WorldWideScience

Sample records for mode number examination

  1. Amplification of azimuthal modes with odd wave numbers during dynamical bar-mode growth in rotating stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kojima, Yasufumi

    2008-01-01

    Nonlinear growth of the bar-mode deformation is studied for a differentially rotating star with supercritical rotational energy. In particular, the growth mechanism of some azimuthal modes with odd wave numbers is examined by comparing a simplified mathematical model with a realistic simulation. Mode coupling to even modes, i.e., the bar mode and higher harmonics, significantly enhances the amplitudes of odd modes, unless they are exactly zero initially. Therefore, other modes which are not axially symmetric cannot be neglected at late times in the growth of the unstable bar-mode even when starting from an almost axially symmetric state.

  2. Examination of the 'web mode effect'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Sanne Lund; Shamshiri-Petersen, Ditte

    Declining response rates is one of the most significant challenges for survey based research today. Seen in isolation, traditional interviewer based data collection methods are still the most effective but also the most expensive, especially the greater difficulty in gaining responses taken...... into account. As a solution, mixed-mode designs have been employed as a way to achieve higher response rates, while keeping the overall costs low. In particular, the use of web based surveys has expanded considerably during the last few years, both as a single data collection method and as a component in mixed...... mode designs. But web surveys are subject to points of criticism. In addition to obvious errors in relation to coverage, sampling and non-response, the underlying construct is that web surveys produce measurement errors per se due to more superficial cognitive processing by respondents. Thus, including...

  3. Kyleo ® - mode of action under examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heibertshausen, Dagmar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Kyleo® with two known active substances (ai is an innovative, modern herbicide for resistance management. Kyleo® contains 160 g/l 2,4-D and 240 g/l glyphosate. With an application rate of 5,0 l/ha, it shows a far better, faster effect on weeds such as field horsetail (Equisetum arvense, volunteer oilseed rape (Brassica napus and couch grass (Agropyron repens compared to a tank mix or the reference products (RP. This is explained by an unique new formulation technology that for the first time combines 2,4-D as acid and glyphosate as MIPA salt together with FHS. The new form of 2,4-D is lipophilic with better leaf absorption and greater photolytic degradation in the upper layers of soil. Tests with radioactive marked substances have verified the systemic properties of both ai compared to RP. The displacement of 2,4-D into the plant roots was demonstrated 48 h after application (hpt. 98% glyphosate absorption was observed in rape and couch grass – 10% (rape respectively 25% (couch grass greater than with RP. Higher absorption of the ai is characterised by a swifter effect, with stronger, visible symptoms after 24 h in rape and 96 h in couch grass. The rainfastness of Kyleo® was tested in greenhouse (GH trials with rape. Comparability of the test objects was simulated with a uniform glyphosate quantity of 360 g/ha and 10 l/m² simulated precipitation. 24% improved effect compared to RP was verified for 1 hpt rainfall, while 4% improved effect was recorded for rain simulation after 6 hpt. GH trials with wheat and a comparable glyphosate application quantity of 290 g/ha revealed differences of 23% and 22% compared to RP for rain simulation of 1 hpt and 6 hpt. Kyleo® stands out with a swift effect and better rainfastness. The results presented here prove a systemic mode of action, good rainfastness and swift effect of Kyleo.

  4. Defect Modes in Multiple-Constituent One-Dimensional Photonic Crystals Examined by an Analytic Bloch-Mode Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANG Hong-Yi; LI Zhi-Yuan; GU Ben-Yuan

    2005-01-01

    @@ Defect modes in one-dimensional photonic crystals (PCs) can be readily detected from the solution of the transmission spectra via the standard transfer-matrix method. We adopt an analytic Bloch-mode approach to examine this problem in terms of eigenmode solutions and investigate the dispersion behaviour of localized defect modes supported by a defect layer sandwiched within two symmetric semi-infinite PCs that are made from multiple constituents. The results show that the number of defect modes grows when the dielectric constant and width of the defect layer increase.

  5. Number of radiological examinations in Finland in 2000

    CERN Document Server

    Hakanen, A

    2002-01-01

    STUK (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) collected the number of radiological examinations in Finland in 2000. The work was based on a decree of the ministry of social affairs and health on the medical use of radiation. The work was done in cooperation with the Finnish work group of nomenclature of radiological examinations and procedures and professor Seppo Soimakallio. In 2000, ca. 4.1 million x-ray examinations were made in Finland. In 1984 and in 1995, the numbers were ca. 4.6 million and 4.2 million, respectively, indicating that the total number of x-ray examinations has remained nearly unaltered. The proportions of conventional x-ray examinations, computed tomography examinations, angiographic and interventional procedures were ca. 93.5 %, 5.0 %, 0.9 % and 0.6 %, respectively. The reported number of ultrasound examinations was ca. 0.5 million. The reported number of MRI examinations was ca. 0.1 million.

  6. Examination of a ’Web Mode Effect’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shamshiri-Petersen, Ditte; Clement, Sanne Lund

    and sampling errors, Web surveys presumably produce more measurement errors than other modes due to respondents’ lack of cognitive effort to answer the survey questions carefully. However, a comparison of two groups of students, one asked to fill out a questionnaire on paper and the other asked to complete...... a Web version suggests that such “Web mode effect” does not exist, since Web respondents are not more prone to satisficing....

  7. Elastic Numbers: National Examinations Data as a Technology of Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piattoeva, Nelli

    2015-01-01

    This article is motivated by interest in the deployment of massive numerical information produced by national examinations in the practices of control and steering. It examines how data generated in the compulsory school graduation examination in the Russian Federation connect together different actors within the education system and beyond, and…

  8. Two-Variable Hermite Polynomial Excitation of Two-Mode Squeezed Vacuum State as Squeezed Two-Mode Number State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Li-Yun; FAN Hong-Yi

    2008-01-01

    We find that the squeezed two-mode number state is just a two-variable Hermite polynomial excitation of the two-mode squeezed vacuum state (THPES). We find that the Wigner function of THPES and its marginal distributions are just related to two-variable Hermite polynomials (or Laguerre polynomials) and that the tomogram of THPES can be expressed by one-mode Hermite polynomial.

  9. Damage Identification Dependence on Number of Vibration Modes Using Mode Shape Curvature Squares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeliukstis, R.; Rucevskis, S.; Wesolowski, M.; Chate, A.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper a damage identification algorithm for multiple damage sites based on mode shape curvature square method of vibration mode shapes in aluminium beam is reported. The required mode shape curvature of a healthy structure was obtained via interpolation of mode shape curvature of a damaged structure with Fourier series functions of different orders. Algorithm employed calculations of standardized damage index distributions over beam coordinate. Finite element simulations of proposed methodology involving various artificial noise levels and reduction of mode shape input data points were validated on the damage identification results of experimentally measured mode shapes which were measured using scanning laser vibrometer. Results show that the algorithm is capable of capturing the areas of damage. The term called damage estimate reliability was introduced in terms of likelihood of the chosen approximation function to capture the location of damage.

  10. Average Number of Coherent Modes for Pulse Random Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Lazaruk, A M; Lazaruk, Alexander M.; Karelin, Nikolay V.

    1997-01-01

    Some consequences of spatio-temporal symmetry for the deterministic decomposition of complex light fields into factorized components are considered. This enables to reveal interrelations between spatial and temporal coherence properties of wave. An estimation of average number of the decomposition terms is obtained in the case of statistical ensemble of light pulses.

  11. Neurolinguistic Programming Examined: Imagery, Sensory Mode, and Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, Donald K.; Daniell, Jennifer

    1984-01-01

    Tested Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP) assumptions by examining intercorrelations among response times of students (N=64) for extracting visual, auditory, and kinesthetic information from alphabetic images. Large positive intercorrelations were obtained, the only outcome not compatible with NLP. Good visualizers were significantly better in…

  12. Spacing and Presentation Modes Affect the Unit-Decade Compatibility Effect During Number Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletzer, Belinda; Scheuringer, Andrea; Harris, TiAnni

    2016-06-01

    The unit-decade compatibility effect has challenged the model of holistic number magnitude processing, suggesting decomposed processing of multi-digit numbers. Recent evidence confirms that decomposed processing of decade and unit magnitudes occurs in parallel. However, the mode of presentation of multi-digit numbers may affect the processing mode (holistic vs. decomposed, parallel vs. sequential). We therefore investigated in two studies, whether presentation mode (vertical, horizontal, or consecutive) or the distance between two vertically presented numbers affects the unit-decade compatibility effect during number comparison. We found that the compatibility effect did not differ significantly between vertical and horizontal presentation, adding to previous results on perceptual generality, but was nonsignificant with consecutive presentation. However, the compatibility effect was significantly smaller, if numbers are spaced further apart. Thus, stimulus size and distance between numbers affect the processing of multi-digit numbers and should be reported in future studies.

  13. Arbitrarily large numbers of kink internal modes in inhomogeneous sine-Gordon equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, J.A., E-mail: jalbertgonz@yahoo.es [Department of Physics, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Department of Natural Sciences, Miami Dade College, 627 SW 27th Ave., Miami, FL 33135 (United States); Bellorín, A., E-mail: alberto.bellorin@ucv.ve [Escuela de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Apartado Postal 47586, Caracas 1041-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); García-Ñustes, M.A., E-mail: monica.garcia@pucv.cl [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059 (Chile); Guerrero, L.E., E-mail: lguerre@usb.ve [Departamento de Física, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Jiménez, S., E-mail: s.jimenez@upm.es [Departamento de Matemática Aplicada a las TT.II., E.T.S.I. Telecomunicación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Vázquez, L., E-mail: lvazquez@fdi.ucm.es [Departamento de Matemática Aplicada, Facultad de Informática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040-Madrid (Spain)

    2017-06-28

    We prove analytically the existence of an infinite number of internal (shape) modes of sine-Gordon solitons in the presence of some inhomogeneous long-range forces, provided some conditions are satisfied. - Highlights: • We have found exact kink solutions to the perturbed sine-Gordon equation. • We have been able to study analytically the kink stability problem. • A kink equilibrated by an exponentially-localized perturbation has a finite number of oscillation modes. • A sufficiently broad equilibrating perturbation supports an infinite number of soliton internal modes.

  14. Examining the Modes Malware Suppliers Use to Provide Goods and Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Bailetti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Malware suppliers use various modes to provide goods and services to customers. By mode, we mean “the way” the malware supplier chooses to function. These modes increase monetization opportunities and enable many security breaches worldwide. A theoretically sound framework that can be used to examine the various modes that malware suppliers use to produce and sell malware is needed. We apply a general model specified recently by Hagiu and Wright to study five modes that malware suppliers use to deliver goods and services to their customers. The framework presented in this article can be used to predict the mode in which a malware supplier will function; to study which types of malware suppliers, agents, and customers are attracted to each mode; to discover new modes; and to better understand the threat a malware supplier presents.

  15. Toroidal mode number estimation of the edge-localized modes using the KSTAR 3-D electron cyclotron emission imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.; Yun, G. S., E-mail: gunsu@postech.ac.kr; Lee, J. E.; Kim, M.; Choi, M. J.; Lee, W. [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Park, H. K. [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Sabbagh, S. A.; Park, Y. S. [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Lee, S. G.; Bak, J. G. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    A new and more accurate technique is presented for determining the toroidal mode number n of edge-localized modes (ELMs) using two independent electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) systems in the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) device. The technique involves the measurement of the poloidal spacing between adjacent ELM filaments, and of the pitch angle α{sub *} of filaments at the plasma outboard midplane. Equilibrium reconstruction verifies that α{sub *} is nearly constant and thus well-defined at the midplane edge. Estimates of n obtained using two ECEI systems agree well with n measured by the conventional technique employing an array of Mirnov coils.

  16. Practices and Explorations on Talent-Training Mode of Self-Taught Higher Education Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong

    2011-01-01

    Since the existence of self-taught higher education examination, its fast development has contributed a lot to national higher education reform and economic development. This paper, based on analyzing the talent-training mode of China self-taught higher education, proposes countermeasures and suggestions for problems in the mode at present.

  17. Edge Modes, Degeneracies, and Topological Numbers in Non-Hermitian Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Leykam, Daniel; Huang, Chunli; Chong, Y D; Nori, Franco

    2016-01-01

    We analyze chiral topological edge modes in a non-Hermitian variant of the 2D Dirac equation. Such modes appear at interfaces between media with different "masses" and/or signs of the "non-Hermitian charge". The appearance and regions of existence of the edge modes are intimately related to exceptional points, i.e., degeneracies in the bulk spectra of the media. We find that the topological edge modes can be divided into three classes ("Hermitian-like", "non-Hermitian", and "mixed"), and these are described by two winding numbers corresponding to a pair of half-integer charges carried by exceptional points of the bulk Hamiltonian. We also show that the non-Hermitian topological edge modes can be realized in a honeycomb-like lattice of ring resonators with non-Hermitian couplings.

  18. Convection-driven kinematic dynamos at low Rossby and magnetic Prandtl numbers: single mode solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Calkins, Michael A; Tobias, Steven M; Aurnou, Jonathan M; Marti, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The onset of dynamo action is investigated within the context of a newly developed low Rossby, low magnetic Prandtl number, convection-driven dynamo model. The model represents an asymptotically exact form of an $\\alpha^2$ mean field dynamo model in which the small-scale convection is represented explicitly by the finite amplitude, single mode convective solutions first investigated by Bassom and Zhang (Geophys.~Astrophys.~Fluid Dyn., \\textbf{76}, p.223, 1994). Both steady and oscillatory convection are considered for a variety of horizontal planforms. The kinematic helicity is observed to be a monotonically increasing function of the Rayleigh number; as a result, very small magnetic Prandtl number dynamos can be found for a sufficiently large Rayleigh number. All dynamos are found to be oscillatory with an oscillation frequency that increases as the strength of the convection is increased and the magnetic Prandtl number is reduced. Single mode solutions which exhibit boundary layer behavior in the kinematic ...

  19. Effects of excitation around jet preferred mode Strouhal number in high-speed jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ching-Wen; Cluts, Jordan; Samimy, Mo

    2017-04-01

    It has been widely reported in the literature that the jet preferred mode Strouhal number varies over a large range of 0.2-0.6, depending upon the facility where the measurement is made as well as the measurement techniques and the location in the jet plume where the measurement is taken. This study investigates this wide variation and potential explanations for it. Active flow control is used to show that the jet is receptive to excitation over a large range of Strouhal numbers and azimuthal modes. The wide variation in the preferred mode Strouhal number is shown to be tightly linked to the evolution, spacing, and scale of the coherent flow structures, which dominate the jet shear layer's development. The low-end of the range is determined by the minimum Strouhal number at which structures begin to interact with one another in the jet plume. Below this range, structures have no significant effect on the plume's statistical properties. For Strouhal numbers at the high-end of the range, the development of coherent flow structures shifts upstream toward the nozzle exit and the structures disintegrate earlier in the jet plume. The earlier development and disintegration prevent these structures from strongly impacting the entire flowfield. The results imply that upstream perturbations in the flow present in various facilities could be responsible for the variations in the measured jet preferred mode Strouhal number. Experimental results from schlieren imaging and near- and far-field microphone measurements are used to investigate the preferred mode Strouhal number across this range.

  20. Weighted Fuzzy Risk Priority Number Evaluation of Turbine and Compressor Blades Considering Failure Mode Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Luping; Li, Yan-Feng; Zhu, Shun-Peng; Yang, Yuan-Jian; Huang, Hong-Zhong

    2014-06-01

    Failure mode, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) and Fault tree analysis (FTA) are powerful tools to evaluate reliability of systems. Although single failure mode issue can be efficiently addressed by traditional FMECA, multiple failure modes and component correlations in complex systems cannot be effectively evaluated. In addition, correlated variables and parameters are often assumed to be precisely known in quantitative analysis. In fact, due to the lack of information, epistemic uncertainty commonly exists in engineering design. To solve these problems, the advantages of FMECA, FTA, fuzzy theory, and Copula theory are integrated into a unified hybrid method called fuzzy probability weighted geometric mean (FPWGM) risk priority number (RPN) method. The epistemic uncertainty of risk variables and parameters are characterized by fuzzy number to obtain fuzzy weighted geometric mean (FWGM) RPN for single failure mode. Multiple failure modes are connected using minimum cut sets (MCS), and Boolean logic is used to combine fuzzy risk priority number (FRPN) of each MCS. Moreover, Copula theory is applied to analyze the correlation of multiple failure modes in order to derive the failure probabilities of each MCS. Compared to the case where dependency among multiple failure modes is not considered, the Copula modeling approach eliminates the error of reliability analysis. Furthermore, for purpose of quantitative analysis, probabilities importance weight from failure probabilities are assigned to FWGM RPN to reassess the risk priority, which generalize the definition of probability weight and FRPN, resulting in a more accurate estimation than that of the traditional models. Finally, a basic fatigue analysis case drawn from turbine and compressor blades in aeroengine is used to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the presented method. The result provides some important insights on fatigue reliability analysis and risk priority assessment of structural

  1. Analysis of Necessity of Transforming Electrical Grid Access Training and Examination Regulatory Agency Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Tuo; SUN Qi; ZHOU Wan-lan

    2016-01-01

    There are numerous electricians, but only a few of them have obtained certificate. Training and examination agencies provide services relating to training, examination, and certificate application and so on. Thus, training resources are not rationally utilized, and the increased training demand cannot be fully satisfied. Under such circumstances, it is recommended to transform the regulatory agency mode by establishing a scientific management process, and put forward a new mode of electrical grid access training and examination to better meet related demands. Under the coordination of examination center regulatory agency, uniform training program, training materials, charging standard, examination and certificate can be guaranteed. This project is carried out as an effort to improve the quality of electronic-engineering training and examination, so that electricity accident rate can be reduced, and the security of electrical grid operation can be guaranteed to boost the rapidly developing economy.

  2. Fast random number generation with spontaneous emission noise of a single-mode semiconductor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Zhang, Mingjiang; Liu, Yi; Li, Pu; Yi, Xiaogang; Zhang, Mingtao; Wang, Yuncai

    2016-11-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a 12.5 Gb s-1 random number generator based on measuring the spontaneous emission noise of a single-mode semiconductor laser. The spontaneous emission of light is quantum mechanical in nature and is an inborn physical entropy source of true randomness. By combining a high-speed analog-to-digital converter and off-line processing, random numbers are extracted from the spontaneous emission with the verified randomness. The generator is simple, robust, and with no need of accurately tuning the comparison threshold. The use of semiconductor lasers makes it particularly compatible with the delivery of random numbers in optical networks.

