WorldWideScience

Sample records for mode partition noise

  1. Comparison of PAM and CAP modulations robustness against mode partition noise in optical links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepniak, Grzegorz

    2017-08-01

    Mode partition noise (MPN) of the laser employed at the transmitter can significantly degrade the transmission performance. In the paper, we introduce a simulation model of MPN in vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) and simulate transmission of pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) and carrierless amplitude phase (CAP) signals in multimode fiber (MMF) link. By turning off other effects, like relative intensity noise (RIN), we focus solely on the influence of MPN on transmission performance degradation. Robustness of modulation and equalization type against MPN is studied.

  2. Impact of mode partition noise in free-running gain-switched Fabry-Perot laser for 2-dimensional OCDMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Chan, Kam

    2004-07-26

    Free-running gain-switched Fabry-Perot laser diode is an appropriate incoherent broadband optical source for incoherent 2-dimensional optical code division multiple access. However, the mode partition noise (MPN) in the laser seriously degrades performance. We derived a bit error rate (BER) expression in the presence of MPN using the power spectra of the laser. The theory agreed with the experimental results. There was a power penalty and BER floor due to the MPN in the laser. Therefore, this scheme should be operated with a sufficiently large number of modes. At least 9 modes should be used for error-free transmission at 1 Gbit/s for the laser we investigated in this work.

  3. Mitigation of mode partition noise in quantum-dash Fabry-Perot mode-locked lasers using Manchester encoding and balanced detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaibi, Mohamed Essghair; Bramerie, Laurent; Lobo, Sébastien; Peucheret, Christophe

    2017-07-10

    We propose the use of Manchester encoding in conjunction with balanced detection to overcome the mode partition noise (MPN) limit of quantum-dash Fabry-Perot mode-locked lasers (QD-MLLs) used as multi-wavelength sources in short-reach applications. The proposed approach is demonstrated for a 10-mode laser, each carrying a 10-Gb/s signal. We show that bit-error-rate floors as high as 10 -4 when traditional non-return-to-zero (NRZ) modulation is employed with a single-ended detection scheme can be pushed below 10 -9 thanks to the introduction of Manchester encoding together with balanced detection. The benefit of the scheme could be attributed to the spectral shift of the Manchester spectrum, resulting in a smaller overlap with the high-relative intensity noise (RIN) region present at low frequencies, and the use of balanced detection. We clarify the origin of the performance improvement through comparisons of single-ended and balanced detection and the use of a RIN emulation technique. We unambiguously show that the use of balanced detection plays the leading role in MPN mitigation enabled by Manchester modulation.

  4. TwoMP: a MATLAB graphical user interface for two-mode partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, Jan; Hofmans, Joeri

    2009-05-01

    Two-way two-mode data occur in almost every domain of scientific psychology. The information present in such data, however, may be hard to grasp because of the dimensions of one or both modes. Two-mode partitioning addresses this problem by breaking down both modes into a number of mutually exclusive and exhaustive subsets. Although such a technique may be very useful, up to now, software--and consequently, two-mode partitioning--has been available only to a handful of specialists in the field. In this article, we present a free, easy-to-use MATLAB graphical user interface (TwoMP) for two-mode partitioning models, specifically developed for nonspecialist users. A short formal introduction is given on the statistics of the method, and the basic use of TwoMP is demonstrated with an example.

  5. Common-mode noise cancellation circuit for wearable ECG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noro, Mutsumi; Anzai, Daisuke; Wang, Jianqing

    2017-04-01

    Wearable electrocardiogram (ECG) is attracting much attention for monitoring heart diseases in healthcare and medical applications. However, an imbalance usually exists between the contact resistances of sensing electrodes, so that a common mode noise caused by external electromagnetic field can be converted into the ECG detection circuit as a differential mode interference voltage. In this study, after explaining the mechanism of how the common mode noise is converted to a differential mode interference voltage, the authors propose a circuit with cadmium sulphide photo-resistors for cancelling the imbalance between the contact resistances and confirm its validity by simulation experiment. As a result, the authors found that the interference voltage generated at the wearable ECG can be effectively reduced to a sufficient small level.

  6. Partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Biadacz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to present scientific and didactic achievements of Polish accounting at the turn of the 19th century. The first part of the study addresses key issues in the development of accounting science and practice on Polish territory during the Partitions period. In the second part, attention is focused on scientific achievements of J. Walicki, B. Wilmowski and P. Ciompa. The third part discusses the question of Polish accounting handbooks at the turn of the 19th century, as well as the state of accounting practice at that time and problems in the development of professional periodicals on Polish territory during the Partitions. The last part focuses on various perspectives on the nature of accounting in handbooks from the late 19th and early 20th century. The research method applied is literature study based on selected textbooks and scientific papers published in Polish language in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The article provides a synthetic overview of the state of accounting knowledge and professional accounting periodicals on Polish soil during the Partitions, which had an impact on further development of accounting in Poland.

  7. Mitigation of scintillation noise by common mode rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Kenneth J.; Corbett, Kerry A.; Clare, Bradley A.; Davies, James E.; Nener, Brett D.

    2005-05-01

    There is increasing interest in free space optical communications as an alternative to fibre optics and radio frequency communications, particularly in 'last mile' applications and applications with weight and power restrictions e.g. communications with unmanned aerial vehicles. The potential advantages of free space optical communications include: high bandwidth; no licensing issues; smaller, lighter payloads; low probability of intercept; and immunity from interference/jamming. However, propagation through the atmosphere is subject to atmospheric scintillation noise affecting the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), effectively reducing the range and bandwidth of the communication link. This scintillation is experienced even over relatively short propagation paths and is caused by small temperature variations in the atmosphere, resulting in index of refraction changes. In this paper we present a technique to correct for atmospheric scintillation noise in free space optical communications and laser remote sensing. It uses common mode rejection to remove co-channel noise, where each channel is transmitted on separate, but closely spaced, wavelengths. The signal-to-noise ratio is significantly increased, thereby increasing the range and/or bandwidth of the link. To date, tests have been conducted with analogue audio and video transmissions. This has been successful, with improvements of up to 12dB in SNR having been demonstrated. This has been limited by the current implementation, which is only at prototype stage -- the ultimate achievable improvement in SNR is anticipated to be significantly higher.

  8. Empirical mode decomposition of the ECG signal for noise removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jesmin; Bhuiyan, Sharif; Murphy, Gregory; Alam, Mohammad

    2011-04-01

    Electrocardiography is a diagnostic procedure for the detection and diagnosis of heart abnormalities. The electrocardiogram (ECG) signal contains important information that is utilized by physicians for the diagnosis and analysis of heart diseases. So good quality ECG signal plays a vital role for the interpretation and identification of pathological, anatomical and physiological aspects of the whole cardiac muscle. However, the ECG signals are corrupted by noise which severely limit the utility of the recorded ECG signal for medical evaluation. The most common noise presents in the ECG signal is the high frequency noise caused by the forces acting on the electrodes. In this paper, we propose a new ECG denoising method based on the empirical mode decomposition (EMD). The proposed method is able to enhance the ECG signal upon removing the noise with minimum signal distortion. Simulation is done on the MIT-BIH database to verify the efficacy of the proposed algorithm. Experiments show that the presented method offers very good results to remove noise from the ECG signal.

  9. Mode-hopping mechanism generating colored noise in a magnetic tunnel junction based spin torque oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Raghav; Dürrenfeld, P.; Iacocca, E.; Heinonen, O. G.; Åkerman, J.; Muduli, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    The frequency noise spectrum of a magnetic tunnel junction based spin torque oscillator is examined where multiple modes and mode-hopping events are observed. The frequency noise spectrum is found to consist of both white noise and 1/f frequency noise. We find a systematic and similar dependence of both white noise and 1/f frequency noise on bias current and the relative angle between the reference and free layers, which changes the effective damping and hence the mode-hopping behavior in this system. The frequency at which the 1/f frequency noise changes to white noise increases as the free layer is aligned away from the anti-parallel orientation w.r.t the reference layer. These results indicate that the origin of 1/f frequency noise is related to mode-hopping, which produces both white noise as well as 1/f frequency noise similar to the case of ring lasers.

  10. Partition functions with spin in AdS2 via quasinormal mode methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeler, Cynthia; Lisbão, Pedro; Ng, Gim Seng

    2016-01-01

    We extend the results of http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP06(2014)099, computing one loop partition functions for massive fields with spin half in AdS 2 using the quasinormal mode method proposed by Denef, Hartnoll, and Sachdev http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0264-9381/27/12/125001. We find the finite representations of SO(2,1) for spin zero and spin half, consisting of a highest weight state |h〉 and descendants with non-unitary values of h. These finite representations capture the poles and zeroes of the one loop determinants. Together with the asymptotic behavior of the partition functions (which can be easily computed using a large mass heat kernel expansion), these are sufficient to determine the full answer for the one loop determinants. We also discuss extensions to higher dimensional AdS 2n and higher spins.

  11. Common mode noise modeling and its suppression in ultra-high efficiency full bridge boost converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makda, Ishtiyaq Ahmed; Nymand, Morten; Madawala, Udaya

    2013-01-01

    between input and output which is normally associated with high common mode noise generation. In this work, common mode noise sources in the converter are identified, and a common mode noise model is developed. Based on the established noise model, a practical CM filter is designed to comply......In this paper, common mode noise modeling of low-voltage high-current isolated full bridge boost dc-dc converters intended for fuel cell application is presented. Due to the tightly coupled primary and secondary windings of the transformer, such converter has inherently large capacitive coupling...

  12. Partition functions in even dimensional AdS via quasinormal mode methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeler, Cynthia; Ng, Gim Seng

    2014-01-01

    In this note, we calculate the one-loop determinant for a massive scalar (with conformal dimension Δ) in even-dimensional AdS d+1 space, using the quasinormal mode method developed in http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0264-9381/27/12/125001 by Denef, Hartnoll, and Sachdev. Working first in two dimensions on the related Euclidean hyperbolic plane H 2 , we find a series of zero modes for negative real values of Δ whose presence indicates a series of poles in the one-loop partition function Z(Δ) in the Δ complex plane; these poles contribute temperature-independent terms to the thermal AdS partition function computed in http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0264-9381/27/12/125001. Our results match those in a series of papers by Camporesi and Higuchi, as well as Gopakumar et al. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP11(2011)010 and Banerjee et al. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP03(2011)147. We additionally examine the meaning of these zero modes, finding that they Wick-rotate to quasinormal modes of the AdS 2 black hole. They are also interpretable as matrix elements of the discrete series representations of SO(2,1) in the space of smooth functions on S 1 . We generalize our results to general even dimensional AdS 2n , again finding a series of zero modes which are related to discrete series representations of SO(2n,1), the motion group of H 2n .

  13. Comparison of the noise performance of 10GHz QW and QD mode-locked laser diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpintero, Guillermo; Thompson, Mark G.; Yvind, Kresten

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the experimental characterization of the noise performance of a quantum dot and a quantum well 10GHz passive mode locked laser diodes.......This paper reports the experimental characterization of the noise performance of a quantum dot and a quantum well 10GHz passive mode locked laser diodes....

  14. Measurements of effective noise temperature in fused silica fiber violin modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilenko, I.A.; Lourie, S.L

    2002-11-25

    The results of measurements of the effective noise temperature in fused silica fiber violin modes are presented. In these measurements the fibers were stressed and value of the effective noise temperature was obtained by direct observation of oscillations in the fundamental violin modes of several samples. Measured values indicate that effective noise temperature does not exceed the room temperature significantly. This result is important for the design of the advanced gravitational wave antennae.

  15. Measurements of effective noise temperature in fused silica fiber violin modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilenko, I.A.; Lourie, S.L.

    2002-01-01

    The results of measurements of the effective noise temperature in fused silica fiber violin modes are presented. In these measurements the fibers were stressed and value of the effective noise temperature was obtained by direct observation of oscillations in the fundamental violin modes of several samples. Measured values indicate that effective noise temperature does not exceed the room temperature significantly. This result is important for the design of the advanced gravitational wave antennae

  16. Integrated ensemble noise-reconstructed empirical mode decomposition for mechanical fault detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Ji, Feng; Gao, Yuan; Zhu, Jun; Wei, Chenjun; Zhou, Yu

    2018-05-01

    A new branch of fault detection is utilizing the noise such as enhancing, adding or estimating the noise so as to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and extract the fault signatures. Hereinto, ensemble noise-reconstructed empirical mode decomposition (ENEMD) is a novel noise utilization method to ameliorate the mode mixing and denoised the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). Despite the possibility of superior performance in detecting weak and multiple faults, the method still suffers from the major problems of the user-defined parameter and the powerless capability for a high SNR case. Hence, integrated ensemble noise-reconstructed empirical mode decomposition is proposed to overcome the drawbacks, improved by two noise estimation techniques for different SNRs as well as the noise estimation strategy. Independent from the artificial setup, the noise estimation by the minimax thresholding is improved for a low SNR case, which especially shows an outstanding interpretation for signature enhancement. For approximating the weak noise precisely, the noise estimation by the local reconfiguration using singular value decomposition (SVD) is proposed for a high SNR case, which is particularly powerful for reducing the mode mixing. Thereinto, the sliding window for projecting the phase space is optimally designed by the correlation minimization. Meanwhile, the reasonable singular order for the local reconfiguration to estimate the noise is determined by the inflection point of the increment trend of normalized singular entropy. Furthermore, the noise estimation strategy, i.e. the selection approaches of the two estimation techniques along with the critical case, is developed and discussed for different SNRs by means of the possible noise-only IMF family. The method is validated by the repeatable simulations to demonstrate the synthetical performance and especially confirm the capability of noise estimation. Finally, the method is applied to detect the local wear fault

  17. Dispersal and noise: Various modes of synchrony in ecological oscillators

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.

    2012-10-21

    We use the theory of noise-induced phase synchronization to analyze the effects of dispersal on the synchronization of a pair of predator-prey systems within a fluctuating environment (Moran effect). Assuming that each isolated local population acts as a limit cycle oscillator in the deterministic limit, we use phase reduction and averaging methods to derive a Fokker-Planck equation describing the evolution of the probability density for pairwise phase differences between the oscillators. In the case of common environmental noise, the oscillators ultimately synchronize. However the approach to synchrony depends on whether or not dispersal in the absence of noise supports any stable asynchronous states. We also show how the combination of partially correlated noise with dispersal can lead to a multistable steady-state probability density. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  18. Amplitude Noise Suppression and Orthogonal Multiplexing Using Injection-Locked Single-Mode VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyubopytov, Vladimir; von Lerber, Tuomo; Lassas, Matti

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate BER reduction and orthogonal modulation using an injection locked single-mode VCSEL. It allows us suppressing an amplitude noise of optical signal and/or double the capacity of an information channel....

  19. Comparison of noise redistribution in an SOA in pass-through and wavelength conversion mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip; Tromborg, Bjarne; Mørk, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    We use numerical simulations to investigate the redistribution of noise in a saturated SOA. A comparison of cross-gain modulation and self-modulation pass-through mode shows fundamental differences relevant to all-optical wavelength converters and regenerators.......We use numerical simulations to investigate the redistribution of noise in a saturated SOA. A comparison of cross-gain modulation and self-modulation pass-through mode shows fundamental differences relevant to all-optical wavelength converters and regenerators....

  20. All-electronic suppression of mode hopping noise in diode lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, L.

    1990-01-01

    A simple all-electronic stabilization scheme is presented for suppression of external-cavity mode-hopping noise in diode lasers. This excess noise is generated when the laser is subjected to optical feedback and may degrade the overall performance of optical systems including sensors. Suppression...

  1. Part II - Effects of Cross-Sectional Partitioning on Active Noise Control in Round Ducts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slagley, Jeremy M; Guffey, Steven E

    2006-01-01

    .... Higher order mode waves are much more difficult to control Basic acoustic principles dictate that the cut-on frequency at which higher order modes will first begin to eclipse simple plane waves...

  2. Upper-limit on the Advanced Virgo output mode cleaner cavity length noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnand, R.; Ducrot, M.; Gouaty, R.; Marion, F.; Masserot, A.; Mours, B.; Pacaud, E.; Rolland, L.; Was, M.

    2017-09-01

    The Advanced Virgo detector uses two monolithic optical cavities at its output port to suppress higher order modes and radio frequency sidebands from the carrier light used for gravitational wave detection. These two cavities in series form the output mode cleaner. We present a measured upper limit on the length noise of these cavities that is consistent with the thermo-refractive noise prediction of 8×10-16~m~Hz-1/2 at 15 Hz. The cavity length is controlled using Peltier cells and piezo-electric actuators to maintain resonance on the incoming light. A length lock precision of 3.5×10-13 m is achieved. These two results are combined to demonstrate that the broadband length noise of the output mode cleaner in the 10-60 Hz band is at least a factor 10 below other expected noise sources in the Advanced Virgo detector design configuration.

  3. Dual-mode self-validating resistance/Johnson noise thermometer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Robert L.; Blalock, Theron V.; Roberts, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    A dual-mode Johnson noise and DC resistance thermometer capable of use in control systems where prompt indications of temperature changes and long term accuracy are needed. A resistance-inductance-capacitance (RLC) tuned circuit produces a continuous voltage signal for Johnson noise temperature measurement. The RLC circuit provides a mean-squared noise voltage that depends only on the capacitance used and the temperature of the sensor. The sensor has four leads for simultaneous coupling to a noise signal processor and to a DC resistance signal processor.

  4. Extension of the noise propagation matrix method for higher mode solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Lee, Hyunsuk; Lee, Deokjung

    2017-09-01

    The noise propagation matrix method (NPMM) has been extended to get higher mode solutions. Previous studies show that the NPMM can be used to compute the dominance ratio of a system. It is essentially the same as the Coarse Mesh Projection Method (CMPM), both of which use the noise propagation matrix (NPM) to determine the dominance ratio, either after finishing the Monte Carlo simulation or on-the-fly during the simulation. Since only the fundamental fission source information is explicitly utilized while the higher mode information is implicitly contained in the statistical noises, the NPMM can usually only give an approximate estimation of the dominance ratio after thousands of cycles. In this study, the NPMM is extended by simulating the higher modes explicitly, so that the dominance ratio estimation can be more accurate and efficient. Besides, the higher mode solutions can be obtained at the same time with good accuracy and efficiency.

  5. Noise reduction in digital speckle pattern interferometry using bidimensional empirical mode decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernini, Maria Belen; Federico, Alejandro; Kaufmann, Guillermo H.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a bidimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD) method to reduce speckle noise in digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI) fringes. The BEMD method is based on a sifting process that decomposes the DSPI fringes in a finite set of subimages represented by high and low frequency oscillations, which are named modes. The sifting process assigns the high frequency information to the first modes, so that it is possible to discriminate speckle noise from fringe information, which is contained in the remaining modes. The proposed method is a fully data-driven technique, therefore neither fixed basis functions nor operator intervention are required. The performance of the BEMD method to denoise DSPI fringes is analyzed using computer-simulated data, and the results are also compared with those obtained by means of a previously developed one-dimensional empirical mode decomposition approach. An application of the proposed BEMD method to denoise experimental fringes is also presented

  6. Fabrication and Characterisation of Low-noise Monolithic Mode-locked Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, David

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with the fabrication and characterisation of monolithic semiconductor mode-locked lasers for use in optical communication systems. Other foreseeable applications may be as sources in microwave photonics and optical sampling. The thesis also deals with the design and fabrication...... of intracavity monolithically integrated filters. The common dnominator among the diffrent parts of the thesis is how to achieve and measure the lowest possible noise. Achieving low noise has been pinpointed as one of the most important and difficult challenges for semiconductor mode-locked lasers. The main...... result of this thesis are a fabrication process of a monolithic and deeply etched distributed Bragg reflector and a characterisation system for measurement of quantum limitid timing noise at high repetition rates. The Bragg reflector is a key component in achieving transform limited pulses with low noise...

  7. Dealing with noise and physiological artifacts in human EEG recordings: empirical mode methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnova, Anastasiya E.; Grubov, Vadim V.; Khramova, Marina V.; Hramov, Alexander E.

    2017-04-01

    In the paper we propose the new method for removing noise and physiological artifacts in human EEG recordings based on empirical mode decomposition (Hilbert-Huang transform). As physiological artifacts we consider specific oscillatory patterns that cause problems during EEG analysis and can be detected with additional signals recorded simultaneously with EEG (ECG, EMG, EOG, etc.) We introduce the algorithm of the proposed method with steps including empirical mode decomposition of EEG signal, choosing of empirical modes with artifacts, removing these empirical modes and reconstructing of initial EEG signal. We show the efficiency of the method on the example of filtration of human EEG signal from eye-moving artifacts.

  8. Noise caused by semiconductor lasers in high-speed fiber-optic links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, C. M.; Stubkjær, Kristian; Olesen, H.

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental results are presented for the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio caused by mode partition noise, intensity noise, and reflection-induced noise in optical data links. Under given conditions an additional noise source with a S /N ratio of 20 dB will cause a power penalty of 1 d...

  9. Noise characterization of enhancement-mode AlGaN graded barrier MIS-HEMT devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanbabu, A.; Saravana Kumar, R.; Mohankumar, N.

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports a systematic theoretical study on the microwave noise performance of graded AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator semiconductor high-electron mobility transistors (MIS-HEMTs) built on an Al2O3 substrate. The HfAlOx/AlGaN/GaN MIS-HEMT devices designed for this study show an outstanding small signal analog/RF and noise performance. The results on 1 μm gate length device show an enhancement mode operation with threshold voltage, VT = + 5.3 V, low drain leakage current, Ids,LL in the order of 1 × 10-9 A/mm along with high current gain cut-off frequency, fT of 17 GHz and maximum oscillation frequency fmax of 47 GHz at Vds = 10 V. The device Isbnd V and low-frequency noise estimation of the gate and drain noise spectral density and their correlation are evaluated using a Green's function method under different biasing conditions. The devices show a minimum noise figure (NFmin) of 1.053 dB in combination with equivalent noise resistance (Rn) of 23 Ω at 17 GHz, at Vgs = 6 V and Vds = 5 V which is relatively low and is suitable for broad-band low-noise amplifiers. This study shows that the graded AlGaN MIS-HEMT with HfAlOX gate insulator is appropriate for application requiring high-power and low-noise.

  10. Electromagnetic noise in electric circuits: Ringing and resonance phenomena in the common mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Kitora

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that electromagnetic noise originates from the coupling of electric signals in a circuit with electric signals in surrounding materials in the environment. However, the noise phenomenon had not been quantified until now. In order to study the phenomenon of noise, we considered a standard circuit (two transmission lines, to which an additional transmission line was introduced in order to explicitly take into account the effect of conductors in the environment. We performed calculations using a newly developed multiconductor transmission-line theory for the resulting three-line circuit in order to determine the magnitude of the coupling between the circuit and the conductors in the environment under various conditions. We observed ringing and resonance phenomena in the common mode, which influenced the performance of the normal mode as electromagnetic noise. Our findings were confirmed by recent experiments in which conductor lines were arranged in various ways using a printed circuit board (PCB. The ordinary usage of electricity in the standard electric circuit was found to be worst in exciting the common mode noise.

  11. Chasing the thermodynamical noise limit in whispering-gallery-mode resonators for ultrastable laser frequency stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jinkang; Savchenkov, Anatoliy A; Dale, Elijah; Liang, Wei; Eliyahu, Danny; Ilchenko, Vladimir; Matsko, Andrey B; Maleki, Lute; Wong, Chee Wei

    2017-03-31

    Ultrastable high-spectral-purity lasers have served as the cornerstone behind optical atomic clocks, quantum measurements, precision optical microwave generation, high-resolution optical spectroscopy, and sensing. Hertz-level lasers stabilized to high-finesse Fabry-Pérot cavities are typically used for these studies, which are large and fragile and remain laboratory instruments. There is a clear demand for rugged miniaturized lasers with stabilities comparable to those of bulk lasers. Over the past decade, ultrahigh-Q optical whispering-gallery-mode resonators have served as a platform for low-noise microlasers but have not yet reached the stabilities defined by their fundamental noise. Here, we show the noise characteristics of whispering-gallery-mode resonators and demonstrate a resonator-stabilized laser at this limit by compensating the intrinsic thermal expansion, allowing a sub-25 Hz linewidth and a 32 Hz Allan deviation. We also reveal the environmental sensitivities of the resonator at the thermodynamical noise limit and long-term frequency drifts governed by random-walk-noise statistics.High-quality optical resonators have the potential to provide a miniaturized frequency reference for metrology and sensing but they often lack stability. Here, Lim et al. experimentally characterize the stability of whispering-gallery resonators at their fundamental noise limits.

  12. Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition: Image Data Analysis with White-noise Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kopecký

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, Zhaohua Wu and Norden E. Huang announced a new improvement of the original Empirical Mode Decomposition method (EMD. Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition and its abbreviation EEMD represents a major improvement with great versatility and robustness in noisy data filtering. EEMD consists of sifting and making an ensemble of a white noise-added signal, and treats the mean value as the final true result. This is due to the use of a finite, not infinitesimal, amplitude of white noise which forces the ensemble to exhaust all possible solutions in the sifting process. These steps collate signals of different scale in a proper intrinsic mode function (IMF dictated by the dyadic filter bank. As EEMD is a time–space analysis method, the added white noise is averaged out with a sufficient number of trials. Here, the only persistent part that survives the averaging process is the signal component (original data, which is then treated as the true and more physically meaningful answer. The main purpose of adding white noise was to provide a uniform reference frame in the time–frequency space. The added noise collates the portion of the signal of comparable scale in a single IMF. Image data taken as time series is a non-stationary and nonlinear process to which the new proposed EEMD method can be fitted out. This paper reviews the new approach of using EEMD and demonstrates its use on the example of image data analysis, making use of some advantages of the statistical characteristics of white noise. This approach helps to deal with omnipresent noise.

  13. Point Spread Function (PSF) noise filter strategy for geiger mode LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, O'Neil; Stark, Robert; Smith, Philip; St. Romain, Randall; Blask, Steven

    2013-05-01

    LiDAR is an efficient optical remote sensing technology that has application in geography, forestry, and defense. The effectiveness is often limited by signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Geiger mode avalanche photodiode (APD) detectors are able to operate above critical voltage, and a single photoelectron can initiate the current surge, making the device very sensitive. These advantages come at the expense of requiring computationally intensive noise filtering techniques. Noise is a problem which affects the imaging system and reduces the capability. Common noise-reduction algorithms have drawbacks such as over aggressive filtering, or decimating in order to improve quality and performance. In recent years, there has been growing interest on GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) for their ability to perform powerful massive parallel processing. In this paper, we leverage this capability to reduce the processing latency. The Point Spread Function (PSF) filter algorithm is a local spatial measure that has been GPGPU accelerated. The idea is to use a kernel density estimation technique for point clustering. We associate a local likelihood measure with every point of the input data capturing the probability that a 3D point is true target-return photons or noise (background photons, dark-current). This process suppresses noise and allows for detection of outliers. We apply this approach to the LiDAR noise filtering problem for which we have recognized a speed-up factor of 30-50 times compared to traditional sequential CPU implementation.

  14. Normal Modes: Investigating Signal and Noise Phenomena Across Instrument Types and Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, M.; Araki, E.; Rademacher, H.; Taira, T.; Uhrhammer, R. A.; McGowan, M.

    2013-12-01

    Whether a seismic signal in a certain frequency band can be detected in a recording depends primarily on four factors: the amplitude of the signal at the site, the conditions at the site which affect the ambient noise in that band, the sensitivity and self-noise of the sensor in the band, as well as the sensitivity and self-noise in the digitizer in the band. For the very long period band, between 1.0 and 5.5 mHz, the normal modes provide an excellent signal for exploring the effects of the latter three contributions, since after a large or great earthquake, their amplitudes are similar all over the earth. In the past, observatory equipment in an observatory setting were required to observe them. We observed normal modes in the 1.0-5.5 mHz band with good signal-to-noise ratio in the aftermath of the Mw 8.3 Sea of Okhotsk deep earthquake on 24 May 2013 at many stations of the Berkeley Digital Seismograph Network and at other stations in other networks. They are equipped with a variety of sensors, including those with a flat passband extending to frequencies lower than the normal modes, and digitizers. They are also deployed in a variety of geologic settings, including cabled ocean bottom stations, MOBB in California, from the Japanese cabled "Dense Ocean-Network for Earthquake and Tsunamis (DONET)" and the IODP seafloor borehole in the south of Japan. The sites have varying physical infrastructure and site preparation. We explore the factors contributing to the observation of the normal modes at a suite of amplitudes of excitation (based on several earthquakes of different magnitudes) to give different signal-to-noise ratios, and at the many different stations.

  15. Solid-state Raman quantum memory in whispering gallery mode resonators: signal-to-noise ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berezhnoi Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of implementation of optical quantum memory via off-resonant Raman absorption and emission of single-photon pulses in rare-earth-ion-doped crystals is theoretically analysed taking into account signal-to-noise ratio at the output of the memory device. The crystal 143Nd3+:Y7LiF4 is considered as an example. It is shown that the signal-to-noise ratio can exceed unity for single-photon input pulses provided that storage and retrieval of them is performed in the doped crystals forming a microcavity such as whispering gallery mode resonator.

  16. Method of pedestal and common-mode noise correction for switched-capacitor analog memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Charles L.

    1996-01-01

    A method and apparatus for correcting common-mode noise and pedestal noise in a multichannel array of switched-capacitor analog memories wherein each analog memory is connected to an associated analog-to-digital converter. The apparatus comprises a single differential element in two different embodiments. In a first embodiment, the differential element is a reference analog memory connected to a buffer. In the second embodiment, the differential element is a reference analog memory connected to a reference analog-to-digital connected to an array of digital summing circuits.

  17. Wide-band residual phase-noise measurements on 40-GHz monolithic mode-locked lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, David; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2005-01-01

    We have performed wide-band residual phase-noise measurements on semiconductor 40-GHz mode-locked lasers by employing electrical waveguide components for the radio-frequency circuit. The intrinsic timing jitters of lasers with one, two, and three quantum wells (QW) are compared and our design...... prediction, concerning noise versus number of QWs, for the first time corroborated by experiments. A minimum jitter of 44 fs is found, by extrapolating to the Nyquist frequency, for the one-QW device having nearly transform-limited pulses of 1.2 ps. This jitter is nearly three times lower than for a three...

  18. An approach using ensemble empirical mode decomposition to remove noise from prototypical observations on dam safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Huaizhi; Li, Hao; Chen, Zhexin; Wen, Zhiping

    2016-01-01

    It is very important for dam safety control to identify reasonably dam behavior according to the prototypical observations on deformation, seepage, stress, etc. However, there are many cases in which the noise corrupts the prototypical observations, and it must be removed from the data. Considering the nonlinear and non-stationary characteristics of data series with signal intermittency, an ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD)-based method is presented to remove noise from prototypical observations on dam safety. Its basic principle and implementation process are discussed. The key parameters and rules, which can adapt the noise removal requirements of prototypical observations on dam safety, are given. The displacement of one actual dam is taken as an example. The noise removal capability of EEMD-based method is assessed. It is indicated that the dam displacement feature can be reflected more clearly by removing noise from prototypical observations on dam displacement. The statistical model, which is built according to noise-removed data series, can provide the more precise forecast for structural behavior.

  19. Nonlinear phase noise tolerance for coherent optical systems using soft-decision-aided ML carrier phase estimation enhanced with constellation partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wu, Mingwei; Du, Xinwei; Xu, Zhuoran; Gurusamy, Mohan; Yu, Changyuan; Kam, Pooi-Yuen

    2018-02-01

    A novel soft-decision-aided maximum likelihood (SDA-ML) carrier phase estimation method and its simplified version, the decision-aided and soft-decision-aided maximum likelihood (DA-SDA-ML) methods are tested in a nonlinear phase noise-dominant channel. The numerical performance results show that both the SDA-ML and DA-SDA-ML methods outperform the conventional DA-ML in systems with constant-amplitude modulation formats. In addition, modified algorithms based on constellation partitioning are proposed. With partitioning, the modified SDA-ML and DA-SDA-ML are shown to be useful for compensating the nonlinear phase noise in multi-level modulation systems.

  20. Flow Mode Dependent Partitioning Processes of Preferential Flow Dynamics in Unsaturated Fractures - Findings From Analogue Percolation Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordilla, J.; Noffz, T.; Dentz, M.; Sauter, M.

    2017-12-01

    To assess the vulnerability of an aquifer system it is of utmost importance to recognize the high potential for a rapid mass transport offered by ow through unsaturated fracture networks. Numerical models have to reproduce complex effects of gravity-driven flow dynamics to generate accurate predictions of flow and transport. However, the non-linear characteristics of free surface flow dynamics and partitioning behaviour at unsaturated fracture intersections often exceed the capacity of classical volume-effective modelling approaches. Laboratory experiments that manage to isolate single aspects of the mass partitioning process can enhance the understanding of underlying dynamics, which ultimately influence travel time distributions on multiple scales. Our analogue fracture network consists of synthetic cubes with dimensions of 20 x 20 x 20 cm creating simple geometries of a single or a cascade of consecutive horizontal fractures. Gravity-driven free surface flow (droplets; rivulets) is established via a high precision multichannel dispenser at flow rates ranging from 1.5 to 4.5 ml/min. Single-inlet experiments show the influence of variable flow rate, atmospheric pressure and temperature on the stability of flow modes and allow to delineate a droplet and rivulet regime. The transition between these regimes exhibits mixed flow characteristics. In addition, multi-inlet setups with constant total infow rates decrease the variance induced by erratic free-surface flow dynamics. We investigate the impacts of variable aperture widths, horizontal offsets of vertical fracture surfaces, and alternating injection methods for both flow regimes. Normalized fracture inflow rates allow to demonstrate and compare the effects of variable geometric features. Firstly, the fracture filling can be described by plug flow. At later stages it transitions into a Washburn-type flow, which we compare to an analytical solution for the case of rivulet flow. Observations show a considerably

  1. Theoretical and experimental analysis of rare earth whispering gallery mode laser relative intensity noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppe, Jean-Baptiste; Mortier, Michel; Féron, Patrice; Dumeige, Yannick

    2017-12-01

    The relative intensity noise (RIN) of a solid state whispering-gallery-mode class-B laser is studied both theoretically and experimentally under different pumping regimes. In particular, we show that harmonics of the spiking frequency are observed in the RIN spectrum. A rate equation model including Langevin forces and the nonlinear coupling between inverted ion and photon number fluctuations has been developed to reproduce the experimental results and to extract relevant physical parameters from the fitting of the RIN spectrum.

  2. Determination of fuel assembly vibrational modes through analysis of incore detector noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    In order to better characterize fuel assembly vibration at Duke Power Company's Oconee Nuclear Station, incore noise data were acquired an analyzed from prompt responding detectors incorporated in the Oconee 2, Cycle 7 core. Duke Power Company began actively pursuing an inhouse Neutron Noise Analysis program for routine surveillance of reactor internals vibration in 1979. Noise data has since been acquired and analyzed for twelve cycles of operation for the three Oconee units. Duke Power's Oconee Unit 2 is a Babcock and Wilcoxs pressurized water reactor with a rate thermal power of 2568MW. For Oconee 2, Cycle 7 operation, two test assemblies, each employing a string of seven axially-spaced, prompt responding hafnium detectors, were included in the final core design. Incore detector noise data were obtained during Cycle 7 at approximately 281 and 430 effective full power days (EFPD). In addition to the incore test detector signals, noise signals from the upper and lower chambers of the four excore power range detectors were recorded to aid in the analysis. The comparison of RMS signal levels for each incore detector and the phase relationships between detector locations within two test assemblies identified the first four fuel assembly bending modes associated with fixed end conditions

  3. Design and Development of 256x256 Linear Mode Low-Noise Avalanche Photodiode Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ping; Sudharsanan, Rengarajan; Bai, Xiaogang; Boisvert, Joseph; McDonald, Paul; Chang, James

    2011-01-01

    A larger format photodiode array is always desirable for many LADAR imaging applications. However, as the array format increases, the laser power or the lens aperture has to increase to maintain the same flux per pixel thus increasing the size, weight and power of the imaging system. In order to avoid this negative impact, it is essential to improve the pixel sensitivity. The sensitivity of a short wavelength infrared linear-mode avalanche photodiode (APD) is a delicate balance of quantum efficiency, usable gain, excess noise factor, capacitance, and dark current of APD as well as the input equivalent noise of the amplifier. By using InA1As as a multiplication layer in an InP-based APD, the ionization coefficient ratio, k, is reduced from 0.40 (lnP) to 0.22, and the excess noise is reduced by about 50%. An additional improvement in excess noise of 25% was achieved by employing an impact-ionization-engineering structure with a k value of 0.15. Compared with the traditional InP structure, about 30% reduction in the noise-equivalent power with the following amplifier can be achieved. Spectrolab demonstrated 30-um mesa APD pixels with a dark current less than 10 nA and a capacitance of 60 fF at gain of 10. APD gain uninformity determines the usable gain of most pixels in an array, which is critical to focal plane array sensitivity. By fine tuning the material growth and device process, a break-down-voltage standard deviation of 0.1 V and gain of 30 on individual pixels were demonstrated in our 256x256 linear-mode APD arrays.

  4. Partitioning modes and rates of sediment flux derived from terrace-channel coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higson, J. L.; Singer, M. B.

    2012-12-01

    Sediment supply to channels from failed banks/terraces is a geomorphic problem that has received scant treatment in the literature, especially with respect to the partitioning of such laterally eroded sediment into bedload v. suspended load and the resultant channel grain size distribution. Such coupling between terraces/banks and channels is an important component for understanding the exhaustion of the legacy sediments in disturbed watersheds, especially where terraces are contaminated by past mining activities. More than 4x106 kg of mercury (Hg) was lost during the 19th Century hydraulic mining process in the Sierra Nevada foothills of California and documented levels of total Hg concentration in legacy terraces all along the Yuba River are up to 3 orders of magnitude higher than background values. Thus, the ongoing erosion of legacy terraces from the mining period poses important risks to sensitive and ecologically productive lowlands downstream. The problem of bank/terrace erosion in river corridors is generally treated either using a channel centerline (toe cutting) approach or by infinite slope stability at a cross section, but the interaction of failed sediment with the channel is an important and missing component for fully assessing downstream risks of failing contaminated terraces. We have developed a new physically based model that can be used to quantify the extent and caliber of episodic erosion of legacy terrace sediments. The model combines analysis of bank/terrace failure in response to variable fluvial hydrology with a representation of local cross section evolution of grain size distribution and sediment routing. Terrace stability is calculated through an infinite slope stability model, driven by a Dupuit-Forchheimer groundwater model to assess soil moisture contributing to failure. The grain size distribution (GSD) in the channel bed is evolved based on calculation of sediment transport, which also yields net flux of fine material that is known

  5. Mixed Mode Oscillations and Synchronous Activity in Noise Induced Modified Morris-Lecar Neural System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar; Mondal, Argha; Teka, Wondimu W.

    The modified three-dimensional (3D) Morris-Lecar (M-L) model is very useful to understand the spiking activities of neurons. The present article addresses the random dynamical behavior of a modified M-L model driven by a white Gaussian noise with mean zero and unit spectral density. The applied stimulus can be expressed as a random term. Such random perturbations are represented by a white Gaussian noise current added through the electrical potential of membrane of the excitatory principal cells. The properties of the stochastic system (perturbed one) and noise induced mixed mode oscillation are analyzed. The Lyapunov spectrum is computed to present the nature of the system dynamics. The noise intensity is varied while keeping fixed the predominant parameters of the model in their ranges and also observed the changes in the dynamical behavior of the system. The dynamical synchronization is studied in the coupled M-L systems interconnected by excitatory and inhibitory neurons with noisy electrical coupling and verified with similarity functions. This result suggests the potential benefits of noise and noise induced oscillations which have been observed in real neurons and how that affects the dynamics of the neural model as well as the coupled systems. The analysis reports that the modified M-L system which has the limit cycle behavior can show a type of phase locking behavior which follows either period adding (i.e. 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1) sequences or Farey sequences. For the coupled neural systems, complete synchronization is shown for sufficient noisy coupling strength.

  6. Analysis of nonreciprocal noise based on mode splitting in a high-Q optical microresonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhaohua; Xiao, Yarong; Huo, Jiayan; Shao, Hui

    2018-01-01

    The whispering gallery mode optical microresonator offers a high quality factor, which enables it to act as the core component of a high sensitivity resonator optic gyro; however, nonreciprocal noise limits its precision. Considering the Sagnac effect, i.e. mode splitting in high-quality optical micro-resonators, we derive the explicit expression for the angular velocity versus the splitting amount, and verify the sensing mechanism by simulation using finite element method. Remarkably, the accuracy of the angular velocity measurement in the whispering gallery mode optical microresonator with a quality factor of 108 is 106 °/s. We obtain the optimal coupling position of the novel angular velocity sensing system by detecting the output transmittance spectra of different vertical coupling distances and axial coupling positions. In addition, the reason for the nonreciprocal phenomenon is determined by theoretical analysis of the evanescent distribution of a tapered fiber. These results will provide an effective method and a theoretical basis for suppression of the nonreciprocal noise.

  7. Research on Ship-Radiated Noise Denoising Using Secondary Variational Mode Decomposition and Correlation Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxing Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As the sound signal of ships obtained by sensors contains other many significant characteristics of ships and called ship-radiated noise (SN, research into a denoising algorithm and its application has obtained great significance. Using the advantage of variational mode decomposition (VMD combined with the correlation coefficient for denoising, a hybrid secondary denoising algorithm is proposed using secondary VMD combined with a correlation coefficient (CC. First, different kinds of simulation signals are decomposed into several bandwidth-limited intrinsic mode functions (IMFs using VMD, where the decomposition number by VMD is equal to the number by empirical mode decomposition (EMD; then, the CCs between the IMFs and the simulation signal are calculated respectively. The noise IMFs are identified by the CC threshold and the rest of the IMFs are reconstructed in order to realize the first denoising process. Finally, secondary denoising of the simulation signal can be accomplished by repeating the above steps of decomposition, screening and reconstruction. The final denoising result is determined according to the CC threshold. The denoising effect is compared under the different signal-to-noise ratio and the time of decomposition by VMD. Experimental results show the validity of the proposed denoising algorithm using secondary VMD (2VMD combined with CC compared to EMD denoising, ensemble EMD (EEMD denoising, VMD denoising and cubic VMD (3VMD denoising, as well as two denoising algorithms presented recently. The proposed denoising algorithm is applied to feature extraction and classification for SN signals, which can effectively improve the recognition rate of different kinds of ships.

  8. Measurement of resonance modes causative of beam position monitor signal noise in vacuum chamber of storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Youngdo; Hwang, Ilmoon; Park, Sungju; Kim, Changbum

    2011-01-01

    It is known that the position reading obtained from the beam position monitor (BPM) mounted at the storage ring can be corrupted by the resonance mode. We carried out a three dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation of vacuum chambers of the storage ring of the Pohang Light Source (PLS) without simplified modeling to measure the frequencies of resonance modes excited in the vacuum chamber. The frequencies of resonance modes obtained by the eigenmode simulation are well matched with the peak frequencies of RF transmission scattering matrix (S 21 ) graph of sector vacuum chamber measured using a network analyzer. It is found that a transverse electric (TE) resonance mode exists in the operation frequency band of BPM and the vertically oriented electric field of TE resonance mode is linked to the BPM position reading noise. Based on this study, we can easily design a vacuum chamber free from the BPM position reading noise caused by the TE resonance mode.

  9. Current Mode Neutron Noise Measurements in the Zero Power Reactor CROCUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakari, O.; Lamirand, V.; Perret, G.; Braun, L.; Frajtag, P.; Pautz, A.

    2018-01-01

    The present article is an overview of developments and results regarding neutron noise measurements in current mode at the CROCUS zero power facility. Neutron noise measurements offer a non-invasive method to determine kinetic reactor parameters such as the prompt decay constant at criticality α = βeff / λ, the effective delayed neutron fraction βeff, and the mean generation time λ for code validation efforts. At higher detection rates, i.e. above 2×104 cps in the used configuration at 0.1 W, the previously employed pulse charge amplification electronics with BF3 detectors yielded erroneous results due to dead time effects. Future experimental needs call for higher sensitivity in detectors, higher detection rates or higher reactor powers, and thus a generally more versatile measurement system. We, therefore, explored detectors operated with current mode acquisition electronics to accommodate the need. We approached the matter in two ways: 1) By using the two compensated 10B-coated ionization chambers available in CROCUS as operational monitors. The compensated current signal of these chambers was extracted from coremonitoring output channels. 2) By developing a new current mode amplification station to be used with other available detectors in core. Characteristics and first noise measurements of the new current system are presented. We implemented post-processing of the current signals from 1)and 2) with the APSD/CPSD method to determine α. At two critical states (0.5 and 1.5 W), using the 10B ionization chambers and their CPSD estimate, the prompt decay constant was measured after 1.5 hours to be α=(156.9 ± 4.3) s-1 (1σ). This result is within 1σ of statistical uncertainties of previous experiments and MCNPv5-1.6 predictions using the ENDF/B-7.1 library. The newsystem connected to a CFUL01 fission chamber using the APSDestimate at 100 mW after 33 min yielded α = (160.8 ± 6.3) s-1, also within 1σ agreement. The improvements to previous neutron noise

  10. Effect of dipole-quadrupole Robinson mode coupling upon the beam response to radio-frequency phase noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Bosch

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In an electron storage ring, coupling between dipole and quadrupole Robinson oscillations modifies the spectrum of longitudinal beam oscillations driven by radio-frequency (rf generator phase noise. In addition to the main peak at the resonant frequency of the coupled dipole Robinson mode, another peak occurs at the resonant frequency of the coupled quadrupole mode. To describe these peaks analytically for a quadratic synchrotron potential, we include the dipole and quadrupole modes when calculating the beam response to generator noise. We thereby obtain the transfer function from generator-noise phase modulation to beam phase modulation with and without phase feedback. For Robinson-stable bunches confined in a synchrotron potential with a single minimum, the calculated transfer function agrees with measurements at the Aladdin 800-MeV electron storage ring. The transfer function is useful in evaluating phase feedback that suppresses Robinson oscillations in order to obtain quiet operation of an infrared beam line.

  11. Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noise is all around you, from televisions and radios to lawn mowers and washing machines. Normally, you ... sensitive structures of the inner ear and cause noise-induced hearing loss. More than 30 million Americans ...

  12. Hybrid de-noising approach for fiber optic gyroscopes combining improved empirical mode decomposition and forward linear prediction algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chong; Cao, Huiliang; Li, Jie; Tang, Jun; Zhang, Xiaoming; Shi, Yunbo; Yang, Wei; Liu, Jun

    2016-03-01

    A noise reduction algorithm based on an improved empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and forward linear prediction (FLP) is proposed for the fiber optic gyroscope (FOG). Referred to as the EMD-FLP algorithm, it was developed to decompose the FOG outputs into a number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) after which mode manipulations are performed to select noise-only IMFs, mixed IMFs, and residual IMFs. The FLP algorithm is then employed to process the mixed IMFs, from which the refined IMFs components are reconstructed to produce the final de-noising results. This hybrid approach is applied to, and verified using, both simulated signals and experimental FOG outputs. The results from the applications show that the method eliminates noise more effectively than the conventional EMD or FLP methods and decreases the standard deviations of the FOG outputs after de-noising from 0.17 to 0.026 under sweep frequency vibration and from 0.22 to 0.024 under fixed frequency vibration.

  13. Violin mode amplitude glitch monitor for the presence of excess noise on the monolithic silica suspensions of GEO 600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorazu, B; Strain, K A; Heng, I S; Kumar, R, E-mail: b.sorazu@physics.gla.ac.u [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, University Avenue, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-07

    Non-Gaussian features of data from gravitational wave detectors are of interest as unpredictable 'glitches' limit the sensitivity of searches for many kinds of signal. We consider events due to non-random excitations of the test masses and their suspension fibres. These events could, for example, be related to acoustic emissions in the fibres due to the presence and propagation of cracks or another type of structural perturbation, and they would generate excess noise above the Gaussian background, which matches the level expected due to thermal noise. We look for excess noise in the fundamental violin modes of the monolithic silica suspension fibres of GEO 600. We describe the algorithm used to monitor the violin mode amplitude for glitches, present our results and consider how these may be applied to advanced detectors. The conclusion of our analysis is that no excess noise above what was considered to be thermal noise was observed for several days of h(t) data analysed at the frequency of the selected violin modes.

  14. Violin mode amplitude glitch monitor for the presence of excess noise on the monolithic silica suspensions of GEO 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorazu, B; Strain, K A; Heng, I S; Kumar, R

    2010-01-01

    Non-Gaussian features of data from gravitational wave detectors are of interest as unpredictable 'glitches' limit the sensitivity of searches for many kinds of signal. We consider events due to non-random excitations of the test masses and their suspension fibres. These events could, for example, be related to acoustic emissions in the fibres due to the presence and propagation of cracks or another type of structural perturbation, and they would generate excess noise above the Gaussian background, which matches the level expected due to thermal noise. We look for excess noise in the fundamental violin modes of the monolithic silica suspension fibres of GEO 600. We describe the algorithm used to monitor the violin mode amplitude for glitches, present our results and consider how these may be applied to advanced detectors. The conclusion of our analysis is that no excess noise above what was considered to be thermal noise was observed for several days of h(t) data analysed at the frequency of the selected violin modes.

