rate tuning in quantum-dot mode-locked lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habruseva, T.; Arsenijević, D.; Kleinert, M.; Bimberg, D.; Huyet, G.; Hegarty, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    Competing approaches exist, which allow control of phase noise and frequency tuning in mode-locked lasers, but no judgement of pros and cons based on a comparative analysis was presented yet. Here, we compare results of hybrid mode-locking, hybrid mode-locking with optical injection seeding, and sideband optical injection seeding performed on the same quantum dot laser under identical bias conditions. We achieved the lowest integrated jitter of 121 fs and a record large radio-frequency (RF) tuning range of 342 MHz with sideband injection seeding of the passively mode-locked laser. The combination of hybrid mode-locking together with optical injection-locking resulted in 240 fs integrated jitter and a RF tuning range of 167 MHz. Using conventional hybrid mode-locking, the integrated jitter and the RF tuning range were 620 fs and 10 MHz, respectively

  1. Properties of InGaAs quantum dot saturable absorbers in monolithic mode-locked lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, M.G.; Marinelli, C.; Chu, Y.

    Saturable absorbers properties are characterised in monolithic mode-locked InGaAs quantum dot lasers. We analyse the impact of weak quantum confined Stark effect, fast absorber recovery time and low absorber saturation power on the mode-locking performance.......Saturable absorbers properties are characterised in monolithic mode-locked InGaAs quantum dot lasers. We analyse the impact of weak quantum confined Stark effect, fast absorber recovery time and low absorber saturation power on the mode-locking performance....

  2. 408-fs SESAM mode locked Cr:ZnSe laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Xiangbao; Shi, Yuhang; Xu, Jia; Li, Huijuan; Wang, Pu

    2018-01-01

    We report self-starting femtosecond operation of a 127-MHz SESAM mode locked Cr:ZnSe laser around 2420 nm. A thulium doped double clad fiber laser at 1908 nm was used as the pumping source. In the normal dispersion regime, stable pulse pairs with constant phase differences in the multipulse regime were observed. The maximum output power was 342 mW with respect to incident pump power of 4.8 W and the corresponding slope efficiency was 10.4%. By inserting a piece of sapphire plate, dispersion compensation was achieved and the intra-cavity dispersion was moved to the anomalous regime. A maximum output power of 403 mW was obtained and the corresponding slope efficiency was 12.2%. Pulse width was measured to be 408 fs by a collinear autocorrelator using two-photon absorption in an InGaAs photodiode. The laser spectrum in multipulse operation showed a clear periodic modulation.

  3. Anapole nanolasers for mode-locking and ultrafast pulse generation

    KAUST Repository

    Gongora, J. S. Totero; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Nanophotonics is a rapidly developing field of research with many suggestions for a design of nanoantennas, sensors and miniature metadevices. Despite many proposals for passive nanophotonic devices, the efficient coupling of light to nanoscale optical structures remains a major challenge. In this article, we propose a nanoscale laser based on a tightly confined anapole mode. By harnessing the non-radiating nature of the anapole state, we show how to engineer nanolasers based on InGaAs nanodisks as on-chip sources with unique optical properties. Leveraging on the near-field character of anapole modes, we demonstrate a spontaneously polarized nanolaser able to couple light into waveguide channels with four orders of magnitude intensity than classical nanolasers, as well as the generation of ultrafast (of 100 fs) pulses via spontaneous mode locking of several anapoles. Anapole nanolasers offer an attractive platform for monolithically integrated, silicon photonics sources for advanced and efficient nanoscale circuitry.

  4. Instantaneous lineshape analysis of Fourier domain mode-locked lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, Sebastian; Biedermann, Benjamin; Wieser, Wolfgang; Huber, Robert; Jirauschek, Christian

    2011-04-25

    We present a theoretical and experimental analysis of the instantaneous lineshape of Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) lasers, yielding good agreement. The simulations are performed employing a recently introduced model for FDML operation. Linewidths around 10 GHz are found, which is significantly below the sweep filter bandwidth. The effect of detuning between the sweep filter drive frequency and cavity roundtrip time is studied revealing features that cannot be resolved in the experiment, and shifting of the instantaneous power spectrum against the sweep filter center frequency is analyzed. We show that, in contrast to most other semiconductor based lasers, the instantaneous linewidth is governed neither by external noise sources nor by amplified spontaneous emission, but it is directly determined by the complex FDML dynamics.

  5. Anapole nanolasers for mode-locking and ultrafast pulse generation

    KAUST Repository

    Gongora, J. S. Totero

    2017-05-31

    Nanophotonics is a rapidly developing field of research with many suggestions for a design of nanoantennas, sensors and miniature metadevices. Despite many proposals for passive nanophotonic devices, the efficient coupling of light to nanoscale optical structures remains a major challenge. In this article, we propose a nanoscale laser based on a tightly confined anapole mode. By harnessing the non-radiating nature of the anapole state, we show how to engineer nanolasers based on InGaAs nanodisks as on-chip sources with unique optical properties. Leveraging on the near-field character of anapole modes, we demonstrate a spontaneously polarized nanolaser able to couple light into waveguide channels with four orders of magnitude intensity than classical nanolasers, as well as the generation of ultrafast (of 100 fs) pulses via spontaneous mode locking of several anapoles. Anapole nanolasers offer an attractive platform for monolithically integrated, silicon photonics sources for advanced and efficient nanoscale circuitry.

  6. Critical Behavior of Light in Mode-Locked Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weill, Rafi; Rosen, Amir; Gordon, Ariel; Gat, Omri; Fischer, Baruch

    2005-06-01

    Light is shown to exhibit critical and tricritical behavior in passively mode-locked lasers with externally injected pulses. It is a first and unique example of critical phenomena in a one-dimensional many-body light-mode system. The phase diagrams consist of regimes with continuous wave, driven parapulses, spontaneous pulses via mode condensation, and heterogeneous pulses, separated by phase transition lines that terminate with critical or tricritical points. Enhanced non-Gaussian fluctuations and collective dynamics are present at the critical and tricritical points, showing a mode system analog of the critical opalescence phenomenon. The critical exponents are calculated and shown to comply with the mean field theory, which is rigorous in the light system.

  7. Kerr-Lens Mode-Locked Femtosecond Yb:GdYSiO5 Laser Directly Pumped by a Laser Diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Zhu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the first Kerr-lens mode-locked operation in a diode-pumped Yb:GdYSiO5 oscillator. Under a diode pump power of 5 W, 141 fs pulses with an average power of 237 mW were obtained at a repetition rate of 118 MHz. The central wavelength was at 1094 nm with a bandwidth of 10.1 nm. Shorter pulses were obtained by adjusting the cavity to operate at a shorter wavelength, resulting in 55 fs pulse duration at the central wavelength of 1054 nm with a bandwidth of 23.5 nm.

  8. Airfoil flow instabilities induced by background flow oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selerowicz, W.C.; Szumowski, A.P. [Technical Univ. Warsaw (Poland)

    2002-04-01

    The effect of background flow oscillations on transonic airfoil (NACA 0012) flow was investigated experimentally. The oscillations were generated by means of a rotating plate placed downstream of the airfoil. Owing to oscillating chocking of the flow caused by the plate, the airfoil flow periodically accelerated and decelerated. This led to strong variations in the surface pressure and the airfoil loading. The results are presented for two angles of attack, {alpha}=4 and {alpha}=8.5 , which correspond to the attached and separated steady airfoil flows, respectively. (orig.)

  9. Comparison of the noise performance of 10GHz QW and QD mode-locked laser diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpintero, Guillermo; Thompson, Mark G.; Yvind, Kresten

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the experimental characterization of the noise performance of a quantum dot and a quantum well 10GHz passive mode locked laser diodes.......This paper reports the experimental characterization of the noise performance of a quantum dot and a quantum well 10GHz passive mode locked laser diodes....

  10. Independent tunability of the double-mode-locked cw dye laser.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bourkoff, E

    1979-06-01

    We report a new configuration that enables the double-mode-locked cw dye laser to be independently tunable. In addition, the output coupling at each of the two wavelengths can be independently specified. A series of oscillographs shows some interesting features unique to double mode locking and also shows the effects of varying the two cavity lengths with respect to each other.

  11. Numerical investigations on the performance of external-cavity mode-locked semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulet, Josep; Mørk, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    The performance of an external-cavity mode-locked semiconductor laser is analyzed theoretically and numerically. Passive mode-locking is described using a fully-distributed time-domain model including fast effects, spectral hole burning and carrier heating. We provide optimization rules in order ...

  12. Colliding Pulse Mode-Locked Laser Diode using Multimode Interference Reflectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon Gallegos, Carlos; Guzmán, R.C.; Jimenez, A.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Carpintero, G.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel fully monolithic Colliding Pulse Mode-Locked Laser Diode (CPML) using Multimode Interference Reflectors (MMIRs) to create the laser resonator. We demonstrate experimentally for the first time to our knowledge the Colliding Pulse mode-locking of a laser using MMIRs by observation

  13. Optical self-injection mode-locking of semiconductor optical amplifier fiber ring with electro-absorption modulation—fundamentals and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2013-01-01

    The optical self-injection mode-locking of a semiconductor optical amplifier incorporated fiber ring laser (SOAFL) with spectrally sliced multi-channel carriers is demonstrated for applications. The synthesizer-free SOAFL pulse-train is delivered by optical injection mode-locking with a 10 GHz self-pulsed electro-absorption modulator (EAM). Such a coupled optical and electronic resonator architecture facilitates a self-feedback oscillation with a higher Q-factor and lower phase/intensity noises when compared with conventional approaches. The theoretical model of such an injection-mode-locking SOAFL is derived to improve the self-pulsating performance of the optical return-to-zero (RZ) carrier, thus providing optimized pulsewidth, pulse extinction ratio, effective Q-factor, frequency variation and timing jitter of 11.4 ps, 9.1 dB, 4 × 10 5 , −1 bi-directional WDM transmission network with down-stream RZ binary phase-shift keying (RZ-BPSK) and up-stream re-modulated RZ on–off-keying (RZ-OOK) formats. Under BPSK/OOK bi-directional data transmission, the self-pulsed harmonic mode-locking SOAFL simultaneously provides four to six WDM channels for down-stream RZ-BPSK and up-stream RZ-OOK formats with receiving sensitivities of −17 and −15.2 dBm at a bit error rate of 10 −9 , respectively. (paper)

  14. Passively Q-switched mode-locked Nd3+:LuVO4 laser by LT-GaAs saturable absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M; Zhao, S; Li, Y; Yang, K; Li, G; Li, D; An, J; Li, T; Yu, Z

    2009-01-01

    By using LT-GaAs as saturable absorber, we have demonstrated the stable Q-switched and mode-locked (QML) Nd:LuVO 4 laser run in a Z-type folded cavity. Nearly 100% modulation depth of mode locking can be obtained as long as the pump power reaches the oscillation threshold. The repetition rate of the passively Q-switched pulse envelops ranges from 37.5 to 139 kHz as the pump power increased from 1.7 to 8.2 W. The mode-locked pulse inside the Q-switched envelop has an estimated pulse width of about 220 ps and a repetition rate of 111 MHz. Under an incident pump power of 8.2 W, the highest pulse energy of 6 μJ of each Q-switched envelope, and the highest peak power about 2.73 kW of Q-switched mode-locked pulses can be obtained

  15. Active mode locking of quantum cascade lasers in an external ring cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revin, D G; Hemingway, M; Wang, Y; Cockburn, J W; Belyanin, A

    2016-05-05

    Stable ultrashort light pulses and frequency combs generated by mode-locked lasers have many important applications including high-resolution spectroscopy, fast chemical detection and identification, studies of ultrafast processes, and laser metrology. While compact mode-locked lasers emitting in the visible and near infrared range have revolutionized photonic technologies, the systems operating in the mid-infrared range where most gases have their strong absorption lines, are bulky and expensive and rely on nonlinear frequency down-conversion. Quantum cascade lasers are the most powerful and versatile compact light sources in the mid-infrared range, yet achieving their mode-locked operation remains a challenge, despite dedicated effort. Here we report the demonstration of active mode locking of an external-cavity quantum cascade laser. The laser operates in the mode-locked regime at room temperature and over the full dynamic range of injection currents.

  16. Study of the spectral width of intermode beats and optical spectrum of an actively mode-locked three-mirror semiconductor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharyash, Valerii F; Kashirsky, Aleksandr V; Klementyev, Vasilii M; Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Pivtsov, V S

    2005-01-01

    Various oscillation regimes of an actively mode-locked semiconductor laser are studied experimentally. Two types of regimes are found in which the minimal spectral width (∼3.5 kHz) of intermode beats is achieved. The width of the optical spectrum of modes is studied as a function of their locking and the feedback coefficients. The maximum width of the spectrum is ∼3.7 THz. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  17. Optically stabilized Erbium fiber frequency comb with hybrid mode-locking and a broad tunable range of repetition rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Honglei; Wu, Xuejian; Zhang, Hongyuan; Zhao, Shijie; Yang, Lijun; Wei, Haoyun; Li, Yan

    2016-12-01

    We present an optically stabilized Erbium fiber frequency comb with a broad repetition rate tuning range based on a hybrid mode-locked oscillator. We lock two comb modes to narrow-linewidth reference lasers in turn to investigate the best performance of control loops. The control bandwidth of fast and slow piezoelectric transducers reaches 70 kHz, while that of pump current modulation with phase-lead compensation is extended to 32 kHz, exceeding laser intrinsic response. Eventually, simultaneous lock of both loops is realized to totally phase-stabilize the comb, which will facilitate precision dual-comb spectroscopy, laser ranging, and timing distribution. In addition, a 1.8-MHz span of the repetition rate is achieved by an automatic optical delay line that is helpful in manufacturing a secondary comb with a similar repetition rate. The oscillator is housed in a homemade temperature-controlled box with an accuracy of ±0.02  K, which not only keeps high signal-to-noise ratio of the beat notes with reference lasers, but also guarantees self-starting at the same mode-locking every time.

  18. Narrow-band modulation of semiconductor lasers at millimeter wave frequencies (7100 GHz) by mode locking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, K.Y.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the possibility of mode locking a semiconductor laser at millimeter wave frequencies approaching and beyond 100 GHz which was investigated theoretically and experimentally. It is found that there are no fundamental theoretical limitations in mode locking at frequencies below 100 GHz. AT these high frequencies, only a few modes are locked and the output usually takes the form of a deep sinusoidal modulation which is synchronized in phase with the externally applied modulation at the intermodal heat frequency. This can be regarded for practical purposes as a highly efficient means of directly modulating an optical carrier over a narrow band at millimeter wave frequencies. Both active and passive mode locking are theoretically possible. Experimentally, predictions on active mode locking have been verified in prior publications up to 40 GHz. For passive mode locking, evidence consistent with passive mode locking was observed in an inhomogeneously pumped GaAIAs laser at a frequency of approximately 70 GHz. A large differential gain-absorption ratio such as that present in an inhomogeneously pumped single quantum well laser is necessary for pushing the passive mode-locking frequency beyond 100 GHz

  19. Diode-pumped mode-locked femtosecond Tm:CLNGG disordered crystal laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J; Xie, G Q; Gao, W L; Yuan, P; Qian, L J; Yu, H H; Zhang, H J; Wang, J Y

    2012-04-15

    A diode-end-pumped passively mode-locked femtosecond Tm-doped calcium lithium niobium gallium garnet (Tm:CLNGG) disordered crystal laser was demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge. With a 790 nm laser diode pumping, stable CW mode-locking operation was obtained by using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror. The disordered crystal laser generated mode-locked pulses as short as 479 fs, with an average output power of 288 mW, and repetition rate of 99 MHz in 2 μm spectral region. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  20. Self-stabilization of a mode-locked femtosecond fiber laser using a photonic bandgap fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate a self-stabilization mechanism of a semiconductor saturable absorber mode-locked linearcavity Yb-doped fiber laser using an intracavity photonic bandgap fiber. This mechanism relies on the spectral shift of the laser pulses to a spectral range of higher anomalous dispersion...... and higher loss of the photonic bandgap fiber, as a reaction to the intracavity power buildup. This, in particular, results in a smaller cavity loss for the stably mode-locked laser, as opposed to the Q-switched mode-locking scenario. The laser provides stable 39–49 pJ pulses of around 230 fs duration at 29...

  1. Modeling of mode-locked coupled-resonator optical waveguide lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Christian; Skovgård, Troels Suhr; Gregersen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Coupled-resonator optical waveguides made from coupled high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities are investigated for use as cavities in mode-locked lasers. Such devices show great potential in slowing down light and can serve to reduce the cavity length of a mode-locked laser. An explicit expression...... of the emerging pulse train. A range of tuning around this frequency allows for effective mode locking. Finally, noise is added to the generalized single-cavity eigenfrequencies in order to evaluate the effects of fabrication imperfections on the cold-cavity transmission properties and consequently on the locking...

  2. 532 nm continuous wave mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser with SESAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L; Liu, J; Liu, M; Liu, S; Chen, F; Wang, W; Wang, Y

    2009-01-01

    We obtain continuous wave mode-locked Nd:GdVO 4 -KTP laser with a SESAM. This is the first report of CW mode-locked Nd:GdVO 4 -KTP laser with a SESAM to our knowledge. 396 mw CW mode-locked pulse is achieved at the incident power of 7.653 W, with the repetition about 95 MHz. The pulse duration is assumed to be 5.5 ps, this is the shortest green pulse of 532 nm with SESAM

  3. InP/InGaP quantum-dot SESAM mode-locked Alexandrite laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Shirin; Fedorova, Ksenia A.; Krysa, Andrey B.; Rafailov, Edik U.; Major, Arkady

    2018-02-01

    A semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) passively mode-locked Alexandrite laser was demonstrated. Using an InP/InGaP quantum-dot saturable absorber mirror, pulse duration of 420 fs at 774 nm was obtained. The laser was pumped at 532 nm and generated 325 mW of average output power in mode-locked regime with a pump power of 7.12 W. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a passively mode-locked Alexandrite laser using SESAM in general and quantum-dot SESAM in particular.

  4. A net normal dispersion all-fiber laser using a hybrid mode-locking mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Bo; Martinez, Amos; Yamashita, Shinji; Set, Sze Yun; Goh, Chee Seong

    2014-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate an all-fiber, dispersion-mapped, erbium-doped fiber laser with net normal dispersion generating dissipative solitons. The laser is mode-locked by a hybrid mode-locking mechanism consisting of a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror and a carbon nanotube saturable absorber. We achieve self-starting, mode-locked operation generating 2.75 nJ pulses at a fundamental repetition rate of 10.22 MHz with remarkable long term stability. (letter)

  5. Analysis of timing jitter in external-cavity mode-locked semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulet, Josep; Mørk, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    We develop a comprehensive theoretical description of passive mode-locking in external-cavity mode-locked semiconductor lasers based on a fully distributed time-domain approach. The model accounts for the dispersion of both gain and refractive index, nonlinear gain saturation from ultrafast...... processes, self-phase modulation, and spontaneous emission noise. Fluctuations of the mode-locked pulses are characterized from the fully distributed model using direct integration of noise-skirts in the phase-noise spectrum and the soliton perturbations introduced by Haus. We implement the model in order...

  6. Exponentially tapered Josephson flux-flow oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benabdallah, A.; Caputo, J. G.; Scott, Alwyn C.

    1996-01-01

    We introduce an exponentially tapered Josephson flux-flow oscillator that is tuned by applying a bias current to the larger end of the junction. Numerical and analytical studies show that above a threshold level of bias current the static solution becomes unstable and gives rise to a train...... of fluxons moving toward the unbiased smaller end, as in the standard flux-flow oscillator. An exponentially shaped junction provides several advantages over a rectangular junction including: (i) smaller linewidth, (ii) increased output power, (iii) no trapped flux because of the type of current injection...

  7. Experimental investigation of different regimes of mode-locking in a high repetition rate passively mode-locked semiconductor quantum-dot laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kéfélian, Fabien; O'Donoghue, Shane; Todaro, Maria Teresa; McInerney, John; Huyet, Guillaume

    2009-04-13

    We report experimental investigations on a two-section 16-GHz repetition rate InAs/GaAs quantum dot passively mode-locked laser. Near the threshold current, pseudo-periodic Q-switching with complex dynamics is exhibited. Mode-locking operation regimes characterized by different repetition rates and timing jitter levels are encountered up to twice the threshold current. Evolution of the RF spectrum and optical spectrum with current is compared. The different mode-locked regimes are shown to be associated with different spectral and temporal shapes, ranging from 1.3 to 6 ps. This point is discussed by introducing the existence of two different supermodes. Repetition rate evolution and timing jitter increase is attributed to the coupling between the dominant and the secondary supermodes.

  8. Mode-locked thin-disk lasers and their potential application for high-power terahertz generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraceno, Clara J.

    2018-04-01

    The progress achieved in the last few decades in the performance of ultrafast laser systems with high average power has been tremendous, and continues to provide momentum to new exciting applications, both in scientific research and technology. Among the various technological advances that have shaped this progress, mode-locked thin-disk oscillators have attracted significant attention as a unique technology capable of providing ultrashort pulses with high energy (tens to hundreds of microjoules) and at very high repetition rates (in the megahertz regime) from a single table-top oscillator. This technology opens the door to compact high repetition rate ultrafast sources spanning the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the XUV to the terahertz regime, opening various new application fields. In this article, we focus on their unexplored potential as compact driving sources for high average power terahertz generation.

  9. Picosecond pulses from wavelength-swept continuous-wave Fourier domain mode-locked lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenwillig, Christoph M; Wieser, Wolfgang; Todor, Sebastian; Biedermann, Benjamin R; Klein, Thomas; Jirauschek, Christian; Huber, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Ultrafast lasers have a crucial function in many fields of science; however, up to now, high-energy pulses directly from compact, efficient and low-power semiconductor lasers are not available. Therefore, we introduce a new approach based on temporal compression of the continuous-wave, wavelength-swept output of Fourier domain mode-locked lasers, where a narrowband optical filter is tuned synchronously to the round-trip time of light in a kilometre-long laser cavity. So far, these rapidly swept lasers enabled orders-of-magnitude speed increase in optical coherence tomography. Here we report on the generation of ~60-70 ps pulses at 390 kHz repetition rate. As energy is stored optically in the long-fibre delay line and not as population inversion in the laser-gain medium, high-energy pulses can now be generated directly from a low-power, compact semiconductor-based oscillator. Our theory predicts subpicosecond pulses with this new technique in the future.

  10. Fabrication of a saturable absorber WS2 and its mode locking in solid-state laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Yu; Zhang, Ling; Tang, Xiao-Ying; Yang, Ying-Ying

    2018-04-01

    We report on a passively mode-locked Nd : LuVO4 laser using a type saturable absorber of tungsten disulfide (WS2) fabricated by chemical vapor deposition method. At the pump power of 3.3 W, 1.18-W average output power of continuous-wave mode-locked laser with optical conversion efficiency of 36% was achieved. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power of passively mode-locked solid-state laser based on WS2. The repetition rate of passively mode-locked pulse was 80 MHz with the pulse energy of 14.8 nJ. Our experimental results show that WS2 is an excellent type of saturable absorber.

  11. L-band passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on a graphene saturable absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, J; Zhang, S M; Li, H F; Meng, Y C; Li, X L; Hao, Y P

    2012-01-01

    We have proposed and demonstrated an L-band passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser based on a graphene saturable absorber (SA). By adjusting the pump power and the polarization controller, we have experimentally observed L-band fundamental and harmonic mode-locked optical pulses. The fundamental optical pulse has the duration of 1.3 ps, and the maximum average output power of 13.16 mW at the incident pump power of 98.8 mW. The order of the harmonic mode-locked optical pulses can be changed over the range from the second to the fourth. From the experimental results, we deduced that the likely origin of the harmonic mode-locked self-stabilization was the result of global and local soliton interactions induced by the unstability continuous wave (CW) components

  12. On the mechanisms governing the repetition rate of mode-locked semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulet, Josep; Mørk, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the mechanisms influencing the synchronization locking range of mode-locked lasers. We find that changes in repetition rates can be accomodated through a joint interplay of dispersion and pulse shaping effects....

  13. Identification of amplitude and timing jitter in external-cavity mode-locked semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulet, Josep; Mørk, Jesper; Kroh, Marcel

    2004-01-01

    We theoretically and experimentally investigate the dynamics of external-cavity mode-locked semiconductor lasers, focusing on stability properties, optimization of pulsewidth and timing jitter. A new numerical approach allows to clearly separate timing and amplitude jitter....

  14. A 66 fs highly stable single wall carbon nanotube mode locked fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Zhenhua; Zhang, Xiao; Dong, Xinzheng; Tian, Jinrong; Song, Yanrong; Wang, Yonggang

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a highly stable mode locked fiber laser based on single wall carbon nanotubes. The mode locking is achieved by the evanescent field interaction of the propagating light with a single wall carbon nanotube saturable absorber in a microfiber. The pulse width is 66 fs, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the shortest pulse achieved in a carbon nanotube mode locked fiber laser. The maximum average output power is 26 mW, which is about 20 times larger than that of a typical carbon nanotube mode locked fiber laser. The center of the wavelength is 1555 nm, with 54 nm spectral width. The repetition rate is 146 MHz. To investigate the laser’s stability, the output pulses are monitored for 120 h and there is no significant degradation of the laser spectral width or shape. (paper)

  15. Modelling and characterization of colliding-pulse mode-locked (CPM) quantum well lasers. [MPS1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Svend; Brorson, S.D.; Franck, T.

    1996-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of passive colliding pulse mode-locked quantum well lasers is presented. The theoretical model for the gain dynamics is based on semi-classical density matrixequations. The gain dynamics are characterized exp...

  16. Dynamics of a broad-band quantum cascade laser: from chaos to coherent dynamics and mode-locking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbo, L. L.; Barbieri, S.; Sirtori, C.; Brambilla, M.

    2018-02-01

    The dynamics of a multimode Quantum Cascade Laser, is studied in a model based on effective semiconductor Maxwell-Bloch equations, encompassing key features for the radiationmedium interaction such as an asymmetric, frequency dependent, gain and refractive index as well as the phase-amplitude coupling provided by the Henry factor. By considering the role of the free spectral range and Henry factor, we develop criteria suitable to identify the conditions which allow to destabilize, close to threshold, the traveling wave emitted by the laser and lead to chaotic or regular multimode dynamics. In the latter case our simulations show that the field oscillations are associated to self-confined structures which travel along the laser cavity, bridging mode-locking and solitary wave propagation. In addition, we show how a RF modulation of the bias current leads to active mode-locking yielding high-contrast, picosecond pulses. Our results compare well with recent experiments on broad-band THz-QCLs and may help understanding the conditions for the generation of ultrashort pulses and comb operation in Mid-IR and THz spectral regions

  17. Asymmetric dual-loop feedback to suppress spurious tones and reduce timing jitter in self-mode-locked quantum-dash lasers emitting at 155 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Haroon; McInerney, John G.

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate an asymmetric dual-loop feedback scheme to suppress external cavity side-modes induced in self-mode-locked quantum-dash lasers with conventional single and dual-loop feedback. In this letter, we achieved optimal suppression of spurious tones by optimizing the length of second delay time. We observed that asymmetric dual-loop feedback, with large (~8x) disparity in cavity lengths, eliminates all external-cavity side-modes and produces flat RF spectra close to the main peak with low timing jitter compared to single-loop feedback. Significant reduction in RF linewidth and reduced timing jitter was also observed as a function of increased second feedback delay time. The experimental results based on this feedback configuration validate predictions of recently published numerical simulations. This interesting asymmetric dual-loop feedback scheme provides simplest, efficient and cost effective stabilization of side-band free optoelectronic oscillators based on mode-locked lasers.

  18. High performance mode locking characteristics of single section quantum dash lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Ricardo; Murdoch, S G; Watts, R T; Merghem, K; Martinez, Anthony; Lelarge, Francois; Accard, Alain; Barry, L P; Ramdane, Abderrahim

    2012-04-09

    Mode locking features of single section quantum dash based lasers are investigated. Particular interest is given to the static spectral phase profile determining the shape of the mode locked pulses. The phase profile dependence on cavity length and injection current is experimentally evaluated, demonstrating the possibility of efficiently using the wide spectral bandwidth exhibited by these quantum dash structures for the generation of high peak power sub-picosecond pulses with low radio frequency linewidths.

  19. Short pulse generation in a passively mode-locked photonic crystal semiconductor laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuck, Mikkel; Blaaberg, Søren; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    We present a new type of passively mode-locked laser with quantum wells embedded in photonic crystal waveguides operating in the slow light regime, which is capable of emitting sub picosecond pulses with widely controllable properties......We present a new type of passively mode-locked laser with quantum wells embedded in photonic crystal waveguides operating in the slow light regime, which is capable of emitting sub picosecond pulses with widely controllable properties...

  20. Study of mode locking in a microwave-pumped diode laser close to the generation threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagaev, Sergei N; Zakharyash, Valerii F; Kashirsky, Aleksandr V; Klementyev, Vasilii M; Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Pivtsov, V S

    2004-01-01

    Active mode locking is studied in a diode laser with a three-mirror resonator upon the microwave modulation of the pump current. The mode-locking region with the minimal width of the spectrum of intermode beats is found, when the microwave frequency is close to the intermode frequency of an external resonator. This region is shown to be located close to the threshold pump current. (lasers, active media)

  1. Phosphorus-free mode-locked semiconductor laser with emission wavelength 1550 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodeznyi, E. S.; Novikov, I. I.; Babichev, A. V.; Kurochkin, A. S.; Gladyshev, A. G.; Karachinsky, L. Ya; Gadzhiev, I. M.; Buyalo, M. S.; Usikova, A. A.; Ilynskaya, N. D.; Bougrov, V. E.; Egorov, A. Yu

    2017-11-01

    We have fabricated passive mode-locked laser diodes based on strained InGaAlAs/InGaAs/InP heterostructures with crystal lattice mismatch parameter of +1.0 % between quantum well and barrier. The laser with temperature stabilization at 18 °C was demonstrated 10.027 GHz optical pulse repetition rate with 6 ps pulse duration time. Timing jitter of optical pulses in mode-locked regime was 0.145 ps.

  2. Mode-locked terahertz quantum cascade laser by direct phase synchronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maussang, K.; Maysonnave, J.; Jukam, N.; Freeman, J. R.; Cavalié, P.; Dhillon, S. S.; Tignon, J.; Khanna, S. P.; Linfield, E. H.; Davies, A. G.; Beere, H. E.; Ritchie, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    Mode-locking of a terahertz quantum cascade laser is achieved using multimode injection seeding. Contrary to standard methods that rely on gain modulation, here a fixed phase relationship is directly imprinted to the laser modes. In this work, we demonstrate the generation of 9 ps phase mode-locked pulses around 2.75 THz. A direct measurement of the emitted field phase shows that it results from the phase of the initial injection

  3. Solar Dynamo Driven by Periodic Flow Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Hans G.; Hartle, Richard E.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We have proposed that the periodicity of the solar magnetic cycle is determined by wave mean flow interactions analogous to those driving the Quasi Biennial Oscillation in the Earth's atmosphere. Upward propagating gravity waves would produce oscillating flows near the top of the radiation zone that in turn would drive a kinematic dynamo to generate the 22-year solar magnetic cycle. The dynamo we propose is built on a given time independent magnetic field B, which allows us to estimate the time dependent, oscillating components of the magnetic field, (Delta)B. The toroidal magnetic field (Delta)B(sub phi) is directly driven by zonal flow and is relatively large in the source region, (Delta)(sub phi)/B(sub Theta) much greater than 1. Consistent with observations, this field peaks at low latitudes and has opposite polarities in both hemispheres. The oscillating poloidal magnetic field component, (Delta)B(sub Theta), is driven by the meridional circulation, which is difficult to assess without a numerical model that properly accounts for the solar atmosphere dynamics. Scale-analysis suggests that (Delta)B(sub Theta) is small compared to B(sub Theta) in the dynamo region. Relative to B(sub Theta), however, the oscillating magnetic field perturbations are expected to be transported more rapidly upwards in the convection zone to the solar surface. As a result, (Delta)B(sub Theta) (and (Delta)B(sub phi)) should grow relative to B(sub Theta), so that the magnetic fields reverse at the surface as observed. Since the meridional and zonai flow oscillations are out of phase, the poloidal magnetic field peaks during times when the toroidal field reverses direction, which is observed. With the proposed wave driven flow oscillation, the magnitude of the oscillating poloidal magnetic field increases with the mean rotation rate of the fluid. This is consistent with the Bode-Blackett empirical scaling law, which reveals that in massive astrophysical bodies the magnetic moment tends

  4. Fast inertial particle manipulation in oscillating flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thameem, Raqeeb; Rallabandi, Bhargav; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2017-05-01

    It is demonstrated that micron-sized particles suspended in fluid near oscillating interfaces experience strong inertial displacements above and beyond the fluid streaming. Experiments with oscillating bubbles show rectified particle lift over extraordinarily short (millisecond) times. A quantitative model on both the oscillatory and the steady time scales describes the particle displacement relative to the fluid motion. The formalism yields analytical predictions confirming the observed scaling behavior with particle size and experimental control parameters. It applies to a large class of oscillatory flows with applications from particle trapping to size sorting.

  5. Directional Transverse Oscillation Vector Flow Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2017-01-01

    A method for estimating vector velocities using transverse oscillation (TO) combined with directional beamforming is presented. In Directional Transverse Oscillation (DTO) a normal focused field is emitted and the received signals are beamformed in the lateral direction transverse to the ultrasound...... beam to increase the amount of data for vector velocity estimation. The approach is self-calibrating as the lateral oscillation period is estimated from the directional signal through a Fourier transform to yield quantitative velocity results over a large range of depths. The approach was extensively...... simulated using Field IIpro and implemented on the experimental SARUS scanner in connection with a BK Medical 8820e convex array transducer. Velocity estimates for DTO are found for beam-to-flow angles of 60, 75, and 90, and vessel depths from 24 to 156 mm. Using 16 emissions the Standard Deviation (SD...

  6. Mode-locking behavior of Izhikevich neurons under periodic external forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farokhniaee, AmirAli; Large, Edward W.

    2017-06-01

    Many neurons in the auditory system of the brain must encode periodic signals. These neurons under periodic stimulation display rich dynamical states including mode locking and chaotic responses. Periodic stimuli such as sinusoidal waves and amplitude modulated sounds can lead to various forms of n :m mode-locked states, in which a neuron fires n action potentials per m cycles of the stimulus. Here, we study mode-locking in the Izhikevich neurons, a reduced model of the Hodgkin-Huxley neurons. The Izhikevich model is much simpler in terms of the dimension of the coupled nonlinear differential equations compared with other existing models, but excellent for generating the complex spiking patterns observed in real neurons. We obtained the regions of existence of the various mode-locked states on the frequency-amplitude plane, called Arnold tongues, for the Izhikevich neurons. Arnold tongue analysis provides useful insight into the organization of mode-locking behavior of neurons under periodic forcing. We find these tongues for both class-1 and class-2 excitable neurons in both deterministic and noisy regimes.

  7. Status and trends of short pulse generation using mode-locked lasers based on advanced quantum-dot active media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, L W; Chen, Y H; Xu, B; Wang, Z C; Jiao, Y H; Wang, Z G

    2007-01-01

    In this review, the potential of mode-locked lasers based on advanced quantum-dot (QD) active media to generate short optical pulses is analysed. A comprehensive review of experimental and theoretical work on related aspects is provided, including monolithic-cavity mode-locked QD lasers and external-cavity mode-locked QD lasers, as well as mode-locked solid-state and fibre lasers based on QD semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors. Performance comparisons are made for state-of-the-art experiments. Various methods for improving important characteristics of mode-locked pulses such as pulse duration, repetition rate, pulse power, and timing jitter through optimization of device design parameters or mode-locking methods are addressed. In addition, gain switching and self-pulsation of QD lasers are also briefly reviewed, concluding with the summary and prospects. (topical review)

  8. Generation of picosecond pulses and frequency combs in actively mode locked external ring cavity quantum cascade lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wójcik, Aleksander K.; Belyanin, Alexey; Malara, Pietro; Blanchard, Romain; Mansuripur, Tobias S.; Capasso, Federico

    2013-01-01

    We propose a robust and reliable method of active mode locking of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and develop its theoretical description. Its key element is the use of an external ring cavity, which circumvents fundamental issues undermining the stability of mode locking in quantum cascade lasers. We show that active mode locking can give rise to the generation of picosecond pulses and phase-locked frequency combs containing thousands of the ring cavity modes

  9. Mode locking and spatiotemporal chaos in periodically driven Gunn diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik; Feldberg, Rasmus; Knudsen, Carsten

    1990-01-01

    oscillation entrains with the external signal. This produces a devil’s staircase of frequency-locked solutions. At higher microwave amplitudes, period doubling and other forms of mode-converting bifurcations can be seen. In this interval the diode also exhibits spatiotemporal chaos. At still higher microwave...

  10. Mode-locking in an infinite set of coupled circle maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alstroem, P.; Ritala, R.K.

    1986-06-01

    We show that the mode-locking in coupled circle maps with random phases is very different from that in a single circle map. A finite nonlinearity K c is needed for a step to appear. The width of the step behaves as (K-K c ) 2 . The complete mode-locking (at K=1 for uncoupled maps) behaves singularly as the coupling is turned on. We argue that our model describes the mode-locking in charge-density-wave materials. Our results are in qualitative agreement with experimental observations by Sherwin and Zettl that only few true steps exist in I-V characteristics and that in addition to these there are some 'incomplete' steps. (orig.)

  11. Deep learning and model predictive control for self-tuning mode-locked lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Thomas; Brunton, Steven L.; Nathan Kutz, J.

    2018-03-01

    Self-tuning optical systems are of growing importance in technological applications such as mode-locked fiber lasers. Such self-tuning paradigms require {\\em intelligent} algorithms capable of inferring approximate models of the underlying physics and discovering appropriate control laws in order to maintain robust performance for a given objective. In this work, we demonstrate the first integration of a {\\em deep learning} (DL) architecture with {\\em model predictive control} (MPC) in order to self-tune a mode-locked fiber laser. Not only can our DL-MPC algorithmic architecture approximate the unknown fiber birefringence, it also builds a dynamical model of the laser and appropriate control law for maintaining robust, high-energy pulses despite a stochastically drifting birefringence. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this method on a fiber laser which is mode-locked by nonlinear polarization rotation. The method advocated can be broadly applied to a variety of optical systems that require robust controllers.

  12. Gold nanorod saturable absorber for passive mode-locking at 1 μm wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Z; Li, Q; Gao, X J; Jia, Z X; Qin, G S; Qin, W P; Zhang, L; Feng, Y

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanorods (GNRs) were used as a saturable absorber (SA) for passive mode-locking at 1 μm wavelength. The GNR-SA film was fabricated by mixing GNRs with sodium carboxymethylcellulose. The longitudinal surface plasmon resonance absorption of GNRs was used to induce mode-locking. By using the GNR-SA film, stable passive mode-locking at 1039 nm was experimentally demonstrated in an ytterbium-doped fiber laser cavity pumped by a 980 nm laser diode. The laser produced ∼440 ps pulses with a repetition rate of 36.6 MHz and an average output power of ∼1.25 mW for a pump power of ∼82 mW. (letter)

  13. Characteristics and instabilities of mode-locked quantum-dot diode lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Lester, Luke F; Chang, Derek; Langrock, Carsten; Fejer, M M; Kane, Daniel J

    2013-04-08

    Current pulse measurement methods have proven inadequate to fully understand the characteristics of passively mode-locked quantum-dot diode lasers. These devices are very difficult to characterize because of their low peak powers, high bandwidth, large time-bandwidth product, and large timing jitter. In this paper, we discuss the origin for the inadequacies of current pulse measurement techniques while presenting new ways of examining frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG) data to provide insight into the operation of these devices. Under the assumptions of a partial coherence model for the pulsed laser, it is shown that simultaneous time-frequency characterization is a necessary and sufficient condition for characterization of mode-locking. Full pulse characterization of quantum dot passively mode-locked lasers (QD MLLs) was done using FROG in a collinear configuration using an aperiodically poled lithium niobate waveguide-based FROG pulse measurement system.

  14. Investigation of monolithic passively mode-locked quantum dot lasers with extremely low repetition frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tianhong; Cao, Juncheng; Montrosset, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    The dynamical regimes and performance optimization of quantum dot monolithic passively mode-locked lasers with extremely low repetition rate are investigated using the numerical method. A modified multisection delayed differential equation model is proposed to accomplish simulations of both two-section and three-section passively mode-locked lasers with long cavity. According to the numerical simulations, it is shown that fundamental and harmonic mode-locking regimes can be multistable over a wide current range. These dynamic regimes are studied, and the reasons for their existence are explained. In addition, we demonstrate that fundamental pulses with higher peak power can be achieved when the laser is designed to work in a region with smaller differential gain.

  15. An actively mode-locked Ho: YAG solid laser pumped by a Tm: YLF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, B Q; Cui, Z; Wang, J; Duan, X M; Dai, T Y; Du, Y Q; Yuan, J H; Liu, W

    2015-01-01

    A continuous wave mode-locked (CWML) Ho: YAG laser based on an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) pumped by a 1.9 μm Tm: YLF laser is demonstrated. This is the first time a report on an active CWML Ho: YAG laser has been published. A maximum output power of 1.04 W at 2097.25 nm in the CWML regime is obtained at a pump power of 13.2 W, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 13.3%. The mode-locked pulse repetition frequency is 82.76 MHz and the single pulse energy is 12.57 nJ. The mode-locked pulse width is 102 ps measured through a no-background second harmonic autocorrelation with KTP as the nonlinear crystal. Furthermore, the M 2 factor is calculated to be 1.146. (letter)

  16. Three types of pulses delivered from a nanotube-mode-locked fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, X K

    2015-01-01

    Three types of pulses are experimentally investigated in a switchable normal-dispersion nanotube-mode-locked fiber laser by adjusting polarizer controller and pump power. They are a standard dissipative-soliton (DS), conventional soliton (CS)-like pulse, and noiselike pulse, which correspond to three mode-locking states. The standard DS with a rectangular spectrum possesses a Gaussian-shape pulse. The CS-like operation has a Lorenz shape, and the spectrum involves several sidebands similar to the CS case. For the noiselike pulse with a bell-shaped spectrum, a 317 fs peak rides upon the 132.5 ps pedestal in the autocorrelation trace. The spectra of these three pulse operations are centered at three close wavelengths. The generation of three such different types of pulses in one identical normal- dispersion laser cavity may find an important application for the future of mode-locked laser research. (paper)

  17. Novel design of low-jitter 10 GHz all-active monolithic mode-locked lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, David; Yvind, Kresten; Christiansen, Lotte Jin

    2004-01-01

    Using a novel design, we have fabricated 10 GHz all-active monolithic mode-locked semiconductor lasers that generate 1.4 ps pulses with record-low timing jitter. The dynamical properties of lasers with 1 and 2 QWs are compared.......Using a novel design, we have fabricated 10 GHz all-active monolithic mode-locked semiconductor lasers that generate 1.4 ps pulses with record-low timing jitter. The dynamical properties of lasers with 1 and 2 QWs are compared....

  18. A mode-locked external-cavity quantum-dot laser with a variable repetition rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jian; Jin Peng; Li Xin-Kun; Wei Heng; Wu Yan-Hua; Wang Fei-Fei; Chen Hong-Mei; Wu Ju; Wang Zhan-Guo

    2013-01-01

    A mode-locked external-cavity laser emitting at 1.17-μm wavelength using an InAs/GaAs quantum-dot gain medium and a discrete semiconductor saturable absorber mirror is demonstrated. By changing the external-cavity length, repetition rates of 854, 912, and 969 MHz are achieved respectively. The narrowest −3-dB radio-frequency linewidth obtained is 38 kHz, indicating that the laser is under stable mode-locking operation. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  19. Control of fibre laser mode-locking by narrow-band Bragg gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laegsgaard, J

    2008-01-01

    The use of narrow-band high-reflectivity fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) as end mirrors in a fibre laser cavity with passive mode-locking provided by a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) is investigated numerically. The FBG is found to control the energy range of stable mode-locking, which may be shifted far outside the regime of SESAM saturation by a suitable choice of FBG and cavity length. The pulse shape is controlled by the combined effects of FBG dispersion and self-phase modulation in the fibres, and a few ps pulses can be obtained with standard uniform FBGs

  20. Harmonic mode-locking using the double interval technique in quantum dot lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Chiragh, Furqan L; Xin, Yong-Chun; Lin, Chang-Yi; Kim, Junghoon; Christodoulou, Christos G; Lester, Luke F

    2010-07-05

    Passive harmonic mode-locking in a quantum dot laser is realized using the double interval technique, which uses two separate absorbers to stimulate a specific higher-order repetition rate compared to the fundamental. Operating alone these absorbers would otherwise reinforce lower harmonic frequencies, but by operating together they produce the harmonic corresponding to their least common multiple. Mode-locking at a nominal 60 GHz repetition rate, which is the 10(th) harmonic of the fundamental frequency of the device, is achieved unambiguously despite the constraint of a uniformly-segmented, multi-section device layout. The diversity of repetition rates available with this method is also discussed.

  1. Mode-locking of a terahertz laser by direct phase synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maysonnave, J; Maussang, K; Freeman, J R; Jukam, N; Madéo, J; Cavalié, P; Rungsawang, R; Khanna, S P; Linfield, E H; Davies, A G; Beere, H E; Ritchie, D A; Dhillon, S S; Tignon, J

    2012-09-10

    A novel scheme to achieve mode-locking of a multimode laser is demonstrated. Traditional methods to produce ultrashort laser pulses are based on modulating the cavity gain or losses at the cavity roundtrip frequency, favoring the pulsed emission. Here, we rather directly act on the phases of the modes, resulting in constructive interference for the appropriated phase relationship. This was performed on a terahertz quantum cascade laser by multimode injection seeding with an external terahertz pulse, resulting in phase mode-locked terahertz laser pulses of 9 ps duration, characterized unambiguously in the time domain.

  2. Pulse-shaping mechanism in colliding-pulse mode-locked laser diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Svend; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Mørk, J.

    1995-01-01

    The large signal dynamics of passively colliding pulse mode-locked laser diodes is studied. We derive a model which explains modelocking via the interplay of gain and loss dynamics; no bandwidth limiting element is necessary for pulse formation. It is found necessary to have both fast and slow...... absorber dynamics to achieve mode-locking. Significant chirp is predicted for pulses emitted from long lasers, in agreement with experiment. The pulse width shows a strong dependence on both cavity and saturable absorber length. (C) 1995 American Institute of Physics....

  3. Low jitter and high power all-active mode-locked lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yvind, Kresten; Larsson, David; Christiansen, Lotte Jin

    2003-01-01

    A novel epitaxial design leading to low loss and low gain saturation improves the properties of 40 GHz mode-locked lasers. We obtain 2.8 ps nearly chirp free pulses with 228 fs jitter and fiber-coupled power of 7 mW.......A novel epitaxial design leading to low loss and low gain saturation improves the properties of 40 GHz mode-locked lasers. We obtain 2.8 ps nearly chirp free pulses with 228 fs jitter and fiber-coupled power of 7 mW....

  4. Flow around an oscillating cylinder: computational issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Fengjian; Gallardo, José P; Pettersen, Bjørnar [Department of Marine Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Andersson, Helge I, E-mail: fengjian.jiang@ntnu.no [Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2017-10-15

    We consider different computational issues related to the three-dimensionalities of the flow around an oscillating circular cylinder. The full time-dependent Navier–Stokes equations are directly solved in a moving reference frame by introducing a forcing term. The choice of quantitative validation criteria is discussed and discrepancies of previously published results are addressed. The development of Honji vortices shows that short simulation times may lead to incorrect quasi-stable vortex patterns. The viscous decay of already established Honji vortices is also examined. (paper)

  5. Semiconductor optical amplifier-based heterodyning detection for resolving optical terahertz beat-tone signals from passively mode-locked semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latkowski, Sylwester; Maldonado-Basilio, Ramon; Carney, Kevin; Parra-Cetina, Josue; Philippe, Severine; Landais, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    An all-optical heterodyne approach based on a room-temperature controlled semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) for measuring the frequency and linewidth of the terahertz beat-tone signal from a passively mode-locked laser is proposed. Under the injection of two external cavity lasers, the SOA acts as a local oscillator at their detuning frequency and also as an optical frequency mixer whose inputs are the self-modulated spectrum of the device under test and the two laser beams. Frequency and linewidth of the intermediate frequency signal (and therefore, the beat-tone signal) are resolved by using a photodiode and an electrical spectrum analyzer.