  3. Fuzzy Risk Evaluation in Failure Mode and Effects Analysis Using a D Numbers Based Multi-Sensor Information Fusion Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xinyang; Jiang, Wen

    2017-09-12

    Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is a useful tool to define, identify, and eliminate potential failures or errors so as to improve the reliability of systems, designs, and products. Risk evaluation is an important issue in FMEA to determine the risk priorities of failure modes. There are some shortcomings in the traditional risk priority number (RPN) approach for risk evaluation in FMEA, and fuzzy risk evaluation has become an important research direction that attracts increasing attention. In this paper, the fuzzy risk evaluation in FMEA is studied from a perspective of multi-sensor information fusion. By considering the non-exclusiveness between the evaluations of fuzzy linguistic variables to failure modes, a novel model called D numbers is used to model the non-exclusive fuzzy evaluations. A D numbers based multi-sensor information fusion method is proposed to establish a new model for fuzzy risk evaluation in FMEA. An illustrative example is provided and examined using the proposed model and other existing method to show the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  4. Stimulated excitation of resonant Cherenkov radiation at a large number of neighbouring waveguide modes

    CERN Document Server

    Grigoryan, L Sh; Khachatryan, H F; Grigoryan, M L

    2012-01-01

    The resonance Cherenkov radiation generated from a train of equally-spaced unidimensional electron bunches travelling along the axis of a hollow channel inside an infinite cylindrical waveguide filled with (weakly dispersing) transparent dielectric has been investigated. It was shown that its excitation might be stimulated at a large number of neighboring modes of the waveguide. A visual explanation of this effect is given and the possibility of its observation in the range of terahertz radiation is discussed.

  5. Mode shifting in school travel mode: examining the prevalence and correlates of active school transport in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buliung Ron

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies examining the correlates of school transport commonly fail to make the distinction between morning and afternoon school trips. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of mode shift from passive in the morning to active in the afternoon among elementary and secondary school students in Ontario, Canada. Methods Data were derived from the 2009 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS. 3,633 students in grades 7 through 12 completed self-administered questionnaires. Socio-demographic, behavioural, psychological, and environmental predictors of active school transport (AST were assessed using logistic regression. Results Overall, 47% and 38% of elementary school students reported AST to and from school, respectively. The corresponding figures were 23% and 32% for secondary school students. The prevalence of AST varied temporarily and spatially. There was a higher prevalence of walking/biking found for elementary school students than for secondary school students, and there was an approximate 10% increase in AST in the afternoon. Different correlates of active school transport were also found across elementary and secondary school students. For all ages, students living in urban areas, with a shorter travel time between home and school, and having some input to the decision making process, were more likely to walk to and from school. Conclusions Future research examining AST should continue to make the analytic distinction between the morning and afternoon trip, and control for the moderating effect of age and geography in predicting mode choice. In terms of practice, these variations highlight the need for school-specific travel plans rather than 'one size fits all' interventions in promoting active school transport.

  6. Random Number Hardware Generator Using Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photo Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Beznosko, D; Duspayev, A; Tailakov, A; Yessenov, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the physical concept and test results of sample data of the high-speed hardware true random number generator design based on typically used for High Energy Physics hardware. Main features of this concept are the high speed of the true random numbers generation (tens of Mbt/s), miniature size and estimated lower production cost. This allows the use of such a device not only in large companies and government offices but for the end-user data cryptography, in classrooms, in scientific Monte-Carlo simulations, computer games and any other place where large number of true random numbers is required. The physics of the operations principle of using a Geiger-mode avalanche photo detector is discussed and the high quality of the data collected is demonstrated.

  7. Effect of resonant magnetic perturbations with toroidal mode numbers of 4 and 6 on edge-localized modes in single null H-mode plasmas in MAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, A.; Chapman, I. T.; Harrison, J.; Liu, Yueqiang; Nardon, E.; Saarelma, S.; Scannell, R.; Thornton, A. J.; the MAST Team

    2013-01-01

    The application of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) with a toroidal mode number of n = 4 or n = 6 to lower single null plasmas in the MAST tokamak produces up to a factor of 5 increase in edge-localized mode (ELM) frequency and reduction in plasma energy loss associated with type-I ELMs. A threshold current for ELM mitigation is observed above which the ELM frequency increases approximately linearly with current in the coils. Despite a large scan of parameters, complete ELM suppression has not been achieved. The results have been compared with modelling performed using either the vacuum approximation or including the plasma response. During the ELM mitigated stage clear lobe structures are observed in visible-light imaging of the X-point region. The size of these lobes is correlated with the increase in ELM frequency observed. The characteristics of the mitigated ELMs are similar to those of the natural ELMs suggesting that they are type-I ELMs which are triggered at a lower pressure gradient. The application of the RMPs in the n = 4 and n = 6 configurations before the L-H transition has little effect on the power required to achieve H-mode while still allowing the first ELM to be mitigated.

  8. COMPLEX NUMBER MODE APPROACH FOR REDUCING VIBRATION OF STRUCTURAL FLEXIBLE REDUNDANT ROBOT MANIPULATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A complex number mode analysis approach is proposed for vibration reducing of structural flexible redundant manipulators by utilizing self-motion. In the proposed approach, the self-motion is evaluated to nullify the modal exciting-force of flexural motion, and the approach can be freely used when the degree of freedom of flexural motion is much greater than the available degree of reundancy. The availability and effectiveness of the proposed approach are demonstrated through numerical simulation with a four-link spatial robotic manipulator possessing an end flexible link.

  9. Mode of inheritance and combining abilities for kernel row number, kernel number per row and grain yield in maize (Zea mays L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocanski, J.; Sreckov, Z.; Nastasic, A.; Ivanovic, M.; Djalovic, I.; Vukosavljev, M.

    2010-01-01

    Bocanski J., Z. Sreckov, A. Nastasic, M. Ivanovic, I.Djalovic and M. Vukosavljev (2010): Mode of inheritance and combining abilities for kernel row number, kernel number per row and grain yield in maize (Zea mays L.) - Genetika, Vol 42, No. 1, 169- 176. Utilization of heterosis requires the study of

  10. Mode of inheritance and combining abilities for kernel row number, kernel number per row and grain yield in maize (Zea mays L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocanski, J.; Sreckov, Z.; Nastasic, A.; Ivanovic, M.; Djalovic, I.; Vukosavljev, M.

    2010-01-01

    Bocanski J., Z. Sreckov, A. Nastasic, M. Ivanovic, I.Djalovic and M. Vukosavljev (2010): Mode of inheritance and combining abilities for kernel row number, kernel number per row and grain yield in maize (Zea mays L.) - Genetika, Vol 42, No. 1, 169- 176. Utilization of heterosis requires the study of

  11. A model-based examination of multivariate physical modes in the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, A. J.; Ladd, C.; Cheng, W.; Curchitser, E. N.; Hedstrom, K.

    2016-10-01

    We use multivariate output from a hydrodynamic model of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) to explore the covariance among its physical state and air/sea fluxes. We attempt to summarize this coupled variability using a limited set of patterns, and examine their correlation to three large-scale climate indices relevant to the Northeast Pacific. This analysis is focused on perturbations from monthly climatology of the following attributes of the GOA: sea surface temperature, sea surface height, mixed layer depth, sea surface salinity, latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, shortwave irradiance, net long wave irradiance, currents at 40 m depth, and wind stress. We identified two multivariate modes, both substantially correlated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and Multivariate El Nino (MEI) indices on interannual timescales, which together account for ~30% of the total normalized variance of the perturbation time series. These two modes indicate the following covarying events during periods of positive PDO/MEI: (1) anomalously warm, wet and windy conditions (typically in winter), with elevated coastal SSH, followed 2-5 months later by (2) reduced cloud cover, with emerging shelf-break eddies. Similar modes are found when the analysis is performed separately on the eastern and western GOA; in general, modal amplitudes appear stronger in the western GOA.

  12. Plasma production by helicon waves with single mode number in low magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, G; Hatakeyama, R; Sato, Genta; Oohara, Wataru; Hatakeyama, Rikizo

    2004-01-01

    Radio-frequency discharges are performed in low magnetic fields (0-10 mT) using three types of helicon-wave exciting antennas with the azimuthal mode number of $|m|$ = 1. The most pronounced peak of plasma density is generated in the case of phased helical antenna at only a few mT, where the helicon wave with $|m| = 1$ is purely excited and propagates. An analysis based on the dispersion relation well explains the density-peak phenomenon in terms of the correspondence between the antenna one-wavelength and the helicon wavelength. The $m=+1$ helicon wave propagates even in high magnetic fields where the density peaks are not observed, but the $m=-1$ helicon wave disappers. It is expected theoretically that the $m=-1$ helicon wave shows cutoff behavior in a low density region, [M. Kramer, Phys. Plasmas 6, 1052 (1999)], and the cutoff of $m=-1$ helicon wave experimentally observed coincides with the calculated one.

  13. Localized Majorana-Like Modes in a Number-Conserving Setting: An Exactly Solvable Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iemini, Fernando; Mazza, Leonardo; Rossini, Davide; Fazio, Rosario; Diehl, Sebastian

    2015-10-09

    In this Letter we present, in a number conserving framework, a model of interacting fermions in a two-wire geometry supporting nonlocal zero-energy Majorana-like edge excitations. The model has an exactly solvable line, on varying the density of fermions, described by a topologically nontrivial ground state wave function. Away from the exactly solvable line we study the system by means of the numerical density matrix renormalization group. We characterize its topological properties through the explicit calculation of a degenerate entanglement spectrum and of the braiding operators which are exponentially localized at the edges. Furthermore, we establish the presence of a gap in its single particle spectrum while the Hamiltonian is gapless, and compute the correlations between the edge modes as well as the superfluid correlations. The topological phase covers a sizable portion of the phase diagram, the solvable line being one of its boundaries.

  14. Numerical Examination of Silicon Avalanche Photodiodes Operated in Charge Storage Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Joseph W., Jr.; Brennan, Kevin F.

    1998-01-01

    The behavior of silicon-based avalanche photodiodes (APD's) operated in the charge storage mode is examined. In the charge storage mode, the diodes are periodically biased to a sub-breakdown voltage and then open-circuited. During this integration period, photo-excited and thermally generated carriers are accumulated within the structure. The dynamics of this accumulation and its effects upon the avalanching of the diode warrants a detailed, fully numerical analysis. The salient features of this investigation include device sensitivity to the input photo-current including the self-quenching effect of the diode and its limitations in sensing low light levels, the dependence of the response on the bulk lifetime and hence on the generation current within the device, the initial gain, transient response, dependence of the device uniformity upon performance, and the quantity of storable charge within the device. To achieve these tasks our device simulator, STEBS-2D, was utilized. A modified current-controlled boundary condition is employed which allows for the simulation of the isolated diode after the initial reset bias has been applied. With this boundary condition, it is possible to establish a steady-state voltage on the ohmic contact and then effectively remove the device from the external circuit while still including effects from surface recombination, trapped surface charge, and leakage current from the read-out electronics.

  15. EXAMINATION OF NUMBERS OF STUDENTS APPLIED TO FINE ARTS HIGH SCHOOL: A PESSIMISTIC VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahit AKSU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study, aiming to examine student quantities applied to Fine Arts high School according to various variables was implemented with General Scanning Technic among Scanning Model and documentary scanning from Descriptive Researches. When we examine applications made to Fine Arts High School Music Departments Special Talent Exams in 2014-2015 Semester we see that less than 30 applications were made to 45% of departments having 30 students quota and because significant numbers of students didn’t apply to necessitate making exams and nearly half of these departments couldn’t get qualified and quantified students and in general in talent exams 71% of Music Departments of Fine Arts High Schools couldn’t fill their student quotas, even in the second placement special talent exam made for 2014-2015 semester 22 GSL Music Departments couldn’t reach their student qouota and when examine this year’s applications to Music Departments of Fine Arts High Schools with the last year’s rate number of applications decreased between 3-70% and schools with such decrease were equal to 60% of study sampling. This situation gives important messages and implies that: success rate of students graduating from these schools will decrease year by year and this fact will reflect to higher education institutions giving professional music education.

  16. Scaling and interaction of self-similar modes in models of high Reynolds number wall turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A. S.; Moarref, R.; McKeon, B. J.

    2017-03-01

    Previous work has established the usefulness of the resolvent operator that maps the terms nonlinear in the turbulent fluctuations to the fluctuations themselves. Further work has described the self-similarity of the resolvent arising from that of the mean velocity profile. The orthogonal modes provided by the resolvent analysis describe the wall-normal coherence of the motions and inherit that self-similarity. In this contribution, we present the implications of this similarity for the nonlinear interaction between modes with different scales and wall-normal locations. By considering the nonlinear interactions between modes, it is shown that much of the turbulence scaling behaviour in the logarithmic region can be determined from a single arbitrarily chosen reference plane. Thus, the geometric scaling of the modes is impressed upon the nonlinear interaction between modes. Implications of these observations on the self-sustaining mechanisms of wall turbulence, modelling and simulation are outlined.

  17. Examination of program exposure across intervention delivery modes: face-to-face versus internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mummery W Kerry

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been increasing interest in the ability of the internet to produce behaviour change. The focus of this study was to describe program exposure across three intervention groups from a randomised trial (RT comparing traditional face-to-face, internet-mediated (combined internet plus face-to-face, and internet-only program delivery. Methods Baseline and immediately post-intervention survey data, and exposure rates from participants that commenced the RT were included (n = 192. Exposure was defined as either face-to-face attendance, website usage, or a combination of both for the internet-mediated group. Characteristics of participants who were exposed to at least 75% of the program material were explored. Descriptive analysis and logistical regression were used to examine differences between groups for program exposure. Results All groups showed decrease in program exposure over time. Differences were also observed (χ2 = 10.37, p Conclusion These results suggest that the internet groups were as effective as the face-to-face delivery mode in engaging participants in the program material. However, different delivery methods may be more useful to different sub-populations. It is important to explore which target groups that internet-based programs are best suited, in order to increase their impact.

  18. The Effects of Mode of Presentation and Number of Categories on 4-Year-Olds' Proportion Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Ginsburg, Herbert

    Two experiments investigate the effects of mode of presentation and number of categories on 4-year-olds' proportion estimates. Experiment I compares simultaneous and successive presentations of proportion problems using two categories of elements. The subjects were 40 children chosen randomly and tested individually. Four problems were presented…

  19. Iliotibial band syndrome: an examination of the evidence behind a number of treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falvey, E C; Clark, R A; Franklyn-Miller, A; Bryant, A L; Briggs, C; McCrory, P R

    2010-08-01

    Iliotibial band (ITB) syndrome (ITBS) is a common cause of distal lateral thigh pain in athletes. Treatment often focuses on stretching the ITB and treating local inflammation at the lateral femoral condyle (LFC). We examine the area's anatomical and biomechanical properties. Anatomical studies of the ITB of 20 embalmed cadavers. The strain generated in the ITB by three typical stretching maneuvers (Ober test; Hip flexion, adduction and external rotation, with added knee flexion and straight leg raise to 30 degrees ) was measured in five unembalmed cadavers using strain gauges. Displacement of the Tensae Fasciae Latae (TFL)/ITB junction was measured on 20 subjects during isometric hip abduction. The ITB was uniformly a lateral thickening of the circumferential fascia lata, firmly attached along the linea aspera (femur) from greater trochanter up to and including the LFC. The microstrain values [median (IQR)] for the OBER [15.4(5.1-23.3)me], HIP [21.1(15.6-44.6)me] and SLR [9.4(5.1-10.7)me] showed marked disparity in the optimal inter-limb stretching protocol. HIP stretch invoked significantly (Z=2.10, P=0.036) greater strain than the SLR. TFL/ITB junction displacement was 2.0+/-1.6 mm and mean ITB lengthening was <0.5% (effect size=0.04). Our results challenge the reasoning behind a number of accepted means of treating ITBS. Future research must focus on stretching and lengthening the muscular component of the ITB/TFL complex.

  20. Surface modes of ultra-cold atomic clouds with very large number of vortices

    CERN Document Server

    Cazalilla, M A

    2003-01-01

    We study the surface modes of some of the vortex liquids recently found by means of exact diagonalizations in systems of rapidly rotating bosons. In contrast to the surface modes of Bose condensates, we find that the surface waves have a frequency linear in the excitation angular momentum, h-bar l > 0. Furthermore, in analogy with the edge waves of electronic quantum Hall states, these excitations are chiral, that is, they can be excited only for values of l that increase the total angular momentum of the vortex liquid. However, differently from the quantum Hall phenomena for electrons, we also find other excitations that are approximately degenerate in the laboratory frame with the surface modes, and which decrease the total angular momentum by l quanta. The surface modes of the Laughlin, as well as other scalar and vector boson states are analyzed, and their observable properties characterized. We argue that measurement of the response of a vortex liquid to a weak time-dependent potential that imparts angul...

  1. Iliotibial band syndrome: an examination of the evidence behind a number of treatment options.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Falvey, E C

    2010-08-01

    Iliotibial band (ITB) syndrome (ITBS) is a common cause of distal lateral thigh pain in athletes. Treatment often focuses on stretching the ITB and treating local inflammation at the lateral femoral condyle (LFC). We examine the area\\'s anatomical and biomechanical properties. Anatomical studies of the ITB of 20 embalmed cadavers. The strain generated in the ITB by three typical stretching maneuvers (Ober test; Hip flexion, adduction and external rotation, with added knee flexion and straight leg raise to 30 degrees ) was measured in five unembalmed cadavers using strain gauges. Displacement of the Tensae Fasciae Latae (TFL)\\/ITB junction was measured on 20 subjects during isometric hip abduction. The ITB was uniformly a lateral thickening of the circumferential fascia lata, firmly attached along the linea aspera (femur) from greater trochanter up to and including the LFC. The microstrain values [median (IQR)] for the OBER [15.4(5.1-23.3)me], HIP [21.1(15.6-44.6)me] and SLR [9.4(5.1-10.7)me] showed marked disparity in the optimal inter-limb stretching protocol. HIP stretch invoked significantly (Z=2.10, P=0.036) greater strain than the SLR. TFL\\/ITB junction displacement was 2.0+\\/-1.6 mm and mean ITB lengthening was <0.5% (effect size=0.04). Our results challenge the reasoning behind a number of accepted means of treating ITBS. Future research must focus on stretching and lengthening the muscular component of the ITB\\/TFL complex.

  2. Assessment of the Effects of Azimuthal Mode Number Perturbations upon the Implosion Processes of Fluids in Cylinders

    CERN Document Server

    Lindstrom, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Fluid instabilities arise in a variety of contexts and are often unwanted results of engineering imperfections. In one particular model for a magnetized target fusion reactor, a pressure wave is propagated in a cylindrical annulus comprised of a dense fluid before impinging upon a plasma and imploding it. Part of the success of the apparatus is a function of how axially-symmetric the final pressure pulse is upon impacting the plasma. We study a simple model for the implosion of the system to study how imperfections in the pressure imparted on the outer circumference grow due to geometric focusing. Our methodology entails linearizing the compressible Euler equations for mass and momentum conservation about a cylindrically symmetric problem and analyzing the perturbed profiles at different mode numbers. The linearized system gives rise to singular shocks and through analyzing the perturbation profiles at various times, we infer that high mode numbers are dampened through the propagation. We also study the Linea...