  15. Violin mode amplitude glitch monitor for the presence of excess noise on the monolithic silica suspensions of GEO 600

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorazu, B.; Strain, K. A.; Heng, I. S.; Kumar, R.

    2010-08-01

    Non-Gaussian features of data from gravitational wave detectors are of interest as unpredictable 'glitches' limit the sensitivity of searches for many kinds of signal. We consider events due to non-random excitations of the test masses and their suspension fibres. These events could, for example, be related to acoustic emissions in the fibres due to the presence and propagation of cracks or another type of structural perturbation, and they would generate excess noise above the Gaussian background, which matches the level expected due to thermal noise. We look for excess noise in the fundamental violin modes of the monolithic silica suspension fibres of GEO 600. We describe the algorithm used to monitor the violin mode amplitude for glitches, present our results and consider how these may be applied to advanced detectors. The conclusion of our analysis is that no excess noise above what was considered to be thermal noise was observed for several days of h(t) data analysed at the frequency of the selected violin modes.

  16. Fast Prediction of Differential Mode Noise Input Filter Requirements for FLyback and Boost Unity Power Factor Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    1997-01-01

    Two new and simple methods to make predictions of the differential mode (DM) input filter requirements are presented, one for flyback and one for boost unity power factor converters. They have been verified by measurements. They give the designer the ability to predict the DM input noise filter...

  17. Effect of Unsaturated Flow Modes on Partitioning Dynamics of Gravity-Driven Flow at a Simple Fracture Intersection: Laboratory Study and Three-Dimensional Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordilla, Jannes; Noffz, Torsten; Dentz, Marco; Geyer, Tobias; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we study gravity-driven flow of water in the presence of air on a synthetic surface intersected by a horizontal fracture and investigate the importance of droplet and rivulet flow modes on the partitioning behavior at the fracture intersection. We present laboratory experiments, three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations using a heavily parallelized code, and a theoretical analysis. The flow-rate-dependent mode switching from droplets to rivulets is observed in experiments and reproduced by the SPH model, and the transition ranges agree in SPH simulations and laboratory experiments. We show that flow modes heavily influence the "bypass" behavior of water flowing along a fracture junction. Flows favoring the formation of droplets exhibit a much stronger bypass capacity compared to rivulet flows, where nearly the whole fluid mass is initially stored within the horizontal fracture. The effect of fluid buffering within the horizontal fracture is presented in terms of dimensionless fracture inflow so that characteristic scaling regimes can be recovered. For both cases (rivulets and droplets), the flow within the horizontal fracture transitions into a Washburn regime until a critical threshold is reached and the bypass efficiency increases. For rivulet flows, the initial filling of the horizontal fracture is described by classical plug flow. Meanwhile, for droplet flows, a size-dependent partitioning behavior is observed, and the filling of the fracture takes longer. For the case of rivulet flow, we provide an analytical solution that demonstrates the existence of classical Washburn flow within the horizontal fracture.

  18. Comparison of the noise performance of 10 GHz repetition rate quantum-dot and quantum well monolithic mode-locked semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpintero, G.; Thompson, M. G.; Yvind, Kresten

    2011-01-01

    Mode-locked lasers are commonly used in carrier-wave signal generation systems because of their excellent phase noise performance. Owing to the importance of this key parameter, this study presents a like-for-like comparison of the noise performance of the passive mode-locked regime of two devices...... fabricated with different material gain systems, one quantum well and the other quantum dot (QD), both with a monolithic all-active two-section mode-locked structure. Two important factors are identified as having a significant effect on the noise performance, the RF linewidth of the first harmonic...... and the shape of the noise pedestals, both depending on the passive mode-locked bias conditions. Nevertheless, the dominant contribution of the RF linewidth to the phase noise, which is significantly narrower for the QD laser, makes this material more suitable for optical generation of low-noise millimetre...

  19. Whispering-gallery-mode laser-based noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gang; Hausmaninger, Thomas; Ma, Weiguang; Axner, Ove

    2017-08-15

    The whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) laser is a type of laser that has an exceptionally narrow linewidth. Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry, which is a detection technique with extraordinary properties that benefit from narrow linewidth lasers, has been realized with a WGM laser. By locking to a cavity with a finesse of 55 000, acetylene and carbon dioxide could be simultaneously detected down to an unprecedented noise equivalent absorption per unit length of 6.6×10 -14   cm -1 over 150 s, corresponding to 5 ppt of C 2 H 2 .

  20. Signal-to-Noise Ratio Enhancement Based on Empirical Mode Decomposition in Phase-Sensitive Optical Time Domain Reflectometry Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zengguang; Chen, Hui; Chang, Jun

    2017-08-14

    We propose a novel denoising method based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for vibration sensing in phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry (φ-OTDR) systems. Raw Rayleigh backscattering traces are decomposed into a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and a residual component using an EMD algorithm. High frequency noise is eliminated by removing several IMFs at the position without vibration selected by the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC). When the pulse width is 50 ns, the SNR of location information for the vibration events of 100 Hz and 1.2 kHz is increased to as high as 42.52 dB and 39.58 dB, respectively, with a 2 km sensing fiber, which demonstrates the excellent performance of this new method.

  1. Low-noise pulse-mode current power supply for magnetic field measurements of magnets for accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omel'yanenko, M.M.; Borisov, V.V.; Donyagin, A.M.; Kostromin, S.A.; Makarov, A.A.; Khodzhibagiyan, G.G.; Shemchuk, A.V.

    2017-01-01

    The described pulse-mode current power supply has been designed and fabricated for the magnetic field measurement system of superconducting magnets for accelerators. The power supply is based on a current regulator with pass transistor bank in linear mode. The output current pulses (0-100 A) are produced by using the energy of preliminary charged capacitor bank (5-40 V), which is charged additionally after each pulse. There is no AC-line frequency and harmonics ripple in the output current, the relative noise level is less than -100 dB (or 10 -5 ) of RMS value (it is defined as the ratio of output RMS noise current to the maximal output current 100 A within the operating bandwidth, expressed in dB).

  2. Quantum dynamics of a Josephson junction driven cavity mode system in the presence of voltage bias noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Blencowe, M. P.; Armour, A. D.; Rimberg, A. J.

    2017-09-01

    We give a semiclassical analysis of the average photon number as well as photon number variance (Fano factor F ) for a Josephson junction (JJ) embedded microwave cavity system, where the JJ is subject to a fluctuating (i.e., noisy) bias voltage with finite dc average. Through the ac Josephson effect, the dc voltage bias drives the effectively nonlinear microwave cavity mode into an amplitude squeezed state (F Armour et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 247001 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.247001], but bias noise acts to degrade this squeezing. We find that the sensitivity of the Fano factor to bias voltage noise depends qualitatively on which stable fixed point regime the system is in for the corresponding classical nonlinear steady-state dynamics. Furthermore, we show that the impact of voltage bias noise is most significant when the cavity is excited to states with large average photon number.

  3. The analytical model for crosstalk noise of current-mode signaling in coupled RLC interconnects of VLSI circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Pan, Zhongliang

    2017-09-01

    With the continuous advancement of semiconductor technology, the interconnects crosstalk has had a great influence on the performances of VLSI circuits. To date, most of the research about the interconnects of VLSI circuits focus on the voltage-mode signaling (VMS) scheme while the current-mode signaling (CMS) scheme is rarely analyzed. First of all, an equivalent circuit model of two-line coupled interconnects is presented in this paper, which is applicable to both the CMS and VMS schemes. The coupling capacitive and mutual inductive are taken into account in the equivalent circuit model. Secondly, the output noise of CMS and VMS schemes are investigated in the paper according to the decoupling technique and ABCD parameter matrix approach at local level, intermediate level and global level, respectively. Moreover, the experimental results show that the CMS interconnects have lesser noise peak, noise width and noise amplitude than the VMS interconnects in the same cases, and the CMS scheme is especially suitable for the global interconnects communication of VLSI circuits. It is found that the results obtained by ABCD parameter matrix approach are in good accordance with the simulation results of the advanced design system. Project supported by the Guangdong Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 2014A030313441), the Guangzhou Science and Technology Project (No. 201510010169), the Guangdong Province Science and Technology Project (No. 2016B090918071), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61072028).

  4. Q-switched-like soliton bunches and noise-like pulses generation in a partially mode-locked fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenhong; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Yan-Ge; Zhao, Wenjing; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Shangcheng; Yang, Guang; He, Ruijing

    2016-06-27

    We report an intermediate regime between c.w. emission and noise-like pulses (NLPs) regime in an Er-doped partially mode-locked fiber laser with nonlinear polarization rotation. In this regime, the soliton bunches stochastically turn up from a quasi-cw background in the Q-switched-like envelope. The soliton bunches normally last for tens or hundreds of intracavity round-trips. When the soliton bunches vanish, typical NLPs chains are generated sporadically at location where the soliton bunches collapses. These results would be helpful to understand the generation and property of the NLPs regime.

  5. A CMOS power-efficient low-noise current-mode front-end amplifier for neural signal recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chung-Yu; Chen, Wei-Ming; Kuo, Liang-Ting

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, a new current-mode front-end amplifier (CMFEA) for neural signal recording systems is proposed. In the proposed CMFEA, a current-mode preamplifier with an active feedback loop operated at very low frequency is designed as the first gain stage to bypass any dc offset current generated by the electrode-tissue interface and to achieve a low high-pass cutoff frequency below 0.5 Hz. No reset signal or ultra-large pseudo resistor is required. The current-mode preamplifier has low dc operation current to enhance low-noise performance and decrease power consumption. A programmable current gain stage is adopted to provide adjustable gain for adaptive signal scaling. A following current-mode filter is designed to adjust the low-pass cutoff frequency for different neural signals. The proposed CMFEA is designed and fabricated in 0.18-μm CMOS technology and the area of the core circuit is 0.076 mm(2). The measured high-pass cutoff frequency is as low as 0.3 Hz and the low-pass cutoff frequency is adjustable from 1 kHz to 10 kHz. The measured maximum current gain is 55.9 dB. The measured input-referred current noise density is 153 fA /√Hz , and the power consumption is 13 μW at 1-V power supply. The fabricated CMFEA has been successfully applied to the animal test for recording the seizure ECoG of Long-Evan rats.

  6. Propagation of equatorial noise to low altitudes: Decoupling from the magnetosonic mode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Santolík, Ondřej; Parrot, M.; Němec, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 13 (2016), s. 6694-6704 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31899S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH15304 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : equatorial noise * magnetosonic waves * polarization and propagation analysis * ray tracing Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.253, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016GL069582/full

  7. Coding Partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Burderi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of decipherability conditions for codes weaker than Unique Decipherability (UD, we introduce the notion of coding partition. Such a notion generalizes that of UD code and, for codes that are not UD, allows to recover the ``unique decipherability" at the level of the classes of the partition. By tacking into account the natural order between the partitions, we define the characteristic partition of a code X as the finest coding partition of X. This leads to introduce the canonical decomposition of a code in at most one unambiguouscomponent and other (if any totally ambiguouscomponents. In the case the code is finite, we give an algorithm for computing its canonical partition. This, in particular, allows to decide whether a given partition of a finite code X is a coding partition. This last problem is then approached in the case the code is a rational set. We prove its decidability under the hypothesis that the partition contains a finite number of classes and each class is a rational set. Moreover we conjecture that the canonical partition satisfies such a hypothesis. Finally we consider also some relationships between coding partitions and varieties of codes.

  8. Towards low timing phase noise operation in fiber lasers mode locked by graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes at 1.5 µm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kan; Li, Xiaohui; Wang, Yonggang; Wang, Qi Jie; Shum, Perry Ping; Chen, Jianping

    2015-01-12

    We investigate the timing phase noise of fiber lasers mode locked by graphene oxide (GO) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), respectively, integrated in a linear cavity fiber laser in the reflecting operation. Due to the shorter decay time of the GO and CNTs, weaker slow saturable absorber effects are expected and mode-locked lasers based on these two saturable absorbers exhibit low excess timing phase noise coupled from the laser intensity noise. Compared with a reference laser mode locked by semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM), GO based laser obtains a timing phase noise reduction of 7 dB at 1 kHz and a timing jitter reduction of 45% experimentally whereas CNTs based laser obtains a timing phase noise reduction of 3 dB and a timing jitter reduction of 29%. This finding suggests that saturable absorbers with short decay time have the potential for achieving mode locking operation with low timing phase noise, which is important for applications including frequency metrology, high-precision optical sampling, clock distribution and optical sensing.

  9. Common mode noise in three-level DC-DC converters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, Inus

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available for accurate conducted EMI simulation purposes, such as SABER® is inaccessible to the general designer due to cost. The buck converter is shown as an example. Comparison is made between common mode currents in a standard two-level converter and also three...

  10. Tunneling current noise spectra of biased impurity with a phonon mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslova, N. S.; Arseev, P. I.; Mantsevich, V. N.

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of theoretical investigations of the tunneling current noise spectra through a single-level impurity both in the presence and in the absence of electron–phonon interaction based on the nonequilibrium Green’s functions formalism. We show that due to the quantum nature of tunneling, the Fano factor is dramatically different from the Poisson limit both in the presence and in the absence of inelastic processes. The results are demonstrated to be sensitive to the tunneling contact parameters.

  11. Frequency Noise Suppression of a Single Mode Laser with an Unbalanced Fiber Interferometer for Subnanometer Interferometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmíd, Radek; Čížek, Martin; Mikel, Břetislav; Číp, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2015), s. 1342-1355 ISSN 1424-8220 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP102/12/P962; GA ČR GAP102/10/1813; GA TA ČR TA01010995; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : unbalanced interferometer * fiber spool * PI control * frequency noise Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.033, year: 2015

  12. Theory of semiconductor lasers from basis of quantum electronics to analyses of the mode competition phenomena and noise

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a unified and complete theory for semiconductor lasers, covering topics ranging from the principles of classical and quantum mechanics to highly advanced levels for readers who need to analyze the complicated operating characteristics generated in the real application of semiconductor lasers.   The author conducts a theoretical analysis especially on the instabilities involved in the operation of semiconductor lasers. A density matrix into the theory for semiconductor lasers is introduced and the formulation of an improved rate equation to help understand the mode competition phenomena which cause the optical external feedback noise is thoroughly described from the basic quantum mechanics. The derivation of the improved rate equation will allow readers to extend the analysis for the different types of semiconductor materials and laser structures they deal with.   This book is intended not only for students and academic researchers but also for engineers who develop lasers for the market, ...

  13. A tandem laboratory scale protein purification process using Protein A affinity and anion exchange chromatography operated in a weak partitioning mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamashkin, Michael; Godavarti, Ranga; Iskra, Timothy; Coffman, Jon

    2013-10-01

    A significant consequence of scaling up production of high titer monoclonal antibody (mAb) processes in existing facilities is the generation of in-process pools that exceed the capacity of storage vessels. A semi-continuous downstream process where columns and filters are linked and operated in tandem would eliminate the need for intermediate holding tanks. This study is a bench-scale demonstration of the feasibility of a tandem process for the purification of mAbs employing an affinity Protein A capture step, followed by a flow-through anion-exchange (AEX) step with the possibility of adding an in-line virus filtration step (VF). All three steps were linked sequentially and operated as one continuous process using an ÄKTA FPLC equipped with two pumps and a system of valves and bypasses that allowed the components to be engaged at different stages of the process. The AEX column was operated in a weak partitioning (WP) mode enabled by a precise in-line titration of Protein A effluent. In order to avoid complex control schemes and facilitate validation, quality and robustness were built into the system through selection of buffers based on thermodynamic and empirical models. The tandem system utilized the simplest possible combination of valves, pumps, controls, and automation, so that it could easily be implemented in a clinical or commercial production facility. Linking the purification steps in a tandem process is expected to generate savings in time and production costs and also reduce the size of quality systems due to reduced documentation requirements, microbial sampling, and elimination of hold time validation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Using optical fibers with different modes to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of diffuse correlation spectroscopy flow-oximeter measurements

    OpenAIRE

    He, Lian; Lin, Yu; Shang, Yu; Shelton, Brent J.; Yu, Guoqiang

    2013-01-01

    The dual-wavelength diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) flow-oximeter is an emerging technique enabling simultaneous measurements of blood flow and blood oxygenation changes in deep tissues. High signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is crucial when applying DCS technologies in the study of human tissues where the detected signals are usually very weak. In this study, single-mode, few-mode, and multimode fibers are compared to explore the possibility of improving the SNR of DCS flow-oximeter measure...

  15. Analysis of mode-hopping effect in Fabry–Pérot multiple-quantum well laser diodes via low frequency noise investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pralgauskaitė, Sandra; Palenskis, Vilius; Matukas, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive investigation of noise characteristics and radiation spectrum with special attention to the mode-hopping effect of Fabry–Pérot (FP) multiple quantum well laser diodes (LDs) have been carried out: laser radiation spectra, optical and electrical fluctuations and cross-correlation factor...

  16. Observation of phase noise reduction in photonically synthesized sub-THz signals using a passively mode-locked laser diode and highly selective optical filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Criado, A. R.; Acedo, P.; Carpintero, G.

    2012-01-01

    A Continuous Wave (CW) sub-THz photonic synthesis setup based on a single Passively Mode-Locked Laser Diode (PMLLD) acting as a monolithic Optical Frequency Comb Generator (OFCG) and highly selective optical filtering has been implemented to evaluate the phase noise performance of the generated sub...

  17. Comparative study of radiation dose and image noise between single-source fast kilo voltage peak switching technique and conventional mode on abdominal CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Xiaozhu; Xu Xueqin; Chen Kemin; Yan Fuhua; Isao Tanaka; Rika Fukui; Haruhiko Machida; Eiko Ueno

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the radiation dose and image noise of abdominal CT with spectral imaging and conventional scan mode. Methods: This was a retrospective study. The first part of this study was a phantom study. A standard quality assessment phantom was scanned with gemstone spectral imaging mode and conventional helical mode using 120 kVp with different mAs. A regression function for the mAs between conventional scan mode and spectral imaging mode was obtained. According to the regression function, the mAs on 120 kVp corresponding to different gemstone spectral imaging protocol were calculated. The second part of this study was a clinical study. Twenty-two patients who underwent contrast enhanced abdominal CT scanning were included. The pre-contrast CT was scanned by a conventional mode with automatic exposure control technique. According to the mAs of pre-contrast scan, corresponding spectral imaging parameters were selected for the portal venous phase of post-contrast scan. Five sets of images with 5 mm slice thickness were reconstructed, with 65 keV monochromatic image for spectral imaging and FBP, 20%,40% and 60% ASIR image for conventional imaging respectively. Image noise was measured on hepatic parenchyma and urinary bladder for each set of image. Radiation dose and image noise were compared between CT spectral imaging and conventional imaging with paired t-test. Results: No significant differences were found for the CTDIvol [(13.8 ± 4.8) mGy versus (14.0 ± 7.0) mGy] and DLP [(691.1 ± 274.2) mGy · cm versus (678.8 ± 385.0) mGy · cm] between CT spectral imaging and conventional imaging. Monochromatic image (65 keV) by spectral imaging [(7.6 ± 1.4) HU for hepatic parenchyma and (9.1 ± 1.3) HU for urinary bladder] had equal image noise with 40% ASIR [hepatic parenchyma: (7.8 ±0.7) HU] and 20% ASIR [urinary bladder: (9.2 ± 1.2) HU] and lower image noise than FBP image [(10.4 ± 1.0) HU for hepatic parenchyma and (10.5 ± 1.3) HU for urinary

  18. Shielding Characteristics Using an Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source to Generate Modes - Experimental Measurements and Analytical Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.; Walker, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    An Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source (UCFANS) was designed, built, and tested in support of the NASA Langley Research Center's 14x22 wind tunnel test of the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) full 3-D 5.8% scale model. The UCFANS is a 5.8% rapid prototype scale model of a high-bypass turbofan engine that can generate the tonal signature of proposed engines using artificial sources (no flow). The purpose of the program was to provide an estimate of the acoustic shielding benefits possible from mounting an engine on the upper surface of a wing; a flat plate model was used as the shielding surface. Simple analytical simulations were used to preview the radiation patterns - Fresnel knife-edge diffraction was coupled with a dense phased array of point sources to compute shielded and unshielded sound pressure distributions for potential test geometries and excitation modes. Contour plots of sound pressure levels, and integrated power levels, from nacelle alone and shielded configurations for both the experimental measurements and the analytical predictions are presented in this paper.

  19. High average/peak power linearly polarized all-fiber picosecond MOPA seeded by mode-locked noise-like pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H. L.; Ma, P. F.; Tao, R. M.; Wang, X. L.; Zhou, P.; Chen, J. B.

    2015-06-01

    The characteristics of mode-locked noise-like pulses generated from a passively mode-locked fiber oscillator are experimentally investigated. By carefully adjusting the two polarization controllers, stable mode-locked noise-like pulse emission with a high radio frequency signal/noise ratio of  >55 dB is successfully achieved, ensuring the safety and possibility of high power amplification. To investigate the amplification characteristics of such pulses, one all-fiber master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) is built to boost the power and energy of such pulses. Amplified noise-like pulses with average output power of 423 W, repetition rate of 18.71 MHz, pulse energy of 22.61 μJ, pulse duration of 72.1 ps and peak power of 314 kW are obtained. Near diffraction-limited beam is also demonstrated with M2 factor measured at full power operation of ~1.2 in the X and Y directions. The polarization extinction ratio at output power of 183 W is measured to be ~13 dB. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of high-power amplification of noise-like pulses and the highest peak power ever reported in all-fiber picosecond MOPAs. The temporal self-compression process of such pulses and high peak power when amplified make it an ideal pump source for generation of high-power supercontinuum. Other potential applications, such as material processing and optical coherent tomography, could also be foreseen.

  20. Rail environmental impact: energy consumption and noise pollution assessment of different transport modes connecting Big Ben (London, UK and Eiffel Tower (Paris, FR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto PALACIN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is set within the framework of the RailNewcastle Summer School program 2014 run by Newcastle University. It attempts to explore the sustainability credentials of railways when compared with other transport modes connecting central London with central Paris, two of Europe’s largest metropolis. Specifically, the study compares the energy consumption and noise pollution of a rail-only travel option with two other alternatives using a combination of public transport modes. The analysis includes defining the regulatory framework, sourcing and aggregating energy consumption from a number of references as well as creating noise maps for key nodes using validated tools available. The results suggest that the rail-only option has the best performance of the three options in terms of energy consumption while a bus-coach-metro combination seems to have lower noise levels than the rest. Assumptions due to lack of meaningful data made in the calculation of underground rail services are thought to have influence on the lower than expected performance of rails systems in terms of noise. The authors conclude that considering the combined outcomes of both assessments, the rail-only option is the preferred choice from a sustainability credentials perspective.

  1. Using optical fibers with different modes to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of diffuse correlation spectroscopy flow-oximeter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lian; Lin, Yu; Shang, Yu; Shelton, Brent J.; Yu, Guoqiang

    2013-03-01

    The dual-wavelength diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) flow-oximeter is an emerging technique enabling simultaneous measurements of blood flow and blood oxygenation changes in deep tissues. High signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is crucial when applying DCS technologies in the study of human tissues where the detected signals are usually very weak. In this study, single-mode, few-mode, and multimode fibers are compared to explore the possibility of improving the SNR of DCS flow-oximeter measurements. Experiments on liquid phantom solutions and in vivo muscle tissues show only slight improvements in flow measurements when using the few-mode fiber compared with using the single-mode fiber. However, light intensities detected by the few-mode and multimode fibers are increased, leading to significant SNR improvements in detections of phantom optical property and tissue blood oxygenation. The outcomes from this study provide useful guidance for the selection of optical fibers to improve DCS flow-oximeter measurements.

  2. Experimental evaluation of a spinning-mode acoustic-treatment design concept for aircraft inlets. [suppression of YF-102 engine fan noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelberg, L. J.; Rice, E. J.; Homyak, L.

    1980-01-01

    An aircraft-inlet noise suppressor method based on mode cutoff ratio was qualitatively checked by testing a series of liners on a YF-102 turbofan engine. Far-field directivity of the blade passing frequency was used extensively to evaluate the results. The trends and observations of the test data lend much qualitative support to the design method. The best of the BPF liners attained a suppression at design frequency of 19 dB per unit length-diameter ratio. The best multiple-pure-tone linear attained a remarkable suppression of 65.6 bB per unit length-diameter ratio.

  3. Robust, low-noise, polarization-maintaining mode-locked Er-fiber laser with a planar lightwave circuit (PLC) device as a multi-functional element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chur; Kwon, Dohyeon; Kim, Dohyun; Choi, Sun Young; Cha, Sang Jun; Choi, Ki Sun; Yeom, Dong-Il; Rotermund, Fabian; Kim, Jungwon

    2017-04-15

    We demonstrate a new planar lightwave circuit (PLC)-based device, integrated with a 980/1550 wavelength division multiplexer, an evanescent-field-interaction-based saturable absorber, and an output tap coupler, which can be employed as a multi-functional element in mode-locked fiber lasers. Using this multi-functional PLC device, we demonstrate a simple, robust, low-noise, and polarization-maintaining mode-locked Er-fiber laser. The measured full-width at half-maximum bandwidth is 6 nm centered at 1555 nm, corresponding to 217 fs transform-limited pulse duration. The measured RIN and timing jitter are 0.22% [10 Hz-10 MHz] and 6.6 fs [10 kHz-1 MHz], respectively. Our results show that the non-gain section of mode-locked fiber lasers can be easily implemented as a single PLC chip that can be manufactured by a wafer-scale fabrication process. The use of PLC processes in mode-locked lasers has the potential for higher manufacturability of low-cost and robust fiber and waveguide lasers.

  4. A low-noise transimpedance amplifier for the detection of "Violin-Mode" resonances in advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of an extremely low-noise differential transimpedance amplifier, which takes its two inputs from separate photodiodes. The amplifier was planned to serve as the front-end electronics for a highly sensitive shadow-displacement sensing system, aimed at detecting very low-level "Violin-Mode" (VM) oscillations in 0.4 mm diameter by 600 mm long fused-silica suspension fibres. Four such highly tensioned fibres support the 40 kg test-masses/mirrors of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory interferometers. This novel design of amplifier incorporates features which prevent "noise-gain peaking" arising from large area photodiode (and cable) capacitances, and which also usefully separate the DC and AC photocurrents coming from the photodiodes. In consequence, the differential amplifier was able to generate straightforwardly two DC outputs, one per photodiode, as well as a single high-gain output for monitoring the VM oscillations—this output being derived from the difference of the photodiodes' two, naturally anti-phase, AC photocurrents. Following a displacement calibration, the amplifier's final VM signal output was found to have an AC displacement responsivity at 500 Hz of (9.43 ± 1.20) MV(rms) m-1(rms), and, therefore, a shot-noise limited sensitivity to such AC shadow- (i.e., fibre-) displacements of (69 ± 13) picometres/√Hz at this frequency, over a measuring span of ±0.1 mm.

  5. High dynamic range low-noise focal plane readout for VLWIR applications implemented with current mode background subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Sun, Chao; Shaw, Timothy; Wrigley, Chris; Peddada, Pavani; Blazejewski, Edward R.; Pain, Bedabrata

    1998-09-01

    Design and operation of a low noise CMOS focal pa;ne readout circuit with ultra-high charge handling capacity is presented. Designed for high-background, VLWIR detector readout, each readout unit cell use an accurate dynamic current memory for automatic subtraction of the dark pedestal in current domain enabling measurement of small signals 85 dB below the dark level. The redout circuit operates with low-power dissipation, high linearity, and is capable of handling pedestal currents up to 300 nA. Measurements indicate an effective charge handling capacity of over 5 X 10(superscript 9) charges/pixel with less than 10(superscript 5) electrons of input referred noise.

  6. Effect of removing the common mode errors on linear regression analysis of noise amplitudes in position time series of a regional GPS network & a case study of GPS stations in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiping; Ma, Jun; Li, Zhao; Zhou, Xiaohui; Zhou, Boye

    2018-05-01

    The analysis of the correlations between the noise in different components of GPS stations has positive significance to those trying to obtain more accurate uncertainty of velocity with respect to station motion. Previous research into noise in GPS position time series focused mainly on single component evaluation, which affects the acquisition of precise station positions, the velocity field, and its uncertainty. In this study, before and after removing the common-mode error (CME), we performed one-dimensional linear regression analysis of the noise amplitude vectors in different components of 126 GPS stations with a combination of white noise, flicker noise, and random walking noise in Southern California. The results show that, on the one hand, there are above-moderate degrees of correlation between the white noise amplitude vectors in all components of the stations before and after removal of the CME, while the correlations between flicker noise amplitude vectors in horizontal and vertical components are enhanced from un-correlated to moderately correlated by removing the CME. On the other hand, the significance tests show that, all of the obtained linear regression equations, which represent a unique function of the noise amplitude in any two components, are of practical value after removing the CME. According to the noise amplitude estimates in two components and the linear regression equations, more accurate noise amplitudes can be acquired in the two components.

  7. Data Partitioning Technique for Improved Video Prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Amin Ali

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A compressed video bitstream can be partitioned according to the coding priority of the data, allowing prioritized wireless communication or selective dropping in a congested channel. Known as data partitioning in the H.264/Advanced Video Coding (AVC codec, this paper introduces a further sub-partition of one of the H.264/AVC codec’s three data-partitions. Results show a 5 dB improvement in Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR through this innovation. In particular, the data partition containing intra-coded residuals is sub-divided into data from: those macroblocks (MBs naturally intra-coded, and those MBs forcibly inserted for non-periodic intra-refresh. Interactive user-to-user video streaming can benefit, as then HTTP adaptive streaming is inappropriate and the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC codec is too energy demanding.

  8. Daily Peak Load Forecasting Based on Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Adaptive Noise and Support Vector Machine Optimized by Modified Grey Wolf Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyu Dai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Daily peak load forecasting is an important part of power load forecasting. The accuracy of its prediction has great influence on the formulation of power generation plan, power grid dispatching, power grid operation and power supply reliability of power system. Therefore, it is of great significance to construct a suitable model to realize the accurate prediction of the daily peak load. A novel daily peak load forecasting model, CEEMDAN-MGWO-SVM (Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Adaptive Noise and Support Vector Machine Optimized by Modified Grey Wolf Optimization Algorithm, is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the model uses the complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise (CEEMDAN algorithm to decompose the daily peak load sequence into multiple sub sequences. Then, the model of modified grey wolf optimization and support vector machine (MGWO-SVM is adopted to forecast the sub sequences. Finally, the forecasting sequence is reconstructed and the forecasting result is obtained. Using CEEMDAN can realize noise reduction for non-stationary daily peak load sequence, which makes the daily peak load sequence more regular. The model adopts the grey wolf optimization algorithm improved by introducing the population dynamic evolution operator and the nonlinear convergence factor to enhance the global search ability and avoid falling into the local optimum, which can better optimize the parameters of the SVM algorithm for improving the forecasting accuracy of daily peak load. In this paper, three cases are used to test the forecasting accuracy of the CEEMDAN-MGWO-SVM model. We choose the models EEMD-MGWO-SVM (Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition and Support Vector Machine Optimized by Modified Grey Wolf Optimization Algorithm, MGWO-SVM (Support Vector Machine Optimized by Modified Grey Wolf Optimization Algorithm, GWO-SVM (Support Vector Machine Optimized by Grey Wolf Optimization Algorithm, SVM (Support Vector

  9. Noise Abatement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    SMART, Sound Modification and Regulated Temperature compound, is a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy and sound absorbing qualities. It is derived from a very elastic plastic which was an effective noise abatement material in the Apollo Guidance System. Discovered by a NASA employee, it is marketed by Environmental Health Systems, Inc. (EHS). The product has been successfully employed by a diaper company with noisy dryers and a sugar company with noisy blowers. The company also manufactures an audiometric test booth and acoustical office partitions.

  10. Reduction of timing jitter and intensity noise in normal-dispersion passively mode-locked fiber lasers by narrow band-pass filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Peng; Song, Youjian; Kim, Hyoji; Shin, Junho; Kwon, Dohyeon; Hu, Minglie; Wang, Chingyue; Kim, Jungwon

    2014-11-17

    Fiber lasers mode-locked with normal cavity dispersion have recently attracted great attention due to large output pulse energy and femtosecond pulse duration. Here we accurately characterized the timing jitter of normal-dispersion fiber lasers using a balanced cross-correlation method. The timing jitter characterization experiments show that the timing jitter of normal-dispersion mode-locked fiber lasers can be significantly reduced by using narrow band-pass filtering (e.g., 7-nm bandwidth filtering in this work). We further identify that the timing jitter of the fiber laser is confined in a limited range, which is almost independent of cavity dispersion map due to the amplifier-similariton formation by insertion of the narrow bandpass filter. The lowest observed timing jitter reaches 0.57 fs (rms) integrated from 10 kHz to 10 MHz Fourier frequency. The rms relative intensity noise (RIN) is also reduced from 0.37% to 0.02% (integrated from 1 kHz to 5 MHz Fourier frequency) by the insertion of narrow band-pass filter.

  11. Goldbach Partitions and Sequences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Properties of Goldbach partitions of numbers, as sums of primes, are presented and their potential applications to cryptography are described. The sequence of the number of partitions has excel- lent randomness properties. Goldbach partitions can be used to create ellipses and circles on the number line and they can also ...

  12. [An Improved Empirical Mode Decomposition Algorithm for Phonocardiogram Signal De-noising and Its Application in S1/S2 Extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jing; Nie, Shengdong; Wang, Yuanjun

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, an improved empirical mode decomposition (EMD) algorithm for phonocardiogram (PCG) signal de-noising is proposed. Based on PCG signal processing theory, the S1/S2 components can be extracted by combining the improved EMD-Wavelet algorithm and Shannon energy envelope algorithm. Firstly, by applying EMD-Wavelet algorithm for pre-processing, the PCG signal was well filtered. Then, the filtered PCG signal was saved and applied in the following processing steps. Secondly, time domain features, frequency domain features and energy envelope of the each intrinsic mode function's (IMF) were computed. Based on the time frequency domain features of PCG's IMF components which were extracted from the EMD algorithm and energy envelope of the PCG, the S1/S2 components were pinpointed accurately. Meanwhile, a detecting fixed method, which was based on the time domain processing, was proposed to amend the detection results. Finally, to test the performance of the algorithm proposed in this paper, a series of experiments was contrived. The experiments with thirty samples were tested for validating the effectiveness of the new method. Results of test experiments revealed that the accuracy for recognizing S1/S2 components was as high as 99.75%. Comparing the results of the method proposed in this paper with those of traditional algorithm, the detection accuracy was increased by 5.56%. The detection results showed that the algorithm described in this paper was effective and accurate. The work described in this paper will be utilized in the further studying on identity recognition.

  13. Noise suppression by noise

    OpenAIRE

    Vilar, J. M. G. (José M. G.), 1972-; Rubí Capaceti, José Miguel

    2001-01-01

    We have analyzed the interplay between an externally added noise and the intrinsic noise of systems that relax fast towards a stationary state, and found that increasing the intensity of the external noise can reduce the total noise of the system. We have established a general criterion for the appearance of this phenomenon and discussed two examples in detail.

  14. Sound Diffraction Around Movable Partitions in Teaching Spaces. Education Building Report 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, N. K. D.

    This study concerns the diffraction of sound around flexible partitions used in teaching spaces. It includes a comprehensive study of the acoustical conditions in several school buildings in India, Malaysia, Singapore, and Sri Lanka. The noise reduction properties of some typical partitions the minimum height of the partition between two teaching…

  15. A step-wise steerable source of illumination for low-noise "Violin-Mode" shadow sensors, intended for use in interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2016-01-01

    A steerable low-noise source of illumination is described for shadow-sensors having a displacement sensitivity of ˜100 pm (rms)/√Hz, at 500 Hz, over a measuring span of at least ±0.5 mm. These sensors were designed to detect lateral "Violin-Mode" resonances in the highly tensioned fused-silica suspension fibres of the test-masses/mirrors for the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory gravitational wave detectors. The shadow sensors—one intended for each of the four fibres in a suspension—comprised a source of Near InfraRed (NIR) radiation (emitter) and a differential shadow-displacement sensor (detector), these bracketing the fibre under test. The suspension fibres themselves were approximately 600 mm long by 0.4 mm in diameter, and when illuminated from the side, they cast narrow, vertical, shadows onto their respective detectors—these being located at an effective distance of 50 fibre diameters behind the axes of the fibres themselves. The emitter described here was designed to compensate for a significant degree of mechanical drift or creep over time in the mean position of its suspension fibre. This was achieved by employing five adjacent columns of 8 × miniature NIR LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes, λ = 890 nm), with one column being activated at a time. When used in conjunction with a "reverse Galilean" telescope, the LED sources allowed the collimated beam from the emitter to be steered azimuthally in fine angular increments (0.65°), causing the fibre's shadow to move laterally, in a step-wise manner, across the plane of its facing detector. Each step in shadow position was approximately 0.23 mm in size, and this allowed the fibre's shadow to be re-centred, so as to bridge once again both elements of its photodiode detector—even if the fibre was off-centred by as much as ±0.5 mm. Re-centring allowed Violin-Mode vibrations of the fibre to be sensed once again as differential AC photocurrents, these flowing in anti-phase in the

  16. Study of different operational modes of the IAP 2-port-DOAS instrument for atmospheric trace gases investigation during CINDI-2 campaign basing on residual noise analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovski, A.; Postylyakov, O.; Elokhov, A.; Bruchkovski, I.

    2017-11-01

    An instrument for measuring atmospheric trace gases by DOAS method using scattered solar radiation was developed in A.M.Obukhov IAP RAS. The instrument layout is based on the lab Shamrock 303i spectrograph supplemented by 2-port radiation input system employing optical fiber. Optical ports may be used with a telescope with fixed field of view or with a scanning MAX-DOAS unit. MAX-DOAS unit port will be used for investigation of gas contents and profiles in the low troposphere. In September 2016 the IAP instrument participated in the CINDI-2 campaign, held in the Netherlands. CINDI 2 (2nd Cabauw Intercomparison of Nitrogen Dioxide Measuring Instruments) involves about 40 instruments quasi-synchronously performing DOAS measurements of NO2 and other trace gases. During the campaign the instrument ports had telescopes A and B with similar field of view of about 0.3°. Telescope A was always directed to the zenith. Telescope B was directed at 5° elevation angle. Two gratings were installed in the spectrometer. They provide different spectral resolution (FWHM 0.4 and 0.8 nm respectively) and spectral window width ( 70 and 140 nm respectively). During CINDI-2 campaign we performed test measurements in UV and visible wavelength ranges to investigate instrument stability and retrieval errors of NO2 and HCHO contents. We perform the preliminary error analysis of retrieval of the NO2 and HCHO differential slant column densities using spectra measured in four modes of the instrument basing on residual noise analysis in this paper. It was found that rotation of grating turret does not significantly affected on quality of NO2 DSCD retrieval from spectra which measured in visible spectral region. Influence of grating turret rotation is much more significant for gas DSCD retrieval from spectra which measured in UV spectral region. Standard deviation of retrieval error points to presence of some systematic error.

  17. The Euler–Riemann gases, and partition identities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chair, Noureddine

    2013-01-01

    The Euler theorem in partition theory and its generalization are derived from a non-interacting quantum field theory in which each bosonic mode with a given frequency is equivalent to a sum of bosonic mode whose frequency is twice (s-times) as much, and a fermionic (parafermionic) mode with the same frequency. Explicit formulas for the graded parafermionic partition functions are obtained, and the inverse of the graded partition function (IGPPF), turns out to be bosonic (fermionic) partition function depending on the parity of the order s of the parafermions. It is also shown that these partition functions are generating functions of partitions of integers with restrictions, the Euler generating function is identified with the inverse of the graded parafermionic partition function of order 2. As a result we obtain new sequences of partitions of integers with given restrictions. If the parity of the order s is even, then mixing a system of parafermions with a system whose partition function is (IGPPF), results in a system of fermions and bosons. On the other hand, if the parity of s is odd, then, the system we obtain is still a mixture of fermions and bosons but the corresponding Fock space of states is truncated. It turns out that these partition functions are given in terms of the Jacobi theta function θ 4 , and generate sequences in partition theory. Our partition functions coincide with the overpartitions of Corteel and Lovejoy, and jagged partitions in conformal field theory. Also, the partition functions obtained are related to the Ramond characters of the superconformal minimal models, and in the counting of the Moore–Read edge spectra that appear in the fractional quantum Hall effect. The different partition functions for the Riemann gas that are the counter parts of the Euler gas are obtained by a simple change of variables. In particular the counter part of the Jacobi theta function is (ζ(2t))/(ζ(t) 2 ) . Finally, we propose two formulas which brings

  18. Active Noise Control for Dishwasher noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nokhaeng; Park, Youngjin

    2016-09-01

    The dishwasher is a useful home appliance and continually used for automatically washing dishes. It's commonly placed in the kitchen with built-in style for practicality and better use of space. In this environment, people are easily exposed to dishwasher noise, so it is an important issue for the consumers, especially for the people living in open and narrow space. Recently, the sound power levels of the noise are about 40 - 50 dBA. It could be achieved by removal of noise sources and passive means of insulating acoustical path. For more reduction, such a quiet mode with the lower speed of cycle has been introduced, but this deteriorates the washing capacity. Under this background, we propose active noise control for dishwasher noise. It is observed that the noise is propagating mainly from the lower part of the front side. Control speakers are placed in the part for the collocation. Observation part of estimating sound field distribution and control part of generating the anti-noise are designed for active noise control. Simulation result shows proposed active noise control scheme could have a potential application for dishwasher noise reduction.

  19. Combinatorics of set partitions

    CERN Document Server

    Mansour, Toufik

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on a very active area of mathematical research in the last decade, Combinatorics of Set Partitions presents methods used in the combinatorics of pattern avoidance and pattern enumeration in set partitions. Designed for students and researchers in discrete mathematics, the book is a one-stop reference on the results and research activities of set partitions from 1500 A.D. to today. Each chapter gives historical perspectives and contrasts different approaches, including generating functions, kernel method, block decomposition method, generating tree, and Wilf equivalences. Methods and d

  20. Matrix string partition function

    CERN Document Server

    Kostov, Ivan K; Kostov, Ivan K.; Vanhove, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    We evaluate quasiclassically the Ramond partition function of Euclidean D=10 U(N) super Yang-Mills theory reduced to a two-dimensional torus. The result can be interpreted in terms of free strings wrapping the space-time torus, as expected from the point of view of Matrix string theory. We demonstrate that, when extrapolated to the ultraviolet limit (small area of the torus), the quasiclassical expressions reproduce exactly the recently obtained expression for the partition of the completely reduced SYM theory, including the overall numerical factor. This is an evidence that our quasiclassical calculation might be exact.

  1. Plane partition vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rensburg, E J Janse van; Ma, J

    2006-01-01

    We examine partitions and their natural three-dimensional generalizations, plane partitions, as models of vesicles undergoing an inflation-deflation transition. The phase diagrams of these models include a critical point corresponding to an inflation-deflation transition, and exhibits multicritical scaling in the vicinity of a multicritical point located elsewhere on the critical curve. We determine the locations of the multicritical points by analysing the generating functions using analytic and numerical means. In addition, we determine the numerical values of the multicritical scaling exponents associated with the multicritical scaling regimes in these models

  2. Noise Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Share Clean Air Act Title IV - Noise Pollution The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments added a ... abatement 7642 Authorization of appropriations What is Noise Pollution? The traditional definition of noise is “unwanted or ...

  3. Gluing Nekrasov Partition Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jian; Tizzano, Luigi; Winding, Jacob; Zabzine, Maxim

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we summarise the localisation calculation of 5D super Yang-Mills on simply connected toric Sasaki-Einstein (SE) manifolds. We show how various aspects of the computation, including the equivariant index, the asymptotic behaviour and the factorisation property are governed by the combinatorial data of the toric geometry. We prove that the perturbative partition function on a simply connected SE manifold corresponding to an n-gon toric diagram factorises to n copies of perturbative part (zero instanton sector) of the Nekrasov partition function. This leads us to conjecture a prescription for the computation of the complete partition function, by gluing n copies of the full Nekrasov partition functions. This work is a generalisation of some earlier computation carried out on Y p, q manifolds, whose moment map cone has a quadrangle base and our result is valid for manifolds whose moment map cones have pentagon base, hexagon base, etc. The algorithm we used for dealing with general cones may also be of independent interest.

  4. Goldbach Partitions and Sequences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 11. Goldbach Partitions and Sequences. Subhash Kak. General Article Volume 19 Issue 11 November 2014 pp 1028-1037. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/11/1028-1037 ...

  5. Surface Modifications of Support Partitions for Stabilizing Biomimetic Membrane Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Mark; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; Jensen, Karin Bagger Stibius

    2011-01-01

    Black lipid membrane (BLM) formation across apertures in an ethylene tetra-fluoroethylene (ETFE) partition separating two aqueous compartments is an established technique for the creation of biomimetic membranes. Recently multi-aperture BLM arrays have attracted interest and in order to increase...... with a high signal-to-noise (s/n) ratio. We demonstratesd this by reconstituting gA and α-hemolysin (α-HL) into BLM arrays. The improvement in membrane array lifetime and s/n ratio demonstrates that surface plasma polymerization of the supporting partition can be used to increase the stability of biomimetic...... modified partitions were similar and significantly lower than for arrays formed using untreated ETFE partitions. For single side n-hexene modification average membrane array lifetimes were not significantly changed compared to untreated ETFE. Double-sided n-hexene modification greatly improved average...

  6. Manifold Partition Discriminant Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang Zhou; Shiliang Sun

    2017-04-01

    We propose a novel algorithm for supervised dimensionality reduction named manifold partition discriminant analysis (MPDA). It aims to find a linear embedding space where the within-class similarity is achieved along the direction that is consistent with the local variation of the data manifold, while nearby data belonging to different classes are well separated. By partitioning the data manifold into a number of linear subspaces and utilizing the first-order Taylor expansion, MPDA explicitly parameterizes the connections of tangent spaces and represents the data manifold in a piecewise manner. While graph Laplacian methods capture only the pairwise interaction between data points, our method captures both pairwise and higher order interactions (using regional consistency) between data points. This manifold representation can help to improve the measure of within-class similarity, which further leads to improved performance of dimensionality reduction. Experimental results on multiple real-world data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Partitional clustering algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book summarizes the state-of-the-art in partitional clustering. Clustering, the unsupervised classification of patterns into groups, is one of the most important tasks in exploratory data analysis. Primary goals of clustering include gaining insight into, classifying, and compressing data. Clustering has a long and rich history that spans a variety of scientific disciplines including anthropology, biology, medicine, psychology, statistics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science. As a result, numerous clustering algorithms have been proposed since the early 1950s. Among these algorithms, partitional (nonhierarchical) ones have found many applications, especially in engineering and computer science. This book provides coverage of consensus clustering, constrained clustering, large scale and/or high dimensional clustering, cluster validity, cluster visualization, and applications of clustering. Examines clustering as it applies to large and/or high-dimensional data sets commonly encountered in reali...

  8. Generalised twisted partition functions

    CERN Document Server

    Petkova, V B

    2001-01-01

    We consider the set of partition functions that result from the insertion of twist operators compatible with conformal invariance in a given 2D Conformal Field Theory (CFT). A consistency equation, which gives a classification of twists, is written and solved in particular cases. This generalises old results on twisted torus boundary conditions, gives a physical interpretation of Ocneanu's algebraic construction, and might offer a new route to the study of properties of CFT.

  9. BKP plane partitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, Omar; Wheeler, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Using BKP neutral fermions, we derive a product expression for the generating function of volume-weighted plane partitions that satisfy two conditions. If we call a set of adjacent equal height-h columns, h > 0, an h-path, then 1. Every h-path can assume one of two possible colours. 2. There is a unique way to move along an h-path from any column to another

  10. BKP plane partitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, Omar; Wheeler, Michael [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2007-01-15

    Using BKP neutral fermions, we derive a product expression for the generating function of volume-weighted plane partitions that satisfy two conditions. If we call a set of adjacent equal height-h columns, h > 0, an h-path, then 1. Every h-path can assume one of two possible colours. 2. There is a unique way to move along an h-path from any column to another.

  11. Combustion noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahle, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the subject of combustion generated noise is presented. Combustion noise is an important noise source in industrial furnaces and process heaters, turbopropulsion and gas turbine systems, flaring operations, Diesel engines, and rocket engines. The state-of-the-art in combustion noise importance, understanding, prediction and scaling is presented for these systems. The fundamentals and available theories of combustion noise are given. Controversies in the field are discussed and recommendations for future research are made.