  6. Three-dimensional graphene based passively mode-locked fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Loeblein, M; Tsang, S H; Chow, K K; Teo, E H T

    2014-12-15

    We present an all-fiber passively mode-locked fiber laser incorporating three-dimensional (3D) graphene as a saturable absorber (SA) for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The 3D graphene is synthesized by template-directed chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The SA is then simply formed by sandwiching the freestanding 3D graphene between two conventional fiber connectors without any deposition process. It is demonstrated that such 3D graphene based SA is capable to produce high quality mode-locked pulses. A passively mode-locked fiber laser is constructed and stable output pulses with a fundamental repetition rate of ~9.9 MHz and a pulse width of ~1 ps are generated from the fiber laser. The average output power of the laser is ~10.5 mW while the output pulse is operating at single pulse region. The results imply that the freestanding 3D graphene can be applied as an effective saturable absorption material for passively mode-locked lasers.

  7. Fourier domain mode-locked swept source at 1050 nm based on a tapered amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschall, Sebastian; Klein, Thomas; Wieser, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    While swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the 1050 nm range is promising for retinal imaging, there are certain challenges. Conventional semiconductor gain media have limited output power, and the performance of high-speed Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) lasers suffers from...

  8. Broadband Fourier domain mode-locked laser for optical coherence tomography at 1060 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschall, Sebastian; Klein, Thomas; Wieser, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the 1060nm range is interesting for in vivo imaging of the human posterior eye segment (retina, choroid, sclera) due to low absorption in water and deep penetration into the tissue. Rapidly tunable light sources, such as Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) lasers...

  9. Effects of resonator input power on Kerr lens mode-locked lasers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lasers. S KAZEMPOUR, A KESHAVARZ∗ and G HONARASA. Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz, Iran ... Keywords. Femtosecond pulses; Kerr lens sensitivity; Kerr lens mode-locked laser. ... The optical lengths of Kerr medium with thickness d and refractive index n under.

  10. High-power pulsed and CW diode-pumped mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Larry R.; Hays, A. D.; Kaz, Alex; Kasinski, Jeff; Burnham, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    The operation of both pulsed and CW diode-pumped mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers are presented. The pulsed laser produced 1.0 mJ with pulsewidths of 90 psec at 20 Hz. The CW pumped laser produced 6 W output at 1.064 microns and 3 W output at 532 nm.

  11. Mode-Locked 1.5 um Semiconductor Optical Fiber Ring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Vagn; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne; Vaa, Michael

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of a mode-locked SOA fiber ring are investigated experimentally and numerically. Generation of near transform-limited (time-bandwidth product = 0.7) 1.5 um 54 ps FWHM pulses with a peak power of 2.8 mW at a repetition rate of 960 MHz is demonstrated experimentally. The experimental r...

  12. The noise of ultrashort pulse mode-locked lasers beyond the slowly varying envelope approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takushima, Y; Haus, H A; Kaertner, F X

    2004-01-01

    The zero-point fluctuations in an L-C circuit of finite Q are revisited. The zero-point energy is shown to approach the value of hbarω 0 /2 only in the limit of an infinite Q. A Fabry-Perot resonator, on the other hand, has bounded zero-point energies of its modes that are equal to hbarω n /2 for each resonance. Based on the Fabry-Perot resonator with broadband noise, we analyse the noise of an ultrafast mode-locked laser when the slowly varying envelope approximation (SVEA) is not valid. This is achieved by reinterpreting the quantized form of the master equation of mode locking as an equation of motion for the electric field rather than for the creation operator of a photon. It is found that in this formulation quantum correlations exist that are not present in the SVEA. The correlations become evident in the spectrum of the zero-point fluctuations and therefore in the background noise of the laser. This behaviour can be detected by homodyne detection of the laser output. The linewidth of the frequency comb generated by the mode-locked laser is not affected by these correlations and is given by the Schawlow-Townes linewidth of an equivalent continuous wave taking the additional intracavity loss due to the mode locking process into account

  13. Multipulse dynamics of a passively mode-locked semiconductor laser with delayed optical feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaurigue, Lina; Krauskopf, Bernd; Lüdge, Kathy

    2017-11-01

    Passively mode-locked semiconductor lasers are compact, inexpensive sources of short light pulses of high repetition rates. In this work, we investigate the dynamics and bifurcations arising in such a device under the influence of time delayed optical feedback. This laser system is modelled by a system of delay differential equations, which includes delay terms associated with the laser cavity and feedback loop. We make use of specialised path continuation software for delay differential equations to analyse the regime of short feedback delays. Specifically, we consider how the dynamics and bifurcations depend on the pump current of the laser, the feedback strength, and the feedback delay time. We show that an important role is played by resonances between the mode-locking frequencies and the feedback delay time. We find feedback-induced harmonic mode locking and show that a mismatch between the fundamental frequency of the laser and that of the feedback cavity can lead to multi-pulse or quasiperiodic dynamics. The quasiperiodic dynamics exhibit a slow modulation, on the time scale of the gain recovery rate, which results from a beating with the frequency introduced in the associated torus bifurcations and leads to gain competition between multiple pulse trains within the laser cavity. Our results also have implications for the case of large feedback delay times, where a complete bifurcation analysis is not practical. Namely, for increasing delay, there is an ever-increasing degree of multistability between mode-locked solutions due to the frequency pulling effect.

  14. Wide-band residual phase-noise measurements on 40-GHz monolithic mode-locked lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, David; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2005-01-01

    We have performed wide-band residual phase-noise measurements on semiconductor 40-GHz mode-locked lasers by employing electrical waveguide components for the radio-frequency circuit. The intrinsic timing jitters of lasers with one, two, and three quantum wells (QW) are compared and our design......-QW laser. There is good agreement between the measured results and existing theory....

  15. All fiber passively mode locked zirconium-based erbium-doped fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, H.; Awang, N. A.; Paul, M. C.; Pal, M.; Latif, A. A.; Harun, S. W.

    2012-04-01

    All passively mode locked erbium-doped fiber laser with a zirconium host is demonstrated. The fiber laser utilizes the Non-Linear Polarization Rotation (NPR) technique with an inexpensive fiber-based Polarization Beam Splitter (PBS) as the mode-locking element. A 2 m crystalline Zirconia-Yttria-Alumino-silicate fiber doped with erbium ions (Zr-Y-Al-EDF) acts as the gain medium and generates an Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) spectrum from 1500 nm to 1650 nm. The generated mode-locked pulses have a spectrum ranging from 1548 nm to more than 1605 nm, as well as a 3-dB bandwidth of 12 nm. The mode-locked pulse train has an average output power level of 17 mW with a calculated peak power of 1.24 kW and energy per pulse of approximately 730 pJ. The spectrum also exhibits a Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of 50 dB as well as a repetition rate of 23.2 MHz. The system is very stable and shows little power fluctuation, in addition to being repeatable.

  16. Correlation coefficient measurement of the mode-locked laser tones using four-wave mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthur, Aravind P; Panapakkam, Vivek; Vujicic, Vidak; Merghem, Kamel; Lelarge, Francois; Ramdane, Abderrahim; Barry, Liam P

    2016-06-01

    We use four-wave mixing to measure the correlation coefficient of comb tones in a quantum-dash mode-locked laser under passive and active locked regimes. We study the uncertainty in the measurement of the correlation coefficient of the proposed method.

  17. 35 GHz passive mode-locking of InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers at 1.3 μm with Fourier-limited pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntz, M.; Fiol, G.; Laemmlin, M.

    2004-01-01

    We report 35 GHz passive mode-locking and 20 GHz hybrid mode-locking of quantum dot (QD) lasers at 1.3 ìm. Our investigations show ultrafast absorber recovery times and for the first time transform-limited mode-locked pulses.......We report 35 GHz passive mode-locking and 20 GHz hybrid mode-locking of quantum dot (QD) lasers at 1.3 ìm. Our investigations show ultrafast absorber recovery times and for the first time transform-limited mode-locked pulses....

  18. Broadband features of passively harmonic mode locking in dispersion-managed erbium-doped all-fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Y.; Li, L.; Shu, C. J.; Wang, Y. F.; Tang, D. Y.; Zhao, L. M.

    2018-06-01

    Broadband features of passively harmonic mode locking (HML) in dispersion-managed erbium-doped all-fiber lasers are explored. The bandwidth of HML state is generally narrower than that of fundamental mode locking before pulse breaking occurs. There exists a broadest bandwidth versus the order of HML. HML state with bandwidth up to 61.5 nm is obtained.

  19. 10-GHz 1.59-μm quantum dash passively mode-locked two-section lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dontabactouny, Madhoussoudhana; Rosenberg, C.; Semenova, Elizaveta

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the fabrication and the characterisation of a 10 GHz two-section passively mode-locked quantum dash laser emitting at 1.59 μm. The potential of the device's mode-locking is investigated through an analytical model taking into account both the material parameters and the laser...

  20. Passive, active, and hybrid mode-locking in a self-optimized ultrafast diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloush, M. Ali; Pilny, Rouven H.; Brenner, Carsten; Klehr, Andreas; Knigge, Andrea; Tränkle, Günther; Hofmann, Martin R.

    2018-02-01

    Semiconductor lasers are promising sources for generating ultrashort pulses. They are directly electrically pumped, allow for a compact design, and therefore they are cost-effective alternatives to established solid-state systems. Additionally, their emission wavelength depends on the bandgap which can be tuned by changing the semiconductor materials. Theoretically, the obtained pulse width can be few tens of femtoseconds. However, the generated pulses are typically in the range of several hundred femtoseconds only. Recently, it was shown that by implementing a spatial light modulator (SLM) for phase and amplitude control inside the resonator the optical bandwidth can be optimized. Consequently, by using an external pulse compressor shorter pulses can be obtained. We present a Fourier-Transform-External-Cavity setup which utilizes an ultrafast edge-emitting diode laser. The used InGaAsP diode is 1 mm long and emits at a center wavelength of 850 nm. We investigate the best conditions for passive, active and hybrid mode-locking operation using the method of self-adaptive pulse shaping. For passive mode-locking, the bandwidth is increased from 2.34 nm to 7.2 nm and ultrashort pulses with a pulse width of 216 fs are achieved after external pulse compression. For active and hybrid mode-locking, we also increased the bandwidth. It is increased from 0.26 nm to 5.06 nm for active mode-locking and from 3.21 nm to 8.7 nm for hybrid mode-locking. As the pulse width is strongly correlated with the bandwidth of the laser, we expect further reduction in the pulse duration by increasing the bandwidth.

  1. Mode-locking dynamics in a quantum-dash Fabry-Pérot laser diode for packet based clock recovery applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maldonado-Basilio, R.; Parra-Cetina, J.; Latkowski, S.; Landais, P.; Calabretta, N.

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the locking/unlocking dynamics of a mode-locked QDash laser diode for packet-based clock-recovery applications. Results show 20 ns locking times for the passively and externally synchronized mode-locking mechanisms.

  2. Josephson flux-flow oscillators in nonuniform microwave fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salerno, Mario; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    2000-01-01

    We present a simple theory for Josephson flux-flow oscillators in the presence of nonuniform microwave fields. In particular we derive an analytical expression for the I-V characteristic of the oscillator from which we show that satellite steps are spaced around the main flux-flow resonance by only...

  3. Theory for passive mode-locking in semiconductor laser structures including the effects of self-phase modulation, dispersion and pulse collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koumans, R.G.M.P.; Roijen, van R.

    1996-01-01

    We present a theory for passive mode-locking in semiconductor laser structures using a semiconductor laser amplifier and absorber. The mode-locking system is described in terms of the different elements in the semiconductor laser structure. We derive mode-locking conditions and show how other

  4. 11-GHz waveguide Nd:YAG laser CW mode-locked with single-layer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okhrimchuk, Andrey G; Obraztsov, Petr A

    2015-06-08

    We report stable, passive, continuous-wave (CW) mode-locking of a compact diode-pumped waveguide Nd:YAG laser with a single-layer graphene saturable absorber. The depressed cladding waveguide in the Nd:YAG crystal is fabricated with an ultrafast laser inscription method. The saturable absorber is formed by direct deposition of CVD single-layer graphene on the output coupler. The few millimeter-long cavity provides generation of 16-ps pulses with repetition rates in the GHz range (up to 11.3 GHz) and 12 mW average power. Stable CW mode-locking operation is achieved by controlling the group delay dispersion in the laser cavity with a Gires-Tournois interferometer.

  5. Two-Photon Pumped Synchronously Mode-Locked Bulk GaAs Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, W. L.; Vaucher, A. M.; Ling, J. D.; Lee, C. H.

    1982-04-01

    Pulses 7 picoseconds or less in duration have been generated from a bulk GaAs crystal by a synchronous mode-locking technique. The GaAs crystal was optically pumped by two-photon absorption of the emission from a mode-locked Nd:glass laser. Two-photon absorption as the means of excitation increases the volume of the gain medium by increasing the pene-tration depth of the pump intensity, enabling generation of intra-cavity pulses with peak power in the megawatt range. Tuning of the wavelength of the GaAs emission is achieved by varying the temperature. A tuning range covering 840 nm to 885 nm has been observed over a temperature range from 97°K to 260°K. The intensity of the GaAs emission has also been observed to decrease as the temperature of the crystal is increased.

  6. Diode-pumped femtosecond mode-locked Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Lijuan; Gao, Ziye; Wang, Junli; Wang, Zhaohua; Wei, Zhiyi; Su, Liangbi; Zheng, Lihe; Wang, Jingya; Xu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    A passively mode-locked femtosecond laser based on an Nd, Y-codoped CaF 2 disordered crystal was demonstrated. The Y 3+ -codoping in Nd : CaF 2 markedly suppressed the quenching effect and improved the fluorescence quantum efficiency and emission spectra. With a fiber-coupled laser diode as the pump source, the continuous wave tuning range covering from 1042 to 1076 nm was realized, while the mode-locked operation generated 264 fs pulses with an average output power of 180 mW at a repetition rate of 85 MHz. The experimental results show that the Nd, Y-codoped CaF 2 disordered crystal has potential in a new generation diode-pumped high repetition rate chirped pulse amplifier. (letter)

  7. Wavelength-tunable prism-coupled external cavity passively mode-locked quantum-dot laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yan-Hua; Jian Wu; Jin Peng; Wang Fei-Fei; Hu Fa-Jie; Wei Heng; Wang Zhan-Guo

    2015-01-01

    A wavelength-tunable mode-locked quantum dot laser using an InAs/GaAs quantum-dot gain medium and a discrete semiconductor saturable absorber mirror is demonstrated. A dispersion prism, which has lower optical loss and less spectral narrowing than a blazed grating, is used for wavelength selection and tuning. A wavelength tuning range of 45.5 nm (from 1137.3 nm to 1182.8 nm) under 140-mA injection current in the passive mode-locked regime is achieved. The maximum average power of 19 mW is obtained at the 1170.3-nm wavelength, corresponding to the single pulse energy of 36.5 pJ. (paper)

  8. Quantum dash based single section mode locked lasers for photonic integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Siddharth; Calò, Cosimo; Chimot, Nicolas; Radziunas, Mindaugas; Arkhipov, Rostislav; Barbet, Sophie; Accard, Alain; Ramdane, Abderrahim; Lelarge, Francois

    2014-05-05

    We present the first demonstration of an InAs/InP Quantum Dash based single-section frequency comb generator designed for use in photonic integrated circuits (PICs). The laser cavity is closed using a specifically designed Bragg reflector without compromising the mode-locking performance of the self pulsating laser. This enables the integration of single-section mode-locked laser in photonic integrated circuits as on-chip frequency comb generators. We also investigate the relations between cavity modes in such a device and demonstrate how the dispersion of the complex mode frequencies induced by the Bragg grating implies a violation of the equi-distance between the adjacent mode frequencies and, therefore, forbids the locking of the modes in a classical Bragg Device. Finally we integrate such a Bragg Mirror based laser with Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA) to demonstrate the monolithic integration of QDash based low phase noise sources in PICs.

  9. Active mode-locking of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with short gain recovery time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongrui; Belyanin, Alexey

    2015-02-23

    We investigate the dynamics of actively modulated mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) using space- and time-domain simulations of coupled density matrix and Maxwell equations with resonant tunneling current taken into account. We show that it is possible to achieve active mode locking and stable generation of picosecond pulses in high performance QCLs with a vertical laser transition and a short gain recovery time by bias modulation of a short section of a monolithic Fabry-Perot cavity. In fact, active mode locking in QCLs with a short gain recovery time turns out to be more robust to the variation of parameters as compared to previously studied lasers with a long gain recovery time. We investigate the effects of spatial hole burning and phase locking on the laser output.

  10. Fabrication and Characterisation of Low-noise Monolithic Mode-locked Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, David

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with the fabrication and characterisation of monolithic semiconductor mode-locked lasers for use in optical communication systems. Other foreseeable applications may be as sources in microwave photonics and optical sampling. The thesis also deals with the design and fabrication...... of intracavity monolithically integrated filters. The common dnominator among the diffrent parts of the thesis is how to achieve and measure the lowest possible noise. Achieving low noise has been pinpointed as one of the most important and difficult challenges for semiconductor mode-locked lasers. The main...... result of this thesis are a fabrication process of a monolithic and deeply etched distributed Bragg reflector and a characterisation system for measurement of quantum limitid timing noise at high repetition rates. The Bragg reflector is a key component in achieving transform limited pulses with low noise...

  11. Dual comb generation from a mode-locked fiber laser with orthogonally polarized interlaced pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akosman, Ahmet E; Sander, Michelle Y

    2017-08-07

    Ultra-high precision dual-comb spectroscopy traditionally requires two mode-locked, fully stabilized lasers with complex feedback electronics. We present a novel mode-locked operation regime in a thulium-holmium co-doped fiber laser, a frequency-halved state with orthogonally polarized interlaced pulses, for dual comb generation from a single source. In a linear fiber laser cavity, an ultrafast pulse train composed of co-generated, equal intensity and orthogonally polarized consecutive pulses at half of the fundamental repetition rate is demonstrated based on vector solitons. Upon optical interference of the orthogonally polarized pulse trains, two stable microwave RF beat combs are formed, effectively down-converting the optical properties into the microwave regime. These co-generated, dual polarization interlaced pulse trains, from one all-fiber laser configuration with common mode suppression, thus provide an attractive compact source for dual-comb spectroscopy, optical metrology and polarization entanglement measurements.

  12. Passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser operating at 1073 nm and 1085 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waritanant, Tanant; Major, Arkady

    2018-02-01

    A passively mode-locked Nd:YVO4 laser operating at 1073 nm and 1085 nm was demonstrated with an intracavity birefringent filter as the wavelength selecting element. The average output powers achieved were 2.17 W and 2.18 W with optical-to-optical efficiency of 19.6% and 19.7%, respectively. The slope efficiencies were more than 31% at both output wavelengths. The pulse durations at the highest average output power were 10.3 ps and 8.4 ps, respectively. We believe that this is the first report of mode locking of a Nd:YVO4 laser operating at 1073 nm or 1085 nm lines.

  13. Tungsten diselenide for mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers with short pulse duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenjun; Liu, Mengli; OuYang, Yuyi; Hou, Huanran; Ma, Guoli; Lei, Ming; Wei, Zhiyi

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a WSe2 film prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is transferred onto a tapered fiber, and a WSe2 saturable absorber (SA) is fabricated. In order to measure the third-order optical nonlinearity of the WSe2, the Z-scan technique is applied. The modulation depth of the WSe2 SA is measured as being 21.89%. Taking advantage of the remarkable nonlinear absorption characteristic of the WSe2 SA, a mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser is demonstrated at 1557.4 nm with a bandwidth of 25.8 nm and signal to noise ratio of 96 dB. To the best of our knowledge, the pulse duration of 163.5 fs is confirmed to be the shortest compared with previous mode-locked fiber lasers based on transition-metal dichalcogenides SAs. These results indicate that WSe2 is a powerful competitor in the application of ultrashort pulse lasers.

  14. Mode-locked fiber laser using SU8 resist incorporating carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Romano, Ivan; Mandridis, Dimitrios; May-Arrioja, Daniel A.; Sanchez-Mondragon, Jose J.; Delfyett, Peter J.

    2011-06-01

    We report the fabrication of a saturable absorber made of a novel polymer SU8 doped with Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs). A passive mode-locked ring cavity fiber laser was built with a 100 μm thick SU8/SWCNT film inserted between two FC/APC connectors. Self-starting passively mode-locked lasing operation was observed at 1572.04 nm, with a FWHM of 3.26 nm. The autocorrelation trace was 1.536 ps corresponding to a pulse-width of 871 fs. The time-bandwidth product was 0.344, which is close enough to transform-limited sech squared pulses. The repetition rate was 21.27 MHz, and a maximum average output power of 1 mW was also measured.

  15. Quasiperiodicity, mode-locking, and universal scaling in Rayleigh-Benard convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecke, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    This major review paper describes research on a model nonlinear dynamical system of small-aspect-ratio Rayleigh-Benard convection in 3 He - 4 He mixtures. The nonlinear effects of mode locking and quasiperiodic behavior are described. Analysis techniques for characterizing the state of the dynamical system include Fourier transforms, Poincare sections, phase differences, transients, multifractal f(∝) spectra and scaling function dynamics. Theoretical results such as the fractal staircase of mode-locked intervals and the Arnold tongues are reproduced in experimental data. New techniques for analyzing scaling dynamics are developed and discussed. This is a tutorial article that introduces the major important concepts in nonlinear dynamics and focuses on experimental problems and techniques. 77 refs

  16. Hysteresis phenomena and multipulse formation of a dissipative system in a passively mode-locked fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xueming

    2010-01-01

    A model describing the dissipative soliton evolution in a passively mode-locked fiber laser is proposed by using the nonlinear polarization rotation technique and the spectral filtering effect. It is numerically found that the laser alternately evolves on the stable and unstable mode-locking states as a function of the pump strength. Numerical simulations show that the passively mode-locked fiber lasers with large net normal dispersion can operate on multiple pulse behavior and hysteresis phenomena. The experimental observations confirm the theoretical predictions. The theoretical and experimental results achieved are qualitatively distinct from those observed in net-anomalous-dispersion conventional-soliton fiber lasers.

  17. High-Power Hybrid Mode-Locked External Cavity Semiconductor Laser Using Tapered Amplifier with Large Tunability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schmitt-Sody

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on hybrid mode-locked laser operation of a tapered semiconductor amplifier in an external ring cavity, generating pulses as short as 0.5 ps at 88.1 MHz with an average power of 60 mW. The mode locking is achieved through a combination of a multiple quantum well saturable absorber (>10% modulation depth and an RF current modulation. This designed laser has 20 nm tuning bandwidth in continuous wave and 10 nm tuning bandwidth in mode locking around 786 nm center wavelength at constant temperature.

  18. Dynamics of a Dispersion-Managed Passively Mode-Locked Er-Doped Fiber Laser Using Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiko Nishizawa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the dynamics of a dispersion-managed, passively mode-locked, ultrashort-pulse, Er-doped fiber laser using a single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT device. A numerical model was constructed for analysis of the SWNT fiber laser. The initial process of passive mode-locking, the characteristics of the output pulse, and the dynamics inside the cavity were investigated numerically for soliton, dissipative-soliton, and stretched-pulse mode-locking conditions. The dependencies on the total dispersion and recovery time of the SWNTs were also examined. Numerical results showed similar behavior to experimental results.

  19. Compact and high repetition rate Kerr-lens mode-locked 532 nm Nd:YVO4 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zuohan; Peng, Jiying; Yuan, Ruixia; Yao, Jianquan; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Tongtong

    2015-01-01

    A compact and feasible CW Kerr-lens-induced mode-locked 532 nm Nd:YVO 4 laser system was experimentally demonstrated for the first time with theoretical analysis. Kerr-lens mode locking with intracavity second harmonic generation provides a promising method to generate a high-repetition-rate picosecond green laser. With an incident pump power of 6 W, the average output power of mode locking was 258 mW at a high repetition rate of 1.1 GHz. (paper)

  20. Terahertz-bandwidth coherence measurements of a quantum dash laser in passive and active mode-locking operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Eamonn; Watts, Regan; Bramerie, Laurent; Shen, Alexandre; Gariah, Harry; Blache, Fabrice; Lelarge, Francois; Barry, Liam

    2012-12-01

    This research carries out coherence measurements of a 42.7 GHz quantum dash (QDash) semiconductor laser when passively, electrically, and optically mode-locked. Coherence of the spectral lines from the mode-locked laser is determined by examining the radio frequency beat-tone linewidth as the mode spacing is increased up to 1.1 THz. Electric-field measurements of the QDash laser are also presented, from which a comparison between experimental results and accepted theory for coherence in passively mode-locked lasers has been performed.

  1. InP femtosecond mode-locked laser in a compound feedback cavity with a switchable repetition rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Mu-Chieh; Guzmán, Robinson; Carpintero, Guillermo

    2018-02-01

    A monolithically integrated mode-locked semiconductor laser is proposed. The compound ring cavity is composed of a colliding pulse mode-locking (ML) subcavity and a passive Fabry-Perot feedback subcavity. These two 1.6 mm long subcavities are coupled by using on-chip reflectors at both ends, enabling harmonic mode locking. By changing DC-bias conditions, optical mode spacing from 50 to 450 GHz is experimentally demonstrated. Ultrafast pulses shorter than 0.3 ps emitted from this laser diode are shown in autocorrelation traces.

  2. High brightness photonic band crystal semiconductor lasers in the passive mode locking regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales, R.; Kalosha, V. P.; Miah, M. J.; Bimberg, D. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Posilović, K. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); PBC Lasers GmbH, Hardenbergstrasse 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Pohl, J.; Weyers, M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, Berlin 12489 (Germany)

    2014-10-20

    High brightness photonic band crystal lasers in the passive mode locking regime are presented. Optical pulses with peak power of 3 W and peak brightness of about 180 MW cm{sup −2} sr{sup −1} are obtained on a 5 GHz device exhibiting 15 ps pulses and a very low beam divergence in both the vertical and horizontal directions.

  3. High brightness photonic band crystal semiconductor lasers in the passive mode locking regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosales, R.; Kalosha, V. P.; Miah, M. J.; Bimberg, D.; Posilović, K.; Pohl, J.; Weyers, M.

    2014-01-01

    High brightness photonic band crystal lasers in the passive mode locking regime are presented. Optical pulses with peak power of 3 W and peak brightness of about 180 MW cm −2  sr −1 are obtained on a 5 GHz device exhibiting 15 ps pulses and a very low beam divergence in both the vertical and horizontal directions.

  4. A PASSIVELY MODE-LOCKED CR4+:FORSTERITE LASER WITH ELEСTRONICALLY CONTROLLED OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Zolotovskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Applicability of electronic control of laser output parameters to bulk solid-state laser sources is demonstrated. A single laser source with variable pulse duration for novel imaging and manipulation systems is presented. Stable passive mode-locking of a Cr4+:forsterite laser using a voltage controlled p-n junction quantum dot saturable absorber was achieved. Output shortening from 17,4 to 6,4 ps near-transform limited pulses was obtained by applying reverse bias.

  5. Instability of stationary lasing and self-starting mode locking in external-cavity semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetanin, Igor V; Vasil'ev, Petr P

    2009-01-01

    Parameters of external-cavity semiconductor lasers, when the stationary lasing becomes unstable, were analysed within the framework of a theoretical model of self-starting mode locking. In this case, a train of ultrashort pulses can be generated due to intrinsic nonlinearities of the laser medium. A decisive role of the transverse optical field nonuniformity, pump rate, and gain spectral bandwidth in the development of the instability of stationary lasing was demonstrated. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  6. Mode-Locking in Broad-Area Semiconductor Lasers Enhanced by Picosecond-Pulse Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Kaiser, J; Fischer, I; Elsasser, W; Gehrig, E; Hess, O

    2004-01-01

    We present combined experimental and theoretical investigations of the picosecond emission dynamics of broad-area semiconductor lasers (BALs). We enhance the weak longitudinal self-mode-locking that is inherent to BALs by injecting a single optical 50-ps pulse, which triggers the output of a distinct regular train of 13-ps pulses. Modeling based on multimode Maxwell-Bloch equations illustrates how the dynamic interaction of the injected pulse with the internal laser field efficiently couples ...

  7. Instant recording of the duration of a single mode-locked Nd:YAG laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lompre, L.A.; Mainfray, G.; Thebault, J.

    1975-01-01

    An electro-optic streak camera incorporating a storage memory video system has been developed and used to instantly visualize and record the shape of a 1.06-μ-wavelength pulse generated by a mode-locked Nd:YAG laser. The duration of a single laser pulse (approximately 30 psec) has been directly measured with and without laser amplification. (U.S.)

  8. All-fiber nonlinearity- and dispersion-managed dissipative soliton nanotube mode-locked laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. [Department of Physics, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Nanjing University of Posts and Communications, Nanjing 210003 (China); Popa, D., E-mail: dp387@cam.ac.uk; Wittwer, V. J.; Milana, S.; Hasan, T.; Jiang, Z.; Ferrari, A. C. [Cambridge Graphene Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Ilday, F. Ö. [Department of Physics, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-12-14

    We report dissipative soliton generation from an Yb-doped all-fiber nonlinearity- and dispersion-managed nanotube mode-locked laser. A simple all-fiber ring cavity exploits a photonic crystal fiber for both nonlinearity enhancement and dispersion compensation. The laser generates stable dissipative solitons with large linear chirp in the net normal dispersion regime. Pulses that are 8.7 ps long are externally compressed to 118 fs, outperforming current nanotube-based Yb-doped fiber laser designs.

  9. Femtosecond Mode-locked Fiber Laser at 1 μm Via Optical Microfiber Dispersion Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lizhen; Xu, Peizhen; Li, Yuhang; Han, Jize; Guo, Xin; Cui, Yudong; Liu, Xueming; Tong, Limin

    2018-03-16

    Mode-locked Yb-doped fiber lasers around 1 μm are attractive for high power applications and low noise pulse train generation. Mode-locked fiber lasers working in soliton and stretched-pulse regime outperform others in terms of the laser noise characteristics, mechanical stability and easy maintenance. However, conventional optical fibers always show a normal group velocity dispersion around 1 μm, leading to the inconvenience for necessary dispersion management. Here we show that optical microfibers having a large anomalous dispersion around 1 μm can be integrated into mode-locked Yb-doped fiber lasers with ultralow insertion loss down to -0.06 dB, enabling convenient dispersion management of the laser cavity. Besides, optical microfibers could also be adopted to spectrally broaden and to dechirp the ultrashort pulses outside the laser cavity, giving rise to a pulse duration of about 110 fs. We believe that this demonstration may facilitate all-fiber format high-performance ultrashort pulse generation at 1 μm and may find applications in precision measurements, large-scale facility synchronization and evanescent-field-based optical sensing.

  10. General description and understanding of the nonlinear dynamics of mode-locked fiber lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Huai; Li, Bin; Shi, Wei; Zhu, Xiushan; Norwood, Robert A; Peyghambarian, Nasser; Jian, Shuisheng

    2017-05-02

    As a type of nonlinear system with complexity, mode-locked fiber lasers are known for their complex behaviour. It is a challenging task to understand the fundamental physics behind such complex behaviour, and a unified description for the nonlinear behaviour and the systematic and quantitative analysis of the underlying mechanisms of these lasers have not been developed. Here, we present a complexity science-based theoretical framework for understanding the behaviour of mode-locked fiber lasers by going beyond reductionism. This hierarchically structured framework provides a model with variable dimensionality, resulting in a simple view that can be used to systematically describe complex states. Moreover, research into the attractors' basins reveals the origin of stochasticity, hysteresis and multistability in these systems and presents a new method for quantitative analysis of these nonlinear phenomena. These findings pave the way for dynamics analysis and system designs of mode-locked fiber lasers. We expect that this paradigm will also enable potential applications in diverse research fields related to complex nonlinear phenomena.

  11. Mode-locking and the transition to chaos in dissipative systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, P.; Bohr, T.; Jensen, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    Dissipative systems with two competing frequencies exhibit transitions to chaos. We have investigated the transition through a study of discrete maps of the circle onto itself, and by constructing and analyzing return maps of differential equations representing some physical systems. The transition is caused by interaction and overlap of mode-locked resonances and takes place at a critical line where the map losses invertibility. At this line the mode-locked intervals trace up a complete Devil's Staircase whose complementary set is a Cantor set with universal fractal dimension D approx. 0.87. Below criticality there is room for quasiperiodic orbits, whose measure is given by an exponent β approx. 0.34 which can be related to D through a scaling relation, just as for second order phase transitions. The Lebesgue measure serves as an order parameter for the transition to chaos. The resistively shunted Josephson junction, and charge density waves (CDWs) in rf electric fields are usually described by the differential equation of the damped driven pendulum. The 2d return map for this equation collapses to ld circle map at and below the transition to chaos. The theoretical results on universal behavior, derived here and elsewhere, can thus readily be checked experimentally by studying real physical systems. Recent experiments on Josephson junctions and CDWs indicating the predicted fractal scaling of mode-locking at criticality are reviewed

  12. Device geometry considerations for ridge waveguide quantum dot mode-locked lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee, J K; Raghunathan, R; Lester, L F; Wright, J B

    2014-01-01

    Quantum dot mode-locked lasers have emerged as a leading source for the efficient generation of high-quality optical pulses from a compact package, attracting considerable attention for support of multiple high-speed applications, owing to characteristics such as low noise operation and high pulse peak power, in addition to the ability to multiplex the output pulse train in temporal and frequency domains in order to obtain hundreds of GHz pulse repetition rates potentially operating at 1 Tbps. This topical review provides a detailed explanation into the primary advantages of quantum dots, identifying the key features that have made them superior to other material systems for passive mode-locking in semiconductor lasers. Following this account, the impact of the device's cavity geometry on the operational range of two-section, monolithic passively mode-locked lasers is investigated both experimentally and analytically. A model is described that predicts regimes of pulsed operation as a function of absorber length to gain length ratio. Experimental measurements of the pulse time-domain characteristics over a wide range of operating temperatures are found to be in excellent agreement with analytical predictions. The impact of ridge waveguide design on the operational range is also examined and the key dimensions that most strongly impact efficient operation are identified. (topical review)

  13. High-energy harmonic mode-locked 2 μm dissipative soliton fiber lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Nan; Tang, Yulong; Xu, Jianqiu

    2015-01-01

    High-pulse-energy harmonic mode-locking in 2 μm Tm-doped fiber lasers (TDFLs) is realized, for the first time, by using a short piece of anomalous dispersion gain fiber and the dissipative soliton mode-locking mechanism. Appropriately designing the cavity dispersion map and adjusting the cavity gain, stable harmonic mode-locking of the dissipative soliton TDFL from the 2nd to the 4th order is achieved, with the pulsing repetition rates and pulse energy being 43.4, 65.1, 86.8 MHz, and 6.27, 4.32 and 3.29 nJ, respectively. The harmonic laser pulse has a pulse width of ∼30 ps and a center wavelength of ∼1929 nm with a spectral bandwidth of ∼3.26 nm, giving a highly chirped laser pulse. Two types of soliton molecules are also observed in this laser system. (letter)

  14. Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrafast mode-locked pulse laser via evanescent field interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kichul; Lee, Young Tack; Choi, Won-Kook; Song, Yong-Won [Center for Opto-electronic Materials and Devices, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Junsu; Lee, Ju Han [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Black phosphorus, or BP, has found a lot of applications in recent years including photonics. The most recent studies have shown that the material has an excellent optical nonlinearity useful in many areas, one of which is in saturable absorption for passive mode-locking. A direct interaction scheme for mode-locking, however, has a potential to optically cause permanent damage to the already delicate material. Evanescent field interaction scheme has already been proven to be a useful method to prevent such danger for other 2-dimensional nanomaterials. In this report, we have utilized the evanescent field interaction to demonstrate that the optical nonlinear characteristics of BP is sufficiently strong to use in such an indirect interaction method. The successful demonstration of the passive mode-locking operation has generated pulses with the pulse duration, repetition rate, and time bandwidth product of 2.18 ps, 15.59 MHz, and 0.336, respectively. (copyright 2015 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Multi-operational tuneable Q-switched mode-locking Er fibre laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, F. Z.

    2018-01-01

    A wavelength-spacing tuneable, Q-switched mode-locking (QML) erbium-doped fibre laser based on non-linear polarization rotation controlled by four waveplates and a cube polarizer is proposed. A mode-locked pulse train using two quarter-wave plates and a half-wave plate (HWP) is obtained first, and then an extra HWP is inserted into the cavity to produce different operation regimes. The evolutions of temporal and spectral dynamics with different orientation angles of the extra HWP are investigated. A fully modulated stable QML pulse train is observed experimentally. This is, to the author’s best knowledge, the first experimental work reporting QML operation without adding an extra saturable absorber inside the laser cavity. Multi-wavelength pulse laser operation, multi-pulse train continuous-wave mode-locking operation and pulse-splitting operations are also reported at certain HWP angles. The observed operational dynamics are interpreted as a mutual interaction of dispersion, non-linear effect and insertion loss. This work provides a new mechanism for fabricating cheap tuneable multi-wavelength lasers with QML pulses.

  16. Nonlinear Polarization Rotation-Based Mode-Locked Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser with Three Switchable Operation States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiu Zian Cheak; Tan Sin Jin; Zarei Arman; Ahmad Harith; Harun Sulaiman Wadi

    2014-01-01

    A simple mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) with three switchable operation states is proposed and demonstrated based on nonlinear polarization rotation. The EDFL generates a stable square pulse at a third harmonic pulse repetition rate of 87 kHz as the 1480 nm pump power increases from the threshold of 17.5 mW to 34.3 mW. The square pulse duration increases from 105 ns to 245 ns as the pump power increases within this region. The pulse operation switches to the second operation state as the pump power is varied from 48.2 mW to 116.7 mW. The laser operates at a fundamental repetition rate of 29 kHz with a fixed pulse width of 8.5 μs within the pump power region. At a pump power of 116.7 mW, the average output power is 3.84 mW, which corresponds to the pulse energy of 131.5 nJ. When the pump power continues to increase, the pulse train experiences unstable oscillation before it reaches the third stable operation state within a pump power region of 138.9 mW to 145.0 mW. Within this region, the EDFL produces a fixed pulse width of 2.8 μs and a harmonic pulse repetition rate of 58 kHz. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  17. Unidirectional, dual-comb lasing under multiple pulse formation mechanisms in a passively mode-locked fiber ring laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya; Zhao, Xin; Hu, Guoqing; Li, Cui; Zhao, Bofeng; Zheng, Zheng

    2016-09-01

    Dual-comb lasers from which asynchronous ultrashort pulses can be simultaneously generated have recently become an interesting research subject. They could be an intriguing alternative to the current dual-laser optical-frequency-comb source with highly sophisticated electronic control systems. If generated through a common light path traveled by all pulses, the common-mode noises between the spectral lines of different pulse trains could be significantly reduced. Therefore, coherent dual-comb generation from a completely common-path, unidirectional lasing cavity would be an interesting territory to explore. In this paper, we demonstrate such a dual-comb lasing scheme based on a nanomaterial saturable absorber with additional pulse narrowing and broadening mechanisms concurrently introduced into a mode-locked fiber laser. The interactions between multiple soliton formation mechanisms result in unusual bifurcation into two-pulse states with quite different characteristics. Simultaneous oscillation of pulses with four-fold difference in pulsewidths and tens of Hz repetition rate difference is observed. The coherence between these spectral-overlapped, picosecond and femtosecond pulses is further verified by the corresponding asynchronous cross-sampling and dual-comb spectroscopy measurements.

  18. Integrated Microwave Photonic Isolators: Theory, Experimental Realization and Application in a Unidirectional Ring Mode-Locked Laser Diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn J.R. Heck

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel integrated microwave photonic isolator is presented. It is based on the timed drive of a pair of optical modulators, which transmit a pulsed or oscillating optical signal with low loss, when driven in phase. A signal in the reverse propagation direction will find the modulators out of phase and, hence, will experience high loss. Optical and microwave isolation ratios were simulated to be in the range up to 10 dB and 20 dB, respectively, using parameters representative for the indium phosphide platform. The experimental realization of this device in the hybrid silicon platform showed microwave isolation in the 9 dB–22 dB range. Furthermore, we present a design study on the use of these isolators inside a ring mode-locked laser cavity. Simulations show that unidirectional operation can be achieved, with a 30–50-dB suppression of the counter propagating mode, at limited driving voltages. The potentially low noise and feedback-insensitive operation of such a laser makes it a very promising candidate for use as on-chip microwave or comb generators.

  19. Scaling Fiber Lasers to Large Mode Area: An Investigation of Passive Mode-Locking Using a Multi-Mode Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Edwin; Lefrancois, Simon; Kutz, Jose Nathan; Wise, Frank W

    2011-01-01

    The mode-locking of dissipative soliton fiber lasers using large mode area fiber supporting multiple transverse modes is studied experimentally and theoretically. The averaged mode-locking dynamics in a multi-mode fiber are studied using a distributed model. The co-propagation of multiple transverse modes is governed by a system of coupled Ginzburg-Landau equations. Simulations show that stable and robust mode-locked pulses can be produced. However, the mode-locking can be destabilized by excessive higher-order mode content. Experiments using large core step-index fiber, photonic crystal fiber, and chirally-coupled core fiber show that mode-locking can be significantly disturbed in the presence of higher-order modes, resulting in lower maximum single-pulse energies. In practice, spatial mode content must be carefully controlled to achieve full pulse energy scaling. This paper demonstrates that mode-locking performance is very sensitive to the presence of multiple waveguide modes when compared to systems such as amplifiers and continuous-wave lasers.

  20. Oscillations and chaos in renal blood flow control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1993-01-01

    In normotensive, halothane-anesthetized rats, oscillations can be found both in the single-nephron blood flow and in the tubular pressure. Experimental data and computer simulations support the hypothesis that the oscillations are caused by the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanism. Model...... oscillations. The parameter range where model studies show instability overlaps with the physiologic range for the values of the same parameters. The system appears to be poised on the border between stability and oscillation, and a small parameter change may cause the system to move from one state...

  1. Internal flow of acoustically levitated drops undergoing sectorial oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, C.L.; Xie, W.J.; Yan, Z.L.; Wei, B.

    2010-01-01

    We present the experimental observation and theoretical analysis of fluid flow in acoustically levitated water drop undergoing sectorial oscillations. The fluid always flows between the extended sections and the compressed sections. The magnitude of fluid velocity decreases from the equatorial fringe to the centre of levitated drop. The maximum fluid velocity is 60-160 mm/s and the Reynolds number of the oscillations is estimated to be 137-367. The internal flow of the drop is analyzed as potential flow, and the fluid velocity is found to be horizontal. In the equatorial plane, the calculated stream lines and velocity profiles agree well with the experimental observations.

  2. Evanescent-wave coupled right angled buried waveguide: Applications in carbon nanotube mode-locking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary, R.; Thomson, R. R.; Kar, A. K.; Brown, G.; Beecher, S. J.; Popa, D.; Sun, Z.; Torrisi, F.; Hasan, T.; Milana, S.; Bonaccorso, F.; Ferrari, A. C.

    2013-01-01

    We present an evanescent-field device based on a right-angled waveguide. This consists of orthogonal waveguides, with their points of intersection lying along an angled facet of the chip. Light guided along one waveguide is incident at the angled dielectric-air facet at an angle exceeding the critical angle, so that the totally internally reflected light is coupled into the second waveguide. By depositing a nanotube film on the angled surface, the chip is then used to mode-lock an Erbium doped fiber ring laser with a repetition rate of 26 MHz, and pulse duration of 800 fs

  3. Dispersive-cavity actively mode-locked fiber laser for stable radio frequency delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Yitang; Wang, Ruixin; Yin, Feifei; Xu, Kun; Li, Jianqiang; Lin, Jintong

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel technique for highly stable transfer of a radio frequency (RF) comb over long optical fiber link, which is highly dispersive and is a part of an actively mode-locked fiber laser. Phase fluctuation along the fiber link, which is mainly induced by physical vibration and temperature fluctuations, is automatically compensated by the self-adapted wavelength shifting. Without phase-locking loop or any tunable parts, stable radio frequency is transferred over a 2-km fiber link, with a time jitter suppression ratio larger than 110. (letter)

  4. Active-passively mode-locked dye laser for diagnosis of laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Y.L.; Fedosejevs, R.; Sigel, R.

    1981-03-01

    In this report an active-passively mode-locked, flashlamp-pumped dye laser for diagnosis of laser-produced plasmas is described. This dye laser system used as a pulsed light source for high-speed photography of laser-target experiments was synchronized to the ASTERIX III iodine laser pulse with better than 100 ps accuracy. The single pulse energy was 10 μJ, pulse duration less than 10 ps. In 111 shots clear shadowgrams were obtained during a total of 151 target shots, i.e. the system worked well in 74% of the shots. (orig.)

  5. Mode-locked Pr3+-doped silica fiber laser with an external cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Yuan; Poulsen, Christian; Sejka, Milan

    1994-01-01

    We present a Pr3+-doped silica-based fiber laser mode-locked by using a linear external cavity with a vibrating mirror. Stable laser pulses with a FWHM of less than 44 ps, peak power greater than 9 W, and repetition rate up to 100 MHz are obtained. The pulse width versus cavity mismatch ΔL and pump...... power have been investigated. With a short piece of nonlinear fiber included in the external cavity, laser pulses of 45 ps have been measured...

  6. Mode-locked 1.5 micrometers semiconductor optical amplifier fiber ring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels V.; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne; Vaa, Michael

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of a mode-locked SOA fiber ring are investigated experimentally and numerically. Generation of near transform-limited (time-bandwidth product=0.7) 1.5 μm 54 ps FWHM pulses with a peak power of 2.8 mW at a repetition rate of 960 MHz is demonstrated experimentally. The experimental...... results agree well with the simulation results obtained using a transmission line laser model (TLLM) model, Both experiments and numerical simulations show how the RF power and the detuning affect the pulsewidth...

  7. Polariton condensation, superradiance and difference combination parametric resonance in mode-locked laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagayev, S. N.; Arkhipov, R. M.; Arkhipov, M. V.; Egorov, V. S.; Chekhonin, I. A.; Chekhonin, M. A.

    2017-11-01

    The generation of the ring mode-locked laser containing resonant absorption medium in the cavity was investigated. It is shown that near the strong resonant absorption lines a condensation of polaritons arises. Intensive radiation looks like as superradiance in a medium without population inversion. We studied theoretically the microscopic mechanism of these phenomena. It was shown that in this system in absorbing medium a strong self-induced difference combination parametric resonance exists. Superradiance on polaritonic modes in the absorbing medium are due to the emergence of light-induced resonant polarization as a result of fast periodic nonadiabatic quantum jumps in the absorber.

  8. Stability of the mode-locking regime in tapered quantum-dot lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardella, P.; Drzewietzki, L.; Rossetti, M.; Weber, C.; Breuer, S.

    2018-02-01

    We study numerically and experimentally the role of the injection current and reverse bias voltage on the pulse stability of tapered, passively mode-locked, Quantum Dot (QD) lasers. By using a multi-section delayed differential equation and introducing in the model the QD inhomogenous broadening, we are able to predict the onset of leading and trailing edge instabilities in the emitted pulse trains and to identify specific trends of stability in dependence on the laser biasing conditions. The numerical results are confirmed experimentally trough amplitude and timing stability analysis of the pulses.

  9. Mode locking of electron spin coherences in singly charged quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greilich, A; Yakovlev, D R; Shabaev, A; Efros, Al L; Yugova, I A; Oulton, R; Stavarache, V; Reuter, D; Wieck, A; Bayer, M

    2006-07-21

    The fast dephasing of electron spins in an ensemble of quantum dots is detrimental for applications in quantum information processing. We show here that dephasing can be overcome by using a periodic train of light pulses to synchronize the phases of the precessing spins, and we demonstrate this effect in an ensemble of singly charged (In,Ga)As/GaAs quantum dots. This mode locking leads to constructive interference of contributions to Faraday rotation and presents potential applications based on robust quantum coherence within an ensemble of dots.

  10. Towards attosecond synchronization of remote mode-locked lasers using stabilized transmission of optical comb frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, R. B.; Byrd, J. M.; Doolittle, L. R.; Holzwarth, R.; Huang, G.

    2011-09-01

    We propose a method of synchronizing mode-locked lasers separated by hundreds of meters with the possibility of achieving sub-fs performance by locking the phases of corresponding lines in the optical comb spectrum. The optical phase from one comb line is transmitted to the remote laser over an interferometrically stabilized link by locking a single frequency laser to a comb line with high phase stability. We describe how these elements are integrated into a complete system and estimate the potential performance.