  3. The representation of negative numbers: exploring the effects of mode of processing and notation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzelgov, Joseph; Ganor-Stern, Dana; Maymon-Schreiber, Keren

    2009-03-01

    The representation of negative numbers was explored during intentional processing (i.e., when participants performed a numerical comparison task) and during automatic processing (i.e., when participants performed a physical comparison task). Performance in both cases suggested that negative numbers were not represented as a whole but rather their polarity and numerical magnitudes were represented separately. To explore whether this was due to the fact that polarity and magnitude are marked by two spatially separated symbols, participants were trained to mark polarity by colour. In this case there was still evidence for a separate representation of polarity and magnitude. However, when a different set of stimuli was used to refer to positive and negative numbers, and polarity was not marked separately, participants were able to represent polarity and magnitude together when numerical processing was performed intentionally but not when it was conducted automatically. These results suggest that notation is only partly responsible for the components representation of negative numbers and that the concept of negative numbers can be grasped only through that of positive numbers.

  4. SYMMETRIC MODE INSTABILITY OF THE SLIPFLOW MODEL FOR FLOWS IN A MICROCHANNEL WITH A VANISHING REYNOLDS NUMBER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘才俊; 吴子牛

    2003-01-01

    The slipflow model is usually used to study microflows when the Knudsen number lies between 0.01 and 0.1. The instability due to microscale effect seems to have never been studied before.In this paper we present preliminary results for the instability (not physical instability) of this model when applied to microchannel flow with a vanishing Reynolds number. The present paper is restricted to symmetrical mode. Both first-order and second-order slip boundary conditions will be considered.

  5. Reynolds number effects on the single-mode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walchli, B.; Thornber, B.

    2017-01-01

    The Reynolds number effects on the nonlinear growth rates of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability are investigated using two-dimensional numerical simulations. A decrease in Reynolds number gives an increased time to reach nonlinear saturation, with Reynolds number effects only significant in the range RePhys. Rev. E 80, 055302 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevE.80.055302]. Predicted amplitudes show reasonable agreement with the existing theory of Carles and Popinet [P. Carles and S. Popinet, Phys. Fluids Lett. 13, 1833 (2001), 10.1063/1.1377863; Eur. J. Mech. B 21, 511 (2002), 10.1016/S0997-7546(02)01199-8] and Mikaelian [K. O. Mikaelian, Phys. Rev. E 47, 375 (1993), 10.1103/PhysRevE.47.375; K. O. Mikaelian, Phys. Rev. E 87, 031003 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevE.87.031003], with the former being the closest match to the current computations.

  6. Pupil plane optimization for single-mode multiaxial optical interferometry with a large number of telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Le Bouquin, J B; Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste Le; Tatulli, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Incoming optical interferometers will allow spectro-imaging at high angular resolution. Non-homothetic Fizeau concept combines good sensitivity and high spectral resolution capabilities. However, one critical issue is the design of the beam recombination scheme, at the heart of the instrument. We tackle the possibility of reducing the number of pixels that are coding the fringes by compressing the pupil plane. Shrinking the number of pixels -- which drastically increases with the number of recombined telescopes -- is indeed a key issue that enables to reach higher limiting magnitude, but also allows to lower the required spectral resolution and fasten the fringes reading process. By means of numerical simulations, we study the performances of existing estimators of the visibility with respect to the compression process. We show that, not only the model based estimator lead to better signal to noise ratio (SNR) performances than the Fourier ones, but above all it is the only one which prevent from introducing ...

  7. Examination of egg number and egg weight variables and their effects on daily management in aviary systems for laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokhorst, C.; Keen, A.

    1995-01-01

    1. Characteristics of egg numbers and mean egg weight were examined for their usefulness in the daily management of aviary systems for laying hens. 2. A number of 3238 brown Isabrown/Warren hens were housed in 1 compartment, a separated part of the house where the hens could move around freely, of a

  8. A segmented multi-loop antenna for selective excitation of azimuthal mode number in a helicon plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, S., E-mail: sshinoha@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Institute of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Tanikawa, T. [Research Institute of Science and Technology, Tokai University, 4-1-1, Kita-kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Motomura, T. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 807-1, Shuku-machi, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 Japan (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    A flat type, segmented multi-loop antenna was developed in the Tokai Helicon Device, built for producing high-density helicon plasma, with a diameter of 20 cm and an axial length of 100 cm. This antenna, composed of azimuthally splitting segments located on four different radial positions, i.e., r = 2.8, 4.8, 6.8, and 8.8 cm, can excite the azimuthal mode number m of 0, ±1, and ±2 by a proper choice of antenna feeder parts just on the rear side of the antenna. Power dependencies of the electron density n{sub e} were investigated with a radio frequency (rf) power less than 3 kW (excitation frequency ranged from 8 to 20 MHz) by the use of various types of antenna segments, and n{sub e} up to ∼5 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3} was obtained after the density jump from inductively coupled plasma to helicon discharges. Radial density profiles of m = 0 and ±1 modes with low and high rf powers were measured. For the cases of these modes after the density jump, the excited mode structures derived from the magnetic probe measurements were consistent with those expected from theory on helicon waves excited in the plasma.

  9. An Examination of the Reduction in the Number of Female Interscholastic Coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Barbara A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This study was designed to examine empirical data regarding why females have dropped out of interscholastic coaching roles. A discriminant analysis of survey data from present and former coaches revealed significant and specific differences in values and orientations toward coaching. (MT)

  10. Visitors or visits? An examination of zoo visitor numbers using the case study of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Liam

    2013-01-01

    Usually cited in reference to the potential reach of zoo education, one of the popular figures for global zoo visitation is that 600 million people visit zoos annually. However, this number needs clarification on two fronts. First, there are many zoo visitors who are not included in the calculation because they visited a zoo that was not included in the count. Second, it does not take into consideration the people visit either the same or different zoos more than once annually. Using data collected from several sources, including zoo visitors themselves, this article focuses on one country--Australia--that contributes 15.6 million to the visitation total, and contends that the correct number of unique annual zoo visitors to Australian zoos is likely to be between 8 and 10 million. However, rather than suggesting an overemphasis on the potential of zoos for educating visitors, having regular repeat visitors represents a distinct advantage for zoos, allowing for progressive education opportunities.

  11. Pseudorandom Number Generators for Mobile Devices: An Examination and Attempt to Improve Randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    the positions but how the m- sequences (shaded) are equal. Also note how in the Fibonacci LSFR the sequences at the different positions are the...improve the random properties of the output m- sequence of linear feedback shift registers. A couple of possible attacks on pseudorandom number generators...generator normally used to improve the random properties of the output m- sequence of linear feedback shift registers. A couple of possible attacks on

  12. Particle-in-cell simulations of particle energization from low Mach number fast mode shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jaehong; Blackman, Eric G; Ren, Chuang; Siller, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Astrophysical shocks are often studied in the high Mach number limit but weakly compressive fast shocks can occur in magnetic reconnection outflows and are considered to be a site of particle energization in solar flares. Here we study the microphysics of such perpendicular, low Mach number collisionless shocks using two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations with a reduced ion/electron mass ratio and employ a moving wall boundary method for initial generation of the shock. This moving wall method allows for more control of the shock speed, smaller simulation box sizes, and longer simulation times than the commonly used fixed wall, reflection method of shock formation. Our results, which are independent of the shock formation method, reveal the prevalence shock drift acceleration (SDA) of both electron and ions in a purely perpendicular shock with Alfv\\'en Mach number $M_A=6.8$ and ratio of thermal to magnetic pressure $\\beta=8$. We determine the respective minimum energies required for electrons and ...

  13. Influence of the Number of Lymph Nodes Examined on the Prognosis of Patients with Dukes' B and C Colorectal Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinyu Bi; Jianqiang Cai; Jianjun Zhao; Yongfu Shao; Ping Zhao

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the influence of the number of lymph nodes examined on the prognosis of Dukes' B and C colorectal cancer patients. METHODS The relationship between the clinicopathologic features of 373 patients with Dukes' B and C colorectal cancer and number of the lymph nodes examined was retrospectively analyzed. The effect of the different number of nodes examined on the prognosis of the patients was appraised RESULTS The overall mean number of retrieved lymph nodes of the 373 patients with Dukes' B and C colorectal cancer was 13.71 ±9.38. The site and size of the tumor as well as the depth of tumor infiltration were the major reasons which influenced the number of lymph nodes retrieved. The mean number of lymph nodes examined in the colon-cancer patients was 17.51 + 12.79, which was significantly more than the 11.09±6.17 (P = 0.000) examined in the rectal-cancer patients. The 5-year survival rate of the patients with Dukes' B large intestinal carcinoma, with fewer lymph nodes retrieved (0 to 10), was only 60.4%, while those with more lymph node retrieved (≥10) had a 5-year survival of 77.5%. So there was a significant difference between the two groups. However the number of lymph nodes examined had no effect on prognosis of the patients with Dukes' C large intestinal carcinoma. Separate analysis of the colon and rectal cancers indicated that to improve the 5-year survival rate, the number of retrieved nodes in cases with rectal cancer should be at least 9, and with colon cancer cases at least 13. CONCLUSION In order to guarantee an accuracy of tumor staging for developing a possible postoperative treatment, at least 9 lymph nodes in rectal cancer patients or 13 in colon cancer patients should be harvested.

  14. Examining the Impact of Prandtl Number and Surface Convection Models on Deep Solar Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mara, B. D.; Augustson, K.; Featherstone, N. A.; Miesch, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Turbulent motions within the solar convection zone play a central role in the generation and maintenance of the Sun's magnetic field. This magnetic field reverses its polarity every 11 years and serves as the source of powerful space weather events, such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections, which can affect artificial satellites and power grids. The structure and inductive properties are linked to the amplitude (i.e. speed) of convective motion. Using the NASA Pleiades supercomputer, a 3D fluids code simulates these processes by evolving the Navier-Stokes equations in time and under an anelastic constraint. This code simulates the fluxes describing heat transport in the sun in a global spherical-shell geometry. Such global models can explicitly capture the large-scale motions in the deep convection zone but heat transport from unresolved small-scale convection in the surface layers must be parameterized. Here we consider two models for heat transport by surface convection, including a conventional turbulent thermal diffusion as well as an imposed flux that carries heat through the surface in a manner that is independent of the deep convection and the entropy stratification it establishes. For both models, we investigate the scaling of convective amplitude with decreasing diffusion (increasing Rayleigh number). If the Prandtl number is fixed, we find that the amplitude of convective motions increases with decreasing diffusion, possibly reaching an asymptotic value in the low diffusion limit. However, if only the thermal diffusion is decreased (keeping the viscosity fixed), we find that the amplitude of convection decreases with decreasing diffusion. Such a high-Prandtl-number, high-Peclet-number limit may be relevant for the Sun if magnetic fields mix momentum, effectively acting as an enhanced viscosity. In this case, our results suggest that the amplitude of large-scale convection in the Sun may be substantially less than in current models that employ an

  15. Particle-number scaling of the phase sensitivity in realistic Bayesian twin-mode Heisenberg-limited interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Pooser, R; Pfister, Olivier; Pooser, Raphael

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the scaling of the phase sensitivity of a nonideal Heisenberg-limited interferometer with the particle number N, in the case of the Bayesian detection procedure proposed by Holland and Burnett [p.r.l. 71, p. 1355 (1993)] for twin boson input modes. Using Monte Carlo simulations for up to 10,000 bosons, we show that the phase error of a nonideal interferometer scales with the Heisenberg limit if the losses are of the order of N^-1. Greater losses degrade the scaling which is then in N^-1/2, like the shot-noise limit, yet the sensitivity stays sub-shot-noise as long as photon correlations are present. These results give the actual limits of Bayesian detection for twin-mode interferometry and prove that it is an experimentally feasible scheme, contrary to what is implied by the coincidence-detection analysis of Kim et al. [p.r.a. 60, p. 708 (1999)].

  16. Effect of resonant magnetic perturbations with toroidal mode numbers of 4 and 6 on ELMs in single null H-mode plasmas in MAST

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, A; Harrison, J; Liu, Yueqiang; Nardon, E; Saarelma, S; Scannell, R; Thornton, A J

    2013-01-01

    The application of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) with a toroidal mode number of n=4 or n=6 to lower single null plasmas in the MAST tokamak produces up to a factor of 5 increase in Edge Localized Mode (ELM) frequency and reduction in plasma energy loss associated with type-I ELMs. A threshold current for ELM mitigation is observed above which the ELM frequency increases approximately linearly with current in the coils. Despite a large scan of parameters, complete ELM suppression has not been achieved. The results have been compared to modelling performed using either the vacuum approximation or including the plasma response. During the ELM mitigated stage clear lobe structures are observed in visible-light imaging of the X-point region. The size of these lobes is correlated with the increase in ELM frequency observed. The characteristics of the mitigated ELMs are similar to those of the natural ELMs suggesting that they are type I ELMs which are triggered at a lower pressure gradient. The application...

  17. Motor unit number index examination in dominant and non-dominant hand muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; He, Wensheng; Li, Charles; Wang, Ying-Chih; Slavens, Brooke A; Zhou, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of handedness on motor unit number index (MUNIX). Maximal hand strength, compound muscle action potential (CMAP) and voluntary surface electromyography (EMG) signals were measured bilaterally for the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and thenar muscles in 24 right-handed and 2 left-handed healthy subjects. Mean (±standard error) grip and pinch forces in the dominant hand were 43.99 ± 2.36 kg and 9.36 ± 0.52 kg respectively, significantly larger than those in the non-dominant hand (grip: 41.37 ± 2.29 kg, p muscles. In addition, there was a lack of correlation between the strength and myoelectric parameters in regression analysis. However, strong correlations were observed between dominant and non-dominant hand muscles in both strength and myoelectric measures. Our results indicate that the population of motor units or spinal motor neurons as estimated from MUNIX may not be associated with handedness. Such findings help understand and interpret the MUNIX during its application for clinical or laboratory investigations.

  18. Examining the Development of Secondary Mathematics Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge on Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Şahin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research is to determine the change in the pedagogical content knowledge levels of the teachers on numbers in the period from their university education to their active teaching profession. The sample of the study is composed of a total of 210 people, 67 of whom are third grade pre-service mathematics teacher, 98 of whom are 4th grade pre-service mathematics teachers and 45 of whom are mathematics teachers who are working in various provinces of Turkey. As for the data collection tools of this research, “Mathematics Pedagogical Content Knowledge Test (MPCKT” was used. Cross-sectional comparative study, which is among the descriptive research designs, was used in this research. it was observed that the secondary mathematics teachers’ levels of knowledge of understanding students and knowledge of instructional strategies, which constitute two sub-components of pedagogical content knowledge, exhibited development from their third-year in university to the period in which they carry out teaching professionKey Words:    Pedagogical content knowledge, pre-service mathematics teacher, student knowledge, instructional strategies knowledge 

  19. Layer-number dependent high-frequency vibration modes in few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides induced by interlayer couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qing-Hai; Zhang, Xin; Luo, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Jun; Tan, Ping-Heng

    2017-03-01

    Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted extensive attention due to their many novel properties. The atoms within each layer in two-dimensional TMDs are joined together by covalent bonds, while van der Waals interactions combine the layers together. This makes its lattice dynamics layer-number dependent. The evolutions of ultralow frequency ( 50 cm‑1) vibration modes in few-layer TMDs and demonstrate how the interlayer coupling leads to the splitting of high-frequency vibration modes, known as Davydov splitting. Such Davydov splitting can be well described by a van der Waals model, which directly links the splitting with the interlayer coupling. Our review expands the understanding on the effect of interlayer coupling on the high-frequency vibration modes in TMDs and other two-dimensional materials. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2016YFA0301200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11225421, 11474277, 11434010, 61474067, 11604326, 11574305 and 51527901), and the National Young 1000 Talent Plan of China.

  20. Some insights into the mode of action of butadiene by examining the genotoxicity of its metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kligerman, A D; Hu, Y

    2007-03-20

    1,3-Butadiene (BTD) is an important commodity chemical and air pollutant that has been shown to be a potent carcinogen in mice, and to a lesser extent, a carcinogen in rats. To better assess butadiene's carcinogenic risk to humans, it is important to understand its mode of action and how this relates to differences in responses among species. In a series of in vitro experiments, lymphocytes from rats, mice, and humans were exposed to 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB) or 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB) for 1h at the G(0) stage of the cell cycle, stimulated to divide, and cultured to assess the ability of these metabolites to induce sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosome aberrations (CAs). EB induced no increases in SCEs or CAs in the cells from the three species. DEB was a potent SCE- and CA-inducer, with the results being similar in each rodent species. The response for SCEs seen in the human cells was more complex, with genetic polymorphism for glutathione-S-transferases (GST) possibly modulating the response. The single cell gel electrophoresis assay was used on genetically engineered V79 cell lines to investigate a possible influence of GST status. Experiments were also conducted to investigate the reason for EB's failure to induce SCEs or CAs in G(0) cells. The results indicate that EB-induced DNA damage was repaired before DNA synthesis in unstimulated lymphocytes, but EB caused a large increase in SCEs if actively cycling cells were treated. Thus, the results indicate that DEB damage is persistent in G(0) cells, and DEB is a much more potent genotoxicant than EB. The carcinogenic effect of butadiene will most likely depend on the degree to which DEB is produced and reaches target tissues, and to a lesser extent on the ability of EB to reach actively dividing or repair deficient cells.

  1. Voice correlates of mating success in men: examining "contests" versus "mate choice" modes of sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges-Simeon, Carolyn R; Gaulin, Steven J C; Puts, David A

    2011-06-01

    Men's copulatory success can often be predicted by measuring traits involved in male contests and female choice. Previous research has demonstrated relationships between one such vocal trait in men, mean fundamental frequency (F(0)), and the outcomes and indicators of sexual success with women. The present study investigated the role of another vocal parameter, F(0) variation (the within-subject SD in F(0) across the utterance, F(0)-SD), in predicting men's reported number of female sexual partners in the last year. Male participants (N = 111) competed with another man for a date with a woman. Recorded interactions with the competitor ("competitive recording") and the woman ("courtship recording") were analyzed for five non-linguistic vocal parameters: F(0)-SD, mean F(0), intensity, duration, and formant dispersion (D( f ), an acoustic correlate of vocal tract length), as well as dominant and attractive linguistic content. After controlling for age and attitudes toward uncommitted sex (SOI), lower F(0)-SD (i.e., a more monotone voice) and more dominant linguistic content were strong predictors of the number of past-year sexual partners, whereas mean F(0) and D( f ) did not significantly predict past-year partners. These contrasts have implications for the relative importance of male contests and female choice in shaping men's mating success and hence the origins and maintenance of sexually dimorphic traits in humans.