  12. Probabilistic Decision Based Block Partitioning for Future Video Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhao

    2017-11-29

    In the latest Joint Video Exploration Team development, the quadtree plus binary tree (QTBT) block partitioning structure has been proposed for future video coding. Compared to the traditional quadtree structure of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard, QTBT provides more flexible patterns for splitting the blocks, which results in dramatically increased combinations of block partitions and high computational complexity. In view of this, a confidence interval based early termination (CIET) scheme is proposed for QTBT to identify the unnecessary partition modes in the sense of rate-distortion (RD) optimization. In particular, a RD model is established to predict the RD cost of each partition pattern without the full encoding process. Subsequently, the mode decision problem is casted into a probabilistic framework to select the final partition based on the confidence interval decision strategy. Experimental results show that the proposed CIET algorithm can speed up QTBT block partitioning structure by reducing 54.7% encoding time with only 1.12% increase in terms of bit rate. Moreover, the proposed scheme performs consistently well for the high resolution sequences, of which the video coding efficiency is crucial in real applications.

  13. Inhibitory noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Destexhe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cortical neurons in vivo may operate in high-conductance states, in which the major part of the neuron's input conductance is due to synaptic activity, sometimes several-fold larger than the resting conductance. We examine here the contribution of inhibition in such high-conductance states. At the level of the absolute conductance values, several studies have shown that cortical neurons in vivo are characterized by strong inhibitory conductances. However, conductances are balanced and spiking activity is mostly determined by fluctuations, but not much is known about excitatory and inhibitory contributions to these fluctuations. Models and dynamic-clamp experiments show that, during high-conductance states, spikes are mainly determined by fluctuations of inhibition, or by inhibitory noise. This stands in contrast to low-conductance states, in which excitatory conductances determine spiking activity. To determine these contributions from experimental data, maximum likelihood methods can be designed and applied to intracellular recordings in vivo. Such methods indicate that action potentials are indeed mostly correlated with inhibitory fluctuations in awake animals. These results argue for a determinant role for inhibitory fluctuations in evoking spikes, and do not support feed-forward modes of processing, for which opposite patterns are predicted.

  14. Noise analysis of switched integrator preamplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Hongbo; Li Yulan; Zhu Weibin

    2004-01-01

    The main noise sources of switched integrator preamplifiers are discussed, and their noise performance are given combined PSpice simulation and experiments on them. Then, some practical methods on how to reduce noise of preamplifiers in two different integrator modes are provided. (authors)

  15. Noise Source Location Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed O’Keefe

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a method to determine locations of noise sources that minimize modal coupling in complex acoustic volumes. Using the acoustic source scattering capabilities of the boundary element method, predictions are made of mode shape and pressure levels due to various source locations. Combining knowledge of the pressure field with a multivariable function minimization technique, the source location generating minimum pressure levels can be determined. The analysis also allows for an objective comparison of “best/worst” locations. The technique was implemented on a personal computer for the U.S. Space Station, predicting 5–10 dB noise reduction using optimum source locations.

  16. Gentile statistics and restricted partitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The partition function of Gentile statistics also has the property that it nicely interpolates between the ... We now construct the partition function for such a system which also incorporates the property of interpolation ... As in [4], we however keep s arbitrary even though for s > 2 there are no quadratic. Hamiltonian systems.

  17. Gentile statistics and restricted partitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We generalise these results to obtain an asymptotic formula for the restricted or coloured partitions p k s ( n ) , which is the number of partitions of an integer into the summand of th powers of integers such that each power of a given integer may occur utmost times. While the method is not rigorous, it reproduces the ...

  18. Efficient methods for finding transition states in chemical reactions: comparison of improved dimer method and partitioned rational function optimization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyden, Andreas; Bell, Alexis T; Keil, Frerich J

    2005-12-08

    A combination of interpolation methods and local saddle-point search algorithms is probably the most efficient way of finding transition states in chemical reactions. Interpolation methods such as the growing-string method and the nudged-elastic band are able to find an approximation to the minimum-energy pathway and thereby provide a good initial guess for a transition state and imaginary mode connecting both reactant and product states. Since interpolation methods employ usually just a small number of configurations and converge slowly close to the minimum-energy pathway, local methods such as partitioned rational function optimization methods using either exact or approximate Hessians or minimum-mode-following methods such as the dimer or the Lanczos method have to be used to converge to the transition state. A modification to the original dimer method proposed by [Henkelman and Jonnson J. Chem. Phys. 111, 7010 (1999)] is presented, reducing the number of gradient calculations per cycle from six to four gradients or three gradients and one energy, and significantly improves the overall performance of the algorithm on quantum-chemical potential-energy surfaces, where forces are subject to numerical noise. A comparison is made between the dimer methods and the well-established partitioned rational function optimization methods for finding transition states after the use of interpolation methods. Results for 24 different small- to medium-sized chemical reactions covering a wide range of structural types demonstrate that the improved dimer method is an efficient alternative saddle-point search algorithm on medium-sized to large systems and is often even able to find transition states when partitioned rational function optimization methods fail to converge.

  19. Wakefield Band Partitioning in LINAC Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Roger M

    2003-01-01

    In the NLC project multiple bunches of electrons and positrons will be accelerated initially to a centre of mass of 500 GeV and later to 1 TeV or more. In the process of accelerating 192 bunches within a pulse train, wakefields are excited which kick the trailing bunches off axis and can cause luminosity dilution and BBU (Beam Break Up). Several structures to damp the wakefield have been designed and tested at SLAC and KEK and these have been found to successfully damp the wakefield [1]. However, these 2π/3 structures suffered from electrical breakdown and this has prompted us to explore lower group velocity structures operating at higher fundamental mode phase advances. The wakefield partitioning amongst the bands has been found to change markedly with increased phase advance. Here we report on general trends in the kick factor and associated wakefield band partitioning in dipole bands as a function of phase advance of the synchronous mode in linacs. These results are applicable to both TW (travelling wave) and SW (standing wave) structures

  20. Noise Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Environmental Health Systems puts forth an increasing effort in the U.S. to develop ways of controlling noise, particularly in industrial environments due to Federal and State laws, labor union insistence and new findings relative to noise pollution impact on human health. NASA's Apollo guidance control system aided in the development of a noise protection product, SMART. The basis of all SMART products is SMART compound a liquid plastic mixture with exceptional energy/sound absorbing qualities. The basic compound was later refined for noise protection use.

  1. Environmental Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumberg, Martin

    Environmental noise may be defined as unwanted sound that is caused by emissions from traffic (roads, air traffic corridors, and railways), industrial sites and recreational infrastructures, which may cause both annoyance and damage to health. Noise in the environment or community seriously affects people, interfering with daily activities at school, work and home and during leisure time.

  2. Hawk: A Runtime System for Partitioned Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben Hassen, S.; Bal, H.E.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Hawk is a language-independent runtime system for writing data-parallel programs using partitioned objects. A partitioned object is a multidimensional array of elements that can be partitioned and distributed by the programmer. The Hawk runtime system uses the user-defined partitioning of objects

  3. Oma modal indication by sensitivity to added artificial noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Martin O.; Olsen, Peter; Tarpø, Marius

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a modal indicator for use in OMA identification techniques relying on the correlation function for extraction of parameters. We propose to add small amounts of artificial white Gaussian noise to the correlation function and measuring the sensitivity of the identified modes...... to this noise. The idea is to identify system parameters many times, each time adding a tiny amount of uncorrelated white Gaussian noise to the correlation function. Since the noise modes are more affected by the adding of tiny amounts of additional noise, than the physical modes, the variance of the estimated...... parameters gives an effective modal indicator....

  4. Oma modal indication by sensitivity to added artificial noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Martin O.; Olsen, Peter; Tarpø, Marius

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a modal indicator for use in OMA identification techniques relying on the correlation function for extraction of parameters. We propose to add small amounts of artificial white Gaussian noise to the correlation function and measuring the sensitivity of the identified modes...... to this noise. The idea is to identify system parameters many times, each time adding a tiny amount of uncorrelated white Gaussian noise to the correlation function. Since the noise modes are more affected by the adding of tiny amounts of additional noise, than the physical modes, the variance of the estimated...

  5. Classification algorithms using adaptive partitioning

    KAUST Repository

    Binev, Peter

    2014-12-01

    © 2014 Institute of Mathematical Statistics. Algorithms for binary classification based on adaptive tree partitioning are formulated and analyzed for both their risk performance and their friendliness to numerical implementation. The algorithms can be viewed as generating a set approximation to the Bayes set and thus fall into the general category of set estimators. In contrast with the most studied tree-based algorithms, which utilize piecewise constant approximation on the generated partition [IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory 52 (2006) 1335.1353; Mach. Learn. 66 (2007) 209.242], we consider decorated trees, which allow us to derive higher order methods. Convergence rates for these methods are derived in terms the parameter - of margin conditions and a rate s of best approximation of the Bayes set by decorated adaptive partitions. They can also be expressed in terms of the Besov smoothness β of the regression function that governs its approximability by piecewise polynomials on adaptive partition. The execution of the algorithms does not require knowledge of the smoothness or margin conditions. Besov smoothness conditions are weaker than the commonly used Holder conditions, which govern approximation by nonadaptive partitions, and therefore for a given regression function can result in a higher rate of convergence. This in turn mitigates the compatibility conflict between smoothness and margin parameters.

  6. Drone noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinney, Charles; Sirohi, Jayant; University of Texas at Austin Team

    2017-11-01

    A basic understanding of the noise produced by single and multirotor drones operating at static thrust conditions is presented. This work acts as an extension to previous efforts conducted at The University of Texas at Austin (Tinney et al. 2017, AHS Forum 73). Propeller diameters ranging from 8 inch to 12 inch are examined for configurations comprising an isolated rotor, a quadcopter configuration and a hexacopter configuration, and with a constant drone pitch of 2.25. An azimuthal array of half-inch microphones, placed between 2 and 3 hub-center diameters from the drone center, are used to assess the acoustic near-field. Thrust levels, acquired using a six degree-of-freedom load cell, are then used to correlate acoustic noise levels to aerodynamic performance for each drone configuration. The findings reveal a nearly logarithmic increase in noise with increasing thrust. However, for the same thrust condition, considerable noise reduction is achieved by increasing the number of propeller blades thereby reducing the blade passage frequency and both the thickness and loading noise sources that accompany it.

  7. Multi-phase EMI noise separator

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Common mode (CM) and differential mode (DM) components of multi-phase conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) noise emanating from electronic circuits such as power converters/inverters are separated by respective coupled inductors connected to each phase of three or more phases and which are coupled to each other differently for CM and DM noise of the respective phases. The inductors of the DM separation unit are coupled such that a substantially ideal zero impedance is presented to DM ...

  8. A multi-stage method for connecting participatory sensing and noise simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mingyuan; Che, Weitao; Zhang, Qiuju; Luo, Qingli; Lin, Hui

    2015-01-22

    Most simulation-based noise maps are important for official noise assessment but lack local noise characteristics. The main reasons for this lack of information are that official noise simulations only provide information about expected noise levels, which is limited by the use of large-scale monitoring of noise sources, and are updated infrequently. With the emergence of smart cities and ubiquitous sensing, the possible improvements enabled by sensing technologies provide the possibility to resolve this problem. This study proposed an integrated methodology to propel participatory sensing from its current random and distributed sampling origins to professional noise simulation. The aims of this study were to effectively organize the participatory noise data, to dynamically refine the granularity of the noise features on road segments (e.g., different portions of a road segment), and then to provide a reasonable spatio-temporal data foundation to support noise simulations, which can be of help to researchers in understanding how participatory sensing can play a role in smart cities. This study first discusses the potential limitations of the current participatory sensing and simulation-based official noise maps. Next, we explain how participatory noise data can contribute to a simulation-based noise map by providing (1) spatial matching of the participatory noise data to the virtual partitions at a more microscopic level of road networks; (2) multi-temporal scale noise estimations at the spatial level of virtual partitions; and (3) dynamic aggregation of virtual partitions by comparing the noise values at the relevant temporal scale to form a dynamic segmentation of each road segment to support multiple spatio-temporal noise simulations. In this case study, we demonstrate how this method could play a significant role in a simulation-based noise map. Together, these results demonstrate the potential benefits of participatory noise data as dynamic input sources for

  9. A Multi-Stage Method for Connecting Participatory Sensing and Noise Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyuan Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most simulation-based noise maps are important for official noise assessment but lack local noise characteristics. The main reasons for this lack of information are that official noise simulations only provide information about expected noise levels, which is limited by the use of large-scale monitoring of noise sources, and are updated infrequently. With the emergence of smart cities and ubiquitous sensing, the possible improvements enabled by sensing technologies provide the possibility to resolve this problem. This study proposed an integrated methodology to propel participatory sensing from its current random and distributed sampling origins to professional noise simulation. The aims of this study were to effectively organize the participatory noise data, to dynamically refine the granularity of the noise features on road segments (e.g., different portions of a road segment, and then to provide a reasonable spatio-temporal data foundation to support noise simulations, which can be of help to researchers in understanding how participatory sensing can play a role in smart cities. This study first discusses the potential limitations of the current participatory sensing and simulation-based official noise maps. Next, we explain how participatory noise data can contribute to a simulation-based noise map by providing (1 spatial matching of the participatory noise data to the virtual partitions at a more microscopic level of road networks; (2 multi-temporal scale noise estimations at the spatial level of virtual partitions; and (3 dynamic aggregation of virtual partitions by comparing the noise values at the relevant temporal scale to form a dynamic segmentation of each road segment to support multiple spatio-temporal noise simulations. In this case study, we demonstrate how this method could play a significant role in a simulation-based noise map. Together, these results demonstrate the potential benefits of participatory noise data as dynamic

  10. Analysis of load balance in hybrid partitioning | Talib | Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In information retrieval systems, there are three types of index partitioning schemes - term partitioning, document partitioning, and hybrid partitioning. The hybrid-partitioning scheme combines both term and document partitioning schemes. Term partitioning provides high concurrency, which means that queries can be ...

  11. Low noise monolithic CMOS front end electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, G.; Bergmann, H.; Holl, P.; Manfredi, P.F.

    1987-01-01

    Design considerations for low noise charge measurement and their application in CMOS electronics are described. The amplifier driver combination whose noise performance has been measured in detail as well as the analog multiplexing silicon strip detector readout electronics are designed with low power consumption and can be operated in pulsed mode so as to reduce heat dissipation even further in many applications. (orig.)

  12. Base neutron noise in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosaly, G.; Albrecht, R.W.; Dailey, D.J.; Fry, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    Considerable activity has been devoted in recent years to the use of neutron noise for investigation of problems in pressurized-water reactors (PWRs). The investigators have found that neutron noise provides an effective way to monitor reactor internal vibrations such as vertical and lateral core motion; core support barrel and thermal shield shell modes, bending modes of fuel assemblies, and control rod vibrations. However, noise analysts have also concluded that diagnosis of a problem is easier if baseline data for normal plant operation is available. Therefore, the authors have obtained ex-core neutron noise signatures from eight PWRs to determine the similarity of signatures between plants and to build a base of data to determine the sources of neutron noise and thus the potential diagnostic information contained in the data. It is concluded that: (1) ex-core neutron noise contains information about the vibration of components in the pressure vessel; (2) baseline signature acquisition can aid understanding of plant specific vibration frequencies and provide a bases for diagnosis of future problems if they occur; and (3) abnormal core support barrel vibration can most likely be detected over and above the plant-to-plant signature variation observed thus far

  13. Rectilinear partitioning of irregular data parallel computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, David M.

    1991-01-01

    New mapping algorithms for domain oriented data-parallel computations, where the workload is distributed irregularly throughout the domain, but exhibits localized communication patterns are described. Researchers consider the problem of partitioning the domain for parallel processing in such a way that the workload on the most heavily loaded processor is minimized, subject to the constraint that the partition be perfectly rectilinear. Rectilinear partitions are useful on architectures that have a fast local mesh network. Discussed here is an improved algorithm for finding the optimal partitioning in one dimension, new algorithms for partitioning in two dimensions, and optimal partitioning in three dimensions. The application of these algorithms to real problems are discussed.

  14. Gentile statistics and restricted partitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a recent paper (Tran et al, Ann. Phys. 311, 204 (2004)), some asymptotic number theoretical results on the partitioning of an integer were derived exploiting its connection to the quantum density of states of a many-particle system. We generalise these results to obtain an asymptotic formula for the restricted or coloured ...

  15. Partitioning of a DRM receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolkotte, P.T.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Smit, L.T.

    In this article we present the results of partitioning the OFDM baseband processing of a DRM receiver into smaller independent processes. Furthermore, we give a short introduction into the relevant parts of the DRM standard. Based on the number of multiplications and additions we can map individual

  16. Paths and partitions: Combinatorial descriptions of the parafermionic states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Pierre

    2009-09-01

    The Zk parafermionic conformal field theories, despite the relative complexity of their modes algebra, offer the simplest context for the study of the bases of states and their different combinatorial representations. Three bases are known. The classic one is given by strings of the fundamental parafermionic operators whose sequences of modes are in correspondence with restricted partitions with parts at distance k -1 differing at least by 2. Another basis is expressed in terms of the ordered modes of the k -1 different parafermionic fields, which are in correspondence with the so-called multiple partitions. Both types of partitions have a natural (Bressoud) path representation. Finally, a third basis, formulated in terms of different paths, is inherited from the solution of the restricted solid-on-solid model of Andrews-Baxter-Forrester. The aim of this work is to review, in a unified and pedagogical exposition, these four different combinatorial representations of the states of the Zk parafermionic models. The first part of this article presents the different paths and partitions and their bijective relations; it is purely combinatorial, self-contained, and elementary; it can be read independently of the conformal-field-theory applications. The second part links this combinatorial analysis with the bases of states of the Zk parafermionic theories. With the prototypical example of the parafermionic models worked out in detail, this analysis contributes to fix some foundations for the combinatorial study of more complicated theories. Indeed, as we briefly indicate in ending, generalized versions of both the Bressoud and the Andrews-Baxter-Forrester paths emerge naturally in the description of the minimal models.

  17. Some trees with partition dimension three

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredlina, Ketut Queena; Baskoro, Edy Tri

    2016-02-01

    The concept of partition dimension of a graph was introduced by Chartrand, E. Salehi and P. Zhang (1998) [2]. Let G(V, E) be a connected graph. For S ⊆ V (G) and v ∈ V (G), define the distance d(v, S) from v to S is min{d(v, x)|x ∈ S}. Let Π be an ordered partition of V (G) and Π = {S1, S2, ..., Sk }. The representation r(v|Π) of vertex v with respect to Π is (d(v, S1), d(v, S2), ..., d(v, Sk)). If the representations of all vertices are distinct, then the partition Π is called a resolving partition of G. The partition dimension of G is the minimum k such that G has a resolving partition with k partition classes. In this paper, we characterize some classes of trees with partition dimension three, namely olive trees, weeds, and centipedes.

  18. Signal processing method for Johnson noise thermometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, I. G.; Moon, B. S.; Kinser, Rpger

    2003-01-01

    The development of Johnson Noise Thermometry requires a high sensitive preamplifier circuit to pick up the temperature-related noise on the sensing element. However, the random noise generated in this amplification circuit causes a significant erroneous influence to the measurement. This paper describes signal processing mechanism of the Johnson Noise Thermometry system which is underway of development in collaboration between KAERI and ORNL. It adopts two identical amplifier channels and utilizes a digital signal processing technique to remove the independent noise of each channel. The CPSD(Cross Power Spectral Density) function is used to cancel the independent noise and the differentiation of narrow or single frequency peak from the CPSD data separates the common mode electromagnetic interference noise

  19. Passive Noise Filtering by Cellular Compartmentalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeger, Thomas; Battich, Nico; Pelkmans, Lucas

    2016-03-10

    Chemical reactions contain an inherent element of randomness, which presents itself as noise that interferes with cellular processes and communication. Here we discuss the ability of the spatial partitioning of molecular systems to filter and, thus, remove noise, while preserving regulated and predictable differences between single living cells. In contrast to active noise filtering by network motifs, cellular compartmentalization is highly effective and easily scales to numerous systems without requiring a substantial usage of cellular energy. We will use passive noise filtering by the eukaryotic cell nucleus as an example of how this increases predictability of transcriptional output, with possible implications for the evolution of complex multicellularity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Partitioning in P-T concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Peilu; Qi Zhanshun; Zhu Zhixuan

    2000-01-01

    Comparison of dry- and water-method for partitioning fission products and minor actinides from the spent fuels, and description of advance of dry-method were done. Partitioning process, some typical concept and some results of dry-method were described. The problems fond in dry-method up to now were pointed out. The partitioning study program was suggested

  1. Fair partitions of polygons: An elementary introduction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    different numbers of sides etc. and could be arbitrarily positioned within P. Unlike area, we do not know upfront how much perimeter each piece ought to have – its common value has to emerge from the partition. Following [7], we define a fair partition of a polygon as a partition of it into finite number of pieces such that every ...

  2. Noise storm coordinated observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgaroey, Oe.; Tlamicha, A.

    1983-01-01

    The usually accepted bipolar model of noise storm centers is irrelevant for the present observations. An alternative model has been proposed in which the different sources of a noise storm center are located in different flux tubes connecting active regions with their surroundings. Radio emission is observed from the wide, descending branch of the flux tubes, opposite to the flaring site. The relation between the sense of circular polarization of the radio emission and the magnetic polarity, has been more precisely defined. The radiation is in the ordinary mode with respect to the underlying large scale photospheric magnetic polarity. Thus the ''irregular'' polarity of noice storm center ''B'' is explained. As regards center ''C'', one should note that although the observed radio emission is polarized in the ordinary mode with respect to the leading spot of region HR 17653, center ''C'' is not situated in flux tubes originating from the leading part of this region according to the proposed model. Rather, the radio sources are located in the wide and descending part of flux tubes connecting a large, quiet area of south magnetic polarity with the following part of the region HR 17653 (of north magnetic polarity). Thus it is the polarity of the extended area which determines the polarization of the radio emission. The observed polarization should result rather from the emission process than from complicated conditions of propagation for the radio waves

  3. The optimal graph partitioning problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Malmros; Holm, Søren

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of partitioning the set of nodes in a graph in at most p classes, such that the sum of node weights in any class is not greater than the class capacity b, and such that the sum of edge weights, for edges connecting nodes in the same class, is maximal. This pr......In this paper we consider the problem of partitioning the set of nodes in a graph in at most p classes, such that the sum of node weights in any class is not greater than the class capacity b, and such that the sum of edge weights, for edges connecting nodes in the same class, is maximal...

  4. Occupational Noise Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety and Health Topics / Occupational Noise Exposure Occupational Noise Exposure This page requires that javascript be enabled ... interprets the signal as sound. x What is noise? Noise and vibration are both fluctuations in the ...

  5. PAQ: Partition Analysis of Quasispecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccam, P; Thompson, R J; Fedrigo, O; Carpenter, S; Cornette, J L

    2001-01-01

    The complexities of genetic data may not be accurately described by any single analytical tool. Phylogenetic analysis is often used to study the genetic relationship among different sequences. Evolutionary models and assumptions are invoked to reconstruct trees that describe the phylogenetic relationship among sequences. Genetic databases are rapidly accumulating large amounts of sequences. Newly acquired sequences, which have not yet been characterized, may require preliminary genetic exploration in order to build models describing the evolutionary relationship among sequences. There are clustering techniques that rely less on models of evolution, and thus may provide nice exploratory tools for identifying genetic similarities. Some of the more commonly used clustering methods perform better when data can be grouped into mutually exclusive groups. Genetic data from viral quasispecies, which consist of closely related variants that differ by small changes, however, may best be partitioned by overlapping groups. We have developed an intuitive exploratory program, Partition Analysis of Quasispecies (PAQ), which utilizes a non-hierarchical technique to partition sequences that are genetically similar. PAQ was used to analyze a data set of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope sequences isolated from different regions of the brain and another data set consisting of the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) regulatory gene rev. Analysis of the HIV-1 data set by PAQ was consistent with phylogenetic analysis of the same data, and the EIAV rev variants were partitioned into two overlapping groups. PAQ provides an additional tool which can be used to glean information from genetic data and can be used in conjunction with other tools to study genetic similarities and genetic evolution of viral quasispecies.

  6. Gentile statistics and restricted partitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bosons confined in a harmonic trap at a given energy E, in the N → ∞ limit, is the same as the number of ways of ... with a power-law energy spectrum, is analogous to ps(n), that is, the number of ways of partitioning an integer n as a sum of sth ..... [11] for the nuclear level density. We further note that the k → ∞, or the ...

  7. Partitioning sparse rectangular matrices for parallel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolda, T.G.

    1998-05-01

    The authors are interested in partitioning sparse rectangular matrices for parallel processing. The partitioning problem has been well-studied in the square symmetric case, but the rectangular problem has received very little attention. They will formalize the rectangular matrix partitioning problem and discuss several methods for solving it. They will extend the spectral partitioning method for symmetric matrices to the rectangular case and compare this method to three new methods -- the alternating partitioning method and two hybrid methods. The hybrid methods will be shown to be best.

  8. Spectral partitioning in equitable graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barucca, Paolo

    2017-06-01

    Graph partitioning problems emerge in a wide variety of complex systems, ranging from biology to finance, but can be rigorously analyzed and solved only for a few graph ensembles. Here, an ensemble of equitable graphs, i.e., random graphs with a block-regular structure, is studied, for which analytical results can be obtained. In particular, the spectral density of this ensemble is computed exactly for a modular and bipartite structure. Kesten-McKay's law for random regular graphs is found analytically to apply also for modular and bipartite structures when blocks are homogeneous. An exact solution to graph partitioning for two equal-sized communities is proposed and verified numerically, and a conjecture on the absence of an efficient recovery detectability transition in equitable graphs is suggested. A final discussion summarizes results and outlines their relevance for the solution of graph partitioning problems in other graph ensembles, in particular for the study of detectability thresholds and resolution limits in stochastic block models.

  9. Noise in Optical Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1997-01-01

    Noise in optical amplifiers is discussed on the basis of photons and electromagntic fields. Formulas for quantum noise from spontaneous emission, signal-spontaneous beat noise and spontaneous-spontaneous beat noise are derived.......Noise in optical amplifiers is discussed on the basis of photons and electromagntic fields. Formulas for quantum noise from spontaneous emission, signal-spontaneous beat noise and spontaneous-spontaneous beat noise are derived....

  10. Mode decomposition evolution equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Guo-Wei; Yang, Siyang

    2012-03-01

    Partial differential equation (PDE) based methods have become some of the most powerful tools for exploring the fundamental problems in signal processing, image processing, computer vision, machine vision and artificial intelligence in the past two decades. The advantages of PDE based approaches are that they can be made fully automatic, robust for the analysis of images, videos and high dimensional data. A fundamental question is whether one can use PDEs to perform all the basic tasks in the image processing. If one can devise PDEs to perform full-scale mode decomposition for signals and images, the modes thus generated would be very useful for secondary processing to meet the needs in various types of signal and image processing. Despite of great progress in PDE based image analysis in the past two decades, the basic roles of PDEs in image/signal analysis are only limited to PDE based low-pass filters, and their applications to noise removal, edge detection, segmentation, etc. At present, it is not clear how to construct PDE based methods for full-scale mode decomposition. The above-mentioned limitation of most current PDE based image/signal processing methods is addressed in the proposed work, in which we introduce a family of mode decomposition evolution equations (MoDEEs) for a vast variety of applications. The MoDEEs are constructed as an extension of a PDE based high-pass filter (Europhys. Lett., 59(6): 814, 2002) by using arbitrarily high order PDE based low-pass filters introduced by Wei (IEEE Signal Process. Lett., 6(7): 165, 1999). The use of arbitrarily high order PDEs is essential to the frequency localization in the mode decomposition. Similar to the wavelet transform, the present MoDEEs have a controllable time-frequency localization and allow a perfect reconstruction of the original function. Therefore, the MoDEE operation is also called a PDE transform. However, modes generated from the present approach are in the spatial or time domain and can be

  11. Energy partition of seismic coda waves in layered media: theory and application to Pinyon Flats Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerin, L.; Campillo, M.; Van Tiggelen, B. A.; Hennino, R.

    2009-05-01

    We have studied the partition of shear, compressional and kinetic energies in the coda of 10 earthquakes recorded on a dense array, located at Pinyon Flats Observatory (PFO), California. Deformation energies are estimated by measuring finite differences of the wavefield components. We have thoroughly studied the validity and stability of this technique for the PFO data and obtained reliable measurements in the 5-7 Hz frequency band. We observe a clear stabilization of the ratio between shear and compressional energies (WS/WP) in the coda, with similar values for all 10 earthquakes under study. We interpret this observation as a signature of equipartition. The average WS/WP ratio is about 2.8, which is smaller by a factor 2.5 than the expected value, around 7.2, for equipartitioned elastic waves at the surface of a homogeneous Poisson half-space. The ratio between the vertical and horizontal kinetic energies (V2/H2) also exhibits stabilization in the coda and can be measured from 5 to 25Hz. The V2/H2 ratio shows an abrupt transition from 0.1 in the 5-10Hz band, to about 0.8 in the 15-25Hz band. These measured values are again in sharp contrast with the theoretical prediction, around 0.56, for equipartitioned elastic waves at the surface of a Poisson half-space. To explain these observations, we have developed a theory of equipartition in a layered elastic half-space. Using a rigorous spectral decomposition of the elastic wave equation, we define equipartition as a white noise distributed over the complete set of eigenfunctions. This definition is shown to agree with the standard physical concepts in canonical cases. The theory predicts that close to the resonance frequency of a low-velocity layer, the ratio between the shear and compressional energies strongly decreases. Using a detailed model of the subsurface at PFO, this counter-intuitive result is found to be in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with the observations. Near the resonance frequency of

  12. Yesterday's noise - today's signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serdula, K.J.

    1978-01-01

    Plant performance can be improved by noise analysis. This paper describes noise characteristics, imposed noise and response functions, a case history of cost benefits derived from application of noise analysis techniques, areas for application of noise analysis techniques with special reference to the Gentilly-1 nuclear generating station, and the validity of noise measurement results. (E.C.B.)

  13. Examining nocturnal railway noise and aircraft noise in the field: sleep, psychomotor performance, and annoyance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmenhorst, Eva-Maria; Pennig, Sibylle; Rolny, Vinzent; Quehl, Julia; Mueller, Uwe; Maaß, Hartmut; Basner, Mathias

    2012-05-01

    Traffic noise is interfering during day- and nighttime causing distress and adverse physiological reactions in large parts of the population. Railway noise proved less annoying than aircraft noise in surveys which were the bases for a so called 5 dB railway bonus regarding noise protection in many European countries. The present field study investigated railway noise-induced awakenings during sleep, nighttime annoyance and the impact on performance the following day. Comparing these results with those from a field study on aircraft noise allowed for a ranking of traffic modes concerning physiological and psychological reactions. 33 participants (mean age 36.2 years ± 10.3 (SD); 22 females) living alongside railway tracks around Cologne/Bonn (Germany) were polysomnographically investigated. These data were pooled with data from a field study on aircraft noise (61 subjects) directly comparing the effects of railway and aircraft noise in one random subject effects logistic regression model. Annoyance was rated in the morning evaluating the previous night. Probability of sleep stage changes to wake/S1 from railway noise increased significantly from 6.5% at 35 dB(A) to 20.5% at 80 dB(A) LAFmax. Rise time of noise events had a significant impact on awakening probability. Nocturnal railway noise led to significantly higher awakening probabilities than aircraft noise, partly explained by the different rise times, whereas the order was inversed for annoyance. Freight train noise compared to passenger train noise proved to have the most impact on awakening probability. Nocturnal railway noise had no effect on psychomotor vigilance. Nocturnal freight train noise exposure in Germany was associated with increased awakening probabilities exceeding those for aircraft noise and contrasting the findings of many annoyance surveys and annoyance ratings of our study. During nighttime a bonus for railway noise seems not appropriate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Suspensions with reduced violin string modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B H; Ju, L; Blair, D G

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of significantly reducing the number and Q-factor of violin string modes in the mirror suspension. Simulations of a bar-flexure suspension and an orthogonal ribbon have shown a reduction in the number of violin string modes when compared to a normal ribbon suspension. By calculating the expected suspension thermal noise, we find that the orthogonal ribbon provides a promising suspension alternative. A lower number of violin modes oscillating in the direction of the laser and a reduction in violin mode peak values of at least 23dB can be achieved with a slight increase in thermal noise above 40Hz

  15. Suspensions with reduced violin string modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B H; Ju, L; Blair, D G [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA (Australia)

    2006-03-02

    We discuss the possibility of significantly reducing the number and Q-factor of violin string modes in the mirror suspension. Simulations of a bar-flexure suspension and an orthogonal ribbon have shown a reduction in the number of violin string modes when compared to a normal ribbon suspension. By calculating the expected suspension thermal noise, we find that the orthogonal ribbon provides a promising suspension alternative. A lower number of violin modes oscillating in the direction of the laser and a reduction in violin mode peak values of at least 23dB can be achieved with a slight increase in thermal noise above 40Hz.

  16. Many-body formalism for fermions: The partition function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, D. K.

    2017-09-01

    The partition function, a fundamental tenet in statistical thermodynamics, contains in principle all thermodynamic information about a system. It encapsulates both microscopic information through the quantum energy levels and statistical information from the partitioning of the particles among the available energy levels. For identical particles, this statistical accounting is complicated by the symmetry requirements of the allowed quantum states. In particular, for Fermi systems, the enforcement of the Pauli principle is typically a numerically demanding task, responsible for much of the cost of the calculations. The interplay of these three elements—the structure of the many-body spectrum, the statistical partitioning of the N particles among the available levels, and the enforcement of the Pauli principle—drives the behavior of mesoscopic and macroscopic Fermi systems. In this paper, we develop an approach for the determination of the partition function, a numerically difficult task, for systems of strongly interacting identical fermions and apply it to a model system of harmonically confined, harmonically interacting fermions. This approach uses a recently introduced many-body method that is an extension of the symmetry-invariant perturbation method (SPT) originally developed for bosons. It uses group theory and graphical techniques to avoid the heavy computational demands of conventional many-body methods which typically scale exponentially with the number of particles. The SPT application of the Pauli principle is trivial to implement since it is done "on paper" by imposing restrictions on the normal-mode quantum numbers at first order in the perturbation. The method is applied through first order and represents an extension of the SPT method to excited states. Our method of determining the partition function and various thermodynamic quantities is accurate and efficient and has the potential to yield interesting insight into the role played by the Pauli

  17. Polarimetry noise in fiber-based optical coherence tomography instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ellen Ziyi; Vakoc, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    High noise levels in fiber-based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) have broadly limited its clinical utility. In this study we investigate contribution of polarization mode dispersion (PMD) to the polarimetry noise. We develop numerical models of the PS-OCT system including PMD and validate these models with empirical data. Using these models, we provide a framework for predicting noise levels, for processing signals to reduce noise, and for designing an optimized system. PMID:21935044

  18. Quantum Noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beenakker, C W J

    2005-01-01

    Quantum Noise is advertised as a handbook, and this is indeed how it functions for me these days: it is a book that I keep within hand's reach, ready to be consulted on the proper use of quantum stochastic methods in the course of my research on quantum dots. I should point out that quantum optics, the target field for this book, is not my field by training. So I have much to learn, and find this handbook to be a reliable and helpful guide. Crispin Gardiner previously wrote the Handbook of Stochastic Methods (also published by Springer), which provides an overview of methods in classical statistical physics. Quantum Noise, written jointly with Peter Zoller, is the counterpart for quantum statistical physics, and indeed the two books rely on each other by frequent cross referencing. The fundamental problem addressed by Quantum Noise is how the quantum dynamics of an open system can be described statistically by treating the environment as a source of noise. This is a general problem in condensed matter physics (in particular in the context of Josephson junctions) and in quantum optics. The emphasis in this book in on the optical applications (for condensed matter applications one could consult Quantum Dissipative Systems by Ulrich Weiss, published by World Scientific). The optical applications centre around the interaction of light with atoms, where the atoms represent the open system and the light is the noisy environment. A complete description of the production and detection of non-classical states of radiation (such as squeezed states) can be obtained using one of the equivalent quantum stochastic formulations: the quantum Langevin equation for the field operators (in either the Ito or the Stratonovich form), the Master equation for the density matrix, or the stochastic Schroedinger equation for the wave functions. Each formulation is fully developed here (as one would expect from a handbook), with detailed instructions on how to go from one to the other. The

  19. Pixel partition method using Markov random field for measurements of closely spaced objects by optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueying; Li, Jun; Sheng, Weidong; An, Wei; Du, Qinfeng

    2015-10-01

    ABSTRACT In Space-based optical system, during the tracking for closely spaced objects (CSOs), the traditional method with a constant false alarm rate(CFAR) detecting brings either more clutter measurements or the loss of target information. CSOs can be tracked as Extended targets because their features on optical sensor's pixel-plane. A pixel partition method under the framework of Markov random field(MRF) is proposed, simulation results indicate: the method proposed provides higher pixel partition performance than traditional method, especially when the signal-noise-rate is poor.

  20. An efficient clustering algorithm for partitioning Y-short tandem repeats data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seman Ali

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Y-Short Tandem Repeats (Y-STR data consist of many similar and almost similar objects. This characteristic of Y-STR data causes two problems with partitioning: non-unique centroids and local minima problems. As a result, the existing partitioning algorithms produce poor clustering results. Results Our new algorithm, called k-Approximate Modal Haplotypes (k-AMH, obtains the highest clustering accuracy scores for five out of six datasets, and produces an equal performance for the remaining dataset. Furthermore, clustering accuracy scores of 100% are achieved for two of the datasets. The k-AMH algorithm records the highest mean accuracy score of 0.93 overall, compared to that of other algorithms: k-Population (0.91, k-Modes-RVF (0.81, New Fuzzy k-Modes (0.80, k-Modes (0.76, k-Modes-Hybrid 1 (0.76, k-Modes-Hybrid 2 (0.75, Fuzzy k-Modes (0.74, and k-Modes-UAVM (0.70. Conclusions The partitioning performance of the k-AMH algorithm for Y-STR data is superior to that of other algorithms, owing to its ability to solve the non-unique centroids and local minima problems. Our algorithm is also efficient in terms of time complexity, which is recorded as O(km(n-k and considered to be linear.

  1. Schmidt games and Markov partitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Jimmy

    2009-03-01

    Let T be a C2-expanding self-map of a compact, connected, C∞, Riemannian manifold M. We correct a minor gap in the proof of a theorem from the literature: the set of points whose forward orbits are nondense has full Hausdorff dimension. Our correction allows us to strengthen the theorem. Combining the correction with Schmidt games, we generalize the theorem in dimension one: given a point x0 ∈ M, the set of points whose forward orbit closures miss x0 is a winning set. Finally, our key lemma, the no matching lemma, may be of independent interest in the theory of symbolic dynamics or the theory of Markov partitions.

  2. Noise thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Brixy, H.; Kakuta, Tsunemi.

    1996-03-01

    The noise thermometry (NT) is a temperature measuring method by which the absolute temperature measurement can be performed with a very high accuracy and without any influence of ambient environments and of the thermal history of its NT sensor (electric resistor). Hence it is quite suitable for application as a standard thermometry to the in-situ temperature calibration of incore thermocouples. The KFA Juelich had played a pioneering role in the development of NT and applied the results successfully to the AVR for testing its feasibility. In this report, all about the NT including its principle, sensor elements and system configurations are presented together with the experiences in the AVR and the results of investigation to apply it to high temperature measurement. The NT can be adopted as a standard method for incore temperature measurement and in situ temperature calibration in the HTTR. (author). 85 refs

  3. Noise thermometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Brixy, H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Kakuta, Tsunemi

    1996-03-01

    The noise thermometry (NT) is a temperature measuring method by which the absolute temperature measurement can be performed with a very high accuracy and without any influence of ambient environments and of the thermal history of its NT sensor (electric resistor). Hence it is quite suitable for application as a standard thermometry to the in-situ temperature calibration of incore thermocouples. The KFA Juelich had played a pioneering role in the development of NT and applied the results successfully to the AVR for testing its feasibility. In this report, all about the NT including its principle, sensor elements and system configurations are presented together with the experiences in the AVR and the results of investigation to apply it to high temperature measurement. The NT can be adopted as a standard method for incore temperature measurement and in situ temperature calibration in the HTTR. (author). 85 refs.

  4. On some trees having partition dimension four

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida Bagus Kade Puja Arimbawa, K.; Baskoro, Edy Tri

    2016-02-01

    In 1998, G. Chartrand, E. Salehi and P. Zhang introduced the notion of partition dimension of a graph. Since then, the study of this graph parameter has received much attention. A number of results have been obtained to know the values of partition dimensions of various classes of graphs. However, for some particular classes of graphs, finding of their partition dimensions is still not completely solved, for instances a class of general tree. In this paper, we study the properties of trees having partition dimension 4. In particular, we show that, for olive trees O(n), its partition dimension is equal to 4 if and only if 8 ≤ n ≤ 17. We also characterize all centipede trees having partition dimension 4.

  5. Finite volume gauge theory partition functions in three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    We determine the fermion mass dependence of Euclidean finite volume partition functions for three-dimensional QCD in the ε-regime directly from the effective field theory of the pseudo-Goldstone modes by using zero-dimensional non-linear σ-models. New results are given for an arbitrary number of flavours in all three cases of complex, pseudo-real and real fermions, extending some previous considerations based on random matrix theory. They are used to describe the microscopic spectral correlation functions and smallest eigenvalue distributions of the QCD 3 Dirac operator, as well as the corresponding massive spectral sum rules

  6. Scheduling Driven Partitioning of Heterogeneous Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we present an algorithm for system level hardware/software partitioning of heterogeneous embedded systems. The system is represented as an abstract graph which captures both data-flow and the flow of control. Given an architecture consisting of several processors, ASICs and shared...... busses, our partitioning algorithm finds the partitioning with the smallest hardware cost and is able to predict and guarantee the performance of the system in terms of worst case delay....

  7. Lift of dilogarithm to partition identities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terhoeven, M.

    1992-11-01

    For the whole set of dilogarithm identities found recently using the thermodynamic Bethe-Ansatz for the ADET series of purely elastic scattering theories we give partition identities which involve characters of those conformal field theories which correspond to the UV-limits of the scattering theories. These partition identities in turn allow to derive the dilogarithm identities using modular invariance and a saddle point approximation. We conjecture on possible generalizations of this correspondance, namely, a lift from dilogarithm to partition identities. (orig.)

  8. Partitioning of selected antioxidants in mayonnaise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Schwarz, K.; Stockmann, H.

    1999-01-01

    This study examined partitioning of alpha-, beta-, and gamma- tocopherol and six polar antioxidants (Trolox, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, propyl gallate, gallic acid, and catechin) in mayonnaise. Partitioning of antioxidants between different phases was determined after separation of mayonnaise...... by either (a) centrifugation + ultracentrifugation or (b) centrifugation + dialysis. Antioxidants partitioned in accordance with their chemical structure and polarity: Tocopherols were concentrated in the oil phase (93-96%), while the proportion of polar antioxidants in the oil phase ranged from 0% (gallic...

  9. The stringy instanton partition function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonelli, Giulio [International School of Advanced Studies (SISSA),via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste,Trieste (Italy); I.C.T.P.,Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Sciarappa, Antonio; Tanzini, Alessandro; Vasko, Petr [International School of Advanced Studies (SISSA),via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste,Trieste (Italy)

    2014-01-09

    We perform an exact computation of the gauged linear sigma model associated to a D1-D5 brane system on a resolved A{sub 1} singularity. This is accomplished via supersymmetric localization on the blown-up two-sphere. We show that in the blow-down limit ℂ{sup 2}/ℤ{sub 2} the partition function reduces to the Nekrasov partition function evaluating the equivariant volume of the instanton moduli space. For finite radius we obtain a tower of world-sheet instanton corrections, that we identify with the equivariant Gromov-Witten invariants of the ADHM moduli space. We show that these corrections can be encoded in a deformation of the Seiberg-Witten prepotential. From the mathematical viewpoint, the D1-D5 system under study displays a twofold nature: the D1-branes viewpoint captures the equivariant quantum cohomology of the ADHM instanton moduli space in the Givental formalism, and the D5-branes viewpoint is related to higher rank equivariant Donaldson-Thomas invariants of ℙ{sup 1}×ℂ{sup 2}.

  10. Ecological partitioning and diversity in tropical planktonic foraminifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seears Heidi A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecological processes are increasingly being viewed as an important mode of diversification in the marine environment, where the high dispersal potential of pelagic organisms, and a lack of absolute barriers to gene flow may limit the occurrence of allopatric speciation through vicariance. Here we focus on the potential role of ecological partitioning in the diversification of a widely distributed group of marine protists, the planktonic foraminifera. Sampling was conducted in the tropical Arabian Sea, during the southwest (summer monsoon, when pronounced environmental conditions result in a strong disparity in temperature, salinity and productivity between distinct northern and southern water masses. Results We uncovered extensive genetic diversity within the Arabian Sea planktonic foraminifera, identifying 13 morphospecies, represented by 20 distinct SSU rRNA genetic types. Several morphospecies/genetic types displayed non-random biogeographical distributions, partitioning between the northern and southern water masses, giving a strong indication of independent ecological adaptations. Conclusions We propose sea-surface primary productivity as the main factor driving the geographical segregation of Arabian Sea planktonic foraminifera, during the SW monsoon, with variations in symbiotic associations possibly playing a role in the specific ecological adaptations observed. Our findings suggest that ecological partitioning could be contributing to the high levels of 'cryptic' genetic diversity observed within the planktonic foraminifera, and support the view that ecological processes may play a key role in the diversification of marine pelagic organisms.

  11. New Weighted Partition Theorems with the Emphasis on the Smallest Part of Partitions

    OpenAIRE

    Berkovich, Alexander; Uncu, Ali Kemal

    2016-01-01

    We use the $q$-binomial theorem, the $q$-Gauss sum, and the ${}_2\\phi_1 \\rightarrow {}_2\\phi_2$ transformation of Jackson to discover and prove many new weighted partition identities. These identities involve unrestricted partitions, overpartitions, and partitions with distinct even parts. Smallest part of the partitions plays an important role in our analysis. This work was motivated in part by the research of Krishna Alladi.

  12. Noise and Hearing Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Noise and Hearing Protection Noise and Hearing Protection Patient ... it is. How can I tell if a noise is dangerous? People differ in their sensitivity to ...

  13. Effect of noise on the standard mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karney, C.F.F.; Rechester, A.B.; White, R.B.

    1981-03-01

    The effect of a small amount of noise on the standard mapping is considered. Whenever the standard mapping possesses accelerator models (where the action increases approximately linearly with time), the diffusion coefficient contains a term proportional to the reciprocal of the variance of the noise term. At large values of the stochasticity parameter, the accelerator modes exhibit a universal behavior. As a result the dependence of the diffusion coefficient on stochasticity parameter also shows some universal behavior

  14. Noise-Measuring Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, J. M.

    1965-01-01

    A noise-measuring method based on the use of a calibrated noise generator and an output meter with a special scale is described. The method eliminates the effect of noise contributions occurring in the circuits following the device under test.......A noise-measuring method based on the use of a calibrated noise generator and an output meter with a special scale is described. The method eliminates the effect of noise contributions occurring in the circuits following the device under test....

  15. Progress in Noise Thermometry at 505 K and 693 K Using Quantized Voltage Noise Ratio Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tew, W. L.; Benz, S. P.; Dresselhaus, P. D.; Coakley, K. J.; Rogalla, H.; White, D. R.; Labenski, J. R.

    2010-09-01

    Technical advances and new results in noise thermometry at temperatures near the tin freezing point and the zinc freezing point using a quantized voltage noise source (QVNS) are reported. The temperatures are derived by comparing the power spectral density of QVNS synthesized noise with that of Johnson noise from a known resistance at both 505 K and 693 K. Reference noise is digitally synthesized so that the average power spectra of the QVNS match those of the thermal noise, resulting in ratios of power spectra close to unity in the low-frequency limit. Three-parameter models are used to account for differences in impedance-related time constants in the spectra. Direct comparison of noise temperatures to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) is achieved in a comparison furnace with standard platinum resistance thermometers. The observed noise temperatures determined by operating the noise thermometer in both absolute and relative modes, and related statistics together with estimated uncertainties are reported. The relative noise thermometry results are combined with results from other thermodynamic determinations at temperatures near the tin freezing point to calculate a value of T - T 90 = +4(18) mK for temperatures near the zinc freezing point. These latest results achieve a lower uncertainty than that of our earlier efforts. The present value of T - T 90 is compared to other published determinations from noise thermometry and other methods.

  16. Schmidt games and Markov partitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, Jimmy

    2009-01-01

    Let T be a C 2 -expanding self-map of a compact, connected, C ∞ , Riemannian manifold M. We correct a minor gap in the proof of a theorem from the literature: the set of points whose forward orbits are nondense has full Hausdorff dimension. Our correction allows us to strengthen the theorem. Combining the correction with Schmidt games, we generalize the theorem in dimension one: given a point x 0 in M, the set of points whose forward orbit closures miss x 0 is a winning set. Finally, our key lemma, the no matching lemma, may be of independent interest in the theory of symbolic dynamics or the theory of Markov partitions

  17. Graph Partitioning Models for Parallel Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, B.; Kolda, T.G.

    1999-03-02

    Calculations can naturally be described as graphs in which vertices represent computation and edges reflect data dependencies. By partitioning the vertices of a graph, the calculation can be divided among processors of a parallel computer. However, the standard methodology for graph partitioning minimizes the wrong metric and lacks expressibility. We survey several recently proposed alternatives and discuss their relative merits.