  11. Picosecond trigger system useful in mode-locked laser pulse measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunin, B.; Miehe, J.A.; Sipp, B.; Thebault, J.

    1976-01-01

    A highly sensitive tunnel diode trigger useful in temporal intensity build-up measurements of mode-locked lasers has been developed; the device reduces notably the time walk due to the lack of repeatability in intensity of the laser output. The performance of the trigger have been established by means of a GHz wideband-0.1V/cm sensitive real-time oscilloscope and of an image converter camera having a picosecond resolution: the experimental results show that a variation of the amplitude of the laser pulse train of a factor 5 leads to a time jitter of less than 30 ps (Auth.)

  12. Wavelength and pulse duration tunable ultrafast fiber laser mode-locked with carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Diao; Jussila, Henri; Wang, Yadong; Hu, Guohua; Albrow-Owen, Tom; C. T. Howe, Richard; Ren, Zhaoyu; Bai, Jintao; Hasan, Tawfique; Sun, Zhipei

    2018-01-01

    Ultrafast lasers with tunable parameters in wavelength and time domains are the choice of light source for various applications such as spectroscopy and communication. Here, we report a wavelength and pulse-duration tunable mode-locked Erbium doped fiber laser with single wall carbon nanotube-based saturable absorber. An intra-cavity tunable filter is employed to continuously tune the output wavelength for 34 nm (from 1525 nm to 1559 nm) and pulse duration from 545 fs to 6.1 ps, respectively....

  13. Terahertz repetition frequencies from harmonic mode-locked monolithic compound-cavity laser diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanson, D. A.; Street, M. W.; McDougall, S. D.; Thayne, I. G.; Marsh, J. H.; Avrutin, E. A.

    2001-01-01

    Compound-cavity laser diodes are mode locked at a harmonic of the fundamental round-trip frequency to achieve repetition rates of up to 2.1 THz. The devices are fabricated from GaAs/AlGaAs material at a wavelength of 860 nm and incorporate two gain sections with an etched slot reflector between them, and a saturable absorber section. Autocorrelation studies are used to investigate device behavior for different reflector types and reflectivity. These lasers may find applications in terahertz imaging, medicine, ultrafast optical links, and atmospheric sensing. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  14. An innovative interpretation of rotating tearing mode locking to an external static current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, R.; Lazzaro, E.

    2001-01-01

    Naturally occurring error fields in tokamaks, which arise from misalignments of the external field coils, may trigger the onset of tearing modes. The conditions under which a static error field is able to lock a rotating tearing mode and how this process takes place are discussed. The analysis presented contributes to a new understanding and interpretation of mode locking, given in terms of the superposition of a slipping layer (a radial layer of very fast mode phase variations) and the tearing layer, where reconnection takes place. In addition, a stabilizing operating window is found to exist, independent of the phase time evolution of the mode. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  15. Tunable radio-frequency photonic filter based on an actively mode-locked fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortigosa-Blanch, A; Mora, J; Capmany, J; Ortega, B; Pastor, D

    2006-03-15

    We propose the use of an actively mode-locked fiber laser as a multitap optical source for a microwave photonic filter. The fiber laser provides multiple optical taps with an optical frequency separation equal to the external driving radio-frequency signal of the laser that governs its repetition rate. All the optical taps show equal polarization and an overall Gaussian apodization, which reduces the sidelobes. We demonstrate continuous tunability of the filter by changing the external driving radio-frequency signal of the laser, which shows good fine tunability in the operating range of the laser from 5 to 10 GHz.

  16. Spectral dynamics of square pulses in passively mode-locked fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaan, Georges; Komarov, Andrey; Niang, Alioune; Salhi, Mohamed; Sanchez, François

    2018-02-01

    We investigate experimentally and numerically the spectral dynamics of square pulses generated in passively mode-locked fiber lasers under the dissipative soliton resonance. The features of the transition from the single-peak spectral profile to the doublet spectrum with increasing pump power are studied. The used master equation takes into account the gain saturation, the quadratic frequency dispersion of the gain and the refractive index, and the cubic-quintic nonlinearity of the losses and refractive index. Experimental data are obtained for an Er:Yb-doped fiber ring laser. The theoretical and experimental results are in good agreement with each other.

  17. Oscillating solitons in nonlinear optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... are derived, and the relevant properties and features of oscillating solitons are illustrated. Oscillating solitons are controlled by the reciprocal of the group velocity and Kerr nonlinearity. Results of this paper will be valuable to the study of dispersion-managed optical communication system and mode-locked fibre lasers.

  18. Laminar phase flow for an exponentially tapered Josephson oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benabdallah, A.; Caputo, J. G.; Scott, Alwyn C.

    2000-01-01

    Exponential tapering and inhomogeneous current feed were recently proposed as means to improve the performance of a Josephson flux flow oscillator. Extensive numerical results backed up by analysis are presented here that support this claim and demonstrate that exponential tapering reduces...... the small current instability region and leads to a laminar flow regime where the voltage wave form is periodic giving the oscillator minimal spectral width. Tapering also leads to an increased output power. Since exponential tapering is not expected to increase the difficulty of fabricating a flux flow...

  19. Ring-shaped active mode-locked tunable laser using quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingxiao; Wang, Yongjun; Liu, Xinyu

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a lot of simulations has been done for ring-shaped active mode-locked lasers with quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifier (QD-SOA). Based on the simulation model of QD-SOA, we discussed about the influence towards mode-locked waveform frequency and pulse caused by QD-SOA maximum mode peak gain, active layer loss coefficient, bias current, incident light pulse, fiber nonlinear coefficient. In the meantime, we also take the tunable performance of the laser into consideration. Results showed QD-SOA a better performance than original semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) in recovery time, line width, and nonlinear coefficients, which makes it possible to output a locked-mode impulse that has a higher impulse power, narrower impulse width as well as the phase is more easily controlled. After a lot of simulations, this laser can realize a 20GHz better locked-mode output pulse after 200 loops, where the power is above 17.5mW, impulse width is less than 2.7ps, moreover, the tunable wavelength range is between 1540nm-1580nm.

  20. Multiple-Pulse Operation and Bound States of Solitons in Passive Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Komarov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present results of our research on a multiple-pulse operation of passive mode-locked fiber lasers. The research has been performed on basis of numerical simulation. Multihysteresis dependence of both an intracavity energy and peak intensities of intracavity ultrashort pulses on pump power is found. It is shown that the change of a number of ultrashort pulses in a laser cavity can be realized by hard as well as soft regimes of an excitation and an annihilation of new solitons. Bound steady states of interacting solitons are studied for various mechanisms of nonlinear losses shaping ultrashort pulses. Possibility of coding of information on basis of soliton trains with various bonds between neighboring pulses is discussed. The role of dispersive wave emitted by solitons because of lumped intracavity elements in a formation of powerful soliton wings is analyzed. It is found that such powerful wings result in large bounding energies of interacting solitons in steady states. Various problems of a soliton interaction in passive mode-locked fiber lasers are discussed.

  1. Electronic control of different generation regimes in mode-locked all-fibre F8 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobtsev, Sergey; Ivanenko, Aleksey; Kokhanovskiy, Alexey; Smirnov, Sergey

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate for the first time an electronically controlled realisation of markedly different generation regimes in a mode-locked all-fibre figure-eight (F8) Yb-doped laser. Electronic adjustment of the ratio of pumping powers of two amplification stages in a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror enables the establishment of stable pulse generation regimes with different degrees of coherence and control over their parameters within relatively broad limits, with the pulse duration range exceeding a factor of two in the picosecond domain for coherent and incoherent pulses, the energy range exceeding an order of magnitude for incoherent pulses (2.2-24.8 nJ) and over a factor of 8 for coherent pulses (1.9-16.2 nJ). Adjustment of the pumping powers allows one to maintain the duration of the coherent pulses and to set their peak power in the range of 32.5-292.5 W. The proposed configuration of electronic control over the radiation parameters of a mode-locked all-fibre F8 laser enables reproducible generation of pulses of different types with specified parameters within a broad range of values.

  2. Systematic investigation of the temperature behavior of InAs/InP quantum nanostructure passively mode-locked lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klaime, K.; Piron, R.; Grillot, F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the effects of the temperature on the mode-locking capability of two section InAs/InP quantum nanostructure (QN) passively mode locked lasers. Devices are made with multi-layers of self-assembled InAs QN either grown on InP(100) (5 quantum dashes (QDashes) layers......) or on InP (311)B (6 quantum dots (QDs) layers). Using an analytical model, the mode-locking stability map is extracted for the two types of QN as a function of optical absorption, cavity length, current density and temperature. We believe that this study is of first importance since it reports...... for the first time a systematic investigation of the temperature-dependence on the mode-locking properties of InAs/InP QN devices. Beside, a rigorous comparison between QDashes and QDs temperature dependence is proposed through a proper analysis of the mode-locking stability maps. Experimental results also show...

  3. Self-mode-locking operation of a diode-end-pumped Tm:YAP laser with watt-level output power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Su; Zhang, Xinlu; Huang, Jinjer; Wang, Tianhan; Dai, Junfeng; Dong, Guangzong

    2018-03-01

    We report on a high power continuous wave (CW) self-mode-locked Tm:YAP laser pumped by a 792 nm laser diode. Without any additional mode-locking elements in the cavity, stable and self-starting mode-locking operation has been realized. The threshold pump power of the CW self-mode-locked Tm:YAP laser is only 5.4 W. The maximum average output power is as high as 1.65 W at the pump power of 12 W, with the repetition frequency of 468 MHz and the center wavelength of 1943 nm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first CW self-mode-locked Tm:YAP laser. The experiment results show that the Tm:YAP crystal is a promising gain medium for realizing the high power self-mode-locking operation at 2 µm.

  4. High-power terahertz optical pulse generation with a dual-wavelength harmonically mode-locked Yb:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, W Z; Chang, M T; Su, K W; Huang, K F; Chen, Y F

    2013-01-01

    We report on high-power terahertz optical pulse generation with a dual-wavelength harmonically mode-locked Yb:YAG laser. A semiconductor saturable absorber mirror is developed to achieve synchronously mode-locked operation at two spectral bands centered at 1031.67 and 1049.42 nm with a pulse duration of 1.54 ps and a pulse repetition rate of 80.3 GHz. With a diamond heat spreader to improve the heat removal efficiency, the average output power can be up to 1.1 W at an absorbed pump power of 5.18 W. The autocorrelation traces reveal that the mode-locked pulse is modulated with a beat frequency of 4.92 THz and displays a modulation depth to be greater than 80%. (paper)

  5. Experimental demonstration of an Er-doped fiber ring laser mode-locked with a Tm–Ho co-doped fiber saturable absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Mengmeng; Wu, Junjie; Wu, Yong; Yang, Pengling; Ye, Xisheng; Peng, Junsong

    2013-01-01

    Mode-locking operation of an Er-doped fiber laser with a Tm–Ho co-doped fiber saturable absorber is demonstrated for the first time. Q-switching, Q-switched mode-locking and CW mode-locking operation modes are observed sequentially with increase of the pump power. In the mode-locking operation mode, a repetition rate at the fundamental cavity frequency of 9.05 MHz is obtained with a pulse duration of 46.3 ns. By rotating the polarization controller, a repetition rate up to 887 MHz is achieved, and the pulse duration is shortened to 0.548 ns. (paper)

  6. Prediction of unsteady separated flows on oscillating airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccroskey, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Techniques for calculating high Reynolds number flow around an airfoil undergoing dynamic stall are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on predicting the values of lift, drag, and pitching moments. Methods discussed include: the discrete potential vortex method; thin boundary layer method; strong interaction between inviscid and viscous flows; and solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations. Empirical methods for estimating unsteady airloads on oscillating airfoils are also described. These methods correlate force and moment data from wind tunnel tests to indicate the effects of various parameters, such as airfoil shape, Mach number, amplitude and frequency of sinosoidal oscillations, mean angle, and type of motion.

  7. Nonlinear High-Energy Pulse Propagation in Graded-Index Multimode Optical Fibers for Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-23

    power kW at nm in a C-GIMF segment in the lowest order mode ; this pulse can be ob- tained from a typical titanium –sapphire mode-locked laser . A much...single- andmulticore double- clad and PCF lasers . He was a Senior Research Scientist at Corning Inc. from 2005 to 2008. He is currently an Assistant...High-Energy Pulse Propagation in Graded-Index Multimode Optical Fibers for Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-12-1

  8. High-power femtosecond pulse generation in a passively mode-locked Nd:SrLaAlO4 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan-De; Dong, Lu-Lu; Zheng, Li-He; Berkowski, Marek; Su, Liang-Bi; Ren, Ting-Qi; Peng, Yan-Dong; Hou, Jia; Zhang, Bai-Tao; He, Jing-Liang

    2016-07-01

    A high optical quality Nd:SrLaAlO4 (Nd:SLA) crystal was grown using the Czochralski method and showed broad fluorescence spectrum with a full width at half maximum value of 34 nm, which is beneficial for generating femtosecond laser pulses. A stable diode-pumped passively mode-locked femtosecond Nd:SLA laser with 458 fs pulse duration was achieved for the first time at a central wavelength of 1077.9 nm. The average output power of the continuous-wave mode-locked laser was 520 mW and the repetition rate was 78.5 MHz.

  9. 1.34 µm picosecond self-mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 watt-level laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ming; Peng, Jiying; Li, Zuohan; Cao, Qiuyuan; Yuan, Ruixia

    2017-01-01

    With a simple linear configuration, a diode-pumped, self-mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser at 1.34 µm is experimentally demonstrated for the first time. Based on the aberrationless theory of self-focusing and thermal lensing effect, through designing and optimizing the resonator, a pulse width as short as 9.1 ps is generated at a repetition rate of 2.0 GHz and the average output power is 2.51 W. The optical conversion efficiency and the slope efficiency for the stable mode-locked operation are approximately 16.7% and 19.2%, respectively.

  10. Effect of the doped fibre length on soliton pulses of a bidirectional mode-locked fibre laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, H; Alwi Kutty, N A; Zulkifli, M Z; Harun, S W [Photonics Research Center (Department of Physics), University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-08-31

    A passively bidirectional mode-locked fibre laser is demonstrated using a highly concentrated erbium-doped fibre (EDF) as a gain medium. To accomplish mode-locked operation in a short cavity, use is made of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a saturable absorber. Soliton pulses are obtained at a wavelength of 1560 nm with a repetition rate ranging from 43.92 MHz to 46.97 MHz and pulse width stretching from 0.56 ps to 0.41 ps as the EDF length is reduced from 60 cm to 30 cm. (lasers)

  11. Analysis of hybrid mode-locking of two-section quantum dot lasers operating at 1.5 microm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Martijn J R; Salumbides, Edcel J; Renault, Amandine; Bente, Erwin A J M; Oei, Yok-Siang; Smit, Meint K; van Veldhoven, René; Nötzel, Richard; Eikema, Kjeld S E; Ubachs, Wim

    2009-09-28

    For the first time a detailed study of hybrid mode-locking in two-section InAs/InP quantum dot Fabry-Pérot-type lasers is presented. The output pulses have a typical upchirp of approximately 8 ps/nm, leading to very elongated pulses. The mechanism leading to this typical pulse shape and the phase noise is investigated by detailed radio-frequency and optical spectral studies as well as time-domain studies. The pulse shaping mechanism in these lasers is found to be fundamentally different than the mechanism observed in conventional mode-locked laser diodes, based on quantum well gain or bulk material.

  12. Harmonic mode-locking and sub-round-trip time nonlinear dynamics of electro-optically controlled solid state laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunkov, M. V.; Maslova, Yu Ya; Petukhov, V. A.; Semenov, M. A.; Shabalin, Yu V.; Tunkin, V. G.

    2018-03-01

    Harmonic mode-locking in a solid state laser due to optoelectronic control is studied numerically on the basis of two methods. The first one is detailed numeric simulation taking into account laser radiation fine time structure. It is shown that optimally chosen feedback delay leads to self-started mode-locking with generation of desired number of pulses in the laser cavity. The second method is based on discrete maps for short laser pulse energy. Both methods show that the application of combination of positive and negative feedback loops allows to reduce the period of regular nonlinear dynamics down to a fraction of a laser cavity round trip time.

  13. Monolithic mode-locked lasers with deeply dry etched Bragg mirror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, David; Yvind, Kresten; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    Background: Semiconductor mode-locked lasers are attractive as components in futureultra high-speed telecommunication systems (160-640Gb/s); as picosecond pulse sources,clock-recovery devices and for demultiplexing in Optical Time Division Multiplexing(OTDM) systems. We have recently designed...... it possible to buy epitaxial wafers fromphotonic foundries as in the microelectronic industry.Design: The reflectivity spectrum from the total grating is calculated by matrixmultiplication of the individual periodic grating elements. The period of the grating,given by the mean effective index of the low....... The SiO2-film functions as a mask in the subsequent RIE of thesemiconductor (InP). We are now optimizing the semiconductor RIE to achieve 2 µmdeep waveguides and gratings with smooth vertical sidewalls and smooth bottom surface.This optimization involves optimizing the reaction chamber parameters: CH4/H2...

  14. Mode locking and quasiperiodicity in a discrete-time Chialvo neuron model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengjuan; Cao, Hongjun

    2018-03-01

    The two-dimensional parameter spaces of a discrete-time Chialvo neuron model are investigated. Our studies demonstrate that for all our choice of two parameters (i) the fixed point is destabilized via Neimark-Sacker bifurcation; (ii) there exist mode locking structures like Arnold tongues and shrimps, with periods organized in a Farey tree sequence, embedded in quasiperiodic/chaotic region. We determine analytically the location of the parameter sets where Neimark-Sacker bifurcation occurs, and the location on this curve where Arnold tongues of arbitrary period are born. Properties of the transition that follows the so-called two-torus from quasiperiodicity to chaos are presented clearly and proved strictly by using numerical simulations such as bifurcation diagrams, the largest Lyapunov exponent diagram on MATLAB and C++.

  15. Diode-pumped passively mode-locked sub-picosecond Yb:LuAG ceramic laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiang-Feng; Liu Kai; Wang Jun-Li; Yang Yu; Wang Hui-Bo; Gao Zi-Ye; Jiang Li; Xie Teng-Fei; Chao-Yu Li; Pan Yu-Bai; Wei Zhi-Yi

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the laser activities of a diode-pumped Yb:LuAG ceramic which was prepared by the solid-state reactive sintering method were reported. The maximum output power was 1.86 W in the continuous wave (CW) laser operation, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 53.6%. The CW laser could be tuned from 1030 to 1096 nm by inserting a prism in the cavity. With the assist of a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM), passive mode-locking was realized, delivering sub-picosecond pulses with 933 fs duration and an average power of 532 mW at a repetition rate of 90.35 MHz. (paper)

  16. Mode locking in a bismuth fibre laser by using a SESAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krylov, A A; Dvoirin, V V; Mashinsky, V M; Kryukov, P G; Okhotnikov, O G; Guina, M

    2008-01-01

    By using a semiconductor saturable-absorber mirror (SESAM) optimised for operation in the spectral range from 1100 to 1200 nm, passive mode locking is obtained in a cw bismuth-doped fibre laser. Pumping was performed by a cw ytterbium-doped fibre laser at a wavelength of 1075 nm. The operation of the laser is studied by using either a fibre Bragg grating or a loop fibre Sagnac mirror as the output resonator mirror. Stable laser pulses of duration from 50 ps to 3.5 ns, depending on the output mirror type, were generated. The pulse repetition rate was 11 MHz at a wavelength of ∼1160 nm and the maximum spectral width of 2.1 nm. The maximum average output power was 7.8 mW upon pumping by 1140 mW. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  17. Characterization of a FBG sensor interrogation system based on a mode-locked laser scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal, Javier; Fraile-Peláez, Francisco Javier; Zheng, Di; Barrera, David; Sales, Salvador

    2017-10-02

    This paper is focused on the characterization of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation system based on a fiber ring laser with a semiconductor optical amplifier as the gain medium, and an in-loop electro-optical modulator. This system operates as a switchable active (pulsed) mode-locked laser. The operation principle of the system is explained theoretically and validated experimentally. The ability of the system to interrogate an array of different FBGs in wavelength and spatial domain is demonstrated. Simultaneously, the influence of several important parameters on the performance of the interrogation technique has been investigated. Specifically, the effects of the bandwidth and the reflectivity of the FBGs, the SOA gain, and the depth of the intensity modulation have been addressed.

  18. Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, D.Y.; Zhao, L.M.; Zhao, B.; Liu, A.Q.

    2005-01-01

    We report results of numerical simulations on multiple-soliton generation and soliton energy quantization in a soliton fiber ring laser passively mode locked by using the nonlinear polarization rotation technique. We found numerically that the formation of multiple solitons in the laser is caused by a peak-power-limiting effect of the laser cavity. It is also the same effect that suppresses the soliton pulse collapse, an intrinsic feature of solitons propagating in gain media, and makes the solitons stable in the laser. Furthermore, we show that the soliton energy quantization observed in the lasers is a natural consequence of the gain competition between the multiple solitons. Enlightened by the numerical result we speculate that multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization observed in other types of soliton fiber lasers could have a similar mechanism

  19. Soliton formation and evolution in passively-mode-locked lasers with ultralong anomalous-dispersion fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xueming

    2011-01-01

    The soliton formation and evolution are numerically and experimentally investigated in passively-mode-locked lasers where pulses encounter ultralong anomalous-dispersion fibers. The pulse formation and evolution in lasers are determined by two balances, namely, nonlinearity and anomalous-dispersion balance and intracavity filtering and self-amplitude modulation balance. It is numerically found that a higher-energy soliton can be split into identical lower-energy multisolitons with exactly the same physical properties. Simulation results show that the separation of neighboring solitons is variational in the temporal domain. The temporal and spectral characteristics of solitons have large variations throughout the laser cavity, qualitatively distinct from the steady state of conventional solitons. The experimental observations confirm the theoretical predictions.

  20. Oscillating flow of a Burgers' fluid in a pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.; Asghar, S.; Hayat, T.

    2005-12-01

    An analysis is made to see the influences of Hall current on the flow of a Burgers' fluid. The velocity field corresponding to flow in a pipe is determined. The closed form analytical solutions for several Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid models can be obtained from the present analysis as the limiting cases. The purpose of this work is twofold. Firstly, to investigate the oscillating flow in a pipe using Burgers? fluid model. Secondly, to see the effects of Hall current on the velocity field. The flow in a pipe is induced due to imposition of an oscillating pressure gradient. An exact analytical solution to the governing problem is given using the Fourier transform technique. The obtained expression for the velocity field shows that there are pronounced effects of Hall and rheological parameters. The considered fluid model is a viscoelastic model and has been used to characterize food products such as cheese, soil, asphalt and asphalt mixes etc. (author)

  1. Observation of helium flow induced beam orbit oscillations at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montag, C.; Bonati, R.; Brennan, J.M.; Butler, J.; Cameron, P.; Ganetis, G.; He, P.; Hirzel, W.; Jia, L.X.; Koello, P.; Louie, W.; McIntyre, G.; Nicoletti, A.; Rank, J.; Roser, T.; Satogata, T.; Schmalzle, J.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.; Sondericker, J.; Tallerico, T.

    2006-01-01

    Horizontal beam orbit jitter at frequencies around 10 Hz has been observed at RHIC for several years. The distinct frequencies of this jitter have been found at superconducting low-beta quadrupole triplet magnets around the ring, where they coincide with mechanical vibration modes of the cold masses. Recently, we have identified liquid helium flow as the driving force of these oscillations

  2. Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locking with MoS2-polyvinyl alcohol saturable absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liming; Li, Xing; Zhang, Rui; Wu, Duanduan; Dai, Shixun; Peng, Jian; Weng, Jian; Nie, Qiuhua

    2018-03-01

    We have designed an all-fiber passive mode-locking thulium-doped fiber laser that uses molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a saturable absorber (SA) material. A free-standing few-layer MoS2-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film is fabricated by liquid phase exfoliation (LPE) and is then transferred onto the end face of a fiber connector. The excellent saturable absorption of the fabricated MoS2-based SA allows the laser to output soliton pulses at a pump power of 500 mW. Fundamental frequency mode-locking is realized at a repetition frequency of 13.9 MHz. The central wavelength is 1926 nm, the 3 dB spectral bandwidth is 2.86 nm and the pulse duration is 1.51 ps. Additionally, third-order harmonic mode-locking of the laser is also achieved. The pulse duration is 1.33 ps, which is slightly narrower than the fundamental frequency mode-locking bandwidth. The experimental results demonstrate that the few-layer MoS2-PVA SA is promising for use in 2 μm laser systems.

  3. Investigations of repetition rate stability of a mode-locked quantum dot semiconductor laser in an auxiliary optical fiber cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breuer, Stefan; Elsässer, Wolfgang; McInerney, J.G.

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated experimentally the pulse train (mode beating) stability of a monolithic mode-locked multi-section quantum-dot laser with an added passive auxiliary optical fiber cavity. Addition of the weakly coupled (¿ -24dB) cavity reduces the current-induced shift d¿/dI of the principal...

  4. 5-GHz passively mode-locked quantum dot ring laser diode at 1.5 μm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, M.J.R.; Renault, A.; Bente, E.A.J.M.; Oei, Y.S.; Smit, M.K.; Eikema, K.S.E.; Ubachs, W.; Anantathanasarn, S.; Nötzel, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present the first observation of passive mode-locking in a quantum dot (QD) ring laser operating at wavelengths around 1.5 µm. The device consists of an 18-mm long (electrically pumped) ring cavity, corresponding to a 5-GHz roundtrip frequency. The waveguide width is 2 µm. A

  5. All-fiber Yb-doped fiber laser passively mode-locking by monolayer MoS2 saturable absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Zhu, Jianqi; Li, Pingxue; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Yu, Hua; Xiao, Kun; Li, Chunyong; Zhang, Guangyu

    2018-04-01

    We report on an all-fiber passively mode-locked ytterbium-doped (Yb-doped) fiber laser with monolayer molybdenum disulfide (ML-MoS2) saturable absorber (SA) by three-temperature zone chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The modulation depth, saturation fluence, and non-saturable loss of this ML-MoS2 are measured to be 3.6%, 204.8 μJ/cm2 and 6.3%, respectively. Based on this ML-MoS2SA, a passively mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser has been achieved at 979 nm with pulse duration of 13 ps and repetition rate of 16.51 MHz. A mode-locked fiber laser at 1037 nm is also realized with a pulse duration of 475 ps and repetition rate of 26.5 MHz. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that the ML-MoS2 SA is used in an all-fiber Yb-doped mode-locked fiber laser at 980 nm. Our work further points the excellent saturable absorption ability of ML-MoS2 in ultrafast photonic applications.

  6. Dual wavelength Mode-Locking of InAs/InP quantum dot laser diodes at 1.5µm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tahvili, M.S.; Heck, M.J.R.; Nötzel, R.; Smit, M.K.; Bente, E.A.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    We report on stable dual-wavelength mode-locking of 3.1GHz and 10GHz two-section InAs/InP(100) quantum dot laser diodes. Evaluation of relative time delay between different spectral components indicates opposite sign of chirp over the two spectral lobes

  7. Output Power Limitations and Improvements in Passively Mode Locked GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum Well Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandoi, Giuseppe; Ironside, Charles N; Marsh, John H; Bryce, A Catrina

    2012-03-01

    We report a novel approach for increasing the output power in passively mode locked semiconductor lasers. Our approach uses epitaxial structures with an optical trap in the bottom cladding that enlarges the vertical mode size to scale the pulse saturation energy. With this approach we demonstrate a very high peak power of 9.8 W per facet, at a repetition rate of 6.8 GHz and with pulse duration of 0.71 ps. In particular, we compare two GaAs/AlGaAs epilayer designs, a double quantum well design operating at 830 nm and a single quantum well design operating at 795 nm, with vertical mode sizes of 0.5 and 0.75 μm, respectively. We show that a larger mode size not only shifts the mode locking regime of operation towards higher powers, but also produces other improvements in respect of two main failure mechanisms that limit the output power: the catastrophic optical mirror damage and the catastrophic optical saturable absorber damage. For the 830 nm material structure, we also investigate the effect of non-absorbing mirrors on output power and mode locked operation of colliding pulse mode locked lasers.

  8. Pulse-forming and line-broadening in AM mode locking of the TEA-CO2laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteman, W.J.; Olbertz, A.H.M.

    1977-01-01

    The present paper describes AM mode locking for homogeneously broadened systems, a procedure for measuring linewidths under laser conditions, and finally, experimental results for a 1-atm CO2laser. Working in the frequency domain, analytic solutions are given for the pulse bandwidth and pulse shape

  9. Mode-locked ytterbium fiber lasers using a large modulation depth carbon nanotube saturable absorber without an additional spectral filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Y Z; Miao, J G; Liu, W J; Huang, X J; Wang, Y B

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate an all-normal-dispersion ytterbium (Yb)-doped fiber laser mode-locked by a higher modulation depth carbon nanotube saturable absorber (CNT-SA) based on an evanescent field interaction scheme. The laser cavity consists of pure normal dispersion fibers without dispersion compensation and an additional spectral filter. It is exhibited that the higher modulation depth CNT-SA could contribute to stabilize the mode-locking operation within a limited range of pump power and generate the highly chirped pulses with a high-energy level in the cavity with large normal dispersion and strong nonlinearity. Stable mode-locked pulses with a maximal energy of 29 nJ with a 5.59 MHz repetition rate at the operating wavelength around 1085 nm have been obtained. The maximal time-bandwidth product is 262.4. The temporal and spectral characteristics of pulses versus pump power are demonstrated. The experimental results suggest that the CNT-SA provides a sufficient nonlinear loss to compensate high nonlinearity and catch up the gain at a different pump power and thus leads to the stable mode locking. (letter)

  10. High-speed polarization-sensitive OCT at 1060 nm using a Fourier domain mode-locked swept source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marschall, Sebastian; Torzicky, Teresa; Klein, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    sufficiently large datasets. Here, we demonstrate PS-OCT imaging at 350 kHz A-scan rate using a two-channel PS-OCT system in conjunction with a Fourier domain mode-locked laser. The light source spectrum spans up to 100nm around the water absorption minimum at 1060 nm. By modulating the laser pump current, we...

  11. Laser-diode pumped self-mode-locked praseodymium visible lasers with multi-gigahertz repetition rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxia; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Di Lieto, Alberto; Tonelli, Mauro; Wang, Jiyang

    2016-06-15

    We demonstrate efficient laser-diode pumped multi-gigahertz (GHz) self-mode-locked praseodymium (Pr3+) visible lasers with broadband spectra from green to deep red for the first time to our knowledge. With a Pr3+-doped GdLiF4 crystal, stable self-mode-locked visible pulsed lasers at the wavelengths of 522 nm, 607 nm, 639 nm, and 720 nm have been obtained with the repetition rates of 2.8 GHz, 3.1 GHz, 3.1 GHz, and 3.0 GHz, respectively. The maximum output power was 612 mW with the slope efficiency of 46.9% at 639 nm. The mode-locking mechanism was theoretically analyzed. The stable second-harmonic mode-locking with doubled repetition frequency was also realized based on the Fabry-Perot effect formed in the laser cavity. In addition, we find that the polarization directions were turned with lasing wavelengths. This work may provide a new way for generating efficient ultrafast pulses with high- and changeable-repetition rates in the visible range.

  12. Pressure sensitivity of flow oscillations in postocclusive reactive skin hyperemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strucl, M; Peterec, D; Finderle, Z; Maver, J

    1994-05-01

    Skin blood flow was monitored using a laser-Doppler (LD) flowmeter in 21 healthy volunteers after an occlusion of the digital arteries. The peripheral vascular bed was exposed to occlusion ischemia of varying duration (1, 4, or 8 min) and to a change in digital arterial pressure produced by different positions of the arm above heart level to characterize the pattern of LD flow oscillations in postocclusive reactive hyperemia (PRH) and to elucidate the relevance of metabolic and myogenic mechanisms in governing its fundamental frequency. The descending part of the hyperemic flow was characterized by the appearance of conspicuous periodic oscillations with a mean fundamental frequency of 7.2 +/- 1.5 cycles/min (SD, n = 9), as assessed by a Fourier transform frequency analysis of 50-s sections of flow. The mean respiratory frequency during the periods of flow frequency analysis was 17.0 +/- 2.2 (SD, n = 9), and the PRH oscillations remained during apnea in all tested subjects. The area under the maximum flow curve increased significantly with prolongation of the occlusion (paired t test, P blood pressure in the digital arteries, which suggests the predominant role of a metabolic component in this part of the PRH response. In contrast, the fundamental frequency of PRH oscillations exhibited a significant decrease with a reduction in the estimated digital arterial pressure (linear regression, b = 0.08, P < 0.001; n = 12), but did not change with the prolongation of arterial occlusion despite a significant increase in mean LD flow (paired t test, P < 0.001; n = 9).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Dual-wavelength passive and hybrid mode-locking of 3, 4.5 and 10 GHz InAs/InP(100) quantum dot lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tahvili, M.S.; Du, L.; Heck, M.J.R.; Nötzel, R.; Smit, M.K.; Bente, E.A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    We present an investigation of passive and hybrid mode-locking in Fabry-Pérot type two-section InAs/InP(100) quantum dot lasers that show dual wavelength operation. Over the whole current and voltage range for mode-locking of these lasers, the optical output spectra show two distinct lobes. The two

  14. Passive mode-locking dynamics in a 3.1GHz quantum dot laser diode operating around 1.5μm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tahvili, M.S.; Heck, M.J.R.; Nötzel, R.; Smit, M.K.; Bente, E.A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    We report on passive mode-locking in a 3.1GHz InAs/InP(100) quantum dot laser diode operating around 1.5µm. The range of stable passive mode-locking, detailed measurements of the linewidth of the optical modes and the phase modulation in output pulses are presented.

  15. Transverse oscillation vector flow imaging for transthoracic echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradway, David; Lindskov Hansen, Kristoffer; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2015-01-01

    -oscillating receive field is described, and results from Field II simulations are presented. Measurements are made using the SARUS experimental ultrasound scanner driving an intercostal phased-array probe. The acquisition sequence was composed of interleaved frames of 68-line B-mode and 17-direction, 32-shot vector......This work presents the development and first results of in vivo transthoracic cardiac imaging using an implementation of Vector Flow Imaging (VFI) via the Transverse Oscillation (TO) method on a phased-array transducer. Optimal selection of the lateral wavelength of the transversely...

  16. Temperature oscillations at critical temperature in two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevi, R.; Cumo, M.; Palmieri, A.; Pitimada, D.

    Some experiments on the temperature oscillations, or thermal cycling, which occur with steam-water flow in once-through cooling systems at the critical temperature zone, i.e., when dryout occurs, are described. A theoretical analysis is done on the characteristic frequency of the oscillations, and the parameters upon which the operating characteristics and the physical properties of the fluid depend. Finally, the temperature distribution in the critical zone is analyzed, examining the thermal transitions that occur due to the rapid variations in the coefficient of heat transfer

  17. Simultaneous Q-switching and mode-locking in an intracavity frequency doubled diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 / KTP green laser with Cr4+:YAG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, P. K.; Ranganathan, K.; George, J.; Nathan, T. P. S.; Alsous, M. B.

    2007-01-01

    We report intracavity second harmonic (at 532 nm) generation in passively Q-switched mode-locked Nd: YVO4 laser. The width of a typical Q-switched envelope of the mode locked pulses for the green laser was around 65 ± 5 ns and the repetition rate for the mode locked pulses was 400 MHz. The intracavity frequency doubling significantly improves the depth of modulation of the mode locked pulses. The peak power of a single mode locked green pulse near the center of the Q-switched envelope was estimated to be more than 2kw and the average green power was 6 times higher than the CW green power at an incident diode pump power of 6W. (author)

  18. Effects of the fluid flows on enzymatic chemical oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shklyaev, Oleg; Yashin, Victor; Balazs, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Chemical oscillations are ubiquitous in nature and have a variety of promising applications. Usually, oscillating chemical systems are analyzed within the context of a reaction-diffusion framework. Here, we examine how fluid flows carrying the reactants can be utilized to modulate the negative feedback loops and time delays that promote chemical oscillations. We consider a model where a chemical reaction network involves two species, X and Y, which undergo transformations catalyzed by respective enzymes immobilized at the bottom wall of a fluid-filled microchamber. The reactions with the enzymes provide a negative feedback in the chemically oscillating system. In particular, the first enzyme, localized on the first patch, promotes production of chemical X, while the second enzyme, immobilized on the second patch, promotes production of chemical Y, which inhibits the production of chemical X. The separation distance between the enzyme-coated patches sets the time delay required for the transportation of X and Y. The chemical transport is significantly enhanced if convective fluxes accompany the diffusive ones. Therefore, the parameter region where oscillations are present is modified. The findings provide guidance to designing micro-scale chemical reactors with improved functionalities.

  19. Diode-Pumped Mode-Locked LiSAF Laser; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1996-01-01

    Under this contract we have developed Cr(sup 3+):LiSrAlF(sub 6) (Cr:LiSAF, LiSAF) mode-locked lasers suitable for generation of polarized electrons for CEBAF. As 670 nm is an excellent wavelength for optical pumping of Cr:LiSAF, we have used a LIGHTWAVE developed 670 nm diode pump module that combines the output of ten diode lasers and yields approximately 2 Watts of optical power. By the use of a diffraction limited pump beam however, it is possible to maintain a small mode size through the length of the crystal and hence extract more power from Cr:LiSAF laser. For this purpose we have developed a 1 Watt, red 660nm laser (LIGHTWAVE model 240R) which serves as an ideal pump for Cr:LiSAF and is a potential replacement of costly and less robust krypton laser. This new system is to compliment LIGHTWAVE Series 240, and is currently being considered for commercialization. Partially developed under this contract is LIGHTWAVEs product model 240 which has already been in our production lines for a few months and is commercially available. This laser produces 2 Watts of output at 532 nm using some of the same technology developed for production of the 660nm red system. It is a potential replacement for argon ion lasers and has better current and cooling requirements and is an excellent pump source for Ti:Al(sub 2)O(sub 3). Also, as a direct result of this contract we now have the capability of commercially developing a mode-locked 100MHz Cr:LiSAF system. Such a laser could be added to our 100 MHz LIGHTWAVE Series 131. The Series 131 lasers provide pico second pulses and were originally developed under another DOE SBIR. Both models of LIGHTWAVE Series 240 lasers, the fiber coupled pump module and the 100MHz LiSAF laser of Series 131 have been partially developed under this contract, and are commercially competitive products

  20. Experimental investigation of transverse flow estimation using transverse oscillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udesen, Jesper; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2003-01-01

    Conventional ultrasound scanners can only display the blood velocity component parallel to the ultrasound beam. Introducing a laterally oscillating field gives signals from which the transverse velocity component can be estimated using 2:1 parallel receive beamformers. To yield the performance...... perpendicular to the ultrasound beam. The velocity profile of the blood is parabolic, and the speed of the blood in the center of the vessel is 1.1 m/s. An extended autocorrelation algorithm is used for velocity estimation for 310 trials, each containing 32 beamformed signals. The velocity can be estimated.......0% and the relative mean standard deviation is found to be 9.8%. With the Compuflow 1000 programmable flow pump a color flow mode image is produced of the experimental setup for a parabolic flow. Also the flow of the human femoralis is reproduced and it is found that the characteristics of the flow can be estimated....

  1. Heater rod temperature change at boiling transition under flow oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Shigeru; Toba, Akio; Takigawa, Yukio; Ebata, Shigeo; Morooka, Shin-ichi; Shirakawa, Ken-etsu; Utsuno, Hideaki.

    1986-01-01

    The experiments were performed to investigate the boiling transition phenomenon under flow oscillation (OSBT) during thermal hydraulic instability. It was found, from the experimental results, that the thermal hydraulic instability did not immediately lead to the boiling transition (BT) and, even when the BT occurred due to a power increase, the change in the heater rod temperature was periodically up and down with a saw-toothed shape and no excursion occurred. To investigate the temperature change characteristics, an analysis was also performed using the transient thermal hydraulics code. The analytical results showed that the shape of the heater rod temperature change was well simulated by presuming a repeat of alternate BT and rewetting. Based on these results, further analysis has been performed with the lumped parameter model to investigate the temperature profile characteristics as well as the effects of the post-BT heat transfer coefficient and the flow oscillation period on the maximum temperature. (author)

  2. Hybrid silicon mode-locked laser with improved RF power by impedance matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossoun, Bassem; Derickson, Dennis; Srinivasan, Sudharsanan; Bowers, John

    2015-02-01

    We design and discuss an impedance matching solution for a hybrid silicon mode-locked laser diode (MLLD) to improve peak optical power coming from the device. In order to develop an impedance matching solution, a thorough measurement and analysis of the MLLD as a function of bias on each of the laser segments was carried out. A passive component impedance matching network was designed at the operating frequency of 20 GHz to optimize RF power delivery to the laser. The hybrid silicon laser was packaged together in a module including the impedance matching circuit. The impedance matching design resulted in a 6 dB (electrical) improvement in the detected modulation spectrum power, as well as approximately a 10 dB phase noise improvement, from the MLLD. Also, looking ahead to possible future work, we discuss a Step Recovery Diode (SRD) driven impulse generator, which wave-shapes the RF drive to achieve efficient injection. This novel technique addresses the time varying impedance of the absorber as the optical pulse passes through it, to provide optimum optical pulse shaping.

  3. Stabilization of self-mode-locked quantum dash lasers by symmetric dual-loop optical feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Haroon; Wei, Wei; Kumar, Pramod; Sooudi, Ehsan; McInerney, John. G.

    2018-02-01

    We report experimental studies of the influence of symmetric dual-loop optical feedback on the RF linewidth and timing jitter of self-mode-locked two-section quantum dash lasers emitting at 1550 nm. Various feedback schemes were investigated and optimum levels determined for narrowest RF linewidth and low timing jitter, for single-loop and symmetric dual-loop feedback. Two symmetric dual-loop configurations, with balanced and unbalanced feedback ratios, were studied. We demonstrate that unbalanced symmetric dual loop feedback, with the inner cavity resonant and fine delay tuning of the outer loop, gives narrowest RF linewidth and reduced timing jitter over a wide range of delay, unlike single and balanced symmetric dual-loop configurations. This configuration with feedback lengths 80 and 140 m narrows the RF linewidth by 4-67x and 10-100x, respectively, across the widest delay range, compared to free-running. For symmetric dual-loop feedback, the influence of different power split ratios through the feedback loops was determined. Our results show that symmetric dual-loop feedback is markedly more effective than single-loop feedback in reducing RF linewidth and timing jitter, and is much less sensitive to delay phase, making this technique ideal for applications where robustness and alignment tolerance are essential.

  4. Compact mode-locked diode laser system for high precision frequency comparisons in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, H.; Kovalchuk, E. V.; Wicht, A.; Erbert, G.; Tränkle, G.; Peters, A.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays cold atom-based quantum sensors such as atom interferometers start leaving optical labs to put e.g. fundamental physics under test in space. One of such intriguing applications is the test of the Weak Equivalence Principle, the Universality of Free Fall (UFF), using different quantum objects such as rubidium (Rb) and potassium (K) ultra-cold quantum gases. The corresponding atom interferometers are implemented with light pulses from narrow linewidth lasers emitting near 767 nm (K) and 780 nm (Rb). To determine any relative acceleration of the K and Rb quantum ensembles during free fall, the frequency difference between the K and Rb lasers has to be measured very accurately by means of an optical frequency comb. Micro-gravity applications not only require good electro-optical characteristics but are also stringent in their demand for compactness, robustness and efficiency. For frequency comparison experiments the rather complex fiber laser-based frequency comb system may be replaced by one semiconductor laser chip and some passive components. Here we present an important step towards this direction, i.e. we report on the development of a compact mode-locked diode laser system designed to generate a highly stable frequency comb in the wavelength range of 780 nm.

  5. Ultrafast pulse amplification in mode-locked vertical external-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Böttge, C. N., E-mail: boettge@optics.arizona.edu; Hader, J.; Kilen, I.; Moloney, J. V. [College of Optical Sciences, The University of Arizona, 1630 E. University Blvd., Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Koch, S. W. [College of Optical Sciences, The University of Arizona, 1630 E. University Blvd., Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Department of Physics and Material Sciences Center, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Renthof 5, 35032 Marburg (Germany)

    2014-12-29

    A fully microscopic many-body Maxwell–semiconductor Bloch model is used to investigate the influence of the non-equilibrium carrier dynamics on the short-pulse amplification in mode-locked semiconductor microlaser systems. The numerical solution of the coupled equations allows for a self-consistent investigation of the light–matter coupling dynamics, the carrier kinetics in the saturable absorber and the multiple-quantum-well gain medium, as well as the modification of the light field through the pulse-induced optical polarization. The influence of the pulse-induced non-equilibrium modifications of the carrier distributions in the gain medium and the saturable absorber on the single-pulse amplification in the laser cavity is identified. It is shown that for the same structure, quantum wells, and gain bandwidth the non-equilibrium carrier dynamics lead to two preferred operation regimes: one with pulses in the (sub-)100 fs-regime and one with multi-picosecond pulses. The recovery time of the saturable absorber determines in which regime the device operates.

  6. Electrical addressing and temporal tweezing of localized pulses in passively mode-locked semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaloyes, J.; Camelin, P.; Marconi, M.; Giudici, M.

    2017-08-01

    This work presents an overview of a combined experimental and theoretical analysis on the manipulation of temporal localized structures (LSs) found in passively Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers coupled to resonant saturable absorber mirrors. We show that the pumping current is a convenient parameter for manipulating the temporal Localized Structures, also called localized pulses. While short electrical pulses can be used for writing and erasing individual LSs, we demonstrate that a current modulation introduces a temporally evolving parameter landscape allowing to control the position and the dynamics of LSs. We show that the localized pulses drifting speed in this landscape depends almost exclusively on the local parameter value instead of depending on the landscape gradient, as shown in quasi-instantaneous media. This experimental observation is theoretically explained by the causal response time of the semiconductor carriers that occurs on an finite timescale and breaks the parity invariance along the cavity, thus leading to a new paradigm for temporal tweezing of localized pulses. Different modulation waveforms are applied for describing exhaustively this paradigm. Starting from a generic model of passive mode-locking based upon delay differential equations, we deduce the effective equations of motion for these LSs in a time-dependent current landscape.

  7. Monolithic mode locked DBR laser with multiple-bandgap MQW structure realized by selective area growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, M.; Bouayad-Amine, J.; Feeser, T.; Haisch, H.; Kuehn, E.; Lach, E.; Satzke, K.; Weber, J.; Zielinski, E. [Alcatel Telecom, Stuttgart (Germany). Research Div.

    1996-12-31

    The realization of novel monolithically integrated multiple-segment pulse laser sources in InGaAsP MQW technology is reported. The MQW layers for all functional sections of these devices, the modulator, the active (gain) and the passive waveguide, as well as the Bragg section were grown in a single selective area growth (SAG) step by LP-MOVPE on SiO{sub 2} patterned 2 inch InP substrates. Due to a properly selected pattern geometry 3 different bandgap regions with smooth interfaces are thereby formed along the laser cavity. The more than 4 mm long DBR lasers which exhibit a threshold current as low as 30 mA were mode locked by an intra-cavity electroabsorption modulator applying a sinusoidal voltage at around 10 GHz. In this way an optical pulse train with pulse widths < 13 ps (measured with a streak camera) and high extinction ratio was generated. A time-bandwidth product of 0.5 close to the Fourier limit is obtained. This device is very attractive for signal generation in 40 Gb/s OTDM transmission systems at 1.55 {micro}m wavelength.

  8. CsPbBr{sub 3} nanocrystal saturable absorber for mode-locking ytterbium fiber laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yan; Li, Yue; Xu, Jianqiu; Tang, Yulong, E-mail: yulong@sjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (MOE), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Collaborative Innovation Center of IFSA, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Hu, Zhiping; Tang, Xiaosheng [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and Systems of the Education Ministry of China, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2016-06-27

    Cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (CsPbX{sub 3}, X = Cl, Br, I) have been reported as efficient light-harvesting and light-emitting semiconductor materials, but their nonlinear optical properties have been seldom touched upon. In this paper, we prepare layered CsPbBr{sub 3} nanocrystal films and characterize their physical properties. Broadband linear absorption from ∼0.8 to over 2.2 μm and nonlinear optical absorption at the 1-μm wavelength region are measured. The CsPbBr{sub 3} saturable absorber (SA), manufactured by drop-casting of colloidal CsPbBr{sub 3} liquid solution on a gold mirror, shows modulation depth and saturation intensity of 13.1% and 10.7 MW/cm{sup 2}, respectively. With this SA, mode-locking operation of a polarization-maintained ytterbium fiber laser produces single pulses with duration of ∼216 ps, maximum average output power of 10.5 mW, and the laser spectrum is centered at ∼1076 nm. This work shows that CsPbBr{sub 3} films can be efficient SA candidates for fiber lasers and also have great potential to become broadband linear and nonlinear optical materials for photonics and optoelectronics.