  2. Effect of modified Davidson's fixative on examined number of lymph nodes and TNM-stage in colon carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelder, W.; Inberg, B.; Plukker, J. T. M.; Groen, H.; Baas, P. C.; Tiebosch, A. T. M. G.

    Aims: We evaluated the effect of modified Davidson's fixative (mDF) on the number of lymph nodes examined and staging in patients with colon carcinoma. Methods: The results of two different fixation methods used in the pathological preparation of the resection specimens were analyzed. A traditional

  3. Effect of modified Davidson's fixative on examined number of lymph nodes and TNM-stage in colon carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelder, W.; Inberg, B.; Plukker, J. T. M.; Groen, H.; Baas, P. C.; Tiebosch, A. T. M. G.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: We evaluated the effect of modified Davidson's fixative (mDF) on the number of lymph nodes examined and staging in patients with colon carcinoma. Methods: The results of two different fixation methods used in the pathological preparation of the resection specimens were analyzed. A traditional

  4. A model for roll stall and the inherent stability modes of low aspect ratio wings at low Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Matt

    The development of Micro Aerial Vehicles has been hindered by the poor understanding of the aerodynamic loading and stability and control properties of the low Reynolds number regime in which the inherent low aspect ratio (LAR) wings operate. This thesis experimentally evaluates the static and damping aerodynamic stability derivatives to provide a complete aerodynamic model for canonical flat plate wings of aspect ratios near unity at Reynolds numbers under 1 x 105. This permits the complete functionality of the aerodynamic forces and moments to be expressed and the equations of motion to solved, thereby identifying the inherent stability properties of the wing. This provides a basis for characterizing the stability of full vehicles. The influence of the tip vortices during sideslip perturbations is found to induce a loading condition referred to as roll stall, a significant roll moment created by the spanwise induced velocity asymmetry related to the displacement of the vortex cores relative to the wing. Roll stall is manifested by a linearly increasing roll moment with low to moderate angles of attack and a subsequent stall event similar to a lift polar; this behavior is not experienced by conventional (high aspect ratio) wings. The resulting large magnitude of the roll stability derivative, Cl,beta and lack of roll damping, Cl ,rho, create significant modal responses of the lateral state variables; a linear model used to evaluate these modes is shown to accurately reflect the solution obtained by numerically integrating the nonlinear equations. An unstable Dutch roll mode dominates the behavior of the wing for small perturbations from equilibrium, and in the presence of angle of attack oscillations a previously unconsidered coupled mode, referred to as roll resonance, is seen develop and drive the bank angle? away from equilibrium. Roll resonance requires a linear time variant (LTV) model to capture the behavior of the bank angle, which is attributed to the

  5. [Is there a minimum number of lymph nodes that should be examined after surgical resection of colorectal cancer?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ramos, David; Escrig-Sos, Javier; Miralles-Tena, Juan Manuel; Rivadulla-Serrano, Isabel; Salvador-Sanchís, José Luis

    2008-03-01

    Metastasis to regional lymph nodes, after distant metastasis, is the most important prognostic factor of colorectal carcinomas. It is also of primary importance in decisions related to the administration of adjuvant treatments. Most scientific associations recommend the examination of at least 12 lymph nodes for the reliable determination of the absence of nodal metastases. We performed a literature review on lymph node recovery in order to determine whether 12 is the minimum and optimal number of lymph nodes to be examined after colorrectal cancer surgery. The differences between authors suggest that an optimal number of lymph nodes to be examined after colorectal cancer surgery probably does not exist and depends on many factors. Thus, recovering as many lymph nodes as possible seems to be a good option.

  6. Trust your gut or think carefully? Examining whether an intuitive, versus a systematic, mode of thought produces greater empathic accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma-Kellams, Christine; Lerner, Jennifer

    2016-11-01

    Cultivating successful personal and professional relationships requires the ability to accurately infer the feelings of others-that is, to be empathically accurate. Some are better at this than others, a difference which may be explained in part by mode of thought. Specifically, empathically accurate people may tend to rely more on intuitive rather than systematic thought when perceiving others. Or it may be the reverse: systematic thought may increase empathic accuracy. To determine which view is supported by the evidence, we conducted 4 studies examining relations between mode of thought (intuitive vs. systematic) and empathic accuracy. Study 1 revealed a lay belief that empathic accuracy arises from intuitive modes of thought. Studies 2 through 4, each using executive-level professionals as participants, demonstrated that, contrary to lay beliefs, people who tend to rely on intuitive thinking also tend to exhibit lower empathic accuracy. This pattern held when participants inferred others' emotional states based on (a) in-person face-to-face interactions with partners (Study 2) as well as on (b) pictures with limited facial cues (Study 3). Study 4 confirmed that the relationship is causal: experimentally inducing systematic (as opposed to intuitive) thought led to improved empathic accuracy. In sum, evidence regarding personal and social processes in these 4 samples of working professionals converges on the conclusion that, contrary to lay beliefs, empathic accuracy arises more from systematic thought than from gut intuition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Examination of Random Forest Performance Results Generating Different Number of Trees and Changing ''k'' Parameter in Cross Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songul CINAROGLU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Random Forest (RF is one of machine learning techniques which is used for classification and regression with generating number of trees. There is a debate in the literature about how generating different number of trees reflects classification performance of this method. For this reason the aim of this study is to observe RF performance results by generating different number of trees and changing ''k'' parameter in cross validation while classifying OECD countries according to health expenditures. Material and Methods: In this dataset k-fold cross validation was implemented and Mann Whitney U test was used whether there is a difference in RF performance results using AUC when ''k'' parameter was high (k≥13 or low (k˂13 and while generating different number of trees (50, 100, 150, 200, 250. Results: Results of this study shows that generating different number of trees in RF not makes any significant changes (p˃0.05 in performance results. It was seen that perceived health status was a variable which has more information gain for predicting health expenditures. Conclusion: It is advisable for future studies related with this subject to examine performance results of different datasets which are in different types and sizes.

  8. High initial amplitude and high Mach number effects on the evolution of the single-mode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikanati, A; Oron, D; Sadot, O; Shvarts, D

    2003-02-01

    Effects of high-Mach numbers and high initial amplitudes on the evolution of the single-mode Richtmyer-Meshkov shock-wave induced hydrodynamic instability are studied using theoretical models, experiments, and numerical simulations. Two regimes in which there is a significant deviation from the linear dependence of the initial velocity on the initial perturbation amplitude are defined and characterized. In one, the observed reduction of the initial velocity is primarily due to large initial amplitudes. This effect is accurately modeled by a vorticity deposition model, quantifying both the effect of the initial perturbation amplitude and the exact shape of the interface. In the other, the reduction is dominated by the proximity of the shock wave to the interface. This effect is modeled by a modified incompressible model where the shock wave is mimicked by a moving bounding wall. These results are supplemented with high initial amplitude Mach 1.2 shock-tube experiments, enabling separation of the two effects. It is shown that in most of the previous experiments, the observed reduction is predominantly due to the effect of high initial amplitudes.

  9. Scaling and interaction of self-similar modes in models of high-Reynolds number wall turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, A S; McKeon, B J

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has established the usefulness of the resolvent operator that maps the terms nonlinear in the turbulent fluctuations to the fluctuations themselves. Further work has described the self-similarity of the resolvent arising from that of the mean velocity profile. The orthogonal modes provided by the resolvent analysis describe the wall-normal coherence of the motions and inherit that self-similarity. In this contribution, we present the implications of this similarity for the nonlinear interaction between modes with different scales and wall-normal locations. By considering the nonlinear interactions between modes, it is shown that much of the turbulence scaling behaviour in the logarithmic region can be determined from a single arbitrarily chosen reference plane. Thus, the geometric scaling of the modes is impressed upon the nonlinear interaction between modes. Implications of these observations on the self-sustaining mechanisms of wall turbulence, modelling and simulation are outlined.

  10. Experimental study of a high speed quantum random number generation scheme based on measuring phase noise of a single mode laser

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Bing; Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Qian, Li

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a high speed random number generation scheme based on measuring the quantum phase noise of a single mode diode laser operating at a low intensity level near the lasing threshold. A delayed self-heterodyning system has been developed to measure the random phase fluctuation. We experimentally investigate this random number generation scheme under two different operating conditions: with or without active phase stabilization of the fiber interferometer in the self-heterodyning system. The achieved random number generation rates are 500Mbit/s and 50Mbit/s, respectively. The generated random numbers have passed all the DIEHARD tests.

  11. Polar Interface Optical Phonon Modes and Froehlich Electron-Phonon Interaction Hamiltonians in an Arbitrary Layer-Number Quantum Well System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGLi; Hong-Jing; CHENChuan-Yu

    2003-01-01

    By using determinant method as in our recent work, the IO phonon modes, the orthogonal relation for polarization vector, electron-IO phonon F~6hlich interaction Hamiltonian, the dispersion relation, and the electron-phonon coupling function in an arbitrary layer-number quantum well system have been derived and investigated within the framework of dielectric continuum approximation. Numerical calculation on seven-layer AlxGal-xAs/GaAs systems have been performed. Via the numerical results in this work and previous works, the general characters of the IO phonon modes in an n-layer coupling quantum well system were concluded and summarized. This work can be regarded as a generalization of previous works on IO phonon modes in some fLxed layer-number quantum well systems, and it provides a uniform method to investittate the effects of IO phonons on the multi-layer coupling quantum well systems.

  12. HerMES: A search for high-redshift dusty galaxies in the HerMES Large Mode Survey - Catalogue, number counts and early results

    CERN Document Server

    Asboth, V; Sayers, J; Bethermin, M; Chapman, S C; Clements, D L; Cooray, A; Dannerbauer, H; Farrah, D; Glenn, J; Golwala, S R; Halpern, M; Ibar, E; Ivison, R J; Maloney, P R; Marques-Chaves, R; Martinez-Navajas, P I; Oliver, S J; Perez-Fournon, I; Riechers, D A; Rowan-Robinson, M; Scott, Douglas; Siegel, S R; Vieira, J D; Viero, M; Wang, L; Wardlow, J; Wheeler, J

    2016-01-01

    Selecting sources with rising flux densities towards longer wavelengths from Herschel/SPIRE maps is an efficient way to produce a catalogue rich in high-redshift (z > 4) dusty star-forming galaxies. The effectiveness of this approach has already been confirmed by spectroscopic follow-up observations, but the previously available catalogues made this way are limited by small survey areas. Here we apply a map-based search method to 274 deg$^2$ of the HerMES Large Mode Survey (HeLMS) and create a catalogue of 477 objects with SPIRE flux densities $S_{500} > S_{350} >S_{250}$ and a 5 \\sigma cut-off $S_{500}$ > 52 mJy. From this catalogue we determine that the total number of these "red" sources is at least an order of magnitude higher than predicted by galaxy evolution models. These results are in agreement with previous findings in smaller HerMES fields; however, due to our significantly larger sample size we are also able to investigate the shape of the red source counts for the first time. We examine the 500 $...

  13. Basic Number Processing Deficits in ADHD: A Broad Examination of Elementary and Complex Number Processing Skills in 9- to 12-Year-Old Children with ADHD-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Liane; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph

    2008-01-01

    ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) and academic difficulties are frequently associated, but to date this link is poorly understood. In order to explore which components of number processing and calculation skills may be disturbed in children with ADHD we presented a series of respective tasks to 9- to 12-year-old children with…

  14. Reynolds Number Versus Roughness Effects in the Princeton “Super-Pipe” Re-examined in the Context of Large Reynolds Number Asymptotics*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagib, Hassan; Monkewitz, Peter; Österlund, Jens; Christensen, Kenneth; Adrian, Ronald

    2001-11-01

    Tony Perry, et al. (J. Fluid Mech., v. 439, 2001) have recently contributed to the discussion concerning the reasons for systematic deviations with Re’s (Reynolds numbers) in the Princeton “Super-Pipe” data. Perry et al. demonstrate that the deviation of the constant within the “log-law” is compatible with the “Colebrook formula” for transitionally rough pipes. Since the experiments were completed, Lex Smits and the Princeton Group have argued that the pipe is smooth for at least the majority of the Re range. Here we show that the observed deviations are equally compatible with the finite Re effects obtained from a methodology based on matched asymptotic expansion techniques proposed by us (see abstract at this meeting), in which the infinite-Re limit of the “log-law”, as well as its correction for large but finite Re’s, are derived in a systematic manner. As argued by Perry et al., in these cases one cannot rely on the variation of the centerline velocity with Re to extract the log-law coefficients. The values of the “Karman constant” extracted using either interpretation is significantly lower than the 0.436 value originally proposed and it is closer to the value of 0.38 based on our recent work on boundary layers; see two publications by Österlund et al. (Phys. of Fluids, v. 12 no. 1 and no. 9, 2001). *Supported by NSF, AFOSR & ERCOFTAC.

  15. Digital Image Analysis of Ultrasound B-mode images of Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque: Correlation with Histological Examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Rosendal, Kim; Grønholdt, Marie-Louise Moes

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of how well texture features extracted from B-mode images of atherosclerotic plaque correlates with histological results obtained from the same plaque after carotid endarterectomy. The study reveals that a few second order texture features (diagonal moment, standard...

  16. Influence of the number of cycles on shear fatigue strength of resin composite bonded to enamel and dentin using dental adhesives in self-etching mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Erickson, Robert L; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2017-09-28

    The influence of the number of cycles on shear fatigue strength to enamel and dentin using dental adhesives in self-etch mode was investigated. A two-step self-etch adhesive and two universal adhesives were used to bond to enamel and dentin in self-etch mode. Initial shear bond strength and shear fatigue strength to enamel and dentin using the adhesive in self-etch mode were determined. Fatigue testing was used with 20 Hz frequency and cycling periods of 50,000, 100,000 and 1,000,000 cycles, or until failure occurred. For each of the cycling periods, there was no significant difference in shear fatigue strength across the cycling periods for the individual adhesives. Differences in shear fatigue strength were found between the adhesives within the cycling periods. Regardless of the adhesive used in self-etch mode for bonding to enamel or dentin, shear fatigue strength was not influenced by the number of cycles used for shear fatigue strength testing.

  17. Recent JET experiments on Alfven eigenmodes with intermediate toroidal mode numbers: measurements and modelling of n=3 toroidal Alfven eigenmodes with the TAEFL code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testa, D. [CRPP, Switzerland; Spong, Donald A [ORNL; Panis, T. [CRPP, Switzerland; Blanchard, P. [CRPP, Switzerland; Fasoli, A. [CRPP, Switzerland

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the results of recent experiments performed on the JET tokamak on Alfven eigenmodes (AEs) with toroidal mode number (n) in the range n = 3-15. The stability properties of these medium-n AEs are investigated experimentally using a new set of compact in-vessel antennas, providing a direct and real-time measurement of the frequency, damping rate and amplitude for each individual toroidal mode number. We report here the quantitative analysis of the measurements of the damping rate for stable n = 3 toroidal AEs as a function of the edge plasma elongation, and the theoretical analysis of these data with the TAEFL code. The TAEFL results are in excellent qualitative agreement with the measurements, reproducing well the experimental scaling of increasing damping rate versus increasing edge elongation, and in many cases are also quantitatively correct, with a difference with respect to the measurements below 30%, particularly for magnetic configurations that have a larger edge magnetic shear.

  18. Rhythms of the brain: An examination of mixed mode oscillation approaches to the analysis of neurophysiological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erchova, Irina; McGonigle, David J.

    2008-03-01

    In the nervous system many behaviorally relevant dynamical processes are characterized by episodes of complex oscillatory states, whose periodicity may be expressed over multiple temporal and spatial scales. In at least some of these instances the variability in oscillatory amplitude and frequency can be explained in terms of deterministic dynamics, rather than being purely noise-driven. Recently interest has increased in studying the application of mixed-mode oscillations (MMOs) to neurophysiological data. MMOs are complex periodic waveforms where each period is comprised of several maxima and minima of different amplitudes. While MMOs might be expected to occur in brain kinetics, only a few examples have been identified thus far. In this article, we review recent theoretical and experimental findings on brain oscillatory rhythms in relation to MMOs, focusing on examples at the single neuron level but also briefly touching on possible instances of the phenomenon across local and global brain networks.

  19. 普光气藏成藏模式分析%Examination of Reservoir-forming Mode in Puguang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贺岩

    2011-01-01

    Puguang gas resource with geological features of Puguang gas accumulation in the history and evolution, come into possession of its three modes: Indo-Yanshan Reservoir early ancient native rock bands, Yanshan interim structure-lithologic Old gas phase and the late Yanshan-Himalayan setting adjustment and reform of gas phase.%结合普光地区的地质构造特征,探讨普光气藏的成藏史及演化史.得出了其三期成藏模式:印支-燕山早期古原生岩性油藏阶、燕山中期构造-岩性复合古气藏阶段和燕山晚期~喜山期气藏调整改造定型阶段.

  20. Characterization of the quantum phase transition in a two-mode Dicke model for different cooperation numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada, L. F.; Nahmad-Achar, E.

    2017-01-01

    We show how the use of variational states to approximate the ground state of a system can be employed to study a multimode Dicke model. One of the main contributions of this work is the introduction of a not very commonly used quantity, the cooperation number, and the study of its influence on the behavior of the system, paying particular attention to the quantum phase transitions and the accuracy of the used approximations. We also show how these phase transitions affect the dependence of the expectation values of some of the observables relevant to the system and the entropy of entanglement with respect to the energy difference between atomic states and the coupling strength between matter and radiation, thus characterizing the transitions in different ways.

  1. Examining the Delivery Modes of Metacognitive Awareness and Active Reading Lessons in a College Nonmajors Introductory Biology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra M. Hill

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Current research supports the role of metacognitive strategies to enhance reading comprehension. This study measured the effectiveness of online versus face-to-face metacognitive and active reading skills lessons introduced by Biology faculty to college students in a non-majors introductory biology course. These lessons were delivered in two lectures either online (Group 1: N = 154 or face-to-face (Group 2: N = 152. Previously validated pre- and post-surveys were used to collect and compare data by paired and independent t-test analysis (α = 0.05. Pre- and post-survey data showed a statistically significant improvement in both groups in metacognitive awareness (p = 0.001, p = 0.003, respectively and reading comprehension (p < 0.001 for both groups. When comparing the delivery mode of these lessons, no difference was detected between the online and face-to-face instruction for metacognitive awareness (pre- p = 0.619, post- p = 0.885. For reading comprehension, no difference in gains was demonstrated between online and face-to-face (p = 0.381, however, differences in pre- and post- test scores was measured (pre- p = 0.005, post- p = 0.038. This study suggests that biology instructors can easily introduce effective metacognitive awareness and active reading lessons into their course, either through online or face-to-face instruction.