  18. [On the partition of acupuncture academic schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pengyan; Luo, Xi; Xia, Youbing

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays extensive attention has been paid on the research of acupuncture academic schools, however, a widely accepted method of partition of acupuncture academic schools is still in need. In this paper, the methods of partition of acupuncture academic schools in the history have been arranged, and three typical methods of"partition of five schools" "partition of eighteen schools" and "two-stage based partition" are summarized. After adeep analysis on the disadvantages and advantages of these three methods, a new method of partition of acupuncture academic schools that is called "three-stage based partition" is proposed. In this method, after the overall acupuncture academic schools are divided into an ancient stage, a modern stage and a contemporary stage, each schoolis divided into its sub-school category. It is believed that this method of partition can remedy the weaknesses ofcurrent methods, but also explore a new model of inheritance and development under a different aspect through thedifferentiation and interaction of acupuncture academic schools at three stages.

  19. Compactified webs and domain wall partition functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabbir, Khurram [Government College University, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2017-04-15

    In this paper we use the topological vertex formalism to calculate a generalization of the ''domain wall'' partition function of M-strings. This generalization allows calculation of partition function of certain compactified webs using a simple gluing algorithm similar to M-strings case. (orig.)

  20. Partitions of sets and the Riemann integral

    OpenAIRE

    Ungar, Š.

    2006-01-01

    We will discuss the definition of the Riemann integral using general partitions and give an elementary explication, without resorting to nets, generalized sequences and such, of what is meant by saying that "the Riemann integral is the limit of Darboux sums when the mesh of the partition approaches zero".

  1. Topological string partition functions as polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Yau Shingtung

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the structure of the higher genus topological string amplitudes on the quintic hypersurface. It is shown that the partition functions of the higher genus than one can be expressed as polynomials of five generators. We also compute the explicit polynomial forms of the partition functions for genus 2, 3, and 4. Moreover, some coefficients are written down for all genus. (author)

  2. Stirling numbers and integer partitions | Merca | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we prove that the Stirling numbers of both kinds can be written as sums over integer partitions. As corollaries, we rewrite some identities with Stirling numbers of both kinds without Stirling numbers. Keywords: Integer partitions, symmetric functions, Stirling numbers ...

  3. Partition functions for supersymmetric black holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manschot, J.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents a number of results on partition functions for four-dimensional supersymmetric black holes. These partition functions are important tools to explain the entropy of black holes from a microscopic point of view. Such a microscopic explanation was desired after the association of a

  4. Partitioning of resveratrol between pentane and DMSO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Chen; Stein, Paul C.; Klösgen-Buchkremer, Beate Maria

    2015-01-01

    Partitioning of trans-3,5,4′-trihydroxy-stilbene (resveratrol) between n-pentane and DMSO was investigated as a contribution to understand the interaction between resveratrol and biomembranes. In order to determine the partition coefficient P* of resveratrol between pentane and DMSO, resveratrol ...

  5. Weak-value amplification and optimal parameter estimation in the presence of correlated noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Josiah; Hallaji, Matin; Steinberg, Aephraim M.; Tollaksen, Jeff; Jordan, Andrew N.

    2017-11-01

    We analytically and numerically investigate the performance of weak-value amplification (WVA) and related parameter estimation methods in the presence of temporally correlated noise. WVA is a special instance of a general measurement strategy that involves sorting data into separate subsets based on the outcome of a second "partitioning" measurement. Using a simplified correlated noise model that can be analyzed exactly together with optimal statistical estimators, we compare WVA to a conventional measurement method. We find that WVA indeed yields a much lower variance of the parameter of interest than the conventional technique does, optimized in the absence of any partitioning measurements. In contrast, a statistically optimal analysis that employs partitioning measurements, incorporating all partitioned results and their known correlations, is found to yield an improvement—typically slight—over the noise reduction achieved by WVA. This result occurs because the simple WVA technique is not tailored to any specific noise environment and therefore does not make use of correlations between the different partitions. We also compare WVA to traditional background subtraction, a familiar technique where measurement outcomes are partitioned to eliminate unknown offsets or errors in calibration. Surprisingly, for the cases we consider, background subtraction turns out to be a special case of the optimal partitioning approach, possessing a similar typically slight advantage over WVA. These results give deeper insight into the role of partitioning measurements (with or without postselection) in enhancing measurement precision, which some have found puzzling. They also resolve previously made conflicting claims about the usefulness of weak-value amplification to precision measurement in the presence of correlated noise. We finish by presenting numerical results to model a more realistic laboratory situation of time-decaying correlations, showing that our conclusions hold

  6. Noise in phase-preserving linear amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Shashank; Jiang, Zhang; Combes, Joshua [Center for Quantum Information and Control, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001 (United States); Caves, Carlton M. [Center for Quantum Information and Control, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001, USA and Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems, School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2014-12-04

    The purpose of a phase-preserving linear amplifier is to make a small signal larger, so that it can be perceived by instruments incapable of resolving the original signal, while sacrificing as little as possible in signal-to-noise. Quantum mechanics limits how well this can be done: the noise added by the amplifier, referred to the input, must be at least half a quantum at the operating frequency. This well-known quantum limit only constrains the second moments of the added noise. Here we provide the quantum constraints on the entire distribution of added noise: any phasepreserving linear amplifier is equivalent to a parametric amplifier with a physical state σ for the ancillary mode; σ determines the properties of the added noise.

  7. Purification of biomaterials by phase partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    A technique which is particularly suited to microgravity environments and which is potentially more powerful than electrophoresis is phase partitioning. Phase partitioning is purification by partitioning between the two immiscible aqueous layers formed by solution of the polymers poly(ethylene glycol) and dextran in water. This technique proved to be very useful for separations in one-g but is limited for cells because the cells are more dense than the phase solutions thus tend to sediment to the bottom of the container before reaching equilibrium with the preferred phase. There are three phases to work in this area: synthesis of new polymers for affinity phase partitioning; development of automated apparatus for ground-based separations; and design of apparatus for performing simple phase partitioning space experiments, including examination of mechanisms for separating phases in the absence of gravity.

  8. Generating Milton Babbitt's all-partition arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bemman, Brian; Meredith, David

    2016-01-01

    In most of Milton Babbitt's (1916–2011) works written since the early 1960s, both the pitch and rhythmic content is organized according to a highly constrained structure known as the all-partition array. The all-partition array provides a framework that ensures that as many different forms...... backtracking algorithm for generating a particular type of all-partition array found in Babbitt’s works, known as a Smalley array. Constructing such an array is a difficult task, and we present two heuristics for helping to generate this type of structure. We provide the parameter values required...... by this algorithm to generate the specific all-partition arrays used in three of Babbitt’s works. Finally, we evaluate the algorithm and the heuristics in terms of how well they predict the sequences of integer partitions used in two of Babbitt’s works. We also explore the effect of the heuristics...

  9. Eliminating thermal violin spikes from LIGO noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santamore, D. H.; Levin, Yuri

    2001-08-15

    We have developed a scheme for reducing LIGO suspension thermal noise close to violin-mode resonances. The idea is to monitor directly the thermally induced motion of a small portion of (a 'point' on) each suspension fiber, thereby recording the random forces driving the test-mass motion close to each violin-mode frequency. One can then suppress the thermal noise by optimally subtracting the recorded fiber motions from the measured motion of the test mass, i.e., from the LIGO output. The proposed method is a modification of an analogous but more technically difficult scheme by Braginsky, Levin and Vyatchanin for reducing broad-band suspension thermal noise. The efficiency of our method is limited by the sensitivity of the sensor used to monitor the fiber motion. If the sensor has no intrinsic noise (i.e. has unlimited sensitivity), then our method allows, in principle, a complete removal of violin spikes from the thermal-noise spectrum. We find that in LIGO-II interferometers, in order to suppress violin spikes below the shot-noise level, the intrinsic noise of the sensor must be less than {approx}2 x 10{sup -13} cm/Hz. This sensitivity is two orders of magnitude greater than that of currently available sensors.

  10. Eliminating thermal violin spikes from LIGO noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamore, D. H.; Levin, Yuri

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a scheme for reducing LIGO suspension thermal noise close to violin-mode resonances. The idea is to monitor directly the thermally induced motion of a small portion of (a 'point' on) each suspension fiber, thereby recording the random forces driving the test-mass motion close to each violin-mode frequency. One can then suppress the thermal noise by optimally subtracting the recorded fiber motions from the measured motion of the test mass, i.e., from the LIGO output. The proposed method is a modification of an analogous but more technically difficult scheme by Braginsky, Levin and Vyatchanin for reducing broad-band suspension thermal noise. The efficiency of our method is limited by the sensitivity of the sensor used to monitor the fiber motion. If the sensor has no intrinsic noise (i.e. has unlimited sensitivity), then our method allows, in principle, a complete removal of violin spikes from the thermal-noise spectrum. We find that in LIGO-II interferometers, in order to suppress violin spikes below the shot-noise level, the intrinsic noise of the sensor must be less than ∼2 x 10 -13 cm/Hz. This sensitivity is two orders of magnitude greater than that of currently available sensors

  11. 41 GHz and 10.6 GHz low threshold and low noise InAs/InP quantum dash two-section mode-locked lasers in L band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dontabactouny, M.; Piron, R.; Klaime, K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports recent results on InAs/InP quantum dash-based, two-section, passively mode-locked lasers pulsing at 41 GHz and 10.6 GHz and emitting at 1.59 mu m at 20 degrees C. The 41-GHz device (1 mm long) starts lasing at 25 mA under uniform injection and the 10.6 GHz (4 mm long) at 71 m...

  12. Multilevel Algorithms for Multi-Constraint Hypergraph Partitioning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karypis, George

    1999-01-01

    Traditional hypergraph partitioning algorithms compute a bisection of a graph such that the number of hyperedges that are cut by the partitioning is minimized and each partition has an equal number of vertices...

  13. Comprehensive comparison of macro-strain mode and displacement mode based on different sensing technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wan; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Gang; Wu, Zhishen

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive comparison of macro-strain mode and displacement mode obtained from distributed macro-strain sensing and high-density point sensing (such as accelerometers) technologies is presented in this paper. Theoretical derivation reveals that displacement mode shape from accelerometers and modal macro-strain from distributed macro-strain sensors can be converted into each other. However, it is realized that displacement mode shape as global behavior of a structure can still be calculated with high-precision from modal macro-strain considering measurement errors in practical monitoring, whereas modal macro-strain can hardly be accurately achieved from displacement mode shape when signals are corrupted with noise in practical monitoring. Simulation and experiment results show that the calculated displacement mode shapes are very close to the actual ones even if the noise level reaches 5%. Meanwhile, damage index using measured modal macro-strain is still effective when the measurements are corrupted with 5% noise which is reliable for damage detection in practical monitoring. Calculating modal macro-strain from noise-polluted displacement mode shape will cause an unacceptable error if the noise level reaches only 0.5%, which has been verified in the simulation.

  14. Thermal Noise in the Initial LIGO Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Aaron D.

    1995-01-01

    Gravitational wave detectors capable of detecting broadband gravitational wave bursts with a strain amplitude sensitivity near 10^{-21} at frequencies around 100 Hz are currently under construction by the LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory) and VIRGO groups. One challenge facing these groups is how to detect the motion of the center of an inertial mass to a precision of 10^{-18} m when the mass consists of atoms each of which individually moves much more than that due to thermal energy. The uncertainty in the interferometer's measurement due to these thermal motions is called thermal noise. This thesis describes the thermal noise of the initial LIGO detectors. The thermal noise was analyzed by modelling the normal modes of the test mass suspension system as harmonic oscillators with dissipation and applying the fluctuation dissipation theorem. The dissipation of all modes which contribute significant thermal noise to the interferometer was measured and from these measurements the total thermal noise was estimated. The frequency dependence of the dissipation of the pendulum mode was characterized from measurements of the violin modes. A steel music wire suspension system was found to meet the goals of the initial LIGO detectors. A mathematical technique was developed which relates the energy in each vibrational mode to the motion of the mirror surface measured by the interferometer. Modes with acoustic wavelengths greater than the laser beam spot size can contribute significant thermal noise to the interferometer measurements. The dissipation of the test masses of LIGO's 40 -m interferometer at Caltech was investigated, and a technique for suspending and controlling the test masses which lowered the dissipation and met the thermal noise goals of the initial LIGO detector was developed. New test masses were installed in the 40-m interferometer resulting in improved noise performance. The implications of thermal noise to detecting gravitational

  15. The partition dimension of cycle books graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, Jaya; Darmaji

    2018-03-01

    Let G be a nontrivial and connected graph with vertex set V(G), edge set E(G) and S ⊆ V(G) with v ∈ V(G), the distance between v and S is d(v,S) = min{d(v,x)|x ∈ S}. For an ordered partition ∏ = {S 1, S 2, S 3,…, Sk } of V(G), the representation of v with respect to ∏ is defined by r(v|∏) = (d(v, S 1), d(v, S 2),…, d(v, Sk )). The partition ∏ is called a resolving partition of G if all representations of vertices are distinct. The partition dimension pd(G) is the smallest integer k such that G has a resolving partition set with k members. In this research, we will determine the partition dimension of Cycle Books {B}{Cr,m}. Cycle books graph {B}{Cr,m} is a graph consisting of m copies cycle Cr with the common path P 2. It is shown that the partition dimension of cycle books graph, pd({B}{C3,m}) is 3 for m = 2, 3, and m for m ≥ 4. pd({B}{C4,m}) is 3 + 2k for m = 3k + 2, 4 + 2(k ‑ 1) for m = 3k + 1, and 3 + 2(k ‑ 1) for m = 3k. pd({B}{C5,m}) is m + 1.

  16. Non-Markovian noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulinski, A.

    1994-01-01

    The properties of non-Markovian noises with exponentially correlated memory are discussed. Considered are dichotomic noise, white shot noise, Gaussian white noise, and Gaussian colored noise. The stationary correlation functions of the non-Markovian versions of these noises are given by linear combinations of two or three exponential functions (colored noises) or of the δ function and exponential function (white noises). The non-Markovian white noises are well defined only when the kernel of the non-Markovian master equation contains a nonzero admixture of a Markovian term. Approximate equations governing the probability densities for processes driven by such non-Markovian noises are derived, including non-Markovian versions of the Fokker-Planck equation and the telegrapher's equation. As an example, it is shown how the non-Markovian nature changes the behavior of the driven linear process

  17. assessment of noise pollutio noise pollutio noise pollution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    1DEPARTMENT OF WATER RESOURCES ... challenges. Symptoms of short or long periods exposure to noise include auditory effects such auditory fatigue and hearing loss, and indirect n auditory effects such as speech interfere .... ASSESSMENT OF NOISE POLLUTION FROM SAWMILL ACTIVITIES IN ILORIN, NIGERIA.

  18. assessment of noise pollutio noise pollutio noise pollution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    This study examine. This study examined noise pollution pollution pollution from sawmillin from sawmillin using HD600 digital data l using HD600 digital data logging sound level me ogging sound level me designed to elicit noise related information. The res sawmills was 58.1 sawmills was 58.1-64.86 dB(A) while machine ...

  19. REE Partitioning in Lunar Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, J. F.; Lapen, T. J.; Draper, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are an extremely useful tool in modeling lunar magmatic processes. Here we present the first experimentally derived plagioclase/melt partition coefficients in lunar compositions covering the entire suite of REE. Positive europium anomalies are ubiquitous in the plagioclase-rich rocks of the lunar highlands, and complementary negative Eu anomalies are found in most lunar basalts. These features are taken as evidence of a large-scale differentiation event, with crystallization of a global-scale lunar magma ocean (LMO) resulting in a plagioclase flotation crust and a mafic lunar interior from which mare basalts were subsequently derived. However, the extent of the Eu anomaly in lunar rocks is variable. Fagan and Neal [1] reported highly anorthitic plagioclase grains in lunar impact melt rock 60635,19 that displayed negative Eu anomalies as well as the more usual positive anomalies. Indeed some grains in the sample are reported to display both positive and negative anomalies. Judging from cathodoluminescence images, these anomalies do not appear to be associated with crystal overgrowths or zones.

  20. Convex Regression with Interpretable Sharp Partitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Ashley; Simon, Noah; Witten, Daniela

    2016-06-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable on the basis of a small number of covariates, using an interpretable yet non-additive model. We propose convex regression with interpretable sharp partitions (CRISP) for this task. CRISP partitions the covariate space into blocks in a data-adaptive way, and fits a mean model within each block. Unlike other partitioning methods, CRISP is fit using a non-greedy approach by solving a convex optimization problem, resulting in low-variance fits. We explore the properties of CRISP, and evaluate its performance in a simulation study and on a housing price data set.

  1. The design and research of anti-color-noise chaos M-ary communication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Yongqing; Li, Xingyuan; Li, Yanan; Zhang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Previously a novel chaos M-ary digital communication method based on spatiotemporal chaos Hamilton oscillator has been proposed. Without chaos synchronization circumstance, it has performance improvement in bandwidth efficiency, transmission efficiency and anti-white-noise performance compared with traditional communication method. In this paper, the channel noise influence on chaotic modulation signals and the construction problem of anti-color-noise chaotic M-ary communication system are studied. The formula of zone partition demodulator’s boundary in additive white Gaussian noise is derived, besides, the problem about how to determine the boundary of zone partition demodulator in additive color noise is deeply studied; Then an approach on constructing anti-color-noise chaos M-ary communication system is proposed, in which a pre-distortion filter is added after the chaos baseband modulator in the transmitter and whitening filter is added before zone partition demodulator in the receiver. Finally, the chaos M-ary communication system based on Hamilton oscillator is constructed and simulated in different channel noise. The result shows that the proposed method in this paper can improve the anti-color-noise performance of the whole communication system compared with the former system, and it has better anti-fading and resisting disturbance performance than Quadrature Phase Shift Keying system.

  2. Simultaneous generation of wavelength division multiplexing PON and RoF signals using a hybrid mode-locked laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaya, Ivan; Campuzano, Gabriel; Castañón, Gerardo

    2015-06-01

    The use of millimeter-wave (mm-wave) frequencies has been proposed to overcome the imminent saturation of the ultra high frequency band, justifying research on radio over fiber (RoF) networks as an inexpensive and green solution to distribute multi-Gbps signals. Coincidently, telecommunication operators are investing a significant effort to deploy their passive optical network (PON) infrastructure closer to the users. In this work, we present a novel cost-efficient architecture based on a hybrid mode locked laser capable to simultaneously generate up-to 5 wavelength division multiplexing PON and RoF channels, being compatible with the 50-GHz ITU frequency grid. We analyze the limits of operation of our proposed architecture considering the high modal relative intensity noise induced by mode partition noise, as well as fiber impairments, such as chromatic dispersion and nonlinearities. The feasibility of generation and transmission of 5×10-Gbps PON and 5×5-Gbps RoF using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing up to 50 km has been demonstrated through realistic numerical simulations.

  3. Noise Susceptibility Measurements of Front-End Electronics Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Allongue, B; Blanchot, G; Faccio, F; Fuentes, C; Michelis, S; Orlandi, S; Toro, A

    2008-01-01

    The conducted and radiated noise that is emitted by a power supply constrains the noise performance of the frontend electronics system that it powers. The characterization of the noise susceptibility of the front-end electronics allows setting proper requirements for the back-end power supply in order to achieve the expected system performance. A method to measure the common mode current susceptibility using current probes is presented. The compatibility between power supplies and various front-end systems is explored.

  4. Plasmid and chromosome partitioning: surprises from phylogeny

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Bugge Jensen, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    Plasmids encode partitioning genes (par) that are required for faithful plasmid segregation at cell division. Initially, par loci were identified on plasmids, but more recently they were also found on bacterial chromosomes. We present here a phylogenetic analysis of par loci from plasmids...... and chromosomes from prokaryotic organisms. All known plasmid-encoded par loci specify three components: a cis-acting centromere-like site and two trans-acting proteins that form a nucleoprotein complex at the centromere (i.e. the partition complex). The proteins are encoded by two genes in an operon...... that is autoregulated by the par-encoded proteins. In all cases, the upstream gene encodes an ATPase that is essential for partitioning. Recent cytological analyses indicate that the ATPases function as adaptors between a host-encoded component and the partition complex and thereby tether plasmids and chromosomal...

  5. Thermal tolerance and resource partitioning in aphids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dixon, Anthony F. G.

    XCII, - (2009), s. 171-173 ISSN 0370-4327 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : aphids * coexistence * food quality * resource partitioning * thermal tolerance Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  6. Cell Partition in Two Polymer Aqueous Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Partition of biological cells in two phase aqueous polymer systems is recognized as a powerful separation technique which is limited by gravity. The synthesis of new, selective polymer ligand conjugates to be used in affinity partition separations is of interest. The two most commonly used polymers in two phase partitioning are dextran and polyethylene glycol. A thorough review of the chemistry of these polymers was begun, particularly in the area of protein attachment. Preliminary studies indicate the importance in affinity partitioning of minimizing gravity induced randomizing forces in the phase separation process. The PEG-protein conjugates that were prepared appear to be ideally suited for achieving high quality purifications in a microgravity environment. An interesting spin-off of this synthetic work was the observation of catalytic activity for certain of our polymer derivatives.

  7. OPTIMAL PARTITIONS OF DATA IN HIGHER DIMENSIONS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — OPTIMAL PARTITIONS OF DATA IN HIGHER DIMENSIONS BRADLEY W. JACKSON*, JEFFREY D. SCARGLE, AND CHRIS CUSANZA, DAVID BARNES, DENNIS KANYGIN, RUSSELL SARMIENTO, SOWMYA...

  8. Spatially Partitioned Embedded Runge--Kutta Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2013-10-30

    We study spatially partitioned embedded Runge--Kutta (SPERK) schemes for partial differential equations (PDEs), in which each of the component schemes is applied over a different part of the spatial domain. Such methods may be convenient for problems in which the smoothness of the solution or the magnitudes of the PDE coefficients vary strongly in space. We focus on embedded partitioned methods as they offer greater efficiency and avoid the order reduction that may occur in nonembedded schemes. We demonstrate that the lack of conservation in partitioned schemes can lead to nonphysical effects and propose conservative additive schemes based on partitioning the fluxes rather than the ordinary differential equations. A variety of SPERK schemes are presented, including an embedded pair suitable for the time evolution of fifth-order weighted nonoscillatory spatial discretizations. Numerical experiments are provided to support the theory.

  9. Synchronizing the noise-perturbed Lue chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yan; Chen Shihua; Zhou Hong

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, synchronization between unidirectionally coupled Lue chaotic systems with noise perturbation is investigated theoretically and numerically. Sufficient conditions of synchronization between these noise-perturbed systems are established by means of the so-called sliding mode control method. Some numerical simulations are also included to visualize the effectiveness and the feasibility of the developed approach.

  10. evaluation of the environmental noise levels in abuja municipality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commonly, the sound level meter or sound meter, an instrument that measures sound pressure level, is used in noise pollution studies for the quantification of different classes of noise including industrial, aircraft and other environmental forms.21-23 The unit of measurement is in decibel (dB) which is a logarithmic mode of ...

  11. Aviation noise effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. S.; Beattie, K. R.

    1985-03-01

    This report summarizes the effects of aviation noise in many areas, ranging from human annoyance to impact on real estate values. It also synthesizes the findings of literature on several topics. Included in the literature were many original studies carried out under FAA and other Federal funding over the past two decades. Efforts have been made to present the critical findings and conclusions of pertinent research, providing, when possible, a bottom line conclusion, criterion or perspective. Issues related to aviation noise are highlighted, and current policy is presented. Specific topic addressed include: annoyance; Hearing and hearing loss; noise metrics; human response to noise; speech interference; sleep interference; non-auditory health effects of noise; effects of noise on wild and domesticated animals; low frequency acoustical energy; impulsive noise; time of day weightings; noise contours; land use compatibility; and real estate values. This document is designed for a variety of users, from the individual completely unfamiliar with aviation noise to experts in the field.

  12. Deriving the Hirshfeld partitioning using distance metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidar-Zadeh, Farnaz; Ayers, Paul W.; Bultinck, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    The atoms in molecules associated with the Hirshfeld partitioning minimize the generalized Hellinger-Bhattacharya distance to the reference pro-atom densities. Moreover, the reference pro-atoms can be chosen by minimizing the distance between the pro-molecule density and the true molecular density. This provides an alternative to both the heuristic "stockholder" and the mathematical information-theoretic interpretations of the Hirshfeld partitioning. These results extend to any member of the family of f-divergences.

  13. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The fourth international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation, took place in Mito City in Japan, on 111-13 September 1996. The proceedings are presented in six sessions: the major programmes and international cooperation, the partitioning and transmutation programs, feasibility studies, particular separation processes, the accelerator driven transmutation, and the chemistry of the fuel cycle. (A.L.B.)

  14. Deriving the Hirshfeld partitioning using distance metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidar-Zadeh, Farnaz; Ayers, Paul W.; Bultinck, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The atoms in molecules associated with the Hirshfeld partitioning minimize the generalized Hellinger-Bhattacharya distance to the reference pro-atom densities. Moreover, the reference pro-atoms can be chosen by minimizing the distance between the pro-molecule density and the true molecular density. This provides an alternative to both the heuristic “stockholder” and the mathematical information-theoretic interpretations of the Hirshfeld partitioning. These results extend to any member of the family of f-divergences

  15. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The fourth international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation, took place in Mito City in Japan, on 111-13 September 1996. The proceedings are presented in six sessions: the major programmes and international cooperation, the partitioning and transmutation programs, feasibility studies, particular separation processes, the accelerator driven transmutation, and the chemistry of the fuel cycle. (A.L.B.)

  16. Failure Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, K. P.; Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1999-01-01

    The present appendix contains the derivation of ten different limit state equations divided on three different failure modes. Five of the limit state equations can be used independently of the characteristics of the subsoil, whereas the remaining five can be used for either drained or undrained...

  17. Solar noise storms

    CERN Document Server

    Elgaroy, E O

    2013-01-01

    Solar Noise Storms examines the properties and features of solar noise storm phenomenon. The book also presents some theories that can be used to gain a better understanding of the phenomenon. The coverage of the text includes topics that cover the features and behavior of noise storms, such as the observable features of noise storms; the relationship between noise storms and the observable features on the sun; and ordered behavior of storm bursts in the time-frequency plane. The book also covers the spectrum, polarization, and directivity of noise storms. The text will be of great use to astr

  18. Amplitude Noise Reduction of Ion Lasers with Optical Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Gregory C.

    2011-01-01

    A reduction in amplitude noise on the output of a multi-mode continuous-wave Ar-ion laser was previously demonstrated when a fraction of the output power was retroreflected back into the laser cavity. This result was reproduced in the present work and a Fabry-Perot etalon was used to monitor the longitudinal mode structure of the laser. A decrease in the number of operating longitudinal cavity modes was observed simultaneously with the introduction of the optical feedback and the onset of the amplitude noise reduction. The noise reduction is a result of a reduced number of lasing modes, resulting in less mode beating and amplitude fluctuations of the laser output power.

  19. Quantum mode phonon forces between chainmolecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob

    2001-01-01

    A phenomenological description of the contributions of phonons to molecular force is developed. It uses an approximation to consider macromolecules as solid continua. The molecular modes of a molecule can then be characterized by a Debye-like description of the partition function. The resulting b....... For the later case, a significant change in zero-point energy is found. This may be the underlying cause for cold denaturation of proteins. (C) 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc....

  20. Does erythropoietin augment noise induced hearing loss?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Lund, Søren Peter

    2007-01-01

    of EPO upon damage to the central nervous system and the retina. This paper reports three separate trials, conducted to investigate the hypothesis that noise-induced hearing loss is prevented or reduced by erythropoietin. The trials employed three different modes of drug application, different......Noise-induced hearing loss may result from excessive release of glutamate, nitrogen oxide and reactive oxygen species. The effects of these factors on the inner ear may potentially be prevented or reduced by erythropoietin (EPO), as indicated by previously demonstrated neuro-protective effects...... and auditory brainstem responses (at 16kHz) were recorded before and after noise exposure in all trials. The noise exposure induced a hearing loss in all animals. In trial 1, no recovery and no improvement of hearing occurred in any treatment group. In trial 2 and 3, a partial hearing recovery was seen...

  1. Helicopter Noise And Noise Abatement Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borivoj Galović

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The helicopter generated noise at and around the airports islower than the noise generated by aeroplanes, since their numberof operations, i. e. the number of takeoffs and landings ismuch lower than the takeoffs and landings of the aeroplanes.Out of some hundred operations a day, helicopters participatewith approximately 15%, but the very impact of noise is by nomeans negligible, since the number of helicopter flights aboveurban areas is constantly increasing.This paper attempts to analyse this phenomenon and thetype of helicopter generated noise, its negative impacts, to explainthe flight procedures and the operative procedures duringtakeoff, landing and overflight of helicopters in operations inthe vicinity and outside airports, as well as the methods of measuringand determining the limit of noise [eve~ and the resultingproblems.

  2. Chaos and related nonlinear noise phenomena in Josephson tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miracky, R.F.

    1984-07-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of Josephson tunnel junctions shunted by a resistance with substantial self-inductance have been thoroughly investigated. The current-voltage characteristics of these devices exhibit stable regions of negative differential resistance. Very large increases in the low-frequency voltage noise with equivalent noise temperatures of 10 6 K or more, observed in the vicinity of these regions, arise from switching, or hopping, between subharmonic modes. Moderate increases in the noise, with temperatures of about 10 3 K, arise from chaotic behavior. Analog and digital simulations indicate that under somewhat rarer circumstances the same junction system can sustain a purely deterministic hopping between two unstable subharmonic modes, accompanied by excess low-frequency noise. Unlike the noise-induced case, this chaotic process occurs over a much narrower range in bias current and is destroyed by the addition of thermal noise. The differential equation describing the junction system can be reduced to a one-dimensional mapping in the vicinity of one of the unstable modes. A general analytical calculation of switching processes for a class of mappings yields the frequency dependence of the noise spectrum in terms of the parameters of the mapping. Finally, the concepts of noise-induced hopping near bifurcation thresholds are applied to the problem of the three-photon Josephson parametric amplifier. Analog simulations indicate that the noise rise observed in experimental devices arises from occasional hopping between a mode at the pump frequency ω/sub p/ and a mode at the half harmonic ω/sub p//2. The hopping is induced by thermal noise associated with the shunt resistance. 71 references

  3. Orality and the Archive: Teaching the Partition of India through Oral Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaana Jayagopalan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a reflection on how select oral histories and witness accounts about the partition of India and Pakistan, especially those by Urvashi Butalia and Veena Das were used in a graduate seminar in Bengaluru. The article explores the strength of oral archives as repositories of radical enquiry that may be used in classrooms to understand the complex nature of history, historiography, and interrogate the State’s archival processes. The article explores how students began to see the potency in oral archives as a space that embodies the victimhood of partition victims as opposed to an effacement of the sufferers in most state archives of the event. It observes how the memorialisation of Partition is different in the State’s construction of partition: to the victims who recount their stories, it is the ‘everyday’ that becomes predominant as opposed to State archives that seek to represent the differences between the two nations as paramount in its processes of memorialisation. The note concludes by emphasising the need to put such oral histories to use in classroom, especially to understand the nature of suffering. Through a reading of such stories, it is proposed, an affective literacy is enabled in students’ modes of enquiry about trauma, memory and suffering.   Keywords: Partition of India, affective literacy, archives, oral histories, witness narratives.

  4. Optimization of Solar Water Heating System under Time and Spatial Partition Heating in Rural Dwellings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the application of time and spatial partition heating to a solar water heating system. The heating effect and system performance were analyzed under the continuous and whole space heating and time and spatial partition heating using TRNSYS. The results were validated by comparing with the test results of the demonstration building. Compared to continuous and whole space heating, the use of time and spatial partition heating increases the solar fraction by 16.5%, reduces the auxiliary heating by 7390 MJ, and reduces the annual operation cost by 2010 RMB. Under time and spatial partition heating, optimization analyses were conducted for the two system capacity parameters of the solar collector area and tank volume and the one operation parameter of auxiliary heater setting outlet temperature. The results showed that a reasonable choice of the solar collector area can reduce the dynamic annual cost, the increased tank volume is advantageous to heat storage, and the auxiliary heater setting outlet temperature have greater influence on the indoor heating effect. The advanced opening of solar water heating system and the normal opening of passive air vents are recommended. Based on the comparison of the two modes, the time and spatial partition heating technology is a better choice for rural dwellings.

  5. Noise Radar Technology Basics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thayaparan, T; Wernik, C

    2006-01-01

    .... In this report, the basic theory of noise radar design is treated. The theory supports the use of noise waveforms for radar detection and imaging in such applications as covert military surveillance and reconnaissance...

  6. NASA Jet Noise Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    The presentation highlights NASA's jet noise research for 2016. Jet-noise modeling efforts, jet-surface interactions results, acoustic characteristics of multi-stream jets, and N+2 Supersonic Aircraft system studies are presented.

  7. Noise effects on entanglement distribution by separable state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordbar, Najmeh Tabe; Memarzadeh, Laleh

    2018-02-01

    We investigate noise effects on the performance of entanglement distribution by separable state. We consider a realistic situation in which the mediating particle between two distant nodes of the network goes through a noisy channel. For a large class of noise models, we show that the average value of distributed entanglement between two parties is equal to entanglement between particular bipartite partitions of target qubits and exchange qubit in intermediate steps of the protocol. This result is valid for distributing two-qubit/qudit and three-qubit entangled states. In explicit examples of the noise family, we show that there exists a critical value of noise parameter beyond which distribution of distillable entanglement is not possible. Furthermore, we determine how this critical value increases in terms of Hilbert space dimension, when distributing d-dimensional Bell states.

  8. Noise Gating Solar Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest, Craig; Seaton, Daniel B.; Darnell, John A.

    2017-08-01

    I present and demonstrate a new, general purpose post-processing technique, "3D noise gating", that can reduce image noise by an order of magnitude or more without effective loss of spatial or temporal resolution in typical solar applications.Nearly all scientific images are, ultimately, limited by noise. Noise can be direct Poisson "shot noise" from photon counting effects, or introduced by other means such as detector read noise. Noise is typically represented as a random variable (perhaps with location- or image-dependent characteristics) that is sampled once per pixel or once per resolution element of an image sequence. Noise limits many aspects of image analysis, including photometry, spatiotemporal resolution, feature identification, morphology extraction, and background modeling and separation.Identifying and separating noise from image signal is difficult. The common practice of blurring in space and/or time works because most image "signal" is concentrated in the low Fourier components of an image, while noise is evenly distributed. Blurring in space and/or time attenuates the high spatial and temporal frequencies, reducing noise at the expense of also attenuating image detail. Noise-gating exploits the same property -- "coherence" -- that we use to identify features in images, to separate image features from noise.Processing image sequences through 3-D noise gating results in spectacular (more than 10x) improvements in signal-to-noise ratio, while not blurring bright, resolved features in either space or time. This improves most types of image analysis, including feature identification, time sequence extraction, absolute and relative photometry (including differential emission measure analysis), feature tracking, computer vision, correlation tracking, background modeling, cross-scale analysis, visual display/presentation, and image compression.I will introduce noise gating, describe the method, and show examples from several instruments (including SDO

  9. Noise Reduction Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallas, Tony

    There are two distinct kinds of noise - structural and color. Each requires a specific method of attack to minimize. The great challenge is to reduce the noise without reducing the faint and delicate detail in the image. My most-used and favorite noise suppression is found in Photoshop CS 5 Camera Raw. If I cannot get the desired results with the first choice, I will use Noise Ninja, which has certain advantages in some situations that we will cover.

  10. Quantification of airport community noise impact in terms of noise levels, population density, and human subjective response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloach, R.

    1981-01-01

    The Fraction Impact Method (FIM), developed by the National Research Council (NRC) for assessing the amount and physiological effect of noise, is described. Here, the number of people exposed to a given level of noise is multiplied by a weighting factor that depends on noise level. It is pointed out that the Aircraft-noise Levels and Annoyance MOdel (ALAMO), recently developed at NASA Langley Research Center, can perform the NRC fractional impact calculations for given modes of operation at any U.S. airport. The sensitivity of these calculations to errors in estimates of population, noise level, and human subjective response is discussed. It is found that a change in source noise causes a substantially smaller change in contour area than would be predicted simply on the basis of inverse square law considerations. Another finding is that the impact calculations are generally less sensitive to source noise errors than to systematic errors in population or subjective response.

  11. Equation for Combustion Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T. M.

    1982-01-01

    Mathematical relationship derived for interactions between turbulent flame and combustion noise. Relationship is rigorous theoretical correlation of combustion noise and combustion process. Establishes foundation for acoustic measurements as tool for investigating structure of turbulent flames. Mathematical relationship is expected to aid researchers in field of noise generated by combustion.

  12. Introductory guide to noise

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ferreira, T.M

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference between sound and noise varies from one human being to another. Noise, then, is simply unwanted sound and to understand how it can be combatted we must know more about its nature. A guide of acceptable levels of noise are investigated....

  13. Noise at the Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prior, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The notion of noise occupies a contested territory, in which it is framed as pollution and detritus even as it makes its opposite a possibility - noise is always defined in opposition to something else, even if this ‘other’ is not quite clear. This paper explores noise in the context of ‘the...

  14. The complex formation-partition and partition-association models of solvent extraction of ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siekierski, S.

    1976-01-01

    Two models of the extraction process have been proposed. In the first model it is assumed that the partitioning neutral species is at first formed in the aqueous phase and then transferred into the organic phase. The second model is based on the assumption that equivalent amounts of cations are at first transferred from the aqueous into the organic phase and then associated to form a neutral molecule. The role of the solubility parameter in extraction and the relation between the solubility of liquid organic substances in water and the partition of complexes have been discussed. The extraction of simple complexes and complexes with organic ligands has been discussed using the first model. Partition coefficients have been calculated theoretically and compared with experimental values in some very simple cases. The extraction of ion pairs has been discussed using the partition-association model and the concept of single-ion partition coefficients. (author)

  15. Active noise control in a duct to cancel broadband noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Chun; Chang, Cheng-Yuan; Kuo, Sen M.

    2017-09-01

    The paper presents cancelling duct noises by using the active noise control (ANC) techniques. We use the single channel feed forward algorithm with feedback neutralization to realize ANC. Several kinds of ducts noises including tonal noises, sweep tonal signals, and white noise had investigated. Experimental results show that the proposed ANC system can cancel these noises in a PVC duct very well. The noise reduction of white noise can be up to 20 dB.

  16. Classical noise, quantum noise and secure communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannous, C; Langlois, J

    2016-01-01

    Secure communication based on message encryption might be performed by combining the message with controlled noise (called pseudo-noise) as performed in spread-spectrum communication used presently in Wi-Fi and smartphone telecommunication systems. Quantum communication based on entanglement is another route for securing communications as demonstrated by several important experiments described in this work. The central role played by the photon in unifying the description of classical and quantum noise as major ingredients of secure communication systems is highlighted and described on the basis of the classical and quantum fluctuation dissipation theorems. (review)

  17. Screening of pesticides for environmental partitioning tendency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatica, Paola; Di Guardo, Antonio

    2002-06-01

    The partitioning tendency of chemicals, in this study pesticides in particular, into different environmental compartments depends mainly on the concurrent relevance of the physico-chemical properties of the chemical itself. To rank the pesticides according to their distribution tendencies in the different environmental compartments we propose a multivariate approach: the combination, by principal component analysis, of those physico-chemical properties like organic carbon partition coefficient (Koc), n-octanol/water partition coefficient (Kow), water solubility (Sw), vapour pressure and Henry's law constant (H) that are more relevant to the determination of environmental partitioning. The resultant macrovariables, the PC1 and PC2 scores here named leaching index (LIN) and volatality index (VIN), are proposed as preliminary environmental partitioning indexes in different media. These two indexes are modeled by theoretical molecular descriptors with satisfactory predictive power. Such an approach allows a rapid pre-determination and screening of the environmental distribution of pesticides starting only from the molecular structure of the pesticide, without any a priori knowledge of the physico-chemical properties.

  18. Direct-reading dial for noise temperature and noise resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, J.M.

    1967-01-01

    An attenuator arrangement for a noise generator is described. The scheme permits direct reading of both noise resistance and noise temperature¿the latter with a choice of source resistance.......An attenuator arrangement for a noise generator is described. The scheme permits direct reading of both noise resistance and noise temperature¿the latter with a choice of source resistance....

  19. Optical Johnson noise thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, R. L.; Blalock, T. V.; Maxey, L. C.; Roberts, M. J.; Simpson, M. L.

    1989-01-01

    A concept is being explored that an optical analog of the electrical Johnson noise may be used to measure temperature independently of emissivity. The concept is that a laser beam may be modulated on reflection from a hot surface by interaction of the laser photons with the thermally agitated conduction electrons or the lattice phonons, thereby adding noise to the reflected laser beam. If the reflectance noise can be detected and quantified in a background of other noise in the optical and signal processing systems, the reflectance noise may provide a noncontact measurement of the absolute surface temperature and may be independent of the surface's emissivity.

  20. Analysis of noise lines in the Virgo C7 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acernese, F; Amico, P; Alshourbagy, M

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a description of the work of detection and identification of frequency lines in the Virgo dark fringe data from run C7. A number of methods are highlighted by which noise frequency lines are detected by data analysis and measurements in the laboratory. In this paper we give a description of the list of noise line candidates provided by the pulsar search analysis, the investigation of 10 Hz (and harmonics) noise, violin modes, noise from the end station buildings' air conditioners, sidebands in calibration lines and aliasing in the 4 kHz reconstructed data

  1. Analysis of noise lines in the Virgo C7 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acernese, F [INFN, Sezione di Napoli and/or Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' Complesso Universitario di Monte S Angelo, and/or Universita di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy); Amico, P [INFN, Sezione di Perugia and/or Universita di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Alshourbagy, M [INFN, Sezione di Pisa and/or Universita di Pisa, Pisa (Italy)] (and others)

    2007-10-07

    The paper presents a description of the work of detection and identification of frequency lines in the Virgo dark fringe data from run C7. A number of methods are highlighted by which noise frequency lines are detected by data analysis and measurements in the laboratory. In this paper we give a description of the list of noise line candidates provided by the pulsar search analysis, the investigation of 10 Hz (and harmonics) noise, violin modes, noise from the end station buildings' air conditioners, sidebands in calibration lines and aliasing in the 4 kHz reconstructed data.

  2. Low frequency noise in resonant Josephson soliton oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørn Bindslev; Holst, T.; Wellstood, Frederick C.

    1991-01-01

    The noise in the resonant soliton mode of long and narrow Josephson tunnel junctions (Josephson transmission lines or JTLs) have been measured in the frequency range from 0.1 Hz to 25 kHz by means of a DC SQUID. The measured white noise was found, to within a factor of two, to be equal...... to the Nyquist voltage noise in a resistance equal to the dynamic resistance RD of the current-voltage characteristic of the bias point. In contrast, measurements of the linewidth of the microwave radiation from the same JTL showed that the spectral density of the underlying noise voltage scaled as R D2/RS where...

  3. Noise suppression in duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.; Barfeh, M.A.G.

    2001-01-01

    In air-conditioning system the noise generated by supply fan is carried by conditioned air through the ductwork. The noise created in ductwork run may be transmission, regenerative and ductborne. Transmission noise is fan noise, regenerative noise is due to turbulence in flow and ductborne noise is the noise radiating from duct to surroundings. Some noise is attenuated in ducts also but if noise level is high then it needs to be attenuated. A simple mitre bend can attenuate-noise. This principle is extended to V and M-shape ducts with inside lining of fibreglass, which gave maximum attenuation of 77 dB and 62 dB respectively corresponding to 8 kHz frequency as compared to mitre, bend giving maximum 18 dB attenuation. Sound level meter measured sound levels with octave band filter and tests were conducted in anechoic room. A V-shape attenuator can be used at fan outlet and high frequency noise can be minimized greatly. (author)

  4. Active3 noise reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzfuss, J.

    1996-01-01

    Noise reduction is a problem being encountered in a variety of applications, such as environmental noise cancellation, signal recovery and separation. Passive noise reduction is done with the help of absorbers. Active noise reduction includes the transmission of phase inverted signals for the cancellation. This paper is about a threefold active approach to noise reduction. It includes the separation of a combined source, which consists of both a noise and a signal part. With the help of interaction with the source by scanning it and recording its response, modeling as a nonlinear dynamical system is achieved. The analysis includes phase space analysis and global radial basis functions as tools for the prediction used in a subsequent cancellation procedure. Examples are given which include noise reduction of speech. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  5. Back-scatter based whispering gallery mode sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knittel, Joachim; Swaim, Jon D.; McAuslan, David L.; Brawley, George A.; Bowen, Warwick P.

    2013-01-01

    Whispering gallery mode biosensors allow selective unlabelled detection of single proteins and, combined with quantum limited sensitivity, the possibility for noninvasive real-time observation of motor molecule motion. However, to date technical noise sources, most particularly low frequency laser noise, have constrained such applications. Here we introduce a new technique for whispering gallery mode sensing based on direct detection of back-scattered light. This experimentally straightforward technique is immune to frequency noise in principle, and further, acts to suppress thermorefractive noise. We demonstrate 27 dB of frequency noise suppression, eliminating frequency noise as a source of sensitivity degradation and allowing an absolute frequency shift sensitivity of 76 kHz. Our results open a new pathway towards single molecule biophysics experiments and ultrasensitive biosensors. PMID:24131939

  6. Active noise cancellation algorithms for impulsive noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Yu, Xun

    2013-04-01

    Impulsive noise is an important challenge for the practical implementation of active noise control (ANC) systems. The advantages and disadvantages of popular filtered- X least mean square (FXLMS) ANC algorithm and nonlinear filtered-X least mean M-estimate (FXLMM) algorithm are discussed in this paper. A new modified FXLMM algorithm is also proposed to achieve better performance in controlling impulsive noise. Computer simulations and experiments are carried out for all three algorithms and the results are presented and analyzed. The results show that the FXLMM and modified FXLMM algorithms are more robust in suppressing the adverse effect of sudden large amplitude impulses than FXLMS algorithm, and in particular, the proposed modified FXLMM algorithm can achieve better stability without sacrificing the performance of residual noise when encountering impulses.

  7. Partitioning of selected antioxidants in mayonnaise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Schwarz, K.; Stockmann, H.

    1999-01-01

    This study examined partitioning of alpha-, beta-, and gamma- tocopherol and six polar antioxidants (Trolox, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, propyl gallate, gallic acid, and catechin) in mayonnaise. Partitioning of antioxidants between different phases was determined after separation of mayonnaise...... acid and catechin) to 83% (Trolox). Accordingly, proportions of 6% (Trolox) to 80% (gallic acid and catechin) were found in the aqueous phase. Similar trends were observed after dialysis. After ultracentrifugation, large proportions of polar antioxidants were found in the "emulsion phase...... by either (a) centrifugation + ultracentrifugation or (b) centrifugation + dialysis. Antioxidants partitioned in accordance with their chemical structure and polarity: Tocopherols were concentrated in the oil phase (93-96%), while the proportion of polar antioxidants in the oil phase ranged from 0% (gallic...

  8. Partitioning of unstructured meshes for load balancing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, O.C.; Otto, S.W.

    1994-01-01

    Many large-scale engineering and scientific calculations involve repeated updating of variables on an unstructured mesh. To do these types of computations on distributed memory parallel computers, it is necessary to partition the mesh among the processors so that the load balance is maximized and inter-processor communication time is minimized. This can be approximated by the problem, of partitioning a graph so as to obtain a minimum cut, a well-studied combinatorial optimization problem. Graph partitioning algorithms are discussed that give good but not necessarily optimum solutions. These algorithms include local search methods recursive spectral bisection, and more general purpose methods such as simulated annealing. It is shown that a general procedure enables to combine simulated annealing with Kernighan-Lin. The resulting algorithm is both very fast and extremely effective. (authors) 23 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  9. Partitioning a macroscopic system into independent subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Site, Luigi; Ciccotti, Giovanni; Hartmann, Carsten

    2017-08-01

    We discuss the problem of partitioning a macroscopic system into a collection of independent subsystems. The partitioning of a system into replica-like subsystems is nowadays a subject of major interest in several fields of theoretical and applied physics. The thermodynamic approach currently favoured by practitioners is based on a phenomenological definition of an interface energy associated with the partition, due to a lack of easily computable expressions for a microscopic (i.e. particle-based) interface energy. In this article, we outline a general approach to derive sharp and computable bounds for the interface free energy in terms of microscopic statistical quantities. We discuss potential applications in nanothermodynamics and outline possible future directions.

  10. VLSI PARTITIONING ALGORITHM WITH ADAPTIVE CONTROL PARAMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Filippenko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of very large-scale integration circuit partitioning. A graph is selected as a mathematical model describing integrated circuit. Modification of ant colony optimization algorithm is presented, which is used to solve graph partitioning problem. Ant colony optimization algorithm is an optimization method based on the principles of self-organization and other useful features of the ants’ behavior. The proposed search system is based on ant colony optimization algorithm with the improved method of the initial distribution and dynamic adjustment of the control search parameters. The experimental results and performance comparison show that the proposed method of very large-scale integration circuit partitioning provides the better search performance over other well known algorithms.