  9. CsPbBr3 nanocrystal saturable absorber for mode-locking ytterbium fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Hu, Zhiping; Li, Yue; Xu, Jianqiu; Tang, Xiaosheng; Tang, Yulong

    2016-06-01

    Cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I) have been reported as efficient light-harvesting and light-emitting semiconductor materials, but their nonlinear optical properties have been seldom touched upon. In this paper, we prepare layered CsPbBr3 nanocrystal films and characterize their physical properties. Broadband linear absorption from ˜0.8 to over 2.2 μm and nonlinear optical absorption at the 1-μm wavelength region are measured. The CsPbBr3 saturable absorber (SA), manufactured by drop-casting of colloidal CsPbBr3 liquid solution on a gold mirror, shows modulation depth and saturation intensity of 13.1% and 10.7 MW/cm2, respectively. With this SA, mode-locking operation of a polarization-maintained ytterbium fiber laser produces single pulses with duration of ˜216 ps, maximum average output power of 10.5 mW, and the laser spectrum is centered at ˜1076 nm. This work shows that CsPbBr3 films can be efficient SA candidates for fiber lasers and also have great potential to become broadband linear and nonlinear optical materials for photonics and optoelectronics.

  10. Coupled oscillations of flow along a perforated plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, E.; Rockwell, D.

    2004-01-01

    Turbulent shear flow past a perforated plate bounded by a closed cavity can give rise to highly coherent oscillations, which have a wavelength of the order of the plate length. The present investigation focuses on the coupling between unsteady events on either side of the plate when the oscillations are self-sustaining. A cinema technique of high-image-density particle image velocimetry, which provides a space-time representation of the unsteadiness at a large number of locations over entire planes, is employed to characterize the distinctively different patterns of flow structure on the back (low-speed) side of the plate relative to those on the front (high-speed) side. Global cross-spectral analysis leads to patterns of spectral peaks and phase variations, along and across the plate. This approach, along with complementary types of image evaluation, delineates the physics of the oscillations, which include downstream propagating disturbances along either side of the plate and a coherent region of unsteadiness at its trailing-edge. On the backside of the plate, a sequence of upstream-oriented, pulsatile jets are formed, and the time-averaged flow pattern is a counterflow wall jet

  11. Experimental study on flow past a rotationally oscillating cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang-yang; Yin, Chang-shan; Yang, Kang; Zhao, Xi-zeng; Tan, Soon Keat

    2017-08-01

    A series of experiments was carried out to study the flow behaviour behind a rotationally oscillating cylinder at a low Reynolds number (Re=300) placed in a recirculation water channel. A stepper motor was used to rotate the cylinder clockwise- and- counterclockwise about its longitudinal axis at selected frequencies. The particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique was used to capture the flow field behind a rotationally oscillating cylinder. Instantaneous and timeaveraged flow fields such as the vorticity contours, streamline topologies and velocity distributions were analyzed. The effects of four rotation angle and frequency ratios F r ( F r= f n/ f v, the ratio of the forcing frequency f n to the natural vortex shedding frequency f v) on the wake in the lee of a rotationally oscillating cylinder were also examined. The significant wake modification was observed when the cylinder undergoes clockwise-and-counterclockwise motion with amplitude of π, especially in the range of 0.6≤ F r≤1.0.

  12. The study of 80 MHz self starting passively mode-locked Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser via nonlinear polarization rotation with SESAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar, F.

    2013-01-01

    Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser, EDF L, passively mode-locked via only Nonlinear Polarization Rotation, NPR, and via NPR with Semiconductor Saturable Absorber Mirror, SESAM, is studied. Self start single pulse train with pulse width of 114 fs and repetition rate (PRR) of 80 MHz has been obtained when 55 cm EDFL, passively mode-locked via NPR only. Inserting SESAM in EDFL cavity leads to shorten the pulse width up to 88 fs, increases the amplitude stability up to 96% and lower the phase noise jittering to around 26 fsec. Stable second harmonic self starting passively mode-locked EDFL with pulse width of 284 fs has also been observed only when SESAM was used in the cavity. Multi-pulsed system passively mode-locked via NPR for EDFL length of 80 cm with time difference between the successive multi-pulses ranged from few picoseconds to nanoseconds, has been observed. The time difference can be controlled by the polarizer controller and the half wave plate. Further controlling of the cavity polarization leads to developing the multiple mode locking pulses train to second harmonic mode-locking pulse train with PRR of 160MHz and pulse width of 156 fs. Three harmonic superposed trains of mode locked pulse have been achieved only when SESAM added to the cavity. (author)

  13. Oscillations and Multiple Equilibria in Microvascular Blood Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karst, Nathaniel J; Storey, Brian D; Geddes, John B

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the existence of oscillatory dynamics and multiple steady-state flow rates in a network with a simple topology and in vivo microvascular blood flow constitutive laws. Unlike many previous analytic studies, we employ the most biologically relevant models of the physical properties of whole blood. Through a combination of analytic and numeric techniques, we predict in a series of two-parameter bifurcation diagrams a range of dynamical behaviors, including multiple equilibria flow configurations, simple oscillations in volumetric flow rate, and multiple coexistent limit cycles at physically realizable parameters. We show that complexity in network topology is not necessary for complex behaviors to arise and that nonlinear rheology, in particular the plasma skimming effect, is sufficient to support oscillatory dynamics similar to those observed in vivo.

  14. Hysteresis in the tearing mode locking/unlocking due to resonant magnetic perturbations in EXTRAP T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridström, R.; Frassinetti, L.; Brunsell, P. R.

    2015-10-01

    The physical mechanisms behind the hysteresis in the tearing mode locking and unlocking to a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) are experimentally studied in EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch. The experiments show that the electromagnetic and the viscous torque increase with increasing perturbation amplitude until the mode locks to the wall. At the wall-locking, the plasma velocity reduction profile is peaked at the radius where the RMP is resonant. Thereafter, the viscous torque drops due to the relaxation of the velocity in the central plasma. This is the main reason for the hysteresis in the RMP locking and unlocking amplitude. The increased amplitude of the locked tearing mode produces further deepening of the hysteresis. Both experimental results are in qualitative agreement with the model in Fitzpatrick et al (2001 Phys. Plasmas 8 4489)

  15. Wavelength-stepped, actively mode-locked fiber laser based on wavelength-division-multiplexed optical delay lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunjoo; Kim, Byoung Yoon

    2017-12-01

    We propose a new scheme for an actively mode-locked wavelength-swept fiber laser that produces a train of discretely wavelength-stepped pulses from a short fiber cavity. Pulses with different wavelengths are split and combined by standard wavelength division multiplexers with fiber delay lines. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate a laser using an erbium doped fiber amplifier and commercially available wavelength-division multiplexers with wavelength spacing of 0.8 nm. The results show simultaneous mode-locking at three different wavelengths. Laser output parameters in time domain, optical and radio frequency spectral domain, and the noise characteristics are presented. Suggestions for the improved design are discussed.

  16. 18-THz-wide optical frequency comb emitted from monolithic passively mode-locked semiconductor quantum-well laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Mu-Chieh; Guzmán, Robinson; Ali, Muhsin; Santos, Rui; Augustin, Luc; Carpintero, Guillermo

    2017-10-01

    We report on an optical frequency comb with 14nm (~1.8 THz) spectral bandwidth at -3 dB level that is generated using a passively mode-locked quantum-well (QW) laser in photonic integrated circuits (PICs) fabricated through an InP generic photonic integration technology platform. This 21.5-GHz colliding-pulse mode-locked laser cavity is defined by on-chip reflectors incorporating intracavity phase modulators followed by an extra-cavity SOA as booster amplifier. A 1.8-THz-wide optical comb spectrum is presented with ultrafast pulse that is 0.35-ps-wide. The radio frequency beat note has a 3-dB linewidth of 450 kHz and 35-dB SNR.

  17. Compact 84 GHz passive mode-locked fiber laser using dual-fiber coupled fused-quartz microresonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tze-An; Hsu, Yung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Chuang, Yi-Chen; Ting, Wei-Jo; Wang, Bo-Chun; Peng, Jin-Long; Chen, Guan-Hong; Chang, Yuan-Chia

    2017-10-01

    We propose and demonstrate a compact and portable-size 84-GHz passive mode-locked fiber laser, in which a dual-fiber coupled fused-quartz microresonator is employed as the intracavity optical comb filter as well as the optical nonlinear material for optical frequency comb generation. About eight coherent optical tones can be generated in the proposed fiber laser. The 20-dB bandwidth is larger than 588 GHz. The full-width half-maximum pulse-width of the proposed laser is 2.5 ps. We also demonstrate the feasibility of using the proposed passive mode-locked fiber laser to carry a 5-Gbit/s on-off-keying signal and transmit over 20-km standard single mode fiber. A 7% forward error correction requirement can be achieved, showing the proposed fiber laser can be a potential candidate for fiber-wireless applications.

  18. Passive mode locking at harmonics of the free spectral range of the intracavity filter in a fiber ring laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shumin; Lu, Fuyun; Dong, Xinyong; Shum, Ping; Yang, Xiufeng; Zhou, Xiaoqun; Gong, Yandong; Lu, Chao

    2005-11-01

    We report the passive mode-locking at harmonics of the free spectral range (FSR) of the intracavity multi-channel filter in a fiber ring laser. The laser uses a sampled fiber Bragg grating (SFBG) with a free spectral range (FSR) of 0.8 nm, or 99 GHz at 1555 nm, and a length of highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with low and flat dispersion. Stable picosecond soliton pulse trains with twofold to sevenfold enhancement in the repetition rate, relative to the FSR of the SFBG, have been achieved. The passive mode-locking mechanism that is at play in this laser relies on a dissipative four-wave mixing process and switching of repetition rate is realized simply by adjustment of the intracavity polarization controllers.

  19. Adaptation to the edge of chaos in a self-starting Kerr-lens mode-locked laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, C. C.; Lin, J. H.; Hsieh, W. F.

    2009-08-01

    We experimentally and numerically demonstrated that self-focusing acts as a slow-varying control parameter that suppresses the transient chaos to reach a stable mode-locking (ML) state in a self-starting Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser without external modulation and feedback control. Based on Fox-Li’s approach, including the self-focusing effect, the theoretical simulation reveals that the self-focusing effect is responsible for the self-adaptation. The self-adaptation occurs at the boundary between the chaotic and continuous output regions in which the laser system begins with a transient chaotic state with fractal correlation dimension, and then evolves with reducing dimension into the stable ML state.

  20. 256 fs, 2 nJ soliton pulse generation from MoS2 mode-locked fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zike; Chen, Hao; Li, Jiarong; Yin, Jinde; Wang, Jinzhang; Yan, Peiguang

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate an Er-doped fiber laser (EDFL) mode-locked by a MoS2 saturable absorber (SA), delivering a 256 fs, 2 nJ soliton pulse at 1563.4 nm. The nonlinear property of the SA prepared by magnetron sputtering deposition (MSD) is measured with a modulation depth (MD) of ∼19.48% and a saturable intensity of 4.14 MW/cm2. To the best of our knowledge, the generated soliton pulse has the highest pulse energy of 2 nJ among the reported mode-locked EDFLs based on transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Our results indicate that MSD-grown SAs could offer an exciting platform for high pulse energy and ultrashort pulse generation.

  1. Numerical study of unsteady viscous flow past oscillating airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Yan; Yuan Xin [Tsinghua Univ., Dept. of Thermal Engineering, Beijing (China)

    2001-07-01

    Accurate simulation of the dynamic stall of an oscillating airfoil is of major importance to wing and wind turbine blade design. However, dynamic stall is complicated and influenced by many factors, such as geometry shape of the airfoil, reduced frequency, etc. The difficulties of simulation are both mathematical (numerical method) and physical (turbulence model). The present paper has introduced a new numerical method (new LU-type scheme and fourth-order higher resolution MUSCL TVD scheme) and q-{omega} turbulence modelling to calculate the unsteady flowfields of an oscillating NACA0015 airfoil. The test targets include attached flow, light-stall and deep-stall of the airfoil. The calculated results for attached flow and light-stall are in good agreement with those of experiments. The calculated results for deep-stall also show improvement, especially during the downstroke of the oscillation. However, there is still a significant difference between the results of calculation and experiment in the hysteresis curves of the drag coefficient. One reason is that the q-{omega} turbulence model still has limitations. Another is that the drag coefficient is difficult to measure and the experiments are not reliable. (Author)

  2. Mode-locking operation of a flash-lamp-pumped Nd:YAG laser at 1.064 μm with Zakharov-Manakov solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreana, M; Tonello, A; Couderc, V; Baronio, F; Conforti, M; De Angelis, C

    2011-01-01

    We report experimental results on the mode-locked operation of a flash-lamp-pumped Nd:YAG laser at 1.064 μm. The KTP crystal, which induces passive mode-locking, exploits the existence and properties of spatial Zakharov-Manakov soliton dynamics. A train of pulses with duration close to 100 ps, repetition rate of 136 MHz and modulation depth almost 100% has been produced. The mode-locked pulses are modulated with a longer 180 ns pulse envelope with repetition rate of 10 Hz

  3. Free-standing nano-scale graphite saturable absorber for passively mode-locked erbium doped fiber ring laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y-H; Lin, G-R

    2012-01-01

    The free-standing graphite nano-particle located between two FC/APC fiber connectors is employed as the saturable absorber to passively mode-lock the ring-type Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL). The host-solvent-free graphite nano-particles with sizes of 300 – 500 nm induce a comparable modulation depth of 54%. The interlayer-spacing and lattice fluctuations of polished graphite nano-particles are observed from the weak 2D band of Raman spectrum and the azimuth angle shift of –0.32 ° of {002}-orientation dependent X-ray diffraction peak. The graphite nano-particles mode-locked EDFL generates a 1.67-ps pulsewidth at linearly dispersion-compensated regime with a repetition rate of 9.1 MHz. The time-bandwidth product of 0.325 obtained under a total intra-cavity group-delay-dispersion of –0.017 ps 2 is nearly transform-limited. The extremely high stability of the nano-scale graphite saturable absorber during mode-locking is observed at an intra-cavity optical energy density of 7.54 mJ/cm 2 . This can be attributed to its relatively high damage threshold (one order of magnitude higher than the graphene) on handling the optical energy density inside the EDFL cavity. The graphite nano-particle with reduced size and sufficient coverage ratio can compete with other fast saturable absorbers such as carbon nanotube or graphene to passively mode-lock fiber lasers with decreased insertion loss and lasing threshold

  4. Actively mode-locked diode laser with a mode spacing stability of ∼6 × 10{sup -14}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharyash, V F; Kashirsky, A V; Klementyev, V M [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-31

    We have studied mode spacing stability in an actively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser. It has been shown that, in the case of mode spacing pulling to the frequency of a highly stable external microwave signal produced by a hydrogen standard (stability of 4 × 10{sup -14} over an averaging period τ = 10 s), this configuration ensures a mode spacing stability of 5.92 × 10{sup -14} (τ = 10 s). (control of radiation parameters)

  5. Passive harmonic mode locking by mode selection in Fabry-Perot diode lasers with patterned effective index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitauld, David; Osborne, Simon; O'Brien, Stephen

    2010-07-01

    We demonstrate passive harmonic mode locking of a quantum-well laser diode designed to support a discrete comb of Fabry-Perot modes. Spectral filtering of the mode spectrum was achieved using a nonperiodic patterning of the cavity effective index. By selecting six modes spaced at twice the fundamental mode spacing, near-transform-limited pulsed output with 2 ps pulse duration was obtained at a repetition rate of 100 GHz.

  6. Generation of bound states of pulses in a SESAM mode-locked Cr:ZnSe laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Xiangbao; Shi, Yuhang; Xu, Jia; Li, Huijuan; Wang, Pu

    2018-06-01

    We report on the generation of bound states of pulses in a SESAM mode-locked Cr:ZnSe laser around 2415 nm. A thulium-doped double-clad fiber laser at 1908 nm was used as the pump source. Bound states with various pulse separations at different dispersion regimes were obtained. Especially, in the anomalous dispersion regime, vibrating bound state of solitons exhibiting an evolving phase was obtained.

  7. Organized Oscillations of Initially-Turbulent Flow Past a Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.C. Lin; D. Rockwell

    2002-09-17

    Flow past an open cavity is known to give rise to self-sustained oscillations in a wide variety of configurations, including slotted-wall, wind and water tunnels, slotted flumes, bellows-type pipe geometries, high-head gates and gate slots, aircraft components and internal piping systems. These cavity-type oscillations are the origin of coherent and broadband sources of noise and, if the structure is sufficiently flexible, flow-induced vibration as well. Moreover, depending upon the state of the cavity oscillation, substantial alterations of the mean drag may be induced. In the following, the state of knowledge of flow past cavities, based primarily on laminar inflow conditions, is described within a framework based on the flow physics. Then, the major unresolved issues for this class of flows will be delineated. Self-excited cavity oscillations have generic features, which are assessed in detail in the reviews of Rockwell and Naudascher, Rockwell, Howe and Rockwell. These features, which are illustrated in the schematic of Figure 1, are: (i) interaction of a vorticity concentration(s) with the downstream corner, (ii) upstream influence from this corner interaction to the sensitive region of the shear layer formed from the upstream corner of the cavity; (iii) conversion of the upstream influence arriving at this location to a fluctuation in the separating shear layer; and (iv) amplification of this fluctuation in the shear layer as it develops in the streamwise direction. In view of the fact that inflow shear-layer in the present investigation is fully turbulent, item (iv) is of particular interest. It is generally recognized, at least for laminar conditions at separation from the leading-corner of the cavity, that the disturbance growth in the shear layer can be described using concepts of linearized, inviscid stability theory, as shown by Rockwell, Sarohia, and Knisely and Rockwell. As demonstrated by Knisely and Rockwell, on the basis of experiments interpreted

  8. Integrated flux-flow oscillators for submillimeter wave receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshelets, V.P.; Shchukin, A.V.; Shitov, S.V.; Filippenko, L.V.; Fischer, G.M.; Mygind, J.

    1994-01-01

    A superconducting Flux-Flow Oscillator (FFO) integrated on the same chip with a small Josephson junction detector has been experimentally investigated in the frequency range 100 - 450 GHz. Both the emitted power and the frequency of the FFO can be varied by adjusting the dc bias current and/or the applied dc magnetic field. Microwave powers as high as 0.3 μW have been measured at 375 GHz. The spectral width of the FFO is about 1 MHz as estimated from harmonic mixing experiments. Also a fully integrated superconducting submillimeter wave receiver using the FFO as local oscillator has been successfully tested. The circuit included coupling transformers, a superconducting variable attenuator and a detector junction with tuned-out capacitance. (orig.)

  9. Increasing the mode-locking efficiency of a cw solid-state laser with an auxiliary cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikov, V.L.; Kalosha, V.P.; Mikhailov, V.P.; Demchuk, M.I.

    1992-01-01

    It is predicted theoretically that the efficiency of self-mode locking can be raised by means of a bleachable shutter in the main cavity or an auxiliary cavity. The laser emits a stable train of ultrashort pulses under these conditions. The theory is based on a fluctuation model of the operation of a cw solid-state laser with a linear auxiliary cavity. The increase in efficiency involves a broadening of the region of parameter values of the system in which self-mode locking occurs, a significant decrease in the threshold pump intensity, and a reduced sensitivity of the operation to the phase mismatch of the lengths of the cavities. It is shown, for the first time, that a stable train of double ultrashort pulses can be generated by a system with a shutter in the auxiliary cavity. It is also shown that a self-mode locking is possible in the case in which there is a phase mismatch of the cavity lengths and there is no phase self-modulation in the main cavity. 15 refs., 8 figs

  10. Mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in tapered ZBLAN fiber with a standard Erbium mode-locked fiber laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubat, Irnis; Moselund, Peter M.; Bang, Ole

    2013-01-01

    to generate a broadband SC using direct pumping with commercially available Erbium (Er) mode-locked fiber lasers at 1550 nm. Formation of SC is manipulated both in the UV and IR by changing the fiber dispersion and nonlinearity using tapers. This has been much studied in various silica fiber designs...... and is now also becoming used in ZBLAN [2], and other soft glasses such as chalcogenide [3] and tellurite [4]. The aim of this nummerical work is to show how pumping tapered commercially available ZBLAN fibers with an Er mode-locked fiber laser can generate a broadband SC approaching the ZBLAN long....... commercially available), core diameter Dc=7 μm, and ZDW=1.5 μm, is pumped with TFWHM=10 ps and P0=10 kW pulses from an Er mode-locked laser with a 40 MHz repetition rate and 4W average power. The resulting MIR SC seen in Fig. 1(b) is based on Modulation Instability breakup of the pump pulse, which generates...

  11. Silicon photonics WDM transmitter with single section semiconductor mode-locked laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Juliana; Hauck, Johannes; Shen, Bin; Romero-García, Sebastian; Islamova, Elmira; Azadeh, Saeed Sharif; Joshi, Siddharth; Chimot, Nicolas; Moscoso-Mártir, Alvaro; Merget, Florian; Lelarge, François; Witzens, Jeremy

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate a wavelength domain-multiplexed (WDM) optical link relying on a single section semiconductor mode-locked laser (SS-MLL) with quantum dash (Q-Dash) gain material to generate 25 optical carriers spaced by 60.8 GHz, as well as silicon photonics (SiP) resonant ring modulators (RRMs) to modulate individual optical channels. The link requires optical reamplification provided by an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) in the system experiments reported here. Open eye diagrams with signal quality factors (Q-factors) above 7 are measured with a commercial receiver (Rx). For higher compactness and cost effectiveness, reamplification of the modulated channels with a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) operated in the linear regime is highly desirable. System and device characterization indicate compatibility with the latter. While we expect channel counts to be primarily limited by the saturation output power level of the SOA, we estimate a single SOA to support more than eight channels. Prior to describing the system experiments, component design and detailed characterization results are reported including design and characterization of RRMs, ring-based resonant optical add-drop multiplexers (RR-OADMs) and thermal tuners, S-parameters resulting from the interoperation of RRMs and RR-OADMs, and characterization of Q-Dash SS-MLLs reamplified with a commercial SOA. Particular emphasis is placed on peaking effects in the transfer functions of RRMs and RR-OADMs resulting from transient effects in the optical domain, as well as on the characterization of SS-MLLs in regard to relative intensity noise (RIN), stability of the modes of operation, and excess noise after reamplification.

  12. Multiwavelength mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on the interaction of graphene and fiber-taper evanescent field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Z Q; Wang, J Z; Zhou, M; Xu, H Y; Cai, Z P; Ye, C C

    2012-01-01

    We report on the generation of multiwavelength passively mode-locked pulses in an erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) based on the interaction of graphene and fiber-taper evanescent field. Graphene-polymer nanocomposites in aqueous suspension are trapped by the optical evanescent light and deposited on taper region. The graphene-deposited fiber-taper device not only acts as an excellent saturable absorber for mode-locking, but also induces a polarizing effect to form an artificial birefringent filter for multiwavelength selection. By simultaneously exploiting both functions of this device, four-wavelength continuous-wave mode-locking operation of an EDFL is stably initiated with a pulse width of 8.8 ps and a fundamental repetition rate of 8.034 MHz. This is the first time, to our knowledge, the mode-locked EDFL using such a new geometry of graphene-based tapered-fiber saturable absorber has been demonstrated

  13. An ultra-long cavity passively mode-locked fiber laser based on nonlinear polarization rotation in a semiconductor optical amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tonghui; Jia, Dongfang; Yang, Jingwen; Chen, Jiong; Wang, Zhaoying; Yang, Tianxin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate an ultra-long cavity passively mode-locked fiber laser based on a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). Experimental results are presented which indicate that stable mode-locked pulses can be obtained by combining nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) in the SOA with a polarization controller. By adding a 4 km single mode fiber into the ring cavity, a stable fundamental-order mode-locked pulse train with a repetition rate of 50.72 kHz is generated through the NPR effect in the SOA. The central wavelength, 3 dB bandwidth and single pulse energy of the output pulse are 1543.95 nm, 1.506 nm and 33.12 nJ, respectively. Harmonic mode-locked pulses are also observed in experiments when the parameters are chosen properly. (paper)

  14. Comparison of the noise performance of 10 GHz repetition rate quantum-dot and quantum well monolithic mode-locked semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpintero, G.; Thompson, M. G.; Yvind, Kresten

    2011-01-01

    fabricated with different material gain systems, one quantum well and the other quantum dot (QD), both with a monolithic all-active two-section mode-locked structure. Two important factors are identified as having a significant effect on the noise performance, the RF linewidth of the first harmonic......Mode-locked lasers are commonly used in carrier-wave signal generation systems because of their excellent phase noise performance. Owing to the importance of this key parameter, this study presents a like-for-like comparison of the noise performance of the passive mode-locked regime of two devices...... and the shape of the noise pedestals, both depending on the passive mode-locked bias conditions. Nevertheless, the dominant contribution of the RF linewidth to the phase noise, which is significantly narrower for the QD laser, makes this material more suitable for optical generation of low-noise millimetre...

  15. Passively mode-locked 4.6 and 10.5 GHz quantum dot laser diodes around 1.55 μm with large operating regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, M.J.R.; Renault, A.; Bente, E.A.J.M.; Oei, Y.S.; Smit, M.K.; Eikema, K.S.E.; Ubachs, W.; Anantathanasarn, S.; Nötzel, R.

    2009-01-01

    Passive mode-locking in two-section InAs/InP quantum dot laser diodes operating at wavelengths around 1.55 µm is reported. For a 4.6-GHz laser, a large operating regime of stable mode-locking, with RF-peak heights of over 40 dB, is found for injection currents of 750 mA up to 1.0 A and for values of

  16. Oscillating-flow loss test results in rectangular heat exchanger passages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J. Gary

    1991-01-01

    Test results of oscillating flow losses in rectangular heat exchanger passages of various aspect ratios are given. This work was performed in support of the design of a free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) for a dynamic space power conversion system. Oscillating flow loss testing was performed using an oscillating flow rig, which was based on a variable stroke and variable frequency linear drive motor. Tests were run over a range of oscillating flow parameters encompassing the flow regimes of the proposed engine design. Test results are presented in both tabular and graphical form and are compared against analytical predictions.

  17. Numerical Simulation of Droplet Motion and Two-Phase Flow Field in an Oscillating Container

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Watanabe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic motion of the droplet in the oscillating flow field is simulated numerically using the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian and level set coupled method. It is shown that radiating flows are generated from the droplet surface in the oscillating direction and the droplet moves toward the pressure node. The translational motion of the droplet is caused by the density variation, while the radiating flows are by the pressure variation. The flow field around the droplet in the oscillating container is found to be similar to that around the oscillating droplet in the stationary container.

  18. Time-Gating Processes in Intra-Cavity Mode-Locking Devices Like Saturable Absorbers and Kerr Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha; Roychoudhuri, Chandrasekhar

    2010-01-01

    Photons are non-interacting entities. Light beams do not interfere by themselves. Light beams constituting different laser modes (frequencies) are not capable of re-arranging their energies from extended time-domain to ultra-short time-domain by themselves without the aid of light-matter interactions with suitable intra-cavity devices. In this paper we will discuss the time-gating properties of intra-cavity "mode-locking" devices that actually help generate a regular train of high energy wave packets.

  19. Broadly tunable femtosecond mode-locking in a Tm:KYW laser near 2 μm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagatsky, A A; Calvez, S; Gupta, J A; Kisel, V E; Kuleshov, N V; Brown, C T A; Dawson, M D; Sibbett, W

    2011-05-09

    Efficient mode-locking in a Tm:KY(WO(4))(2) laser is demonstrated by using InGaAsSb quantum-well SESAMs. Self-starting ultrashort pulse generation was realized in the 1979-2074 nm spectral region. Maximum average output power up to 411 mW was produced around 1986 nm with the corresponding pulse duration and repetition rate of 549 fs and 105 MHz respectively. Optimised pulse durations of 386 fs were produced with an average power of 235 mW at 2029 nm. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  20. Mode locking of an external cavity asymmetric quantum-well GaAs/AlGaAs semiconductor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, Petr P; Kan, H; Ohta, H; Hiruma, T; Tanaka, K A

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical model of the optical gain in asymmetric GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well lasers is developed. It is demonstrated that the emission spectrum of asymmetric GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well lasers is much broader than that of standard quantum-well lasers. The experimental samples of such lasers and superluminescent diodes with the emission bandwidth exceeding 50 nm are fabricated. Wavelength tunable ultrashort pulses with duration of 1-2 ps at repetition rates of 0.4-1 GHz are obtained by active mode locking of an external cavity laser. (lasers)

  1. Passive mode locking of a Tm,Ho:KY(WO4)2 laser around 2 microm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagatsky, A A; Fusari, F; Calvez, S; Gupta, J A; Kisel, V E; Kuleshov, N V; Brown, C T A; Dawson, M D; Sibbett, W

    2009-09-01

    We report the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of passive mode locking in a Tm(3+), Ho(3+)-codoped KY(WO(4))(2) laser operating in the 2000-2060 nm spectral region. An InGaAsSb-based quantum well semiconductor saturable absorber mirror is used for the initiation and stabilization of the ultrashort pulse generation. Pulses as short as 3.3 ps were generated at 2057 nm with average output powers up to 315 mW at a pulse repetition frequency of 132 MHz for 1.15 W of absorbed pump power at 802 nm from a Ti:sapphire laser.

  2. Q-switching and mode-locking in a diode-pumped frequency-doubled Nd : YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donin, Valerii I; Yakovin, Dmitrii V; Gribanov, A V

    2012-01-01

    A new method for obtaining Q-switching simultaneously with mode-locking using one travelling-wave acousto-optic modulator in a frequency-doubled Nd : YAG laser cavity is described. Further shortening of output laser pulses (from 40 to 3.25 ps) is achieved by forming a Kerr lens in the frequency-doubling crystal. At an average power of ∼ 2 W and a Q-switching rate of 2 kHz, the peak power of the stably operating reached ∼ 50 MW.

  3. A SESAM passively mode-locked fiber laser with a long cavity including a band pass filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Rui; Chen, Hong-Wei; Chen, Sheng-Ping; Hou, Jing; Lu, Qi-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    A semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM) passively mode-locked fiber laser with a long cavity length over 700 m is demonstrated. A band pass filter is inserted into the laser cavity to stabilize the lasing wavelength. Some interesting phenomena are observed and discussed. The central wavelength, repetition rate, average power and single pulse energy of the laser are 1064 nm, 281.5 kHz, 11 mW and 39 nJ, respectively. The laser operates stably without Q-switching instabilities, which greatly reduces the damage opportunities of the SESAM

  4. LD end pumped mode locked and cavity dumped Nd:YAP laser at 1.34 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Wang, S.; Rhee, H.; Eichler, H. J.; Meister, S.

    2011-06-01

    We report a LD end pumped actively mode locked, passively Q switched and cavity dumped Nd:YAP laser at 1.34 μm. The dumped output pulse energy of 160 μJ is obtained at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. Passing through a LD end pumped, double-passed Nd:YAP amplifier the pulse energy is amplified to 1.44 mJ. The corresponding amplification factor is 9. Stimulated Raman scattering experiment is taken with a 9 mm long PbWO4 Raman crystal. Maximum of 20% Raman conversion is reached.

  5. Effect of finite cavity width on flow oscillation in a low-Mach-number cavity flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ke; Naguib, Ahmed M. [Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2011-11-15

    The current study is focused on examining the effect of the cavity width and side walls on the self-sustained oscillation in a low Mach number cavity flow with a turbulent boundary layer at separation. An axisymmetric cavity geometry is employed in order to provide a reference condition that is free from any side-wall influence, which is not possible to obtain with a rectangular cavity. The cavity could then be partially filled to form finite-width geometry. The unsteady surface pressure is measured using microphone arrays that are deployed on the cavity floor along the streamwise direction and on the downstream wall along the azimuthal direction. In addition, velocity measurements using two-component Laser Doppler Anemometer are performed simultaneously with the array measurements in different azimuthal planes. The compiled data sets are used to investigate the evolution of the coherent structures generating the pressure oscillation in the cavity using linear stochastic estimation of the velocity field based on the wall-pressure signature on the cavity end wall. The results lead to the discovery of pronounced harmonic pressure oscillations near the cavity's side walls. These oscillations, which are absent in the axisymmetric cavity, are linked to the establishment of a secondary mean streamwise circulating flow pattern near the side walls and the interaction of this secondary flow with the shear layer above the cavity. (orig.)

  6. The structure of mode-locking regions of piecewise-linear continuous maps: II. Skew sawtooth maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, D. J. W.

    2018-05-01

    In two-parameter bifurcation diagrams of piecewise-linear continuous maps on , mode-locking regions typically have points of zero width known as shrinking points. Near any shrinking point, but outside the associated mode-locking region, a significant proportion of parameter space can be usefully partitioned into a two-dimensional array of annular sectors. The purpose of this paper is to show that in these sectors the dynamics is well-approximated by a three-parameter family of skew sawtooth circle maps, where the relationship between the skew sawtooth maps and the N-dimensional map is fixed within each sector. The skew sawtooth maps are continuous, degree-one, and piecewise-linear, with two different slopes. They approximate the stable dynamics of the N-dimensional map with an error that goes to zero with the distance from the shrinking point. The results explain the complicated radial pattern of periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic dynamics that occurs near shrinking points.

  7. Q-switching and mode-locking pulse generation with graphene oxide paper-based saturable absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Wadi Harun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Q-switched and mode-locked erbium-doped fibre lasers (EDFLs are demonstrated by using non-conductive graphene oxide (GO paper as a saturable absorber (SA. A stable and self-starting Q-switched operation was achieved at 1534.4 nm by using a 0.8 m long erbium-doped fibre (EDF as a gain medium. The pulse repetition rate changed from 14.3 to 31.5 kHz, whereas the corresponding pulse width decreased from 32.8 to 13.8 µs as the pump power increased from 22 to 50.5 mW. A narrow spacing dual-wavelength Q-switched EDFL could also be realised by including a photonics crystal fibre and a tunable Bragg filter in the setup. It can operate at a maximum repetition rate of 31 kHz, with a pulse duration of 7.04 µs and pulse energy of 2.8 nJ. Another GOSA was used to realise mode-locked EDFL in a different cavity consisting of a 1.6 m long EDF in conjunction with 1480 nm pumping. The laser generated a soliton pulse train with a repetition rate of 15.62 MHz and pulse width of 870 fs. It is observed that the proposed fibre lasers have a low pulsing threshold pump power as well as a low damage threshold.

  8. Repetitively Mode-Locked Cavity-Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (RML-CEAS for Near-Infrared Gas Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qixin He

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A Pound-Drever-Hall (PDH-based mode-locked cavity-enhanced sensor system was developed using a distributed feedback diode laser centered at 1.53 µm as the laser source. Laser temperature scanning, bias control of the piezoelectric ceramic transducer (PZT and proportional-integral-derivative (PID feedback control of diode laser current were used to repetitively lock the laser modes to the cavity modes. A gas absorption spectrum was obtained by using a series of absorption data from the discrete mode-locked points. The 15 cm-long Fabry-Perot cavity was sealed using an enclosure with an inlet and outlet for gas pumping and a PZT for cavity length tuning. The performance of the sensor system was evaluated by conducting water vapor measurements. A linear relationship was observed between the measured absorption signal amplitude and the H2O concentration. A minimum detectable absorption coefficient of 1.5 × 10–8 cm–1 was achieved with an averaging time of 700 s. This technique can also be used for the detection of other trace gas species by targeting the corresponding gas absorption line.

  9. Continuous-wave to pulse regimes for a family of passively mode-locked lasers with saturable nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikandé, Alain M.; Voma Titafan, J.; Essimbi, B. Z.

    2017-10-01

    The transition dynamics from continuous-wave to pulse regimes of operation for a generic model of passively mode-locked lasers with saturable absorbers, characterized by an active medium with non-Kerr nonlinearity, are investigated analytically and numerically. The system is described by a complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with a general m:n saturable nonlinearity (i.e {I}m/{(1+{{Γ }}I)}n, where I is the field intensity and m and n are two positive numbers), coupled to a two-level gain equation. An analysis of stability of continuous waves, following the modulational instability approach, provides a global picture of the self-starting dynamics in the system. The analysis reveals two distinct routes depending on values of the couple (m, n), and on the dispersion regime: in the normal dispersion regime, when m = 2 and n is arbitrary, the self-starting requires positive values of the fast saturable absorber and nonlinearity coefficients, but negative values of these two parameters for the family with m = 0. However, when the spectral filter is negative, the laser can self-start for certain values of the input field and the nonlinearity saturation coefficient Γ. The present work provides a general map for the self-starting mechanisms of rare-earth doped figure-eight fiber lasers, as well as Kerr-lens mode-locked solid-state lasers.

  10. Femtosecond mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser based on MoS2-PVA saturable absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M. H. M.; Latiff, A. A.; Arof, H.; Ahmad, H.; Harun, S. W.

    2016-08-01

    We fabricate a free-standing few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)-polymer composite by liquid phase exfoliation of chemically pristine MoS2 crystals and use this to demonstrate a soliton mode-locked Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL). A stable self-started mode-locked soliton pulse is generated by fine-tuning the rotation of the polarization controller at a low threshold pump power of 25 mW. Its solitonic behavior is verified by the presence of Kelly sidebands in the output spectrum. The central wavelength, pulse width, and repetition rate of the laser are 1573.7 nm, 630 fs, and 27.1 MHz, respectively. The maximum pulse energy is 0.141 nJ with peak power of 210 W at pump power of 170 mW. This result contributes to the growing body of work studying the nonlinear optical properties of transition metal dichalcogenides that present new opportunities for ultrafast photonic applications.

  11. Bismuth telluride topological insulator nanosheet saturable absorbers for q-switched mode-locked Tm:ZBLAN waveguide lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xiantao; Gross, Simon; Withford, Michael J.; Fuerbach, Alexander [Centre for Ultrahigh bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS) and MQ Photonics Research Centre, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie Univ., NSW (Australia); Zhang, Han; Guo, Zhinan [SZU-NUS Collaborative Innovation Centre for Optoelectronic Science and Technology, Key Lab. of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen Univ. (China)

    2016-08-15

    Nanosheets of bismuth telluride (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}), a topological insulator material that exhibits broadband saturable absorption due to its non-trivial Dirac-cone like energy structure, are utilized to generate short pulses from Tm:ZBLAN waveguide lasers. By depositing multiple layers of a carefully prepared Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} solution onto a glass substrate, the modulation depth and the saturation intensity of the fabricated devices can be controlled and optimized. This approach enables the realization of saturable absorbers that feature a modulation depth of 13% and a saturation intensity of 997 kW/cm{sup 2}. For the first time to our knowledge, Q-switched mode-locked operation of a linearly polarized mid-IR ZBLAN waveguide chip laser was realized in an extended cavity configuration using the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}. The maximum average output power of the laser is 16.3 mW and the Q-switched and mode-locked repetition rates are 44 kHz and 436 MHz, respectively. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Dual-wavelength passive and hybrid mode-locking of 3, 4.5 and 10 GHz InAs/InP(100) quantum dot lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahvili, M S; Du, L; Heck, M J R; Nötzel, R; Smit, M K; Bente, E A J M

    2012-03-26

    We present an investigation of passive and hybrid mode-locking in Fabry-Pérot type two-section InAs/InP(100) quantum dot lasers that show dual wavelength operation. Over the whole current and voltage range for mode-locking of these lasers, the optical output spectra show two distinct lobes. The two lobes provide a coherent bandwidth and are verified to lead to two synchronized optical pulses. The generated optical pulses are elongated in time due to a chirp which shows opposite signs over the two spectral lobes. Self-induced mode-locking in the single-section laser shows that the dual-wavelength spectra correspond to emission from ground state. In the hybrid mode-locking regime, a map of locking range is presented by measuring the values of timing jitter for several values of power and frequency of the external electrical modulating signal. An overview of the systematic behavior of InAs/InP(100) quantum dot mode-locked lasers is presented as conclusion.

  13. Mode-Locked Multichromatic X-Rays in a Seeded Free-Electron Laser for Single-Shot X-Ray Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Dao; Ding, Yuantao; Raubenheimer, Tor; Wu, Juhao; /SLAC

    2012-05-10

    We present the promise of generating gigawatt mode-locked multichromatic x rays in a seeded free-electron laser (FEL). We show that, by using a laser to imprint periodic modulation in electron beam phase space, a single-frequency coherent seed can be amplified and further translated to a mode-locked multichromatic output in an FEL. With this configuration the FEL output consists of a train of mode-locked ultrashort pulses which span a wide frequency gap with a series of equally spaced sharp lines. These gigawatt multichromatic x rays may potentially allow one to explore the structure and dynamics of a large number of atomic states simultaneously. The feasibility of generating mode-locked x rays ranging from carbon K edge ({approx}284 eV) to copper L{sub 3} edge ({approx}931 eV) is confirmed with numerical simulation using the realistic parameters of the linac coherent light source (LCLS) and LCLS-II. We anticipate that the mode-locked multichromatic x rays in FELs may open up new opportunities in x-ray spectroscopy (i.e. resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, time-resolved scattering and spectroscopy, etc.).

  14. Shock Waves Oscillations in the Interaction of Supersonic Flows with the Head of the Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulat, Pavel V.; Volkov, Konstantin N.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we reviewed the shock wave oscillation that occurs when supersonic flows interact with conic, blunt or flat nose of aircraft, taking into account the aerospike attached to it. The main attention was paid to the problem of numerical modeling of such oscillation, flow regime classification, and cases where aerospike attachment can…

  15. Turbulent oscillating channel flow subjected to a free-surface stress.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, W.; Clercx, H.J.H.; Armenio, V.

    2010-01-01

    The channel flow subjected to a wind stress at the free surface and an oscillating pressure gradient is investigated using large-eddy simulations. The orientation of the surface stress is parallel with the oscillating pressure gradient and a purely pulsating mean flow develops. The Reynolds number

  16. Three-dimensional features on oscillating microbubbles streaming flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Massimiliano; Marin, Alvaro G.; Wang, Cheng; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Kähler, Christian J.

    2013-11-01

    Ultrasound-driven oscillating micro-bubbles have been used as active actuators in microfluidic devices to perform manifold tasks such as mixing, sorting and manipulation of microparticles. A common configuration consists in side-bubbles, created by trapping air pockets in blind channels perpendicular to the main channel direction. This configuration results in bubbles with a semi-cylindrical shape that creates a streaming flow generally considered quasi two-dimensional. However, recent experiments performed with three-dimensional velocimetry methods have shown how microparticles can present significant three-dimensional trajectories, especially in regions close to the bubble interface. Several reasons will be discussed such as boundary effects of the bottom/top wall, deformation of the bubble interface leading to more complex vibrational modes, or bubble-particle interactions. In the present investigation, precise measurements of particle trajectories close to the bubble interface will be performed by means of 3D Astigmatic Particle Tracking Velocimetry. The results will allow us to characterize quantitatively the three-dimensional features of the streaming flow and to estimate its implications in practical applications as particle trapping, sorting or mixing.

  17. Vortical flow structure of thermoacoustic oscillations in a closed tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Katsuya; Kitagawa, Shyun; Ishigaki, Masahiro; Adachi, Shizuko

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous thermoacoustic oscillations of a gas in a closed cylindrical tube are studied. Numerical simulations of the flow field in the tube on which a temperature gradient along the axis is imposed are performed by solving the axisymmetric compressible Navier–Stokes equations. The wall temperature of the hot part near both ends (300 K) and that of the cold part near the center (20 K) are fixed. The computations are done for various values of the length ratio ξ of the hot part to the cold part between 0.3 and 1.0, and steady oscillatory states are obtained. These states are divided into three groups according to the magnitude of the pressure amplitude. The state in each group has distinguished features of the flow field. We analyze the effect of vortices on the structure of the temperature distribution. The difference of the boundary layer thickness between the hot part and the cold part is shown to play an important role. (paper)

  18. Vortical flow structure of thermoacoustic oscillations in a closed tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Katsuya [Information Technology Center, Nagoya University, Furou-chou, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Kitagawa, Shyun [Department of Computational Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furou-chou, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Ishigaki, Masahiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2–4 Shirakata-shirane, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Adachi, Shizuko, E-mail: ishii@cc.nagoya-u.ac.jp [School of Business and Commerce, Tokyo International University, Matoba-kita, Kawagoe-shi, Saitama 350-1197 (Japan)

    2014-12-01

    Spontaneous thermoacoustic oscillations of a gas in a closed cylindrical tube are studied. Numerical simulations of the flow field in the tube on which a temperature gradient along the axis is imposed are performed by solving the axisymmetric compressible Navier–Stokes equations. The wall temperature of the hot part near both ends (300 K) and that of the cold part near the center (20 K) are fixed. The computations are done for various values of the length ratio ξ of the hot part to the cold part between 0.3 and 1.0, and steady oscillatory states are obtained. These states are divided into three groups according to the magnitude of the pressure amplitude. The state in each group has distinguished features of the flow field. We analyze the effect of vortices on the structure of the temperature distribution. The difference of the boundary layer thickness between the hot part and the cold part is shown to play an important role. (paper)

  19. Wake flow behaviour behind a smaller cylinder oscillating in the wake of an upstream stationary cylinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yangyang; Sun, Zhilin [Ocean College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Tan, Danielle S [Maritime Research Centre, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Yu, Dingyong [College of Engineering, Ocean University of China, 266100 (China); Tan, Soon Keat, E-mail: yygao@zju.edu.cn [Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2014-04-01

    The flow patterns around a cylinder oscillating freely in the wake of a larger cylinder upstream were investigated using the particle image velocimetry technique. The upstream cylinder was fixed at both ends while the downstream smaller cylinder was held by springs such that it was free to oscillate in the transverse direction. The flow patterns, amplitudes of oscillation and vortex shedding frequencies were compared with those of a single cylinder. In the presence of the upstream cylinder, the three parameters characterizing the oscillation response of the smaller cylinder—amplitude of oscillation, vortex shedding frequency and Reynolds stresses—were greatly reduced. While their magnitude increased with gap ratio, these three parameters were still smaller than the corresponding magnitudes for a single oscillating cylinder. The peak values of turbulence statistics such as Reynolds shear stress and normal stress behind the oscillating downstream cylinder were similarly reduced, and increased with gap ratios. (paper)

  20. Passive harmonic mode-locking of Er-doped fiber laser using CVD-grown few-layer MoS2 as a saturable absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Han-Ding; Li He-Ping; Lan Chang-Yong; Li Chun; Deng Guang-Lei; Li Jian-Feng; Liu Yong

    2015-01-01

    Passive harmonic mode locking of an erbium-doped fiber laser based on few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) saturable absorber (SA) is demonstrated. The few-layer MoS 2 is prepared by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method and then transferred onto the end face of a fiber connector to form a fiber-compatible MoS 2 SA. The 20th harmonic mode-locked pulses at 216-MHz repetition rate are stably generated with a pulse duration of 1.42 ps and side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of 36.1 dB. The results confirm that few-layer MoS 2 can serve as an effective SA for mode-locked fiber lasers. (paper)

  1. Passive mode locking of a GaSb-based quantum well diode laser emitting at 2.1 μm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merghem, K.; Aubin, G.; Ramdane, A. [CNRS, Laboratory for Photonics and Nanostructures, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Teissier, R.; Baranov, A. N. [Institute of Electronics and Systems, CNRS UMR 5214, University of Montpellier, 34095 Montpellier (France); Monakhov, A. M. [Ioffe Institute, 194021 Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-14

    We demonstrate passive mode locking of a GaSb-based diode laser emitting at 2.1 μm. The active region of the studied device consists in two 10-nm-thick GaInSbAs/GaAlSbAs quantum wells. Passive mode locking has been achieved in a two-section laser with one of the sections used as a saturable absorber. A microwave signal at 20.6 GHz, measured in the electrical circuit of the absorber, corresponds to the fundamental photon round-trip frequency in the laser resonator. The linewidth of this signal as low as ∼10 kHz has been observed at certain operating conditions, indicating low phase noise mode-locked operation.