  2. Reproductive mode evolution in lizards revisited: updated analyses examining geographic, climatic and phylogenetic effects support the cold-climate hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C M; Makowsky, R; Bagley, J C

    2014-12-01

    Viviparity, the bearing of live young, has evolved well over 100 times among squamate reptiles. This reproductive strategy is hypothesized to allow maternal control of the foetus' thermal environment and thereby to increase the fitness of the parents and offspring. Two hypotheses have been posited to explain this phenomenon: (i) the cold-climate hypothesis (CCH), which advocates low temperatures as the primary selective force; and (ii) the maternal manipulation hypothesis (MMH), which advocates temperature variability as the primary selective force. Here, we investigate whether climatic and geographic variables associated with the CCH vs. the MMH best explain the current geographical distributions of viviparity in lizards while incorporating recent advances in comparative methods, squamate phylogenetics and geospatial analysis. To do this, we compared nonphylogenetic and phylogenetic models predicting viviparity based on point-of-capture data from 20,994 museum specimens representing 215 lizard species in conjunction with spatially explicit bioclimatic and geographic (elevation and latitude) data layers. The database we analysed emphasized Nearctic lizards from three species-rich genera (Phrynosoma, Plestiodon and Sceloporus); however, we additionally analysed a less substantial, but worldwide sample of species to verify the universality of our Nearctic results. We found that maximum temperature of the warmest month (and, less commonly, elevation and maximum temperature of the driest quarter) was frequently the best predictor of viviparity and showed an association consistent with the CCH. Our results strongly favour the CCH over the MMH in explaining lizard reproductive mode evolution.

  3. Impact of the number of histologically examined lymph nodes on prognosis in colon cancer : a population-based study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelder, Wendy; Inberg, Bas; Schaapveld, Michael; Karrenbeld, Arend; Grond, Joris; Wiggers, Theo; Plukker, John T.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The impact of the reported number of lymph nodes at pathologic examination of colon specimens on survival was studied. METHODS: The data of 2,281 patients with localized colon cancer were retrospectively reviewed. The effect of tumor characteristics and surgical and pathologic factors on th

  4. An Examination of Psychotropic Medication Side Effects: Does Taking a Greater Number of Psychotropic Medications from Different Classes Affect Presentation of Side Effects in adults with ID?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Sara; Holloway, Jodie; Bamburg, Jay W.; Hess, Julie A.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether the number of psychotropic medications an individual is taking across classes influences side effects among adults with Intellectual Disability (ID). Participants were 80 adults diagnosed with ID. Dependent variables were the composite score and domain scores of the "Matson Evaluation of Drug Side-Effects" ("MEDS"),…

  5. Examination of the influence of juvenile Atlantic salmon on the feeding mode of juvenile steelhead in Lake Ontario tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James H.; Waldt, Emily M.

    2014-01-01

    We examined diets of 1204 allopatric and sympatric juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in three tributaries of Lake Ontario. The diet composition of both species consisted primarily of ephemeropterans, trichopterans, and chironomids, although juvenile steelhead consumed more terrestrial invertebrates, especially at the sympatric sites. Subyearlings of both species consumed small prey (i.e. chironomids) whereas large prey (i.e. perlids) made up a higher percentage of the diet of yearlings. The diet of juvenile steelhead at the allopatric sites was more closely associated with the composition of the benthos than with the drift, but was about equally associated with the benthos and drift at the sympatric sites. The diet of both subyearling and yearling Atlantic salmon was more closely associated with the benthos than the drift at the sympatric sites. The evidence suggests that juvenile steelhead may subtly alter their feeding behavior in sympatry with Atlantic salmon. This behavioral adaptation may reduce competitive interactions between these species.

  6. Music By Numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Cocos, Mihail

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a mathematical way of defining musical modes, we derive a formula for the total number of modes and define the musicality of a mode as the total number of harmonic chords whithin the mode. We also give an algorithm for the construction of a duet of melodic lines given a sequence of numbers and a mode. We attach the .mus files of the counterpoints obtained by using the sequence of primes and several musical modes.

  7. Appling Research of Network Examination on Web Using Kiosk Mode in Computer Room%机房网络考试Kiosk模式的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗昊江; 张欣

    2015-01-01

    组织web网络考试时,需要限定考生除了考试网站页面外,不能操作其他的网络和本地资源.通过使用web浏览器的Kiosk模式,结合C#编程对计算机系统热键、鼠标右键以及系统功能进行适当的限制,能够实现机房网络考试的Kiosk模式.最后探讨了在机房使用网络考试云服务系统组织考试的具体方法.%When running a network examination on web, it is important to prevent the student from accessing web URLs and local resources except the Test website page. By enabling kiosk mode of web browser, and combining with program using C# language to lock down the application of system hot keys、mouse right key and system function, the examination in kiosk mode can be accom-plished in computer room.

  8. The influence of impact delivery mode, lactation time, infant gender, maternal age and rural or urban life on total number of Lactobacillus in breast milk Isfahan - Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Mansoureh; Mirlohi, Maryam; Poursina, Farkhondeh; Madani, Golnoush; Khoshhali, Mehri; Bahreini, Nimah; Safaei, Hajieh Ghasemian

    2015-01-01

    Breast milk is known as the most crucial postpartum issue in metabolic and immunologic programming of neonatal health. Human milk microbial changes over Lactation. The factors influencing the milk microbiome as well as potential impact of microbes on infant health have not yet been discovered. The objective was to identify pre- and post-natal factors that can potentially influence the bacterial communities inhabiting human milk. Breast milk samples (n = 40) with all full-term breastfed infants were collected from lactating randomized. Information on personal characteristics, dietary habits, information about infants were collected after birth. The samples were plated with serial dilutions on three selective culture media man rogosa sharp and then colonies were counted. Colonies tested for catalase reaction, Gram-staining and microscopic examination. The result of this study showed that the overall incidence of positive Lactobacillus in mother's milk was 87.5%. The results based on (infant gender, mode of delivery, rural or urban and lactation time) rural or urban and lactation time were significant (P < 0.05). The results showed that all of the variables were significant in this regression model (P < 0.001). The median of log10 Lactobacillus counts in rural mothers, vaginal delivery, infant male gender and Lactation time for first 3-month were meaningfully high. The findings of this study about the breast milk Lactobacillus potential probiotic bacteria of healthy Iranian mothers, suggested that the breast milk microbiome is significantly influenced by several factors, mode of delivery, rural or urban and lactation time.

  9. Evaluation of list-mode ordered subset expectation maximization image reconstruction for pixelated solid-state compton gamma camera with large number of channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstein, M.; De Lorenzo, G.; Chmeissani, M.

    2014-04-01

    The Voxel Imaging PET (VIP) Pathfinder project intends to show the advantages of using pixelated solid-state technology for nuclear medicine applications. It proposes designs for Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) and Compton gamma camera detectors with a large number of signal channels (of the order of 106). For Compton camera, especially with a large number of readout channels, image reconstruction presents a big challenge. In this work, results are presented for the List-Mode Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (LM-OSEM) image reconstruction algorithm on simulated data with the VIP Compton camera design. For the simulation, all realistic contributions to the spatial resolution are taken into account, including the Doppler broadening effect. The results show that even with a straightforward implementation of LM-OSEM, good images can be obtained for the proposed Compton camera design. Results are shown for various phantoms, including extended sources and with a distance between the field of view and the first detector plane equal to 100 mm which corresponds to a realistic nuclear medicine environment.

  10. The relationship between the number of natural teeth and airflow obstruction: a cross-sectional study using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim SW

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sei Won Kim,1 Kyungdo Han,2 Shin Young Kim,3 Chan Kwon Park,3 Chin Kook Rhee,1 Hyoung Kyu Yoon3 1Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 2Department of Medical Statistics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Yeouido St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Potential associations between oral health and respiratory disease, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, have been suggested in several studies. Among the indicators reflecting oral health, the number of natural teeth is an integrated and simple index to assess in the clinic. In this study, we examined the relationship between the number of natural teeth and airflow obstruction, which is a central feature of COPD.Methods: A total of 3,089 participants over 40 years, who underwent reliable spirometry and oral health assessments were selected from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012, a cross-sectional and nationally representative survey. Spirometry results were classified as normal, restrictive, or obstructive pattern. Total number and pairs of natural teeth were counted after excluding third molars.Results: After adjusting for other variables, such as age, body mass index, socioeconomic factors, and oral health factors, the group with airflow obstruction showed significantly fewer natural teeth than the other groups in males (P=0.014 and 0.008 for total number and total pairs of natural teeth, respectively. Compared with participants with full dentition, the adjusted odds ratio for airflow obstruction in males with fewer than 20 natural teeth was 4.18 (95% confidence interval: 2.06–8.49 and with fewer than 10 pairs of natural teeth was 4.74 (95% confidence interval: 2.34–9.62. However, there

  11. Study of double bond equivalents and the numbers of carbon and oxygen atom distribution of dissolved organic matter with negative-mode FT-ICR MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, EunJung; Yeo, In Joon; Jeong, Byungkwan; Shin, Yongsik; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Kim, Sunghwan

    2011-06-01

    A strong linear relationship was observed between the average double bond equivalence (DBE) and the ratio of carbon to oxygen atoms in oxygenated compounds of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Data were acquired by a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS), equipped with a negative-mode electrospray ionization source. The slope and y-intercepts extracted from the linear relationship can be used to compare DOM samples originating from different locations. Significant differences in these parameters were observed between inland riverine and offshore coastal DOM samples. Offshore coastal DOM molecules underwent a change of one DBE for each removal or addition of two oxygen atoms. This suggested the existence of multiple carboxyl groups, each of which contains a double bond and two oxygen atoms. Inland riverine samples exhibited a change of ~1.5 DBE following the addition or removal of two oxygen atoms. This extra change in DBE was attributed to cyclic structures or unsaturated chemical bonds. The DBE value with maximum relative abundance and the minimum DBE value for each class of oxygenated compounds showed that approximately two oxygen atoms contributed to a unity change in DBE. The qualitative analyses given here are in a good agreement with results obtained from analyses using orthogonal analytical techniques. This study demonstrates that DBE and the carbon number distribution, observed by high resolution mass spectrometry, can be valuable in elucidating and comparing structural features of oxygenated molecules of DOM.

  12. Application of mental health examination mode in enterprise annual physical examination%心理体检在企业年度健康体检中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆勤; 张建明; 王冰; 李燕; 卓锦雪; 王向阳

    2012-01-01

    [目的]了解广州IT企业员工心理健康状况,并对心理体检方式在年度健康体检中的应用进行探索.[方法]以自愿的方式,对进行年度体检的391名企业员工放发SCL-90自评量表和应对方式问卷,了解企业员工心理健康状况和应付方式特点,以及对心理体检的接受程度.[结果]收回合格问卷168份,回收率为40.47%.企业员工恐怖和精神病2个因子均分高于全国常模(P<0.01),抑郁和焦虑2个因子均分低于对照组(P<0.01).员工较多运用解决问题和求助的积极应对方式,最后选择自责的方式.[结论]心理体检作为新生事物,有59.53%的人不能自觉接受心理体检调查.对心理健康状况的关注应引起企业和个人的重视.%Objective To understand the mental health of Guangzhou IT employees, and to explore the application of psychological examination mode in annual physical examination. Methods Under the principle of voluntary, Symptom Checklist 90(SCL-90) and Coping Style Questionnaire(CSQ) were distributed to 391 employees from an annual physical examination for understanding the mental health status, coping style characteristics and the degree of acceptance to psychological examination. Results A total of 168 eligible questionnaires were received with effective recovery rate of 40.47%. The factor scores of phobia and psychoticism of employees were significantly higher than that of national norm (P<0.01). the average scores of depression and anxious factors were lower than control group(P < 0.01). The employees mainly used active coping styles like solving the problem and seeking help than self-accusation. Conclusion Psychological examination as a new thing, 39.53% of the people can't consciously accept the psychological medical investigation. It is important to focus on mental health status for the attention of businesses and individual.

  13. Integrated ratio of metastatic to examined lymph nodes and number of metastatic lymph nodes into the AJCC staging system for colon cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Gao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: At present, only the number of metastatic lymph nodes (LNs+ is used for the pN category of AJCC TNM system for colon cancer. Recently, the ratio of metastatic to examined lymph nodes (LNR has been reported to represent powerful independent predictive capacity in colon cancer. We sought to propose a novel category (nLN which intergrades LNR and LNs+ into the AJCC staging system for colon cancer. DESIGN: 34476 patients from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER dataset with stage III colon cancer were reviewed. Harrell's C statistic was used to evaluate the predictive capacity. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to construct a novel category. RESULTS: The LNR category had more predictive capacity than the pN category in whole groups of patients (Harrell's C index: 0.6194 vs 0.6113, p = 0.003. Subgroup analysis showed that the LNR category was not better than pN category in predictive capacity if the number of lymph nodes examined was more than 13. We also found that there was significant survival heterogeneity among different pN categories at the same LNR category (P<0.001. The Harrell's C index for our nLN category which intergrades LNR and LNs+ was 0.6228, which was significant higher than that of the pN category (Harrell's C index: 0.6113, P<0.001 or LNR category (Harrell's C index: 0.6194, P = 0.005, respectively. CONCLUSION: To evaluate the prognosis of colon cancer, our nLN category which intergrades LNR with LNs+ is more accurate than the pN category or LNR category, respectively.

  14. Femme Fatale: An Examination of the Role of Women in Combat and the Policy Implications for Future American Military Operations (Drew Paper Number 5, August 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    AUG 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Femme Fatale: An Examination of the Role of Women in...UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE RESEARCH INSTITUTE Femme Fatale An Examination of the Role of Women in Combat and the Policy Implications for Future American Military...2009 Muir S. Fairchild Research Information Center Cataloging Data Alfonso, Kristal L. M. Femme fatale : an examination of the role of women in combat

  15. Examination of parameterizations for CCN number concentrations based on in-situ aerosol activation property measurements in the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Z. Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise quantification of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN number concentrations is crucial for understanding aerosol indirect effect and characterizing this effect in models. An evaluation of various methods for CCN parameterization is carried out in this paper based on in-situ measurements of aerosol activation properties within HaChi (Haze in China project. Comparisons are made by closure studies between methods using CCN spectra, bulk activation ratios, cut-off diameters and size-resolved activation ratios. The estimation of CCN number concentrations by the method using aerosol activation curves, either averaged over a day or with diurnal variation, is found to be most satisfying and straightforward. This could be well expected since size-resolved activation ratios include information regarding the effects of size-resolved chemical composition and mixing state on aerosol activation properties. The method using the averages of critical diameters, which are inferred from measured CCN number concentrations and particle number size distribution, also provides a good prediction of CCN number concentrations. Based on comparisons of all these methods in this paper, it is recommended that CCN number concentrations be predicted using particle number size distribution with inferred critical diameters or size-resolved activation ratios.

  16. Ultra-large number of transmission channels in space division multiplexing using few-mode multi-core fiber with optimized air-hole-assisted double-cladding structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tatsuhiko; Kokubun, Yasuo

    2014-04-07

    The ultimate number of transmission channels in a fiber for the space division multiplexing (SDM) is shown by designing an air-hole-assisted double-cladding few-mode multi-core fiber. The propagation characteristics such as the dispersion and the mode field diameter are almost equalized for all cores owing to the double cladding structure, and the crosstalk between adjacent cores is extremely suppressed by the heterogeneous arrangement of cores and the air holes surrounding the cores. Optimizing the structure of the air-hole-assisted double-cladding, ultra dense core arrangements, e.g. 129 cores in a core accommodated area with 200 μm diameter, can be realized with low crosstalk of less than -34.3 dB at 100km transmission. In this design, each core supports 3 modes i.e. LP(01), LP(11a), and LP(11b) as the transmission channels, so that the number of transmission channels can be 3-hold greater than the number of cores. Therefore, 387 transmission channels can be realized.

  17. Cluster Analysis of World's Airports on the Basis of Number of Passengers Handled (Case Study Examinning the Impact of Significant Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Žambochová

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the air transportation is one of key means of transport. Unfortunately, there are many factors influencing its popularity and intensity of its use. There are many studies investigating these factors. The paper investigates the possibility of classifying the world's airports in terms of the trend in the number of handled passengers as it is one of the main economic indicators for airports. For this classification we chose cluster analysis. The paper focuses on an important aspect of the process, which chooses the appropriate number of clusters. It turned out that in terms of interpretation of the results, it may not always be the most efficient to set this number at the theoretically best and recommended value. As a result of our analysis, several groups of airports with similar trend of post-event reactions are found. Therefore, this may bring better understanding of the intensity and the range of the impact of particular events on air transportation.

  18. Comparison of caries detection methods using varying numbers of intra-oral digital photographs with visual examination for epidemiology in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boye Uriana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This was a method comparison study. The aim of study was to compare caries information obtained from a full mouth visual examination using the method developed by the British Association for the Study of Community Dentistry (BASCD for epidemiological surveys with caries data obtained from eight, six and four intra-oral digital photographs of index teeth in two groups of children aged 5 years and 10/11 years. Methods Five trained and calibrated examiners visually examined the whole mouth of 240 5-year-olds and 250 10-/11-year-olds using the BASCD method. The children also had intra-oral digital photographs taken of index teeth. The same 5 examiners assessed the intra-oral digital photographs (in groups of 8, 6 and 4 intra-oral photographs for caries using the BASCD criteria; dmft/DMFT were used to compute Weighted Kappa Statistic as a measure of intra-examiner reliability and intra-class correlation coefficients as a measure of inter-examiner reliability for each method. A method comparison analysis was performed to determine the 95% limits of agreement for all five examiners, comparing the visual examination method with the photographic assessment method using 8, 6 and 4 intra-oral photographs. Results The intra-rater reliability for the visual examinations ranged from 0.81 to 0.94 in the 5-year-olds and 0.90 to 0.97 in the 10-/11-year-olds. Those for the photographic assessments in the 5-year-olds were for 8 intra-oral photographs, 0.86 to 0.94, for 6 intra-oral photographs, 0.85 to 0.98 and for 4 intra-oral photographs, 0.80 to 0.96; for the 10-/11-year-olds were for 8 intra-oral photographs 0.84 to 1.00, for 6 intra-oral photographs 0.82 to 1.00 and for 4 intra-oral photographs 0.72 to 0.98. The 95% limits of agreement were −1.997 to 1.967, -2.375 to 2.735 and −2.250 to 2.921 respectively for the 5-year-olds and −2.614 to 2.027, -2.179 to 3.887 and −2.594 to 2.163 respectively for the 10-/11-year

  19. Complete tribal sampling reveals basal split in Muscidae (Diptera), confirms saprophagy as ancestral feeding mode, and reveals an evolutionary correlation between instar numbers and carnivory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutty, Sujatha Narayanan; Pont, Adrian C.; Meier, Rudolf;

    2014-01-01

    of the number of larval instars from three (ancestral) to two and one. The genus Achanthiptera which was previously in its own subfamily is shown to be closely related to Azeliini. However, it appears that Azeliinae is paraphyletic because Muscinae is sister-group to the Azeliini while the azeliine...