  11. Consistent Estimation of Partition Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús E. García

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Partition Markov Model characterizes the process by a partition L of the state space, where the elements in each part of L share the same transition probability to an arbitrary element in the alphabet. This model aims to answer the following questions: what is the minimal number of parameters needed to specify a Markov chain and how to estimate these parameters. In order to answer these questions, we build a consistent strategy for model selection which consist of: giving a size n realization of the process, finding a model within the Partition Markov class, with a minimal number of parts to represent the process law. From the strategy, we derive a measure that establishes a metric in the state space. In addition, we show that if the law of the process is Markovian, then, eventually, when n goes to infinity, L will be retrieved. We show an application to model internet navigation patterns.

  12. Nonlinear interaction model of subsonic jet noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandham, Neil D; Salgado, Adriana M

    2008-08-13

    Noise generation in a subsonic round jet is studied by a simplified model, in which nonlinear interactions of spatially evolving instability modes lead to the radiation of sound. The spatial mode evolution is computed using linear parabolized stability equations. Nonlinear interactions are found on a mode-by-mode basis and the sound radiation characteristics are determined by solution of the Lilley-Goldstein equation. Since mode interactions are computed explicitly, it is possible to find their relative importance for sound radiation. The method is applied to a single stream jet for which experimental data are available. The model gives Strouhal numbers of 0.45 for the most amplified waves in the jet and 0.19 for the dominant sound radiation. While in near field axisymmetric and the first azimuthal modes are both important, far-field sound is predominantly axisymmetric. These results are in close correspondence with experiment, suggesting that the simplified model is capturing at least some of the important mechanisms of subsonic jet noise.

  13. Theory and simulation of cavity quantum electro-dynamics in multi-partite quantum complex systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidoosty Shahraki, Moslem; Khorasani, Sina; Aram, Mohammad Hasan

    2014-05-01

    The cavity quantum electrodynamics of various complex systems is here analyzed using a general versatile code developed in this research. Such quantum multi-partite systems normally consist of an arbitrary number of quantum dots in interaction with an arbitrary number of cavity modes. As an example, a nine-partition system is simulated under different coupling regimes, consisting of eight emitters interacting with one cavity mode. Two-level emitters (e.g. quantum dots) are assumed to have an arrangement in the form of a linear chain, defining the mutual dipole-dipole interactions. It was observed that plotting the system trajectory in the phase space reveals a chaotic behavior in the so-called ultrastrong-coupling regime. This result is mathematically confirmed by detailed calculation of the Kolmogorov entropy, as a measure of chaotic behavior. In order to study the computational complexity of our code, various multi-partite systems consisting of one to eight quantum dots in interaction with one cavity mode were solved individually. Computation run times and the allocated memory for each system were measured.

  14. Tunable current partition at zero-line intersection of quantum anomalous Hall topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yafei; Zeng, Junjie; Wang, Ke; Xu, Fuming; Qiao, Zhenhua

    2017-10-01

    At the interface between two-dimensional materials with different topologies, topologically protected one-dimensional states (also named zero-line modes) arise. Here, we focus on the quantum anomalous Hall-effect-based zero-line modes formed at the interface between regimes with different Chern numbers. We find that these zero-line modes are chiral and unilaterally conductive due to the breaking of time-reversal invariance. For a beam splitter consisting of two intersecting zero lines, the chirality ensures that a current can only be injected from two of the four terminals. Our numerical results further show that, in the absence of contact resistance, the (anti-)clockwise partitions of the currents from these two terminals are the same owing to the current conservation, which effectively simplifies the partition laws. We find that the partition is robust against the relative shift of Fermi energy but can be adjusted effectively by tuning the relative magnetization strengths at different regimes or relative angles between zero lines.

  15. Psycho-Circulatory Responses Caused by Listening to Music, and Exposure to Fluctuating Noise or Steady Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAKAMOTO, H.; HAYASHI, F.; SUGIURA, S.; TSUJIKAWA, M.

    2002-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of steady noise, fluctuating noise and music on circulatory function. Pulse-wave and blood pressure were continuously measured in 35 healthy young females who listened to three types of music or were exposed to steady noise or fluctuating noise, synchronized with each type of music with respect to intensity variations. The pulse-wave did not change during any exposure conditions. Regarding blood pressure, several modes were observed. The critical level for a blood pressure change was estimated to be 54 LAeqduring exposure to steady noise. The frequency of high-intensity peaks in the mode of sound fluctuation was associated with elevation in blood pressure. The blood pressure change was analyzed by distinguishing the intensity variation in sound fluctuation from other attributes of music. The effects of music on blood pressure were modified not only by the melody and timbre of the music but also by emotional responses during listing.

  16. Shift versus Extension in Refined Partition Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Krefl, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We have recently shown that the global behavior of the partition function of N=2 gauge theory in the general Omega-background is captured by special geometry in the guise of the (extended) holomorphic anomaly equation. We here analyze the fate of our results under the shift of the mass parameters of the gauge theory. The preferred value of the shift, noted previously in other contexts, restores the Z_2 symmetry of the instanton partition function under inversion of the Omega-background, and removes the extension. We comment on various connections.

  17. Partition functions for supersymmetric black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Manschot, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation presents recent discoveries on partition functions for four-dimensional supersymmetric black holes. These partition functions are important tools to explain the entropy of black holes from a microscopic point of view within string theory and M-theory. The results are applied to two central research topics in modern theoretical physics, namely (1) the correspondence between the physics (including gravity) within an Anti-de Sitter space and conformal field theory, and (2) the relation between black holes and topological strings.

  18. Upper bounds for the changes of natural frequencies due to dynamic partitioning techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, K.; Wagner, U.; Albus, E.

    1981-01-01

    Dynamic partitioning or substructuring is the reduction of degrees of freedom by neglecting the dynamical influence of higher modes of certain substructure. One of the major reasons for these techniques not being widely accepted is the lack of criteria to judge the accuracy of the computed data. So far as natural frequencies are concerned a theorem is formulated which gives upper bounds for the error due to dynamic substructuring. The theorem is tested by applying it to a special statically exact substructuring method which is gained from a fixed-mode approach. The error estimation turns out to be strict enough to decide on the validity of DOF-reduction. (orig.)

  19. Role of thermal noise in tripartite quantum steering

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Meng; Gong, Qihuang; Ficek, Zbigniew; He, Qiongyi

    2014-01-01

    The influence of thermal noise on bipartite and tripartite quantum steering induced by a short laser pulse in a hybrid three-mode optomechanical system is investigated. The calculation is carried out under the bad cavity limit, the adiabatic approximation of a slowly varying amplitude of the cavity mode, and with the assumption of driving the cavity mode with a blue detuned strong laser pulse. Under such conditions, explicit expressions of the bipartite and tripartite steering parameters are ...

  20. Noise-induced synchronization, desynchronization, and clustering in globally coupled nonidentical oscillators

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yi Ming

    2013-07-09

    We study ensembles of globally coupled, nonidentical phase oscillators subject to correlated noise, and we identify several important factors that cause noise and coupling to synchronize or desynchronize a system. By introducing noise in various ways, we find an estimate for the onset of synchrony of a system in terms of the coupling strength, noise strength, and width of the frequency distribution of its natural oscillations. We also demonstrate that noise alone can be sufficient to synchronize nonidentical oscillators. However, this synchrony depends on the first Fourier mode of a phase-sensitivity function, through which we introduce common noise into the system. We show that higher Fourier modes can cause desynchronization due to clustering effects, and that this can reinforce clustering caused by different forms of coupling. Finally, we discuss the effects of noise on an ensemble in which antiferromagnetic coupling causes oscillators to form two clusters in the absence of noise. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  1. SOUND TRANSMISSION LOSS OF A DOUBLE-LEAF PARTITION WITH MICRO-PERFORATED PLATE INSERTION UNDER DIFFUSE FIELD INCIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Putra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In noise control applications, a double-leaf partition has been applied widely as a lightweight structure for noise insulation, such as in car doors, train bodies, and aircraft fuselages. Unfortunately, the insulation performance deteriorates significantly at mass-air-mass resonance due to coupling between the panels and the air in the gap. This paper investigates the effect of a micro-perforated panel (MPP, inserted in the conventional double-panel partition, on sound transmission loss at troublesome resonant frequencies. It is found that the transmission loss improves at this resonance if the MPP is located at a distance of less than half that of the air gap. A mathematical model is derived for the diffuse field incidence of acoustic loading.

  2. Semi-classical noise investigation for sub-40nm metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Spathis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Device white noise levels in short channel Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs dictate the performance and reliability of high-frequency circuits ranging from high-speed microprocessors to Low-Noise Amplifiers (LNAs and microwave circuits. Recent experimental noise measurements with very short devices demonstrate the existence of suppressed shot noise, contrary to the predictions of classical channel thermal noise models. In this work we show that, as the dimensions continue to shrink, shot noise has to be considered when the channel resistance becomes comparable to the barrier resistance at the source-channel junction. By adopting a semi-classical approach and taking retrospectively into account transport, short-channel and quantum effects, we investigate the partitioning between shot and thermal noise, and formulate a predictive model that describes the noise characteristics of modern devices.

  3. Semi-classical noise investigation for sub-40nm metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spathis, C.; Birbas, A.; Georgakopoulou, K.

    2015-08-01

    Device white noise levels in short channel Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs) dictate the performance and reliability of high-frequency circuits ranging from high-speed microprocessors to Low-Noise Amplifiers (LNAs) and microwave circuits. Recent experimental noise measurements with very short devices demonstrate the existence of suppressed shot noise, contrary to the predictions of classical channel thermal noise models. In this work we show that, as the dimensions continue to shrink, shot noise has to be considered when the channel resistance becomes comparable to the barrier resistance at the source-channel junction. By adopting a semi-classical approach and taking retrospectively into account transport, short-channel and quantum effects, we investigate the partitioning between shot and thermal noise, and formulate a predictive model that describes the noise characteristics of modern devices.

  4. Preconditioner-free Wiener filtering with a dense noise matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffenberger, Kevin M.

    2018-05-01

    This work extends the Elsner & Wandelt (2013) iterative method for efficient, preconditioner-free Wiener filtering to cases in which the noise covariance matrix is dense, but can be decomposed into a sum whose parts are sparse in convenient bases. The new method, which uses multiple messenger fields, reproduces Wiener-filter solutions for test problems, and we apply it to a case beyond the reach of the Elsner & Wandelt (2013) method. We compute the Wiener-filter solution for a simulated Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) map that contains spatially varying, uncorrelated noise, isotropic 1/f noise, and large-scale horizontal stripes (like those caused by atmospheric noise). We discuss simple extensions that can filter contaminated modes or inverse-noise-filter the data. These techniques help to address complications in the noise properties of maps from current and future generations of ground-based Microwave Background experiments, like Advanced ACTPol, Simons Observatory, and CMB-S4.

  5. Protium, an infrastructure for partitioned applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullender, Sape J.; Young, C.; Szymanski, T.; Reppy, J.; Presotto, D.; Pike, R.; Narlikar, G.

    Remote access feels different from local access. The major issues are consistency (machines vary in GUIs, applications, and devices) and responsiveness (the user must wait for network and server delays). Protium attacks these by partitioning programs into local viewers that connect to remote

  6. Integral complete r-partite graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Ligong; Li, Xueliang; Hoede, C.

    2004-01-01

    A graph is called integral if all the eigenvalues of its adjacency matrix are integers. In this paper, we give a useful sufficient and necessary condition for complete r-partite graphs to be integral, from which we can construct infinite many new classes of such integral graphs. It is proved that

  7. Zr partitioning and kinetics and mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, L. A.

    1973-01-01

    The results of investigations concerning the cooling histories of lunar rocks are reported. Publications resulting from this research are listed. Studies discussed include the partitioning of Zr between FeTi03 and Fe2Ti04 in the presence of Fe + Zr02, and ulvospinel reduction.

  8. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The third international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation, took place in Cadarache France, on 12-14 December 1994. The proceedings are presented in six sessions : an introduction session, the major programmes and international cooperation, the systems studies, the reactors fuels and targets, the chemistry and a last discussions session. (A.L.B.)

  9. A review of approaches for evapotranspiration partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partitioning of evapotranspiration (ET) into evaporation from the soil surface (E) and transpiration (T) is challenging but important in order to assess biomass production and the allocation of increasingly scarce water resources. Generally T is the desired component with the water being used to enh...

  10. Thirring model partition functions and harmonic differentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, D. Z.; Pilch, K.

    1988-10-01

    The partition function of the Thirring model on a Riemann surface is calculated using the representation of the model as a fermion interacting with an auxiliary vector potential. The Hodge decomposition of the potential is used and the integral over the harmonic forms is shown to reproduce exactly the soliton sum in the bosonic version of the theory.

  11. Domain wall partition functions and KP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, O; Wheeler, M; Zuparic, M

    2009-01-01

    We observe that the partition function of the six-vertex model on a finite square lattice with domain wall boundary conditions is (a restriction of) a KP τ function and express it as an expectation value of charged free fermions (up to an overall normalization)

  12. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The third international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation, took place in Cadarache France, on 12-14 December 1994. The proceedings are presented in six sessions : an introduction session, the major programmes and international cooperation, the systems studies, the reactors fuels and targets, the chemistry and a last discussions session. (A.L.B.)

  13. Fair partitions of polygons: An elementary introduction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    above proposition implies: the augmented recursion achieves a convex fair partition of any convex polygon into 4 pieces. Let the boundary of a convex polygon be parametrized by the length s measured from any boundary point. For every value of s, there is a point P on the boundary and a unique point P antipodal to P (i.e. ...

  14. Canonical Partitions in the Restricted Linear Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Genugten, B.B.

    1997-01-01

    In the linear model y = X + " under the restriction C = 0 a canonical partition C = [C0;C1] of the rows of C admits a simple representation of linear subspaces of values = X . Its use is shown for the identification, estimating and testing of linear combinations DB. Results are derived without

  15. Minimum convex partitions and maximum empty polytopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Dumitrescu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Let S be a set of n points in Rd. A Steiner convex partition is a tiling of conv(S with empty convex bodies. For every integer d, we show that S admits a Steiner convex partition with at most ⌈(n-1/d⌉ tiles. This bound is the best possible for points in general position in the plane, and it is the best possible apart from constant factors in every fixed dimension d≥3. We also give the first constant-factor approximation algorithm for computing a minimum Steiner convex partition of a planar point set in general position.Establishing a tight lower bound for the maximum volume of a tile in a Steiner convex partition of any n points in the unit cube is equivalent to a famous problem of Danzer and Rogers. It is conjectured that the volume of the largest tile is ω(1/n. Here we give a (1-\\epsilon-approximation algorithm for computing the maximum volume of an empty convex body amidst n given points in the d-dimensional unit box [0,1]d.

  16. Empirical Bayes Approaches to Multivariate Fuzzy Partitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, Max A.; Manton, Kenneth G.

    1991-01-01

    An empirical Bayes-maximum likelihood estimation procedure is presented for the application of fuzzy partition models in describing high dimensional discrete response data. The model describes individuals in terms of partial membership in multiple latent categories that represent bounded discrete spaces. (SLD)

  17. Set Partitions and the Multiplication Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Elise; Caughman, John S., IV

    2016-01-01

    To further understand student thinking in the context of combinatorial enumeration, we examine student work on a problem involving set partitions. In this context, we note some key features of the multiplication principle that were often not attended to by students. We also share a productive way of thinking that emerged for several students who…

  18. Solute partitioning and filtration by extracellular matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Christina L.; Ferrell, Nicholas; Schnell, Lisa; Dubnisheva, Anna; Zydney, Andrew L.; Yurchenco, Peter D.; Roy, Shuvo

    2009-01-01

    The physiology of glomerular filtration remains mechanistically obscure despite its importance in disease. The correspondence between proteinuria and foot process effacement suggests podocytes as the locus of the filtration barrier. If so, retained macromolecules ought to accumulate at the filtration barrier, an effect called concentration polarization. Literature data indicate macromolecule concentrations decrease from subendothelial to subepithelial glomerular basement membrane (GBM), as would be expected if the GBM were itself the filter. The objective of this study was to obtain insights into the possible role of the GBM in protein retention by performing fundamental experimental and theoretical studies on the properties of three model gels. Solute partitioning and filtration through thin gels of a commercially available laminin-rich extracellular matrix, Matrigel, were measured using a polydisperse polysaccharide tracer molecule, Ficoll 70. Solute partitioning into laminin gels and lens basement membrane (LBM) were measured using Ficoll 70. A novel model of a laminin gel was numerically simulated, as well as a mixed structure-random-fiber model for LBM. Experimental partitioning was predicted by numerical simulations. Sieving coefficients through thin gels of Matrigel were size dependent and strongly flux dependent. The observed flux dependence arose from compression of the gel in response to the applied pressure. Gel compression may alter solute partitioning into extracellular matrix at physiologic pressures present in the glomerular capillary. This suggests a physical mechanism coupling podocyte structure to permeability characteristics of the GBM. PMID:19587146

  19. Adaptive noise cancellation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, N.

    1999-01-01

    In this report we describe the concept of adaptive noise canceling, an alternative method of estimating signals corrupted by additive noise of interference. The method uses 'primary' input containing the corrupted signal and a 'reference' input containing noise correlated in some unknown way with the primary noise, the reference input is adaptively filtered and subtracted from the primary input to obtain the signal estimate. Adaptive filtering before subtraction allows the treatment of inputs that are deterministic or stochastic, stationary or time variable. When the reference input is free of signal and certain other conditions are met then noise in the primary input can be essentially eliminated without signal distortion. It is further shown that the adaptive filter also acts as notch filter. Simulated results illustrate the usefulness of the adaptive noise canceling technique. (author)

  20. Acceptable noise level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Nielsen, Lars Holme; Lantz, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) is used to quantify the amount of background noise that subjects can accept while listening to speech, and is suggested for prediction of individual hearing-aid use. The aim of this study was to assess the repeatability of the ANL measured in normal-hearing subjects...... using running Danish and non-semantic speech materials as stimuli and modulated speech-spectrum and multi-talker babble noises as competing stimuli....

  1. Noise analysis and performance of a selfscanned linear InSb detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finger, G.; Meyer, M.; Moorwood, A.F.M.

    1987-01-01

    A noise model for detectors operated in the capacitive discharge mode is presented. It is used to analyze the noise performance of the ESO nested timing readout technique applied to a linear 32-element InSb array which is multiplexed by a silicon switched-FET shift register. Analysis shows that KTC noise of the videoline is the major noise contribution; it can be eliminated by weighted double-correlated sampling. Best noise performance of this array is achieved at the smallest possible reverse bias voltage (not more than 20 mV) whereas excess noise is observed at higher reverse bias voltages. 5 references

  2. European Europart integrated project on actinide partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Hudson, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    This poster presents the objectives of EUROPART, a scientific integrated project between 24 European partners, mostly funded by the European Community within the FP6. EUROPART aims at developing chemical partitioning processes for the so-called minor actinides (MA) contained in nuclear wastes, i.e. from Am to Cf. In the case of dedicated spent fuels or targets, the actinides to be separated also include U, Pu and Np. The techniques considered for the separation of these radionuclides belong to the fields of hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy, as in the previous FP5 programs named PARTNEW and PYROREP. The two main axes of research within EUROPART will be: The partitioning of MA (from Am to Cf) from high burn-up UO x fuels and multi-recycled MOx fuels; the partitioning of the whole actinide family for recycling, as an option for advanced dedicated fuel cycles (and in connection with the studies to be performed in the EUROTRANS integrated project). In hydrometallurgy, the research is organised into five Work Packages (WP). Four WP are dedicated to the study of partitioning methods mainly based on the use of solvent extraction methods, one WP is dedicated to the development of actinide co-conversion methods for fuel or target preparation. The research in pyrometallurgy is organized into four WP, listed hereafter: development of actinide partitioning methods, study of the basic chemistry of trans-curium elements in molten salts, study of the conditioning of the wastes, some system studies. Moreover, a strong management team will be concerned not only with the technical and financial issues arising from EUROPART, but also with information, communication and benefits for Europe. Training and education of young researchers will also pertain to the project. EUROPART has also established collaboration with US DOE and Japanese CRIEPI. (authors)

  3. Landing gear noise attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  4. Noise in biological circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Michael L; Cox, Chris D; Allen, Michael S; McCollum, James M; Dar, Roy D; Karig, David K; Cooke, John F

    2009-01-01

    Noise biology focuses on the sources, processing, and biological consequences of the inherent stochastic fluctuations in molecular transitions or interactions that control cellular behavior. These fluctuations are especially pronounced in small systems where the magnitudes of the fluctuations approach or exceed the mean value of the molecular population. Noise biology is an essential component of nanomedicine where the communication of information is across a boundary that separates small synthetic and biological systems that are bound by their size to reside in environments of large fluctuations. Here we review the fundamentals of the computational, analytical, and experimental approaches to noise biology. We review results that show that the competition between the benefits of low noise and those of low population has resulted in the evolution of genetic system architectures that produce an uneven distribution of stochasticity across the molecular components of cells and, in some cases, use noise to drive biological function. We review the exact and approximate approaches to gene circuit noise analysis and simulation, and review many of the key experimental results obtained using flow cytometry and time-lapse fluorescent microscopy. In addition, we consider the probative value of noise with a discussion of using measured noise properties to elucidate the structure and function of the underlying gene circuit. We conclude with a discussion of the frontiers of and significant future challenges for noise biology. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. Noise upon the Sinusoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2005-01-01

    Sinusoids are used for making harmonic and other sounds. In order to having life in the sounds and adding a wide variety of noises, irregularities are inserted in the frequency and amplitudes. A simple and intuitive noise model is presented, consisting of a low-pass filtered noise, and having...... control for strength and bandwidth. The noise is added on the frequency and amplitudes of the sinusoids, and the resulting irregularity’s (jitter and shimmer) bandwidth is derived. This, together with an overview of investigation methods of the jitter and shimmer results in an analysis of the necessary...

  6. Noise Scaling and Community Noise Metrics for the Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Casey L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Hutcheson, Florence V.; Doty, Michael J.; Lopes, Leonard V.; Nickol, Craig L.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Pope, D. Stuart

    2014-01-01

    An aircraft system noise assessment was performed for the hybrid wing body aircraft concept, known as the N2A-EXTE. This assessment is a result of an effort by NASA to explore a realistic HWB design that has the potential to substantially reduce noise and fuel burn. Under contract to NASA, Boeing designed the aircraft using practical aircraft design princip0les with incorporation of noise technologies projected to be available in the 2020 timeframe. NASA tested 5.8% scale-mode of the design in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel to provide source noise directivity and installation effects for aircraft engine and airframe configurations. Analysis permitted direct scaling of the model-scale jet, airframe, and engine shielding effect measurements to full-scale. Use of these in combination with ANOPP predictions enabled computations of the cumulative (CUM) noise margins relative to FAA Stage 4 limits. The CUM margins were computed for a baseline N2A-EXTE configuration and for configurations with added noise reduction strategies. The strategies include reduced approach speed, over-the-rotor line and soft-vane fan technologies, vertical tail placement and orientation, and modified landing gear designs with fairings. Combining the inherent HWB engine shielding by the airframe with added noise technologies, the cumulative noise was assessed at 38.7 dB below FAA Stage 4 certification level, just 3.3 dB short of the NASA N+2 goal of 42 dB. This new result shows that the NASA N+2 goal is approachable and that significant reduction in overall aircraft noise is possible through configurations with noise reduction technologies and operational changes.

  7. Partitioning of biocides between water and inorganic phases of render

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanczyk, Michal; Bollmann, Ulla E.; Bester, Kai

    , the partitioning of biocides between water and inorganic phases of render was studied. In this study the partitioning constants of benzoisothiazolinone, carbendazim, dichlorooctylisothiazolinone, diuron, iodocarb, isoproturon, irgarol, mecoprop, methylisothiazolinone, octylisothiazolinone, terbutryn...

  8. The importance of applying an appropriate data partitioning

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrov, Gancho; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation are described specific technical solutions put in place in various database applications of the ATLAS experiment at LHC where we make use of several partitioning techniques available in Oracle 11g. With the broadly used range partitioning and its option of automatic interval partitioning we add our own logic in PLSQL procedures and scheduler jobs to sustain data sliding windows in order to enforce various data retention policies. We also make use of the new Oracle 11g reference partitioning in the ATLAS Nightly Build System to achieve uniform data segmentation. However the most challenging was to segment the data of the new ATLAS Distributed Data Management system, which resulted in tens of thousands list type partitions and sub-partitions. Partition and sub-partition management, index strategy, statistics gathering and queries execution plan stability are important factors when choosing an appropriate physical model for the application data management. The so-far accumulated knowledge wi...

  9. The importance of having an appropriate data segmentation (partitioning)

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrov, Gancho; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    In this presentation will be shown real life examples from database applications in the ATLAS experiment @ LHC where we make use of many Oracle partitioning techniques available in Oracle 11g. With the broadly used range partitioning and its option of automatic interval partitioning we add our own logic in PLSQL for sustaining data sliding windows in order to enforce various data retention policies. We also make use of the reference partitioning in some use cases, however the most challenging was to segment the data of a large bookkeeping system which resulted in tens of thousands list partitions and list sub-partitions. Partition and sub-partition management, index strategy, statistics gathering and queries execution plan stability are important factors when choosing an appropriate for the use case data management model. The gained experience with all of those will be shared with the audience.

  10. Prediction of octanol/water partition coefficient of selected ferrocene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    water partition coefficient of selected ferrocenes bearing different substituents, the calculation is based on the adaptation of the Rekker method. Our prediction of obtained theoretical partition coefficients values of logP for all studied substituted ...

  11. Open software tools for eddy covariance flux partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agro-ecosystem management and assessment will benefit greatly from the development of reliable techniques for partitioning evapotranspiration (ET) into evaporation (E) and transpiration (T). Among other activities, flux partitioning can aid in evaluating consumptive vs. non-consumptive agricultural...

  12. Sounds and Noises. A Position Paper on Noise Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Thomas L.

    This position paper focuses on noise pollution and the problems and solutions associated with this form of pollution. The paper is divided into the following five sections: Noise and the Ear, Noise Measurement, III Effects of Noise, Acoustics and Action, and Programs and Activities. The first section identifies noise and sound, the beginnings of…

  13. Noise and Health: How does noise affect us?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, H.M.E.

    2001-01-01

    Noise annoyance is a primary indication that noise is a problem, and by itself noise annoyance means that the quality of life is adversely affected. Results from noise annoyance research are presented that make possible a detailed evaluation of noise exposures with respect to the annoyance induced.

  14. The prediction of blood-tissue partitions, water-skin partitions and skin permeation for agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Michael H; Gola, Joelle M R; Ibrahim, Adam; Acree, William E; Liu, Xiangli

    2014-07-01

    There is considerable interest in the blood-tissue distribution of agrochemicals, and a number of researchers have developed experimental methods for in vitro distribution. These methods involve the determination of saline-blood and saline-tissue partitions; not only are they indirect, but they do not yield the required in vivo distribution. The authors set out equations for gas-tissue and blood-tissue distribution, for partition from water into skin and for permeation from water through human skin. Together with Abraham descriptors for the agrochemicals, these equations can be used to predict values for all of these processes. The present predictions compare favourably with experimental in vivo blood-tissue distribution where available. The predictions require no more than simple arithmetic. The present method represents a much easier and much more economic way of estimating blood-tissue partitions than the method that uses saline-blood and saline-tissue partitions. It has the added advantages of yielding the required in vivo partitions and being easily extended to the prediction of partition of agrochemicals from water into skin and permeation from water through skin. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Dynamic State Space Partitioning for External Memory Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evangelista, Sami; Kristensen, Lars Michael

    2009-01-01

    We describe a dynamic partitioning scheme usable by model checking techniques that divide the state space into partitions, such as most external memory and distributed model checking algorithms. The goal of the scheme is to reduce the number of transitions that link states belonging to different...... partitions, and thereby limit the amount of disk access and network communication. We report on several experiments made with our verification platform ASAP that implements the dynamic partitioning scheme proposed in this paper....

  16. Research on the Automatic Fusion Strategy of Fixed Value Boundary Based on the Weak Coupling Condition of Grid Partition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. Y.; Dou, J. M.; Shen, H.; Li, J.; Yang, G. S.; Fan, R. Q.; Shen, Q.

    2018-03-01

    With the continuous strengthening of power grids, the network structure is becoming more and more complicated. An open and regional data modeling is used to complete the calculation of the protection fixed value based on the local region. At the same time, a high precision, quasi real-time boundary fusion technique is needed to seamlessly integrate the various regions so as to constitute an integrated fault computing platform which can conduct transient stability analysis of covering the whole network with high accuracy and multiple modes, deal with the impact results of non-single fault, interlocking fault and build “the first line of defense” of the power grid. The boundary fusion algorithm in this paper is an automatic fusion algorithm based on the boundary accurate coupling of the networking power grid partition, which takes the actual operation mode for qualification, complete the boundary coupling algorithm of various weak coupling partition based on open-loop mode, improving the fusion efficiency, truly reflecting its transient stability level, and effectively solving the problems of too much data, too many difficulties of partition fusion, and no effective fusion due to mutually exclusive conditions. In this paper, the basic principle of fusion process is introduced firstly, and then the method of boundary fusion customization is introduced by scene description. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the specific algorithm on how it effectively implements the boundary fusion after grid partition and to verify the accuracy and efficiency of the algorithm.

  17. GPU Acceleration of Graph Matching, Clustering, and Partitioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagginger Auer, B.O.

    2013-01-01

    We consider sequential algorithms for hypergraph partitioning and GPU (i.e., fine-grained shared-memory parallel) algorithms for graph partitioning and clustering. Our investigation into sequential hypergraph partitioning is concerned with the efficient construction of high-quality matchings for

  18. On the partition dimension of two-component graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D O Haryeni

    2017-11-17

    Nov 17, 2017 ... Abstract. In this paper, we continue investigating the partition dimension for disconnected graphs. We determine the partition dimension for some classes of disconnected graphs G consisting of two components. If G = G1 ∪ G2, then we give the bounds of the partition dimension of G for G1 = Pn or G1 = Cn ...

  19. Noise in miniature microphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephen C; LoPresti, Janice L; Ring, Eugene M; Nepomuceno, Henry G; Beard, John J; Ballad, William J; Carlson, Elmer V

    2002-02-01

    The internal noise spectrum in miniature electret microphones of the type used in the manufacture of hearing aids is measured. An analogous circuit model of the microphone is empirically fit to the measured data and used to determine the important sources of noise within the microphone. The dominant noise source is found to depend on the frequency. Below 40 Hz and above 9 kHz, the dominant source is electrical noise from the amplifier circuit needed to buffer the electrical signal from the microphone diaphragm. Between approximately 40 Hz and 1 kHz, the dominant source is thermal noise originating in the acoustic flow resistance of the small hole pierced in the diaphragm to equalize barometric pressure. Between approximately 1 kHz and 9 kHz, the noise originates in the acoustic flow resistances of sound entering the microphone and propagating to the diaphragm. To further reduce the microphone internal noise in the audio band requires attacking these sources. A prototype microphone having reduced acoustical noise is measured and discussed.

  20. Effects of traffic noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottlob, D.

    1986-02-01

    One of the main sources of noise is road traffic. In 1984 there were over 25 million cars, 1.2 million lorries, 1.3 million motor cycles and 1.6 million mopeds using our roads. Opinion polls showed that 21% of the population felt that they were affected by traffic noise as a nuisance factor. An outline of the effects of this noise on the affected population is given, illustrated by diagrams. Details about noise emissions (drive-past level) of the different types of vehicles in city traffic are stated and the effects of noise described. The author goes into the nuisance effect (noise is not a physical factor, but a psychosocial one), changes in behaviour (ways of speaking, reduction of stress on households in proportion to rising income and higher educational levels) and the consequences for health (the reaction of the body to noise is primarily a consequence of the psychosomatic organisation of ow bodies). In conclusion, the author deals with the subjective efficiency of noise protection measures. (HWJ).

  1. Mediality is Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prior, Andrew

    This PhD is concerned with the use of noise as a material within media arts practice, especially in ‘post-digital’ contexts such as glitch electronica, glitch art and uses of old media. It examines the relationship between informational culture and noise, exploring the ways in which the structuring...

  2. Acceptable noise level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Steen Østergaard; Nielsen, Lars Holme; Lantz, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) is used to quantify the amount of background noise that subjects can accept while listening to speech, and is suggested for prediction of individual hearing-aid use. The aim of this study was to assess the repeatability of the ANL measured in normal-hearing subjects...

  3. Intelligent Noise Removal from EMG Signal Using Focused Time-Lagged Recurrent Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Kale

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromyography (EMG signals can be used for clinical/biomedical application and modern human computer interaction. EMG signals acquire noise while traveling through tissue, inherent noise in electronics equipment, ambient noise, and so forth. ANN approach is studied for reduction of noise in EMG signal. In this paper, it is shown that Focused Time-Lagged Recurrent Neural Network (FTLRNN can elegantly solve to reduce the noise from EMG signal. After rigorous computer simulations, authors developed an optimal FTLRNN model, which removes the noise from the EMG signal. Results show that the proposed optimal FTLRNN model has an MSE (Mean Square Error as low as 0.000067 and 0.000048, correlation coefficient as high as 0.99950 and 0.99939 for noise signal and EMG signal, respectively, when validated on the test dataset. It is also noticed that the output of the estimated FTLRNN model closely follows the real one. This network is indeed robust as EMG signal tolerates the noise variance from 0.1 to 0.4 for uniform noise and 0.30 for Gaussian noise. It is clear that the training of the network is independent of specific partitioning of dataset. It is seen that the performance of the proposed FTLRNN model clearly outperforms the best Multilayer perceptron (MLP and Radial Basis Function NN (RBF models. The simple NN model such as the FTLRNN with single-hidden layer can be employed to remove noise from EMG signal.

  4. Noise from wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, B.; Jakobsen, J.

    1992-11-01

    Based on a previous project concerning the calculation of the amount of noise emanating from wind turbine arrays, this one examines the subject further by investigating whether there could be significant differences in the amount of noise made by individual wind turbines in an array, and whether the noise is transmitted in varying directions - so that when it is carried in the same direction as the wind blows it would appear to be louder. The aim was also to determine whether the previously used method of calculation lacked precision. It was found that differences in noise niveaux related to individual wind turbines were insignificant and that noise was not so loud when it was not borne in the direction of the wind. It was necessary to change the method of calculation as reckoning should include the influence of the terrain, wind velocity and distance. The measuring and calculation methods are exemplified and the resulting measurements are presented in detail. (AB)

  5. Noise from wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, B.; Larsen, P.

    1993-01-01

    Denmark has 3200 wind turbines with an installed maximum capacity of 418MW. The most important Danish research projects into wind turbine noise and the main results are listed. These date from 1983. Two comprehensive studies are currently in progress. The first is an analytical and empirical investigation of aerodynamic noise from wind turbine rotors and has so far dealt mainly with tip noise. The measurement method, using a hard board mounted microphone on the ground near the turbine, is described. Four different tip designs have been tested. Some examples of reference sound power level spectra for three of the designs are presented. During the past two years a computerbased data acquisition system has been used for real-time determination of sound power levels. The second study, which has just commenced, is on annoyance from wind turbine noise. It will include noise measurements, masking calculations and a social survey on the perceived nuisance. (UK)

  6. [Urban noise pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouard, C H

    2001-07-01

    Noise is responsible for cochlear and general damages. Hearing loss and tinnitus greatly depend on sound intensity and duration. Short-duration sound of sufficient intensity (gunshot or explosion) will not be described because they are not currently encountered in our normal urban environment. Sound levels of less than 75 d (A) are unlikely to cause permanent hearing loss, while sound levels of about 85 d (A) with exposures of 8 h per day will produce permanent hearing loss after many years. Popular and largely amplified music is today one of the most dangerous causes of noise induced hearing loss. The intensity of noises (airport, highway) responsible for stress and general consequences (cardiovascular) is generally lower. Individual noise sensibility depends on several factors. Strategies to prevent damage from sound exposure should include the use of individual hearing protection devices, education programs beginning with school-age children, consumer guidance, increased product noise labelling, and hearing conservation programs for occupational settings.

  7. Development and application of reactor noise diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Joakim K.H

    1999-04-01

    A number of problems in reactor noise diagnostics have been investigated within the framework of the present thesis. The six papers presented cover three relatively different areas, namely the use of analytical calculations of the neutron noise in simple reactor models, some aspects of boiling water reactor (BWR) stability and diagnostics of core barrel motion in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The noise induced by small vibrations of a strong absorber has been the subject of several previous investigations. For a conventional {delta}-function source model, the equations can not be linearized in the traditional manner. Thus, a new source model, which is called the {epsilon}/d model, was developed. The correct solution has been derived in the {epsilon}/d model for both 1-D and 2-D reactor models. Recently, several reactor diagnostic problems have occurred which include a control rod partially inserted into the reactor core. In order to study such problems, we have developed an analytically solvable, axially non-homogenous, 2-D reactor model. This model has also been used to study the noise induced by a rod maneuvering experiment. Comparisons of the noise with the results of different reactor kinetic approximations have yielded information on the validity of the approximations in this relatively realistic model. In case of an instability event in a BWR, the noise may consist of one or several co-existing modes of oscillation and besides the fundamental mode, a regional first azimuthal mode has been observed in e.g. the Swedish BWR Ringhals-1. In order to determine the different stability characteristics of the different modes separately, it is important to be able to decompose the noise into its mode constituents. A separation method based on factorisation of the flux has been attempted previously, but without success. The reason for the failure of the factorisation method is the presence of the local component of the noise and its axial correlation properties. In

  8. Development and application of reactor noise diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Joakim K.H.

    1999-04-01

    A number of problems in reactor noise diagnostics have been investigated within the framework of the present thesis. The six papers presented cover three relatively different areas, namely the use of analytical calculations of the neutron noise in simple reactor models, some aspects of boiling water reactor (BWR) stability and diagnostics of core barrel motion in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The noise induced by small vibrations of a strong absorber has been the subject of several previous investigations. For a conventional δ-function source model, the equations can not be linearized in the traditional manner. Thus, a new source model, which is called the ε/d model, was developed. The correct solution has been derived in the ε/d model for both 1-D and 2-D reactor models. Recently, several reactor diagnostic problems have occurred which include a control rod partially inserted into the reactor core. In order to study such problems, we have developed an analytically solvable, axially non-homogenous, 2-D reactor model. This model has also been used to study the noise induced by a rod maneuvering experiment. Comparisons of the noise with the results of different reactor kinetic approximations have yielded information on the validity of the approximations in this relatively realistic model. In case of an instability event in a BWR, the noise may consist of one or several co-existing modes of oscillation and besides the fundamental mode, a regional first azimuthal mode has been observed in e.g. the Swedish BWR Ringhals-1. In order to determine the different stability characteristics of the different modes separately, it is important to be able to decompose the noise into its mode constituents. A separation method based on factorisation of the flux has been attempted previously, but without success. The reason for the failure of the factorisation method is the presence of the local component of the noise and its axial correlation properties. In the paper

  9. Diode laser pumped solid state laser. Part IV. ; Noise analysis. Handotai laser reiki kotai laser. 4. ; Noise kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, H.; Seno, T.; Tanabe, Y. (Asahi Glass Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-06-10

    Concerning the second harmonic generation(SHG) of diode laser pumped solid state laser using a nonlinear optical material, the researches are carried out to pracitically apply to the optical pickup. Therefore, the reduction of output optical noise has become the important researching subject. The theoretical and experimental analyses of noise generating mechanism were carried out for the system in which Nd;YAG as the laser diode and KTP (KTiOPO {sub 4}) as the nonlinear optical crystal were used. The following findings for the noise generating mechanism could be obtained: The competitive interaction between the polarization modes was dominant noise mechanism in the high frequency range from 1 to 20MHz and the noise could be removed sufficiently by using the QWP(quarter wave plate). On the other hand, the noise observed in the low frequency range from 100 to 200kHz depended on the resonance length, agreed qualitatively with the theoretical analysis of the noise to the competitive longitudinal modes and agreed quantitatively with the noise generating frequency range. 10 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  10. The Benefits of Adaptive Partitioning for Parallel AMR Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steensland, Johan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Advanced Software Research and Development

    2008-07-01

    Parallel adaptive mesh refinement methods potentially lead to realistic modeling of complex three-dimensional physical phenomena. However, the dynamics inherent in these methods present significant challenges in data partitioning and load balancing. Significant human resources, including time, effort, experience, and knowledge, are required for determining the optimal partitioning technique for each new simulation. In reality, scientists resort to using the on-board partitioner of the computational framework, or to using the partitioning industry standard, ParMetis. Adaptive partitioning refers to repeatedly selecting, configuring and invoking the optimal partitioning technique at run-time, based on the current state of the computer and application. In theory, adaptive partitioning automatically delivers superior performance and eliminates the need for repeatedly spending valuable human resources for determining the optimal static partitioning technique. In practice, however, enabling frameworks are non-existent due to the inherent significant inter-disciplinary research challenges. This paper presents a study of a simple implementation of adaptive partitioning and discusses implied potential benefits from the perspective of common groups of users within computational science. The study is based on a large set of data derived from experiments including six real-life, multi-time-step adaptive applications from various scientific domains, five complementing and fundamentally different partitioning techniques, a large set of parameters corresponding to a wide spectrum of computing environments, and a flexible cost function that considers the relative impact of multiple partitioning metrics and diverse partitioning objectives. The results show that even a simple implementation of adaptive partitioning can automatically generate results statistically equivalent to the best static partitioning. Thus, it is possible to effectively eliminate the problem of determining the

  11. Common mode noise reduction using parasitic capacitance cancellation

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    A negative capacitance is developed by configuring an inductor as two inversely or opposingly coupled windings having different numbers of turns and connecting a capacitance to a center tap between the two windings. The negative capacitance is developed on the side of the inductor having the winding with the greater number of turns. The negative capacitance so developed may advantageously be used to cancel any capacitance or parasitic capacitance desired for reducing power loss, increasing sw...

  12. Quantum gravity partition functions in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Alexander; Witten, Edward

    2010-02-01

    We consider pure three-dimensional quantum gravity with a negative cosmological constant. The sum of known contributions to the partition function from classical geometries can be computed exactly, including quantum corrections. However, the result is not physically sensible, and if the model does exist, there are some additional contributions. One possibility is that the theory may have long strings and a continuous spectrum. Another possibility is that complex geometries need to be included, possibly leading to a holomorphically factorized partition function. We analyze the subleading corrections to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and show that these can be correctly reproduced in such a holomorphically factorized theory. We also consider the Hawking-Page phase transition between a thermal gas and a black hole and show that it is a phase transition of Lee-Yang type, associated with a condensation of zeros in the complex temperature plane. Finally, we analyze pure three-dimensional supergravity, with similar results.

  13. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual Report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekberg, C.; Enarsson, Aa.; Gustavsson, C.; Landgren, A.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Spjuth, L.

    2000-05-01

    The current research project on partitioning and transmutation at the Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry, CTH, has the primary objective to investigate separation processes useful in connection with transmutation of long-lived radionuclides in high level nuclear waste. Partitioning is necessary in order to recover and purify the elements before and after each irradiation in a P and T treatment. In order to achieve a high transmutation efficiency the chemical separation process used must have small losses to various waste streams. At present, only aqueous based separation processes are known to be able to achieve the high recovery and separation efficiencies necessary for a useful P and T process. During 1999 two of the three PhD students in this project have finalised their dissertations. Lena Spjuth has been working with oligo pyridines, triazines and malonamides; Anders Landgren has studied Aliquat-336 and redox kinetics. Two papers, included as appendices in the report, have been separately indexed

  14. Bipartite graph partitioning and data clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zha, Hongyuan; He, Xiaofeng; Ding, Chris; Gu, Ming; Simon, Horst D.

    2001-05-07

    Many data types arising from data mining applications can be modeled as bipartite graphs, examples include terms and documents in a text corpus, customers and purchasing items in market basket analysis and reviewers and movies in a movie recommender system. In this paper, the authors propose a new data clustering method based on partitioning the underlying biopartite graph. The partition is constructed by minimizing a normalized sum of edge weights between unmatched pairs of vertices of the bipartite graph. They show that an approximate solution to the minimization problem can be obtained by computing a partial singular value decomposition (SVD) of the associated edge weight matrix of the bipartite graph. They point out the connection of their clustering algorithm to correspondence analysis used in multivariate analysis. They also briefly discuss the issue of assigning data objects to multiple clusters. In the experimental results, they apply their clustering algorithm to the problem of document clustering to illustrate its effectiveness and efficiency.

  15. Hashing for Statistics over K-Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Soren; Knudsen, Mathias Baek Tejs; Rotenberg, Eva

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyze a hash function for k-partitioning a set into bins, obtaining strong concentration bounds for standard algorithms combining statistics from each bin. This generic method was originally introduced by Flajolet and Martin [FOCS'83] in order to save a factor Ω(k) of time per...... element over k independent samples when estimating the number of distinct elements in a data stream. It was also used in the widely used Hyper Log Log algorithm of Flajolet et al. [AOFA'97] and in large-scale machine learning by Li et al. [NIPS'12] for minwise estimation of set similarity. The main issue...... concentration bounds on the most popular applications of k-partitioning similar to those we would get using a truly random hash function. The analysis is very involved and implies several new results of independent interest for both simple and double tabulation, e.g. A simple and efficient construction...

  16. Acyl-CoA metabolism and partitioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grevengoed, Trisha J; Klett, Eric L; Coleman, Rosalind A

    2014-01-01

    expression patterns and subcellular locations. Their acyl-CoA products regulate metabolic enzymes and signaling pathways, become oxidized to provide cellular energy, and are incorporated into acylated proteins and complex lipids such as triacylglycerol, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters. Their differing......Long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme As (CoAs) are critical regulatory molecules and metabolic intermediates. The initial step in their synthesis is the activation of fatty acids by one of 13 long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase isoforms. These isoforms are regulated independently and have different tissue...... metabolic fates are determined by a network of proteins that channel the acyl-CoAs toward or away from specific metabolic pathways and serve as the basis for partitioning. This review evaluates the evidence for acyl-CoA partitioning by reviewing experimental data on proteins that are believed to contribute...

  17. Unpartitioned versus incompletely partitioned cochleae: radiologic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennaroglu, Levent; Saatci, Isil

    2004-07-01

    In the process of evaluating our patients, we realized that the term "Mondini deformity" was being used to describe two different types of incomplete partition of the cochlea. THE First one consisted of an unpartitioned, completely empty cochlea where the interscalar septum and entire modiolus were absent, giving the cochlea a cystic appearance; a grossly dilated vestibule accompanied this lesion. The second pathology fitted the classic description of Mondini deformity, consisting of a normal basal turn and cystic apex (where the middle and apical turns form a cystic cavity), dilated vestibule, and enlarged vestibular aqueduct. This study was planned to investigate the differences between the two types of incomplete partition for inner ear malformations based on radiologic features. We conducted a retrospective review of temporal bone computed tomography (CT) findings. The subjects were 18 patients with profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss who had high-resolution CT with contiguous 1-mm thick images obtained through the petrous bone in axial sections. The CT results were reviewed as incomplete partition type I (IP-I) and type II (IP-II). Incomplete partition type I (unpartitioned cochlea, cystic cochleovestibular malformation) is defined as a malformation in which the cochlea lacks the entire modiolus and interscalar septa, resulting in a cystic appearance and there is an accompanying grossly dilated vestibule. In incomplete partition type II (incompletely partitioned cochlea, the Mondini deformity), there is a cochlea comprised of a normal basal turn and cystic apex accompanied by a minimally dilated vestibule and enlarged vestibular aqueduct (VA). Measurements involving the cochlea, vestibule, vestibular aqueduct, and internal auditory canal (IAC) were done to determine the characteristic features of these pathologies. : Thirteen ears had IP-I and 18 ears had IP-II anomaly. The size of the cochleae in both anomalies showed no significant difference from

  18. Nested partitions method, theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Leyuan

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing need to solve large-scale complex optimization problems in a wide variety of science and engineering applications, including designing telecommunication networks for multimedia transmission, planning and scheduling problems in manufacturing and military operations, or designing nanoscale devices and systems. Advances in technology and information systems have made such optimization problems more and more complicated in terms of size and uncertainty. Nested Partitions Method, Theory and Applications provides a cutting-edge research tool to use for large-scale, complex systems optimization. The Nested Partitions (NP) framework is an innovative mix of traditional optimization methodology and probabilistic assumptions. An important feature of the NP framework is that it combines many well-known optimization techniques, including dynamic programming, mixed integer programming, genetic algorithms and tabu search, while also integrating many problem-specific local search heuristics. The book uses...