  2. Modal gain characteristics of a 2 μm InGaSb/AlGaAsSb passively mode-locked quantum well laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Wang, Hong; Qiao, Zhongliang; Guo, Xin; Ng, Geok Ing; Zhang, Yu; Niu, Zhichuan; Tong, Cunzhu; Liu, Chongyang

    2017-12-01

    Passive mode locking with a fundamental repetition rate at ˜18.46 GHz is demonstrated in a two-section InGaSb/AlGaAsSb quantum well laser emitting at 2 μm. Modal gain characteristics of the laser are investigated by performing the Hakki-Paoli method to gain better insight into the impact of the absorber bias voltage (Va) on the light output. The lasing action moves to longer wavelengths markedly with increasing negative Va. The light output contains more longitudinal modes in the mode locking regime if the gain bandwidth is larger at a certain Va. Our findings provide guidelines for output characteristics of the mode-locked laser.

  3. Passive mode locking of a GaSb-based quantum well diode laser emitting at 2.1 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merghem, K.; Aubin, G.; Ramdane, A.; Teissier, R.; Baranov, A. N.; Monakhov, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate passive mode locking of a GaSb-based diode laser emitting at 2.1 μm. The active region of the studied device consists in two 10-nm-thick GaInSbAs/GaAlSbAs quantum wells. Passive mode locking has been achieved in a two-section laser with one of the sections used as a saturable absorber. A microwave signal at 20.6 GHz, measured in the electrical circuit of the absorber, corresponds to the fundamental photon round-trip frequency in the laser resonator. The linewidth of this signal as low as ∼10 kHz has been observed at certain operating conditions, indicating low phase noise mode-locked operation

  4. Quantum-dot saturable absorber and Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb:KGW laser with >450  kW of peak power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, R; Zhao, H; Fedorova, K A; Rafailov, E U; Major, A

    2016-08-15

    The hybrid action of quantum-dot saturable absorber and Kerr-lens mode locking in a diode-pumped Yb:KGW laser was demonstrated. Using a quantum-dot saturable absorber with a 0.7% (0.5%) modulation depth, the mode-locked laser delivered 90 fs (93 fs) pulses with 3.2 W (2.9 W) of average power at the repetition rate of 77 MHz, corresponding to 462 kW (406 kW) of peak power and 41 nJ (38 nJ) of pulse energy. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest average and peak powers generated to date from quantum-dot saturable absorber-based mode-locked lasers.

  5. 50-fs pulse generation directly from a colliding-pulse mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser using an antiresonant ring mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganuma, Kazunori; Mogi, Kazuo

    1991-05-01

    50-fs pulses were directly generated from a colliding-pulse mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser. To achieve the colliding-pulse mode locking, a miniature antiresonant ring containing an organic saturable dye jet was employed as the end mirror for the linear cavity laser. Based on measured dispersion of intracavity elements, a prism pair was implemented to control the cavity dispersion. The generated pulses have no linear chirp but do exhibit parabolic instantaneous frequency owing to third-order dispersion introduced by the prism pair.

  6. The continuous-wave passive mode-locking operation of a diode-pumped mixed Nd:Lu0.5Y0.5VO4 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H-T; Xu, J-L; He, J-L; Zhang, S-Y; Xu, J-Q; Zhao, B

    2011-01-01

    We reported a continuous-wave (CW) passively mode-locked Nd:Lu 0.5 Y 0.5 VO 4 laser at 1064 nm. A partially reflective semiconductor saturable absorber mirror was exploited in the Z-typed resonator. The Nd:Lu 0.5 Y 0.5 VO 4 laser generated CW mode-locked pulses with an average output power of 860 mW, a repetition rate of 53.7 MHz, and a pulse duration of 8.7 ps

  7. Study of simultaneous q-switching and mode-locking in ND:YVO4 laser with Cr4+:YAG crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sous, M. B.

    2009-01-01

    A numerical model of rate equations for a four-level solid-state laser with Cr 4+ :YAG saturable absorber including excited state absorption ESA is presented. The cavity is divided into a large number of disks and the model is solved for each disk and its local corresponding photon flux. The flux array is shifted for each recurrence simulating the movement of photons inside the cavity during the round trip. This simulator can describe the mode locking phenomenon and can be used to simulate the simultaneous mode locking and Q-switching with a saturable absorber. (author)

  8. Passively mode-locked high power Nd:GdVO4 laser with direct in-band pumping at 912 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadimi, Mohammad; Waritanant, Tanant; Major, Arkady

    2018-01-01

    We report on the first semiconductor saturable absorber mirror mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser directly diode-pumped at 912 nm. The laser generated 10.14 W of averaged output power at 1063 nm with the pulse width of 16 ps at the repetition rate of 85.2 MHz. The optical-to-optical efficiency and slope efficiency in the mode-locked regime were calculated to be 49.6% and 67.4% with respect to the absorbed pump power, respectively. Due to the low quantum defect pumping the output power was limited only by the available pump power.

  9. Passive mode locking of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser with pulsed synchronous pumping by a finite train of picosecond pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisevich, N A; Buganov, O V; Tikhomirov, S A; Tolstorozhev, G B; Shkred, G L

    1999-01-01

    An analysis is made, with the aid of the self-consistent nonlinear ABCD matrix method, of the specific features of the mechanism of passive mode locking of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser under conditions of pulsed synchronous pumping. The conditions of stable laser operation are studied. It is proposed to use an additional aperture as an element of negative feedback for the stabilisation of passive mode locking. Practical recommendations concerning the optimisation of a femtosecond laser are given. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  10. Tunable and switchable dual-wavelength passively mode-locked Bi-doped all-fiber ring laser based on nonlinear polarization rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, A-P; Luo, Z-C; Xu, W-C; Dvoyrin, V V; Mashinsky, V M; Dianov, E M

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a tunable and switchable dual-wavelength passively mode-locked Bi-doped all-fiber ring laser by using nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) technique. Exploiting the spectral filtering effect caused by the combination of the polarizer and intracavity birefringence, the wavelength separation of dual-wavelength mode-locked pulses can be flexibly tuned between 2.38 and 20.45 nm. Taking the advantage of NPR-induced intensity-dependent loss to suppress the mode competition, the stable dual-wavelength pulses output is obtained at room temperature. Moreover, the dual-wavelength switchable operation is achieved by simply rotating the polarization controllers (PCs)

  11. Individual optimization of InAlGaAsP-InP sections for 1.55-μm passively mode-locked lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulkova, Irina; Larsson, David; Semenova, Elizaveta

    2012-01-01

    We present integrated single QW semiconductor optical amplifier and MQW electroabsorber modulator based on InAlGaAsP-InP materials for application in a monolithic mode-locked laser. Optimized structures with high-quality butt-joint interfaces are demonstrated.......We present integrated single QW semiconductor optical amplifier and MQW electroabsorber modulator based on InAlGaAsP-InP materials for application in a monolithic mode-locked laser. Optimized structures with high-quality butt-joint interfaces are demonstrated....

  12. Study of simulations q-switching and mode-locking in Nd:YVO4 laser with Cr4+:YAG crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sous, M. B.

    2007-12-01

    A numerical model of rate equations for a four-level solid-state laser with Cr 4+ :YAG saturable absorber including excited state absorption ESA is presented. The cavity is divided into a large number of disks and the model is solved for each disk and its local corresponding photon flux. The flux array is shifted for each recurrence simulating the movement of photons inside the cavity during the round trip. This simulator can describe the mode locking phenomenon and can be used to simulate the simultaneous mode locking and Q-switching with a saturable absorber.(author)

  13. Passively mode-locked diode-pumped Tm3+:YLF laser emitting at 1.91 µm using a GaAs-based SESAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyazhev, A.; Soulard, R.; Godin, T.; Paris, M.; Brasse, G.; Doualan, J.-L.; Braud, A.; Moncorgé, R.; Laroche, M.; Camy, P.; Hideur, A.

    2018-04-01

    We report on a diode-pumped Tm:YLF laser passively mode-locked with an InGaAs saturable absorber. The laser emits a train of 31 ps pulses at a wavelength of 1.91 µm with a repetition rate of 94 MHz and a maximum average power of 95 mW. A sustained and robust mode-locking with a signal-to-noise ratio of ~70 dB is obtained even at high relative air humidity, making this system attractive for applications requiring ultra-short pulses in the spectral window just below 2 µm.

  14. Development of a model to predict flow oscillations in low-flow sodium boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, A.E.; Griffith, P.

    1980-04-01

    Tests performed in a small scale water loop showed that voiding oscillations, similar to those observed in sodium, were present in water, as well. An analytical model, appropriate for either sodium or water, was developed and used to describe the water flow behavior. The experimental results indicate that water can be successfully employed as a sodium simulant, and further, that the condensation heat transfer coefficient varies significantly during the growth and collapse of vapor slugs during oscillations. It is this variation, combined with the temperature profile of the unheated zone above the heat source, which determines the oscillatory behavior of the system. The analytical program has produced a model which qualitatively does a good job in predicting the flow behavior in the wake experiment. The amplitude discrepancies are attributable to experimental uncertainties and model inadequacies. Several parameters (heat transfer coefficient, unheated zone temperature profile, mixing between hot and cold fluids during oscillations) are set by the user. Criteria for the comparison of water and sodium experiments have been developed

  15. Real-time full-field characterization of transient dissipative soliton dynamics in a mode-locked laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryczkowski, P.; Närhi, M.; Billet, C.; Merolla, J.-M.; Genty, G.; Dudley, J. M.

    2018-04-01

    Dissipative solitons are remarkably localized states of a physical system that arise from the dynamical balance between nonlinearity, dispersion and environmental energy exchange. They are the most universal form of soliton that can exist, and are seen in far-from-equilibrium systems in many fields, including chemistry, biology and physics. There has been particular interest in studying their properties in mode-locked lasers, but experiments have been limited by the inability to track the dynamical soliton evolution in real time. Here, we use simultaneous dispersive Fourier transform and time-lens measurements to completely characterize the spectral and temporal evolution of ultrashort dissipative solitons as their dynamics pass through a transient unstable regime with complex break-up and collisions before stabilization. Further insight is obtained from reconstruction of the soliton amplitude and phase and calculation of the corresponding complex-valued eigenvalue spectrum. These findings show how real-time measurements provide new insights into ultrafast transient dynamics in optics.

  16. Real-time dual-comb spectroscopy with a free-running bidirectionally mode-locked fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehravar, S.; Norwood, R. A.; Peyghambarian, N.; Kieu, K.

    2016-06-01

    Dual-comb technique has enabled exciting applications in high resolution spectroscopy, precision distance measurements, and 3D imaging. Major advantages over traditional methods can be achieved with dual-comb technique. For example, dual-comb spectroscopy provides orders of magnitude improvement in acquisition speed over standard Fourier-transform spectroscopy while still preserving the high resolution capability. Wider adoption of the technique has, however, been hindered by the need for complex and expensive ultrafast laser systems. Here, we present a simple and robust dual-comb system that employs a free-running bidirectionally mode-locked fiber laser operating at telecommunication wavelength. Two femtosecond frequency combs (with a small difference in repetition rates) are generated from a single laser cavity to ensure mutual coherent properties and common noise cancellation. As the result, we have achieved real-time absorption spectroscopy measurements without the need for complex servo locking with accurate frequency referencing, and relatively high signal-to-noise ratio.

  17. Ultrafast spectral dynamics of dual-color-soliton intracavity collision in a mode-locked fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuan; Li, Bowen; Wei, Xiaoming; Yu, Ying; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.

    2018-02-01

    The single-shot spectral dynamics of dual-color-soliton collisions inside a mode-locked laser is experimentally and numerically investigated. By using the all-optically dispersive Fourier transform, we spectrally unveil the collision-induced soliton self-reshaping process, which features dynamic spectral fringes over the soliton main lobe, and the rebuilding of Kelly sidebands with wavelength drifting. Meanwhile, the numerical simulations validate the experimental observation and provide additional insights into the physical mechanism of the collision-induced spectral dynamics from the temporal domain perspective. It is verified that the dynamic interference between the soliton and the dispersive waves is responsible for the observed collision-induced spectral evolution. These dynamic phenomena not only demonstrate the role of dispersive waves in the sophisticated soliton interaction inside the laser cavity, but also facilitate a deeper understanding of the soliton's inherent stability.

  18. Experimental investigations of pulse shape control in passively mode-locked fiber lasers with net-normal dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L R; Han, D D

    2013-01-01

    Pulse shape control in passively mode-locked fiber lasers with net-normal dispersion is investigated experimentally. Three kinds of pulses with different spectral and temporal shapes are observed, and their pulse-shaping mechanisms are discussed. After a polarization-resolved system external to the cavity, the maximum intensity differences of the two polarization components for the rectangular-spectrum (RS), Gaussian-spectrum (GS), and super-broadband (SB) pulses are measured as ∼20 dB, ∼15 dB, and ∼1 dB, respectively. It is suggested that the equivalent saturable absorption effect plays an increasingly important role from the RS to GS and then to SB pulses in the pulse-shaping processes, while the spectral filtering effect declines. This work could help in systematically understanding pulse formation and proposing guidelines for the realization of pulses with better performance in fiber lasers. (paper)

  19. Performance Comparison of Mode-Locked Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser with Nonlinear Polarization Rotation and Saturable Absorber Approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M. A.; Tan, S. J.; Shahabuddin, N. S.; Harun, S. W.; Arof, H.; Ahmad, H.

    2012-01-01

    A mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) is demonstrated using a highly concentrated erbium-doped fiber (EDF) as the gain medium in a ring configuration with and without a saturable absorber (SA). Without the SA, the proposed laser generates soliton pulses with a repetition rate of 12 MHz, pulse width of 1.11 ps and energy pulse of 1.6 pJ. By incorporating SA in the ring cavity, the optical output of the laser changes from soliton to stretched pulses due to the slight change in the group velocity dispersion. With the SA, a cleaner pulse is obtained with a repetition rate of 11.3 MHz, a pulse width of 0.58 ps and a pulse energy of 2.3 pJ. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  20. Self-starting and overclocking a harmonically mode-locking WRC-FPLD with a dual-loop feedback controller for 10 Gb s−1 pulse-data transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chun-Ju; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2013-01-01

    The self-starting and overclocking of a harmonically mode-locked weak-resonant-cavity Fabry–Perot laser diode (WRC-FPLD) with a dual-loop coupled optoelectronic oscillator (COEO) based feedback controller is demonstrated to perform a clock-free pulsed data transmission at 10 Gb s −1 . The WRC-FPLD is considered as the preferred candidate for harmonic mode-locking due to its highly asymmetric cavity architecture, whereby the spontaneous noise can be significantly suppressed without inducing large intra-cavity loss. With the dual-loop COEO configuration, the WRC-FPLD can be boosted to four times of its original modulation bandwidth such that the pulsed carrier quality can be refined. The structure-optimizing principle with the closed-loop model is corroborated by the effective spurious-noise-suppression. The lowest phase noises as low as −100 dBc Hz −1 at 10 kHz with corresponding RMS timing jitter of 0.67 ps are measured. This is achieved by individually inserting 100 and 120 m long single mode fiber segments into two decoupled arms, the dual-loop COEO before the optical receiver pair. The BER performance reaches a minimum with the optimized SMF segment lengths. However, the spurious peaks arise to degrade the BER performance as the phase noise and jitter are inevitably enlarged when inserting longer SMF segments. After modulating the optimized output pulse train with the pseudo-random-bit-sequence data triggered by the same COEO clock, the SNR can achieve 10.9 dB and the receiving sensitivity is −19.2 dBm. (letter)

  1. Optical and mode-locking properties of InGaN/GaN based hetero-structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irshad, A.

    2011-01-01

    Short wavelength pulsed lasers are indispensable for high density and high speed optical data acquisition, storage and transfer applications. Passively mode-locked blue lasers are an attractive alternative for blue laser sources achieved by non-linear frequency conversion techniques. Although over the recent years it has been shown that InGaN/GaN based hetero-structures can be used as potential material for the fabrication of saturable absorbers, passive mode-locking in the blue spectral range has not been realized yet. The main reason for that is the complicated microscopic nature of InGaN/GaN materials and the difficulty to control the dynamics of photo-induced carriers which determine mode-locking properties of the material. In this work, we have characterized different InGaN based hetero-structures as potential saturable absorbers. Three different groups of the samples have been investigated: i) quantum well samples with different numbers of quantum wells grown under optimal conditions; ii)quantum well samples with modified optical properties due to different buffer layer thickness and postgrowth treatment; iii) a multilayered quantum dot sample. The characterized quantum well samples exhibit relatively high optical quality and sufficiently high saturable losses (which can be controlled by alternating a number of the quantum wells). Nevertheless, they have two major disadvantages as saturable absorbers, namely, a very long absorption recovery time (in the order of a few nanoseconds) and a rather high saturation fluence. The long recovery times are not desirable for achieving a stable and self-starting mode-locking without Q-switching. In order to understand the relaxation processes of photo-induced carriers that determine the absorption recovery times of the saturable absorbers, optical properties of the hetero-structures have been extensively studied by using the frequency and time resolved photo-luminescence technique. The obtained data reveal that, directly

  2. Unified Power Flow Controller Placement to Improve Damping of Power Oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    M. Salehi; A. A. Motie Birjandi; F. Namdari

    2015-01-01

    Weak damping of low frequency oscillations is a frequent phenomenon in electrical power systems. These frequencies can be damped by power system stabilizers. Unified power flow controller (UPFC), as one of the most important FACTS devices, can be applied to increase the damping of power system oscillations and the more effect of this controller on increasing the damping of oscillations depends on its proper placement in power systems. In this paper, a technique based on controllability is pro...

  3. Observation of phase noise reduction in photonically synthesized sub-THz signals using a passively mode-locked laser diode and highly selective optical filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Criado, A. R.; Acedo, P.; Carpintero, G.

    2012-01-01

    A Continuous Wave (CW) sub-THz photonic synthesis setup based on a single Passively Mode-Locked Laser Diode (PMLLD) acting as a monolithic Optical Frequency Comb Generator (OFCG) and highly selective optical filtering has been implemented to evaluate the phase noise performance of the generated sub...

  4. 1.55-μm mode-locked quantum-dot lasers with 300 MHz frequency tuning range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeev, T., E-mail: tagir@mailbox.tu-berlin.de; Arsenijević, D.; Bimberg, D. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Franke, D.; Kreissl, J.; Künzel, H. [Heinrich-Hertz-Institut, Einsteinufer 37, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-01-19

    Passive mode-locking of two-section quantum-dot mode-locked lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on InP is reported. 1250-μm long lasers exhibit a wide tuning range of 300 MHz around the fundamental mode-locking frequency of 33.48 GHz. The frequency tuning is achieved by varying the reverse bias of the saturable absorber from 0 to −2.2 V and the gain section current from 90 to 280 mA. 3 dB optical spectra width of 6–7 nm leads to ex-facet optical pulses with full-width half-maximum down to 3.7 ps. Single-section quantum-dot mode-locked lasers show 0.8 ps broad optical pulses after external fiber-based compression. Injection current tuning from 70 to 300 mA leads to 30 MHz frequency tuning.

  5. 110 GHz hybrid mode-locked fiber laser with enhanced extinction ratio based on nonlinear silicon-on-insulator micro-ring-resonator (SOI MRR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yang; Hsu, Yung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Yang, Ling-Gang; Lai, Yin-Chieh; Yeh, Chien-Hung; Tsang, Hon-Ki

    2016-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a new 110 GHz high-repetition-rate hybrid mode-locked fiber laser using a silicon-on-insulator microring-resonator (SOI MRR) acting as the optical nonlinear element and optical comb filter simultaneously. By incorporating a phase modulator (PM) that is electrically driven at a fraction of the harmonic frequency, an enhanced extinction ratio (ER) of the optical pulses can be produced. The ER of the optical pulse train increases from 3 dB to 10 dB. As the PM is only electrically driven by the signal at a fraction of the harmonic frequency, in this case 22 GHz (110 GHz/5 GHz), a low bandwidth PM and driving circuit can be used. The mode-locked pulse width and the 3 dB spectral bandwidth of the proposed mode-locked fiber laser are measured, showing that the optical pulses are nearly transform limited. Moreover, stability evaluation for an hour is performed, showing that the proposed laser can achieve stable mode-locking without the need for optical feedback or any other stabilization mechanism. (letter)

  6. 1.55-μm mode-locked quantum-dot lasers with 300 MHz frequency tuning range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeev, T.; Arsenijević, D.; Bimberg, D.; Franke, D.; Kreissl, J.; Künzel, H.

    2015-01-01

    Passive mode-locking of two-section quantum-dot mode-locked lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on InP is reported. 1250-μm long lasers exhibit a wide tuning range of 300 MHz around the fundamental mode-locking frequency of 33.48 GHz. The frequency tuning is achieved by varying the reverse bias of the saturable absorber from 0 to −2.2 V and the gain section current from 90 to 280 mA. 3 dB optical spectra width of 6–7 nm leads to ex-facet optical pulses with full-width half-maximum down to 3.7 ps. Single-section quantum-dot mode-locked lasers show 0.8 ps broad optical pulses after external fiber-based compression. Injection current tuning from 70 to 300 mA leads to 30 MHz frequency tuning

  7. Comparison of symmetric and asymmetric double quantum well extended-cavity diode lasers for broadband passive mode-locking at 780  nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Heike; Kovalchuk, Evgeny V; Wenzel, Hans; Bugge, Frank; Weyers, Markus; Wicht, Andreas; Peters, Achim; Tränkle, Günther

    2017-07-01

    We present a compact, mode-locked diode laser system designed to emit a frequency comb in the wavelength range around 780 nm. We compare the mode-locking performance of symmetric and asymmetric double quantum well ridge-waveguide diode laser chips in an extended-cavity diode laser configuration. By reverse biasing a short section of the diode laser chip, passive mode-locking at 3.4 GHz is achieved. Employing an asymmetric double quantum well allows for generation of a mode-locked optical spectrum spanning more than 15 nm (full width at -20  dB) while the symmetric double quantum well device only provides a bandwidth of ∼2.7  nm (full width at -20  dB). Analysis of the RF noise characteristics of the pulse repetition rate shows an RF linewidth of about 7 kHz (full width at half-maximum) and of at most 530 Hz (full width at half-maximum) for the asymmetric and symmetric double quantum well devices, respectively. Investigation of the frequency noise power spectral density at the pulse repetition rate shows a white noise floor of approximately 2100  Hz 2 /Hz and of at most 170  Hz 2 /Hz for the diode laser employing the asymmetric and symmetric double quantum well structures, respectively. The pulse width is less than 10 ps for both devices.

  8. Analysis of hybrid mode-locking of two-section quantum dot lasers operating at 1.5 μm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, M.J.R.; Salumbides, E.J.; Renault, A.; Bente, E.A.J.M.; Oei, Y.S.; Smit, M.K.; Veldhoven, van P.J.; Nötzel, R.; Eikema, K.S.E.; Ubachs, W.

    2009-01-01

    For the first time a detailed study of hybrid mode-locking in two- section InAs/InP quantum dot Fabry-Pérot-type lasers is presented. The output pulses have a typical upchirp of approximately 8 ps/nm, leading to very elongated pulses. The mechanism leading to this typical pulse shape and the phase

  9. Effect of thermal management on the properties of saturable absorber mirrors in high-power mode-locked semiconductor disk lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantamäki, Antti; Lyytikäinen, Jari; Jari Nikkinen; Okhotnikov, Oleg G

    2011-01-01

    The thermal management of saturable absorbers is shown to have a critical impact on a high-power mode-locked disk laser. The absorber with efficient heat removal makes it possible to generate ultrashort pulses with high repetition rates and high power density.

  10. An asymmetric integrated extended cavity 20GHz mode-locked quantum well ring laser fabricated in the JePPIX technology platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tahvili, M.S.; Barbarin, Y.; Ambrosius, H.P.M.M.; Smit, M.K.; Bente, E.A.J.M.; Leijtens, X.J.M.; Vries, de T.; Smalbrugge, E.; Bolk, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present mode-locked operation of a monolithic 20GHz integrated extended cavity ring laser. The 4mm-long laser ring cavity incorporates a 750µm-long optical amplifier section (SOA), a separate 40µm long saturable absorber (SA) section, passive waveguide sections (shallow and deep

  11. Arteriovenous oscillations of the redox potential: Is the redox state influencing blood flow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poznanski, Jaroslaw; Szczesny, Pawel; Pawlinski, Bartosz; Mazurek, Tomasz; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr; Gajewski, Zdzislaw; Paczek, Leszek

    2017-09-01

    Studies on the regulation of human blood flow revealed several modes of oscillations with frequencies ranging from 0.005 to 1 Hz. Several mechanisms were proposed that might influence these oscillations, such as the activity of vascular endothelium, the neurogenic activity of vessel wall, the intrinsic activity of vascular smooth muscle, respiration, and heartbeat. These studies relied typically on non-invasive techniques, for example, laser Doppler flowmetry. Oscillations of biochemical markers were rarely coupled to blood flow. The redox potential difference between the artery and the vein was measured by platinum electrodes placed in the parallel homonymous femoral artery and the femoral vein of ventilated anesthetized pigs. Continuous measurement at 5 Hz sampling rate using a digital nanovoltmeter revealed fluctuating signals with three basic modes of oscillations: ∼ 1, ∼ 0.1 and ∼ 0.01 Hz. These signals clearly overlap with reported modes of oscillations in blood flow, suggesting coupling of the redox potential and blood flow. The amplitude of the oscillations associated with heart action was significantly smaller than for the other two modes, despite the fact that heart action has the greatest influence on blood flow. This finding suggests that redox potential in blood might be not a derivative but either a mediator or an effector of the blood flow control system.

  12. Analysis of Limit Cycle Oscillation/Transonic High ALPHA Flow Visualization. Part 3 Oscillating Model Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cunningham, Atlee M

    1998-01-01

    ...) at low alpha conditions typical of transonic LCO flows with and without tip stores. Laser light sheet/water vapor techniques were used to illuminate the flows, and video recording was used to obtain the data...

  13. Observation of stable bound soliton with dual-wavelength in a passively mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yu; Tian Jin-Rong; Dong Zi-Kai; Xu Run-Qin; Li Ke-Xuan; Song Yan-Rong

    2017-01-01

    A phase-locked bound state soliton with dual-wavelength is observed experimentally in a passively mode-locked Er-doped fiber (EDF) laser with a fiber loop mirror (FLM). The pulse duration of the soliton is 15 ps and the peak-to-peak separation is 125 ps. The repetition rate of the pulse sequence is 3.47 MHz. The output power is 11.8 mW at the pump power of 128 mW, corresponding to the pulse energy of 1.52 nJ. The FLM with a polarization controller can produce a comb spectrum, which acts as a filter. By adjusting the polarization controller or varying the pump power, the central wavelength of the comb spectrum can be tuned. When it combines with the reflective spectrum of the fiber Bragg grating, the total spectrum of the cavity can be cleaved into two parts, then the bound state soliton with dual-wavelength at 1549.7 nm and 1550.4 nm is obtained. (paper)

  14. Visualization of hair follicles using high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a Fourier domain mode locking laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, M.-T.; Chang, F.-Y.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, a swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system with a Fourier domain mode locking (FDML) laser is proposed for a dermatology study. The homemade FDML laser is one kind of frequency-sweeping light source, which can provide output power of >20 mW and an output spectrum of 65 nm in bandwidth centered at 1300 nm, enabling imaging with an axial resolution of 12 μm in the OCT system. To eliminate the forward scans from the laser output and insert the delayed backward scans, a Mach-Zehnder configuration is implemented. Compared with conventional frequency-sweeping light sources, the FDML laser can achieve much higher scan rates, as high as ˜240 kHz, which can provide a three-dimensional imaging rate of 4 volumes/s. Furthermore, the proposed high-speed SS-OCT system can provide three-dimensional (3D) images with reduced motion artifacts. Finally, a high-speed SS-OCT system is used to visualize hair follicles, demonstrating the potential of this technology as a tool for noninvasive diagnosis of alopecia.

  15. Generation of Q-Switched Mode-Locked Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser Operating in Dark Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiu, Zian Cheak; Zarei, Arman; Ahmad, Harith; Harun, Sulaiman Wadi

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a stable Q-switched mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) operating in dark regime based on the nonlinear polarization rotation technique. The EDFL produces a pulse train where the Q-switching envelope is formed by multiple dark pulses. The repetition rate of the Q-switched envelope can be increased from 0.96 kHz to 3.26 kHz, whereas the pulse width reduces from 211 μs to 86 μs. The highest pulse of 479 nJ is obtained at the pump power of 55 mW. It is also observed that the dark pulses inside the Q-switching envelope consist of two parts: square and trailing dark pulses. The shortest pulse width of the dark square pulse is obtained at 40.5 μs when the pump power is fixed at 145 mW. The repetition rate of trailing dark pulses can be increased from 27.62 kHz to 50 kHz as the pump power increases from 55 mW to 145 mW. (paper)

  16. The submm wave Josephson flux flow oscillator; Linewidth measurements and simple theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Jesper; Koshelets, V. P.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    2005-01-01

    The Flux Flow Oscillator (FFO) is a long Josephson junction in which a DC bias current and a DC magnetic field maintain a unidirectional viscous flow of magnetic flux quanta. The theoretical linewidth of the electromagnetic radiation generated at the end boundary is due to internal current...

  17. Seismic probing of solar flows using high-degree oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Employing solar-oscillation modes of degree 50 ≤ l ≤ 850, the author estimated the equatorial rotation rate with depth, searched for possible anisotropies in power for modes travelling in different directions, and examined the influence of a major flare on the oscillations. Motivated by the need in studying solar rotation for accurate frequency splittings between individual modes, different spatial-filtering methods were evaluated to determine which yield the most-accurate frequencies. A filtering method based on spherical-harmonic projection of the data is found to be superior in this regard. The various filtering techniques are applied to three days of concatenated Doppler-velocity data taken on a long, narrow grid centered on the solar disk. An inversion procedure is then performed to determine the equatorial solar rotation in the upper convection zone. The rotation rate is found to increase to a depth of about 2 Mm before decreasing over the next 14 Mm. Power in sectoral modes traveling along the equator (equatorial modes) is compared to that in poleward-traveling sectoral modes (polar modes). Full-disk Doppler velocities observed before and after a major white-light flare are compared to detect any influence of the flare on the 5-minute oscillations

  18. Diode-pumped passively mode-locked Nd:LuVO4 laser with LT-In0.25Ga0.75As saturable absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T; Zhao, S; Li, Y; Zhuo, Z; Yang, K; Li, G; Li, D; Yu, Z

    2009-01-01

    A diode pumped passively mode-locked Nd:LuVO 4 laser with a low temperature (LT) In 0.25 Ga 0.75 As absorber is realized in this paper. An In 0.25 Ga 0.75 As single-quantum-well absorber, which is grown by use of the metal-organic chemical-vapor deposition technique, acts as nonlinear absorber and output coupler simultaneously. A special cavity is designed to keep the power density on In 0.25 Ga 0.75 As under its damage threshold. Both the Q-switched and continuous-wave (cw) mode locking operation are experimentally realized. An average output power of 5.9 W with pulse width of 4.9 ps is achieved at the pump power of 22 W, corresponding to an optical conversion efficiency of 26.8%

  19. Repetition frequency scaling of an all-polarization maintaining erbium-doped mode-locked fiber laser based on carbon nanotubes saturable absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotor, J., E-mail: jaroslaw.sotor@pwr.edu.pl; Sobon, G.; Abramski, K. M. [Laser and Fiber Electronics Group, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Jagiello, J.; Lipinska, L. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-04-07

    We demonstrate an all-polarization maintaining (PM), mode-locked erbium (Er)-doped fiber laser based on a carbon nanotubes (CNT) saturable absorber (SA). The laser resonator was maximally simplified by using only one passive hybrid component and a pair of fiber connectors with deposited CNTs. The repetition frequency (F{sub rep}) of such a cost-effective and self-starting mode-locked laser was scaled from 54.3 MHz to 358.6 MHz. The highest F{sub rep} was obtained when the total cavity length was shortened to 57 cm. The laser allows ultrashort pulse generation with the duration ranging from 240 fs to 550 fs. Because the laser components were based on PM fibers the laser was immune to the external perturbations and generated laniary polarized light with the degree of polarization (DOP) of 98.7%.

  20. Passive mode-locking of 3.25μm GaSb-based type-I quantum-well cascade diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tao; Shterengas, Leon; Kipshidze, Gela; Hosoda, Takashi; Wang, Meng; Belenky, Gregory

    2018-02-01

    Passively mode-locked type-I quantum well cascade diode lasers emitting in the methane absorption band near 3.25 μm were designed, fabricated and characterized. The deep etched 5.5-μm-wide single spatial mode ridge waveguide design utilizing split-contact architecture was implemented. The devices with absorber to gain section length ratios of 11% and 5.5% were studied. Lasers with the longer absorber section ( 300 μm) generated smooth bell-shape-like emission spectrum with about 30 lasing modes at full-width-at-half-maximum level. Devices with reverse biased absorber section demonstrated stable radio frequency beat with nearly perfect Lorentzian shape over four orders of magnitude of intensity. The estimated pulse-to-pulse timing jitter was about 110 fs/cycle. Laser generated average power of more than 1 mW in mode-locked regime.

  1. Observation of Q-switching and mode-locking in two-section InAs/InP (100) quantum dot lasers around 1.55 mum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Martijn J R; Bente, Erwin A J M; Smalbrugge, Barry; Oei, Yok-Siang; Smit, Meint K; Anantathanasarn, Sanguan; Nötzel, Richard

    2007-12-10

    First observation of passive mode-locking in two-section quantum-dot lasers operating at wavelengths around 1.55 mum is reported. Pulse generation at 4.6 GHz from a 9 mm long device is verified by background-free autocorrelation, RF-spectra and real-time oscilloscope traces. The output pulses are stretched in time and heavily up-chirped with a value of 20 ps/nm, contrary to what is normally observed in passively mode-locked semiconductor lasers. The complete output spectrum is shown to be coherent over 10 nm. From a 7 mm long device Q-switching is observed over a large operating regime. The lasers have been realized using a fabrication technology that is compatible with further photonic integration. This makes the laser a promising candidate for e.g. a mode-comb generator in a complex photonic chip.

  2. Soliton rains in a graphene-oxide passively mode-locked ytterbium-doped fiber laser with all-normal dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, S S; Yan, P G; Zhang, G L; Zhao, J Q; Li, H Q; Lin, R Y; Wang, Y G

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally investigated soliton rains in an ytterbium-doped fiber (YDF) laser with a net normal dispersion cavity using a graphene-oxide (GO) saturable absorber (SA). The 195 m-long-cavity, the fiber birefringence filter and the inserted 2.5 nm narrow bandwidth filter play important roles in the formation of the soliton rains. The soliton rain states can be changed by the effective gain bandwidth of the laser. The experimental results can be conducive to an understanding of dissipative soliton features and mode-locking dynamics in all-normal dispersion fiber lasers with GOSAs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of soliton rains in a GOSA passively mode-locked YDF laser with a net normal dispersion cavity. (letter)

  3. Generation of 103 fs mode-locked pulses by a gain linewidth-variable Nd,Y:CaF2 disordered crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Z P; Xie, G Q; Ma, J; Ge, W Y; Yuan, P; Qian, L J; Su, L B; Jiang, D P; Ma, F K; Zhang, Q; Cao, Y X; Xu, J

    2014-04-01

    We have demonstrated a diode-pumped passively mode-locked femtosecond Nd,Y:CaF2 disordered crystal laser for the first time to our knowledge. By choosing appropriate Y-doping concentration, a broad fluorescence linewidth of 31 nm has been obtained from the gain linewidth-variable Nd,Y:CaF2 crystal. With the Nd,Y:CaF2 disordered crystal as gain medium, the mode-locked laser generated pulses with pulse duration as short as 103 fs, average output power of 89 mW, and repetition rate of 100 MHz. To our best knowledge, this is the shortest pulse generated from Nd-doped crystal lasers so far. The research results show that the Nd,Y:CaF2 disordered crystal will be a potential alternative as gain medium of repetitive chirped pulse amplification for high-peak-power lasers.

  4. Characterisation of the light pulses of a cavity dumped dye laser pumped by a cw mode-locked and q-switched Nd:YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geist, P.; Heisel, F.; Martz, A.; Miehe, J.A.; Miller, R.J.D.

    1984-01-01

    The frequency doubled pulses (of 532 nm) obtained, with the help of a KTP crystal, from those delivered by either a continuous wave mode-locked (100 MHz) or mode-locked Q-switched (0-1 KHz) Nd: YAG laser, are analyzed by means of a streak camera, operating in synchroscan or triggered mode. In the step-by-step measurements the pulse stability, concerning form and amplitude, is shown. In addition, measurements effectuated with synchronously pumped and cavity dumped dye laser (Rhodamine 6G), controlled by a Pockels cell, allows the obtention of stable and reproducible single pulses of 30 ps duration, 10 μJ energy and 500Hz frequency [fr

  5. Characterization of fluid forces exerted on a cylinder array oscillating laterally in axial flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divaret, Lise

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents an experimental and a numerical study of the fluid forces exerted on a cylinder or a cylinder array oscillating laterally in an axial flow. The parameters of the system are the amplitude, the oscillation frequency, the confinement and the length to diameter ratio of the cylinder. The objective is to determine the fluid damping created by the axial flow, i.e. the dissipative force. The industrial application of this thesis is the determination of the fluid damping of the fuel assemblies in the core of a nuclear power plant during an earthquake. The study focuses on the configurations where the oscillation velocity is small compared to the axial flow velocity. In a first part, we study the case of a cylinder with no confinement oscillating in axial flow. Two methods are used: a dynamical and a quasi-static approach. In dynamics, the damping rate is measured during free oscillations of the cylinder. In the quasi-static approach, the damping coefficient is calculated from the normal force measured on a yawed cylinder. The range of the small ratios between the oscillation and the axial flow velocities corresponds to a range of low yaw angle where the cylinder is in near-axial flow in statics. The case of a yawed cylinder has been studied both experimentally with experiments in a wind tunnel and numerically with CFD calculations. The analyses of the fluid forces shows that for yaw angles smaller than 5 degrees, a linear lift with the yaw angle creates the damping. The origin of the lift force is discussed from pressure and velocity measurements. The results of the quasi-static approach are compared to the results of the dynamical experiments. In a second part, an experimental study is performed on a rigid cylinder array made up of 40 cylinders oscillating in an axial flow. The normal force and the displacement of the cylinder array are measured simultaneously. The added mass and damping coefficient are calculated and their variation with the

  6. Experimental investigation of a flow-induced oscillating cylinder with two degrees-of-freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Someya, Satoshi; Kuwabara, Joji; Li, YanRong; Okamoto, Koji

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenon of flow-induced vibration of bluff bodies has been studied extensively. The vast majority of these studies have concentrated solely on one degree-of-freedom oscillation in the inline or cross-flow directions. Herein, experiments were carried out with a cylinder in a water channel with two degrees-of-freedom. The cylinder was cantilever mounted with a low natural frequency (typically 65 Hz) in the inline and cross-flow directions. The Reynolds number fell in the range 1.17 x 10 3 4 . The oscillating frequency of the cylinder and the surrounding flow were measured simultaneously using high temporal resolution particle image velocimetry (PIV), which is non-intrusive with respect to the flow and has high spatial and temporal resolutions. The vibration of the cylinder was found to be anisotropic. There was a discrepancy between the vibration frequencies in the inline and cross-flow directions, the difference being a function of reduced velocity.

  7. Uniform spacing interrogation of a Fourier domain mode-locked fiber Bragg grating sensor system using a polarization-maintaining fiber Sagnac interferometer

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hwi Don; Jung, Eun Joo; Jeong, Myung Yung; Chen, Zhongping; Kim, Chang-Seok

    2013-01-01

    A novel linearized interrogation method is presented for a Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor system. In a high speed regime over several tens of kHz modulations, a sinusoidal wave is available to scan the center wavelength of an FDML wavelength-swept laser, instead of a conventional triangular wave. However, sinusoidal wave modulation suffers from an exaggerated non-uniform wavelength-spacing response in demodulating the time-encoded parameter to the absolute ...

  8. New Fluidic-Oscillator Concept for Flow-Separation Control

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav; Zhong, S.; Rasheed, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2013), s. 397-405 ISSN 0001-1452 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019; GA TA ČR TA02020795; GA ČR GA13-23046S Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : fluidics * fluidic oscillator * resonator Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.165, year: 2013 http://arc.aiaa.org/doi/abs/10.2514/1.J051791?journalCode=aiaaj

  9. Low-timing-jitter, stretched-pulse passively mode-locked fiber laser with tunable repetition rate and high operation stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yuanshan; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guofu; Zhao, Wei; Bai, Jing

    2010-01-01

    We design a low-timing-jitter, repetition-rate-tunable, stretched-pulse passively mode-locked fiber laser by using a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM), a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM), and a tunable optical delay line in the laser configuration. Low-timing-jitter optical pulses are stably produced when a SESAM and a 0.16 m dispersion compensation fiber are employed in the laser cavity. By inserting a tunable optical delay line between NALM and SESAM, the variable repetition-rate operation of a self-starting, passively mode-locked fiber laser is successfully demonstrated over a range from 49.65 to 50.47 MHz. The experimental results show that the newly designed fiber laser can maintain the mode locking at the pumping power of 160 mW to stably generate periodic optical pulses with width less than 170 fs and timing jitter lower than 75 fs in the 1.55 µm wavelength region, when the fundamental repetition rate of the laser is continuously tuned between 49.65 and 50.47 MHz. Moreover, this fiber laser has a feature of turn-key operation with high repeatability of its fundamental repetition rate in practice

  10. Flow and oscillations in collapsible tubes: Physiological applications ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pressure changes associated with fluid flow in the tube may be enough to generate large area changes. Collapsible ... As a very simple model, consider a single, uniform pipe containing viscous fluid flowing steadily at volume ..... (1986). For each mode the instability occurs through a Hopf bifurcation, which is supercritical.

  11. Flow and pressure drop fluctuations in a vertical tube subject to low frequency oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendyala, Rajashekhar; Jayanti, Sreenivas; Balakrishnan, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    Heat transfer and other equipment mounted on off-shore platforms may be subjected to low frequency oscillations. The effect of these oscillations, typically in the frequency range of 0.1-1 Hz, on the flow rate and pressure drop in a vertical tube has been studied experimentally in the present work. A 1.75 m-long vertical tube of inner diameter 0.016 m was mounted on a plate and the whole plate was subjected to oscillations in the vertical plane using a mechanical simulator capable of providing low frequency oscillations in the range of 8-30 cycles/min at an amplitude of 0.125 m. The effect of the oscillations on the flow rate and the pressure drop has been measured systematically in the Reynolds number range 500-6500. The induced flow rate fluctuations were found to be dependent on the Reynolds number with stronger fluctuations at lower Reynolds numbers. The effective friction factor, based on the mean pressure drop and the mean flow rate, was also found to be higher than expected. Correlations have been developed to quantify this Reynolds number dependence

  12. Flow and pressure drop fluctuations in a vertical tube subject to low frequency oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendyala, Rajashekhar; Jayanti, Sreenivas [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Balakrishnan, A.R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)], E-mail: arbala@iitm.ac.in

    2008-01-15

    Heat transfer and other equipment mounted on off-shore platforms may be subjected to low frequency oscillations. The effect of these oscillations, typically in the frequency range of 0.1-1 Hz, on the flow rate and pressure drop in a vertical tube has been studied experimentally in the present work. A 1.75 m-long vertical tube of inner diameter 0.016 m was mounted on a plate and the whole plate was subjected to oscillations in the vertical plane using a mechanical simulator capable of providing low frequency oscillations in the range of 8-30 cycles/min at an amplitude of 0.125 m. The effect of the oscillations on the flow rate and the pressure drop has been measured systematically in the Reynolds number range 500-6500. The induced flow rate fluctuations were found to be dependent on the Reynolds number with stronger fluctuations at lower Reynolds numbers. The effective friction factor, based on the mean pressure drop and the mean flow rate, was also found to be higher than expected. Correlations have been developed to quantify this Reynolds number dependence.

  13. Investigation of low-frequency-oscillating water flow in metal foam with 10 pores per inch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bağcı, Ö.; Arbak, A.; De Paepe, M.; Dukhan, N.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, oscillating water flow in metal foam with open cells is investigated experimentally. The metal foam sample has a porosity of 88% and 10 pores. The water was oscillated in the test section with three frequencies between 0.116 Hz and 0.348 Hz, which are considered low for water oscillation, and three flow displacements ranging between 74.35 mm and 111.53 mm. The combinations of frequencies of displacements were studied for their impacts of dimensional and non-dimensional pressure loss quantities. To this purpose, friction factor was correlated as a function of kinetic Reynolds number. The same metal foam sample was studied by exposing it to steady-state water flow to investigate its permeability and drag coefficient in low-velocity flow regimes. The friction factor distribution for oscillating flow was found to be over that found for steady state. The outcomes of the study are important for studying heat transfer under the same flow conditions.

  14. Effects of multiple resistive shells and transient electromagnetic torque on the dynamics of mode locking in reversed field pinch plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, S.C.; Chu, M.S.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of multiple resistive shells and transient electromagnetic torque on the dynamics of mode locking in the reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas are studied. Most RFP machines are equipped with one or more metal shells outside of the vacuum vessel. These shells have finite resistivities. The eddy currents induced in each of the shells contribute to the braking electromagnetic (EM) torque which slows down the plasma rotation. In this work we study the electromagnetic torque acting on the plasma (tearing) modes produced by a system of resistive shells. These shells may consist of several nested thin shells or several thin shells enclosed within a thick shell. The dynamics of the plasma mode is investigated by balancing the EM torque from the resistive shells with the plasma viscous torque. Both the steady state theory and the time-dependent theory are developed. The steady state theory is shown to provide an accurate account of the resultant EM torque if (dω/dt)ω -2 <<1 and the time scale of interest is much longer than the response (L/R) time of the shell. Otherwise, the transient theory should be adopted. As applications, the steady state theory is used to evaluate the changes of the EM torque response from the resistive shells in two variants of two RFP machines: (1) modification from Reversed Field Experiment (RFX) [Gnesotto et al., Fusion Eng. Des. 25, 335 (1995)] to the modified RFX: both of them are equipped with one thin shell plus one thick shell; (2) modification from Extrap T2 to Extrap T2R [Brunsell et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 43, 1457 (2001)]: both of them are equipped with two thin shells. The transient theory has been applied numerically to study the time evolution of the EM torque during the unlocking of a locked tearing mode in the modified RFX

  15. Cascading Tesla Oscillating Flow Diode for Stirling Engine Gas Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Rodger

    2012-01-01

    Replacing the mechanical check-valve in a Stirling engine with a micromachined, non-moving-part flow diode eliminates moving parts and reduces the risk of microparticle clogging. At very small scales, helium gas has sufficient mass momentum that it can act as a flow controller in a similar way as a transistor can redirect electrical signals with a smaller bias signal. The innovation here forces helium gas to flow in predominantly one direction by offering a clear, straight-path microchannel in one direction of flow, but then through a sophisticated geometry, the reversed flow is forced through a tortuous path. This redirection is achieved by using microfluid channel flow to force the much larger main flow into this tortuous path. While microdiodes have been developed in the past, this innovation cascades Tesla diodes to create a much higher pressure in the gas bearing supply plenum. In addition, the special shape of the leaves captures loose particles that would otherwise clog the microchannel of the gas bearing pads.

  16. Observation of Droplet Size Oscillations in a Two-Phase Fluid under Shear Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbin, Laurent; Panizza, Pascal; Salmon, Jean-Baptiste

    2004-01-01

    Experimental observations of droplet size sustained oscillations are reported in a two-phase flow between a lamellar and a sponge phase. Under shear flow, this system presents two different steady states made of monodisperse multilamellar droplets, separated by a shear-thinning transition. At low and high shear rates, the droplet size results from a balance between surface tension and viscous stress, whereas for intermediate shear rates it becomes a periodic function of time. A possible mechanism for such kinds of oscillations is discussed.

  17. Mean and oscillating plasma flows and turbulence interactions across the L-H confinement transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, G D; Angioni, C; Ryter, F; Sauter, P; Vicente, J

    2011-02-11

    A complex interaction between turbulence driven E × B zonal flow oscillations, i.e., geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs), the turbulence, and mean equilibrium flows is observed during the low to high (L-H) plasma confinement mode transition in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. Below the L-H threshold at low densities a limit-cycle oscillation forms with competition between the turbulence level and the GAM flow shearing. At higher densities the cycle is diminished, while in the H mode the cycle duration becomes too short to sustain the GAM, which is replaced by large amplitude broadband flow perturbations. Initially GAM amplitude increases as the H-mode transition is approached, but is then suppressed in the H mode by enhanced mean flow shear.