  20. Size Distribution and Total Number Concentration of Ultrafine and Accumulation Mode Particles and Hospital Admissions in Children and the Elderly in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Z.J.; Wåhlin, Peter; Raaschou-Nielsen, O.;

    2008-01-01

    (15 May 2001 to 31 December 2004) and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular (CVD) and respiratory disease (RD) in the elderly (age >or=65 years), and due to asthma in children (age 5-18 years). We examined these associations in the presence of PM(10), PM(2.5) (particulate matter ... Poisson generalised additive model adjusted for overdispersion, season, day of the week, public holidays, school holidays, influenza, pollen and meteorology, with up to 5 days' lagged exposure. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The adverse health effects of particulate matter on CVD and RD hospital admissions...

  1. FDG-PET-CT for staging of high-risk breast cancer patients reduces the number of further examinations: A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, Jos; Houben, Ruud; Ruysscher, Dirk de; Lambin, Philippe (MAASTRO Clinic, Postbus 1345, 6202 NA Maastricht (Netherlands)), E-mail: jos.jager@maastro.nl; Boersma, Liesbeth J.; Keymeulen, Kristien (Maastricht Univ. Medical Center, Dept. of Surgery, Maastricht (Netherlands)); Beets-Tan, Regina G.H. (Maastricht Univ. Medical Center, Dept. of Radiology, Maastricht (Netherlands)); Hupperets, Pierre (Maastricht Univ. Medical Center, Dept. of Medical Oncology, Maastricht (Netherlands)); Kroonenburgh, Marinus van (Maastricht Univ. Medical Center, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands))

    2010-02-15

    Aim. To determine the additional value of FDG-PET-CT as compared to conventional staging (CS) in high-risk breast cancer patients. Patients and methods. Thirty-one high-risk breast cancer patients, 14 of whom had recurrent breast cancer, were included in this study, which took place between June 2005 and March 2008. None of the patients had clinical signs of distant metastases. FDG-PET-CT scanning was added to CS, which consisted of a chest x-ray, liver ultrasonography or CT, and bone scintigraphy. Median follow-up was 17 months (6-41 months). FDG-PET-CT was considered to have additional value to CS if it led to a change in treatment plan or if it made additional examinations to confirm or deny findings on CS unnecessary. Results. FDG-PET-CT was considered to have additional value to CS in 13 patients (42% [95% CI: 23-61]). In five patients (16% [95% CI: 1-31]), FDG-PET-CT led to a change in treatment plan by identifying nodal metastases in the internal mammary chain (IMC; N = 3) or in the mediastinum (N = 2). In nine patients (29% [95% CI: 11-47]), FDG-PET-CT would have prevented the need for additional examinations; in seven of these nine patients, distant metastases were suggested in bone or liver on CS, but these did not show FDG uptake. Conclusions. FDG-PET-CT was found to have additional value to CS in 42% of the patients. To optimize cost-effectiveness, the main challenge now is to improve the selection of patients in whom FDG-PET-CT has additional value to CS

  2. Resonance Raman spectroscopy of chemically modified and isotopically labelled purple membranes: I. A critical examination of the carbon-nitrogen vibrational modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrenberg, B. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY); Lemley, A.T.; Lewis, A.; Zastrow, M.V.; Crespi, H.L.

    1980-01-01

    Resonance Raman spectra of bacteriorhodopsin are compared to the spectra of this protein modified in the following ways: (1) selective deuteration at the C-15 carbon atom of retinal, (2) full deuteration of the retinal, (3) the addition of a conjugated double bond in the ..beta..-ionone ring (3-dehydroretinal), (4) full deuteration of the protein and lipid components, (5) /sup 15/N enrichment of the entire membrane and (6) deuteration of the entire membrane. A detailed comparison of the /sup 15/N-enriched membrane and naturally occurring purple membrane from 800 cm/sup -1/ to 1700 cm/sup -1/ reveals that /sup 15/N enrichment affects the frequency of only two vibrational modes. These occur at 1642 cm/sup -1/ and 1620 cm/sup -1/ in naturally occurring purple membrane and at 1628 cm/sup -1/ and 1615 cm/sup -1/ in the /sup 15/N-enriched samples. Therefore, this pair of bands reflects the states of protonation of the Schiff base.

  3. Low-Pressure Burst-Mode Focused Ultrasound Wave Reconstruction and Mapping for Blood-Brain Barrier Opening: A Preclinical Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jingjing; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Liu, Hao-Li

    2016-06-01

    Burst-mode focused ultrasound (FUS) exposure has been shown to induce transient blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening for potential CNS drug delivery. FUS-BBB opening requires imaging guidance during the intervention, yet current imaging technology only enables postoperative outcome confirmation. In this study, we propose an approach to visualize short-burst low-pressure focal beam distribution that allows to be applied in FUS-BBB opening intervention on small animals. A backscattered acoustic-wave reconstruction method based on synchronization among focused ultrasound emission, diagnostic ultrasound receiving and passively beamformed processing were developed. We observed that focal beam could be successfully visualized for in vitro FUS exposure with 0.5-2 MHz without involvement of microbubbles. The detectable level of FUS exposure was 0.467 MPa in pressure and 0.05 ms in burst length. The signal intensity (SI) of the reconstructions was linearly correlated with the FUS exposure level both in-vitro (r2 = 0.9878) and in-vivo (r2 = 0.9943), and SI level of the reconstructed focal beam also correlated with the success and level of BBB-opening. The proposed approach provides a feasible way to perform real-time and closed-loop control of FUS-based brain drug delivery.

  4. Negative Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Mary J.

    1974-01-01

    Examination of models for representing integers demonstrates that formal operational thought is required for establishing the operations on integers. Advocated is the use of many models for introducing negative numbers but, apart from addition, it is recommended that operations on integers be delayed until the formal operations stage. (JP)

  5. 食品营养与检验专业实践教学模式的创新实践%On the Research of Practical Teaching Mode of Food Nutrition and Examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓英

    2011-01-01

    结合食品营养与检验专业的教学实践,提出了高职教育实行以强化实践教学,毕业证书与职业资格证书"双证"并重,突出学生主体地位的实践教学新模式。%According to the practical teaching of Food Nutrition and Examination, provided a new practical teaching mode for vocational education to strengthen the practical teaching.Meanwhile the new mode lays equal stress on diploma and occupational qualification certificates,which emphasizes on the dominant position of the students.

  6. 法律修改时条文序号整理模式分析%Analysis about the Modes of Adjusting the Numbering of Provisions in a Law during its Revision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈甦

    2012-01-01

    Revision of a law is almost always accompanied by the adjustment of the numbering of provisions in the law. In its legislative practice, China basically adopts the mode of renumbering of all provisions in a law during its revision. However, this mode has serious drawbacks: it can easily lead to such problems as unnecessary chain revisions of the relevant laws, technical omissions resulting from the revision of laws, disruption of the collective memories of the legal community, and impediment to the smooth reading of the existing legal literature. Therefore, adopting an appropriate mode of adjusting the numbers of provisions in a law in light of the deletion or supplementation of provisions during its revision is a legislative technique that can have significant social effects.%修改法律要伴随着法律条文序号的整理,在我国的立法实践中,基本上是采用全部条文重排的模式。但是,在法律修改时采用全部条文序号重排模式具有严重的弊端,容易引起相关法律制度不必要的连锁修改,容易导致因修改法律而产生技术性的疏漏,容易扰乱法律共同体的集体记忆,容易妨碍对既有法学文献的顺畅阅读。因此,在法律修改时根据条文删除或增加的情况,选用适当的条文序号整理模式是有很大社会效益的立法技术措施。

  7. Improving quantum sensing efficiency with virtual modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzagorta, Marco; Uhlmann, Jeffrey; Le, Truc; Jitrik, Oliverio; Venegas-Andraca, Salvador E.

    2016-05-01

    Recent research suggests that quantum radar offers several potential advantages over classical sensing technologies. At present, the primary practical challenge is the fast and efficient generation of entangled microwave photons. To mitigate this limitation we propose and briefly examine a distributed architecture to synthetically increase the number of effectively-distinguishable modes.

  8. Transcendental numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, M Ram

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the topic of transcendental numbers for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students. The text is constructed to support a full course on the subject, including descriptions of both relevant theorems and their applications. While the first part of the book focuses on introducing key concepts, the second part presents more complex material, including applications of Baker’s theorem, Schanuel’s conjecture, and Schneider’s theorem. These later chapters may be of interest to researchers interested in examining the relationship between transcendence and L-functions. Readers of this text should possess basic knowledge of complex analysis and elementary algebraic number theory.

  9. Quantum statistics of Raman scattering model with Stokes mode generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanatar, Bilal; Shumovsky, Alexander S.

    1994-01-01

    The model describing three coupled quantum oscillators with decay of Rayleigh mode into the Stokes and vibration (phonon) modes is examined. Due to the Manley-Rowe relations the problem of exact eigenvalues and eigenstates is reduced to the calculation of new orthogonal polynomials defined both by the difference and differential equations. The quantum statistical properties are examined in the case when initially: the Stokes mode is in the vacuum state; the Rayleigh mode is in the number state; and the vibration mode is in the number of or squeezed states. The collapses and revivals are obtained for different initial conditions as well as the change in time the sub-Poisson distribution by the super-Poisson distribution and vice versa.

  10. 双模式高考对高职教育的影响与对策%Influences of Dual-Mode College Entrance Examination on Higher Vocational Education and Some Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王继辉

    2014-01-01

    双模式高考制度的探索对于发展高职教育具有重要而特殊的意义。双模式高考对高职院校的影响主要表现为人才观念的转变、生源素质的竞争和人才培养水平方面。国家应加强政策引导和教育宣传,转变国人传统观念,做好高考框架设计,确保教育的公平和效率,高职院校应积极创造条件,提升人才培养水平,积极应对双模式高考制度给职业教育带来的挑战。%Exploring dual-mode College Entrance Examination system is of special significance to the development of higher vocational education. Its influences on higher vocational education mainly lie in the changes of the views of talents, the competition of students with high qualities and the cultivation level of talents. So the nation should strengthen policy guidance and educate people to change their traditional views, design the College Entrance Examination system well to ensure equal and efficient education. And higher vocational colleges should positively create conditions to improve the cultivation level of talents and meet the challenges brought by the dual-mode College Entrance Examination system to vocational education.

  11. Streaming tearing mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, M.; Sato, T.; Dasgupta, B.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic stability of streaming tearing mode is investigated numerically. A bulk plasma flow parallel to the antiparallel magnetic field lines and localized in the neutral sheet excites a streaming tearing mode more strongly than the usual tearing mode, particularly for the wavelength of the order of the neutral sheet width (or smaller), which is stable for the usual tearing mode. Interestingly, examination of the eigenfunctions of the velocity perturbation and the magnetic field perturbation indicates that the streaming tearing mode carries more energy in terms of the kinetic energy rather than the magnetic energy. This suggests that the streaming tearing mode instability can be a more feasible mechanism of plasma acceleration than the usual tearing mode instability.

  12. Streaming tearing mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, M.; Sato, T.; Dasgupta, B.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic stability of streaming tearing mode is investigated numerically. A bulk plasma flow parallel to the antiparallel magnetic field lines and localized in the neutral sheet excites a streaming tearing mode more strongly than the usual tearing mode, particularly for the wavelength of the order of the neutral sheet width (or smaller), which is stable for the usual tearing mode. Interestingly, examination of the eigenfunctions of the velocity perturbation and the magnetic field perturbation indicates that the streaming tearing mode carries more energy in terms of the kinetic energy rather than the magnetic energy. This suggests that the streaming tearing mode instability can be a more feasible mechanism of plasma acceleration than the usual tearing mode instability.

  13. Identifying modes of large whispering-gallery mode resonators from the spectrum and emission pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schunk, Gerhard; Fuerst, Josef U.; Förtsch, Michael;

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the mode numbers in whispering-gallery mode resonators (WGMRs) is important for tailoring them to experimental needs. Here we report on a novel experimental mode analysis technique based on the combination of frequency analysis and far-field imaging for high mode numbers of large WGMRs....... The radial mode numbers q and the angular mode numbers p = l-m are identified and labeled via far-field imaging. The polar mode numbers l are determined unambiguously by fitting the frequency differences between individual whispering gallery modes (WGMs). This allows for the accurate determination...

  14. Optimal modes of operation of two idealized magnetohydrodynamic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okulov, N.A.

    1984-01-01

    A conduction channel and a conduction cylinder, idealized devices, which model the operation of conduction magnetohydrodynamic (MGD) generators (pump) and magnetohydrodynamic propulsion devices, are examined. It is shown that it is sufficient to know the operational characteristics in the idle (kh.kh.) and short circuiting (KZ) modes alone in order to determine the operational characteristics of a conduction channel in the optimal mode, that is, in a mode of most complete energy conversion. The mode with which the required speed of movement is supported with minimal expenditures of energy is called the optimal mode of operation of a conduction cylinder. It is established that the characteristics of the corresponding optimal movement are expressed through the characteristics of the so called basis movements, whose number is one less than the number of electrodes.

  15. Phase mixing and nonlinearity in geodesic acoustic modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, C. P.; Hassam, A. B. [University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Phase mixing and nonlinear resonance detuning of geodesic acoustic modes in a tokamak plasma are examined. Geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) are tokamak normal modes with oscillations in poloidal flow constrained to lie within flux surfaces. The mode frequency is sonic, dependent on the local flux surface temperature. Consequently, mode oscillations between flux surfaces get rapidly out of phase, resulting in enhanced damping from the phase mixing. Damping rates are shown to scale as the negative 1/3 power of the large viscous Reynolds number. The effect of convective nonlinearities on the normal modes is also studied. The system of nonlinear GAM equations is shown to resemble the Duffing oscillator, which predicts resonance detuning of the oscillator. Resonant amplification is shown to be suppressed nonlinearly. All analyses are verified by numerical simulation. The findings are applied to a recently proposed GAM excitation experiment on the DIII-D tokamak.

  16. Nonlinear dynamics by mode superposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    A mode superposition technique for approximately solving nonlinear initial-boundary-value problems of structural dynamics is discussed, and results for examples involving large deformation are compared to those obtained with implicit direct integration methods such as the Newmark generalized acceleration and Houbolt backward-difference operators. The initial natural frequencies and mode shapes are found by inverse power iteration with the trial vectors for successively higher modes being swept by Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization at each iteration. The subsequent modal spectrum for nonlinear states is based upon the tangent stiffness of the structure and is calculated by a subspace iteration procedure that involves matrix multiplication only, using the most recently computed spectrum as an initial estimate. Then, a precise time integration algorithm that has no artificial damping or phase velocity error for linear problems is applied to the uncoupled modal equations of motion. Squared-frequency extrapolation is examined for nonlinear problems as a means by which these qualities of accuracy and precision can be maintained when the state of the system (and, thus, the modal spectrum) is changing rapidly. The results indicate that a number of important advantages accrue to nonlinear mode superposition: (a) there is no significant difference in total solution time between mode superposition and implicit direct integration analyses for problems having narrow matric half-bandwidth (in fact, as bandwidth increases, mode superposition becomes more economical), (b) solution accuracy is under better control since the analyst has ready access to modal participation factors and the ratios of time step size to modal period, and (c) physical understanding of nonlinear dynamic response is improved since the analyst is able to observe the changes in the modal spectrum as deformation proceeds.

  17. Validation of 'variable number of tandem repeat'-based approach for examination of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' diversity and its applications for the analysis of the pathogen populations in the areas of recent introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Luis A; Hilf, Mark E; Chen, Jianchi; Folimonova, Svetlana Y

    2013-01-01

    Citrus greening (Huanglongbing, HLB) is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. In South Asia HLB has been known for more than a century, while in Americas the disease was found relatively recently. HLB is associated with three species of 'Candidatus Liberibacter' among which 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas) has most wide distribution. Recently, a number of studies identified different regions in the CLas genome with variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) that could be used for examination of CLas diversity. One of the objectives of the work presented here was to further validate the VNTR analysis-based approach by assessing the stability of these repeats upon multiplication of the pathogen in a host over an extended period of time and upon its passaging from a host to a host using CLas populations from Florida. Our results showed that the numbers of tandem repeats in the four loci tested display very distinguishable "signature profiles" for the two Florida-type CLas haplotype groups. Remarkably, the profiles do not change upon passage of the pathogen in citrus and psyllid hosts as well as after its presence within a host over a period of five years, suggesting that VNTR analysis-based approach represents a valid methodology for examination of the pathogen populations in various geographical regions. Interestingly, an extended analysis of CLas populations in different locations throughout Florida and in several countries in the Caribbean and Central America regions and in Mexico where the pathogen has been introduced recently demonstrated the dispersion of the same haplotypes of CLas. On the other hand, these CLas populations appeared to differ significantly from those obtained from locations where the disease has been present for a much longer time.

  18. Validation of ‘Variable Number of Tandem Repeat’-Based Approach for Examination of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ Diversity and Its Applications for the Analysis of the Pathogen Populations in the Areas of Recent Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Luis A.; Hilf, Mark E.; Chen, Jianchi; Folimonova, Svetlana Y.

    2013-01-01

    Citrus greening (Huanglongbing, HLB) is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. In South Asia HLB has been known for more than a century, while in Americas the disease was found relatively recently. HLB is associated with three species of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter’ among which ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ (CLas) has most wide distribution. Recently, a number of studies identified different regions in the CLas genome with variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) that could be used for examination of CLas diversity. One of the objectives of the work presented here was to further validate the VNTR analysis-based approach by assessing the stability of these repeats upon multiplication of the pathogen in a host over an extended period of time and upon its passaging from a host to a host using CLas populations from Florida. Our results showed that the numbers of tandem repeats in the four loci tested display very distinguishable “signature profiles” for the two Florida-type CLas haplotype groups. Remarkably, the profiles do not change upon passage of the pathogen in citrus and psyllid hosts as well as after its presence within a host over a period of five years, suggesting that VNTR analysis-based approach represents a valid methodology for examination of the pathogen populations in various geographical regions. Interestingly, an extended analysis of CLas populations in different locations throughout Florida and in several countries in the Caribbean and Central America regions and in Mexico where the pathogen has been introduced recently demonstrated the dispersion of the same haplotypes of CLas. On the other hand, these CLas populations appeared to differ significantly from those obtained from locations where the disease has been present for a much longer time. PMID:24223873

  19. Validation of 'variable number of tandem repeat'-based approach for examination of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' diversity and its applications for the analysis of the pathogen populations in the areas of recent introduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A Matos

    Full Text Available Citrus greening (Huanglongbing, HLB is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. In South Asia HLB has been known for more than a century, while in Americas the disease was found relatively recently. HLB is associated with three species of 'Candidatus Liberibacter' among which 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas has most wide distribution. Recently, a number of studies identified different regions in the CLas genome with variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs that could be used for examination of CLas diversity. One of the objectives of the work presented here was to further validate the VNTR analysis-based approach by assessing the stability of these repeats upon multiplication of the pathogen in a host over an extended period of time and upon its passaging from a host to a host using CLas populations from Florida. Our results showed that the numbers of tandem repeats in the four loci tested display very distinguishable "signature profiles" for the two Florida-type CLas haplotype groups. Remarkably, the profiles do not change upon passage of the pathogen in citrus and psyllid hosts as well as after its presence within a host over a period of five years, suggesting that VNTR analysis-based approach represents a valid methodology for examination of the pathogen populations in various geographical regions. Interestingly, an extended analysis of CLas populations in different locations throughout Florida and in several countries in the Caribbean and Central America regions and in Mexico where the pathogen has been introduced recently demonstrated the dispersion of the same haplotypes of CLas. On the other hand, these CLas populations appeared to differ significantly from those obtained from locations where the disease has been present for a much longer time.