  19. Noise in gene expression is coupled to growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Leeat; van Dijk, David; Weingarten-Gabbay, Shira; Davidi, Dan; Jona, Ghil; Weinberger, Adina; Milo, Ron; Segal, Eran

    2015-12-01

    Genetically identical cells exposed to the same environment display variability in gene expression (noise), with important consequences for the fidelity of cellular regulation and biological function. Although population average gene expression is tightly coupled to growth rate, the effects of changes in environmental conditions on expression variability are not known. Here, we measure the single-cell expression distributions of approximately 900 Saccharomyces cerevisiae promoters across four environmental conditions using flow cytometry, and find that gene expression noise is tightly coupled to the environment and is generally higher at lower growth rates. Nutrient-poor conditions, which support lower growth rates, display elevated levels of noise for most promoters, regardless of their specific expression values. We present a simple model of noise in expression that results from having an asynchronous population, with cells at different cell-cycle stages, and with different partitioning of the cells between the stages at different growth rates. This model predicts non-monotonic global changes in noise at different growth rates as well as overall higher variability in expression for cell-cycle-regulated genes in all conditions. The consistency between this model and our data, as well as with noise measurements of cells growing in a chemostat at well-defined growth rates, suggests that cell-cycle heterogeneity is a major contributor to gene expression noise. Finally, we identify gene and promoter features that play a role in gene expression noise across conditions. Our results show the existence of growth-related global changes in gene expression noise and suggest their potential phenotypic implications. © 2015 Keren et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  20. Fourier Transform Spectrometer Controller for Partitioned Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Keymeulen, D.; Berisford, D.

    2013-01-01

    The current trend in spacecraft computing is to integrate applications of different criticality levels on the same platform using no separation. This approach increases the complexity of the development, verification and integration processes, with an impact on the whole system life cycle. Resear......, such as avionics and automotive. In this paper we investigate the challenges of developing and the benefits of integrating a scientific instrument, namely a Fourier Transform Spectrometer, in such a partitioned architecture....

  1. Parallelizing MCMC with Random Partition Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiangyu; Guo, Fangjian; Heller, Katherine A.; Dunson, David B.

    2015-01-01

    The modern scale of data has brought new challenges to Bayesian inference. In particular, conventional MCMC algorithms are computationally very expensive for large data sets. A promising approach to solve this problem is embarrassingly parallel MCMC (EP-MCMC), which first partitions the data into multiple subsets and runs independent sampling algorithms on each subset. The subset posterior draws are then aggregated via some combining rules to obtain the final approximation. Existing EP-MCMC a...

  2. Entropy based file type identification and partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    87 ix LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Process Adopted for File Type Identification...the identification of file types and file partitioning. This approach has applications in cybersecurity as it allows for a quick determination of...0.75p X p= = which yields 2 2( ) [(0.25 log 0.25) (0.75 log 0.75)] 0.8113.H X = − × + × = Entropy analysis offers a convenient and quick method

  3. Effects of background noise on total noise annoyance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willshire, K. F.

    1987-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of combined community noise sources on annoyance. The first experiment baseline relationships between annoyance and noise level for three community noise sources (jet aircraft flyovers, traffic and air conditioners) presented individually. Forty eight subjects evaluated the annoyance of each noise source presented at four different noise levels. Results indicated the slope of the linear relationship between annoyance and noise level for the traffic noise was significantly different from that of aircraft and of air conditioner noise, which had equal slopes. The second experiment investigated annoyance response to combined noise sources, with aircraft noise defined as the major noise source and traffic and air conditioner noise as background noise sources. Effects on annoyance of noise level differences between aircraft and background noise for three total noise levels and for both background noise sources were determined. A total of 216 subjects were required to make either total or source specific annoyance judgements, or a combination of the two, for a wide range of combined noise conditions.

  4. Diversity partitioning during the Cambrian radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Lin; Kiessling, Wolfgang

    2015-04-14

    The fossil record offers unique insights into the environmental and geographic partitioning of biodiversity during global diversifications. We explored biodiversity patterns during the Cambrian radiation, the most dramatic radiation in Earth history. We assessed how the overall increase in global diversity was partitioned between within-community (alpha) and between-community (beta) components and how beta diversity was partitioned among environments and geographic regions. Changes in gamma diversity in the Cambrian were chiefly driven by changes in beta diversity. The combined trajectories of alpha and beta diversity during the initial diversification suggest low competition and high predation within communities. Beta diversity has similar trajectories both among environments and geographic regions, but turnover between adjacent paleocontinents was probably the main driver of diversification. Our study elucidates that global biodiversity during the Cambrian radiation was driven by niche contraction at local scales and vicariance at continental scales. The latter supports previous arguments for the importance of plate tectonics in the Cambrian radiation, namely the breakup of Pannotia.

  5. Partitioning and Transmutation - Physics, Technology and Politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudowski, W.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear reactions can be effectively used to destroy radio toxic isotopes through transmutation processes transforming those isotopes into less radio toxic or stable ones Spent nuclear fuel, a mixture of many isotopes with some of them being highly radio toxic for many hundred thousands of years, may be effectively transmuted through nuclear reactions with neutrons. In a dedicated, well designed transmutation system one can, in principle, reduce the radiotoxicity of the spent nuclear fuel to a level, which will require isolation from the biosphere for the period of time for which engineered barriers can be constructed and licensed (not more than 1-2 thousands of years). En effective transmutation process can not be achieved without a suitable partitioning. Only partitioning of the spent nuclear fuel into predetermined groups of elements makes possible an effective use of neutrons to transmute long-lived radioactive isotopes into short-lived or stable one. However, most of the chemical separation/partitioning processes are element- not isotope-specific, therefore the transmutation of the elements with an existing isotope composition is a typical alternative for transmutation processes. Isotope-specific separation is possible but still very expensive and technologically not matured

  6. Deformed Topological Partition Function and Nekrasov Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, I; Narain, K S; Taylor, T R

    2010-01-01

    A deformation of the N=2 topological string partition function is analyzed by considering higher dimensional F-terms of the type W^{2g}*Upsilon^n, where W is the chiral Weyl superfield and each Upsilon factor stands for the chiral projection of a real function of N=2 vector multiplets. These terms generate physical amplitudes involving two anti-self-dual Riemann tensors, 2g-2 anti-self-dual graviphoton field strengths and 2n self-dual field strengths from the matter vector multiplets. Their coefficients F_{g,n} generalizing the genus g partition function F_{g,0} of the topological twisted type II theory, can be used to define a generating functional by introducing deformation parameters besides the string coupling. Choosing all matter field strengths to be that of the dual heterotic dilaton supermultiplet, one obtains two parameters that we argue should correspond to the deformation parameters of the Nekrasov partition function in the field theory limit, around the conifold singularity. Its perturbative part ...

  7. Equilibrium Partitioning Sediment Benchmarks (ESBs) for the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes procedures to determine the concentrations of nonionic organic chemicals in sediment interstitial waters. In previous ESB documents, the general equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach was chosen for the derivation of sediment benchmarks because it accounts for the varying bioavailability of chemicals in different sediments and allows for the incorporation of the appropriate biological effects concentration. This provides for the derivation of benchmarks that are causally linked to the specific chemical, applicable across sediments, and appropriately protective of benthic organisms.  This equilibrium partitioning sediment benchmark (ESB) document was prepared by scientists from the Atlantic Ecology Division, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, and Western Ecology Division, the Office of Water, and private consultants. The document describes procedures to determine the interstitial water concentrations of nonionic organic chemicals in contaminated sediments. Based on these concentrations, guidance is provided on the derivation of toxic units to assess whether the sediments are likely to cause adverse effects to benthic organisms. The equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach was chosen because it is based on the concentrations of chemical(s) that are known to be harmful and bioavailable in the environment.  This document, and five others published over the last nine years, will be useful for the Program Offices, including Superfund, a

  8. Minimum nonuniform graph partitioning with unrelated weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarychev, K. S.; Makarychev, Yu S.

    2017-12-01

    We give a bi-criteria approximation algorithm for the Minimum Nonuniform Graph Partitioning problem, recently introduced by Krauthgamer, Naor, Schwartz and Talwar. In this problem, we are given a graph G=(V,E) and k numbers ρ_1,\\dots, ρ_k. The goal is to partition V into k disjoint sets (bins) P_1,\\dots, P_k satisfying \\vert P_i\\vert≤ ρi \\vert V\\vert for all i, so as to minimize the number of edges cut by the partition. Our bi-criteria algorithm gives an O(\\sqrt{log \\vert V\\vert log k}) approximation for the objective function in general graphs and an O(1) approximation in graphs excluding a fixed minor. The approximate solution satisfies the relaxed capacity constraints \\vert P_i\\vert ≤ (5+ \\varepsilon)ρi \\vert V\\vert. This algorithm is an improvement upon the O(log \\vert V\\vert)-approximation algorithm by Krauthgamer, Naor, Schwartz and Talwar. We extend our results to the case of 'unrelated weights' and to the case of 'unrelated d-dimensional weights'. A preliminary version of this work was presented at the 41st International Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming (ICALP 2014). Bibliography: 7 titles.

  9. Biogeography of time partitioning in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennie, Jonathan J; Duffy, James P; Inger, Richard; Gaston, Kevin J

    2014-09-23

    Many animals regulate their activity over a 24-h sleep-wake cycle, concentrating their peak periods of activity to coincide with the hours of daylight, darkness, or twilight, or using different periods of light and darkness in more complex ways. These behavioral differences, which are in themselves functional traits, are associated with suites of physiological and morphological adaptations with implications for the ecological roles of species. The biogeography of diel time partitioning is, however, poorly understood. Here, we document basic biogeographic patterns of time partitioning by mammals and ecologically relevant large-scale patterns of natural variation in "illuminated activity time" constrained by temperature, and we determine how well the first of these are predicted by the second. Although the majority of mammals are nocturnal, the distributions of diurnal and crepuscular species richness are strongly associated with the availability of biologically useful daylight and twilight, respectively. Cathemerality is associated with relatively long hours of daylight and twilight in the northern Holarctic region, whereas the proportion of nocturnal species is highest in arid regions and lowest at extreme high altitudes. Although thermal constraints on activity have been identified as key to the distributions of organisms, constraints due to functional adaptation to the light environment are less well studied. Global patterns in diversity are constrained by the availability of the temporal niche; disruption of these constraints by the spread of artificial lighting and anthropogenic climate change, and the potential effects on time partitioning, are likely to be critical influences on species' future distributions.

  10. Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . NOISE AND HEARING LOSS PREVENTION Language: English (US) Español ( ... when hazardous noise levels cannot be adequately reduced. Noise and Hearing Loss on the NIOSH Science Blog ...

  11. Phase Noise Comparision of Short Pulse Laser Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Zhang; S. V. Benson; J. Hansknecht; D. Hardy; G. Neil; Michelle D. Shinn

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes the phase noise measurement on several different mode-locked laser systems that have completely different gain media and configurations including a multi-kW free-electron laser. We will focus on the state of the art short pulse lasers, especially the drive lasers for photocathode injectors. A comparison between the phase noise of the drive laser pulses, electron bunches and FEL pulses will also be presented.

  12. Averaging underwater noise levels for environmental assessment of shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Merchant, Nathan D.; Blondel, Philippe; Dakin, D. Tom; Dorocicz, John

    2012-01-01

    Rising underwater noise levels from shipping have raised concerns regarding chronic impacts to marine fauna. However, there is a lack of consensus over how to average local shipping noise levels for environmental impact assessment. This paper addresses this issue using 110 days of continuous data recorded in the Strait of Georgia, Canada. Probability densities of ∼ 10 7 1-s samples in selected 1/3 octave bands were approximately stationary across one-month subsamples. Median and mode levels v...

  13. On bottleneck partitioning k-ary n-cubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, David M.; Mao, Weizhen

    1994-01-01

    Graph partitioning is a topic of extensive interest, with applications to parallel processing. In this context graph nodes typically represent computation, and edges represent communication. One seeks to distribute the workload by partitioning the graph so that every processor has approximately the same workload, and the communication cost (measured as a function of edges exposed by the partition) is minimized. Measures of partition quality vary; in this paper we consider a processor's cost to be the sum of its computation and communication costs, and consider the cost of a partition to be the bottleneck, or maximal processor cost induced by the partition. For a general graph the problem of finding an optimal partitioning is intractable. In this paper we restrict our attention to the class of k-art n-cube graphs with uniformly weighted nodes. Given mild restrictions on the node weight and number of processors, we identify partitions yielding the smallest bottleneck. We also demonstrate by example that some restrictions are necessary for the partitions we identify to be optimal. In particular, there exist cases where partitions that evenly partition nodes need not be optimal.

  14. Aspects of system modelling in Hardware/Software partitioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Peter Voigt; Madsen, Jan

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses fundamental aspects of system modelling and partitioning algorithms in the area of Hardware/Software Codesign. Three basic system models for partitioning are presented and the consequences of partitioning according to each of these are analyzed. The analysis shows the importa......This paper addresses fundamental aspects of system modelling and partitioning algorithms in the area of Hardware/Software Codesign. Three basic system models for partitioning are presented and the consequences of partitioning according to each of these are analyzed. The analysis shows...... the importance of making a clear distinction between the model used for partitioning and the model used for evaluation It also illustrates the importance of having a realistic hardware model such that hardware sharing can be taken into account. Finally, the importance of integrating scheduling and allocation...

  15. Whispering gallery mode sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Matthew R.; Swaim, Jon D.; Vollmer, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive overview of sensor technology exploiting optical whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonances. After a short introduction we begin by detailing the fundamental principles and theory of WGMs in optical microcavities and the transduction mechanisms frequently employed for sensing purposes. Key recent theoretical contributions to the modeling and analysis of WGM systems are highlighted. Subsequently we review the state of the art of WGM sensors by outlining efforts made to date to improve current detection limits. Proposals in this vein are numerous and range, for example, from plasmonic enhancements and active cavities to hybrid optomechanical sensors, which are already working in the shot noise limited regime. In parallel to furthering WGM sensitivity, efforts to improve the time resolution are beginning to emerge. We therefore summarize the techniques being pursued in this vein. Ultimately WGM sensors aim for real-world applications, such as measurements of force and temperature, or alternatively gas and biosensing. Each such application is thus reviewed in turn, and important achievements are discussed. Finally, we adopt a more forward-looking perspective and discuss the outlook of WGM sensors within both a physical and biological context and consider how they may yet push the detection envelope further. PMID:26973759

  16. Sensitivity analysis of the noise-induced oscillatory multistability in Higgins model of glycolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryashko, Lev

    2018-03-01

    A phenomenon of the noise-induced oscillatory multistability in glycolysis is studied. As a basic deterministic skeleton, we consider the two-dimensional Higgins model. The noise-induced generation of mixed-mode stochastic oscillations is studied in various parametric zones. Probabilistic mechanisms of the stochastic excitability of equilibria and noise-induced splitting of randomly forced cycles are analysed by the stochastic sensitivity function technique. A parametric zone of supersensitive Canard-type cycles is localized and studied in detail. It is shown that the generation of mixed-mode stochastic oscillations is accompanied by the noise-induced transitions from order to chaos.

  17. Handbook Of Noise And Vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This book is about noise and vibration. The first chapter has explanations of noise such as basic of sound, influence of noise, assessment of noise, measurement of prevention of noise and technology, case of noise measurement and soundproof. The second chapter describes vibration with outline, theory of vibration, interpretation of vibration, measurement for reduction of vibration, case of design of protection against vibration. It deals with related regulation and method of measurement.

  18. Safety-Critical Partitioned Software Architecture: A Partitioned Software Architecture for Robotic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Greg; Chung, Seung H.; Cilloniz-Bicchi, Ferner

    2011-01-01

    The flight software on virtually every mission currently managed by JPL has several major flaws that make it vulnerable to potentially fatal software defects. Many of these problems can be addressed by recently developed partitioned operating systems (OS). JPL has avoided adopting a partitioned operating system on its flight missions, primarily because doing so would require significant changes in flight software design, and the risks associated with changes of that magnitude cannot be accepted by an active flight project. The choice of a partitioned OS can have a dramatic effect on the overall system and software architecture, allowing for realization of benefits far beyond the concerns typically associated with the choice of OS. Specifically, we believe that a partitioned operating system, when coupled with an appropriate architecture, can provide a strong infrastructure for developing systems for which reusability, modifiability, testability, and reliability are essential qualities. By adopting a partitioned OS, projects can gain benefits throughout the entire development lifecycle, from requirements and design, all the way to implementation, testing, and operations.

  19. Controlled Noise Seismology

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2015-08-19

    We use controlled noise seismology (CNS) to generate surface waves, where we continuously record seismic data while generating artificial noise along the profile line. To generate the CNS data we drove a vehicle around the geophone line and continuously recorded the generated noise. The recorded data set is then correlated over different time windows and the correlograms are stacked together to generate the surface waves. The virtual shot gathers reveal surface waves with moveout velocities that closely approximate those from active source shot gathers.

  20. Advanced Noise Control Fan: A 20-Year Retrospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The ANCF test bed is used for evaluating fan noise reduction concepts, developing noise measurement technologies, and providing a database for Aero-acoustic code development. Rig Capabilities: 4 foot 16 bladed rotor @ 2500 rpm, Auxiliary air delivery system (3 lbm/sec @ 6/12 psi), Variable configuration (rotor pitch angle, stator count/position, duct length), synthetic acoustic noise generation (tone/broadband). Measurement Capabilities: 112 channels dynamic data system, Unique rotating rake mode measuremen, Farfield (variable radius), Duct wall microphones, Stator vane microphones, Two component CTA w/ traversing, ESP for static pressures.

  1. LHCb: Optimising query execution time in LHCb Bookkeeping System using partition pruning and partition wise joins

    CERN Multimedia

    Mathe, Z

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb experiment produces a huge amount of data which has associated metadata such as run number, data taking condition (detector status when the data was taken), simulation condition, etc. The data are stored in files, replicated on the Computing Grid around the world. The LHCb Bookkeeping System provides methods for retrieving datasets based on their metadata. The metadata is stored in a hybrid database model, which is a mixture of Relational and Hierarchical database models and is based on the Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS). The database access has to be reliable and fast. In order to achieve a high timing performance, the tables are partitioned and the queries are executed in parallel. When we store large amounts of data the partition pruning is essential for database performance, because it reduces the amount of data retrieved from the disk and optimises the resource utilisation. This research presented here is focusing on the extended composite partitioning strategy such as rang...

  2. Partition wall structure in spent fuel storage pool and construction method for the partition wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izawa, Masaaki

    1998-01-01

    A partitioning wall for forming cask pits as radiation shielding regions by partitioning inside of a spent fuel storage pool is prepared by covering both surface of a concrete body by shielding metal plates. The metal plate comprises opposed plate units integrated by welding while sandwiching a metal frame as a reinforcing material for the concrete body, the lower end of the units is connected to a floor of a pool by fastening members, and concrete is set while using the metal plate of the units as a frame to form the concrete body. The shielding metal plate has a double walled structure formed by welding a lining plate disposed on the outer surface of the partition wall and a shield plate disposed to the inner side. Then the term for construction can be shortened, and the capacity for storing spent fuels can be increased. (N.H.)

  3. Role of thermal noise in tripartite quantum steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Gong, Qihuang; Ficek, Zbigniew; He, Qiongyi

    2014-08-01

    The influence of thermal noise on bipartite and tripartite quantum steering induced by a short laser pulse in a hybrid three-mode optomechanical system is investigated. The calculation is carried out under the bad cavity limit, the adiabatic approximation of a slowly varying amplitude of the cavity mode, and with the assumption of driving the cavity mode with a blue detuned strong laser pulse. Under such conditions, explicit expressions of the bipartite and tripartite steering parameters are obtained, and the concept of collective tripartite quantum steering, recently introduced by He and Reid [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 250403 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.250403], is clearly explored. It is found that both bipartite and tripartite steering parameters are sensitive functions of the initial state of the modes and distinctly different steering behavior could be observed depending on whether the modes were initially in a thermal state or not. For the modes initially in a vacuum state, the bipartite and tripartite steering occur simultaneously over the entire interaction time. This indicates that collective tripartite steering cannot be achieved. The collective steering can be achieved for the modes initially prepared in a thermal state. We find that the initial thermal noise is more effective in destroying the bipartite rather than the tripartite steering which, on the other hand, can persist even for a large thermal noise. For the initial vacuum state of a steered mode, the tripartite steering exists over the entire interaction time even if the steering modes are in very noisy thermal states. When the steered mode is initially in a thermal state, it can be collectively steered by the other modes. There are thresholds for the average number of the thermal photons above which the existing tripartite steering appears as the collective steering. Finally, we point out that the collective steering may provide a resource in a hybrid quantum network for quantum secret sharing

  4. Speech recognition in noise using bilateral open-fit hearing aids: the limited benefit of directional microphones and noise reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Lennart; Claesson, Ann; Persson, Maria; Tengstrand, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    To investigate speech recognition performance in noise with bilateral open-fit hearing aids and as reference also with closed earmolds, in omnidirectional mode, directional mode, and directional mode in conjunction with noise reduction. A within-subject design with repeated measures across conditions was used. Speech recognition thresholds in noise were obtained for the different conditions. Twenty adults without prior experience with hearing aids. All had symmetric sensorineural mild hearing loss in the lower frequencies and moderate to severe hearing loss in the higher frequencies. Speech recognition performance in noise was not significantly better with an omnidirectional microphone compared to unaided, whereas performance was significantly better with a directional microphone (1.6 dB with open fitting and 4.4 dB with closed earmold) compared to unaided. With open fitting, no significant additional advantage was obtained by combining the directional microphone with a noise reduction algorithm, but with closed earmolds a significant additional advantage of 0.8 dB was obtained. The significant, though limited, advantage of directional microphones and the absence of additional significant improvement by a noise reduction algorithm should be considered when fitting open-fit hearing aids.

  5. Acoustics Noise Test Cell

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Acoustic Noise Test Cell at the NASA/Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is located adjacent to the large vibration system; both are located in a class 10K...

  6. Alien Noise Cancellation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Full FEXT Cancellation. Expectation Maximization based Algorithms. Partial Cancellation. Optimal Choice of what to Cancel and what not to! Alien Noise Cancellation. Efficient Crosstalk channel estimation. In addition:

  7. Airframe noise prediction evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kingo J.; Donelson, Michael J.; Huang, Shumei C.; Joshi, Mahendra C.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the accuracy and adequacy of current airframe noise prediction methods using available airframe noise measurements from tests of a narrow body transport (DC-9) and a wide body transport (DC-10) in addition to scale model test data. General features of the airframe noise from these aircraft and models are outlined. The results of the assessment of two airframe prediction methods, Fink's and Munson's methods, against flight test data of these aircraft and scale model wind tunnel test data are presented. These methods were extensively evaluated against measured data from several configurations including clean, slat deployed, landing gear-deployed, flap deployed, and landing configurations of both DC-9 and DC-10. They were also assessed against a limited number of configurations of scale models. The evaluation was conducted in terms of overall sound pressure level (OASPL), tone corrected perceived noise level (PNLT), and one-third-octave band sound pressure level (SPL).

  8. Acoustic ambient noise recorder

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saran, A.K.; Navelkar, G.S.; Almeida, A.M.; More, S.R.; Chodankar, P.V.; Murty, C.S.

    with a robust outfit that can withstand high pressures and chemically corrosion resistant materials. Keeping these considerations in view, a CMOS micro-controller-based marine acoustic ambient noise recorder has been developed with a real time clock...

  9. A brief history of partitions of numbers, partition functions and their modern applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Lokenath

    2016-04-01

    'Number rules the universe.' The Pythagoras 'If you wish to forsee the future of mathematics our course is to study the history and present conditions of the science.' Henri Poincaré 'The primary source (Urqell) of all mathematics are integers.' Hermann Minkowski This paper is written to commemorate the centennial anniversary of the Mathematical Association of America. It deals with a short history of different kinds of natural numbers including triangular, square, pentagonal, hexagonal and k-gonal numbers, and their simple properties and their geometrical representations. Included are Euclid's and Pythagorean's main contributions to elementary number theory with the main contents of the Euclid Elements of the 13-volume masterpiece of mathematical work. This is followed by Euler's new discovery of the additive number theory based on partitions of numbers. Special attention is given to many examples, Euler's theorems on partitions of numbers with geometrical representations of Ferrers' graphs, Young's diagrams, Lagrange's four-square theorem and the celebrated Waring problem. Included are Euler's generating functions for the partitions of numbers, Euler's pentagonal number theorem, Gauss' triangular and square number theorems and the Jacobi triple product identity. Applications of the theory of partitions of numbers to different statistics such as the Bose- Einstein, Fermi- Dirac, Gentile, and Maxwell- Boltzmann statistics are briefly discussed. Special attention is given to pedagogical information through historical approach to number theory so that students and teachers at the school, college and university levels can become familiar with the basic concepts of partitions of numbers, partition functions and their modern applications, and can pursue advanced study and research in analytical and computational number theory.

  10. Approximations to camera sensor noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaodan; Hirakawa, Keigo

    2013-02-01

    Noise is present in all image sensor data. Poisson distribution is said to model the stochastic nature of the photon arrival process, while it is common to approximate readout/thermal noise by additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). Other sources of signal-dependent noise such as Fano and quantization also contribute to the overall noise profile. Question remains, however, about how best to model the combined sensor noise. Though additive Gaussian noise with signal-dependent noise variance (SD-AWGN) and Poisson corruption are two widely used models to approximate the actual sensor noise distribution, the justification given to these types of models are based on limited evidence. The goal of this paper is to provide a more comprehensive characterization of random noise. We concluded by presenting concrete evidence that Poisson model is a better approximation to real camera model than SD-AWGN. We suggest further modification to Poisson that may improve the noise model.

  11. Noise Abatement Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    A former NASA employee who discovered a kind of plastic that soaked up energy, dampened vibrations, and was a good noise abatement material, founded a company to market noise deadening adhesives, sheets, panels and enclosures. Known as SMART products, they are 75-80% lighter than ordinary soundproofing material and have demonstrated a high degree of effectiveness. The company, Varian Associates, makes enclosures for high voltage terminals and other electronic system components, and easily transportable audiometric test booths.

  12. Active noise control primer

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Scott D

    2000-01-01

    Active noise control - the reduction of noise by generating an acoustic signal that actively interferes with the noise - has become an active area of basic research and engineering applications. The aim of this book is to present all of the basic knowledge one needs for assessing how useful active noise control will be for a given problem and then to provide some guidance for designing, setting up, and tuning an active noise-control system. Written for students who have no prior knowledge of acoustics, signal processing, or noise control but who do have a reasonable grasp of basic physics and mathematics, the book is short and descriptive. It leaves for more advanced texts or research monographs all mathematical details and proofs concerning vibrations, signal processing and the like. The book can thus be used in independent study, in a classroom with laboratories, or in conjunction with a kit for experiment or demonstration. Topics covered include: basic acoustics; human perception and sound; sound intensity...

  13. Principal curve algorithms for partitioning high-dimensional data spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junping; Wang, Xiaodan; Kruger, Uwe; Wang, Fei-Yue

    2011-03-01

    Most partitioning algorithms iteratively partition a space into cells that contain underlying linear or nonlinear structures using linear partitioning strategies. The compactness of each cell depends on how well the (locally) linear partitioning strategy approximates the intrinsic structure. To partition a compact structure for complex data in a nonlinear context, this paper proposes a nonlinear partition strategy. This is a principal curve tree (PC-tree), which is implemented iteratively. Given that a PC passes through the middle of the data distribution, it allows for partitioning based on the arc length of the PC. To enhance the partitioning of a given space, a residual version of the PC-tree algorithm is developed, denoted here as the principal component analysis tree (PCR-tree) algorithm. Because of its residual property, the PCR-tree can yield the intrinsic dimension of high-dimensional data. Comparisons presented in this paper confirm that the proposed PC-tree and PCR-tree approaches show a better performance than several other competing partitioning algorithms in terms of vector quantization error and nearest neighbor search. The comparison also shows that the proposed algorithms outperform competing linear methods in total average coverage which measures the nonlinear compactness of partitioning algorithms.

  14. Tracer Interaction Effects During Partitioning Tracer Tests for NAPL Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, P. T.; Pirestani, K.; Jafarpour, Y.; Spivey, K. M.

    2002-05-01

    Partitioning tracer tests have been used in laboratory and field investigations to quantify the amount of nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) within porous media. In these tests multiple chemical tracers are typically injected into flowing groundwater: conservative tracers react minimally with the NAPL, while non-conservative tracers partition into the NAPL and exhibit retarded transport. The mean travel times of the conservative and partitioning tracers can be used to estimate the NAPL saturation in the swept zone. When multiple tracers are injected in the system, the tracers themselves change the chemical composition of the NAPL, which may affect partitioning behavior. Although co-tracer interactions have been considered by others, there are no reports of such effects during actual partitioning tracer tests. In this study tracer partitioning was examined in static batch systems and dynamic column experiments using 2,3-dimethyl-2-butanol and 1-hexanol as partitioning tracers and trichloroethylene as the NAPL. Co-tracer effects resulted in nonlinear partitioning of 2,3-dimethyl-2-butanol in batch tests, which increased with increasing tracer concentrations. The UNIFAC model was used to predict tracer activities in the NAPL, and the resulting predictions of tracer partitioning matched the data trends. Column experiments were conducted with these same tracers, and nonlinear tracer partitioning associated with co-tracer effects resulted in underestimation of NAPL mass in some systems. If linear partitioning were assumed, a priori analysis suggested that nonlinear partitioning would result in an overestimation of NAPL saturation. We discuss these observations and suggest guidelines for avoiding co-tracer effects during partitioning tracer tests.

  15. Experimental characterization of Raman overlaps between mode-groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Nicolai; Koefoed, Jacob Gade; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk

    2016-01-01

    Mode-division multiplexing has the potential to further increase data transmission capacity through optical fibers. In addition, distributed Raman amplification is a promising candidate for multi-mode signal amplification due to its desirable noise properties and the possibility of mode-equalized......Mode-division multiplexing has the potential to further increase data transmission capacity through optical fibers. In addition, distributed Raman amplification is a promising candidate for multi-mode signal amplification due to its desirable noise properties and the possibility of mode......-equalized gain. In this paper, we present an experimental characterization of the intermodal Raman intensity overlaps of a few-mode fiber using backward-pumped Raman amplification. By varying the input pump power and the degree of higher order mode-excitation for the pump and the signal in a 10km long two......-mode fiber, we are able to characterize all intermodal Raman intensity overlaps. Using these results, we perform a Raman amplification measurement and demonstrate a mode-differential gain of only 0.25dB per 10dB overall gain. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest mode differential gain achieved...

  16. Knowledge base rule partitioning design for CLIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainardi, Joseph D.; Szatkowski, G. P.

    1990-01-01

    This describes a knowledge base (KB) partitioning approach to solve the problem of real-time performance using the CLIPS AI shell when containing large numbers of rules and facts. This work is funded under the joint USAF/NASA Advanced Launch System (ALS) Program as applied research in expert systems to perform vehicle checkout for real-time controller and diagnostic monitoring tasks. The Expert System advanced development project (ADP-2302) main objective is to provide robust systems responding to new data frames of 0.1 to 1.0 second intervals. The intelligent system control must be performed within the specified real-time window, in order to meet the demands of the given application. Partitioning the KB reduces the complexity of the inferencing Rete net at any given time. This reduced complexity improves performance but without undo impacts during load and unload cycles. The second objective is to produce highly reliable intelligent systems. This requires simple and automated approaches to the KB verification & validation task. Partitioning the KB reduces rule interaction complexity overall. Reduced interaction simplifies the V&V testing necessary by focusing attention only on individual areas of interest. Many systems require a robustness that involves a large number of rules, most of which are mutually exclusive under different phases or conditions. The ideal solution is to control the knowledge base by loading rules that directly apply for that condition, while stripping out all rules and facts that are not used during that cycle. The practical approach is to cluster rules and facts into associated 'blocks'. A simple approach has been designed to control the addition and deletion of 'blocks' of rules and facts, while allowing real-time operations to run freely. Timing tests for real-time performance for specific machines under R/T operating systems have not been completed but are planned as part of the analysis process to validate the design.

  17. Partitioning and transmutation: Radioactive waste management option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanculescu, A.

    2005-01-01

    Growing world population with increasing energy needs, especially in the developing countries, Threat of global warming due to CO 2 emissions demands non-fossil electricity production. Nuclear will have to be part of a sustainable mix of energy production options Figures show that 350 GWe worldwide capacity is 'nuclear'. Present worldwide spent fuel (containing high Pu inventory) and HLW would need large repositories. In view of the previous facts this lecture deals Partitioning and transmutation as radioactive waste management option. Partitioning and transmutation (P and T) is a complex technology i.e. advanced reprocessing, and demand transuranics fuel fabrication plants, as well as innovative and/or dedicated transmutation reactors. In addition to U, Pu, and 129 I, 'partitioning' extracts from the liquid high level waste the minor actinides (MA) and the long-lived fission products (LLFP) 99-Tc, 93-Zr, 135-Cs, 107-Pd, and 79-Se). 'Transmutation' requires fully new fuel fabrication plants and reactor technologies to be developed and implemented on industrial scale. Present LWRs are not suited for MA and LLFP transmutation (safety consideration, plant operation, poor incineration capability). Only specially licensed LWRs can cope with MOX fuel; for increased Pu loadings (up to 100%), special reactor designs (e.g., ABB80+) are required; a combination of these reactor types could allow Pu inventory stabilization. Long-term waste radiotoxicity can be effectively reduced only if transuranics are 'incinerated' through fission with very hard neutron spectra. New reactor concepts (dedicated fast reactors, Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS), fusion/fission hybrid reactors) have been proposed as transmuters/incinerators. Significant Pu+MAs incineration rates can be achieved in symbiotic scenarios: LWR-MOX and dedicated fast reactors; fast neutron spectrum ADS mainly for MA incineration; very high thermal flux ADS concepts could also provide a significant transuranics

  18. Selective Vulnerability of the Cochlear Basal Turn to Acrylonitrile and Noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouyatos, B.; Gearhart, C.A.; Miller, A.N.; Fulton, S.; Fechter, L.D.; Pouyatos, B.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to acrylonitrile, a high-production industrial chemical, can promote noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in the rat even though this agent does not itself produce permanent hearing loss. The mechanism by which acrylonitrile promotes NIHL includes oxidative stress as antioxidant drugs can partially protect the cochlea from acrylonitrile + noise. Acrylonitrile depletes glutathione levels while noise can increase the formation of reactive oxygen species. It was previously noted that the high-frequency or basal turn of the cochlea was particularly vulnerable to the combined effects of acrylonitrile and noise when the octave band noise (OBN) was centered at 8 k Hz. Normally, such a noise would be expected to yield damage at a more apical region of the cochlea. The present study was designed to determine whether the basal cochlea is selectively sensitive to acrylonitrile or whether, by adjusting the frequency of the noise band, it would be possible to control the region of the auditory impairment. Rats were exposed to one of three different OBNs centered at different frequencies (4 k Hz, 110 dB and 8 or 16 k Hz at 97 dB) for 5 days, with and without administration of acrylonitrile (50 mg/kg/day). The noise was set to cause limited NIHL by itself. Auditory function was monitored by recording distortion products, by compound action potentials, and by performing cochlear histology. While the ACN-only and noise-only exposures induced no or little permanent auditory loss, the three exposures to acrylonitrile + noise produced similar auditory and cochlear impairments above 16 k Hz, despite the fact that the noise exposures covered 2 octaves. These observations show that the basal cochlea is much more sensitive to acrylonitrile + noise than the apical partition. They provide an initial basis for distinguishing the pattern of cochlear injury that results from noise exposure from that which occurs due to the combined effects of noise and a chemical contaminant.

  19. Differential Mode EMI Filter Design for Isolated DC-DC Boost Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makda, Ishtiyaq Ahmed; Nymand, Morten

    2014-01-01

    A Differential Mode EMI filter for a low input voltage high-current isolated dc-dc boost converter is designed and presented in this paper. The primary side Differential Mode noise voltage is low due to the high transformer turn ratio, however, the input current is very high and since the EMI limit...... also does not change for such converters, it requires greatly optimized design approach for the filter including the correct sizing of the filter components. A complete analytical filter design process is carried out such a way that the Differential Mode noise voltage source in the converter...... is identified first. The DM noise model is then established and based on the harmonic analysis of the noise source voltage waveform, the complete Differential Mode EMI filter, including the filter resonance damping branch, is designed for a 3kW isolated dc-dc boost converter. The noise model and its theoretical...

  20. Noise sensitivity and sleep disturbance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laszlo, H.E.; Janssen, S.A.; Babisch, W.; Hansell, A.L.

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that noise induced health effects are strongly related to non-acoustical factors such as noise sensitivity. It is a stable personality trait and it can be conceptualised as a causal pathway confounder and/or effect modifier between noise and health. Furthermore noise sensitivity

  1. Partitioning of Viruses in Wastewater Systems and Potential for Aerosolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titcombe Lee, Mari; Pruden, Amy; Marr, Linsey C

    2016-05-10

    To gain insight into the potential for aerosolization of viruses in wastewater systems, we investigated the partitioning of MS2 and Phi6 bacteriophages in synthetic sludge and anaerobically digested sludge from a wastewater treatment plant. We evaluated partitioning among the liquid, solids, and material surfaces of porcelain, concrete, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polypropylene. In all cases, at least 94% of the virions partitioned into the liquid fraction. In real sludge, no more than 0.8% of virions partitioned to the solids and no more than 6% to the material surface. Both MS2 and Phi6 partitioned more to the surface of concrete and polypropylene than to the surface of porcelain or PVC. Partitioning of viruses in wastewater among the liquid, biosolids, and material surface does not appear to mitigate the potential for aerosolization of virus, as most of the virus remains in the liquid phase.

  2. Noise in the operating room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasfeldt-Hansen, Dorthe; Lærkner, Eva Ann; Birkelund, Regner

    2010-01-01

    Because noise is a general stressor, noise in the OR should be avoided whenever possible. This article presents the results of a review of the research literature on the topic of noise in the OR. A systematic literature search was conducted. Eighteen relevant articles were identified...... and categorized as follows: noise levels, noise sources, staff performances, and patient’s perception of noise. Each study was assessed according to the strength of the evidence and the quality of the study. Noise levels in the OR in general exceed recommended levels, and the noise sources are related...... to equipment and staff behavior. The main effect of noise on staff performances is related to impaired communication, resulting in a negative effect on patient safety. The literature on patients’ perception of noise is both limited and inconsistent, and more research on this topic is needed....

  3. Stochastic model theory of broadband shock associated noise from supersonic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, C. K. W.

    1987-01-01

    A method based on the work of Tam and Tanna (1982) for calculating the near field noise spectrum and the spatial distribution of broadband shock associated noise from supersonic jets is proposed. Multiple-scales expansion is used to decompose the quasi-periodic shock cells into time-independent waveguide modes of the jet flow, and the interaction of the instability waves with each of the waveguide modes is shown to generate unsteady disturbances which become part of the broadband shock associated noise when radiated to the far field. The observed broadband shock associated noise is composed of a superposition of the various distinct spectra of the different waveguide modes, and the multispectra can be easily identified in many of the existing far and near field noise measurements.

  4. Virtual Reality Platform Based Simulation System of Environmental Noise Abatement Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yijun, Liu; Yu, Fang; Xiaoman, He; Yongyou, Wang

    The general mathematic mode of computing noise abatement is commonly used for most project planning and appraisal of environmental noise abatement projects. However, the inconvenient and impracticable mode and algorithm usually cannot meet the real world computation and testing. Therefore, a more practicable abatement mode and algorithm (multiple noise sources with multiband under sound barriers) which had been applied to VR based simulation system. That implemented the function of real-time demonstrating noise scattering condition within 3D virtual space, furthermore, with sound barriers added in 3D scene, the effectiveness of denoise by sound barriers also can be demonstrated within this system. That provides a significant solution for environmental noise abatement projects as a whole.

  5. Spatial and temporal habitat partitioning by zooplankton in the Bornholm Basin (central Baltic Sea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, J.; Peck, M.A.; Barz, K.

    2012-01-01

    The deep basins in the Baltic Sea such as the Bornholm Basin (BB) are subject to seasonal changes in the strength of physico-chemical stratification. These depth-related changes in key abiotic factors are strong drivers of habitat partitioning by the autochthonous zooplankton community. Species...... on a multivariate approach and the evaluation of vertical distribution patterns, five major habitat utilisation modes were identified that were based, to a large extent, on the dynamics of thermal and haline stratification of the Baltic Sea. Our statistical analysis of one of the most thorough datasets collected...

  6. Stress partitioning behavior of multilayered steels during tensile deformation measured by in situ neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojima, M.; Inoue, J.; Nambu, S.; Xu, P.; Akita, K.; Suzuki, H.; Koseki, T.

    2012-01-01

    Stress partitioning in multilayered steels consisting of martensitic and austenitic layers was measured during tensile deformation by in situ neutron diffraction measurements to investigate the mechanism of the improved strength–elongation balance. The deformation mode can be classified into three stages, and the results indicate that the applied stress is effectively transferred to the martensitic phase, because no stress concentration sites exist, owing to the multilayered structure. Hence, even as-quenched martensite deformed uniformly, resulting in improved strength–elongation balance in multilayered steels.

  7. On the partition dimension of two-component graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we continue investigating the partition dimension for disconnected graphs. We determine the partition dimension for some classes of disconnected graphs G consisting of two components. If G = G 1 ∪ G 2 , then we give the bounds of the partition dimension of G for G 1 = P n or G 1 = C n and also for p ...

  8. Resistive Switching Assisted by Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, G. A.; Fierens, P. I.; Grosz, D. F.

    2013-01-01

    We extend results by Stotland and Di Ventra on the phenomenon of resistive switching aided by noise. We further the analysis of the mechanism underlying the beneficial role of noise and study the EPIR (Electrical Pulse Induced Resistance) ratio dependence with noise power. In the case of internal noise we find an optimal range where the EPIR ratio is both maximized and independent of the preceding resistive state. However, when external noise is considered no beneficial effect is observed.

  9. New parallel SOR method by domain partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Dexuan [Courant Inst. of Mathematical Sciences New York Univ., NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we propose and analyze a new parallel SOR method, the PSOR method, formulated by using domain partitioning together with an interprocessor data-communication technique. For the 5-point approximation to the Poisson equation on a square, we show that the ordering of the PSOR based on the strip partition leads to a consistently ordered matrix, and hence the PSOR and the SOR using the row-wise ordering have the same convergence rate. However, in general, the ordering used in PSOR may not be {open_quote}consistently ordered{close_quotes}. So, there is a need to analyze the convergence of PSOR directly. In this paper, we present a PSOR theory, and show that the PSOR method can have the same asymptotic rate of convergence as the corresponding sequential SOR method for a wide class of linear systems in which the matrix is {open_quotes}consistently ordered{close_quotes}. Finally, we demonstrate the parallel performance of the PSOR method on four different message passing multiprocessors (a KSR1, the Intel Delta, an Intel Paragon and an IBM SP2), along with a comparison with the point Red-Black and four-color SOR methods.

  10. Gait Partitioning Methods: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborri, Juri; Palermo, Eduardo; Rossi, Stefano; Cappa, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, gait phase partitioning has come to be a challenging research topic due to its impact on several applications related to gait technologies. A variety of sensors can be used to feed algorithms for gait phase partitioning, mainly classifiable as wearable or non-wearable. Among wearable sensors, footswitches or foot pressure insoles are generally considered as the gold standard; however, to overcome some inherent limitations of the former, inertial measurement units have become popular in recent decades. Valuable results have been achieved also though electromyography, electroneurography, and ultrasonic sensors. Non-wearable sensors, such as opto-electronic systems along with force platforms, remain the most accurate system to perform gait analysis in an indoor environment. In the present paper we identify, select, and categorize the available methodologies for gait phase detection, analyzing advantages and disadvantages of each solution. Finally, we comparatively examine the obtainable gait phase granularities, the usable computational methodologies and the optimal sensor placements on the targeted body segments. PMID:26751449

  11. Nutrient and carbohydrate partitioning in sorghum stover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.M.; Hons, F.M.; McBee, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] stover has been demonstrated to be a potential biomass energy source. Complete aboveground crop removal, however, can result in soil degradation. Differential dry matter, nutrient, and carbohydrate partitioning by sorghum cultivars may allow management strategies that return certain parts to the field while removing other portions for alternative uses, such as energy production. A field study was conducted to determine N,P,K, nonstructural carbohydrate, cellulose hemicellulose, and lignin distributions in stover of three diverse sorghum cultivars of differing harvest indices. Determinations were based on total vegetative biomass; total blades; total stalks; and upper middle, and lower blades and stalks. Concentrations of N and P were higher in blades than stalks and generally declines from upper to lower stover parts. Large carbohydrate and lignin concentration differences were observed on the basis of cultivar and stover part. Greater nutrient partitioning to the upper third of the intermediate and forage-type sorghum stovers was observed as compared to the conventional grain cultivar. Stover carbohydrates for all cultivars were mainly contained in the lower two-thirds of the stalk fraction. A system was proposed for returning upper stover portion to soil, while removing remaining portions for alternative uses

  12. Partitioning and Transmutation of minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.; Wellum, R.

    1991-01-01

    The partitioning of minor actinides from spent fuels and their transmutation into short-lived fission products has been the topic of two dedicated meetings organized jointly by the European Commission and the OECD. The conclusion of the last meeting in 1980, in short, was that partitioning and transmutation of minor actinides, especially in fast reactors, seemed possible. However, the incentive, which would be a reduction of the radiological hazard to the public, was too small if long-lived fission products were not included. Furthermore this meeting showed that minor actinide targets or possible nuclear fuels containing minor actinides for transmutation had not yet been developed. The European Institute for Transuranium Elements took up this task and has carried it out as a small activity for several years. Interests expressed recently by an expert meeting of the OECD/NEA (Paris, 25 April 1989), which was initiated by the proposed Japanese project Omega, led us to the conclusion that the present state of knowledge should be looked at in a workshop environment. Since the Japanese proposal within the project Omega is based on a broader approach we needed this evaluation to assess the relevance of our present activity and wanted to identifiy additional studies which might be needed to cover possible future demands from the public. This workshop was therefore organized, and participants active in the field from EC countries, the USA and Japan were invited

  13. Program Partitioning using Dynamic Trust Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dan; Probst, Christian W.; Jensen, Christian D.

    2006-01-01

    Developing distributed applications is a difficult task. It is further complicated if system-wide security policies shall be specified and enforced, or if both data and hosts are owned by principals that do not fully trust each other, as is typically the case in service-oriented or grid-based sce......Developing distributed applications is a difficult task. It is further complicated if system-wide security policies shall be specified and enforced, or if both data and hosts are owned by principals that do not fully trust each other, as is typically the case in service-oriented or grid......-based scenarios. Language-based technologies have been suggested to support developers of those applications---the \\$\\backslash\\$emph{Decentralized Label Model} and \\$\\backslash\\$emph{Secure Program Partitioning} allow to annotate programs with security specifications, and to partition the annotated program...... across a set of hosts, obeying both the annotations and the trust relation between the principals. The resulting applications guarantee \\$\\backslash\\$emph{by construction} that safety and confidentiality of both data and computations are ensured. In this work, we develop a generalised version...

  14. Method for chemical amplification based on fluid partitioning in an immiscible liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Brian L.; Colston, Bill W.; Elkin, Christopher J.

    2017-02-28

    A system for nucleic acid amplification of a sample comprises partitioning the sample into partitioned sections and performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample. Another embodiment of the invention provides a system for nucleic acid amplification and detection of a sample comprising partitioning the sample into partitioned sections, performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample, and detecting and analyzing the partitioned sections of the sample.

  15. Engineering out the noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankaskas, Kurt; Fischer, Raymond; Spence, Jesse; Komrower, Jeffrey

    2017-06-01

    The US Navy, through an Office of Naval Research (ONR) lead effort on Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL), is investigating methods and techniques to mitigate hearing loss for the crews and warfighters. Hearing protection is a viable and increasingly popular method of reducing hearing exposure for many ship crew members; however, it has limitations on comfort and low frequency effectiveness. Furthermore, Personal Hearing Protection (PHP) is often used improperly. Proper vessel planning, programmatic changes and advances in noise control engineering can also have significant impacts by inherently reducing noise exposure through ship design and use of noise control treatments. These impacts go beyond hearing loss mitigation since they can improve quality of life onboard vessels and provide enhanced warfighter performance. Such approaches also can be made to work in the lower frequency range where hearing protection is not as effective. This paper describes non-hearing protection methods being implemented to mitigate and control noise within the US Navy and US Marine Corps. These approaches reflect the latest changes to Mil-Std 1474E, Appendix F. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Airport noise and teratogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, L.D.; Layde, P.M.; Erickson, J.D.

    1979-07-01

    It has been suggested that exposure to high-noise levels near major airports may cause increased incidence of birth defects in the offspring of parents residing near these airports. Using data gathered in Metropolitan Atlanta during 1970 to 1972, we compared the rates of seventeen categories of defects in high- and low-noise census tracts. No significant differences were observed. However, when we subdivided the category of central nervous system defects into several subcategories of specific defects, we noted a significantly increased incidence of spina bifida without hydrocephalus in the high-noise areas. Because of the small number of cases associated with this finding we did a matched case-control study using all cases of central nervous system defects born during the years 1968 to 1976. No significantly increased risk for residents in the high-noise areas was noted in this study. It is our opinion that noise or other factors associated with residence near airports are unlikely to be important environmental teratogens.