  18. Induced dusty flow due to normal oscillation of wavy wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kannan

    2001-01-01

    wall. Solutions are obtained in terms of a series expansion with respect to small amplitude by a regular perturbation method. Graphs of velocity components, both for outer flow and inner flow for various values of mass concentration of dust particles are drawn. The inner and outer solutions are matched by the matching process. An interested application of present result to mechanical engineering may be the possibility of the fluid and dust transportation without an external pressure.

  19. Nanoscale charcoal powder induced saturable absorption and mode-locking of a low-gain erbium-doped fiber-ring laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2013-01-01

    Triturated charcoal nano-powder directly brushed on a fiber connector end-face is used for the first time as a fast saturable absorber for a passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber-ring laser (EDFL). These dispersant-free charcoal nano-powders with a small amount of crystalline graphene phase and highly disordered carbon structure exhibit a broadened x-ray diffraction peak and their Raman spectrum shows the existence of a carbon related D-band at 1350 cm −1 and the disappearance of the 2D-band peak at 2700 cm −1 . The charcoal nano-powder exhibits a featureless linear absorbance in the infrared region with its linear transmittance of 0.66 nonlinearly saturated at 0.73 to give a ΔT/T of 10%. Picosecond mode-locking at a transform-limited condition of a low-gain EDFL is obtained by using the charcoal nano-powder. By using a commercial EDFA with a linear gain of only 17 dB at the saturated output power of 17.5 dB m required to initiate the saturable absorption of the charcoal nano-powder, the EDFL provides a pulsewidth narrowing from 3.3 to 1.36 ps associated with its spectral linewidth broadening from 0.8 to 1.83 nm on increasing the feedback ratio from 30 to 90%. This investigation indicates that all the carbon-based materials containing a crystalline graphene phase can be employed to passively mode-lock the EDFL, however, the disordered carbon structure inevitably induces a small modulation depth and a large mode-locking threshold, thus limiting the pulsewidth shortening. Nevertheless, the nanoscale charcoal passively mode-locked EDFL still shows the potential to generate picosecond pulses under a relatively low cavity gain. An appropriate cavity design can be used to compensate this defect-induced pulsewidth limitation and obtain a short pulsewidth. (letter)

  20. Calculations of flow oscillations during reflood using RELAP4/MOD6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.S.; Fischer, S.R.; Sullivan, L.H.

    1979-01-01

    RELAP4/MOD6 is an analytical computer code which can be used for best-estimate analysis of LWR reactor system blowdown and reflood response to a postulated LOCA. In this study, flow oscillations in the PKL reflood test K5A were investigated using RELAP4/MOD6. Both calculated and measured oscillations exhibited transient characteristics of density-wave and pressure-drop oscillations. The calculated average core mixture level rising rate agrees closely with the test data. Several mechanisms which appear to be responsible for initiation and continuation of calculated or experimental reflood flow oscillations are (a) the coupling between the vapor generation in the core channel and the U-tube geometrical arrangement of a downcomer and a heated core; (b) the inherent low core inlet resistance and the high system outlet resistance; (c) the dependence of heat transfer rate on mass flow rate especially in the dispersed flow ially in the dispersed flow regime; (d) the amount of the liquid entrainment fraction of the heated core channel

  1. Transport and flow characteristics of an oscillating cylindrical fiber for total artificial lung application

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Adnan; Bull, Joseph L.

    2017-01-01

    Mass transport and fluid dynamics characteristics in the vicinity of an oscillating cylindrical fiber with an imposed pulsatile inflow condition are computationally investigated in the present study. The work is motivated by a recently proposed design modification to the Total Artificial Lung (TAL) device, which is expected to provide better gas exchange. Navier–Stokes computations, coupled with convection–diffusion equation are performed to assess flow dynamics and mass transport behavior around the oscillating fiber. The oscillations and the pulsatile free stream velocity are represented by two sinusoidal functions. The resulting non-dimensional parameters are Keulegan–Carpenter number (KC), Schmidt number (Sc), Reynolds number (Re), pulsatile inflow amplitude (), and amplitude of cylinder oscillation (). Results are computed for , Sc = 1000, Re = 5 and 10, and 0.7 and 0.25 5.25. The pulsatile inflow parameters correspond to the flow velocities found in human pulmonary artery while matching the operating TAL Reynolds number. Mass transport from the surface of the cylinder to the bulk fluid is found to be primarily dependent on the size of surface vortices created by the movement of the cylinder. Time-averaged surface Sherwood number (Sh) is dependent on the amplitude and KC of cylinder oscillation. Compared to the fixed cylinder case, a significant gain up to 380% in Sh is achieved by oscillating the cylinder even at the small displacement amplitude (AD = 0.75D). Moreover, with decrease in KC the oscillating cylinder exhibits a lower drag amplitude compared with the fixed cylinder case. Inflow pulsation amplitude has minor effects on the mass transport characteristics. However, an increase in results in an increase in the amplitude of the periodic drag force on the cylinder. This rise in the drag amplitude is similar to that measured for the fixed cylinder case. Quantifications of shear stress distribution in the bulk fluid suggest that the physiological

  2. Transport and flow characteristics of an oscillating cylindrical fiber for total artificial lung application

    KAUST Repository

    Qamar, Adnan

    2017-06-28

    Mass transport and fluid dynamics characteristics in the vicinity of an oscillating cylindrical fiber with an imposed pulsatile inflow condition are computationally investigated in the present study. The work is motivated by a recently proposed design modification to the Total Artificial Lung (TAL) device, which is expected to provide better gas exchange. Navier–Stokes computations, coupled with convection–diffusion equation are performed to assess flow dynamics and mass transport behavior around the oscillating fiber. The oscillations and the pulsatile free stream velocity are represented by two sinusoidal functions. The resulting non-dimensional parameters are Keulegan–Carpenter number (KC), Schmidt number (Sc), Reynolds number (Re), pulsatile inflow amplitude (), and amplitude of cylinder oscillation (). Results are computed for , Sc = 1000, Re = 5 and 10, and 0.7 and 0.25 5.25. The pulsatile inflow parameters correspond to the flow velocities found in human pulmonary artery while matching the operating TAL Reynolds number. Mass transport from the surface of the cylinder to the bulk fluid is found to be primarily dependent on the size of surface vortices created by the movement of the cylinder. Time-averaged surface Sherwood number (Sh) is dependent on the amplitude and KC of cylinder oscillation. Compared to the fixed cylinder case, a significant gain up to 380% in Sh is achieved by oscillating the cylinder even at the small displacement amplitude (AD = 0.75D). Moreover, with decrease in KC the oscillating cylinder exhibits a lower drag amplitude compared with the fixed cylinder case. Inflow pulsation amplitude has minor effects on the mass transport characteristics. However, an increase in results in an increase in the amplitude of the periodic drag force on the cylinder. This rise in the drag amplitude is similar to that measured for the fixed cylinder case. Quantifications of shear stress distribution in the bulk fluid suggest that the physiological

  3. Phase-locked flux-flow Josephson oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ustinov, A. V.; Mygind, Jesper; Oboznov, V. A.

    1992-01-01

    We report on the observation of large rf induced steps due to phase-locking of unidirectional flux-flow motion in long quasi-one-dimensional Josephson junctions. The external microwave irradiation in the frequency range 62–77 GHz was applied from the edge of the junction at which the fluxons enter....... The dependence of the amplitude of the phase-locked step on external magnetic field and microwave power has been measured. The observed zero-crossing steps have potential application in Josephson voltage standards. A simple model for the flux-flow as determined by the microwave driven boundary gate at the edge...

  4. Passive mode locking of 2.09 microm Cr,Tm,Ho:Y3Sc2Al3O12 laser using PbS quantum-dot-doped glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, Igor A; Skoptsov, Nikolai A; Gaponenko, Maxim S; Malyarevich, Alexander M; Yumashev, Konstantin V; Lipovskii, Andrei A

    2009-11-01

    Passive Q-switched mode locking of a 2.09 microm flashlamp-pumped Cr(3+),Tm(3+),Ho(3+):Y(3)Sc(2)Al(3)O(12) laser by use of a phosphate glass doped with PbS quantum dots of 5 nm in radius was demonstrated. Mode-locked pulses of 290 ps in duration and up to 0.5 mJ in energy were registered.

  5. Numerical study of unsteady flows past oscillating airfoils using direct zonal coupling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, F.; Khalid, M.

    2005-01-01

    A direct zonal coupling method was proposed for solving the flows past oscillating airfoils in this study. The entire computational domain was divided into inner and outer zones. The grid in the inner zone is moving with the oscillation of the airfoil, whereas the grid in the outer zone is artificially adjusted to the position consistent with the inner zone grid. The governing equations in the moving frame (the rotation potential energy is included) and those under the stationary frame were applied to inner and outer zones, respectively. By using this kind of treatment, the grid on the zonal interface is 1-to-1 matched. The coupling between the two zones is direct. Both the geometric and flow conservations are entirely satisfied. The NACA0012 and NLR7301 airfoils with oscillations were used as the test cases. The accuracy of the proposed method was demonstrated by the computational results compared with the experimental data.(author)

  6. Electromagnetic control of oscillating flows in a cavity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalter, R.

    2015-01-01

    In continuous steel casting, liquid steel flows turbulently through a submerged nozzle into a thin, vertical mould. In the mould the liquid steel is cooled, such that it solidifies and plate steel is formed. On top of the liquid steel in the mould, a slag layer is present and due to the turbulent

  7. Shape oscillations of elastic particles in shear flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Dhananjay Radhakrishnan; Gee, David J

    2016-09-01

    Particle suspensions are common to biological fluid flows; for example, flow of red- and white-blood cells, and platelets. In medical technology, current and proposed methods for drug delivery use membrane-bounded liquid capsules for transport via the microcirculation. In this paper, we consider a 3D linear elastic particle inserted into a Newtonian fluid and investigate the time-dependent deformation using a numerical simulation. Specifically, a boundary element technique is used to investigate the motion and deformation of initially spherical or spheroidal particles in bounded linear shear flow. The resulting deformed shapes reveal a steady-state profile that exhibits a 'tank-treading' motion for initially spherical particles. Wall effects on particle trajectory are seen to include a modified Jeffrey׳s orbit for spheroidal inclusions with a period that varies inversely with the strength of the shear flow. Alternately, spheroidal inclusions may exhibit either a 'tumbling' or 'trembling' motion depending on the initial particle aspect ratio and the capillary number (i.e., ratio of fluid shear to elastic restoring force). We find for a capillary number of 0.1, a tumbling mode transitions to a trembling mode at an aspect ratio of 0.87 (approx.), while for a capillary number of 0.2, this transition takes place at a lower aspect ratio. These oscillatory modes are consistent with experimental observations involving similarly shaped vesicles and thus serves to validate the use of a simple elastic constitutive model to perform relevant physiological flow calculations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Two-phase flow dynamics in a model steam generator under vertical acceleration oscillation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.; Teshima, N.; Sakurai, S.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of periodically varying acceleration on hydrodynamic response has been studied experimentally using an experimental rig which models a marine reactor subject to vertical motion. The effect on the primary loop is small, but the effect on the secondary loop is large. The variables of the secondary loop, such as circulation flow rate and water level, oscillate with acceleration. The variation of gains in frequency response is analysed. The variations of flow in the secondary loop and in the downcome water level, increase in proportion to the acceleration. The effect of the flow resistance in the secondary loop on the two-phase flow dynamics is clarified. (7 figures) (Author)

  9. Self-pumping effects and radiation linewidth of Josephson flux-flow oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V.P.; Shitov, S.V.; Shchukin, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    Flux-flow oscillators (FFO's) are being developed for integration with a SIS mixer for use in submillimeter wave receivers, The present work contains a detailed experimental study of the dc, microwave, and noise properties of Nb-AlOx-Nb FFO's, A model based on the Josephson self-pumping effect...

  10. Flow over an inline oscillating circular cylinder in the wake of a stationary circular cylinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Keqiang, E-mail: zhukeqiang@nbu.edu.cn [Faculty of Maritime and Transportation, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Flow interference between an upstream stationary cylinder and an inline oscillating cylinder is studied with the lattice Boltzmann method. With a fixed Reynolds number Re  = 100 and pitch ratio L / D  = 4, the effects of oscillation amplitude A / D  = [0.25, 1] and frequency f {sub e}/ f {sub s} = [0.5, 2] are investigated. The wake response state is categorized into lock-in and non-lock-in. The lock-in zone in the bifurcation diagram of amplitude versus frequency is discontinuous. Response states of upstream and downstream wakes are similar under the conditions of small amplitude or low frequency. However, with large oscillating parameters, the two wakes are prone to be in different states as the flow field becomes irregular. Two distinct flow regimes have been identified, i.e., single-cylinder and two-cylinder shedding regimes. The presence of single-cylinder shedding regime is attributed to the low shedding frequency of the downstream cylinder at large amplitude. Hydrodynamic forces of the oscillating tandem system are discussed. The results reveal that forces on the two cylinders behave differently and that the absence of vortices in the gap flow significantly reduces the forces exerting on the tandem system. (paper)

  11. Blood flow velocity in the Popliteal Vein using Transverse Oscillation Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechsgaard, Thor; Lindskov Hansen, Kristoffer; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm

    2016-01-01

    . Transverse Oscillation US (TOUS), a non-invasive angle independent method, has been implemented on a commercial scanner. TOUS’s advantage compared to SDUS is a more elaborate visualization of complex flow. The aim of this study was to evaluate, whether TOUS perform equal to SDUS for recording velocities...

  12. Self-oscillations of a two-dimensional shear flow with forcing and dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Zazueta, A.; Zavala Sansón, L.

    2018-04-01

    Two-dimensional shear flows continuously forced in the presence of dissipative effects are studied by means of numerical simulations. In contrast with most previous studies, the forcing is confined in a finite region, so the behavior of the system is characterized by the long-term evolution of the global kinetic energy. We consider regimes with 1 limited to develop only one vortical instability by choosing an appropriate width of the forcing band. The most relevant regime is found for Reλ > 36, in which the energy maintains a regular oscillation around a reference value. The flow configuration is an elliptical vortex tilted with respect to the forcing axis, which oscillates steadily also. Second, the flow is allowed to develop two Kelvin-Helmholtz billows and eventually more complicated structures. The regimes of the one-vortex case are observed again, except for Reλ > 135. At these values, the energy oscillates chaotically as the two vortices merge, form dipolar structures, and split again, with irregular periodicity. The self-oscillations are explained as a result of the alternate competition between forcing and dissipation, which is verified by calculating the budget terms in the energy equation. The relevance of the forcing-vs.-dissipation competition is discussed for more general flow systems.

  13. MHD free convection flow past an oscillating plate in the presence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of unsteady magnetohydrodynamic heat and mass transfer in MHD flow past an infinite vertical oscillating plate through porous medium, taking account of the presence of free convection and mass transfer. The energy and chemical species equations are solved in closed form by Laplace-transform technique and ...

  14. Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Large Scale Separated Flow around Oscillating Airfoil

    OpenAIRE

    Isogai, Koji; 磯貝, 紘二

    1991-01-01

    Numerical simulations of dynamic stall phenomenon of NACA0012 airfoil oscillating in pitch near static stalling angle are performed by using the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. In the present computations, a TVD scheme and an algebraic turbulence model are employed for the simulations of the unsteady separated flows at Reynolds number of 1.1x105. The hysteresis loops of the unsteady pitching moment during dynamic stall are compared with the existing experimental data. The flow pattern a...

  15. A simple stability criterion for CANDU figure-of-eight flow oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulshani, P.; Spinks, N.J.

    1983-01-01

    Potential flow oscillations in CANDU reactor primary heat transport system are analyzed in terms of a simple, linearized model. A simple, algebraic stability criterion is obtained. The model predictions are found to be in good agreement with those of thermohydraulic codes for high pressure natural circulation conditions. For normal operating conditions the criterion predicts the correct trend but overlooks important stabilizing effects. The model clarifies the instability mechanism; namely the response of enthalpy and, hence, pressure in the boiling region to flow change

  16. Transient director patterns upon flow start-up of nematic liquid crystals (an explanation for stress oscillation damping)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ternet, D.J.; Larson, R.G.; Leal, L.G.

    2001-01-01

    In this work we attempt to determine the origin of damped stress oscillations upon flow start-up of a nematic liquid crystalline monodomain. These damped stress oscillations were first observed by Gu et¿al. (1993) in the cone-plate flow cell and have since also been observed by Mather et¿al. (1997)

  17. Oscillating flow and heat transfer in a channel with sudden cross section change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mounir; Hashim, Waqar

    1993-01-01

    We have computationally examined oscillating flow (zero mean) between two parallel plates with a sudden change in cross section. The flow was assumed to be laminar incompressible with the inflow velocity uniform over the channel cross section but varying sinusoidally with time. The cases studied cover wide ranges of Re(sub max) (from 187.5 to 2000), Va (from 1 to 10.66), the expansion ratio (1:2 and 1:4) and A(sub r) (2 and 4). Also, three different geometric cases were discussed: (1) asymmetric expansion/contraction; (2) symmetric expansion/contraction; and (3) symmetric blunt body. For these oscillating flow conditions, the fluid undergoes sudden expansion in one-half of the cycle and sudden contraction inthe other half. The instantaneous friction factor, for some ranges of Re(sub max) and Va, deviated substantially from the steady-state friction factor for the same flow parameters. A region has been identified below which the flow is laminar quasi-steady. A videotape showing computer simulations of the oscillating flow demonstrates the usefulness of the current analyses in providing information on the transient hydraulic phenomena.

  18. A self-starting hybrid optoelectronic oscillator generating ultra low jitter 10-GHz optical pulses and low phase noise electrical signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasri, J.; Bilenca, A.; Dahan, D.

    2002-01-01

    In this letter, we describe a self-starting optical pulse source generating ultra low noise 15-ps-wide pulses at 10 GHz. It is based on a hybrid optoelectronic oscillator comprising a fiber extended cavity mode-locked diode laser which injection locks a self-oscillating heterojunction bipolar...

  19. Dynamic mode decomposition of turbulent cavity flows for self-sustained oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seena, Abu; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► DMD modes were extracted from two cavity flow data set at Re D = 12,000 and 3000. ► At Re D = 3000, frequencies of boundary layer and shear layer structures coincides. ► Boundary layer structures exceed in size with shear layer structures. ► At Re D = 12,000, structure showed coherence leading to self-sustained oscillations. ► Hydrodynamic resonance occurs if coherence exists in wavenumber and frequency. - Abstract: Self-sustained oscillations in a cavity arise due to the unsteady separation of boundary layers at the leading edge. The dynamic mode decomposition method was employed to analyze the self-sustained oscillations. Two cavity flow data sets, with or without self-sustained oscillations and possessing thin or thick incoming boundary layers (Re D = 12,000 and 3000), were analyzed. The ratios between the cavity depth and the momentum thickness (D/θ) were 40 and 4.5, respectively, and the cavity aspect ratio was L/D = 2. The dynamic modes extracted from the thick boundary layer indicated that the upcoming boundary layer structures and the shear layer structures along the cavity lip line coexisted with coincident frequency space but with different wavenumber space, whereas structures with a thin boundary layer showed complete coherence among the modes to produce self-sustained oscillations. This result suggests that the hydrodynamic resonances that gave rise to the self-sustained oscillations occurred if the upcoming boundary layer structures and the shear layer structures coincided, not only in frequencies, but also in wavenumbers. The influences of the cavity dimensions and incoming momentum thickness on the self-sustained oscillations were examined.

  20. Synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillation in periodically poled lithium niobate with 1-W average output power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graf, T.; McConnell, G.; Ferguson, A.I.; Bente, E.A.J.M.; Burns, D.; Dawson, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    We report on a rugged all-solid-state laser source of near-IR radiation in the range of 1461–1601 nm based on a high-power Nd:YVO4 laser that is mode locked by a semiconductor saturable Bragg reflector as the pump source of a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator with a periodically

  1. On oscillations of an elastically mounted plate in flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selyutskiy, Yury

    2018-05-01

    Study of aerodynamic flutter has a long history. Interest to this problem is stimulated by applications: on the one hand, the flutter effect should be eliminated in order to ensure durability of structures; on the other hand, this phenomenon can be used to harvest energy from the flow. In the present work, an aeroelastic system with two degrees of freedom (translational and rotational) is considered. Aerodynamic load is described using the quasi-steady approach. Dependence of the number of equilibrium positions and their stability on system parameters is discussed. Limit cycles arising in the system are studied numerically.

  2. Investigation of flow past a translatoric oscillating airfoil using detached eddy simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reck, Mads; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2003-01-01

    Wind turbine rotor blades in operation have been observed to undergo stall-induced lead-lag instabilities resulting in dramatic reduction of blade life, due to structural fatigue. Previous attempts to numerically simulate the flow past a translatoric oscillating airfoil have been few and feeble...... at the high angle of attacks often experienced by the individual rotor blade. The present paper covers simulation of a translatoric oscillating NACA 0015 airfoil at a Reynolds number of 555,000, corresponding to avialable experimental data, using the newly adopted Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) approach...

  3. Linear drag law for high-Reynolds-number flow past an oscillating body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agre, Natalie; Childress, Stephen; Zhang, Jun; Ristroph, Leif

    2016-07-01

    An object immersed in a fast flow typically experiences fluid forces that increase with the square of speed. Here we explore how this high-Reynolds-number force-speed relationship is affected by unsteady motions of a body. Experiments on disks that are driven to oscillate while progressing through air reveal two distinct regimes: a conventional quadratic relationship for slow oscillations and an anomalous scaling for fast flapping in which the time-averaged drag increases linearly with flow speed. In the linear regime, flow visualization shows that a pair of counterrotating vortices is shed with each oscillation and a model that views a train of such dipoles as a momentum jet reproduces the linearity. We also show that appropriate scaling variables collapse the experimental data from both regimes and for different oscillatory motions into a single drag-speed relationship. These results could provide insight into the aerodynamic resistance incurred by oscillating wings in flight and they suggest that vibrations can be an effective means to actively control the drag on an object.

  4. Analysis of resonance oscillation of the neutron flow in a BWR-core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, J.

    1987-09-01

    This is a thesis which has been made within the institution of automatic control in Lund. Two programs, 'Blackie' and 'Test' have been written in Fortran. These two programs are to be used for the evaluation of ASEA-ATOMs resonance test in different nuclear reactors. In these tests the condition of the reactor becomes more and more unstable because the coolant flow decreases at the same time as the power gradually increases. This leads to resonance in the neutron flow. This flow is measured by detectors placed in different parts of the reactor core. 'Blackie' receives and stores the values sampled by the detectors. The same program also carries out a Fourier analysis. Amplitudes and phase angles from the different oscillations are calculated. These results are then used as inputs for 'Test'. 'Test' is a plotting program. It draws the reactor and plots arrows where the detectors are situated. The size and direction of the arrows are measurements of the amplitudes and phase angles of the neutron flow oscillations. From these arrow diagrams you can come to conclusions about the oscillations in the neutron flow and how the affect the reactor. (author)

  5. Numerical analysis of the immersed boundary method applied to the flow around a forced oscillating cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, L C; Silvestrini, J H; Schettini, E B C

    2011-01-01

    In present paper, Navier-Stokes and Continuity equations for incompressible flow around an oscillating cylinder were numerically solved. Sixth order compact difference schemes were used to solve the spatial derivatives, while the time advance was carried out through second order Adams Bashforth accurate scheme. In order to represent the obstacle in the flow, the Immersed Boundary Method was adopted. In this method a force term is added to the Navier-Stokes equations representing the body. The simulations present results regarding the hydrodynamic coefficients and vortex wakes in agreement to experimental and numerical previous works and the physical lock-in phenomenon was identified. Comparing different methods to impose the IBM, it can be concluded that no alterations regarding the vortex shedding mode were observed. The Immersed Boundary Method techniques used here can represent the surface of an oscillating cylinder in the flow.

  6. Streaming flows produced by oscillating interface of magnetic fluid adsorbed on a permanent magnet in alternating magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, S.; Ito, M.; Ishimoto, Y.; Nix, S.

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes microstreaming flows generated by oscillating interface of magnetic fluid adsorbed on a circular cylindrical permanent magnet in alternating magnetic field. The interface of magnetic fluid adsorbed on the NdFeB magnet responds to the external alternating magnetic flied as harmonic oscillation. The directions of alternating magnetic field are parallel and antiparallel to the magnetic field of permanent magnet. The oscillation of magnetic fluid interface generates streaming flow around the magnet-magnetic fluid element in water. Microstreaming flows are observed with a high-speed video camera analysis system. The flow pattern generated by magnetic fluid motion depends on the Keulegan-Carpenter number and the Reynolds number.

  7. SELECTIVE MODAL ANALYSIS OF POWER FLOW OSCILLATION IN LARGE SCALE LONGITUDINAL POWER SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirindi -

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Novel selective modal analysis for the determination of low frequency power flow oscillation behaviour based on eigenvalues with corresponding damping ratio, cumulative damping index, and participation factors is proposed. The power system being investigated consists of three large longitudinally interconnected areas with some weak tie lines. Different modes, such as exciter modes, inter area modes, and local modes of the dominant poles are fully studied to find out the significant level of system damping and other factors producing power flow instability. The nature of the energy exchange between area is determined and strategic power flow stability improvement is developed and tested.

  8. Intensity Correlation Analysis on Blue-Violet FemtosecondPulses from a Dispersion-Compensated GaInN Mode-LockedSemiconductor Laser Diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Kono

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the spectral and temporal characteristics of blue-violetfemtosecond optical pulses generated by a passively mode-locked GaInN laser diode ina dispersion-compensated external cavity. The output optical pulses at 400 nm wereanalyzed in detail by intensity auto- and cross-correlation measurements using secondharmonic generation on the surface of a β-BaB2O4 crystal. The obtained results clarifiedwavelength-dependent chirp characteristics of the optical pulses. The analysis suggestedthat a large frequency shift due to saturation in the saturable absorber and gain sectionsplayed an important role in the generation of femtosecond optical pulses.

  9. Passive mode locking of an in-band-pumped Ho:YLiF4 laser at 2.06 μm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluccelli, Nicola; Lagatsky, Alexander; Di Lieto, Alberto; Tonelli, Mauro; Galzerano, Gianluca; Sibbett, Wilson; Laporta, Paolo

    2011-08-15

    We demonstrate the passive mode-locking operation of an in-band-pumped Ho:YLiF(4) laser at 2.06 μm using a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror based on InGaAsSb quantum wells. A transform-limited pulse train with minimum duration of 1.1 ps and average power of 0.58 W has been obtained at a repetition frequency of 122 MHz. A maximum output power of 1.7 W has been generated with a corresponding pulse duration of 1.9 ps. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  10. The simultaneous generation of soliton bunches and Q-switched-like pulses in a partially mode-locked fiber laser with a graphene saturable absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenhong; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Yan-ge; He, Ruijing; Wang, Guangdou; Yang, Guang; Han, Simeng

    2018-05-01

    We experimentally report the coexistence of soliton bunches and Q-switched-like pulses in a partially mode-locked fiber laser with a microfiber-based graphene saturable absorber. The soliton bunches, like isolated spikes with extreme amplitude and ultrashort duration, randomly generate in the background of the Q-switched-like pulses. The soliton bunches have some pulse envelopes in which pulses operate at a fundamental repetition rate in the temporal domain. Further investigation shows that the composite pulses are highly correlated with the noise-like pulses. Our work can make a further contribution to enrich the understanding of the nonlinear dynamics in fiber lasers.

  11. The effect of inlet flow oscillations on reflooding of a tubular test section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S.; Banerjee, S.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1983-01-01

    The reflooding of a vertical channel under oscillatory inlet flow conditions has been investigated experimentally. Compared to constant injection, oscillations always increase the liquid carryover in the early stages of reflooding. As reflooding progresses, the enhancement diminishes. The crossover point roughly coincides with saturation of the liquid at the quench front (QF). The higher liquid carryover at the beginning increases downstream heat transfer and speeds up QF propagation. But this higher liquid carryover, in turn, reduces the test section mass accumulation rate and delays QF propagation at later stages. The enhancement of liquid carryover, and the early increase and subsequent decrease in quench velocity are all accentuated as the oscillation amplitude and frequency increase. Large amplitude oscillations change the characteristics of QF propagation and the heat transfer immediately downstream of QF substantially. Correlations based on constant-injection reflooding data are not adequate, even if they are applied on an average local-conditions basis

  12. Curing critical links in oscillator networks as power flow models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohden, Martin; Meyer-Ortmanns, Hildegard; Witthaut, Dirk; Timme, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Modern societies crucially depend on the robust supply with electric energy so that blackouts of power grids can have far reaching consequences. Typically, large scale blackouts take place after a cascade of failures: the failure of a single infrastructure component, such as a critical transmission line, results in several subsequent failures that spread across large parts of the network. Improving the robustness of a network to prevent such secondary failures is thus key for assuring a reliable power supply. In this article we analyze the nonlocal rerouting of power flows after transmission line failures for a simplified AC power grid model and compare different strategies to improve network robustness. We identify critical links in the grid and compute alternative pathways to quantify the grid’s redundant capacity and to find bottlenecks along the pathways. Different strategies are developed and tested to increase transmission capacities to restore stability with respect to transmission line failures. We show that local and nonlocal strategies typically perform alike: one can equally well cure critical links by providing backup capacities locally or by extending the capacities of bottleneck links at remote locations. (paper)

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of flow-distributed oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Melanie M; Sederman, Andy J; Taylor, Annette F; Scott, Stephen K; Gladden, Lynn F

    2005-09-22

    The formation of stationary concentration patterns in a packed-bed reactor (PBR), using a manganese-catalyzed Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction in a mixed sulfuric-phosphoric acid medium, was studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The PBR was composed of a column filled with glass beads, which was fed by a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). As the reactor is optically opaque, investigation of the three-dimensional (3D) structure of these reaction-diffusion-advection waves is not possible using conventional image capture techniques. MRI has been used to probe this system and the formation, 3D structure, and development of these waves has been studied. At reactor startup, traveling waves were observed. After this initial period the waves stabilized and became stationary. Once fixed, they were found to be remarkably stable. There was significant heterogeneity of the reaction fronts, which were not flat, as would be expected from a plug-flow reactor. Instead, the reaction wave fronts were observed to be conical in shape due to the local hydrodynamics of the bed and specifically the higher velocities and therefore lower residence times close to the wall of the reactor.

  14. Grouping and trapping of evaporating droplets in an oscillating gas flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoshevski, David; Shakked, Tal; Sazhin, Sergei S.; Crua, Cyril; Heikal, Morgan R.

    2008-01-01

    A new approach to the analysis of droplet grouping in an oscillating gas flow is suggested. This is based on the investigation of droplet trajectories in the frame of reference moving with the phase velocity of the wave. Although the equations involved are relatively simple, the analysis shows distinctive characteristics of grouping and non-grouping cases. In the case of grouping, droplet trajectories converge to the points for which the ratio of flow velocity in this frame of reference and the amplitude of flow oscillations is less than 1, and the cosine of the arc sine of this ratio is positive. In the case of non-grouping, droplet trajectories in this frame of reference oscillate around the translational velocity close to the velocity of flow in the same frame of reference. The effect of droplet size on the grouping pattern is investigated. It has been pointed out that for the smaller droplets much more stable grouping is observed. The effect of droplet evaporation is studied in the limiting case when the contribution of the heat-up period can be ignored. It is shown that evaporation can lead to droplet grouping even in the case when the non-evaporating droplets are not grouped. This is related to the reduction in droplet diameter during the evaporation process. Coupling between gas and droplets is shown to decrease the grouping tendency. A qualitative agreement between predictions of the model and in-house experimental observations referring to Diesel engine sprays has been demonstrated

  15. Convective heat transfer in single-phase flow in a vertical tube subjected to axial low frequency oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendyala, Rajashekhar; Jayanti, Sreenivas; Balakrishnan, A.R. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Department of Chemical Engineering, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2008-05-15

    The effect of oscillations on the heat transfer in a vertical tube has been studied experimentally. A vertical tube was mounted on a plate and the whole plate was subjected to oscillations in the vertical plane using a mechanical oscillator to provide low frequency oscillations. A section of the tube in the middle is subjected to a constant heat flux. The effect of the oscillations on the heat transfer coefficient has been examined. It was found that the heat transfer coefficient increased with oscillations in the laminar regime. In turbulent flow regime (Re > 2,100) it is found that the effect of oscillations did not show any change. A correlation has been developed for enhancement of the local Nusselt number in terms of the effective acceleration and Reynolds number. Using this, an expression has been proposed to calculate the mean Nusselt number as a function of the tube length. (orig.)

  16. Application of the adaptive wavelet transform for analysis of blood flow oscillations in the human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tankanag, Arina; Chemeris, Nikolay

    2008-01-01

    An original method for the analysis of oscillations of cutaneous blood flow has been developed, which makes use of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) data and is based on the continuous wavelet transform and adaptive wavelet theory. The potential of the method has been demonstrated in experiments with the response of microcirculatory bed to the local linearly-increasing heating of a skin spot. The use of adaptive wavelet transform for analysis of peripheral blood flow oscillations enables one to process short (5 min) LDF signals in a wide frequency range (0.009-2 Hz). The major advantage of the method proposed, as compared to traditional wavelet analysis, has been shown to be a significant reduction of 'border effects'. This makes possible a correct low-frequency component analysis of much shorter LDF signals compared to those used in traditional wavelet processing.

  17. Phase-locked Josephson flux flow local oscillator for sub-mm integrated receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Jesper; Mahaini, C.; Dmitriev, P.

    2002-01-01

    The Josephson flux flow oscillator (FFO) has proven to be one of the best on-chip local oscillators for heterodyne detection in integrated sub-mm receivers based on SIS mixers. Nb-AlOx-Nb FFOs have been successfully tested from about 120 to 700 GHz (gap frequency of Nb) providing enough power...... to pump an SIS mixer (about 1 muW at 450 GHz). Both the frequency and the power of the FFO can be dc-tuned. Extensive measurements of the dependence of the free-running FFO linewidth on the differential resistances associated with both the bias current and the control-line current (applied magnetic field......) have been performed. The FFO line is Lorentzian both in the resonant regime, on Fiske steps (FSs), and on the flux flow step (FFS). This indicates that internal wide-band noise is dominant. A phenomenological noise model can account for the FFO linewidth dependence on experimental parameters...

  18. Transport and flow characteristics of an oscillating cylindrical fiber for total artificial lung application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Adnan; Bull, Joseph L

    2017-08-01

    Mass transport and fluid dynamics characteristics in the vicinity of an oscillating cylindrical fiber with an imposed pulsatile inflow condition are computationally investigated in the present study. The work is motivated by a recently proposed design modification to the Total Artificial Lung (TAL) device, which is expected to provide better gas exchange. Navier-Stokes computations, coupled with convection-diffusion equation are performed to assess flow dynamics and mass transport behavior around the oscillating fiber. The oscillations and the pulsatile free stream velocity are represented by two sinusoidal functions. The resulting non-dimensional parameters are Keulegan-Carpenter number (KC), Schmidt number (Sc), Reynolds number (Re), pulsatile inflow amplitude ([Formula: see text]), and amplitude of cylinder oscillation ([Formula: see text]). Results are computed for [Formula: see text], Sc = 1000, Re = 5 and 10, [Formula: see text] and 0.7 and 0.25 [Formula: see text][Formula: see text][Formula: see text] 5.25. The pulsatile inflow parameters correspond to the flow velocities found in human pulmonary artery while matching the operating TAL Reynolds number. Mass transport from the surface of the cylinder to the bulk fluid is found to be primarily dependent on the size of surface vortices created by the movement of the cylinder. Time-averaged surface Sherwood number (Sh) is dependent on the amplitude and KC of cylinder oscillation. Compared to the fixed cylinder case, a significant gain up to 380% in Sh is achieved by oscillating the cylinder even at the small displacement amplitude (AD = 0.75D). Moreover, with decrease in KC the oscillating cylinder exhibits a lower drag amplitude compared with the fixed cylinder case. Inflow pulsation amplitude has minor effects on the mass transport characteristics. However, an increase in [Formula: see text] results in an increase in the amplitude of the periodic drag force on the cylinder. This rise in the drag amplitude is

  19. Water flow patterns induced by bridge oscillation of magnetic fluid between two permanent magnets subjected to alternating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, Seiichi; Yamamoto, Kazuki; Ishimoto, Yukitaka; Nix, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of water flow induced by the bridge oscillation of magnetic fluid between two permanent magnets subject to an external alternating magnetic field. The magnetic fluid bridge is formed in the space between a pair of identical coaxial cylindrical permanent magnets submerged in water. The direction of alternating magnetic field is parallel /antiparallel to the magnetic field produced by two permanent magnets. The magnetic fluid bridge responds to the external alternating magnetic field with harmonic oscillation. The oscillation of magnetic fluid bridge generates water flow around the bridge. Water flow is visualized using a thin milk film at the container bottom. Water flows are observed with a high-speed video camera analysis system. The experimental results show that the flow pattern induced by the bridge oscillation depends on the Keulegan–Carpenter number.

  20. Water flow patterns induced by bridge oscillation of magnetic fluid between two permanent magnets subjected to alternating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, Seiichi, E-mail: sudo@akita-pu.ac.jp [Faculty of Systems Science and Technology, Akita Prefectural University, Ebinokuchi 84-4, Yurihonjo 015-0055 (Japan); Yamamoto, Kazuki [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ishimoto, Yukitaka; Nix, Stephanie [Faculty of Systems Science and Technology, Akita Prefectural University, Ebinokuchi 84-4, Yurihonjo 015-0055 (Japan)

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of water flow induced by the bridge oscillation of magnetic fluid between two permanent magnets subject to an external alternating magnetic field. The magnetic fluid bridge is formed in the space between a pair of identical coaxial cylindrical permanent magnets submerged in water. The direction of alternating magnetic field is parallel /antiparallel to the magnetic field produced by two permanent magnets. The magnetic fluid bridge responds to the external alternating magnetic field with harmonic oscillation. The oscillation of magnetic fluid bridge generates water flow around the bridge. Water flow is visualized using a thin milk film at the container bottom. Water flows are observed with a high-speed video camera analysis system. The experimental results show that the flow pattern induced by the bridge oscillation depends on the Keulegan–Carpenter number.

  1. Mode-locking peculiarities in an all-fiber erbium-doped ring ultrashort pulse laser with a highly-nonlinear resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoretskiy, Dmitriy A.; Sazonkin, Stanislav G.; Kudelin, Igor S.; Orekhov, Ilya O.; Pnev, Alexey B.; Karasik, Valeriy E.; Denisov, Lev K.

    2017-12-01

    Today ultrashort pulse (USP) fiber lasers are in great demand in a frequency metrology field, THz pulse spectroscopy, optical communication, quantum optics application, etc. Therefore mode-locked (ML) fiber lasers have been extensively investigated over the last decade due the number of scientific, medical and industrial applications. It should be noted, that USP fiber lasers can be treated as an ideal platform to expand future applications due to the complex ML nonlinear dynamics in a laser resonator. Up to now a series of novel ML regimes have been investigated e.g. self-similar pulses, noise-like pulses, multi-bound solitons and soliton rain generation. Recently, we have used a highly nonlinear germanosilicate fiber (with germanium oxides concentration in the core 50 mol. %) inside the resonator for more reliable and robust launching of passive mode-locking based on the nonlinear polarization evolution effect in fibers. In this work we have measured promising and stable ML regimes such as stretched pulses, soliton rain and multi-bound solitons formed in a highly-nonlinear ring laser and obtained by intracavity group velocity dispersion (GVD) variation in slightly negative region. As a result, we have obtained the low noise ultrashort pulse generation with duration 59 dB) and relative intensity noise <-101 dBc / Hz.

  2. Mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on PbS/CdS core/shell quantum dots as saturable absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Na; Tao, Shina; Yang, Wenqing; Chen, Qingyun; Sun, Ruyi; Wang, Chang; Wang, Shuyun; Man, Baoyuan; Zhang, Huanian

    2018-04-02

    Previously, PbS/CdS core/shell quantum dots with excellent optical properties have been widely used as light-harvesting materials in solar cell and biomarkers in bio-medicine. However, the nonlinear absorption characteristics of PbS/CdS core/shell quantum dots have been rarely investigated. In this work, PbS/CdS core/shell quantum dots were successfully employed as nonlinear saturable absorber (SA) for demonstrating a mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser. Based on a film-type SA, which was prepared by incorporating the quantum dots with the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), mode-locked Er-doped operation with a pulse width of 54 ps and a maximum average output power of 2.71 mW at the repetition rate of 3.302 MHz was obtained. Our long-time stable results indicate that the CdS shell can effectively protect the PbS core from the effect of photo-oxidation and PbS/CdS core/shell quantum dots were efficient SA candidates for demonstrating pulse fiber lasers due to its tunable absorption peak and excellent saturable absorption properties.

  3. Design optimization of a compact photonic crystal microcavity based on slow light and dispersion engineering for the miniaturization of integrated mode-locked lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Kemiche

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We exploit slow light (high ng modes in planar photonic crystals in order to design a compact cavity, which provides an attractive path towards the miniaturization of near-infrared integrated fast pulsed lasers. By applying dispersion engineering techniques, we can design structures with a low dispersion, as needed by mode-locking operation. Our basic InP SiO2 heterostructure is robust and well suited to integrated laser applications. We show that an optimized 30 μm long cavity design yields 9 frequency-equidistant modes with a FSR of 178 GHz within a 11.5 nm bandwidth, which could potentially sustain the generation of optical pulses shorter than 700 fs. In addition, the numerically calculated quality factors of these modes are all above 10,000, making them suitable for reaching laser operation. Thanks to the use of a high group index (28, this cavity design is almost one order of magnitude shorter than standard rib-waveguide based mode-locked lasers. The use of slow light modes in planar photonic crystal based cavities thus relaxes the usual constraints that tightly link the device size and the quality (peak power, repetition rate of the pulsed laser signal.

  4. Design optimization of a compact photonic crystal microcavity based on slow light and dispersion engineering for the miniaturization of integrated mode-locked lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemiche, Malik; Lhuillier, Jérémy; Callard, Ségolène; Monat, Christelle

    2018-01-01

    We exploit slow light (high ng) modes in planar photonic crystals in order to design a compact cavity, which provides an attractive path towards the miniaturization of near-infrared integrated fast pulsed lasers. By applying dispersion engineering techniques, we can design structures with a low dispersion, as needed by mode-locking operation. Our basic InP SiO2 heterostructure is robust and well suited to integrated laser applications. We show that an optimized 30 μm long cavity design yields 9 frequency-equidistant modes with a FSR of 178 GHz within a 11.5 nm bandwidth, which could potentially sustain the generation of optical pulses shorter than 700 fs. In addition, the numerically calculated quality factors of these modes are all above 10,000, making them suitable for reaching laser operation. Thanks to the use of a high group index (28), this cavity design is almost one order of magnitude shorter than standard rib-waveguide based mode-locked lasers. The use of slow light modes in planar photonic crystal based cavities thus relaxes the usual constraints that tightly link the device size and the quality (peak power, repetition rate) of the pulsed laser signal.

  5. Influence of different approaches for dynamical performance optimization of monolithic passive colliding-pulse mode-locked laser diodes emitting around 850 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prziwarka, T.; Klehr, A.; Wenzel, H.; Fricke, J.; Bugge, F.; Weyers, M.; Knigge, A.; Tränkle, G.

    2018-02-01

    Monolithic laser diodes which generate short infrared pulses in the picosecond and sub-picosecond ranges with high peak power are ideal sources for many applications like e.g. THz-time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) scanning systems. The achievable THz bandwidth is limited by the length of the optical pulses. Due to the fact that colliding-pulse mode locking (CPM) leads to the shortest pulses which could reached by passive mode locking, we experimentally investigated in detail the dynamical and electro optical performance of InGaAsP based quantum well CPM laser diodes with well-established vertical layer structures. Simple design modifications whose implementation is technically easy were realized. Improvements of the device performance in terms of pulse duration, output power, and noise properties are presented in dependence on the different adaptions. From the results we extract an optimized configuration with which we have reached pulses with durations of ≍1.5 ps, a peak power of > 1 W and a pulse-to-pulse timing jitter < 200 fs. The laser diodes emit pulses at a wavelength around 850 nm with a repetition frequency of ≍ 12.4 GHz and could be used as pump source for GaAs antennas to generate THz-radiation. Approaches for reducing pulse width, increasing output power, and improving noise performance are described.

  6. Gravitational Resonance Spectroscopy with an Oscillating Magnetic Field Gradient in the GRANIT Flow through Arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebreyend, D.; Pignol, G.; Baeßler, S.; Nesvizhevsky, V. V.; Protasov, K.; Voronin, A.

    2014-01-01

    Gravitational resonance spectroscopy consists in measuring the energy spectrum of bouncing ultracold neutrons above a mirror by inducing resonant transitions between different discrete quantum levels. We discuss how to induce the resonances with a flow through arrangement in the GRANIT spectrometer, excited by an oscillating magnetic field gradient. The spectroscopy could be realized in two distinct modes (so called DC and AC) using the same device to produce the magnetic excitation. We present calculations demonstrating the feasibility of the newly proposed AC mode

  7. Analysis of thin film flow over a vertical oscillating belt with a second grade fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taza Gul

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An analysis is performed to study the unsteady thin film flow of a second grade fluid over a vertical oscillating belt. The governing equation for velocity field with appropriate boundary conditions is solved analytically using Adomian decomposition method (ADM. Expressions for velocity field have been obtained. Optimal asymptotic method (OHAM has also been used for comparison. The effects of Stocks number, frequency parameter and pressure gradient parameters have been sketched graphically and discussed.

  8. Investigation on flow oscillation modes and aero-acoustics generation mechanism in cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dang-Guo; Lu, Bo; Cai, Jin-Sheng; Wu, Jun-Qiang; Qu, Kun; Liu, Jun

    2018-05-01

    Unsteady flow and multi-scale vortex transformation inside a cavity of L/D = 6 (ratio of length to depth) at Ma = 0.9 and 1.5 were studied using the numerical simulation method of modified delayed detached eddy simulation (DDES) in this paper. Aero-acoustic characteristics for the cavity at same flow conditions were obtained by the numerical method and 0.6 m by 0.6 m transonic and supersonic wind-tunnel experiments. The analysis on the computational and experimental results indicates that some vortex generates from flow separation in shear-layer over the cavity, and the vortex moves from forward to downward of the cavity at some velocity, and impingement of the vortex and the rear-wall of the cavity occurs. Some sound waves spread abroad to the cavity fore-wall, which induces some new vortex generation, and the vortex sheds, moves and impinges on the cavity rear-wall. New sound waves occur. The research results indicate that sound wave feedback created by the impingement of the shedding-vortices and rear cavity face leads to flow oscillations and noise generation inside the cavity. Analysis on aero-acoustic characteristics inside the cavity is feasible. The simulated self-sustained flow-oscillation modes and peak sound pressure on typical frequencies inside the cavity agree well with Rossiter’s and Heller’s predicated results. Moreover, the peak sound pressure occurs in the first and second flow-oscillation modes and most of sound energy focuses on the low-frequency region. Compared with subsonic speed (Ma = 0.9), aerodynamic noise is more intense at Ma = 1.5, which is induced by compression wave or shock wave in near region of fore and rear cavity face.

  9. Unsteady thin film flow of a fourth grade fluid over a vertical moving and oscillating belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taza Gul

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the unsteady thin film flow of a fourth grade fluid over a moving and oscillating vertical belt. The problem is modeled in terms of non-nonlinear partial differential equations with some physical conditions. Both problems of lift and drainage are studied. Two different techniques namely the adomian decomposition method (ADM and the optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM are used for finding the analytical solutions. These solutions are compared and found in excellent agreement. For the physical analysis of the problem, graphical results are provided and discussed for various embedded flow parameters.

  10. Development of a model to predict flow oscillations in low-flow sodium boiling. [Loss-of-Piping Integrity accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, A.E.; Griffith, P.