  20. Application of quality control circle mode in reduction of drug withdrawal pen number in ward%品管圈工作模式在减少病区退药笔数的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄邦秀; 史菲菲; 何晓春

    2014-01-01

    Objectiveto investigate the effect of quality control circle mode to reduce the number of ward drug withdrawal. Methods after establishing quality control circle, Pdca circulation method was applied. the number of drug withdrawal was compared between before and after quality tube activities through 10 steps including the theme selection, planning, situation, goal setting, analysis, countermeasure development, implementation and review, conifrmation of effect, standardization, review and improvement, and the conclusion was drawn.Results withdrawal number reduced from the original 32 pen / week to 14 pen/ week after improvement, at a rate of 133% as percent goal met.Conclusion The QCactivities not only reduced withdrawal events, but also enhanced the overall quality of the individual team members and the nursing service level of department with high quality rose to a new level.%目的:探讨品管圈工作模式对减少病区退药笔数的作用方法成立品管圈,运用Pdca循环方法,通过主题选定、计划拟定、现状把握、目标设定、解析、对策拟定、实施与检讨、效果确认、标准化、检讨与改进10个步骤,将品管活动前后的退药笔数进行对比,得出结论结果退药笔数由改善前的32笔/周减少至改善后的14笔/周,目标达成率达到133%。结论品管活动不仅减少了退药事件的发生,同时也提升了圈员的个人综合素质,科室优质护理服务水平上升到一个新台阶。

  1. Asymmetric Bessel modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlyar, V V; Kovalev, A A; Soifer, V A

    2014-04-15

    We propose a new, three-parameter family of diffraction-free asymmetric elegant Bessel modes (aB-modes) with an integer and fractional orbital angular momentum (OAM). The aB-modes are described by the nth-order Bessel function of the first kind with complex argument. The asymmetry degree of the nonparaxial aB-mode is shown to depend on a real parameter c≥0: when c=0, the aB-mode is identical to a conventional radially symmetric Bessel mode; with increasing c, the aB-mode starts to acquire a crescent form, getting stretched along the vertical axis and shifted along the horizontal axis for c≫1. On the horizontal axis, the aB-modes have a denumerable number of isolated intensity zeros that generate optical vortices with a unit topological charge of opposite sign on opposite sides of 0. At different values of the parameter c, the intensity zeros change their location on the horizontal axis, thus changing the beam's OAM. An isolated intensity zero on the optical axis generates an optical vortex with topological charge n. The OAM per photon of an aB-mode depends near-linearly on c, being equal to ℏ(n+cI1(2c)/I0(2c)), where ℏ is the Planck constant and In(x) is a modified Bessel function.

  2. Geometric Effects on the Amplification of First Mode Instability Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Lindsay C.; Candler, Graham V.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of geometric changes on the amplification of first mode instability waves in an external supersonic boundary layer were investigated using numerical techniques. Boundary layer stability was analyzed at Mach 6 conditions similar to freestream conditions obtained in quiet ground test facilities so that results obtained in this study may be applied to future test article design to measure first mode instability waves. The DAKOTA optimization software package was used to optimize an axisymmetric geometry to maximize the amplification of the waves at first mode frequencies as computed by the 2D STABL hypersonic boundary layer stability analysis tool. First, geometric parameters such as nose radius, cone half angle, vehicle length, and surface curvature were examined separately to determine the individual effects on the first mode amplification. Finally, all geometric parameters were allowed to vary to produce a shape optimized to maximize the amplification of first mode instability waves while minimizing the amplification of second mode instability waves. Since first mode waves are known to be most unstable in the form of oblique wave, the geometries were optimized using a broad range of wave frequencies as well as a wide range of oblique wave angles to determine the geometry that most amplifies the first mode waves. Since first mode waves are seen most often in flows with low Mach numbers at the edge of the boundary layer, the edge Mach number for each geometry was recorded to determine any relationship between edge Mach number and the stability of first mode waves. Results indicate that an axisymmetric cone with a sharp nose and a slight flare at the aft end under the Mach 6 freestream conditions used here will lower the Mach number at the edge of the boundary layer to less than 4, and the corresponding stability analysis showed maximum first mode N factors of 3.

  3. Teaching and examination mode reformation of Methods of Mathematical Physics%“数学物理方法”教学及考核方式改革初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 谭德斌; 樊丽娟

    2016-01-01

    “数学物理方法”是物理类专业学生的一门必修的重要基础课程。基于地方性本科院校培养高素质应用型人才的培养目标,对“数学物理方法”课程的教学方法和考核方式进行了探析,并针对性地提出了一些改革方法,为“数学物理方法”的教学提供建设性意见。%"Methods of Mathematical Physics" is an important foundation course for physics majors. Basing on the requirements of training applied talents with high quality in local colleges and universities, teaching method and examination mode were initiatively discussed in detail in this paper. Furthermore, we put forward some reformations contraposing the problems in the teaching presently, which is expect to provide some constructive suggestions and comments for Method of Mathematical Physics teaching.

  4. Excursions through KK modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuuchi, Kazuyuki

    2016-07-01

    In this article we study Kaluza-Klein (KK) dimensional reduction of massive Abelian gauge theories with charged matter fields on a circle. Since local gauge transformations change position dependence of the charged fields, the decomposition of the charged matter fields into KK modes is gauge dependent. While whole KK mass spectrum is independent of the gauge choice, the mode number depends on the gauge. The masses of the KK modes also depend on the field value of the zero-mode of the extra dimensional component of the gauge field. In particular, one of the KK modes in the KK tower of each massless 5D charged field becomes massless at particular values of the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field. When the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field is identified with the inflaton, this structure leads to recursive cosmological particle productions.

  5. Are Numbers Gendered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, James E. B.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the possibility that nonsocial, highly generic concepts are gendered. Specifically, we investigated the gender connotations of Arabic numerals. Across several experiments, we show that the number 1 and other odd numbers are associated with masculinity, whereas the number 2 and other even numbers are associated with femininity, in ways…

  6. Are Numbers Gendered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, James E. B.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the possibility that nonsocial, highly generic concepts are gendered. Specifically, we investigated the gender connotations of Arabic numerals. Across several experiments, we show that the number 1 and other odd numbers are associated with masculinity, whereas the number 2 and other even numbers are associated with femininity, in ways…

  7. Prandtl number of toroidal plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Kimitaka (National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan)); Itoh, Sanae; Fukuyama, Atsushi; Yagi, Masatoshi; Azumi, Masafumi

    1993-12-01

    Theory of the L-mode confinement in toroidal plasmas is developed. The Prandtl number, the ratio between the ion viscosity and the thermal conductivity is obtained for the anomalous transport process which is caused by the self-sustained turbulence in the toroidal plasma. It is found that the Prandtl number is of order unity both for the ballooning mode turbulence in tokamaks and for the interchange mode turbulence in helical system. The influence on the anomalous transport and fluctuation level is evaluated. Hartmann number and magnetic Prandtl number are also discussed. (author).

  8. Instantaneous Normal Modes and the Protein Glass Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Roland [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Krishnan, Marimuthu [ORNL; Daidone, Isabella [University of Heidelberg; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    In the instantaneous normal mode method, normal mode analysis is performed at instantaneous configurations of a condensed-phase system, leading to modes with negative eigenvalues. These negative modes provide a means of characterizing local anharmonicities of the potential energy surface. Here, we apply instantaneous normal mode to analyze temperature-dependent diffusive dynamics in molecular dynamics simulations of a small protein (a scorpion toxin). Those characteristics of the negative modes are determined that correlate with the dynamical (or glass) transition behavior of the protein, as manifested as an increase in the gradient with T of the average atomic mean-square displacement at 220 K. The number of negative eigenvalues shows no transition with temperature. Further, although filtering the negative modes to retain only those with eigenvectors corresponding to double-well potentials does reveal a transition in the hydration water, again, no transition in the protein is seen. However, additional filtering of the protein double-well modes, so as to retain only those that, on energy minimization, escape to different regions of configurational space, finally leads to clear protein dynamical transition behavior. Partial minimization of instantaneous configurations is also found to remove nondiffusive imaginary modes. In summary, examination of the form of negative instantaneous normal modes is shown to furnish a physical picture of local diffusive dynamics accompanying the protein glass transition.

  9. Quantum random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooser, Raphael C.

    2016-05-10

    A quantum random number generator (QRNG) and a photon generator for a QRNG are provided. The photon generator may be operated in a spontaneous mode below a lasing threshold to emit photons. Photons emitted from the photon generator may have at least one random characteristic, which may be monitored by the QRNG to generate a random number. In one embodiment, the photon generator may include a photon emitter and an amplifier coupled to the photon emitter. The amplifier may enable the photon generator to be used in the QRNG without introducing significant bias in the random number and may enable multiplexing of multiple random numbers. The amplifier may also desensitize the photon generator to fluctuations in power supplied thereto while operating in the spontaneous mode. In one embodiment, the photon emitter and amplifier may be a tapered diode amplifier.

  10. 基于B/S模式的自考报名系统的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of Self-Study Examination Registration System Based on B/S Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范振远

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of science and technology, Self Registration handmade can ’t meet the needs of students and staff. This article takes in Vocational School of Wuhan Textile University Self-study examination registration as the back-ground, after working in the registration system analysis tests the functional requirements, design and implement a Self-study Registration system based on B/S mode. After nearly two years of use shows that the system allows to get rid of a vocational col-lege and spend a lot of time, manpower and resources handmade management to achieve a standardized management, work effi-ciency is greatly improved, since the candidates for applicants to provide a convenient remote.%随着科技日新月异的发展,纯手工的自考报名方式已经不能满足考生和工作人员的需要。该文以武汉纺织大学高职学院自考报名的现状为背景,经过系统分析自考报名工作中的功能需求,设计并实现了基于B/S模式的自考报名系统。通过近两年来的使用证明,该系统使高职学院摆脱了耗费大量人力物力和时间的纯手工管理,达到了规范化的管理,工作效率大大提高,为自考生异地报考提供了便利。

  11. Urban aerosol number size distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hussein

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol number size distributions have been measured since 5 May 1997 in Helsinki, Finland. The presented aerosol data represents size distributions within the particle diameter size range 8-400nm during the period from May 1997 to March 2003. The daily, monthly and annual patterns of the aerosol particle number concentrations were investigated. The temporal variation of the particle number concentration showed close correlations with traffic activities. The highest total number concentrations were observed during workdays; especially on Fridays, and the lowest concentrations occurred during weekends; especially Sundays. Seasonally, the highest total number concentrations were observed during winter and spring and lower concentrations were observed during June and July. More than 80% of the number size distributions had three modes: nucleation mode (30nm, Aitken mode (20-100nm and accumulation mode (}$'>90nm. Less than 20% of the number size distributions had either two modes or consisted of more than three modes. Two different measurement sites were used; in the first (Siltavuori, 5.5.1997-5.3.2001, the arithmetic means of the particle number concentrations were 7000cm, 6500cm, and 1000cm respectively for nucleation, Aitken, and accumulation modes. In the second site (Kumpula, 6.3.2001-28.2.2003 they were 5500cm, 4000cm, and 1000cm. The total number concentration in nucleation and Aitken modes were usually significantly higher during workdays than during weekends. The temporal variations in the accumulation mode were less pronounced. The lower concentrations at Kumpula were mainly due to building construction and also the slight overall decreasing trend during these years. During the site changing a period of simultaneous measurements over two weeks were performed showing nice correlation at both sites.

  12. The issuance of work mode of folic acid in the process of investigation and study of premarital examination%在婚检流程中进行叶酸发放工作模式调查与探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莉; 唐栋

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨在婚检流程中进行增补叶酸发放工作的可行性。方法通过婚检门诊的病史、询问和相关调查问卷,对全市2013年接受婚前医学检查的2249名女性进行调查。结果婚检对象中对于叶酸用于孕前3个月-孕后3个月的服用率,3月内计划妊娠组为70%,已妊娠组为80%,其它组为20%,经χ2检验,P=0.0000,差异有统计学意义。结论在现有“增补叶酸预防神经管缺陷项目”与方案流程中增加婚检环节,叶酸发放工作的模式,是加强出生缺陷干预工作,降低神经管缺陷发生率的重要衔接和途径,是原有流程的补充和完善。%Objective discuss the feasibility in folic acid supplementation grant work. Method conduct a survey about pre-marital check-up among 2249 women who have received pre-marital medical examination in 2013. Result the rates of taking folic acid from first trimester to three months after pregnancy are different among pre-marital medical examination of the object, the rate of group which are planning to get pregnant is 70%, the rate of group which already pregnancy is 80%, the rate of other groups is 20%. Through the test of χ2, P=0.0000, the difference between the data is statistically significant. Conclusion add the premarital check-up link to the solution process and the “supplementary folic acid to Prevent neural tube defects Project”which we have now. the mode of folic acid grant work is the important link and way to strength the intervention work to birth defect and reduce the occurrence rate of neural tube defects, it also supplement and perfect the original flow.

  13. Sagan numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.

    2012-01-01

    We define a new class of numbers based on the first occurrence of certain patterns of zeros and ones in the expansion of irracional numbers in a given basis and call them Sagan numbers, since they were first mentioned, in a special case, by the North-american astronomer Carl E. Sagan in his science-fiction novel "Contact." Sagan numbers hold connections with a wealth of mathematical ideas. We describe some properties of the newly defined numbers and indicate directions for further amusement.

  14. Fibonacci numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Vorob'ev, Nikolai Nikolaevich

    2011-01-01

    Fibonacci numbers date back to an 800-year-old problem concerning the number of offspring born in a single year to a pair of rabbits. This book offers the solution and explores the occurrence of Fibonacci numbers in number theory, continued fractions, and geometry. A discussion of the ""golden section"" rectangle, in which the lengths of the sides can be expressed as a ration of two successive Fibonacci numbers, draws upon attempts by ancient and medieval thinkers to base aesthetic and philosophical principles on the beauty of these figures. Recreational readers as well as students and teacher

  15. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    through using mathematical names for the numbers such as one-ten-one for 11 and five-ten-six for 56. The project combines the renaming of numbers with supporting the teaching with the new number names. Our hypothesis is that Danish children have more difficulties learning and working with numbers, because...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....

  16. Estimating Large Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, David; Silbert, Noah; Goldin, Aleah

    2013-01-01

    Despite their importance in public discourse, numbers in the range of 1 million to 1 trillion are notoriously difficult to understand. We examine magnitude estimation by adult Americans when placing large numbers on a number line and when qualitatively evaluating descriptions of imaginary geopolitical scenarios. Prior theoretical conceptions…

  17. Eulerian numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, T Kyle

    2015-01-01

    This text presents the Eulerian numbers in the context of modern enumerative, algebraic, and geometric combinatorics. The book first studies Eulerian numbers from a purely combinatorial point of view, then embarks on a tour of how these numbers arise in the study of hyperplane arrangements, polytopes, and simplicial complexes. Some topics include a thorough discussion of gamma-nonnegativity and real-rootedness for Eulerian polynomials, as well as the weak order and the shard intersection order of the symmetric group. The book also includes a parallel story of Catalan combinatorics, wherein the Eulerian numbers are replaced with Narayana numbers. Again there is a progression from combinatorics to geometry, including discussion of the associahedron and the lattice of noncrossing partitions. The final chapters discuss how both the Eulerian and Narayana numbers have analogues in any finite Coxeter group, with many of the same enumerative and geometric properties. There are four supplemental chapters throughout, ...

  18. The influence of total nodes examined, number of positive nodes, and lymph node ratio on survival after surgical resection and adjuvant chemoradiation for pancreatic cancer: A secondary analysis of RTOG 9704

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, Timothy N.; Winter, Kathryn A.; Berger, Adam C.; Regine, William F.; Abrams, Ross A.; Safran, Howard; Hoffman, John P.; Benson, Al B.; MacDonald, John S.; Willett, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Lymph node status is an important predictor of survival in pancreatic cancer. We performed a secondary analysis of RTOG 9704, an adjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiation trial, to determine the influence of lymph node factors-number of positive nodes (NPN), total nodes examined (TNE), and lymph node ratio (LNR-ratio of NPN to TNE)-on OS and disease-free survival (DFS). Patient and Methods Eligible patients from RTOG 9704 form the basis of this secondary analysis of lymph node parameters. Actuarial estimates for OS and DFS were calculated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to evaluate associations of NPN, TNE, and LNR with OS and DFS. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were also performed. Results There were 538 patients enrolled in the RTOG 9704 trial. Of these, 445 patients were eligible with lymph nodes removed. Overall median NPN was 1 (min-max, 0-18). Increased NPN was associated with worse OS (HR=1.06, p=0.001) and DFS (HR=1.05, p=0.01). In multivariate analyses, both NPN and TNE were associated with OS and DFS. TNE > 12, and >15, were associated with increased OS for all patients, but not for node-negative patients (n =142). Increased LNR was associated with worse OS (HR=1.01, p<0.0001) and DFS (HR=1.006, p=0.002). Conclusion In patients who undergo surgical resection followed by adjuvant chemoradiation, TNE, NPN, and LNR are associated with OS and DFS. This secondary analysis of a prospective, cooperative group trial supports the influence of these lymph node parameters on outcomes after surgery and adjuvant therapy using contemporary techniques. PMID:20934270

  19. The Influence of Total Nodes Examined, Number of Positive Nodes, and Lymph Node Ratio on Survival After Surgical Resection and Adjuvant Chemoradiation for Pancreatic Cancer: A Secondary Analysis of RTOG 9704

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, Timothy N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Winter, Kathryn A. [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, RTOG Statistical Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Berger, Adam C., E-mail: adam.berger@jefferson.edu [Department of Surgery, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Regine, William F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); Abrams, Ross A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Safran, Howard [Department of Medicine, Miriam Hospital, Brown University Oncology Group, Providence, RI (United States); Hoffman, John P. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Benson, Al B. [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); MacDonald, John S. [St. Vincent' s Cancer Care Center, New York, NY (United States); Willett, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Lymph node status is an important predictor of survival in pancreatic cancer. We performed a secondary analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9704, an adjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiation trial, to determine the influence of lymph node factors-number of positive nodes (NPN), total nodes examined (TNE), and lymph node ratio (LNR ratio of NPN to TNE)-on OS and disease-free survival (DFS). Patient and Methods: Eligible patients from RTOG 9704 form the basis of this secondary analysis of lymph node parameters. Actuarial estimates for OS and DFS were calculated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to evaluate associations of NPN, TNE, and LNR with OS and DFS. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were also performed. Results: There were 538 patients enrolled in the RTOG 9704 trial. Of these, 445 patients were eligible with lymph nodes removed. Overall median NPN was 1 (min-max, 0-18). Increased NPN was associated with worse OS (HR = 1.06, p = 0.001) and DFS (HR = 1.05, p = 0.01). In multivariate analyses, both NPN and TNE were associated with OS and DFS. TNE > 12, and >15 were associated with increased OS for all patients, but not for node-negative patients (n = 142). Increased LNR was associated with worse OS (HR = 1.01, p < 0.0001) and DFS (HR = 1.006, p = 0.002). Conclusion: In patients who undergo surgical resection followed by adjuvant chemoradiation, TNE, NPN, and LNR are associated with OS and DFS. This secondary analysis of a prospective, cooperative group trial supports the influence of these lymph node parameters on outcomes after surgery and adjuvant therapy using contemporary techniques.