  17. Modal analysis of an aircraft engine fan noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodkova, Natalia; Chursin, Valeriy; Bersenev, Yuliy; Burdakov, Ruslan; Siner, Aleksandr; Viskova, Tatiana

    2016-10-01

    The fan is one of the main noise sources of an aircraft engine. To reduce fan noise and provide liner optimization in the inlet it is necessary to research modal structure of the fan noise. The present paper contains results of acoustic tests on installation for mode generation that consists of 34-channel generator and the inlet updated for mounting of 100 microphones, the experiments were provided in new anechoic chamber of Perm National Research Polytechnic University, the engine with the same inlet was also tested in the open test bench conditions, and results of the fan noise modal structure are presented. For modal structure educting, all 100 channels were synchronously registered in a given frequency range. The measured data were analyzed with PULSE analyzer using fast Fourier transform with a frequency resolution 8..16 Hz. Single modes with numbers from 0 to 35 at frequencies 500; 630; 800; 1000; 1250; 1600 Hz and different combinations of modes at frequencies 1000, 1600, 2000, 2500 Hz were set during tests. Modes with small enough numbers are generated well on the laboratory installation, high-number modes generate additional modes caused by a complicated interference pattern of sound field in the inlet. Open test bench results showed that there are also a lot of harmonic components at frequencies lower than fan BPF. Under 0.65 of cut off there is only one distinct mode, other modes with close and less numbers appear from 0.7 of cut off and above. At power regimes 0.76 and 0.94 of cut off the highest mode also changes from positive to negative mode number area. Numbers of the highest modes change smoothly enough with the growth of power regime. At power regimes with Mach>1 (0.7 of cut off and above) on circumference of blade wheel there is a well-defined noise of shock waves at rotor frequency harmonics that appears at the range between the first rotor frequency and fan blade passing frequency (BPF). It is planned to continue researching of sound field

  18. Partitioning planning studies: Preliminary evaluation of metal and radionuclide partitioning the high-temperature thermal treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liekhus, K.; Grandy, J.; Chambers, A. [and others

    1997-03-01

    A preliminary study of toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning during high-temperature processing of mixed waste has been conducted during Fiscal Year 1996 within the Environmental Management Technology Evaluation Project. The study included: (a) identification of relevant partitioning mechanisms that cause feed material to be distributed between the solid, molten, and gas phases within a thermal treatment system; (b) evaluations of existing test data from applicable demonstration test programs as a means to identify and understand elemental and species partitioning; and, (c) evaluation of theoretical or empirical partitioning models for use in predicting elemental or species partitioning in a thermal treatment system. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the need for and the viability of developing the tools capable of describing and predicting toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning in the most applicable mixed waste thermal treatment processes. This document presents the results and recommendations resulting from this study that may serve as an impetus for developing and implementing these predictive tools.

  19. Partitioning planning studies: Preliminary evaluation of metal and radionuclide partitioning the high-temperature thermal treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.; Grandy, J.; Chambers, A.

    1997-03-01

    A preliminary study of toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning during high-temperature processing of mixed waste has been conducted during Fiscal Year 1996 within the Environmental Management Technology Evaluation Project. The study included: (a) identification of relevant partitioning mechanisms that cause feed material to be distributed between the solid, molten, and gas phases within a thermal treatment system; (b) evaluations of existing test data from applicable demonstration test programs as a means to identify and understand elemental and species partitioning; and, (c) evaluation of theoretical or empirical partitioning models for use in predicting elemental or species partitioning in a thermal treatment system. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the need for and the viability of developing the tools capable of describing and predicting toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning in the most applicable mixed waste thermal treatment processes. This document presents the results and recommendations resulting from this study that may serve as an impetus for developing and implementing these predictive tools

  20. OPTIMAL AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER VIBRATION AND NOISE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Kumar Jha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The muffler is the main part of the Automobile Exhaust System, consisting of fibrous and porous materials to absorb noise and vibrations. The exhaust gas mass coming from the engine can produce resonance, which may be the source of fatigue failure in the exhaust pipe due to the presence of continuous resonance. The modes on the muffler should be located away from the engine’s operating frequencies in order to minimise the resonance. The objective of this paper is to determine the frequencies that appear at the modes, which have the more adverse effect during the operation of the automobile. An impact test has been conducted by applying the force using a hard head hammer, and data generated have been used for plotting a graph of the transfer functions using MATLAB. Six points have been selected, namely 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 11 on the muffler for the impact test. The collected data from theses six points have been analysed for the addition of damping. Results suggests that increasing the mass increases the damping and lowers the modes of the transfer function. Further research will identify higher strength materials that can withstand the higher gas temperatures as well as the corrosion and erosion by the gas emitted from the engine. muffler, noise, vibration,modal analysis,

  1. Wave propagation in tyres and the resultant noise radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gi-Jeon, Kim

    Tyre noise has become an increasingly important road traffic noise source. This is because other sources on the vehicle, such as the air intake system, the exhaust system and the engine, have tended to become relatively quieter. This situation forces the tyre noise component to be reduced in order to achieve a reduction in the overall traffic noise level. In the research reported here, vibration, sound radiation and sound transmission of a passenger car radial tyre were investigated. The first half of this thesis discusses the vibration characteristics using two methods; (1)FEM to analysis modal behaviour in detail, (2)Analytical models to interpret the FEM results. These methods have both advantages and disadvantages in investigating tyre vibration. Combining the two methods is necessary in order to a fully understand the vibration behaviour of a tyre. Dispersion relationships and the related frequency of tyre modes is analysed by FEM and the flexural wave propagation in the tyre shell and the sound radiation of the tyre wall by flexural modes is analyzed using plate and shell theory. The second part of this thesis discusses the radiation and transmission of tyre noise. To predict the radiation of sound with only a knowledge of the surface vibration velocity, the experimental Green's functions were estimated by using the acoustic reciprocity principle. This technique was also applied to separate airborne structure borne noise for identification of the transmission path of tyre noise into a vehicle cabin and quantification of the relative contribution of various regions of the vibrating tyre surface to vehicle interior noise. The application of acoustic reciprocity for the tyre noise problem was verified and compared with BEM analysis.

  2. Joyce’s Noises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Attridge

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available James Joyce uses both lexical and nonlexical onomatopoeia extensively in _Ulysses_; this essay examines some of the ways in which he employs the latter in order to convey noises of many kinds. Nonlexical onomatopoeia is particularly suited to the evocation of noise, though it can only do so in conjunction with shared literary and linguistic conventions. Several of the characters in _Ulysses_ show an interest in the representation of noise in language, but there are many more examples where there is no evidence of mental processes at work. The reader’s pleasure in Joyce’s nonlexical onomatopoeia is very seldom the result of vivid imitation; it is, as these examples testify, Joyce’s play with the workings of the device (and frequently its failure to imitate the nonlinguistic world that provides enjoyment and some insight into the relation between language and sound.

  3. Noise and Tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Adel Ghahraman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Tinnitus from the Latin word tinnire meaning ringing is the perception of sound within the human ear in the absence of corresponding external sound. The most common cause is noise induced hearing loss. Tinnitus may be induced by an acoustic trauma or a permanent noise in the workplace. In case that Tinnitus is induced by acoustic trauma the site of lesion is commonly the base of the cochlea. Tinnitus in the senile population is mostly accompanying presbycusis. Although the incidence of permanent tinnitus following noise exposure is high, little is published about this issue. In the current article we are aimed at studying the prevalence of tinnitus in Minoo and other manufactures.

  4. Partitioning of star branched polymers into pores at three chromatography conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongmei; Masur, Aaron; Zhu, Yutian; Ziebarth, Jesse

    2010-09-24

    The partitioning of star branched polymers into a slit pore at three different chromatography conditions, namely, size exclusion chromatography (SEC), liquid chromatography at the critical condition (LCCC), and liquid adsorption chromatography (LAC) have been investigated with lattice Monte Carlo simulations. Two different chain models are used: random walks (RW) that have no excluded volume interaction and self-avoiding walks (SAW) that have excluded volume interaction. The simulation data obtained for the two chain models are compared to illustrate the effect of excluded volume interactions on the partitioning of star branched polymers. The two most outstanding effects observed due to the introduction of excluded volume interactions are: (i) stars with a high number of arms can be excluded from the pore at condition corresponding to the LCCC of the linear polymers; (ii) the partition coefficient of stars in LAC mode is not dependent only on the total number of monomers on the chain. These effects illustrated by the current study should be taken into account when interpreting experimental chromatography data for branched polymers. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Unstructured P2P Network Load Balance Strategy Based on Multilevel Partitioning of Hypergraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lv; Chunlin, Gao; Kaiyang, Ma

    2017-05-01

    With rapid development of computer performance and distributed technology, P2P-based resource sharing mode plays important role in Internet. P2P network users continued to increase so the high dynamic characteristics of the system determine that it is difficult to obtain the load of other nodes. Therefore, a dynamic load balance strategy based on hypergraph is proposed in this article. The scheme develops from the idea of hypergraph theory in multilevel partitioning. It adopts optimized multilevel partitioning algorithms to partition P2P network into several small areas, and assigns each area a supernode for the management and load transferring of the nodes in this area. In the case of global scheduling is difficult to be achieved, the priority of a number of small range of load balancing can be ensured first. By the node load balance in each small area the whole network can achieve relative load balance. The experiments indicate that the load distribution of network nodes in our scheme is obviously compacter. It effectively solves the unbalanced problems in P2P network, which also improve the scalability and bandwidth utilization of system.

  6. H-mode physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Sanae.

    1991-06-01

    After the discovery of the H-mode in ASDEX ( a tokamak in Germany ) the transition between the L-mode ( Low confinement mode ) and H-mode ( High confinement mode ) has been observed in many tokamaks in the world. The H-mode has made a breakthrough in improving the plasma parameters and has been recognized to be a universal phenomena. Since its discovery, the extensive studies both in experiments and in theory have been made. The research on H-mode has been casting new problems of an anomalous transport across the magnetic surface. This series of lectures will provide a brief review of experiments for explaining H-mode and a model theory of H-mode transition based on the electric field bifurcation. If the time is available, a new theoretical model of the temporal evolution of the H-mode will be given. (author)

  7. Shot-noise-limited optical Faraday polarimetry with enhanced laser noise cancelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jiaming; Luo, Le; Carvell, Jeff; Cheng, Ruihua; Lai, Tianshu; Wang, Zixin

    2014-01-01

    We present a shot-noise-limited measurement of optical Faraday rotations with sub-ten-nanoradian angular sensitivity. This extremely high sensitivity is achieved by using electronic laser noise cancelling and phase sensitive detection. Specially, an electronic laser noise canceller with a common mode rejection ratio of over 100 dB was designed and built for enhanced laser noise cancelling. By measuring the Faraday rotation of ambient air, we demonstrate an angular sensitivity of up to 9.0×10 −9  rad/√(Hz), which is limited only by the shot-noise of the photocurrent of the detector. To date, this is the highest angular sensitivity ever reported for Faraday polarimeters in the absence of cavity enhancement. The measured Verdet constant of ambient air, 1.93(3)×10 −9 rad/(G cm) at 633 nm wavelength, agrees extremely well with the earlier experiments using high finesse optical cavities. Further, we demonstrate the applications of this sensitive technique in materials science by measuring the Faraday effect of an ultrathin iron film

  8. Low-noise hydraulic power unit design based on vibration modal and transfer function analysis

    OpenAIRE

    SUN Yinghui; LI Zhiyin; LI Jia; PENG Wenbo

    2017-01-01

    The hydraulic power unit is the power source of a hydraulic system, and also the source causing hydraulic system vibration and noise. In order to further reduce the vibration and noise level of hydraulic systems, this paper presents a low-noise hydraulic station design method based on modal analysis and Vibration Transfer Function(VTF) analysis. The finite element model of the hydraulic station is established, the mode of the oil station solved and the modal superposition method used to optim...

  9. Maximum noise abatement trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeldin, S.; Speyer, J.

    1972-01-01

    Minimum noise annoyance trajectories for developing STOL operation procedures are obtained by modulating five control variables in two dimensions. The performance index is formulated such that it explicitly assigns the same relative importance to thrust as it does to distances between discrete listeners and the aircraft. However, using a steepest descent optimization program, results indicate that it is preferable to keep the thrusters at their maximum value to minimize the integrated annoyance rather than to reduce thrust which would lower the instantaneous annoyance. Thrust decreases below its bound only when the instantaneous noise at a listener is limited.

  10. Community response to noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Activities from 2008 to 2011 by ICBEN community response to noise team were summarized. That is, individual community-based indexes such as community tolerance Level, Zuricher Fluglarm Index (ZFI and Frankfurter Fluglarm Index (FFI/FNI were newly proposed, differences in railway bonus between Europe and Asia were discussed by a Swedish survey, socio-acoustic surveys were reported from developing countries, and annoyance equivalents and dominant source models were proposed as the adequate combined noise model. Furthermore, not only negative, but also positive aspects of sound were discussed as soundscape studies. Finally, seven items were listed as future team activities.

  11. Noise-induced multimode behavior in excitable systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D E; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Han, S K

    2002-01-01

    Based on experiments with electronic circuits, we show how a system of coupled excitable units can possess several noise-induced oscillatory modes. We characterize the multimode organization in terms of the coherence resonance effect. Multiple gain of regularity is found to be related to different...

  12. Comparative study of the noise generated by the moto-compressor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fundamental aim of this study is to compare between the noise generated by the moto-compressor and the noise generated by the turbo-compressor operating 24H/24H on the continuous function mode; these two machines make part of the equipment of the GP1Z, a factory of hydrocarbon treatment. To attain the ...

  13. Excess noise in the steel suspension wires for the laser gravitational wave detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageev, A. Yu.; Bilenko, I. A.; Braginsky, V. B.

    1998-09-01

    Progress in the research in mechanical excess noise is reported. An improved technique for wire oscillation measurement has been applied to the investigation of the suspension of a test mass for a GW detector. The dependence of the excess noise intensity in the fundamental violin mode of the steel wires on the stress value is obtained.

  14. Interspecific resource partitioning in sympatric ursids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belant, Jerrold L; Kielland, Knut; Follmann, Erich H; Adams, Layne G

    2006-12-01

    The fundamental niche of a species is rarely if ever realized because the presence of other species restricts it to a narrower range of ecological conditions. The effects of this narrower range of conditions define how resources are partitioned. Resource partitioning has been inferred but not demonstrated previously for sympatric ursids. We estimated assimilated diet in relation to body condition (body fat and lean and total body mass) and reproduction for sympatric brown bears (Ursus arctos) and American black bears (U. americanus) in south-central Alaska, 1998-2000. Based on isotopic analysis of blood and keratin in claws, salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) predominated in brown bear diets (> 53% annually) whereas black bears assimilated 0-25% salmon annually. Black bears did not exploit salmon during a year with below average spawning numbers, probably because brown bears deterred black bear access to salmon. Proportion of salmon in assimilated diet was consistent across years for brown bears and represented the major portion of their diet. Body size of brown bears in the study area approached mean body size of several coastal brown bear populations, demonstrating the importance of salmon availability to body condition. Black bears occurred at a comparable density (mass:mass), but body condition varied and was related directly to the amount of salmon assimilated in their diet. Both species gained most lean body mass during spring and all body fat during summer when salmon were present. Improved body condition (i.e., increased percentage body fat) from salmon consumption reduced catabolism of lean body mass during hibernation, resulting in better body condition the following spring. Further, black bear reproduction was directly related to body condition; reproductive rates were reduced when body condition was lower. High body fat content across years for brown bears was reflected in consistently high reproductive levels. We suggest that the fundamental niche of black

  15. Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-06-01

    The benefits of partitioning and transmutation (P and T) have now been established worldwide and, as a result, many countries are pursuing R and D programmes to advance the technologies associated with P and T. In this context, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has organised a series of biennial information exchange meetings to provide experts with a forum to present and discuss state-of-the-art developments in the field of partitioning and transmutation since 1990. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Information Exchange Meeting on Actinides and Fission Products Partitioning and Transmutation is a forum for experts to present and discuss the state-of-the-art development in the field of P and T. Thirteen meetings have been organised so far and held in Japan, the United States, France, Belgium, Spain, the Republic of Korea and the Czech Republic. This 13. meeting was hosted by Seoul National University (Seoul, Republic of Korea) and was organised in co-operation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Community (EC). The meeting covered strategic and scientific developments in the field of P and T such as: fuel cycle strategies and transition scenarios, the role of P and T in the potential evolution of nuclear energy as part of the future energy mix; radioactive waste management strategies; transmutation fuels and targets; advances in pyro and aqueous separation processes; P and T specific technology requirements (materials, spallation targets, coolants, etc.); transmutation systems: design, performance and safety; impact of P and T on the fuel cycle; fabrication, handling and transportation of transmutation fuels. A total of 103 presentations (39 oral and 64 posters) were discussed among the 110 participants from 19 countries and 2 international organisations. The meeting consisted of one plenary session where national and international programmes were presented followed by 5 technical sessions: - Fuel Cycle Strategies and Transition

  16. Black Hole Spectroscopy with Coherent Mode Stacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Yagi, Kent; Blackman, Jonathan; Lehner, Luis; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Pretorius, Frans; Yunes, Nicolás

    2017-04-21

    The measurement of multiple ringdown modes in gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers will allow for testing the fundamental properties of black holes in general relativity and to constrain modified theories of gravity. To enhance the ability of Advanced LIGO/Virgo to perform such tasks, we propose a coherent mode stacking method to search for a chosen target mode within a collection of multiple merger events. We first rescale each signal so that the target mode in each of them has the same frequency and then sum the waveforms constructively. A crucial element to realize this coherent superposition is to make use of a priori information extracted from the inspiral-merger phase of each event. To illustrate the method, we perform a study with simulated events targeting the ℓ=m=3 ringdown mode of the remnant black holes. We show that this method can significantly boost the signal-to-noise ratio of the collective target mode compared to that of the single loudest event. Using current estimates of merger rates, we show that it is likely that advanced-era detectors can measure this collective ringdown mode with one year of coincident data gathered at design sensitivity.

  17. Maximizing noise energy for noise-masking studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules Étienne, Cédric; Arleo, Angelo; Allard, Rémy

    2017-08-01

    Noise-masking experiments are widely used to investigate visual functions. To be useful, noise generally needs to be strong enough to noticeably impair performance, but under some conditions, noise does not impair performance even when its contrast approaches the maximal displayable limit of 100 %. To extend the usefulness of noise-masking paradigms over a wider range of conditions, the present study developed a noise with great masking strength. There are two typical ways of increasing masking strength without exceeding the limited contrast range: use binary noise instead of Gaussian noise or filter out frequencies that are not relevant to the task (i.e., which can be removed without affecting performance). The present study combined these two approaches to further increase masking strength. We show that binarizing the noise after the filtering process substantially increases the energy at frequencies within the pass-band of the filter given equated total contrast ranges. A validation experiment showed that similar performances were obtained using binarized-filtered noise and filtered noise (given equated noise energy at the frequencies within the pass-band) suggesting that the binarization operation, which substantially reduced the contrast range, had no significant impact on performance. We conclude that binarized-filtered noise (and more generally, truncated-filtered noise) can substantially increase the energy of the noise at frequencies within the pass-band. Thus, given a limited contrast range, binarized-filtered noise can display higher energy levels than Gaussian noise and thereby widen the range of conditions over which noise-masking paradigms can be useful.

  18. Aeroacoustics: Jet noise, combustion and core engine noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, I. R.

    1976-01-01

    The papers in this volume deal essentially with the question whether the amplification of noise is due to the jet noise phenomenon or perhaps an interaction of airframe and core engine noise. In the area of jet noise suppression, various promising suppressor concepts are examined. The swirling flow jet noise suppressor is shown to provide significant noise reduction with minimal thrust losses. Progress in the aircraft engine core noise problem is reflected by seven research-type papers. Two possible mechanisms are seen to be responsible for core noise. One is the direct noise radiated from the turbulent combustion in the primary combuster and transmitted through the turbine, passing out the nozzle into the far field. The other mechanism is the noise that is emitted from hot spots being convected through the turbine. Which of these mechanisms (or perhaps both mechanisms) is responsible for core noise, and what are the coupling mechanisms of core engine noise and jet noise are the questions confronting researchers.

  19. N-partite information in Hawking radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwakino, Shogo; Wen, Wen-Yu [Department of Physics and Center for High Energy Physics, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li City, Taiwan, R.C (China); Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics,National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan, R.C. (China)

    2015-05-20

    We study the entanglement among sequential Hawking radiations in the Parikh-Wilczek tunneling model of Schwarzschild black hole. We identify the part of classical correlation and that of quantum entanglement in bipartite information and point out its imitated relation to quantum gravity correction. Explicit computation of n-partite information shows that it is positive (negative) for even (odd) n, which happens to agree with the holographic computation. The fact that entanglement in the mutual information grows with time mimics the second law of thermodynamics. Later we extend our study to the AdS black hole and find the total mutual information which includes the classical correlation is sensible to the Hawking-Page phase transition.

  20. Discrete and Continuous Models for Partitioning Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Lellmann, Jan

    2013-04-11

    Recently, variational relaxation techniques for approximating solutions of partitioning problems on continuous image domains have received considerable attention, since they introduce significantly less artifacts than established graph cut-based techniques. This work is concerned with the sources of such artifacts. We discuss the importance of differentiating between artifacts caused by discretization and those caused by relaxation and provide supporting numerical examples. Moreover, we consider in depth the consequences of a recent theoretical result concerning the optimality of solutions obtained using a particular relaxation method. Since the employed regularizer is quite tight, the considered relaxation generally involves a large computational cost. We propose a method to significantly reduce these costs in a fully automatic way for a large class of metrics including tree metrics, thus generalizing a method recently proposed by Strekalovskiy and Cremers (IEEE conference on computer vision and pattern recognition, pp. 1905-1911, 2011). © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  1. Yoink: An interaction-based partitioning API.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Min; Waller, Mark P

    2018-05-15

    Herein, we describe the implementation details of our interaction-based partitioning API (application programming interface) called Yoink for QM/MM modeling and fragment-based quantum chemistry studies. Interactions are detected by computing density descriptors such as reduced density gradient, density overlap regions indicator, and single exponential decay detector. Only molecules having an interaction with a user-definable QM core are added to the QM region of a hybrid QM/MM calculation. Moreover, a set of molecule pairs having density-based interactions within a molecular system can be computed in Yoink, and an interaction graph can then be constructed. Standard graph clustering methods can then be applied to construct fragments for further quantum chemical calculations. The Yoink API is licensed under Apache 2.0 and can be accessed via yoink.wallerlab.org. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Advanced Aqueous Separation Systems for Actinide Partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Kenneth L.; Clark, Sue; Meier, G Patrick; Alexandratos, Spiro; Paine, Robert; Hancock, Robert; Ensor, Dale

    2012-03-21

    One of the most challenging aspects of advanced processing of spent nuclear fuel is the need to isolate transuranium elements from fission product lanthanides. This project expanded the scope of earlier investigations of americium (Am) partitioning from the lanthanides with the synthesis of new separations materials and a centralized focus on radiochemical characterization of the separation systems that could be developed based on these new materials. The primary objective of this program was to explore alternative materials for actinide separations and to link the design of new reagents for actinide separations to characterizations based on actinide chemistry. In the predominant trivalent oxidation state, the chemistry of lanthanides overlaps substantially with that of the trivalent actinides and their mutual separation is quite challenging.

  3. Metal separations using aqueous biphasic partitioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Zaslavsky, B.; Rollins, A.N.; Vojta, Y.; Gartelmann, J.; Mego, W.

    1996-01-01

    Aqueous biphasic extraction (ABE) processes offer the potential for low-cost, highly selective separations. This countercurrent extraction technique involves selective partitioning of either dissolved solutes or ultrafine particulates between two immiscible aqueous phases. The extraction systems that the authors have studied are generated by combining an aqueous salt solution with an aqueous polymer solution. They have examined a wide range of applications for ABE, including the treatment of solid and liquid nuclear wastes, decontamination of soils, and processing of mineral ores. They have also conducted fundamental studies of solution microstructure using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). In this report they review the physicochemical fundamentals of aqueous biphase formation and discuss the development and scaleup of ABE processes for environmental remediation

  4. Development of partitioning process: purification of DIDPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Masayuki; Morita, Yasuji; Kubota, Masumitsu

    1998-04-01

    The partitioning process has developed and demonstrated that the solvent extraction with diisodecylphosphoric acid (DIDPA) can successfully separate transuranium elements from a high-level liquid waste. In the solvent extraction, DIDPA is decomposed by radiolysis and hydrolysis. The main degradation product is monoisodecyl phosphoric acid (MIDPA). Ethylene glycol has been used for removing the product by a solvent extraction method. However this method has two drawbacks that two phases separate slowly and the used ethylene glycol is not regeneratable. First it was found that the addition of acetone or methanol with 20 volume % improved the phase separation. Then a new purification method was developed by using an aqueous solution of methanol or acetone. The new purification method is as excellent as the ethylene glycol method for the removal of MIDPA. (author)

  5. Neuroanatomical substrate of noise sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kliuchko, Marina; Puoliväli, Tuomas; Heinonen-Guzejev, Marja

    2018-01-01

    Recent functional studies suggest that noise sensitivity, a trait describing attitudes towards noise and predicting noise annoyance, is associated with altered processing in the central auditory system. In the present work, we examined whether noise sensitivity could be related to the structural...... and hippocampus was measured as well. According to our findings, noise sensitivity is associated with the grey matter volume in the selected structures. Among those, we propose and discuss particular areas, previously linked to auditory perceptual, emotional and interoceptive processing, in which larger grey...... matter volume seems to be related to higher noise sensitivity....

  6. Phase retrieval for noisy fringe pattern by using empirical mode decomposition and Hilbert Huang transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenxing; Da, Feipeng

    2012-06-01

    To address the issue of the intermittent noise in optical fringe pattern, an adaptive method of noise reduction is given based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and Hilbert Huang transform (HHT), and then the wrapped phase is obtained by performing the Hilbert transform on the refined pattern. Firstly, the signal of the fringe pattern is decomposed into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). With the instantaneous frequencies and marginal spectra of each IMF obtained by HHT, the criterion of identifying the noise IMF is determined. Then, it is judged whether a mode-mixing problem, which is the frequent problem in traditional EMD, appears in each noise IMF. If the problem appears, the ``noise,'' which is designed according to the signal adaptively, is added to the original signal, and then the obtained new signal is decomposed again. The process will be repeated until there is no mode mixing in the noise IMF. Finally, the wrapped phase is obtained by performing a Hilbert transform on the refined pattern with noise and background components removed. The proposed method can solve the mode-mixing problem effectively. It can reduce most of the noise and maintain a large amount of detailed phase information simultaneously. Simulation and compared experiments show the efficiency, robustness, and accuracy of the proposed method.

  7. Does the oviparity-viviparity transition alter the partitioning of yolk in embryonic snakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-Qing; Qu, Yan-Fu; Wang, Xue-Ji; Gao, Jian-Fang; Ji, Xiang

    2017-11-29

    The oviparity-viviparity transition is a major evolutionary event, likely altering the reproductive process of the organisms involved. Residual yolk, a portion of yolk remaining unutilized at hatching or birth as parental investment in care, has been investigated in many oviparous amniotes but remained largely unknown in viviparous species. Here, we used data from 20 (12 oviparous and 8 viviparous) species of snakes to see if the oviparity-viviparity transition alters the partitioning of yolk in embryonic snakes. We used ANCOVA to test whether offspring size, mass and components at hatching or birth differed between the sexes in each species. We used both ordinary least squares and phylogenetic generalized least squares regressions to test whether relationships between selected pairs of offspring components were significant. We used phylogenetic ANOVA to test whether offspring components differed between oviparous and viviparous species and, more specifically, the hypothesis that viviparous snakes invest more in the yolk as parental investment in embryogenesis to produce more well developed offspring that are larger in linear size. In none of the 20 species was sex a significant source of variation in any offspring component examined. Newborn viviparous snakes on average contained proportionally more water and, after accounting for body dry mass, had larger carcasses but smaller residual yolks than did newly hatched oviparous snakes. The rates at which carcass dry mass (CDM) and fat body dry mass (FDM) increased with residual yolk dry mass (YDM) did not differ between newborn oviparous and viviparous snakes. Neither CDM nor FDM differed between newborn oviparous and viviparous snakes after accounting for YDM. Our results are not consistent with the hypothesis that the partitioning of yolk between embryonic and post-embryonic stages differs between snakes that differ in parity mode, but instead show that the partitioning of yolk in embryonic snakes is species

  8. Noise Abatement Tradeoff Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    The intent of this study is to obtain information on small high-speed engines so that their effect on the urban environment may be assessed, and if necessary, programs devised to reduce the noise and other emissions from vehicles using these "highly ...

  9. Spin Hall noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamra, A.; Witek, F.P.; Meyer, S.; Huebl, H.; Geprägs, S.; Gross, R.; Bauer, G.E.W.; Goennenwein, S.T.B.

    2014-01-01

    We measure the low-frequency thermal fluctuations of pure spin current in a platinum film deposited on yttrium iron garnet via the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE)-mediated voltage noise as a function of the angle ? between the magnetization and the transport direction. The results are consistent

  10. When noise becomes voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veerasawmy, Rune; McCarthy, John

    2014-01-01

    space in competition with their rivals. The more noise and movement they make, the more screen real estate they gain. BannerBattle therefore enabled us to explore the emergence of imitative and at times inventive behavior in enriched crowd experience, by augmenting and supporting spectator performance...

  11. Wind turbine noise diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richarz, W.; Richarz, H.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation proposed a self-consistent model for broad-band noise emitted from modern wind turbines. The simple source model was consistent with the physics of sound generation and considered the unique features of wind turbines. Although the acoustics of wind turbines are similar to those of conventional propellers, the dimensions of wind turbines pose unique challenges in diagnosing noise emission. The general features of the sound field were deduced. Source motion and source directivity appear to be responsible for amplitude variations. The amplitude modulation is likely to make wind-turbine noise more audible, and may be partly responsible for annoyance that has been reported in the literature. Acoustic array data suggests that broad-band noise is emitted predominantly during the downward sweep of each rotor blade. Source motion and source directivity account for the observed pattern. Rotor-tower interaction effects are of lesser importance. Predicted amplitude modulation ranges from 1 dB to 6dB. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Theory of some laser noise effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. K.; Lamb, W. E., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A simple version of the semiclassical theory is applied to the shot effect. Considerations of thermal noise reported by Lamb (1965) are extended to take into account amplitude fluctuations. The laser is considered to be a lossy cavity of the Fabry-Perot type in single-mode operation with a circular frequency driven by an inverted population of active atoms. The electric field is taken to be transverse to the cavity axis. The amplitude and phase are assumed to be slowly varying functions which satisfy two self-consistency equations.

  13. Passenger noise exposure in London underground

    OpenAIRE

    Garbala, M; Gomez-Agustina, L

    2015-01-01

    The London Underground network carries almost half of London's commuters, and is the most heavily used mode of public transport in London. Its routes are 402 km long in total and it is used by over 1.2 billion passengers annually1. Though very efficient and convenient, travelling by Tube can be a noisy experience which could have potential impact on commuters’ hearing health. There is a wealth of research and information on impacts of occupational noise on hearing health. However, there is ve...

  14. Genuine three-partite entanglement in coherent states via permutation and parity symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, N.

    2013-01-01

    By using the works, Spiridonov (Phys Rev A 52:1909, 1995), and Wang et al. (J Phys A Math Gen 33:7451, 2000), we propose an approach to obtain genuine three-partite entangled coherent states in which the permutation symmetry and the parity one play crucial roles. We exploit the permutation and parity symmetry to construct entanglement in the standard coherent states of a system composed of three-mode bosonic field and three identical atoms. It is shown that by making use of entanglement witnesses (EW) based on GHZ-states the reduced density matrices of the three-mode bosonic field and three-atomic subsystems, after encoding as three-qubit systems, in some range of their respective parameters, are genuinely entangled.

  15. Facet-defining inequalities for the simple graph partitioning polytope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Malmros

    2007-01-01

    The simple graph partitioning problem is to partition an edge-weighted graph into mutually node-disjoint subgraphs, each containing at most b nodes, such that the sum of the weights of all edges in the subgraphs is maximal. In this paper we provide several classes of facet-defining inequalities...

  16. DOES NITROGEN PARTITIONING PROMOTE SPECIES DIVERSITY IN ARCTIC TUSSOCK TUNDRA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used 15N soil-labeling techniques to examine how the dominant species in a N-limited, tussock tundra plant community partitioned soil N, and how such partitioning may contribute to community organization. The five most productive species were well differentiated with respect ...

  17. Smoothed analysis of partitioning algorithms for Euclidean functionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bläser, Markus; Manthey, Bodo; Rao, B.V. Raghavendra; Dehne, F.; Iacono, J.; Sack, J.-R.

    2011-01-01

    Euclidean optimization problems such as TSP and minimum-length matching admit fast partitioning algorithms that compute near-optimal solutions on typical instances. We develop a general framework for the application of smoothed analysis to partitioning algorithms for Euclidean optimization problems.

  18. Exact Cover Problem in Milton Babbitt's All-partition Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bemman, Brian; Meredith, David

    2015-01-01

    , A, and a collection of distinct subsets of this set, S, then a subset of S is an exact cover of A if it exhaustively and exclu- sively partitions A. We provide a backtracking algorithm for solving this problem in an all-partition array and compare the output of this algorithm with an analysis...

  19. A conjugate gradient method for the spectral partitioning of graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, Nicolaas P.

    1997-01-01

    The partitioning of graphs is a frequently occurring problem in science and engineering. The spectral graph partitioning method is a promising heuristic method for this class of problems. Its main disadvantage is the large computing time required to solve a special eigenproblem. Here a simple and

  20. Smile: a computer program for partitioning of programmed logic arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Micheli, G.; Santomauro, M.

    1983-03-01

    This paper presents a new approach to optimal topological design of PLAs (programmed logic arrays). In particular the authors address the array partitioning problem and the implementation of partitioned arrays as block folded or parallel connected PLAs. They present a graph theoretic interpretation of the problem and an efficient heuristic algorithm. A computer program, SMILE, is described and experimental results are reported. 24 references.

  1. Estimating octanol/water partition coefficient for selected ferrocene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Octanol/water partition coefficients P of several substituted ferrocene were calculated on the basis of the adaptation of the existing XlogPv2.0 approach. The predicted of calculated partition coefficients values of logP for selected ferrocene derivatives was compared with known experimental values taken from literature.

  2. Predicting blood:air partition coefficients using basic physicochemical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, H.E.; Wit-Bos, L. de; Bouwman, T.; Vaes, W.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative Property Property Relationships (QPPRs) for human and rat blood:air partition coefficients (PBAs) have been derived, based on vapour pressure (Log(VP)), the octanol:water partition coefficient (Log(K_OW)) and molecular weight (MW), using partial least squares multilinear modelling.

  3. Electrophoretic Partitioning of Proteins in Two-Phase Microflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münchow, G.; Hardt, S.; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2007-01-01

    This work reports on protein transport phenomena discovered in partitioning experiments with a novel setup for continuous-flow two-phase electrophoresis consisting of a microchannel in which a phase boundary is formed in flow direction. Proteins can be partitioned exploiting their affinity...

  4. An Association-Oriented Partitioning Approach for Streaming Graph Query

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Hao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The volumes of real-world graphs like knowledge graph are increasing rapidly, which makes streaming graph processing a hot research area. Processing graphs in streaming setting poses significant challenges from different perspectives, among which graph partitioning method plays a key role. Regarding graph query, a well-designed partitioning method is essential for achieving better performance. Existing offline graph partitioning methods often require full knowledge of the graph, which is not possible during streaming graph processing. In order to handle this problem, we propose an association-oriented streaming graph partitioning method named Assc. This approach first computes the rank values of vertices with a hybrid approximate PageRank algorithm. After splitting these vertices with an adapted variant affinity propagation algorithm, the process order on vertices in the sliding window can be determined. Finally, according to the level of these vertices and their association, the partition where the vertices should be distributed is decided. We compare its performance with a set of streaming graph partition methods and METIS, a widely adopted offline approach. The results show that our solution can partition graphs with hundreds of millions of vertices in streaming setting on a large collection of graph datasets and our approach outperforms other graph partitioning methods.

  5. On the partition dimension of two-component graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D O Haryeni

    2017-11-17

    Nov 17, 2017 ... Partition dimension; disconnected graph; component. 2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. 05C12, 05C15. 1. Introduction. The study of the partition dimension for graphs was initiated by Chartrand et al. [2] aimed at finding a new way to solve the problem in metric dimensions of graphs. Many results.

  6. Limit Shapes and Fluctuations of Bounded Random Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Dan

    Random partitions of integers, bounded both in the number of summands and the size of each summand are considered, subject to the probability measure which assigns a probability proportional to some fixed positive number to the power of the number being partitioned. This corresponds to considering...

  7. Noise analysis of a low noise charge sensitive preamplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bo; Liu Songqiu; Xue Zhihua; Zhao Jie

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of the traditional noise model, this paper makes a quantitative noise analysis of a self-made charge sensitive pre-amplifier and compares its result with that of Pspice simulation and practical measurements. Moreover, this paper figures out the practical formulas for the spectrum of output noise, the equivalent noise charge (ENC) and its slope respectively, thus facilitating the design and improvement of pre-amplifier. (authors)

  8. Combined Active Noise Control and noise reduction in Hearing Aids

    OpenAIRE

    Serizel, Romain; Moonen, Marc; Wouters, Jan; Jensen, Søren,

    2008-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a combined active noise control and noise reduction scheme for hearing aids to tackle secondary path effects and effects of signal leakage through the fitting. While such leakage contributions and the secondary accoustic path from the reciever to the tympanic membrane are usually not taken into account in standard noise reduction systems, they appear to have a non-negligible impact on the final signal quality. Integrating an active noise control sys...

  9. Tandem Cylinder Noise Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, David P.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; CHoudhari, Meelan M.; Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Stead, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to better understand landing-gear noise sources, we have been examining a simplified configuration that still maintains some of the salient features of landing-gear flow fields. In particular, tandem cylinders have been studied because they model a variety of component level interactions. The present effort is directed at the case of two identical cylinders spatially separated in the streamwise direction by 3.7 diameters. Experimental measurements from the Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel (BART) and Quiet Flow Facility (QFF) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) have provided steady surface pressures, detailed off-surface measurements of the flow field using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), hot-wire measurements in the wake of the rear cylinder, unsteady surface pressure data, and the radiated noise. The experiments were conducted at a Reynolds number of 166 105 based on the cylinder diameter. A trip was used on the upstream cylinder to insure a fully turbulent shedding process and simulate the effects of a high Reynolds number flow. The parallel computational effort uses the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver CFL3D with a hybrid, zonal turbulence model that turns off the turbulence production term everywhere except in a narrow ring surrounding solid surfaces. The current calculations further explore the influence of the grid resolution and spanwise extent on the flow and associated radiated noise. Extensive comparisons with the experimental data are used to assess the ability of the computations to simulate the details of the flow. The results show that the pressure fluctuations on the upstream cylinder, caused by vortex shedding, are smaller than those generated on the downstream cylinder by wake interaction. Consequently, the downstream cylinder dominates the noise radiation, producing an overall directivity pattern that is similar to that of an isolated cylinder. Only calculations based on the full length of the model span were able to

  10. Reduction of noise and bias in randomly sampled power spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchhave, Preben; Velte, Clara Marika

    2015-01-01

    by modifications of the ideal Poisson sample rate caused by dead time effects and correlations between velocity and sample rate. The noise and dead time effects for finite records are shown to tend to previous results for infinite time records and ensemble averages. For finite records, we show that the measured...... sampling function can be used to correct the spectra for noise and dead time effects by a deconvolution process. We also describe a novel version of a power spectral estimator based on a fast slotted autocovariance algorithm.......We consider the origin of noise and distortion in power spectral estimates of randomly sampled data, specifically velocity data measured with a burst-mode laser Doppler anemometer. The analysis guides us to new ways of reducing noise and removing spectral bias, e.g., distortions caused...

  11. Observability of radiation-pressure shot noise in optomechanical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerkje, K.; Nunnenkamp, A.; Zwickl, B. M.; Yang, C.; Harris, J. G. E.; Girvin, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of an experiment designed to detect radiation-pressure shot noise in an optomechanical system. Our model consists of a coherently driven optical cavity mode that is coupled to a mechanical oscillator. We examine the cross-correlation between two quadratures of the output field from the cavity. We determine under which circumstances radiation-pressure shot noise can be detected by a measurement of this cross-correlation. This is done in the general case of nonzero detuning between the frequency of the drive and the cavity resonance frequency. We study the qualitative features of the different contributions to the cross-correlator and provide quantitative figures of merit for the relative importance of the radiation-pressure shot noise contribution to other contributions. We also propose a modified setup of this experiment relevant to the 'membrane-in-the-middle' geometry, which potentially can avoid the problems of static bistability and classical noise in the drive.

  12. Laser line shape and spectral density of frequency noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, G.M.; Blin, S.; Besnard, P.; Tam, T.T.; Tetu, M.

    2005-01-01

    Published experimental results show that single-mode laser light is characterized in the microwave range by a frequency noise which essentially includes a white part and a 1/f (flicker) part. We theoretically show that the spectral density (the line shape) which is compatible with these results is a Voigt profile whose Lorentzian part or homogeneous component is linked to the white noise and the Gaussian part to the 1/f noise. We measure semiconductor laser line profiles and verify that they can be fit with Voigt functions. It is also verified that the width of the Lorentzian part varies like 1/P where P is the laser power while the width of the Gaussian part is more of a constant. Finally, we theoretically show from first principles that laser line shapes are also described by Voigt functions where the Lorentzian part is the laser Airy function and the Gaussian part originates from population noise

  13. Modelling of Substrate Noise and Mitigation Schemes for UWB Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Ming; Mikkelsen, Jan H.; Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    -mode designs, digital switching noise is an ever-present problem that needs to be taken into consideration. This is of particular importance when low cost implementation technologies, e.g. lightly doped substrates, are aimed for. For traditional narrow-band designs much of the issue can be mitigated using...... tuned elements in the signal paths. However, for UWB designs this is not a viable option and other means are therefore required. Moreover, owing to the ultra-wideband nature and low power spectral density of the signal, UWB mixed-signal integrated circuits are more sensitive to substrate noise compared...... with narrow-band circuits. This chapter presents a study on the modeling and mitigation of substrate noise in mixed-signal integrated circuits (ICs), focusing on UWB system/circuit designs. Experimental impact evaluation of substrate noise on UWB circuits is presented. It shows how a wide-band circuit can...

  14. Rapid calculation of partition functions and free energies of fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Hainam; Hirst, Jonathan D; Wheatley, Richard J

    2011-11-07

    The partition function (Q) is a central quantity in statistical mechanics. All the thermodynamic properties can be derived from it. Here we show how the partition function of fluids can be calculated directly from simulations; this allows us to obtain the Helmholtz free energy (F) via F = -k(B)T ln Q. In our approach, we divide the density of states, assigning half of the configurations found in a simulation to a high-energy partition and half to a low-energy partition. By recursively dividing the low-energy partition into halves, we map out the complete density of states for a continuous system. The result allows free energy to be calculated directly as a function of temperature. We illustrate our method in the context of the free energy of water.

  15. The airborne sound insulations of timber-framed partitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, G. D.

    The sound insulation performances of several lightweight, timber framed partitions were measured. The purpose was to assess the merits of various sheet materials and the effects of changes in the construction details on the sound insulation performances of the partitions. The aim was to produce a design for a new type of partition which was cheaper than the conventional 'Camden', which is currently widely used in the BBC. As a result, a new design was tested and is recommended for use as a replacement for the Camden. It uses less material, is much cheaper to build, and should be more tolerant of poor building practices. Several recommendations are made on construction techniques, which apply whether the partition being built is a traditional Camden or the new design. Also, the use of fiberboard as a damping material for plasterboard is shown to improve the isolation of partitions greatly, much more than the consideration of its mass alone would lead one to expect.

  16. Nutrient partitioning and seedling development in the genus Leucaena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dovel, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Slow establishment of the genus Leucaena from seed has been attributed to law seedling vigor and late nodulation. Observation of early seedling growth indicated that partitioning of a large proportion of resources to the root of young Leucaena seedlings could account, in part, for the slow initial shoot growth observed in this genus. Therefore, a series of experiments were conducted to examine the partitioning of stored seed reserves, photosynthate, and nitrogen in developing Leucaena seedlings. The effects of nodulation and nitrogen fertilization on partitioning of nutrients in the seedling were also examined. Seed reserves were initially used for radicle growth in dark grown seedlings; however, partitioning soon shifted to the hypocotyl. By four days after imbibition, hypocotyl weight exceeded radicle weight in both species tested (L. leucocephala and L. retusa), at all temperatures above 20 0 C. Two experiments were conducted examining the carbon partitioning of L. leucocephala cultivar K-8 using 14 CO 2 pulse labeling techniques

  17. The Traffic Noise Index: A Method of Controlling Noise Nuisance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, F. J.; Scholes, W. E.

    This building research survey is an analysis of the social nuisance caused by urban motor ways and their noise. The Traffic Noise Index is used to indicate traffic noises and their effects on architectural designs and planning, while suggesting the need for more and better window insulation and acoustical barriers. Overall concern is for--(1)…

  18. Annoyance of low frequency noise and traffic noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Frank Rysgaard; Poulsen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    The annoyance of different low frequency noise sources was determined and compared to the annoyance from traffic noise. Twenty-two test subjects participated in laboratory listening tests. The sounds were presented by loudspeakers in a listening room and the spectra of the low frequency noises we...

  19. Annoyance of low frequency noise and traffic noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, F.R.; Poulsen, Torben

    2001-01-01

    The annoyance of different low frequency noise sources was determined and compared to the annoyance from traffic noise. Twenty-two subjects participated in laboratory listening tests. The sounds were presented by loudspeakers in a listening room and the spectra of the low frequency noises were...

  20. Rating environmental noise on the basis of noise maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, H.M.E.; Borst, H.C.

    2006-01-01

    A system that rates noise on the basis of noise maps has been developed which is based on empirical exposure-response relationships, so that effects in the community will be lower if the system gives a better rating. It is consistent with noise metrics and effect endpoint chosen in the EU, i.e., it

  1. Evaluating noise abatement measures using strategic noise maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, H.C.; Miedema, H.M.E.; Laan, W.P.N. van der; Lohman, W.J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Noise annoyance due to transportation is widespread in industrialized countries and in urban areas in the developing countries. The European Noise Directive (END) requires an assessment of the noise situation as well as the formulation of action plans for the reduction of the number of people

  2. Noise sensitivity and reactions to noise and other environmental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, H.M.E.; Vos, H.

    2003-01-01

    This article integrates findings from the literature and new results regarding noise sensitivity. The new results are based on analyses of 28 combined datasets (N=23 038), and separate analyses of a large aircraft noise study (N=10939). Three topics regarding noise sensitivity are discussed, namely,

  3. Observational limitations of Bose-Einstein photon statistics and radiation noise in thermal emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y.-J.; Talghader, J. J.

    2018-01-01

    For many decades, theory has predicted that Bose-Einstein statistics are a fundamental feature of thermal emission into one or a few optical modes; however, the resulting Bose-Einstein-like photon noise has never been experimentally observed. There are at least two reasons for this: (1) Relationships to describe the thermal radiation noise for an arbitrary mode structure have yet to be set forth, and (2) the mode and detector constraints necessary for the detection of such light is extremely hard to fulfill. Herein, photon statistics and radiation noise relationships are developed for systems with any number of modes and couplings to an observing space. The results are shown to reproduce existing special cases of thermal emission and are then applied to resonator systems to discuss physically realizable conditions under which Bose-Einstein-like thermal statistics might be observed. Examples include a single isolated cavity and an emitter cavity coupled to a small detector space. Low-mode-number noise theory shows major deviations from solely Bose-Einstein or Poisson treatments and has particular significance because of recent advances in perfect absorption and subwavelength structures both in the long-wave infrared and terahertz regimes. These microresonator devices tend to utilize a small volume with few modes, a regime where the current theory of thermal emission fluctuations and background noise, which was developed decades ago for free-space or single-mode cavities, has no derived solutions.

  4. Turbofan noise generation. Volume 1: Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventres, C. S.; Theobald, M. A.; Mark, W. D.

    1982-01-01

    Computer programs were developed which calculate the in-duct acoustic modes excited by a fan/stator stae operating at subsonic tip speed. Three noise source mechanisms are included: (1) sound generated by the rotor blades interacting with turbulence ingested into, or generated within, the inlet duct; (2) sound generated by the stator vanes interacting with the turbulent wakes of the rotors blades; and (3) sound generated by the stator vanes interacting with the mean velocity deficit wakes of the rotor blades. The fan/stator stage is modeled as an ensemble of blades and vanes of zero camber and thickness enclosed within an infinite hard-walled annular duct. Turbulence drawn into or generated within the inlet duct is modeled as nonhomogeneous and anisotropic random fluid motion, superimposed upon a uniform axial mean flow, and convected with that flow. Equations for the duct mode amplitudes, or expected values of the amplitudes, are derived.