    1980-04-01

    Tests performed in a small scale water loop showed that voiding oscillations, similar to those observed in sodium, were present in water, as well. An analytical model, appropriate for either sodium or water, was developed and used to describe the water flow behavior. The experimental results indicate that water can be successfully employed as a sodium simulant, and further, that the condensation heat transfer coefficient varies significantly during the growth and collapse of vapor slugs during oscillations. It is this variation, combined with the temperature profile of the unheated zone above the heat source, which determines the oscillatory behavior of the system. The analytical program has produced a model which qualitatively does a good job in predicting the flow behavior in the wake experiment. The amplitude discrepancies are attributable to experimental uncertainties and model inadequacies. Several parameters (heat transfer coefficient, unheated zone temperature profile, mixing between hot and cold fluids during oscillations) are set by the user. Criteria for the comparison of water and sodium experiments have been developed.

  11. Selection of flow-distributed oscillation and Turing patterns by boundary forcing in a linearly growing, oscillating medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez, David G; McGraw, Patrick; Muñuzuri, Alberto P; Menzinger, Michael

    2009-08-01

    We studied the response of a linearly growing domain of the oscillatory chemical chlorine dioxide-iodide-malonic acid (CDIMA) medium to periodic forcing at its growth boundary. The medium is Hopf-, as well as Turing-unstable and the system is convectively unstable. The results confirm numerical predictions that two distinct modes of pattern can be excited by controlling the driving frequency at the boundary, a flow-distributed-oscillation (FDO) mode of traveling waves at low values of the forcing frequency f , and a mode of stationary Turing patterns at high values of f . The wavelengths and phase velocities of the experimental patterns were compared quantitatively with results from dynamical simulations and with predictions from linear dispersion relations. The results for the FDO waves agreed well with these predictions, and obeyed the kinematic relations expected for phase waves with frequencies selected by the boundary driving frequency. Turing patterns were also generated within the predicted range of forcing frequencies, but these developed into two-dimensional structures which are not fully accounted for by the one-dimensional numerical and analytical models. The Turing patterns excited by boundary forcing persist when the forcing is removed, demonstrating the bistability of the unforced, constant size medium. Dynamical simulations at perturbation frequencies other than those of the experiments showed that in certain ranges of forcing frequency, FDO waves become unstable, breaking up into harmonic waves of different frequency and wavelength and phase velocity.

  12. Numerical study of the air-flow in an oscillating water column wave energy converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paixao Conde, J.M. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, New University of Lisbon, Monte de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Gato, L.M.C. [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2008-12-15

    The paper presents a numerical study of the air-flow in a typical pneumatic chamber geometry of an oscillating water column (OWC)-type wave energy converter (WEC), equipped with two vertical-axis air turbines, asymmetrically placed on the top of the chamber. Outwards and inwards, steady and periodic, air-flow calculations were performed to investigate the flow distribution at the turbines' inlet sections, as well as the properties of the air-jet impinging on the water free-surface. The original design of the OWC chamber is likely to be harmful for the operation of the turbines due to the possible air-jet-produced water-spray at the water free-surface subsequently ingested by the turbine. A geometry modification of the air chamber, using a horizontal baffle-plate to deflect the air from the turbines, is proposed and proved to be very effective in reducing the risk of water-spray production from the inwards flow. The flow distribution at the turbines' inlet sections for the outwards flow was found to be fairly uniform for the geometries considered, providing good inlet flow conditions for the turbines. Steady flow was found to be an acceptable model to study the air-flow inside the pneumatic chamber of an OWC-WEC. (author)

  13. Large amplitude oscillation of a boiling bubble growing at a wall in stagnation flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geld, C.W.M. van der; Berg, R. van de; Peukert, P.

    2009-01-01

    A boiling bubble is created on an artificial site that is part of a bubble generator that is mounted at the center of a pipe. Downflow of water impinges on the bubble generator and creates a stagnation flow above the artificial cavity. Stable axisymmetric elongation in the direction away from the wall and multiple shape oscillation cycles are observed. The time of growth and attachment is typically of the order of 250 ms. Amongst the length scales that characterize the bubble shape is the radius of curvature of the upper part of the bubble, R. The period of oscillation, T, is strongly dependent on time, as is R. The parameters C and m in the defining equation T = C R m √(ρL/σ) have been determined by fitting to data of more than 100 bubbles. For each operating condition, the same values of C and m have been found. The value of m is 1.49 ± 0.02, which is explained from the continuous growth of the bubble and from the relation to the period of oscillation of a free bubble deforming in the fundamental mode corresponding to the third Legendre Polynomial. For the latter, R is the radius of the volume-equivalent sphere, R 0 , and C is √12, while for attached boiling bubbles C is found to amount 1.9√12. The difference is easily explained from the continuous growth, difference in definition, finite amplitude oscillation and proximity of the wall. (author)

  14. Determination of the amplitude and phase relationships between oscillations in skin temperature and photoplethysmography-measured blood flow in fingertips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagaidachnyi, A A; Skripal, A V; Fomin, A V; Usanov, D A

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that skin temperature oscillations in fingertips coexist with blood flow oscillations and there is a certain correlation between them. At the same time, the reasons for differences in waveform and the delay between the blood flow and temperature oscillations are far from being fully understood. In this study we determine the relationships between spectral components of the blood flow and temperature oscillations in fingertips, and we ascertain the frequency dependences of amplitude attenuation and delay time for the temperature oscillations. The blood flow oscillations were considered as a source of thermal waves propagating from micro-vessels towards the skin surface and manifesting as temperature oscillations. The finger temperature was measured by infrared thermography and blood flow was assessed by photoplethysmography for ten healthy subjects. The time–frequency analysis of oscillations was based on the Morlet wavelet transform. The frequency dependences of delay time and amplitude attenuation in temperature compared with blood flow oscillations have been determined in endothelial (0.005–0.02 Hz) and neurogenic (0.02–0.05 Hz) frequency bands using the wavelet spectra. We approximated the experimental frequency dependences by equations describing thermal wave propagation through the medium and taking into account the thermal properties and thickness of a tissue. Results of analysis show that with the increase of frequency f the delay time of temperature oscillations decreases inversely proportional to f 1/2 , and the attenuation of the amplitude increases directly proportional to exp f 1/2 . Using these relationships allows us to increase correlation between the processed temperature oscillations and blood flow oscillations from 0.2 to 0.7 within the frequency interval 0.005–0.05 Hz. The established experimental and theoretical relationships clarify an understanding of interrelation between the dynamics of blood flow and skin

  15. Diode-pumped passively mode-locked composite crystal Nd:Lu0.15Y0.85VO4 laser at 1342.2 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Wenchao; Zhao, Shengzhi; Li, Guiqiu; Yang, Kejian; Li, Tao; Zhao, Jia; Zhao, Bin

    2015-01-01

    A diode-pumped mode-locked Nd:Lu 0.15 Y 0.85 VO 4 laser running at 1342.2 nm is firstly demonstrated with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM). Stable mode-locking pulses with the pulse-duration of 15.2 ps and the repetition rate of 32.8 MHz have been achieved. With a pumping power of 7.1 W, an output power of 786 mW was obtained, corresponding to an optical conversion efficiency of 11%. A maximum mode-locked pulse energy was estimated to be 23.96 nJ with a peak power of 1.58 kW. (paper)

  16. Switching between the mode-locking and Q-switching modes in two-section QW lasers upon a change in the absorber properties due to the Stark effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadzhiyev, I. M., E-mail: idris.intop@mail.ru; Buyalo, M. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Gubenko, A. E. [Innolume GmbH (Germany); Egorov, A. Yu.; Usikova, A. A.; Il’inskaya, N. D.; Lyutetskiy, A. V.; Zadiranov, Yu. M.; Portnoi, E. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    The passive Q-switching and mode-locking modes are implemented in two-section lasers with three quantum wells. It is demonstrated that raising the reverse bias on the absorbing section changes its spectral and dynamic properties and, accordingly, leads to a change from the Q-switching mode to mode-locking. The pulse-repetition frequency in the mode-locking mode is 75 GHz, with the product of the pulse duration by the spectrum bandwidth being 0.49, which is close to the theoretical limit. It is shown that, in structures with three quantum wells, strong absorption at the lasing wavelength gives rise to a photocurrent across a section of the saturable absorber, which is sufficient for compensation of the applied bias.

  17. Switching between the mode-locking and Q-switching modes in two-section QW lasers upon a change in the absorber properties due to the Stark effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadzhiyev, I. M.; Buyalo, M. S.; Gubenko, A. E.; Egorov, A. Yu.; Usikova, A. A.; Il’inskaya, N. D.; Lyutetskiy, A. V.; Zadiranov, Yu. M.; Portnoi, E. L.

    2016-01-01

    The passive Q-switching and mode-locking modes are implemented in two-section lasers with three quantum wells. It is demonstrated that raising the reverse bias on the absorbing section changes its spectral and dynamic properties and, accordingly, leads to a change from the Q-switching mode to mode-locking. The pulse-repetition frequency in the mode-locking mode is 75 GHz, with the product of the pulse duration by the spectrum bandwidth being 0.49, which is close to the theoretical limit. It is shown that, in structures with three quantum wells, strong absorption at the lasing wavelength gives rise to a photocurrent across a section of the saturable absorber, which is sufficient for compensation of the applied bias.

  18. Effect of beam expansion loss in a carbon nanotube-doped PVA film on passively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber lasers with different feedback ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Kuang-Nan; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Cheng, Chih-Hsien; Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Lo, Jui-Yung; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2014-01-01

    The effect of beam expansion induced divergent loss in a single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) doped polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) based ultrafast saturable absorber (SA) film thickness on the passive mode-locking (PML) performances of erbium-doped fiber lasers are demonstrated. The variation on the PML pulsewidth of the EDFL is discussed by changing the SWCNT-PVA SA film thicknesses, together with adjusting the pumping power and the intra-cavity feedback ratio. An almost 6 dB increment of divergent loss when enlarging the SWCNT-PVA based SA film thickness from 30–130 µm is observed. When shrinking the SA thickness to 30 µm at the largest pumping power of 52.5 mW, the optical spectrum red-shifts to 1558.8 nm with its 3 dB spectral linewidth broadening up to 2.7 nm, while the pulse has already entered the soliton regime with multi-order Kelly sidebands aside the spectral shoulder. The soliton pulsewidth is as short as 790 fs, which is much shorter than those obtained with other thicker SWCNT doped PVA polymer film based SAs; therefore, the peak power from the output of the PML-EDFL is significantly enlarged accompanied by a completely suppressed residual continuous-wave level to achieve the largest on/off extinction ratio. The main mechanism of pulse shortening with reducing thickness of SWCNT doped PVA polymer film based SA is attributed to the limited beam expansion as well as the enlarged modulation depth, which results in shortened soliton pulsewidth with a clean dc background, and broadened spectrum with enriched Kelly sidebands. The increase of total SWCNT amount in the thicker SA inevitably causes a higher linear absorption; hence, the mode-locking threshold also rises accordingly. By enlarging pumping power from 38.5–52.5 mW, the highest ascent on pulse extinction of up to 32 dB is observed among all kinds of feedback conditions. Nevertheless, the enlargement on the extinction slightly decays with increasing the feedback ratio from 30–90

  19. Externally Phase-Locked Flux Flow Oscillator for Submm Integrated Receivers; Achievements and Limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V. P.; Shitov, S. V.; Dmitriev, P. N.

    2003-01-01

    A Josephson Flux Flow Oscillator (FFO) is the most developed superconducting local oscillator for integration with an SIS mixer in a single-chip submm-wave receiver. Recently, using a new FFO design, a free-running linewidth less than or equal to10 MHz has been measured in the frequency range up...... to 712 GHz, limited only by the gap frequency of Nb. This enabled us to phase lock the FFO in the frequency range 500-712 GHz where continuous frequency tuning is possible; resulting in an absolute FFO phase noise as low as -80 dBc at 707 GHz. Comprehensive measurements of the FFO radiation linewidth...... have been performed using an integrated SIS harmonic mixer. The influence of FFO parameters on radiation linewidth, particularly the effect of the differential resistances associated both with the bias current and the applied magnetic field has been studied in order to further optimize the FFO design...

  20. Oscillations of the fluid flow and the free surface in a cavity with a submerged bifurcated nozzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalter, R.; Tummers, M.J.; Kenjereš, S.; Righolt, B.W.; Kleijn, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Self-sustained oscillations in a thin cavity with submerged nozzle were observed. • Three flow regimes are detected depending on nozzle depth and inlet velocity. • The three flow regimes have been summarized in a flow regime map. • PIV measurements are performed to link free surface behavior to the bulk-flow. • We report a close correlation between jet-behavior and free surface dynamics. -- Abstract: The free surface dynamics and sub-surface flow behavior in a thin (height and width much larger than thickness), liquid filled, rectangular cavity with a submerged bifurcated nozzle were investigated using free surface visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV). Three regimes in the free surface behavior were identified, depending on nozzle depth and inlet velocity. For small nozzle depths, an irregular free surface is observed without clear periodicities. For intermediate nozzle depths and sufficiently high inlet velocities, natural mode oscillations consistent with gravity waves are present, while at large nozzle depths long term self-sustained asymmetric oscillations occur. For the latter case, time-resolved PIV measurements of the flow below the free surface indicated a strong oscillation of the direction with which each of the two jets issue from the nozzle. The frequency of the jet oscillation is identical to the free surface oscillation frequency. The two jets oscillate in anti-phase, causing the asymmetric free surface oscillation. The jets interact through a cross-flow in the gaps between the inlet channel and the front and back walls of the cavity

  1. Gigahertz repetition rate, sub-femtosecond timing jitter optical pulse train directly generated from a mode-locked Yb:KYW laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Heewon; Kim, Hyoji; Shin, Junho; Kim, Chur; Choi, Sun Young; Kim, Guang-Hoon; Rotermund, Fabian; Kim, Jungwon

    2014-01-01

    We show that a 1.13 GHz repetition rate optical pulse train with 0.70 fs high-frequency timing jitter (integration bandwidth of 17.5 kHz-10 MHz, where the measurement instrument-limited noise floor contributes 0.41 fs in 10 MHz bandwidth) can be directly generated from a free-running, single-mode diode-pumped Yb:KYW laser mode-locked by single-wall carbon nanotube-coated mirrors. To our knowledge, this is the lowest-timing-jitter optical pulse train with gigahertz repetition rate ever measured. If this pulse train is used for direct sampling of 565 MHz signals (Nyquist frequency of the pulse train), the jitter level demonstrated would correspond to the projected effective-number-of-bit of 17.8, which is much higher than the thermal noise limit of 50 Ω load resistance (~14 bits).

  2. High-resolution retinal swept source optical coherence tomography with an ultra-wideband Fourier-domain mode-locked laser at MHz A-scan rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Jan Philip; Pfeiffer, Tom; Eibl, Matthias; Hakert, Hubertus; Huber, Robert

    2018-01-01

    We present a new 1060 nm Fourier domain mode locked laser (FDML laser) with a record 143 nm sweep bandwidth at 2∙ 417 kHz  =  834 kHz and 120 nm at 1.67 MHz, respectively. We show that not only the bandwidth alone, but also the shape of the spectrum is critical for the resulting axial resolution, because of the specific wavelength-dependent absorption of the vitreous. The theoretical limit of our setup lies at 5.9 µm axial resolution. In vivo MHz-OCT imaging of human retina is performed and the image quality is compared to the previous results acquired with 70 nm sweep range, as well as to existing spectral domain OCT data with 2.1 µm axial resolution from literature. We identify benefits of the higher resolution, for example the improved visualization of small blood vessels in the retina besides several others.

  3. Comparison of Monolithic Optical Frequency Comb Generators Based on Passively Mode-Locked Lasers for Continuous Wave mm-Wave and Sub-THz Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Criado, A. R.; de Dios, C.; Acedo, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, two different Passive Mode-Locked Laser Diodes (PMLLD) structures, a Fabry–Perot cavity and a ring cavity laser are characterized and evaluated as monolithic Optical Frequency Comb Generators (OFCG) for CW sub-THz generation. An extensive characterization of the devices under study...... is carried out based on an automated measurement system that systematically evaluates the dynamic characteristics of the devices, focusing on the figures of merit that define the optimum performance of a pulsed laser source when considered as an OFCG. Sub-THz signals generated with both devices at 60 GHz...... topologies that can be used for the implementation of photonic integrated sub-THz CW generation....

  4. Transfer-free synthesis of multilayer graphene using a single-step process in an evaporator and formation confirmation by laser mode-locking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won-Jun; Debnath, Pulak C; Song, Yong-Won; Lee, Junsu; Lee, Ju Han; Lim, Dae-Soon

    2013-01-01

    Multilayer graphene is synthesized by a simplified process employing an evaporator in which a target substrate is deposited with a Ni catalyst layer before being heated to grow graphene directly. Carbon atoms adsorbed onto the surface of the Ni source as impurities from the atmosphere are incorporated into the catalyst layer during the deposition, and diffuse toward the catalyst/substrate interface, where they crystallize as graphene with a thickness of less than 2 nm. The need for a transfer process and external carbon supply is eliminated. The graphene is characterized by conventional analysis approaches, including nano-scale visualization and Raman spectroscopy, and utilizing photonics, graphene-functionalized passive laser mode-locking is demonstrated to confirm the successful synthesis of the graphene layer, resulting in an operating center wavelength of 1569.4 nm, a pulse duration of 1.35 ps, and a repetition rate of 31.6 MHz. (paper)

  5. Uniform spacing interrogation of a Fourier domain mode-locked fiber Bragg grating sensor system using a polarization-maintaining fiber Sagnac interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwi Don; Jung, Eun Joo; Jeong, Myung Yung; Chen, Zhongping; Kim, Chang-Seok

    2014-01-01

    A novel linearized interrogation method is presented for a Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor system. In a high speed regime over several tens of kHz modulations, a sinusoidal wave is available to scan the center wavelength of an FDML wavelength-swept laser, instead of a conventional triangular wave. However, sinusoidal wave modulation suffers from an exaggerated non-uniform wavelength-spacing response in demodulating the time-encoded parameter to the absolute wavelength. In this work, the calibration signal from a polarization-maintaining fiber Sagnac interferometer shares the FDML wavelength-swept laser for FBG sensors to convert the time-encoded FBG signal to the wavelength-encoded uniform-spacing signal. PMID:24489440

  6. Transfer of an exfoliated monolayer graphene flake onto an optical fiber end face for erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Henrique Guimaraes; De Souza, Eunézio A Thoroh; Gomes, José Carlos Viana

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents, for the first time, the successful transfer of exfoliated monolayer graphene flake to the optical fiber end face and alignment to its core. By fabricating and optimizing a polymeric poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) substrate, it is possible to obtain a contrast of up to 11% for green light illumination, allowing the identification of monolayer graphene flakes that were transferred to optical fiber samples and aligned to its core. With Raman spectroscopy, it is demonstrated that graphene flake completely covers the optical fiber core, and its quality remains unaltered after the transfer. The generation of mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser pulses, with a duration of 672 fs, with a single-monolayer graphene flake as a saturable absorber, is demonstrated for the first time. This transfer technique is of general applicability and can be used for other two-dimensional (2D) exfoliated materials. (letter)

  7. Uniform spacing interrogation of a Fourier domain mode-locked fiber Bragg grating sensor system using a polarization-maintaining fiber Sagnac interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwi Don; Jeong, Myung Yung; Chen, Zhongping; Kim, Chang-Seok; Jung, Eun Joo

    2013-01-01

    A novel linearized interrogation method is presented for a Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor system. In a high speed regime over several tens of kHz modulations, a sinusoidal wave is available to scan the center wavelength of an FDML wavelength-swept laser, instead of a conventional triangular wave. However, sinusoidal wave modulation suffers from an exaggerated non-uniform wavelength-spacing response in demodulating the time-encoded parameter to the absolute wavelength. In this work, the calibration signal from a polarization-maintaining fiber Sagnac interferometer shares the FDML wavelength-swept laser for FBG sensors to convert the time-encoded FBG signal to the wavelength-encoded uniform-spacing signal. (paper)

  8. Uniform spacing interrogation of a Fourier domain mode-locked fiber Bragg grating sensor system using a polarization-maintaining fiber Sagnac interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwi Don; Jung, Eun Joo; Jeong, Myung Yung; Chen, Zhongping; Kim, Chang-Seok

    2013-06-01

    A novel linearized interrogation method is presented for a Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor system. In a high speed regime over several tens of kHz modulations, a sinusoidal wave is available to scan the center wavelength of an FDML wavelength-swept laser, instead of a conventional triangular wave. However, sinusoidal wave modulation suffers from an exaggerated non-uniform wavelength-spacing response in demodulating the time-encoded parameter to the absolute wavelength. In this work, the calibration signal from a polarization-maintaining fiber Sagnac interferometer shares the FDML wavelength-swept laser for FBG sensors to convert the time-encoded FBG signal to the wavelength-encoded uniform-spacing signal.

  9. Heat transfer in a laminar separation bubble affected by oscillating external flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissink, J.G.; Michelassi, V.; Rodi, W.

    2004-01-01

    A three-dimensional Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of passive heat transfer in a Laminar Separation Bubble (LSB) over a flat plate affected by oscillating external flow is presented. The oscillation imposes a periodicity which is employed for phase-averaging. The flat plate is kept at a uniform, low temperature. The local Nusselt number, Nu, is determined as a function of phase. In the dead-air region of the bubble Nu is found to be relatively small, while it peaks in the recirculation region where hot outer fluid gets entrained and is transported towards the flat plate. Each period a new separation bubble is formed, that merges with the old separation bubble. The reverse flow inside the separation bubble reaches values of up to 60% of the local free-stream velocity, which is sufficient to make the separation bubble absolutely unstable such that self-sustained turbulence can exist. For the phase-averaged flow, neither the turbulent viscosity hypothesis nor the temperature gradient-diffusion hypothesis is found to hold

  10. Vasomotion of renal blood flow in essential hypertension. Oscillations in xenon transit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, N.K.; Sandor, T.

    1984-01-01

    To assess the frequency and magnitude of phasic renal blood flow changes in essential hypertension, we applied an analytical method based on the estimation of power spectral density to xenon transit through the kidney. Despite similar age and gender distribution of the patients and exclusion of those with accelerated hypertension, mean renal blood flow was significantly lower in 100 patients with essential hypertension (299 +/- 8 ml/100 g/min) than in the 144 normal subjects (335 +/- 6 ml/100 g/min; p less than 0.001). Normalized power, the index of oscillatory behavior, was more than twice normal in patients with essential hypertension (p less than 0.001), but there was no difference in the frequency or cycle length of the oscillation. Two maneuvers that induced renal vasoconstriction, the application of cuffs to the thighs which were then inflated to diastolic blood pressure and an emotional provocation, reduced renal blood flow much more in patients with essential hypertension (p less than 0.01) in association with a striking increase in normalized power (p less than 0.001). The oscillations, which reflected not the phasic blood pressure change but rather the phasic change in renal perfusion, provided additional evidence that renal vasoconstriction plays an active role in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension

  11. Comparison on exfoliated graphene nano-sheets and triturated graphite nano-particles for mode-locking the Erbium-doped fibre lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Yu; Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Wu, Chung-Lun; Cheng, Chih-Hsien; Tsai, Din-Ping; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2018-06-01

    Comparisons on exfoliated graphene nano-sheets and triturated graphite nano-particles for mode-locking the Erbium-doped fiber lasers (EDFLs) are performed. As opposed to the graphite nano-particles obtained by physically triturating the graphite foil, the tri-layer graphene nano-sheets is obtained by electrochemically exfoliating the graphite foil. To precisely control the size dispersion and the layer number of the exfoliated graphene nano-sheet, both the bias of electrochemical exfoliation and the speed of centrifugation are optimized. Under a threshold exfoliation bias of 3 volts and a centrifugation at 1000 rpm, graphene nano-sheets with an average diameter of 100  ±  40 nm can be obtained. The graphene nano-sheets with an area density of 15 #/µm2 are directly imprinted onto the end-face of a single-mode fiber made patchcord connector inside the EDFL cavity. Such electrochemically exfoliated graphene nano-sheets show comparable saturable absorption with standard single-graphene and perform the self-amplitude modulation better than physically triturated graphite nano-particles. The linear transmittance and modulation depth of the inserted graphene nano-sheets are 92.5% and 53%, respectively. Under the operation with a power gain of 21.5 dB, the EDFL can be passively mode-locked to deliver a pulsewidth of 454.5 fs with a spectral linewidth of 5.6 nm. The time-bandwidth product of 0.31 is close to the transform limit. The Kelly sideband frequency spacing of 1.34 THz is used to calculate the chirp coefficient as  ‑0.0015.

  12. Large amplitude oscillation of a boiling bubble growing at a wall in stagnation flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geld, C.W.M. van der; Berg, R. van de; Peukert, P. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering], e-mail: C.W.M._v.d.Geld@tue.nl

    2009-07-01

    A boiling bubble is created on an artificial site that is part of a bubble generator that is mounted at the center of a pipe. Downflow of water impinges on the bubble generator and creates a stagnation flow above the artificial cavity. Stable axisymmetric elongation in the direction away from the wall and multiple shape oscillation cycles are observed. The time of growth and attachment is typically of the order of 250 ms. Amongst the length scales that characterize the bubble shape is the radius of curvature of the upper part of the bubble, R. The period of oscillation, T, is strongly dependent on time, as is R. The parameters C and m in the defining equation T = C R{sup m} {radical}({rho}L/{sigma}) have been determined by fitting to data of more than 100 bubbles. For each operating condition, the same values of C and m have been found. The value of m is 1.49 {+-} 0.02, which is explained from the continuous growth of the bubble and from the relation to the period of oscillation of a free bubble deforming in the fundamental mode corresponding to the third Legendre Polynomial. For the latter, R is the radius of the volume-equivalent sphere, R{sub 0}, and C is {radical}12, while for attached boiling bubbles C is found to amount 1.9{radical}12. The difference is easily explained from the continuous growth, difference in definition, finite amplitude oscillation and proximity of the wall. (author)

  13. Time-averaged second-order pressure and velocity measurements in a pressurized oscillating flow prime mover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paridaens, Richard [DynFluid, Arts et Metiers, 151 boulevard de l' Hopital, Paris (France); Kouidri, Smaine [LIMSI-CNRS, Orsay Cedex (France)

    2016-11-15

    Nonlinear phenomena in oscillating flow devices cause the appearance of a relatively minor secondary flow known as acoustic streaming, which is superimposed on the primary oscillating flow. Knowledge of control parameters, such as the time-averaged second-order velocity and pressure, would elucidate the non-linear phenomena responsible for this part of the decrease in the system's energetic efficiency. This paper focuses on the characterization of a travelling wave oscillating flow engine by measuring the time-averaged second order pressure and velocity. Laser Doppler velocimetry technique was used to measure the time-averaged second-order velocity. As streaming is a second-order phenomenon, its measurement requires specific settings especially in a pressurized device. Difficulties in obtaining the proper settings are highlighted in this study. The experiments were performed for mean pressures varying from 10 bars to 22 bars. Non-linear effect does not constantly increase with pressure.

  14. Comparison of oscillations of skin blood flow and deoxygenation in vastus lateralis in light exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, T; Lian, C-S; Afroundeh, R; Shirakawa, K; Yunoki, T

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare oscillation of skin blood flow with that of deoxygenation in muscle during light exercise in order to determine the physiological significance of oscillations in deoxygenation. Prolonged exercise with 50% of peak oxygen uptake was performed for 60 min. Skin blood flow (SBF) was measured using a laser blood flow meter on the right vastus lateralis muscle. Deoxygenated haemoglobin/myoglobin (DHb/Mb) concentration in the left vastus lateralis were measured using a near-infrared spectroscopy system. SBF and DHb/Mb during exercise were analysed by fast Fourier transform. We classified frequency bands according to previous studies (Kvernmo et al. 1999, Kvandal et al. 2006) into phase I (0.005-0.0095 and 0.0095-0.02 Hz), phase II (0.02-0.06 Hz: phase II) and phase III (0.06-0.16 Hz). The first peak of power spectra density (PSD) in SBF appeared at 0.0078 Hz in phase I. The second peak of PSD in SBF appeared at 0.035 Hz. The third peak of PSD in SBF appeared at 0.078 Hz. The first peak of PSD in DHb/Mb appeared at 0.0039 Hz, which was out of phase I. The second peak of PSD in DHb/Mb appeared at 0.016 Hz. The third peak of PSD in DHb/Mb appeared at 0.035 Hz. The coefficient of cross correlation was very low. Cross power spectra density showed peaks of 0.0039, 0.016 and 0.035 Hz. It is concluded that a peak of 0.016 Hz in oscillations of DHb/Mb observed in muscle during exercise is associated with endothelium-dependent vasodilation (phase I) and that a peak of 0.035 Hz in DHb/Mb is associated with sympathetic nerve activity (phase II). It is also confirmed that each peak of SBF oscillations is observed in each phase.

  15. COMPARISON OF OSCILLATIONS OF SKIN BLOOD FLOW AND DEOXYGENATION IN VASTUS LATERALIS IN LIGHT EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yano

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare oscillation of skin blood flow with that of deoxygenation in muscle during light exercise in order to determine the physiological significance of oscillations in deoxygenation. Prolonged exercise with 50% of peak oxygen uptake was performed for 60 min. Skin blood flow (SBF was measured using a laser blood flow meter on the right vastus lateralis muscle. Deoxygenated haemoglobin/myoglobin (DHb/Mb concentration in the left vastus lateralis were measured using a near-infrared spectroscopy system. SBF and DHb/Mb during exercise were analysed by fast Fourier transform. We classified frequency bands according to previous studies (Kvernmo et al. 1999, Kvandal et al. 2006 into phase I (0.005-0.0095 and 0.0095-0.02 Hz, phase II (0.02-0.06 Hz: phase II and phase III (0.06-0.16 Hz. The first peak of power spectra density (PSD in SBF appeared at 0.0078 Hz in phase I. The second peak of PSD in SBF appeared at 0.035 Hz. The third peak of PSD in SBF appeared at 0.078 Hz. The first peak of PSD in DHb/Mb appeared at 0.0039 Hz, which was out of phase I. The second peak of PSD in DHb/Mb appeared at 0.016 Hz. The third peak of PSD in DHb/Mb appeared at 0.035 Hz. The coefficient of cross correlation was very low. Cross power spectra density showed peaks of 0.0039, 0.016 and 0.035 Hz. It is concluded that a peak of 0.016 Hz in oscillations of DHb/Mb observed in muscle during exercise is associated with endothelium-dependent vasodilation (phase I and that a peak of 0.035 Hz in DHb/Mb is associated with sympathetic nerve activity (phase II. It is also confirmed that each peak of SBF oscillations is observed in each phase.

  16. Oscillations in the permanganate oxidation of glycine in a stirred flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poros, Eszter; Kurin-Csörgei, Krisztina; Szalai, István; Orbán, Miklós

    2013-09-19

    Oscillatory behavior is reported in the permanganate oxidation of glycine in the presence of Na2HPO4 in a stirred flow reactor. In near-neutral solutions, long-period sustained oscillations were recorded in the potential of a Pt electrode and in the light absorbance measured at λ = 418 and 545 nm, characteristic wavelengths for following the evolution of the intermediate [Mn(IV)] and reagent [MnO4(-) ] during the course of the reaction. No evidence of bistability was found. The chemical and physical backgrounds of the oscillatory phenomenon are discussed. In the oscillatory cycle, the positive feedback is attributed to the autocatalytic formation of a soluble Mn(IV) species, whereas the negative feedback arises from its removal from the solution in the form of solid MnO2. A simple model is suggested that qualitatively simulates the experimental observations in batch runs and the dynamics that appears in the flow system.

  17. Self-sustained oscillations in blood flow through a honeycomb capillary network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J M; Pozrikidis, C

    2014-09-01

    Numerical simulations of unsteady blood flow through a honeycomb network originating at multiple inlets and terminating at multiple outlets are presented and discussed under the assumption that blood behaves as a continuum with variable constitution. Unlike a tree network, the honeycomb network exhibits both diverging and converging bifurcations between branching capillary segments. Numerical results based on a finite difference method demonstrate that as in the case of tree networks considered in previous studies, the cell partitioning law at diverging bifurcations is an important parameter in both steady and unsteady flow. Specifically, a steady flow may spontaneously develop self-sustained oscillations at critical conditions by way of a Hopf bifurcation. Contrary to tree-like networks comprised entirely of diverging bifurcations, the critical parameters for instability in honeycomb networks depend weakly on the system size. The blockage of one or more network segments due to the presence of large cells or the occurrence of capillary constriction may cause flow reversal or trigger a transition to unsteady flow.

  18. Forced Rolling Oscillation of a 65 deg-Delta Wing in Transonic Vortex-Breakdown Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Margaret A.; Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, Hamdy A.

    1996-01-01

    Unsteady, transonic, vortex dominated flow over a 65 deg. sharp-edged, cropped-delta wing of zero thickness undergoing forced rolling oscillations is investigated computationally. The wing angle of attack is 20 deg. and the free stream Mach number and Reynolds number are 0.85 and 3.23 x 10(exp 6), respectively. The initial condition of the flow is characterized by a transverse terminating shock which induces vortex breakdown of the leading edge vortex cores. The computational investigation uses the time accurate solution of the laminar, unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes equations with the implicit, upwind, Roe flux difference splitting, finite-volume scheme. While the maximum roll amplitude is kept constant at 4.0 deg., both Reynolds number and roll frequency are varied covering three cases of forced sinusoidal rolling. First, the Reynolds number is held at 3.23 x 10(exp 6) and the wing is forced to oscillate in roll around the axis of geometric symmetry at a reduced frequency of 2(pi). Second, the Reynolds number is reduced to 0.5 x 10(exp 6) to observe the effects of added viscosity on the vortex breakdown. Third, with the Reynolds number held at 0.5 x 10(exp 6), the roll frequency is reduced to 1(pi) to complete the study.

  19. Heat transfer in oscillating flows with sudden change in cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mounir; Hashim, Waqar; Tew, Roy C.; Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1992-01-01

    Oscillating fluid flow (zero mean) with heat transfer, between two parallel plates with a sudden change in cross section, was examined computationally. Over 30 different cases were examined; these cases cover wide ranges of Re sub max (187.5 to 30,000), Va (1 to 350), expansion ratio (1:2, 1:4, 1:8, and 1:12) and A sub r (0.68 to 4). Three different geometric cases were considered (asymmetric expansion and/or contraction, symmetric expansion/contraction, and symmetric blunt body). The heat transfer cases were based on constant wall temperature at higher (heating) or lower (cooling) value than the inflow fluid temperature. As a result of the oscillating flow, the fluid undergoes sudden expansion in one half of the cycle and sudden contraction in the other half. Instantaneous friction factors and heat transfer coefficients, for some ranges of Re sub max and Va, deviated substantially from those predicted with steady state correlations.

  20. Phase locked 270-440 GHz local oscillator based on flux flow in long Josephson tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V.P.; Shitov, S.V.; Filippenko, L.V.

    2000-01-01

    The combination of narrow linewidth and wide band tunability makes the Josephson flux flow oscillator (FFO) a perfect on-chip local oscillator for integrated sub-mm wave receivers for, e.g., spectral radio astronomy. The feasibility of phase locking the FFO to an external reference oscillator......-running tunnel junction. The results of residual FFO phase noise measurements are also presented. Finally, we propose a single-chip fully superconductive receiver with two superconductor–insulator–superconductor mixers and an integrated phase-locked loop. ©2000 American Institute of Physics....

  1. Oscillation of a rigid catenary riser due to the internal two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordalo, Sergio N.; Morooka, Celso K.; Cavalcante, Cesar C.P. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Matt, Cyntia G.C.; Franciss, Ricardo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2008-07-01

    were identified by visual observations. The results indicate that there is a relationship among the flow patterns, the fluids flow rates and the magnitude of the observed oscillations. (author)

  2. Numerical investigation of aerodynamic flow actuation produced by surface plasma actuator on 2D oscillating airfoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Khang Phan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulation of unsteady flow control over an oscillating NACA0012 airfoil is investigated. Flow actuation of a turbulent flow over the airfoil is provided by low current DC surface glow discharge plasma actuator which is analytically modeled as an ion pressure force produced in the cathode sheath region. The modeled plasma actuator has an induced pressure force of about 2 kPa under a typical experiment condition and is placed on the airfoil surface at 0% chord length and/or at 10% chord length. The plasma actuator at deep-stall angles (from 5° to 25° is able to slightly delay a dynamic stall and to weaken a pressure fluctuation in down-stroke motion. As a result, the wake region is reduced. The actuation effect varies with different plasma pulse frequencies, actuator locations and reduced frequencies. A lift coefficient can increase up to 70% by a selective operation of the plasma actuator with various plasma frequencies and locations as the angle of attack changes. Active flow control which is a key advantageous feature of the plasma actuator reveals that a dynamic stall phenomenon can be controlled by the surface plasma actuator with less power consumption if a careful control scheme of the plasma actuator is employed with the optimized plasma pulse frequency and actuator location corresponding to a dynamic change in reduced frequency.

  3. A PSO based unified power flow controller for damping of power system oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shayeghi, H. [Technical Engineering Dept., Univ. of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Daneshgah Street, P.O. Box 179, Ardabil (Iran); Shayanfar, H.A. [Center of Excellence for Power Automation and Operation, Electrical Engineering Dept., Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran); Jalilzadeh, S.; Safari, A. [Technical Engineering Dept., Zanjan Univ., Zanjan (Iran)

    2009-10-15

    On the basis of the linearized Phillips-Herffron model of a single-machine power system, we approach the problem of select the best input control signal of the unified power flow controller (UPFC) and design optimal UPFC based damping controller in order to enhance the damping of the power system low frequency oscillations. The potential of the UPFC supplementary controllers to enhance the dynamic stability is evaluated. This controller is tuned to simultaneously shift the undamped electromechanical modes to a prescribed zone in the s-plane. The problem of robustly UPFC based damping controller is formulated as an optimization problem according to the eigenvalue-based multiobjective function comprising the damping factor, and the damping ratio of the undamped electromechanical modes to be solved using particle swarm optimization technique (PSO) that has a strong ability to find the most optimistic results. To ensure the robustness of the proposed damping controller, the design process takes into account a wide range of operating conditions and system configurations. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is demonstrated through eigenvalue analysis, nonlinear time-domain simulation and some performance indices studies. The results analysis reveals that the tuned PSO based UPFC controller using the proposed multiobjective function has an excellent capability in damping power system low frequency oscillations and enhance greatly the dynamic stability of the power systems. Moreover, the system performance analysis under different operating conditions show that the {delta}{sub E} based controller is superior to the m{sub B} based controller. (author)

  4. Observation of Droplet Size Oscillations in a Two Phase Fluid under Shear Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbin, Laurent; Panizza, Pascal

    2004-11-01

    It is well known that complex fluids exhibit strong couplings between their microstructure and the flow field. Such couplings may lead to unusual non linear rheological behavior. Because energy is constantly brought to the system, richer dynamic behavior such as non linear oscillatory or chaotic response is expected. We report on the observation of droplet size oscillations at fixed shear rate. At low shear rates, we observe two steady states for which the droplet size results from a balance between capillary and viscous stress. For intermediate shear rates, the droplet size becomes a periodic function of time. We propose a phenomenological model to account for the observed phenomenon and compare numerical results to experimental data.

  5. High fidelity phase locked PIV measurements analysing the flow fields surrounding an oscillating piezoelectric fan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffers, Nicholas; Nolan, Kevin; Stafford, Jason; Donnelly, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric fans have been studied extensively and are seen as a promising technology for thermal management due to their ability to provide quiet, reliable cooling with low power consumption. The fluid mechanics of an unconfined piezoelectric fan are complex which is why the majority of the literature to date confines the fan in an attempt to simplify the flow field. This paper investigates the fluid mechanics of an unconfined fan operating in its first vibration frequency mode. The piezoelectric fan used in this study measures 12.7 mm × 70 mm and resonates at 92.5 Hz in air. A custom built experimental facility was developed to capture the fan's flow field using phase locked Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The phase locked PIV results are presented in terms of vorticity and show the formation of a horse shoe vortex. A three dimensional A2 criterion constructed from interpolated PIV measurements was used to identify the vortex core in the vicinity of the fan. This analysis was used to clearly identify the formation of a horse shoe vortex that turns into a hairpin vortex before it breaks up due to a combination of vortex shedding and flow along the fan blade. The results presented in this paper contribute to both the fluid dynamics and heat transfer literature concerning first mode fan oscillation.

  6. Low Density Lipoprotein and Non-Newtonian Oscillating Flow Biomechanical Parameters for Normal Human Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulis, Johannes V; Fytanidis, Dimitrios K; Lampri, Olga P; Giannoglou, George D

    2016-04-01

    The temporal variation of the hemodynamic mechanical parameters during cardiac pulse wave is considered as an important atherogenic factor. Applying non-Newtonian blood molecular viscosity simulation is crucial for hemodynamic analysis. Understanding low density lipoprotein (LDL) distribution in relation to flow parameters will possibly spot the prone to atherosclerosis aorta regions. The biomechanical parameters tested were averaged wall shear stress (AWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI) and relative residence time (RRT) in relation to the LDL concentration. Four non-Newtonian molecular viscosity models and the Newtonian one were tested for the normal human aorta under oscillating flow. The analysis was performed via computational fluid dynamic. Tested viscosity blood flow models for the biomechanical parameters yield a consistent aorta pattern. High OSI and low AWSS develop at the concave aorta regions. This is most noticeable in downstream flow region of the left subclavian artery and at concave ascending aorta. Concave aorta regions exhibit high RRT and elevated LDL. For the concave aorta site, the peak LDL value is 35.0% higher than its entrance value. For the convex site, it is 18.0%. High LDL endothelium regions located at the aorta concave site are well predicted with high RRT. We are in favor of using the non-Newtonian power law model for analysis. It satisfactorily approximates the molecular viscosity, WSS, OSI, RRT and LDL distribution. Concave regions are mostly prone to atherosclerosis. The flow biomechanical factor RRT is a relatively useful tool for identifying the localization of the atheromatic plaques of the normal human aorta.

  7. Deep saturated Free Electron Laser oscillators and frozen spikes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottaviani, P.L. [ENEA - Centro Ricerche Bologna, via Martiri di Monte Sole, 4, IT 40129, Bologna (Italy); Pagnutti, S., E-mail: simonetta.pagnutti@enea.it [ENEA - Centro Ricerche Bologna, via Martiri di Monte Sole, 4, IT 40129, Bologna (Italy); Dattoli, G., E-mail: giuseppe.dattoli@enea.it [ENEA - Centro Ricerche Frascati, via E. Fermi, 45, IT 00044, Frascati, Roma (Italy); Sabia, E., E-mail: elio.sabia@enea.it [ENEA - Centro Ricerche Frascati, via E. Fermi, 45, IT 00044, Frascati, Roma (Italy); Petrillo, V., E-mail: vittoria.petrillo@mi.infn.it [Universita' degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, IT 20133, Milano (Italy); INFN - Mi, via Celoria 16, IT 20133, Milano (Italy); Slot, P.J.M. van der, E-mail: p.j.m.vanderslot@utwente.nl [Mesa+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O.Box 217, 7500 AE, Enschede (Netherlands); Biedron, S., E-mail: sandra.biedron@colostate.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Colorado State University (United States); Milton, S., E-mail: milton@engr.colostate.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Colorado State University (United States)

    2016-10-21

    We analyze the behavior of Free Electron Laser (FEL) oscillators operating in the deep saturated regime and point out the formation of sub-peaks of the optical pulse. These are very stable configurations and the sub-peaks are found to have a duration corresponding to the coherence length. We speculate on the physical mechanisms underlying their growth and attempt an identification with natural mode-locked structures in FEL oscillators. Their impact on the intra-cavity nonlinear harmonic generation is also discussed along with the possibility of exploiting them as cavity out-coupler.

  8. Optimization of InAs/GaAs quantum-dot structures and application to 1.3-μm mode-locked laser diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mi-Feng; Ni Hai-Qiao; Niu Zhi-Chuan; Ding Ying; David Bajek; Liang Kong; Ana Cataluna Maria

    2014-01-01

    The self-assembled growth of InAs/GaAs quantum dots by molecular beam epitaxy is conducted by optimizing several growth parameters, using a one-step interruption method after island formation. The dependence of photoluminescence on areal quantum-dot density is systematically investigated as a function of InAs deposition, growth temperature and arsenic pressure. The results of this investigation along with time-resolved photoluminescence measurements show that the combination of a growth temperature of 490 °C, with a deposition rate of 0.02 ML/s, under an arsenic pressure of 1 × 10 −6 Torr (1 Torr = 1.33322 × 10 2 Pa), provides the best compromise between high density and the photoluminescence of quantum dot structure, with a radiative lifetime of 780 ps. The applicability of this 5-layer quantum dot structure to high-repetition-rate pulsed lasers is demonstrated with the fabrication and characterization of a monolithic InAs/GaAs quantum-dot passively mode-locked laser operating at nearly 1300 nm. Picosecond pulse generation is achieved from a two-section laser, with a ∼ 19.7-GHz repetition rate. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  9. Ultrashort Generation Regimes in the All-Fiber Kerr Mode-Locked Erbium-Doped Fiber Ring Laser for Terahertz Pulsed Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Voropaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many femtosecond engineering applications require for a stable generation of ultrashort pulses. Thus, in the terahertz pulsed spectroscopy a measurement error in the refractive index is strongly dependent on the pulse duration stability with allowable variation of few femtoseconds. The aim of this work is to study the ultrashort pulses (USP regimes stability in the all – fiber erbium doped ring laser with Kerr mode-locking. The study was conducted at several different values of the total resonator intra-cavity dispersion. Three laser schemes with the intra-cavity dispersion values from -1.232 ps2 to +0.008 ps2 have been studied. In the experiment there were two regimes of generation observed: the stretched pulse generation and ordinary soliton generation. Main attention is focused on the stability of regimes under study. The most stable regime was that of the stretched pulse generation with a spectrum form of sech2 , possible pulse duration of 490 fs at least, repetition rate of 2.9 MHz, and average output power of 17 mW. It is worth noting, that obtained regimes had characteristics suitable for the successful use in the terahertz pulsed spectroscopy. The results may be useful in the following areas of science and technology: a high-precision spectroscopy, optical frequency standards, super-continuum generation, and terahertz pulsed spectroscopy. The future system development is expected to stabilize duration and repetition rate of the obtained regime of ultra-short pulse generation.

  10. Asynchronous and synchronous dual-wavelength pulse generation in a passively mode-locked fiber laser with a mode-locker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guoqing; Pan, Yingling; Zhao, Xin; Yin, Siyao; Zhang, Meng; Zheng, Zheng

    2017-12-01

    The evolution from asynchronous to synchronous dual-wavelength pulse generation in a passively mode-locked fiber laser is experimentally investigated by tailoring the intracavity dispersion. Through tuning the intracavity-loss-dependent gain profile and the birefringence-induced filter effect, asynchronous dual-wavelength soliton pulses can be generated until the intracavity anomalous dispersion is reduced to ∼8  fs/nm. The transition from asynchronous to synchronous pulse generation is then observed at an elevated pump power in the presence of residual anomalous dispersion, and it is shown that pulses are temporally synchronized at the mode-locker in the cavity. Spectral sidelobes are observed and could be attributed to the four-wave-mixing effect between dual-wavelength pulses at the carbon nanotube mode-locker. These results could provide further insight into the design and realization of such dual-wavelength ultrafast lasers for different applications such as dual-comb metrology as well as better understanding of the inter-pulse interactions in such dual-comb lasers.

  11. Flow past a self-oscillating airfoil with two degrees of freedom: measurements and simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šidlof Petr

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on investigation of the unsteady subsonic airflow past an elastically supported airfoil for subcritical flow velocities and during the onset of the flutter instability. A physical model of the NACA0015 airfoil has been designed and manufactured, allowing motion with two degrees of freedom: pitching (rotation about the elastic axis and plunging (vertical motion. The structural mass and stiffness matrix can be tuned to certain extent, so that the natural frequencies of the two modes approach as needed. The model was placed in the measuring section of the wind tunnel in the aerodynamic laboratory of the Institute of Thermomechanics in Nový Knín, and subjected to low Mach number airflow up to the flow velocities when self-oscillation reach amplitudes dangerous for the structural integrity of the model. The motion of the airfoil was registered by a high-speed camera, with synchronous measurement of the mechanic vibration and discrete pressure sensors on the surface of the airfoil. The results of the measurements are presented together with numerical simulation results, based on a finite volume CFD model of airflow past a vibrating airfoil.

  12. Numerical Prediction of Turbulent Oscillating Flow and Heat Transfer in Pipes with Various End Geometries. Ph.D. Thesis, Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseid, Kirk Leroi

    1995-01-01

    Unsteady flow is present in man, machine and nature. The flow of blood in arteries and capillaries in the human body is pulsatile-composed of a mean flow superposed with an oscillating component. The tides that wash in and out of rivers, harbors and estuaries are unsteady flows with very long periods of oscillation. Many engineering devices employ pulsatile and oscillating flow. Pulsating flow is defined here as a periodic flow with a net displacement of fluid over each flow cycle. Oscillating flow is defined as a period flow with a zero mean over each cycle. The subject of this thesis is oscillating flow and heat transfer in pipes which make up the heater and cooler sections of the NASA Space Power Research Engine (SPRE) currently under development. This engine uses the Stirling cycle as the thermal energy converter in a power plant for future space applications. The information presented in this thesis will of course be applicable to the design of many types of machinery which employ oscillating flow and heat transfer.

  13. 41 GHz and 10.6 GHz low threshold and low noise InAs/InP quantum dash two-section mode-locked lasers in L band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dontabactouny, M.; Piron, R.; Klaime, K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports recent results on InAs/InP quantum dash-based, two-section, passively mode-locked lasers pulsing at 41 GHz and 10.6 GHz and emitting at 1.59 mu m at 20 degrees C. The 41-GHz device (1 mm long) starts lasing at 25 mA under uniform injection and the 10.6 GHz (4 mm long) at 71 m...

  14. The flow of a non-Newtonian fluid induced due to the oscillations of a porous plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Asghar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytic solution of the flow of a third-grade fluid on a porous plate is constructed. The porous plate is executing oscillations in its own plane with superimposed injection or suction. An increasing or decreasing velocity amplitude of the oscillating porous plate is also examined. It is also shown that in case of third-grade fluid, a combination of suction/injection and decreasing/increasing velocity amplitude is possible as well. Several limiting situations with their implications are given and discussed.

  15. Mathematical solutions of rate equations of a laser-diode end-pumped passively Q-switched and mode locked Nd-laser with Cr4+:YAG polarized saturable absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Ghani, B.; Hammadi, M.

    2012-01-01

    The intracavity frequency-doubling (IFD) of a simultaneous passively Q-switched mode-locked diode-pumped Nd 3 + - laser is studied with a polarized isotropic Cr 4 +: YAG saturable absorber. A general recurrence formula for the mode-locked pulses under the Q-switched envelope at fundamental wavelength has been reconstructed in order to analyze the temporal shape behavior of a single Q-switched envelope with mode-locking pulse trains. This formula has been derived taking into account the impact of the IFD and polarized Cr 4 +: YAG saturable absorber.The presented mathematical model describes the self-induced anisotropy appeared in the polarized Cr 4 +: YAG in the nonlinear stage of the giant pulse formation. For the anisotropic Nd 3 +: YVO 4 active medium, the generated polarized waves are assumed to be fixed through the lasing cycle. Besides, the maximum absorber initial transmission and the minimum mirror reflectivity values have been determined from the second threshold criterion. The calculated numerical results demonstrate the impact of the variation of the input laser parameters (rotational angle of the polarized crystal, absorber initial transmission and the output mirror reflectivity) on the characteristics of the output laser pulse (SH peak power, pulse width, pulse duration and shift pulse position of central mode). The calculated numerical results in this work is in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with the available experimental data reported in the references. (author)

  16. Effects of Coupled Rolling and Pitching Oscillations on Transonic Shock-Induced Vortex-Breakdown Flow of a Delta Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Menzies, Margaret A.

    1996-01-01

    Unsteady, transonic vortex-breakdown flow over a 65 deg. sharp edged, cropped-delta wing of zero thickness undergoing forced coupled pitching and rolling oscillations is investigated computationally. The initial condition of the flow is characterized by a transverse terminating shock which induces of the leading edge vortex cores to breakdown. The computational investigation uses the time-accurate solution of the laminar, unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes equations with the implicit, upwind, Roe flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme. The main focus is to analyze the effects of coupled motion on the wing response and vortex-breakdown flow by varying oscillation frequency and phase angle while keeping the maximum pitch and roll amplitude equal.

  17. Frequency and amplitude modulation of ultra-compact terahertz quantum cascade lasers using an integrated avalanche diode oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Fabrizio; Li, Lianhe; Linfield, Edmund H; Davies, A Giles; Vitiello, Miriam S

    2016-03-15

    Mode-locked comb sources operating at optical frequencies underpin applications ranging from spectroscopy and ultrafast physics, through to absolute frequency measurements and atomic clocks. Extending their operation into the terahertz frequency range would greatly benefit from the availability of compact semiconductor-based sources. However, the development of any compact mode-locked THz laser, which itself is inherently a frequency comb, has yet to be achieved without the use of an external stimulus. High-power, electrically pumped quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) have recently emerged as a promising solution, owing to their octave spanning bandwidths, the ability to achieve group-velocity dispersion compensation and the possibility of obtaining active mode-locking. Here, we propose an unprecedented compact architecture to induce both frequency and amplitude self-modulation in a THz QCL. By engineering a microwave avalanche oscillator into the laser cavity, which provides a 10 GHz self-modulation of the bias current and output power, we demonstrate multimode laser emission centered around 3 THz, with distinct multiple sidebands. The resulting microwave amplitude and frequency self-modulation of THz QCLs opens up intriguing perspectives, for engineering integrated self-mode-locked THz lasers, with impact in fields such as nano- and ultrafast photonics and optical metrology.

  18. Structural steady states and relaxation oscillations in a two-phase fluid under shear flow: Experiments and phenomenological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbin, L.; Benayad, A.; Panizza, P.

    2006-01-01

    By means of several rheophysics techniques, we report on an extensive study of the couplings between flow and microstructures in a two-phase fluid made of lamellar (Lα) and sponge (L3) phases. Depending on the nature of the imposed dynamical parameter (stress or shear rate) and on the experimental conditions (brine salinity or temperature), we observe several different structural steady states consisting of either multilamellar droplets (with or without a long range order) or elongated (L3) phase domains. Two different astonishing phenomena, shear-induced phase inversion and relaxation oscillations, are observed. We show that (i) phase inversion is related to a shear-induced topological change between monodisperse multilamellar droplets and elongated structures and (ii) droplet size relaxation oscillations result from a shear-induced change of the surface tension between both coexisting (Lα) and (L3) phases. To explain these relaxation oscillations, we present a phenomenological model and compare its numerical predictions to our experimental results.

  19. Response of a laminar premixed flame to flow oscillations: A kinematic model and thermoacoustic instability results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleifil, M.; Annaswamy, A.M.; Ghoneim, A.F. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ghoneim, Z.A. [Ain Shams Univ., Abassia (Egypt)

    1996-09-01

    Combustion instability is a resonance phenomenon that arises due to the coupling between the system acoustics and the unsteady heat release. The constructive feedback between the two processes, which is known to occur as a certain phase relationship between the pressure and the unsteady heat release rate is satisfied, depends on many parameters among which is the acoustic mode, the flame holder characteristics, and the dominant burning pattern. In this paper, the authors construct an analytical model to describe the dynamic response of a laminar premixed flame stabilized on the rim of a tube to velocity oscillation. They consider uniform and nonuniform velocity perturbations superimposed on a pipe flow velocity profile. The model results show that the magnitude of heat release perturbation and its phase with respect to the dynamic perturbation dependent primarily on the flame Strohal number, representing the ratio of the dominant frequency times the tube radius to the laminar burning velocity. In terms of this number, high-frequency perturbations pass through the flame while low frequencies lead to a strong response. The phase with respect to the velocity perturbation behaves in the opposite way. Results of this model are shown to agree with experimental observations and to be useful in determining how the combustion excited model is selected among all the acoustic unstable modes. The model is then used to obtain a time-domain differential equation describing the relationship between the velocity perturbation and the heat release response over the entire frequency range.

  20. Experimental study of oscillating plates in viscous fluids: Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the flow physics and hydrodynamic forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bishwash; Ahsan, Syed N.; Aureli, Matteo

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a comprehensive experimental study on harmonic oscillations of a submerged rigid plate in a quiescent, incompressible, Newtonian, viscous fluid. The fluid-structure interaction problem is analyzed from both qualitative and quantitative perspectives via a detailed particle image velocimetry (PIV) experimental campaign conducted over a broad range of oscillation frequency and amplitude parameters. Our primary goal is to identify the effect of the oscillation characteristics on the mechanisms of fluid-structure interaction and on the dynamics of vortex shedding and convection and to elucidate the behavior of hydrodynamic forces on the oscillating structure. Towards this goal, we study the flow in terms of qualitative aspects of its pathlines, vortex shedding, and symmetry breaking phenomena and identify distinct hydrodynamic regimes in the vicinity of the oscillating structure. Based on these experimental observations, we produce a novel phase diagram detailing the occurrence of distinct hydrodynamic regimes as a function of relevant governing nondimensional parameters. We further study the hydrodynamic forces associated with each regime using both PIV and direct force measurement via a load cell. Our quantitative results on experimental estimation of hydrodynamic forces show good agreement against predictions from the literature, where numerical and semi-analytical models are available. The findings and observations in this work shed light on the relationship between flow physics, vortex shedding, and convection mechanisms and the hydrodynamic forces acting on a rigid oscillating plate and, as such, have relevance to various engineering applications, including energy harvesting devices, biomimetic robotic system, and micro-mechanical sensors and actuators.

  1. Excitation of high numbers harmonics by flows of oscillators in a periodic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buts, V.A.; Marekha, V.I.; Tolstoluzhsky, A.P.

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that the maximum of radiation spectrum of nonrelativistic oscillators, which move into a periodically inhomogeneous potential, can be in the region of high numbers harmonics. Spectrum of such oscillators radiation becomes similar to the radiation spectrum of relativistic oscillators. The equations, describing the non-linear self-consistent theory of excitations, of high numbers harmonics by ensemble of oscillators are formulated and its numerical analysis is conducted. The numerical analysis has confirmed the capability of radiation of high numbers of harmonics. Such peculiarity of radiation allows t expect of creation of nonrelativistic FEL

  2. The Aerodynamic Behavior of a Harmonically Oscillating Finite Sweptback Wing in Supersonic Flow

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chang, Chieh-Chien

    1951-01-01

    By an extension of Evvard's "diaphragm" concept outside the wing tip, the present paper presents two approximate methods for calculating the aerodynamic behavior of harmonically oscillating, sweptback...

  3. Understanding the self-sustained oscillating two-phase flow motion in a closed loop pulsating heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinato, Giulia; Borhani, Navid; Thome, John R.

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of efficient thermal management schemes, pulsating heat pipes (PHPs) represent a breakthrough solution for passive on-chip two-phase flow cooling of micro-electronics. Unfortunately, the unique coupling of thermodynamics, hydrodynamics and heat transfer, responsible for the self-sustained pulsating two-phase flow in such devices, presents many challenges to the understanding of the underlying physical phenomena which have so far eluded accurate prediction. In this experimental study, the novel time-strip image processing technique was used to investigate the thermo-flow dynamics of a single-turn channel CLPHP (closed loop pulsating heat pipe) charged with R245fa and tested under different operating conditions. The resulting frequency data confirmed the effect of flow pattern, and thus operating conditions, on the oscillating behavior. Dominant frequencies from 1.2 Hz for the oscillating regime to 0.6 Hz for the unidirectional flow circulation regime were measured, whilst wide spectral bands were observed for the unstable circulation regime. In order to analytically assess the observed trends in the spectral behavior, a spring-mass-damper system model was developed for the two-phase flow motion. As well as showing that system stiffness and mass have an effect on the two-phase flow dynamics, further insights into the flow pattern transition mechanism were also gained. - Highlights: • A novel synchronized thermal and visual investigation technique was applied to a CLPHP. • Thermal and hydrodynamic behaviors were analyzed by means of spectral analysis. • 3D frequency spectra for temperature and flow data show significant trends. • A spring-mass-damper system model was developed for the two-phase flow motion. • System stiffness and mass have an effect on the two-phase flow dynamics.

  4. Experimental development of a Nusselt correlation for forced reciprocating oscillated vertical annular glycerol flow through a porous domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Ersin

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the heat transfer to oscillating annular flow of a viscous fluid. The flow media includes stationary stainless steel wool porous domain and glycerol as the working fluid. The effects of actuation frequency and wall heat flux on the temperature field and resultant heat convection coefficient are studied. The temperature values at radial direction are close each other as porous media mixes the glycerol successfully. A correlation with a functional dependence to kinetic Reynolds number is recommended that can be used to acquire the averaged heat transfer for oscillating flows. Present experimental results with glycerol in a porous media are compared to the published experimental works with water. For the limited case of the two working fluids, Nusselt number is normalized well using the Prandtl number (Pr0.67). Results are also compared to non-porous media study and heat transfer is found to increase up to a factor of five in porous media. The recommended correlation is claimed to have a significant role for anticipating heat transfer of oscillating viscous fluid not only at low frequencies but also at low heat fluxes in a porous and permeable solid media.

  5. Coupled Rolling and Pitching Oscillation Effects on Transonic Shock-Induced Vortex-Breakdown Flow of a Delta Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Menzies, Margaret A.

    1996-01-01

    Unsteady, transonic vortex dominated flow over a 65 deg. sharp edged, cropped-delta wing of zero thickness undergoing forced coupled pitching and rolling oscillations is investigated computationally. The wing mean angle of attack is 20 deg. and the free stream Mach number and Reynolds number are 0.85 and 3.23 x 10(exp 6), respectively. The initial condition of the flow is characterized by a transverse terminating shock and vortex breakdown of the leading edge vortex cores. The computational investigation uses the time-accurate solution of the laminar, unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes equations with the implicit, upwind, Roe flux-difference splitting, finite volume scheme. The main focus is to analyze the effects of coupled motion on the wing response and vortex breakdown flow by varying oscillation frequency and phase angle while the maximum pitch and roll amplitude is kept constant at 4.0 deg. Four cases demonstrate the following: simultaneous motion at a frequency of 1(pi), motion with a 90 deg. phase lead in pitch, motion with a rolling frequency of twice the pitching frequency, and simultaneous motion at a frequency of 2(pi). Comparisons with single mode motion at these frequencies complete this study and illustrate the effects of coupling the oscillations.

  6. Role of zonal flow predator-prey oscillations in triggering the transition to H-mode confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, L; Zeng, L; Rhodes, T L; Hillesheim, J C; Doyle, E J; Groebner, R J; Peebles, W A; Burrell, K H; Wang, G

    2012-04-13

    Direct evidence of zonal flow (ZF) predator-prey oscillations and the synergistic roles of ZF- and equilibrium E×B flow shear in triggering the low- to high-confinement (L- to H-mode) transition in the DIII-D tokamak is presented. Periodic turbulence suppression is first observed in a narrow layer at and just inside the separatrix when the shearing rate transiently exceeds the turbulence decorrelation rate. The final transition to H mode with sustained turbulence and transport reduction is controlled by equilibrium E×B shear due to the increasing ion pressure gradient.

  7. Vortex dynamics and heat transfer behind self-oscillating inverted flags of various lengths in channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuelong; Liu, Yingzheng; Chen, Yujia

    2018-04-01

    The influence of an inverted flag's length-to-channel-width ratio (C* = L/W) on its oscillating behavior in a channel flow and the resultant vortex dynamics and heat transfer are determined experimentally. Three systems with C* values of 0.125, 0.250, and 0.375 were chosen for comparison. The interaction of highly unsteady flow with the inverted flag is measured with time-resolved particle image velocimetry. Variations in the underlying flow physics are discussed in terms of the statistical flow quantities, flag displacement, phase-averaged flow field, and vortex dynamics. The results show that the increase in C* shifts the occurrence of the flapping regime at high dimensionless bending stiffness. With the flag in the flapping region, three distinct vortex dynamics—the von Kármán vortex street, the G mode, and the singular mode—are identified at C* values of 0.375, 0.250, and 0.125, respectively. Finally, the heat transfer enhancement from the self-oscillating inverted flag is measured to serve as complementary information to quantify the cause-and-effect relationship between vortex dynamics and wall heat transfer. The increase in C* strongly promotes wall heat removal because disruption of the boundary layer by the energetic vortices is substantially intensified. Among all systems, wall heat transfer removal is most efficient at the intermediate C* value of 0.250.

  8. Taylor-Couette fluid flow with force oscillation in the inner-cylinder using the immersed boundary method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Jonatas Emmanuel; Lourenco, Marcos Antonio de Souza; Padilla, Elie Luis Martinez; Silveira Neto, Aristeu da [Federal University of Uberlandia , MG (Brazil)], e-mails: lourenco@mecanica.ufu.br, epadilla@mecanica.ufu.br, aristeus@mecanica.ufu.br; Leibsohn, Andre Martins [CENPES/Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: aleibsohn@petrobras.com

    2010-07-01

    As new challenges arise in the exploration of deep and ultra-deep water oil fields by PETROBRAS more knowledge and research are needed, so that tools could be developed to assist in the critical operations and make things practicable. In the context of the drilling process, the complexity of the fluid flow inside the riser is associated with the nature of the non-Newtonian flow, immersed solid particles, variable eccentricity and the superimposed traveling azimuthal waves on the inflow and outflow boundaries of the Taylor vortices. This work presents the numerical three-dimensional results of the following simplified fluid flows: Taylor-Couette, Taylor-Couette with varying imposed eccentricity and Taylor-Couette with forced oscillation in the inner cylinder. Using the Navier-Stokes equations, a finite volume method discretization with second order accuracy in both time and space was utilized to simulate the Newtonian, single-phase incompressible fluid flow in the three cases. The circular walls of the inner and outer cylinders are represented by the immersed boundary method, with the direct multi-forcing model. The determined results allow to evidence the flow structures in the three cases in a very qualitative way, even so in the presence of the inner cylinder oscillation. (author)

  9. Hydromagnetic Flow and Heat Transfer over a Porous Oscillating Stretching Surface in a Viscoelastic Fluid with Porous Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sami Ullah; Ali, Nasir; Abbas, Zaheer

    2015-01-01

    An analysis is carried out to study the heat transfer in unsteady two-dimensional boundary layer flow of a magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) second grade fluid over a porous oscillating stretching surface embedded in porous medium. The flow is induced due to infinite elastic sheet which is stretched periodically. With the help of dimensionless variables, the governing flow equations are reduced to a system of non-linear partial differential equations. This system has been solved numerically using the finite difference scheme, in which a coordinate transformation is used to transform the semi-infinite physical space to a bounded computational domain. The influence of the involved parameters on the flow, the temperature distribution, the skin-friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number is shown and discussed in detail. The study reveals that an oscillatory sheet embedded in a fluid-saturated porous medium generates oscillatory motion in the fluid. The amplitude and phase of oscillations depends on the rheology of the fluid as well as on the other parameters coming through imposed boundary conditions, inclusion of body force term and permeability of the porous medium. It is found that amplitude of flow velocity increases with increasing viscoelastic and mass suction/injection parameters. However, it decreases with increasing the strength of the applied magnetic field. Moreover, the temperature of fluid is a decreasing function of viscoelastic parameter, mass suction/injection parameter and Prandtl number.

  10. Closed-flow column experiments—Insights into solute transport provided by a damped oscillating breakthrough behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritschel, Thomas; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2016-03-01

    Transport studies that employ column experiments in closed-flow mode complement classical approaches by providing new characteristic features observed in the solute breakthrough and equilibrium between liquid and solid phase. Specific to the closed-flow mode is the recirculation of the effluent to the inflow via a mixing vessel. Depending on the ratio of volumes of mixing vessel and water-filled pore space, a damped oscillating solute concentration emerges in the effluent and mixing vessel. The oscillation characteristics, e.g., frequency, amplitude, and damping, allow for the investigation of solute transport in a similar fashion as known for classical open-flow column experiments. However, the closed loop conserves substances released during transport within the system. In this way, solute and porous medium can equilibrate with respect to physicochemical conditions. With this paper, the features emerging in the breakthrough curves of saturated column experiments run in closed-flow mode and methods of evaluation are illustrated under experimental boundary conditions forcing the appearance of oscillations. We demonstrate that the effective pore water volume and the pumping rate can be determined from a conservative tracer breakthrough curve uniquely. In this way, external preconditioning of the material, e.g., drying, can be avoided. A reactive breakthrough experiment revealed a significant increase in the pore water pH value as a consequence of the closed loop. These results highlight the specific impact of the closed mass balance. Furthermore, the basis for the modeling of closed-flow experiments is given by the derivation of constitutive equations and numerical implementation, validated with the presented experiments.

  11. Nonlinear state-space modelling of the kinematics of an oscillating circular cylinder in a fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuyper, J.; De Troyer, T.; Runacres, M. C.; Tiels, K.; Schoukens, J.

    2018-01-01

    The flow-induced vibration of bluff bodies is an important problem of many marine, civil, or mechanical engineers. In the design phase of such structures, it is vital to obtain good predictions of the fluid forces acting on the structure. Current methods rely on computational fluid dynamic simulations (CFD), with a too high computational cost to be effectively used in the design phase or for control applications. Alternative methods use heuristic mathematical models of the fluid forces, but these lack the accuracy (they often assume the system to be linear) or flexibility to be useful over a wide operating range. In this work we show that it is possible to build an accurate, flexible and low-computational-cost mathematical model using nonlinear system identification techniques. This model is data driven: it is trained over a user-defined region of interest using data obtained from experiments or simulations, or both. Here we use a Van der Pol oscillator as well as CFD simulations of an oscillating circular cylinder to generate the training data. Then a discrete-time polynomial nonlinear state-space model is fit to the data. This model relates the oscillation of the cylinder to the force that the fluid exerts on the cylinder. The model is finally validated over a wide range of oscillation frequencies and amplitudes, both inside and outside the so-called lock-in region. We show that forces simulated by the model are in good agreement with the data obtained from CFD.

  12. Long-Period Oscillations of Hydraulic Fractures: Attenuation, Scaling Relationships, and Flow Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovsky, B.; Dunham, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    -2. This contrasts with the well-known self-similar earthquake scaling M0∝f0-3. Attenuation of long-period crack waves is due to both drag within the fluid and radiative energy losses from excitation of seismic waves. Fluid drag may be characterized by either a turbulent or laminar viscous law. We present a thorough characterization of viscous damping that is valid at both low frequencies, where the flow is always fully developed, and at high frequencies, where fluid inertia becomes important. We have derived simple formulas for the quality factor due to viscous attenuation. Waves may become unstable for sufficiently fast background fluid velocity u0. This instability, first proposed by Julian (1994), was further investigated by Dunham and Ogden (2012), who determined the instability condition, u0>cw/2. We establish a more general result: that the stability condition is not only independent of viscosity, but also uninfluenced by fluid inertia, although both do alter growth rates. We also show that radiation damping (excitation of plane P waves normal to the crack walls) has only a stabilizing effect. This work suggests that under geologically relevant conditions, crack wave propagation is most likely stable, and the occurrence of long-period oscillations thus requires some additional excitation process.

  13. Self-sustained oscillations with acoustic feedback in flows over a backward-facing step with a small upstream step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Tsukamoto, Yuichi; Kato, Chisachi; Iida, Akiyoshi

    2007-10-01

    Self-sustained oscillations with acoustic feedback take place in a flow over a two-dimensional two-step configuration: a small forward-backward facing step, which we hereafter call a bump, and a relatively large backward-facing step (backstep). These oscillations can radiate intense tonal sound and fatigue nearby components of industrial products. We clarify the mechanism of these oscillations by directly solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The results show that vortices are shed from the leading edge of the bump and acoustic waves are radiated when these vortices pass the trailing edge of the backstep. The radiated compression waves shed new vortices by stretching the vortex formed by the flow separation at the leading edge of the bump, thereby forming a feedback loop. We propose a formula based on a detailed investigation of the phase relationship between the vortices and the acoustic waves for predicting the frequencies of the tonal sound. The frequencies predicted by this formula are in good agreement with those measured in the experiments we performed.

  14. Starting solutions for the flow of second grade fluids in a rectangular channel due to an oscillating shear stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieru, Dumitru; Fetecau, Corina; Rana, Mehwish

    2012-05-01

    The unsteady motion of a second grade fluid between two parallel side walls perpendicular to a plate is studied by means of the Fourier sine and cosine transforms. Initially, the fluid is at rest and at time t = 0+, the plate applies an oscillating shear to the fluid. The solutions that have been obtained, presented under integral and series form and written as a sum between steady time-periodic and transient solutions can be easily reduced to the similar solutions for Newtonian fluids performing the same motion. They describe the motion of the fluid some time after its initiation. After that time, when the transient solutions disappear, the motion of the fluid is described by the steady time-periodic solutions that are independent of the initial conditions. In the absence of side walls, more exactly when the distance between walls tends to infinity, all solutions reduce to those corresponding to the motion over an infinite plate. As it was to be expected, the steady time-periodic solutions corresponding to sine and cosine oscillations of the shear stress on the boundary differ by a phase shift. Finally, the influence of side walls on the fluid motion, the required time to reach the steady periodic flow, as well as the distance between walls for which the velocity of the fluid in the middle of the channel is unaffected by their presence are established by numerical calculus and graphical illustrations. As expected, the time needed to reach the steady periodic flows is lower in the presence of side walls. It is lower for Newtonian fluids in comparison with second grade fluids and greater for sine oscillations in comparison to the cosine oscillations of the boundary shear.

  15. Investigating riparian groundwater flow close to a losing river using diurnal temperature oscillations at high vertical resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Vogt

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available River-water infiltration is of high relevance for hyporheic and riparian groundwater ecology as well as for drinking water supply by river-bank filtration. Heat has become a popular natural tracer to estimate exchange rates between rivers and groundwater. However, quantifying flow patterns and velocities is impeded by spatial and temporal variations of exchange fluxes, insufficient sensors spacing during field investigations, or simplifying assumptions for analysis or modeling such as uniform flow. The objective of this study is to investigate lateral shallow groundwater flow upon river-water infiltration at the shoreline of the riverbed and in the adjacent riparian zone of the River Thur in northeast Switzerland. Here we have applied distributed temperature sensing (DTS along optical fibers wrapped around tubes to measure high-resolution vertical temperature profiles of the unsaturated zone and shallow riparian groundwater. Diurnal temperature oscillations were tracked in the subsurface and analyzed by means of dynamic harmonic regression to extract amplitudes and phase angles. Subsequent calculations of amplitude attenuation and time shift relative to the river signal show in detail vertical and temporal variations of heat transport in shallow riparian groundwater. In addition, we apply a numerical two-dimensional heat transport model for the unsaturated zone and shallow groundwater to obtain a better understanding of the observed heat transport processes in shallow riparian groundwater and to estimate the groundwater flow velocity. Our results show that the observed riparian groundwater temperature distribution cannot be described by uniform flow, but rather by horizontal groundwater flow velocities varying over depth. In addition, heat transfer of diurnal temperature oscillations from the losing river through shallow groundwater is influenced by thermal exchange with the unsaturated zone. Neglecting the influence of the unsaturated zone

  16. Experimental research on density wave oscillation of steam-water two-phase flow in parallel inclined internally ribbed pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Feng; Chen Tingkuan; Luo Yushan; Yin Fei; Liu Weimin

    2005-01-01

    At p=3-10 MPa, G=300-600 kg/(m 2 ·s), Δt sub =30-90 degree C, and q=0-190 kW/m 2 , the experiments on steam-water two-phase flow instabilities have been performed. The test sections are parallel inclined internally ribbed pipes with an outer diameter of φ38.1 mm, a wall thinkness of 7.5 mm, a obliquity of 19.5 and a length more than 15 m length. Based on the experimental results, the effects of pressure, mass velocity, inlet subcooling and asymmetrical heat flux on steam-water two-phase flow density wave oscillation were analyzed. The experimental results showed that the flow system were more stable as pressure increased. As an increase in mass velocity, critical heat flux increased but critical steam quality decreased. Inlet subcooling had a monotone effect on density wave oscillation, when inlet subcooling decreased, critical heat flux decreased. Under a certain working condition, critical heat flux on asymmetrically heating parallel pipes is higher than that on symmetrically heating parallel pipes, that means the system with symmetrically heating parallel pips was more stable. (authors)

  17. Fundamental characteristics of heat conduction enhancement in oscillating viscous flow-dream pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuta, M.; Nagata, K.; Maruyama, Y.; Tsujimori, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that to confirm the heat conduction augmentation technique via sinusoidal oscillation experimentally and to establish a fundamental data base of this device, systematic measurements using almost identically scaled with Kurzweg's apparatus for demonstration were conducted. In this heat exchanger, the fluid occupied a capillary tube or its bundle that connected two reservoirs at different temperature; a special constructed oscillation driving unit generated a pulsed motion of working fluid. Operation took place at various tube diameters, oscillated frequency and stroke using pure water and ethanol as working liquid. As a result, a new factor so-called heat transport coefficient which indicates the heat transfer rate multiplying temperature gradient between hot and cold reservoir was introduced. This factor increased with increasing oscillated frequency and stroke, however, beyond a critical frequency, this trend disappeared. Using modified Reynolds number and stroke ratio, a new empirical formula which correlated the data regardless of the difference of working liquid was proposed. A discussion of tube bundle was also made using this correlation. Finally, an attempt was performed to correlate the data using effective thermal diffusivity predicted by simple lumped capacitance analysis and characteristic period

  18. Analysis on oscillating actuator frequency influence of the fluid flow characterization for 2D contractile water jet thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaari, M. F.; Abu Bakar, H.; Nordin, N.; Saw, S. K.; Samad, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Contractile body is an alternative mechanism instead of rotating blade propeller to generate water jet for locomotion. The oscillating motion of the actuator at different frequencies varies the pressure and volume of the pressure chamber in time to draw in and jet out the water at a certain mass flow rate. The aim of this research was to analyze the influence of the actuating frequency of the fluid flow in the pressure chamber of the thruster during this inflation-deflation process. A 70mm × 70mm × 18mm (L × W × T) 2D water jet thruster was fabricated for this purpose. The contractile function was driven using two lateral pneumatic actuators where the fluid flow analysis was focused on the X-Y plane vector. Observation was carried out using a video camera and Matlab image measurement technique to determine the volume of the flowing mass. The result demonstrated that the greater actuating frequency decreases the fluid flow rate and the Reynolds number. This observation shows that the higher frequency would give a higher mass flow rate during water jet generation.

  19. Analysis of Limit Cycle Oscillation/Transonic High Alpha Flow Visualization. Part 1: Discussion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cunningham, Atlee M

    1998-01-01

    ...) at low alpha conditions typical of transonic LCO flows with and without tip stores. Laser light sheet/water vapor techniques were used to illuminate the flows, and video recording was used to obtain the data...

  20. Analysis of Limit Cycle Oscillation/Transonic High ALPHA Flow Visualization. Part 2 Stationary Model Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cunningham, Atlee M

    1998-01-01

    ...) at low alpha conditions typical of transonic LCO flows with and without tip stores. Laser light sheet/water vapor techniques were used to illuminate the flows, and video recording was used to obtain the data...

  1. Analysis of Limit Cycle Oscillation/Transonic High Alpha Flow Visualization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cunningham, Atlee M

    1997-01-01

    ...) at low alpha condition typical of transonic LCO flows with and without tip stores. Laser light sheet/water vapor techniques were used to illuminate the flows, and video recording was used to obtain the data...

  2. Surface Waves and Flow-Induced Oscillations along an Underground Elliptic Cylinder Filled with a Viscous Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuraba, A.

    2015-12-01

    I made a linear analysis of flow-induced oscillations along an underground cylindrical conduit with an elliptical cross section on the basis of the hypothesis that volcanic tremor is a result of magma movement through a conduit. As a first step to understand how the self oscillation occurs because of magma flow, I investigated surface wave propagation and attenuation along an infinitely long fluid-filled elliptic cylinder in an elastic medium. The boundary element method is used to obtain the two-dimensional wave field around the ellipse in the frequency-wavenumber domain. When the major axis is much greater than the minor axis of the ellipse, we obtain the analytic form of the dispersion relation of both the crack-wave mode (Korneev 2008, Lipovsky & Dunham 2015) and the Rayleigh-wave mode with flexural deformation. The crack-wave mode generally has a slower phase speed and a higher attenuation than the Rayleigh-wave mode. In the long-wavelength limit, the crack-wave mode disappears because of fluid viscosity, but the Rayleigh-wave mode exists with a constant Q-value that depends on viscosity. When the aspect ratio of the ellipse is finite, the surface waves can basically be understood as those propagating along a fluid pipe. The flexural mode does exist even when the wavelength is much longer than the major axis, but its phase speed coincides with that of the surrounding S-wave (Randall 1991). As its attenuation is zero in the long-wavelength limit, the flexural mode differs in nature from surface wave. I also obtain a result on linear stability of viscous flow through an elliptic cylinder. In this analysis, I made an assumption that the fluid inertia is so small that the Stokes equation can be used. As suggested by the author's previous study (Sakuraba & Yamauchi 2014), the flexural (Rayleigh-wave) mode is destabilized at a critical flow speed that decreases with the wavelength. However, when the wavelength is much greater than the major axis of the ellipse, the

  3. Exact Solutions for Unsteady Free Convection Flow of Casson Fluid over an Oscillating Vertical Plate with Constant Wall Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The unsteady free flow of a Casson fluid past an oscillating vertical plate with constant wall temperature has been studied. The Casson fluid model is used to distinguish the non-Newtonian fluid behaviour. The governing partial differential equations corresponding to the momentum and energy equations are transformed into linear ordinary differential equations by using nondimensional variables. Laplace transform method is used to find the exact solutions of these equations. Expressions for shear stress in terms of skin friction and the rate of heat transfer in terms of Nusselt number are also obtained. Numerical results of velocity and temperature profiles with various values of embedded flow parameters are shown graphically and their effects are discussed in detail.

  4. Unsteady boundary layer flow and heat transfer of a Casson fluid past an oscillating vertical plate with Newtonian heating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Hussanan

    Full Text Available In this paper, the heat transfer effect on the unsteady boundary layer flow of a Casson fluid past an infinite oscillating vertical plate with Newtonian heating is investigated. The governing equations are transformed to a systems of linear partial differential equations using appropriate non-dimensional variables. The resulting equations are solved analytically by using the Laplace transform method and the expressions for velocity and temperature are obtained. They satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and reduce to some well-known solutions for Newtonian fluids. Numerical results for velocity, temperature, skin friction and Nusselt number are shown in various graphs and discussed for embedded flow parameters. It is found that velocity decreases as Casson parameters increases and thermal boundary layer thickness increases with increasing Newtonian heating parameter.

  5. Numerical study of unsteady MHD oblique stagnation point flow and heat transfer due to an oscillating stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, T.; Ghaffari, A.; Ahmad, H.

    2016-05-01

    The unsteady stagnation point flow impinging obliquely on a flat plate in presence of a uniform applied magnetic field due to an oscillating stream has been studied. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into dimensionless form and the stream function is expressed in terms of Hiemenz and tangential components. The dimensionless partial differential equations are solved numerically by using well-known implicit finite difference scheme named as Keller-box method. The obtained results are compared with those available in the literature. It is observed that the results are in excellent agreement with the previous studies. The effects of pertinent parameters involved in the problem namely magnetic parameter, Prandtl number and impinging angle on flow and heat transfer characteristics are illustrated through graphs. It is observed that the influence of magnetic field strength increases the fluid velocity and by the increase of obliqueness parameter, the skin friction increases.

  6. Unsteady boundary layer flow and heat transfer of a Casson fluid past an oscillating vertical plate with Newtonian heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussanan, Abid; Zuki Salleh, Mohd; Tahar, Razman Mat; Khan, Ilyas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the heat transfer effect on the unsteady boundary layer flow of a Casson fluid past an infinite oscillating vertical plate with Newtonian heating is investigated. The governing equations are transformed to a systems of linear partial differential equations using appropriate non-dimensional variables. The resulting equations are solved analytically by using the Laplace transform method and the expressions for velocity and temperature are obtained. They satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and reduce to some well-known solutions for Newtonian fluids. Numerical results for velocity, temperature, skin friction and Nusselt number are shown in various graphs and discussed for embedded flow parameters. It is found that velocity decreases as Casson parameters increases and thermal boundary layer thickness increases with increasing Newtonian heating parameter.

  7. Heat transfer analysis of MHD thin film flow of an unsteady second grade fluid past a vertical oscillating belt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taza Gul

    Full Text Available This article aims to study the thin film layer flowing on a vertical oscillating belt. The flow is considered to satisfy the constitutive equation of unsteady second grade fluid. The governing equation for velocity and temperature fields with subjected initial and boundary conditions are solved by two analytical techniques namely Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM and Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM. The comparisons of ADM and OHAM solutions for velocity and temperature fields are shown numerically and graphically for both the lift and drainage problems. It is found that both these solutions are identical. In order to understand the physical behavior of the embedded parameters such as Stock number, frequency parameter, magnetic parameter, Brinkman number and Prandtl number, the analytical results are plotted graphically and discussed.

  8. Heat Transfer Analysis of MHD Thin Film Flow of an Unsteady Second Grade Fluid Past a Vertical Oscillating Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Taza; Islam, Saeed; Shah, Rehan Ali; Khan, Ilyas; Khalid, Asma; Shafie, Sharidan

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to study the thin film layer flowing on a vertical oscillating belt. The flow is considered to satisfy the constitutive equation of unsteady second grade fluid. The governing equation for velocity and temperature fields with subjected initial and boundary conditions are solved by two analytical techniques namely Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM) and Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM). The comparisons of ADM and OHAM solutions for velocity and temperature fields are shown numerically and graphically for both the lift and drainage problems. It is found that both these solutions are identical. In order to understand the physical behavior of the embedded parameters such as Stock number, frequency parameter, magnetic parameter, Brinkman number and Prandtl number, the analytical results are plotted graphically and discussed. PMID:25383797

  9. Effect of alternate-vortex on flow-induced in-line oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Masaya; Anoda, Yoshinari

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were performed to study the in-line oscillations of a flexible cylinder in a water crossflow to estimate the effects of alternate-vortex. The measured oscillations were analyzed using the Gabor wavelet function to define the temporal phase relation between the in-line displacement and the vortex-induced force. The analysis shows that 1) the stability region located between two excited regions is generated by alternate vortex effect, 2) the phase relation, which was changed as the crossflow velocity increased, can be classified into three categories, 3) though the contribution of the alternate vortex at the excited region was positive, the contribution at the stability region was negative. (author)

  10. Pump polarization insensitive and efficient laser-diode pumped Yb:KYW ultrafast oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sha; Wang, Yan-Biao; Feng, Guo-Ying; Zhou, Shou-Huan

    2016-02-01

    We theoretically and experimentally report and evaluate a novel split laser-diode (LD) double-end pumped Yb:KYW ultrafast oscillator aimed at improving the performance of an ultrafast laser. Compared to a conventional unpolarized single-LD end-pumped ultrafast laser system, we improve the laser performance such as absorption efficiency, slope efficiency, cw mode-locking threshold, and output power by this new structure LD-pumped Yb:KYW ultrafast laser. Experiments were carried out with a 1 W output fiber-coupled LD. Experimental results show that the absorption increases from 38.7% to 48.4%, laser slope efficiency increases from 18.3% to 24.2%, cw mode-locking threshold decreases 12.7% from 630 to 550 mW in cw mode-locking threshold, and maximum output-power increases 28.5% from 158.4 to 221.5 mW when we switch the pump scheme from an unpolarized single-end pumping structure to a split LD double-end pumping structure.

  11. An oscillation free shock-capturing method for compressible van der Waals supercritical fluid flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantano, C.; Saurel, R.; Schmitt, T.

    2017-01-01

    Numerical solutions of the Euler equations using real gas equations of state (EOS) often exhibit serious inaccuracies. The focus here is the van der Waals EOS and its variants (often used in supercritical fluid computations). The problems are not related to a lack of convexity of the EOS since the EOS are considered in their domain of convexity at any mesh point and at any time. The difficulties appear as soon as a density discontinuity is present with the rest of the fluid in mechanical equilibrium and typically result in spurious pressure and velocity oscillations. This is reminiscent of well-known pressure oscillations occurring with ideal gas mixtures when a mass fraction discontinuity is present, which can be interpreted as a discontinuity in the EOS parameters. We are concerned with pressure oscillations that appear just for a single fluid each time a density discontinuity is present. As a result, the combination of density in a nonlinear fashion in the EOS with diffusion by the numerical method results in violation of mechanical equilibrium conditions which are not easy to eliminate, even under grid refinement.

  12. Self-induced oscillation of free surface in a tank with circulating flow, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Koji; Madarame, Haruki; Hagiwara, Tsuyoshi

    1991-01-01

    An energy supply mechanism to self-induced sloshing in a tank with circulating flow is proposed. The circulating flow impinges on the free surface making it swell partially. The amount of swell increases with increasing water level under the condition of growing sloshing. The change of the free surface contour by this effect supplies sufficient energy to the sloshing. The dependency of the sloshing growth on the flow rate and the water level is explained well by this model. (author)

  13. Incorporation of Duffing Oscillator and Wigner-Ville Distribution in Traffic Flow Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamarija L. Mrgole

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate the use of various chaotic pattern recognition methods for traffic flow prediction. Traffic flow is a variable, dynamic and complex system, which is non-linear and unpredictable. The emergence of traffic flow congestion in road traffic is estimated when the traffic load on a specific section of the road in a specific time period is close to exceeding the capacity of the road infrastructure. Under certain conditions, it can be seen in concentrating chaotic traffic flow patterns. The literature review of traffic flow theory and its connection with chaotic features implies that this kind of method has great theoretical and practical value. Researched methods of identifying chaos in traffic flow have shown certain restrictions in their techniques but have suggested guidelines for improving the identification of chaotic parameters in traffic flow. The proposed new method of forecasting congestion in traffic flow uses Wigner-Ville frequency distribution. This method enables the display of a chaotic attractor without the use of reconstruction phase space.

  14. RAMONA-3B calculations of core-wide and regional power/flow oscillations - comparison with Oskarshamn 3 natural circulation test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, S.; Stepniewski, M.

    1991-01-01

    The 3-D BWR Dynamics Code RAMONA-3D is used for a study of power and flow fluctuations at conditions close to observed limit-cycle out-of-phase oscillations during the start-up stability test at the Oskarshamn 3 internal pump BWR. The purpose of the work, which is sponsored by the Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate, SKI, is to see if the observed first order azimuthal oscillations can be reproduced in a simulation using no a-priori information on the oscillation pattern when setting up the model. The experimental data contain dynamic information on the local neutron flux at 32 LPRM detector locations and the inlet flow to 8 fuel channels. The oscillation patterns, i.e. amplitudes and phases at the resonance frequency for local power and flow, are evaluated by direct Fourier transformation of small time slices of the data. A large RAMONA-3B model, using 350 and 268 channels in the neutronic and hydraulic models respectively, each divided into 25 axial nodes, was used for the analyses. The agreement between measured and calculated local flux and flow oscillation frequency and patterns at the limit-cycle threshold is excellent, taking into account the limitations of the half-core model used

  15. The role of zonal flows and predator-prey oscillations in triggering the formation of edge and core transport barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, L.; Zeng, L.; Rhodes, T. L.; Hillesheim, J. C.; Peebles, W. A.; Groebner, R. J.; Burrell, K. H.; McKee, G. R.; Yan, Z.; Tynan, G. R.; Diamond, P. H.; Boedo, J. A.; Doyle, E. J.; Grierson, B. A.; Chrystal, C.; Austin, M. E.; Solomon, W. M.; Wang, G.

    2014-07-01

    We present direct evidence of low frequency, radially sheared, turbulence-driven flows (zonal flows (ZFs)) triggering edge transport barrier formation preceding the L- to H-mode transition via periodic turbulence suppression in limit-cycle oscillations (LCOs), consistent with predator-prey dynamics. The final transition to edge-localized mode-free H-mode occurs after the equilibrium E × B flow shear increases due to ion pressure profile evolution. ZFs are also observed to initiate formation of an electron internal transport barrier (ITB) at the q = 2 rational surface via local suppression of electron-scale turbulence. Multi-channel Doppler backscattering (DBS) has revealed the radial structure of the ZF-induced shear layer and the E × B shearing rate, ωE×B, in both barrier types. During edge barrier formation, the shearing rate lags the turbulence envelope during the LCO by 90°, transitioning to anti-correlation (180°) when the equilibrium shear dominates the turbulence-driven flow shear due to the increasing edge pressure gradient. The time-dependent flow shear and the turbulence envelope are anti-correlated (180° out of phase) in the electron ITB. LCOs with time-reversed evolution dynamics (transitioning from an equilibrium-flow dominated to a ZF-dominated state) have also been observed during the H-L back-transition and are potentially of interest for controlled ramp-down of the plasma stored energy and pressure (normalized to the poloidal magnetic field) \\beta_{\\theta} =2\\mu_{0} n{( {T_{e} +T_{i}})}/{B_{\\theta}^{2}} in ITER.

  16. A high power picosecond Nd:YVO4 master oscillator power amplifier system pumped by 880 nm diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, S; Yan, X; Yu, H; Zhang, L; Guo, L; Sun, W; Hou, W; Lin, X

    2013-01-01

    We present a high power 880 nm diode-pumped passively mode-locked Nd:YVO 4 oscillator, followed by an 880 nm diode-pumped Nd:YVO 4 amplifier. In the oscillator, a maximum power of 8.7 W was obtained with a repetition rate of 63 MHz and pulse duration of 32 ps, corresponding to an optical efficiency of 36%. The beam quality factors M 2 were measured to be M x 2 =1.2 and M y 2 =1.1 9, respectively. The amplifier generated up to 19.1 W output power with the pulse width and repetition rate remaining unaltered after amplification. (paper)

  17. Real-Time GPU Implementation of Transverse Oscillation Vector Velocity Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradway, David; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Krebs, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Rapid estimation of blood velocity and visualization of complex flow patterns are important for clinical use of diagnostic ultrasound. This paper presents real-time processing for two-dimensional (2-D) vector flow imaging which utilizes an off-the-shelf graphics processing unit (GPU). In this work...... vector flow acquisition takes 2.3 milliseconds seconds on an Advanced Micro Devices Radeon HD 7850 GPU card. The detected velocities are accurate to within the precision limit of the output format of the display routine. Because this tool was developed as a module external to the scanner’s built...

  18. Near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of the pulsatile component of cerebral blood flow and volume from arterial oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themelis, George; D'Arceuil, Helen; Diamond, Solomon G.; Thaker, Sonal; Huppert, Theodore J.; Boas, David A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) method to noninvasively measure relative changes in the pulsate components of cerebral blood flow (pCBF) and volume (pCBV) from the shape of heartbeat oscillations. We present a model that is used and data to show the feasibility of the method. We use a continuous-wave NIRS system to measure the arterial oscillations originating in the brains of piglets. Changes in the animals' CBF are induced by adding CO2 to the breathing gas. To study the influence of scalp on our measurements, comparative, invasive measurements are performed on one side of the head simultaneously with noninvasive measurements on the other side. We also did comparative measurements of CBF using a laser Doppler system to validate the results of our method. The results indicate that for sufficient source-detector separation, the signal contribution of the scalp is minimal and the measurements are representative of the cerebral hemodynamics. Moreover, good correlation between the results of the laser Doppler system and the NIRS system indicate that the presented method is capable of measuring relative changes in CBF. Preliminary results show the potential of this NIRS method to measure pCBF and pCBV relative changes in neonatal pigs. PMID:17343508

  19. Control volume based modelling in one space dimension of oscillating, compressible flow in reciprocating machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Kildegård; Carlsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2006-01-01

    We present an approach for modelling unsteady, primarily one-dimensional, compressible flow. The conservation laws for mass, energy, and momentum are applied to a staggered mesh of control volumes and loss mechanisms are included directly as extra terms. Heat transfer, flow friction, and multidim...... are presented. The capabilities of the approach are illustrated with an example solution and an experimental validation of a Stirling engine model....

  20. Operating and mathematical representation of resonances between flow parameters oscillations and structure vibrations of NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskuryakov, K.N.; Yang Shan Afshar, E.; Polyakov, N.I. [Nuclear Power Plant Department of Moscow Power Engineering Institute Technical Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    The experimental data that have been obtained from the measurements of noise signals in primary circuit of NPP with reactor of WWER-1000 are presented. The causes of resonant interaction between Eigen-Frequencies of Oscillations of the Coolant Pressure (EFOCP) and structure vibrations are discussed. An application-oriented approach to the problem of identification of abnormal phenomena of thermal-hydraulic parameters is proposed. Logarithmic Decrement {delta} is determined. The bigger damping ratio {zeta} provides bigger {delta} and correspondingly smaller values of Q-factor and amplitude X(t)max. All experimental units intended for NPP severe accident investigation must satisfy to the NPP Q-factor criterion of similarity. (authors)