  5. Oscillator strength of impurity doped quantum dots: Influence of Gaussian white noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Suvajit [Department of Chemistry, Hetampur Raj High School, Hetampur, Birbhum 731124, West Bengal (India); Ganguly, Jayanta [Department of Chemistry, Brahmankhanda Basapara High School, Basapara, Birbhum 731215, West Bengal (India); Saha, Surajit [Department of Chemistry, Bishnupur Ramananda College, Bishnupur, Bankura 722122, West Bengal (India); Ghosh, Manas, E-mail: pcmg77@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Section, Visva Bharati University, Santiniketan, Birbhum 731 235, West Bengal (India)

    2015-10-01

    We make a rigorous analysis of profiles of oscillator strength of a doped quantum dot in the presence and absence of noise. The noise employed here is a Gaussian white noise. The quantum dot is doped with repulsive Gaussian impurity. Noise has been administered additively and multiplicatively to the system. A perpendicular magnetic field is also present and a static external electric field has been applied. Profile of OS has been minutely monitored with variation of several important quantities such as confinement energy, electric field strength, dopant location, magnetic field strength, dopant potential, noise strength, Al concentration, and mode of application of noise. The profiles are enriched with significant subtleties and often reveal enhancement and maximization of oscillator strength in the presence of noise. These observations are indeed useful in the study of linear and nonlinear optical properties of doped QD systems which bear sufficient technological importance.

  6. The noise of membrane capacitance measurements in the whole-cell recording configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P; Gillis, K D

    2000-10-01

    High-resolution measurement of membrane capacitance in the whole-cell-recording configuration can be used to detect small changes in membrane surface area that accompany exocytosis and endocytosis. We have investigated the noise of membrane capacitance measurements to determine the fundamental limits of resolution in actual cells in the whole-cell mode. Two previously overlooked sources of noise are particularly evident at low frequencies. The first noise source is accompanied by a correlation between capacitance estimates, whereas the second noise source is due to "1/f-like" current noise. An analytic expression that summarizes the noise from thermal and 1/f sources is derived, which agrees with experimental measurements from actual cells over a large frequency range. Our results demonstrate that the optimal frequencies for capacitance measurements are higher than previously believed. Finally, we demonstrate that the capacitance noise at high frequencies can be reduced by compensating for the voltage drop of the sine wave across the series resistance.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban atmosphere of Guangzhou, China: Size distribution characteristics and size-resolved gas-particle partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huan; Yu, Jian Zhen

    2012-07-01

    Size distributions of thirteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), elemental carbon (EC), and organic carbon (OC) in the range of 0.01-18 μm were measured using a nano Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (nano-MOUDI) in an urban location in Guangzhou, China in July 2006. PAH size distributions were fit with five modes and the respective mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) are: Aitken mode (MMAD: ˜0.05 μm), three accumulation modes AMI, AMII, AMIII (MMAD: 0.13-0.17 μm, 0.4-0.45 μm, and 0.9-1.2 μm, respectively), and coarse mode (MMAD: 4-6 μm). Seven-ring PAH was mainly in AMII and AMIII. Five- and six-ring PAHs were found to be abundant in all the three AM. Three- and four-ring PAHs had a significant presence in the coarse mode in addition to the three AM. Size-resolved gas-particle partition coefficients of PAHs (Kp) were estimated using measured EC and OC data. The Kp values of a given PAH could differ by a factor of up to ˜7 on particles in different size modes, with the highest Kp associated with the AMI particles and the lowest Kp associated with the coarse mode particles. Comparison of calculated overall Kp with measured Kp values in Guangzhou by Yang et al. (2010) shows that adsorption on EC appeared to be the dominant mechanism driving the gas-particle partitioning of three- and four-ring PAHs while absorption in OM played a dominant role for five- and six-ring PAHs. The calculated equilibrium timescales of repartitioning indicate that five- to seven-ring PAHs could not achieve equilibrium partitioning within their typical residence time in urban atmospheres, while three- and four-ring PAHs could readily reach new equilibrium states in particles of all sizes. A partitioning flux is therefore proposed to replace the equilibrium assumption in modeling PAH transport and fate.

  8. Vocal Noise Cancellation From Respiratory Sounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moussavi, Zahra

    2001-01-01

    Although background noise cancellation for speech or electrocardiographic recording is well established, however when the background noise contains vocal noises and the main signal is a breath sound...

  9. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Noise-Induced Hearing Loss On this page: What is ... I find additional information about NIHL? What is noise-induced hearing loss? Every day, we experience sound ...

  10. Fast High-Quality Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Wyvill, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    At the moment the noise functions available in a graphics programmer's toolbox are either slow to compute or they involve grid-line artifacts making them of lower quality. In this paper we present a real-time noise computation with no grid-line artifacts or other regularity problems. In other words......, we put a new tool in the box that computes fast high-quality noise. In addition to being free of artifacts, the noise we present does not rely on tabulated data (everything is computed on the fly) and it is easy to adjust quality vs. quantity for the noise. The noise is based on point rendering (like...... spot noise), but it extends to more than two dimensions. The fact that it is based on point rendering makes art direction of the noise much easier....

  11. Adaptive DSPI phase denoising using mutual information and 2D variational mode decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qiyang; Li, Jian; Wu, Sijin; Li, Weixian; Yang, Lianxiang; Dong, Mingli; Zeng, Zhoumo

    2018-04-01

    In digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI), noise interference leads to a low peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and measurement errors in the phase map. This paper proposes an adaptive DSPI phase denoising method based on two-dimensional variational mode decomposition (2D-VMD) and mutual information. Firstly, the DSPI phase map is subjected to 2D-VMD in order to obtain a series of band-limited intrinsic mode functions (BLIMFs). Then, on the basis of characteristics of the BLIMFs and in combination with mutual information, a self-adaptive denoising method is proposed to obtain noise-free components containing the primary phase information. The noise-free components are reconstructed to obtain the denoising DSPI phase map. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively reduce noise interference, giving a PSNR that is higher than that of two-dimensional empirical mode decomposition methods.

  12. SNV's modes of ordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, John; Duim, van der Rene

    2016-01-01

    This article adopts an aidnographic approach to examine how internal organizational modes of ordering have influenced tourism development practices of SNV Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV). Our research revealed six modes of ordering: administration, project management, enterprising,

  13. Polymers as reference partitioning phase: polymer calibration for an analytically operational approach to quantify multimedia phase partitioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Dorothea; Witt, Gesine; Smedes, Foppe

    2016-01-01

    aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) by equilibrating 13 silicones, including polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) in methanol-water solutions. Methanol as cosolvent ensured that all polymers reached equilibrium while its effect on the polymers...... larger deviations from unity were indicated within the group of silicones and between silicones and LDPE. Uncertainty in polymer volume due to imprecise coating thickness or the presence of fillers was identified as the source of error for partition coefficients. New polymer-based (LDPE-lipid, PDMS-air......) and multimedia partition coefficients (lipid-water, air-water) were calculated by applying the new concept of a polymer as reference partitioning phase and by using polymer-polymer partition coefficients as conversion factors. The present study encourages the use of polymer-polymer partition coefficients...

  14. Polyacrylate–water partitioning of biocidal compounds: Enhancing the understanding of biocide partitioning between render and water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollmann, Ulla E.; Ou, Yi; Mayer, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the application of polymer-based renders and paints for façade coatings of buildings has risen enormously due to the increased mounting of thermal insulation systems. These materials are commonly equipped with biocides - algaecides, fungicides, and bactericides - to protect the m...... between the polymer - in this case polyacrylate - and water were studied using glass fibre filters coated with polyacrylate. The polyacrylate-water partition constants (logKAcW) of ten biocides used in construction material varied between 1.66 (isoproturon) and 3.57 (dichloro......-N-octylisothiazolinone). The correlation of the polyacrylate-water partition constants with the octanol-water partition constants is significant, but the polyacrylate-water partition constants were predominantly below octanol-water partition constants (Kow). The comparison with render-water distribution constants showed that estimating...

  15. The Signal Importance of Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Michael; Tsvetkova, Milena

    2015-01-01

    Noise is widely regarded as a residual category--the unexplained variance in a linear model or the random disturbance of a predictable pattern. Accordingly, formal models often impose the simplifying assumption that the world is noise-free and social dynamics are deterministic. Where noise is assigned causal importance, it is often assumed to be a…

  16. White noise on bialgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Schürmann, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Stochastic processes with independent increments on a group are generalized to the concept of "white noise" on a Hopf algebra or bialgebra. The main purpose of the book is the characterization of these processes as solutions of quantum stochastic differential equations in the sense of R.L. Hudsonand K.R. Parthasarathy. The notes are a contribution to quantum probability but they are also related to classical probability, quantum groups, and operator algebras. The Az ma martingales appear as examples of white noise on a Hopf algebra which is a deformation of the Heisenberg group. The book will be of interest to probabilists and quantum probabilists. Specialists in algebraic structures who are curious about the role of their concepts in probablility theory as well as quantum theory may find the book interesting. The reader should havesome knowledge of functional analysis, operator algebras, and probability theory.

  17. Modes of log gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Rosseel, Jan; Townsend, Paul K.

    2011-01-01

    The physical modes of a recently proposed D-dimensional "critical gravity'', linearized about its anti-de Sitter vacuum, are investigated. All "log mode'' solutions, which we categorize as "spin-2'' or "Proca'', arise as limits of the massive spin-2 modes of the noncritical theory. The linearized

  18. Noise Analysis of MAIA System and Possible Noise Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Svihlik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the noise analysis and noise suppression in a system for double station observation of the meteors now known as MAIA (Meteor Automatic Imager and Analyzer. The noise analysis is based on acquisition of testing video sequences in different light conditions and their further statistical evaluation. The main goal is to find a suitable noise model and subsequently determine if the noise is signal dependent or not. Noise and image model in the wavelet domain should be based on Gaussian mixture model (GMM or Generalized Laplacian Model (GLM and the model parameters should be estimated by moment method. Furthermore, noise should be modeled by GMM or GLM also in the space domain. GMM and GLM allow to model various types of probability density functions. Finally the advanced denoising algorithm using Bayesian estimator is applied and its performance is verified.

  19. Image Region Duplication Forgery Detection Based on Angular Radial Partitioning and Harris Key-Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaa M. Uliyan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Region duplication forgery where a part of the image itself is copied and pasted onto a different part of the same image grid is becoming more popular in image manipulation. The forgers often apply geometric transformations such as rotation and scaling operations to make the forgery imperceptible. In this study, an image region duplication forgery detection algorithm is proposed based on the angular radial partitioning and Harris key-points. Two standard databases have been used: image data manipulation and MICC-F220 (Media Integration and Communication Center– of the University of Florence for experimentation. Experiment results demonstrate that the proposed technique can detect rotated regions in multiples of 30 degrees and can detect region duplication with different scaling factors from 0.8, to 1.2. More experimental results are presented to confirm the effectiveness of detecting region duplication that has undergone other changes, such as Gaussian noise, and JPEG compression.

  20. Partition calculation for zero-order and conjugate image removal in digital in-line holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lihong; Wang, Hui; Li, Yong; Jin, Hongzhen

    2012-01-16

    Conventional digital in-line holography requires at least two phase-shifting holograms to reconstruct an original object without zero-order and conjugate image noise. We present a novel approach in which only one in-line hologram and two intensity values (namely the object wave intensity and the reference wave intensity) are required. First, by subtracting the two intensity values the zero-order diffraction can be completely eliminated. Then, an algorithm, called partition calculation, is proposed to numerically remove the conjugate image. A preliminary experimental result is given to confirm the proposed method. The method can simplify the procedure of phase-shifting digital holography and improve the practical feasibility for digital in-line holography.

  1. Multimedia environmental chemical partitioning from molecular information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Izacar; Grifoll, Jordi; Giralt, Francesc; Rallo, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The prospect of assessing the environmental distribution of chemicals directly from their molecular information was analyzed. Multimedia chemical partitioning of 455 chemicals, expressed in dimensionless compartmental mass ratios, was predicted by SimpleBox 3, a Level III Fugacity model, together with the propagation of reported uncertainty for key physicochemical and transport properties, and degradation rates. Chemicals, some registered in priority lists, were selected according to the availability of experimental property data to minimize the influence of predicted information in model development. Chemicals were emitted in air or water in a fixed geographical scenario representing the Netherlands and characterized by five compartments (air, water, sediments, soil and vegetation). Quantitative structure-fate relationship (QSFR) models to predict mass ratios in different compartments were developed with support vector regression algorithms. A set of molecular descriptors, including the molecular weight and 38 counts of molecular constituents were adopted to characterize the chemical space. Out of the 455 chemicals, 375 were used for training and testing the QSFR models, while 80 were excluded from model development and were used as an external validation set. Training and test chemicals were selected and the domain of applicability (DOA) of the QSFRs established by means of self-organizing maps according to structural similarity. Best results were obtained with QSFR models developed for chemicals belonging to either the class [C] and [C; O], or the class with at least one heteroatom different than oxygen in the structure. These two class-specific models, with respectively 146 and 229 chemicals, showed a predictive squared coefficient of q 2 ≥ 0.90 both for air and water, which respectively dropped to q 2 ∼ 0.70 and 0.40 for outlying chemicals. Prediction errors were of the same order of magnitude as the deviations associated to the uncertainty of the

  2. Noise Phobia in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangle

    Full Text Available Fear of thunderstorms and other forms of noise phobia are common problems in dogs. Administering medications along with changing the pet’s environment, and using behavior modification techniques can help ease the fear. Above all, do not give your pet any attention or reward when he is showing signs of fear; this will only reinforce the fearful behavior. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(11.000: 351-352

  3. Thermal noise engines

    OpenAIRE

    Kish, Laszlo B.

    2010-01-01

    Electrical heat engines driven by the Johnson-Nyquist noise of resistors are introduced. They utilize Coulomb's law and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem of statistical physics that is the reverse phenomenon of heat dissipation in a resistor. No steams, gases, liquids, photons, combustion, phase transition, or exhaust/pollution are present here. In these engines, instead of heat reservoirs, cylinders, pistons and valves, resistors, capacitors and switches are the building elements. For the ...

  4. Tinnitus and leisure noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Warwick; Carter, Lyndal

    2017-04-01

    To study the relationship of life-time noise exposure and experience of tinnitus. Audiometric measures included otoscopy, pure tone air- and bone-conduction hearing threshold levels (HTL) and otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). Participants completed questionnaires including demographic information, past hearing health, history of participation in loud leisure activities, and attitudes to noise. A representative sample (1435) of the young (11-35 years old) Australian population. Of the sample, 63% indicated they experienced tinnitus in some form. There was no correlation of tinnitus experience with HTL or OAE amplitudes. Although median octave band HTLs for those who experienced tinnitus "all the time" were slightly higher for those who did not, neither group exhibited HTLs outside clinically-normal values. Of those who experienced tinnitus a direct correlation was found between frequency of experience of tinnitus and increasing cumulative, life-time noise exposure. Those who experienced tinnitus were more likely to report noticing deterioration in their hearing ability over time and to report difficulty hearing in quiet and/or noisy situations. Experience of tinnitus was found throughout this young population but not associated with HTLs or variation in OAE amplitudes. Males experienced 'permanent' tinnitus at significantly greater rate than females.

  5. Partitioning of organochlorine pesticides from water to polyethylene passive samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, Sarah E.; Martin, Timothy J.; Goss, Kai-Uwe; Arp, Hans Peter H.; Werner, David

    2010-01-01

    The mass transfer rates and equilibrium partitioning behaviour of 14 diverse organochlorine pesticides (OCP) between water and polyethylene (PE) passive samplers, cut from custom made PE sheets and commercial polyethylene plastic bags, were quantified. Overall mass transfer coefficients, k O , estimated PE membrane diffusion coefficients, D PE , and PE-water partitioning coefficients, K PE-water, are reported. In addition, the partitioning of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water to PE is quantified and compared with literature values. K PE-water values agreed mostly within a factor of two for both passive samplers and also with literature values for the reference PAHs. As PE is expected to exhibit similar sorption behaviour to long-chain alkanes, PE-water partitioning coefficients were compared to hexadecane-water partitioning coefficients estimated with the SPARC online calculator, COSMOtherm and a polyparameter linear free energy relationship based on the Abraham approach. The best correlation for all compounds tested was with COSMOtherm estimated hexadecane-water partitioning coefficients. - The partitioning of organochlorine pesticides between single phase polyethylene passive samplers and water is quantified.

  6. Wirelength Minimization in Partitioning and Floorplanning Using Evolutionary Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hameem Shanavas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimizing the wirelength plays an important role in physical design automation of very large-scale integration (VLSI chips. The objective of wirelength minimization can be achieved by finding an optimal solution for VLSI physical design components like partitioning and floorplanning. In VLSI circuit partitioning, the problem of obtaining a minimum delay has prime importance. In VLSI circuit floorplanning, the problem of minimizing silicon area is also a hot issue. Reducing the minimum delay in partitioning and area in floorplanning helps to minimize the wirelength. The enhancements in partitioning and floorplanning have influence on other criteria like power, cost, clock speed, and so forth. Memetic Algorithm (MA is an Evolutionary Algorithm that includes one or more local search phases within its evolutionary cycle to obtain the minimum wirelength by reducing delay in partitioning and by reducing area in floorplanning. MA applies some sort of local search for optimization of VLSI partitioning and floorplanning. The algorithm combines a hierarchical design technique like genetic algorithm and constructive technique like Simulated Annealing for local search to solve VLSI partitioning and floorplanning problem. MA can quickly produce optimal solutions for the popular benchmark.

  7. GASDRA: Galaxy Spectrum Dynamic Range Analysis for Photometric Redshift Filter Partition Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente, J. de; Sanchez, E.; Sevilla, I.; Castilla, J.; Ponce, R.; Sanchez, F. J.

    2012-04-11

    The photometric redshift is an active area of research. It is becoming the preferred method for redshift measurement above spectroscopy one for large surveys. In these surveys, the requirement in redshift precision is relaxed in benefit of obtaining the measurements of large number of galaxies. One of the more relevant decisions to be taken in the design of a photometric redshift experiment is the number of filters since it affects deeply to the precision and survey time. Currently, there is not a clear method for evaluating the impact in both precision and exposure time of a determined filter partition set and usually it is determined by detailed simulations on the behavior of photo-z algorithms. In this note we describe GASDRA, a new method for extracting the minimal signal to noise requirement, depending on the number of filters needed for preserving the filtered spectrum shape, and hence to make feasible the spectrum identification. The application of this requirement guaranties a determined precision in the spectrum measurement. Although it cannot be translated directly to absolute photometric redshift error, it does provide a method for comparing the relative precision achieved in the spectrum representation by different sets of filters. We foresee that this relative precision is close related to photo-z error. In addition, we can evaluate the impact in the exposure time of any filter partition set with respect to other. (Author) 11 refs.

  8. Temporal Information Partitioning Networks (TIPNets): A process network approach to infer ecohydrologic shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwell, Allison E.; Kumar, Praveen

    2017-07-01

    In an ecohydrologic system, components of atmospheric, vegetation, and root-soil subsystems participate in forcing and feedback interactions at varying time scales and intensities. The structure of this network of complex interactions varies in terms of connectivity, strength, and time scale due to perturbations or changing conditions such as rainfall, drought, or land use. However, characterization of these interactions is difficult due to multivariate and weak dependencies in the presence of noise, nonlinearities, and limited data. We introduce a framework for Temporal Information Partitioning Networks (TIPNets), in which time-series variables are viewed as nodes, and lagged multivariate mutual information measures are links. These links are partitioned into synergistic, unique, and redundant information components, where synergy is information provided only jointly, unique information is only provided by a single source, and redundancy is overlapping information. We construct TIPNets from 1 min weather station data over several hour time windows. From a comparison of dry, wet, and rainy conditions, we find that information strengths increase when solar radiation and surface moisture are present, and surface moisture and wind variability are redundant and synergistic influences, respectively. Over a growing season, network trends reveal patterns that vary with vegetation and rainfall patterns. The framework presented here enables us to interpret process connectivity in a multivariate context, which can lead to better inference of behavioral shifts due to perturbations in ecohydrologic systems. This work contributes to more holistic characterizations of system behavior, and can benefit a wide variety of studies of complex systems.

  9. GASDRA: Galaxy Spectrum Dynamic Range Analysis for Photometric Redshift Filter Partition Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, J. de; Sanchez, E.; Sevilla, I.; Castilla, J.; Ponce, R.; Sanchez, F. J.

    2012-01-01

    The photometric redshift is an active area of research. It is becoming the preferred method for redshift measurement above spectroscopy one for large surveys. In these surveys, the requirement in redshift precision is relaxed in benefit of obtaining the measurements of large number of galaxies. One of the more relevant decisions to be taken in the design of a photometric redshift experiment is the number of filters since it affects deeply to the precision and survey time. Currently, there is not a clear method for evaluating the impact in both precision and exposure time of a determined filter partition set and usually it is determined by detailed simulations on the behavior of photo-z algorithms. In this note we describe GASDRA, a new method for extracting the minimal signal to noise requirement, depending on the number of filters needed for preserving the filtered spectrum shape, and hence to make feasible the spectrum identification. The application of this requirement guaranties a determined precision in the spectrum measurement. Although it cannot be translated directly to absolute photometric redshift error, it does provide a method for comparing the relative precision achieved in the spectrum representation by different sets of filters. We foresee that this relative precision is close related to photo-z error. In addition, we can evaluate the impact in the exposure time of any filter partition set with respect to other. (Author) 11 refs.

  10. Performance enhanced DDO-OFDM system with adaptively partitioned precoding and single sideband modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Feng, Zhenhua; Tang, Ming; Fu, Songnian; Liu, Deming

    2017-09-18

    As a promising solution for short-to-medium transmission systems, direct detection optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DDO-OFDM) or discrete multi-tone (DMT) has been intensively investigated in last decade. Benefitting from the advantages of peak-to-average power (PAPR) reduction and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) equalization, precoding techniques are widely applied to enhance the performance of DDO-OFDM systems. However, the conventional method of partitioning precoding sets limits the ability of precoding schemes to optimize the SNR variation and the allocation of modulation formats. Thus, the precoding transmission systems are hard to reach the capacity that traditional bit-power loading (BPL) techniques, like the Levin-Campello (LC) algorithm, can achieve. In this paper, we investigate the principle of SNR variation for precoded DDO-OFDM systems and theoretically demonstrate that the SNR equalization effect of precoding techniques is actually determined by the noise equalization process. Based on this fact, we propose an adaptively partitioned precoding (APP) algorithm to unlock the ability to control the SNR of each subcarrier. As demonstrated by the simulation and experimental results, the proposed APP algorithm achieves the transmission capacity as high as the LC algorithm and has nearly 1 dB PAPR reduction. Besides, the look-up table (LUT) operation ensures low complexity of the proposed APP algorithm compared with LC algorithm. To avoid severe chromatic dispersion (CD) induced spectral fading, single sideband (SSB) modulation is also implemented. We find that SSB modulation can reach the capacity of double sideband (DSB) modulation in optical back-to-back (OB2B) configuration by optimizing the modulation index. Therefore, the APP based SSB-DDO-OFDM scheme can sufficiently enhance the performance of cost-sensitive short-to-medium reach optical fiber communication systems.

  11. Fat polygonal partitions with applications to visualization and embeddings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark de Berg

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Let T be a rooted and weighted tree, where the weight of any node is equal to the sum of the weights of its children. The popular Treemap algorithm visualizes such a tree as a hierarchical partition of a square into rectangles, where the area of the rectangle corresponding to any node in T is equal to the weight of that node. The aspect ratio of the rectangles in such a rectangular partition necessarily depends on the weights and can become arbitrarily high.We introduce a new hierarchical partition scheme, called a polygonal partition, which uses convex polygons rather than just rectangles. We present two methods for constructing polygonal partitions, both having guarantees on the worst-case aspect ratio of the constructed polygons; in particular, both methods guarantee a bound on the aspect ratio that is independent of the weights of the nodes.We also consider rectangular partitions with slack, where the areas of the rectangles may differ slightly from the weights of the corresponding nodes. We show that this makes it possible to obtain partitions with constant aspect ratio. This result generalizes to hyper-rectangular partitions in ℝd. We use these partitions with slack for embedding ultrametrics into d-dimensional Euclidean space:  we give a polylog(Δ-approximation algorithm for embedding n-point ultrametrics into ℝd with minimum distortion, where Δ denotes the spread of the metric. The previously best-known approximation ratio for this problem was polynomial in n. This is the first algorithm for embedding a non-trivial family of weighted-graph metrics into a space of constant dimension that achieves polylogarithmic approximation ratio.

  12. Listening for Noise in Political Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Buchan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic dimension of political philosophy has rarely attracted serious attention, in part because scholars have tended to assume that political theories, ideas, and concepts, exist as abstract entities that are often noiselessly communicated in written texts. And yet, the noisy communication of political ideas whether in the form of Socratic dialogues, Churchillian orations, or in the hushed tones of focus group conversations treasured by deliberative democrats today, has a rich political history and a continuing relevance. This paper will focus on five performative modes for the communication of political ideas: the monologue, the dialogue, the oration, the interjection, and the noisy crowd. While this list may not be exhaustive, it will be used here as a starting point for further exploration. I will contend that in each of these performative modes, the communication of political ideas is framed by the noise of actual, or textually imagined kinds of political speech designed to underscore the validity of the ideas conveyed. One of the most important reasons for traversing this variable performative and acoustic terrain today is to enable us to hear and to listen to political speech amid the potentially polluting hum of political white noise.

  13. Regression of non-linear coupling of noise in LIGO detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Billman, C.; Effler, A.; Klimenko, S.; Cheng, H.-P.

    2018-03-01

    In 2015, after their upgrade, the advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors started acquiring data. The effort to improve their sensitivity has never stopped since then. The goal to achieve design sensitivity is challenging. Environmental and instrumental noise couple to the detector output with different, linear and non-linear, coupling mechanisms. The noise regression method we use is based on the Wiener–Kolmogorov filter, which uses witness channels to make noise predictions. We present here how this method helped to determine complex non-linear noise couplings in the output mode cleaner and in the mirror suspension system of the LIGO detector.

  14. Ultralow-noise readout circuit with an avalanche photodiode: toward a photon-number-resolving detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujino, Kenji; Akiba, Makoto; Sasaki, Masahide

    2007-03-01

    The charge-integration readout circuit was fabricated to achieve an ultralow-noise preamplifier for photoelectrons generated in an avalanche photodiode with linear mode operation at 77 K. To reduce the various kinds of noise, the capacitive transimpedance amplifier was used and consisted of low-capacitance circuit elements that were cooled with liquid nitrogen. As a result, the readout noise is equal to 3.0 electrons averaged for a period of 40 ms. We discuss the requirements for avalanche photodiodes to achieve photon-number-resolving detectors below this noise level.

  15. Evaluation of actinide partitioning and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    After a few centuries of radioactive decay the long-lived actinides, the elements of atomic numbers 89-103, may constitute the main potential radiological health hazard in nuclear wastes. This is because all but a very few fission products (principally technetium-99 and iodine-129) have by then undergone radioactive decay to insignificant levels, leaving the actinides as the principal radionuclides remaining. It was therefore at first sight an attractive concept to recycle the actinides to nuclear reactors, so as to eliminate them by nuclear fission. Thus, investigations of the feasibility and potential benefits and hazards of the concept of 'actinide partitioning and transmutation' were started in numerous countries in the mid-1970s. This final report summarizes the results and conclusions of technical studies performed in connection with a four-year IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme, started in 1976, on the ''Environmental Evaluation and Hazard Assessment of the Separation of Actinides from Nuclear Wastes followed by either Transmutation or Separate Disposal''. Although many related studies are still continuing, e.g. on waste disposal, long-term safety assessments, and waste actinide management (particularly for low and intermediate-level wastes), some firm conclusions on the overall concept were drawn by the programme participants, which are reflected in this report

  16. Partitioning taxonomic diversity of aquatic insect assemblages ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological diversity can be divided into: alpha (α, local), beta (β, difference in assemblage composition among locals), and gamma (γ, total diversity). We assessed the partitioning of taxonomic diversity of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) and of functional feeding groups (FFG) in Neotropical Savanna (southeastern Brazilian Cerrado) streams. To do so, we considered three diversity components: stream site (α), among stream sites (β1), and among hydrologic units (β2). We also evaluated the association of EPT genera composition with heterogeneity in land use, instream physical habitat structure, and instream water quality variables. The percent of EPT taxonomic α diversity (20.7%) was lower than the β1 and β2 diversities (53.1% and 26.2%, respectively). The EPT FFG α diversity (26.5%) was lower than the β1 diversity (55.8%) and higher than the β2 (17.7%) diversity. The collector-gatherer FFG was predominant and had the greatest β diversity among stream sites (β1, 55.8%). Our findings support the need for implementing regional scale conservation strategies in the Cerrado biome, which has been degraded by anthropogenic activities. Using adaptations of the US EPA’s National Aquatic Resource Survey (NARS) designs and methods, Ferreira and colleagues examined the distribution of taxonomic and functional diversity of aquatic insects among basins, stream sites within basins, and within stream sample reaches. They sampled 160 low-order stre

  17. Autocatalytic sets in a partitioned biochemical network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua I; Steel, Mike; Hordijk, Wim

    2014-01-01

    In previous work, RAF theory has been developed as a tool for making theoretical progress on the origin of life question, providing insight into the structure and occurrence of self-sustaining and collectively autocatalytic sets within catalytic polymer networks. We present here an extension in which there are two "independent" polymer sets, where catalysis occurs within and between the sets, but there are no reactions combining polymers from both sets. Such an extension reflects the interaction between nucleic acids and peptides observed in modern cells and proposed forms of early life. We present theoretical work and simulations which suggest that the occurrence of autocatalytic sets is robust to the partitioned structure of the network. We also show that autocatalytic sets remain likely even when the molecules in the system are not polymers, and a low level of inhibition is present. Finally, we present a kinetic extension which assigns a rate to each reaction in the system, and show that identifying autocatalytic sets within such a system is an NP-complete problem. Recent experimental work has challenged the necessity of an RNA world by suggesting that peptide-nucleic acid interactions occurred early in chemical evolution. The present work indicates that such a peptide-RNA world could support the spontaneous development of autocatalytic sets and is thus a feasible alternative worthy of investigation.

  18. Dynamic criteria for partitioning and transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, A.H.

    1991-11-01

    This paper addresses dynamic criteria intended to optimize partitioning and transmutation (P-T) concept development supporting improved nuclear waste management. Six criteria are proposed initially and the rationale for each is briefly explained. Each criterion is used as a measure (or dimension) on which the developed concepts can be evaluated. The criteria allow the P-T concepts to be evaluated in an integral system including long-term energy needs, fuel cycle, and waste management. New criteria will be identified along with the P-T concept development, and each criterion will be realistically weighted so that it is comparable in an overall criteria evaluation. The weights are subject to change as a result of technical advancements and public perception on various issues. Incomplete criteria will result in a poor choice because important factors may not be considered when the decision is made. A successful decision on the optimal P-T system depends on the completeness of criteria (dimensions) as well as realistic weights assigned to each criterion

  19. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual Report 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, S.; Ekberg, C.; Enarsson, Aa.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Mesmin, C.; Nilsson, M.; Skarnemark, G. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry

    2002-01-01

    The project Partition and Transmutation (PandT) at the department of Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, is aimed at investigating new solvent extraction reagents and new processes for the separation of different chemical elements needed in a possible future PandT process. During the year 2001, the work has mainly been in five areas: 1) method development and testing of means to determine protonation constants of two model reagents (2,2':6',2''-terpyridine and 2,4,6-tri-(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine), 2) modelling the influence of organic phase composition on the extraction of trivalent metals (Pm, Am, Cm), 3) determination of the density and refractive index of 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine, 4) the extraction behaviour of four new nitrogen based reagents (2,6-bis-(benzoxazolyl)-4- dodecyloxylpyridine, 2,6-bis-(benzimidazol-2-yl)-4-dodecyloxylpyridine, 2,6-bis-( benzimidazolyl)-pyridine, 2,4-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-6-methoxy-1,3,5-triazine), and 5) a study of the effect of temperature on the synergistic extraction of Eu and Am with 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine or 2,4,6-tri-(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine in the presence of 2 -bromodecanoic acid dissolved in a series of organic diluents.

  20. Partitioning and transmutation. Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, S.; Ekberg, C.; Enarsson, Aa.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Mesmin, C.; Nilsson, M.; Skarnemark, G.

    2002-01-01

    The project Partition and Transmutation (PandT) at the department of Nuclear Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, is aimed at investigating new solvent extraction reagents and new processes for the separation of different chemical elements needed in a possible future PandT process. During the year 2001, the work has mainly been in five areas: 1) method development and testing of means to determine protonation constants of two model reagents (2,2':6',2''-terpyridine and 2,4,6-tri-(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine), 2) modelling the influence of organic phase composition on the extraction of trivalent metals (Pm, Am, Cm), 3) determination of the density and refractive index of 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine, 4) the extraction behaviour of four new nitrogen based reagents (2,6-bis-(benzoxazolyl)-4- dodecyloxylpyridine, 2,6-bis-(benzimidazol-2-yl)-4-dodecyloxylpyridine, 2,6-bis-( benzimidazolyl)-pyridine, 2,4-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-6-methoxy-1,3,5-triazine), and 5) a study of the effect of temperature on the synergistic extraction of Eu and Am with 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine or 2,4,6-tri-(2-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine in the presence of 2 -bromodecanoic acid dissolved in a series of organic diluents

  1. Linear Time Vertex Partitioning on Massive Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mell, Peter; Harang, Richard; Gueye, Assane

    2016-01-01

    The problem of optimally removing a set of vertices from a graph to minimize the size of the largest resultant component is known to be NP-complete. Prior work has provided near optimal heuristics with a high time complexity that function on up to hundreds of nodes and less optimal but faster techniques that function on up to thousands of nodes. In this work, we analyze how to perform vertex partitioning on massive graphs of tens of millions of nodes. We use a previously known and very simple heuristic technique: iteratively removing the node of largest degree and all of its edges. This approach has an apparent quadratic complexity since, upon removal of a node and adjoining set of edges, the node degree calculations must be updated prior to choosing the next node. However, we describe a linear time complexity solution using an array whose indices map to node degree and whose values are hash tables indicating the presence or absence of a node at that degree value. This approach also has a linear growth with respect to memory usage which is surprising since we lowered the time complexity from quadratic to linear. We empirically demonstrate linear scalability and linear memory usage on random graphs of up to 15000 nodes. We then demonstrate tractability on massive graphs through execution on a graph with 34 million nodes representing Internet wide router connectivity. PMID:27336059

  2. Assimilate partitioning in avocado, Persea americana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finazzo, S.; Davenport, T.L.

    1986-04-01

    Assimilate partitioning is being studied in avocado, Persea americana cv. Millborrow in relation to fruit set. Single leaves on girdled branches of 10 year old trees were radiolabeled for 1 hr with 13..mu..Ci of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/. The source leaves were sampled during the experiment to measure translocation rates. At harvest the sink tissues were dissected and the incorporated radioactivity was measured. The translocation of /sup 14/C-labelled compounds to other leaves was minimal. Incorporation of label into fruitlets varied with the tissue and the stage of development. Sink (fruitlets) nearest to the labelled leaf and sharing the same phyllotaxy incorporated the most /sup 14/C. Source leaves for single non-abscising fruitlets retained 3X more /sup 14/C-labelled compounds than did source leaves for 2 or more fruitlets at 31 hrs. post-labelling. Export of label decreased appreciably when fruitlets abscised. If fruitlets abscised within 4 days of labeling then the translocation pattern was similar to the pattern for single fruitlets. If the fruitlet abscised later, the translocation pattern was intermediate between the single and double fruitlet pattern.

  3. Moving Clusters within a Memetic Algorithm for Graph Partitioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inwook Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most memetic algorithms (MAs for graph partitioning reduce the cut size of partitions using iterative improvement. But this local process considers one vertex at a time and fails to move clusters between subsets when the movement of any single vertex increases cut size, even though moving the whole cluster would reduce it. A new heuristic identifies clusters from the population of locally optimized random partitions that must anyway be created to seed the MA, and as the MA runs it makes beneficial cluster moves. Results on standard benchmark graphs show significant reductions in cut size, in some cases improving on the best result in the literature.

  4. Exact partition functions for gauge theories on Rλ3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Wallet

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The noncommutative space Rλ3, a deformation of R3, supports a 3-parameter family of gauge theory models with gauge-invariant harmonic term, stable vacuum and which are perturbatively finite to all orders. Properties of this family are discussed. The partition function factorizes as an infinite product of reduced partition functions, each one corresponding to the reduced gauge theory on one of the fuzzy spheres entering the decomposition of Rλ3. For a particular sub-family of gauge theories, each reduced partition function is exactly expressible as a ratio of determinants. A relation with integrable 2-D Toda lattice hierarchy is indicated.

  5. b-tree facets for the simple graph partitioning polytope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Malmros

    2004-01-01

    The simple graph partitioning problem is to partition an edge-weighted graph into mutually disjoint subgraphs, each consisting of no more than b nodes, such that the sum of the weights of all edges in the subgraphs is maximal. In this paper we introduce a large class of facet defining inequalities...... for the simple graph partitioning polytopes P_n(b), b >= 3, associated with the complete graph on n nodes. These inequalities are induced by a graph configuration which is built upon trees of cardinality b. We provide a closed-form theorem that states all necessary and sufficient conditions for the facet...

  6. b-Tree Facets for the Simple Graph Partitioning Polytope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Malmros

    2000-01-01

    The simple graph partitioning problem is to partition an edge-weighted graph into mutually disjoint subgraphs, each consisting of no more than b nodes, such that the sum of the weights of all edges in the subgraphs is maximal. In this paper we introduce a large class of facet defining inequalities...... for the simple graph partitioning polytopes P_n(b), b >= 3, associated with the complete graph on n nodes. These inequalities are induced by a graph configuration which is built upon trees of cardinality b. We provide a closed-form theorem that states all necessary and sufficient conditions for the facet...

  7. The output mode cleaner of GEO 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prijatelj, M; Grote, H; Leong, J; Affeldt, C; Lück, H; Slutsky, J; Wittel, H; Strain, K; Danzmann, K; Degallaix, J; Hild, S

    2012-01-01

    The German-British interferometric gravitational wave detector GEO 600 is currently undergoing upgrades within the GEO-HF upgrade program. The goal of this program is to enhance the sensitivity of GEO 600, in particular at frequencies above 500 Hz. At these frequencies, the detector is limited by shot noise. An important element of the upgrade is the implementation of an output mode cleaner (OMC). This filtering cavity suppresses higher order spatial and temporal modes in the interferometer's output beam, thereby reducing the shot noise and enhancing sensitivity. Fully automated lock acquisition for the OMC was developed in order to ensure a high duty cycle of GEO 600. To maintain optimum sensitivity, the resonance condition of the OMC must be matched to the output beam from the interferometer. This requires continuous control of the resonance frequency of the OMC to the light, and alignment of the beam to the OMC. We describe the design and implementation of the OMC with special attention to the control techniques employed. We present results from the experience gained during the S6/VSR3 science run. Furthermore, we describe an upper limit measurement of the internal displacement noise of a piezoelectric actuator. (paper)

  8. Streaming tearing mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, M.; Sato, T.; Dasgupta, B.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic stability of streaming tearing mode is investigated numerically. A bulk plasma flow parallel to the antiparallel magnetic field lines and localized in the neutral sheet excites a streaming tearing mode more strongly than the usual tearing mode, particularly for the wavelength of the order of the neutral sheet width (or smaller), which is stable for the usual tearing mode. Interestingly, examination of the eigenfunctions of the velocity perturbation and the magnetic field perturbation indicates that the streaming tearing mode carries more energy in terms of the kinetic energy rather than the magnetic energy. This suggests that the streaming tearing mode instability can be a more feasible mechanism of plasma acceleration than the usual tearing mode instability.

  9. Mode selection laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to a semiconductor mode selection laser, particularly to a VCSEL laser (200) having mode selection properties. The mode selection capability of the laser is achieved by configuring one of the reflectors (15,51) in the resonance cavity so that a reflectivity of the reflector...... (15) varies spatially in one dimension or two dimensions. Accordingly, the reflector (15) with spatially varying reflectivity is part both of the resonance cavity and the mode selection functionality of the laser. A plurality of the lasers configured with different mode selectors, i.e. different...... spatial reflector variations, may be combined to generate a laser beam containing a plurality of orthogonal modes. The laser beam may be injected into a few- mode optical fiber, e.g. for the purpose of optical communication. The VCSEL may have intra-cavity contacts (31,37) and a Tunnel junction (33...

  10. Theory And Working Of Noise And Vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Il Rok

    1988-09-01

    This book deals with theory of noise including physical property of noise like term and characteristic of sound, occurrence of sound, characteristic of noise pollution and main cause of occurrence of noise, technique of prevention of noise with noise reduction, construction guide for prevention of noise, and measure of interior noise. It also has the theory of vibration such as an introduction of vibration, and technology of prevention of vibration, official test method of environmental pollution, and summary of protection of the environment.

  11. [HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OF NOISE FACTOR OF THE LARGE CITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubirko, M L; Stepkin, Yu I; Seredenko, O V

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of the negative impact of traffic noise on the health and living conditions of the population in conditions of the large city. Every day on the streets there are appeared more and more different modes of transport, and to date almost all transportation network has reached his traffic performance. The increase in traffic noise certainly has an impact on the human body. The most common and intense noise is caused by the traffic of urban automobile and electric transport. This is explained by the existence of the heavy traffic (2-3 thousand crews/h) on almost all main roads in historically emerged parts of the city. In addition, sources of external noise in the city can be a railway running in residential zone, access roads, industrial enterprises, located in close proximity to residential areas and on the borders of residential zones, planes of military and civil aviation. For the evaluation of the different noises sound levels were measured with the use of sound level meters. The most common parameter for the assessment ofthe noise generatedfrom motor vehicles on residential areas and usedfor the noise characteristics of the traffic flows, is the equivalent sound level/A EQ dB. This parameter is used in the majority of normative-technical documentation as hygienic noise standard. With the aim of the assessment of noise exposure there were selected 122 control points at intersections of roads of different traffic performance where there were made instrumental measurements the equivalent sound level, followed by its comparison with permissible levels.

  12. Using measured octanol-air partition coefficients to explain environmental partitioning of organochlorine pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoeib, Mahiba; Harner, Tom

    2002-05-01

    Octanol-air partition coefficients (Koa) were measured directly for 19 organochlorine (OC) pesticides over the temperature range of 5 to 35 degrees C. Values of log Koa at 25 degrees C ranged over three orders of magnitude, from 7.4 for hexachlorobenzene to 10.1 for 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane. Measured values were compared to values calculated as KowRT/H (where R is the ideal gas constant [8.314 J mol(-1) K(-1)], T is absolute temperature, and H is Henry's law constant) were, in general, larger. Discrepancies of up to three orders of magnitude were observed, highlighting the need for direct measurements of Koa. Plots of Koa versus inverse absolute temperature exhibited a log-linear correlation. Enthalpies of phase transition between octanol and air (deltaHoa) were determined from the temperature slopes and were in the range of 56 to 105 kJ mol(-1) K(-1). Activity coefficients in octanol (gamma(o)) were determined from Koa and reported supercooled liquid vapor pressures (pL(o)), and these were in the range of 0.3 to 12, indicating near-ideal solution behavior. Differences in Koa values for structural isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane were also explored. A Koa-based model was described for predicting the partitioning of OC pesticides to aerosols and used to calculate particulate fractions at 25 and -10 degrees C. The model also agreed well with experimental results for several OC pesticides that were equilibrated with urban aerosols in the laboratory. A log-log regression of the particle-gas partition coefficient versus Koa had a slope near unity, indicating that octanol is a good surrogate for the aerosol organic matter.

  13. Road traffic noise: self-reported noise annoyance versus GIS modelled road traffic noise exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, Matthias; Ivina, Olga; von Klot, Stephanie; Babisch, Wolfgang; Heinrich, Joachim

    2011-11-01

    self-reported road traffic noise annoyance is commonly used in epidemiological studies for assessment of potential health effects. Alternatively, some studies have used geographic information system (GIS) modelled exposure to road traffic noise as an objective parameter. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between noise exposure due to neighbouring road traffic and the noise annoyance of adults, taking other determinants into consideration. parents of 951 Munich children from the two German birth cohorts GINIplus and LISAplus reported their annoyance due to road traffic noise at home. GIS modelled road traffic noise exposure (L(den), maximum within a 50 m buffer) from the noise map of the city of Munich was available for all families. GIS-based calculated distance to the closest major road (≥10,000 vehicles per day) and questionnaire based-information about family income, parental education and the type of the street of residence were explored for their potential influence. An ordered logit regression model was applied. The noise levels (L(den)) and the reported noise annoyance were compared with an established exposure-response function. the correlation between noise annoyance and noise exposure (L(den)) was fair (Spearman correlation r(s) = 0.37). The distance to a major road and the type of street were strong predictors for the noise annoyance. The annoyance modelled by the established exposure-response function and that estimated by the ordered logit model were moderately associated (Pearson's correlation r(p) = 0.50). road traffic noise annoyance was associated with GIS modelled neighbouring road traffic noise exposure (L(den)). The distance to a major road and the type of street were additional explanatory factors of the noise annoyance appraisal.

  14. Axiomatic method of partitions in the theory of Noebeling spaces. I. Improvement of partition connectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageev, S M

    2007-01-01

    The Noebeling space N k 2k+1 , a k-dimensional analogue of the Hilbert space, is considered; this is a topologically complete separable (that is, Polish) k-dimensional absolute extensor in dimension k (that is, AE(k)) and a strongly k-universal space. The conjecture that the above-listed properties characterize the Noebeling space N k 2k+1 in an arbitrary finite dimension k is proved. In the first part of the paper a full axiom system of the Noebeling spaces is presented and the problem of the improvement of a partition connectivity is solved on its basis. Bibliography: 29 titles.

  15. Three-party quantum secure direct communication against collective noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ye-Feng; Ma, Wen-Ping

    2017-10-01

    Based on logical quantum states, two three-party quantum secure direct communication protocols are proposed, which can realize the exchange of the secret messages between three parties with the help of the measurement correlation property of six-particle entangled states. These two protocols can be immune to the collective-dephasing noise and the collective-rotation noise, respectively; neither of them has information leakage problem. The one-way transmission mode ensures that they can congenitally resist against the Trojan horse attacks and the teleportation attack. Furthermore, these two protocols are secure against other active attacks because of the use of the decoy state technology.

  16. A versatile fast low noise preamplifier in UHF bipolar technology

    CERN Document Server

    Goyot, M

    2000-01-01

    A low noise, low power, radiation hard, full-custom-integrated circuit has been studied in the UHF1 Harris process for coupling with photodetectors of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter. A versatile new version of the prototype preamplifier has been designed with improved performances in terms of noise, dynamic range, and consumption. Experimental results using an avalanche photodiode in DC coupling mode to the preamplifier are shown. Irradiation tests have been performed with an X-ray generator. Results obtained are given up to 10 Mrad (SiO/sub 2/). An upgrade version in UHF1X technology at present in a foundry is briefly presented. (6 refs).

  17. Averaging underwater noise levels for environmental assessment of shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Nathan D; Blondel, Philippe; Dakin, D Tom; Dorocicz, John

    2012-10-01

    Rising underwater noise levels from shipping have raised concerns regarding chronic impacts to marine fauna. However, there is a lack of consensus over how to average local shipping noise levels for environmental impact assessment. This paper addresses this issue using 110 days of continuous data recorded in the Strait of Georgia, Canada. Probability densities of ~10(7) 1-s samples in selected 1/3 octave bands were approximately stationary across one-month subsamples. Median and mode levels varied with averaging time. Mean sound pressure levels averaged in linear space, though susceptible to strong bias from outliers, are most relevant to cumulative impact assessment metrics.

  18. Fiche Pratique: Pour en finir avec les histoires de modes; Faire parler les bruits; FDM Frequence Plus: La revue de presse; Construire l'absurde (Practical Ideas: Finishing the Modal Story; Making Noises Speak; FDM Frequence Plus: The Press Review; Constructing the Absurd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courally, Sylvie; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Four ideas for French language instruction are described, including an exercise on modals, an activity focusing on the use of noises for expression, a listening comprehension exercise, and a lesson on humorous possibilities in language using material from the theater of the absurd. (MSE)

  19. Robust Neural Sliding Mode Control of Robot Manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Tran Hiep; Pham Thuong Cat

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust neural sliding mode control method for robot tracking problem to overcome the noises and large uncertainties in robot dynamics. The Lyapunov direct method has been used to prove the stability of the overall system. Simulation results are given to illustrate the applicability of the proposed method

  20. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Schema Modes in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case of Anorexia Nervosa: Part 1. Background, Method, and Child and Parent Modes by David J. A. ... of experience are memory-based, and their cognitive, sensory, motor and vocal features reflect the way in ...... able to make a noise when you want to and not be yelled at for it, or be scared to have friends over and ... it's.