  20. Urban aerosol number size distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hussein

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol number size distributions were measured continuously in Helsinki, Finland from 5 May 1997 to 28 February 2003. The daily, monthly and annual patterns were investigated. The temporal variation of the particle number concentration was seen to follow the traffic density. The highest total particle number concentrations were usually observed during workdays; especially on Fridays, and the lower concentrations occurred during weekends; especially Sundays. Seasonally, the highest total number concentrations were usually observed during winter and spring and the lowest during June and July. More than 80\\% of the particle number size distributions were tri-modal: nucleation mode (Dp < 30 nm, Aitken mode (20–100 nm and accumulation mode (Dp > 90 nm. Less than 20% of the particle number size distributions have either two modes or consisted of more than three modes. Two different measurement sites are used; in the first place (Siltavuori, 5 May 1997–5 March 2001, the overall means of the integrated particle number concentrations were 7100 cm−3, 6320 cm−3, and 960 cm−3, respectively, for nucleation, Aitken, and accumulation modes. In the second site (Kumpula, 6 March 2001–28 February 2003 they were 5670 cm−3, 4050 cm−3, and 900 cm−3. The total number concentration in nucleation and Aitken modes were usually significantly higher during weekdays than during weekends. The variations in accumulation mode were less pronounced. The smaller concentrations in Kumpula were mainly due to building construction and also slight overall decreasing trend during these years. During the site changing a period of simultaneous measurements over two weeks were performed showing nice correlation in both sites.

  1. 健康体检中经B超检出脂肪肝临床分析%Clinical analysis of fatty liver detected by B-mode ultrasound in physical examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓兵水

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical significance of fatty liver detected by B-mode ultrasound in physical examination. Methods The clinical data of 898 healthy persons selected from Jan to Dec in 2014 in our hospital were retro-spectively analyzed, all subjects were used SA-1500 black and white B-mode ultrasound diagnostic equipment, and were di-vided into groups by age for ≤20 years old, 21~30 years old, 31~40 years old, 41~50 years old, 51~60 years old, the inci-dence of fatty liver in different gender of the ages were compared. The survey subjects were divided into fatty liver group and non-fatty liver group, the incidence of complications in the two groups were compared. Results The incidence of fatty liver was 17.82%. The older the subject was, the higher the incidence of fatty liver was. There was significant difference in the inci-dence of fatty liver at different ages (P<0.05). The incidence of fatty liver in male was higher than that of female, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The incidence of diabetic, coronary heart disease, hyperlipidemia, hypertension in fatty liver group were higher than those of non-fatty liver group, the difference were statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclu-sion Elderly and men should pay more attention to the prevention of fatty liver, form healthy eating habits and lifestyle, con-trol weight and diet, take regularly physical examination, it can reduce the incidence of fatty liver.%目的:分析健康体检中经B超检出脂肪肝的临床意义。方法对2014年1~12月来我院进行健康体检者898例的临床资料进行回顾性分析,所有研究对象B超检查均使用SA-1500黑白超声诊断仪,将其按照年龄分为≤20岁、21~30岁、31~40岁、41~50岁、51~60岁年龄段,比较各年龄段不同性别脂肪肝发生率,再将研究对象分为脂肪肝组和非脂肪肝组,比较两组并发症发生率。结果本组脂肪肝发病率为17.82%(160/898)。研究

  2. Magic Numbers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    THE last digit of my home phone number in Beijing is 4. “So what?” European readers might ask.This was my attitude when I first lived in China; I couldn't understand why Chinese friends were so shocked at my indifference to the number 4. But China brings new discoveries every day, and I have since seen the light. I know now that Chinese people have their own ways of preserving their well being, and that they see avoiding the number 4 as a good way to stay safe.

  3. Number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, George E

    1994-01-01

    Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl

  4. Failure Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, K. P.; Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo;

    1999-01-01

    The present appendix contains the derivation of ten different limit state equations divided on three different failure modes. Five of the limit state equations can be used independently of the characteristics of the subsoil, whereas the remaining five can be used for either drained or undrained...

  5. Nice numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, John

    2016-01-01

    In this intriguing book, John Barnes takes us on a journey through aspects of numbers much as he took us on a geometrical journey in Gems of Geometry. Similarly originating from a series of lectures for adult students at Reading and Oxford University, this book touches a variety of amusing and fascinating topics regarding numbers and their uses both ancient and modern. The author intrigues and challenges his audience with both fundamental number topics such as prime numbers and cryptography, and themes of daily needs and pleasures such as counting one's assets, keeping track of time, and enjoying music. Puzzles and exercises at the end of each lecture offer additional inspiration, and numerous illustrations accompany the reader. Furthermore, a number of appendices provides in-depth insights into diverse topics such as Pascal’s triangle, the Rubik cube, Mersenne’s curious keyboards, and many others. A theme running through is the thought of what is our favourite number. Written in an engaging and witty sty...

  6. Automatic determination of important mode-mode correlations in many-mode vibrational wave functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Carolin; Christiansen, Ove

    2015-04-14

    We introduce new automatic procedures for parameterizing vibrational coupled cluster (VCC) and vibrational configuration interaction wave functions. Importance measures for individual mode combinations in the wave function are derived based on upper bounds to Hamiltonian matrix elements and/or the size of perturbative corrections derived in the framework of VCC. With a threshold, this enables an automatic, system-adapted way of choosing which mode-mode correlations are explicitly parameterized in the many-mode wave function. The effect of different importance measures and thresholds is investigated for zero-point energies and infrared spectra for formaldehyde and furan. Furthermore, the direct link between important mode-mode correlations and coordinates is illustrated employing water clusters as examples: Using optimized coordinates, a larger number of mode combinations can be neglected in the correlated many-mode vibrational wave function than with normal coordinates for the same accuracy. Moreover, the fraction of important mode-mode correlations compared to the total number of correlations decreases with system size. This underlines the potential gain in efficiency when using optimized coordinates in combination with a flexible scheme for choosing the mode-mode correlations included in the parameterization of the correlated many-mode vibrational wave function. All in all, it is found that the introduced schemes for parameterizing correlated many-mode vibrational wave functions lead to at least as systematic and accurate calculations as those using more standard and straightforward excitation level definitions. This new way of defining approximate calculations offers potential for future calculations on larger systems.

  7. Transformation and Modes of Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    modes of production and examine the ways of life that are enabled by the two modes of production. The central questions are around how market-based fisheries management transforms the principal preconditions for the self-employed fishers; and, in turn, why capitalist organized large-scale fisheries...

  8. Thermodynamics of radiation modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pina, Eduardo; De la Selva, Sara Maria Teresa [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, PO Box 55 534, Mexico, D F, 09340 (Mexico)], E-mail: pge@xanum.uam.mx, E-mail: tere@xanum.uam.mx

    2010-03-15

    We study the equilibrium thermodynamics of the electromagnetic radiation in a cavity of a given volume and temperature. We found three levels of description, the thermodynamics of one mode, the thermodynamics of the distribution of frequencies in a band by summing over the frequencies in it and the global thermodynamics by summing over all the frequencies. One equation relating frequency and volume is used to define the thermodynamics of one mode, and to explain the mystery of the frequency-dependent quantities having a similar behaviour to the non-frequency-dependent quantities for some thermodynamic equations and different behaviour for others. Besides, this frequency-volume relation is used to count the number of modes in a band of frequency.

  9. Generalised Hermite-Gaussian beams and mode transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yi; Zhang, Yanfeng; Chen, Hui; Yu, Siyuan

    2016-01-01

    Generalised Hermite-Gaussian modes (gHG modes), an extended notion of Hermite-Gaussian modes (HG modes), are formed by the summation of normal HG modes with a characteristic function $\\alpha$, which can be used to unite conventional HG modes and Laguerre-Gaussian modes (LG modes). An infinite number of normalised orthogonal modes can thus be obtained by modulation of the function $\\alpha$. The gHG mode notion provides a useful tool in analysis of the deformation and transformation phenomena occurring in propagation of HG and LG modes with astigmatic perturbation.

  10. Numbers, Please!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelin, John R.

    2013-01-01

    What topic would you choose if you had the luxury of writing forever? In this article, John Thelin provides his response: He would opt to write about the history of higher education in a way that relies on quantitative data. "Numbers, please!" is his research request in taking on a longitudinal study of colleges and universities over…

  11. Numbers, Please!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelin, John R.

    2013-01-01

    What topic would you choose if you had the luxury of writing forever? In this article, John Thelin provides his response: He would opt to write about the history of higher education in a way that relies on quantitative data. "Numbers, please!" is his research request in taking on a longitudinal study of colleges and universities over…

  12. Rational-Emotive Therapy: Research Data That Supports the Clinical and Personality Hypotheses of Ret and Other Modes of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Albert

    1977-01-01

    This article examines 32 important clinical and personality hypotheses of rational-emotive therapy (RET) and other modes of cognitive-behavior therapy and lists a large number of research studies that provide empirical confirmation of these hypotheses. (Author)

  13. Research and practice of multiple examination modes with combination of formative and summative evaluations%形成性评价与终结性评价相结合的多元型考试模式的研究与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    匡海学; 殷越; 杨炳友

    2015-01-01

    多元型考核模式是指考试方式、考核内容、成绩评定方法及考核手段与管理方面存在多元性。课程考核模式改革以“多种形式,全面考核,注重过程,促进发展”为指导思想,以“考试形式多样化、考试内容综合化、评价方法质性化”为内涵特征,关注学生学习过程,注重信息反馈,全过程、综合地评价学生的学习成绩和学习效果。通过对比分析实践效果,归纳多元型考试模式的优势和特点,总结实践与改革的经验和不足,为高等中医药院校本科考试模式的改革和实践提供借鉴。%Multiple appraisal modes refer to the existence of different methods in ways of examination, contents of examination, grade evaluation, and testing management. Course assessment reform should be conducted with the guiding ideology of various forms, overall examination, emphasizing process and promoting development. Diversified examination forms, comprehensive examination contents, qualitative evaluation methods are stressed as connotative characteristics. Advantages and main features of the multiple examination modes are concluded, the experience and main inadequacies are also summarized so as to provide reference for reform of undergraduate examination modes in TCM colleges and universities.

  14. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the results from the first year of a three-year research project involving the relationship between Danish number names and their corresponding digits in the canonical base 10 system. The project aims to develop a system to help the students’ understanding of the base 10 syste...

  15. Dipole modes with depressed amplitudes in red giants are mixed modes

    CERN Document Server

    Mosser, B; Pincon, C; Takata, M; Vrard, M; Barban, C; Goupil, M-J; Kallinger, T; Samadi, R

    2016-01-01

    Seismic observations have shown that a number of evolved stars exhibit low-amplitude dipole modes, which are referred to as depressed modes. Recently, these low amplitudes have been attributed to the presence of a strong magnetic field in the stellar core of those stars. We intend to study the properties of depressed modes in evolved stars, which is a necessary condition before concluding on the physical nature of the mechanism responsible for the reduction of the dipole mode amplitudes. We perform a thorough characterization of the global seismic parameters of depressed dipole modes and show that these modes have a mixed character. The observation of stars showing dipole mixed modes that are depressed is especially useful for deriving model-independent conclusions on the dipole mode damping. Observations prove that depressed dipole modes in red giants are not pure pressure modes but mixed modes. This result invalidates the hypothesis that the depressed dipole modes result from the suppression of the oscillat...

  16. Statistical Analysis of Locked Modes and their Disruptivity at DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, R.; Choi, W.; Olofsson, K. E. J.; Volpe, F. A.

    2014-10-01

    A database has been developed to study locking and disruptivity of neoclassical tearing modes with poloidal and toroidal mode numbers m = 2 and n = 1. Approximately 30,000 DIII-D discharges are studied providing statistics on the fraction of disruptions containing locked modes (LMs) and the ratio of disruptive LMs to all LMs. Other quantities analyzed include the time-scales between mode-formation and locking, and between locking and disruption, the amplitude of the mode upon locking and disruption, the existence or lack of a rotating precursor, and the toroidal phase of locking. Correlations are examined between locking and disruptivity and parameters such as plasma beta and neutral beam torque. Simple interpretations are provided in terms of island size and torques acting on the island, and implications for an automatic locked mode controller are discussed. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-SC0008520.

  17. Hardware Assisted ROP Detection Mode (HARD Mode)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Distribution A. Cleared for public release; unlimited distribution. USAFA-CN-2013-457 Hardware Assisted ROP Detection Mode (HARD Mode) NATHANIEL HART...457 This report, "Hardware Assisted ROP Detection Mode (HARD Mode)" is presented as a competent treatment of the subj ect, worthy of publication. The...Technical 20120810-20121215 Hardware Assisted ROP Detection Mode (HARD Mode) NATHANIEL HART MICHAEL WINSTEAD MARTIN CARLISLE RODNEY LYKINS MICHAEL

  18. Effects of Mode Shares on Mode Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Carrion; Nebiyou Tilahun; David Levinson

    2011-01-01

    This study considers the influence of the knowledge of existing mode shares on travelers mode choice. This contrasts with traditional mode choice models, where the main objective is to predict the overall mode shares as the aggregate of individual mode choices according to variables encompassing attributes of the modes, and characteristics of the travelers. In this study, a computer-administered adaptive stated preference survey is developed and applied to a sample of subjects selected from t...

  19. Are "EIT Waves" Fast-Mode MHD Waves?

    CERN Document Server

    Wills-Davey, M J; Stenflo, J O

    2007-01-01

    We examine the nature of large-scale, coronal, propagating wave fronts (``EIT waves'') and find they are incongruous with solutions using fast-mode MHD plane-wave theory. Specifically, we consider the following properties: non-dispersive single pulse manifestions, observed velocities below the local Alfven speed, and different pulses which travel at any number of constant velocities, rather than at the ``predicted'' fast-mode speed. We discuss the possibility of a soliton-like explanation for these phenomena, and show how it is consistent with the above-mentioned aspects.

  20. Effect of Aircladding on Bessel-Like Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Stine Møller; Rottwitt, Karsten

    The effect of an aircladding in a double cladding fiber designed to guide higher order modes is examined. For very high order symmetrical modes we find that the circular symmetry of the modes is broken.......The effect of an aircladding in a double cladding fiber designed to guide higher order modes is examined. For very high order symmetrical modes we find that the circular symmetry of the modes is broken....

  1. A Examine and Verify Mode of the Front Sheet of Medical Record Based on Electronic Medical Records%一种基于电子病历的首页审核模式介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王平根; 符祥敏; 吴葳; 罗文龙

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a kind of electronic medical record front sheet audit mode. The model under the background of electronic medical record system construction,adhere to the principle of the international classification of diseases "coding dominant", classification of diagnosis and clinical diagnosis of seeking common ground while putting aside differences",medical record management personnel and medical staff good communication and interaction, review process step-by-step", the multi-level, multi-angle training on the basis of the step by step. This mode optimize the medical record management and clinical departments work flow, promotes the medical record management idea transformation, promote the construction of the hospital information system, improve the working efficiency, has obtained the good effect.%本文介绍了我院的一种电子病历首页审核模式。该模式在医院电子病历系统建设背景下,坚持国际疾病分类“编码主导”、分类诊断与临床诊断“求同存异”、病案管理人员与医护人员良好“沟通互动”、审核过程“分步实施”为原则,并在多层次、多角度培训的基础上得以循序渐进地进行。模式的实施优化了病案管理与临床科室工作流程,促进了全院病案管理理念转变,推动了医院信息系统建设,提高了工作效率,取得了良好效果。

  2. Verification and Examination Management of Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stian Ruud

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As ship systems become more complex, with an increasing number of safety-critical functions, many interconnected subsystems, tight integration to other systems, and a large amount of potential failure modes, several industry parties have identified the need for improved methods for managing the verification and examination efforts of such complex systems. Such needs are even more prominent now that the marine and offshore industries are targeting more activities and operations in the Arctic environment. In this paper, a set of requirements and a method for verification and examination management are proposed for allocating examination efforts to selected subsystems. The method is based on a definition of a verification risk function for a given system topology and given requirements. The marginal verification risks for the subsystems may then be evaluated, so that examination efforts for the subsystem can be allocated. Two cases of requirements and systems are used to demonstrate the proposed method. The method establishes a systematic relationship between the verification loss, the logic system topology, verification method performance, examination stop criterion, the required examination effort, and a proposed sequence of examinations to reach the examination stop criterion.

  3. Number Games, Magnitude Representation, and Basic Number Skills in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Jemma Catherine; Bull, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    The effect of 3 intervention board games (linear number, linear color, and nonlinear number) on young children's (mean age = 3.8 years) counting abilities, number naming, magnitude comprehension, accuracy in number-to-position estimation tasks, and best-fit numerical magnitude representations was examined. Pre- and posttest performance was…

  4. Number Games, Magnitude Representation, and Basic Number Skills in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Jemma Catherine; Bull, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    The effect of 3 intervention board games (linear number, linear color, and nonlinear number) on young children's (mean age = 3.8 years) counting abilities, number naming, magnitude comprehension, accuracy in number-to-position estimation tasks, and best-fit numerical magnitude representations was examined. Pre- and posttest performance was…

  5. Acoustic Rotation Modes in Complex Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白冬雪; 王正汹; 王晓钢

    2004-01-01

    Acoustic rotation modes in complex plasmas are investigated in a cylindrical system with an axial symmetry.The linear mode solution is derived. The mode in an infinite area is reduced to a classical dust acoustic wave in the region away from the centre. When the dusty plasma is confined in a finite region, the breathing and rotating-void behaviour are observed. Vivid structures of different mode number solutions are illustrated.

  6. Cytogenetic examination

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Cytogenetic examination on six normal persons, four men and two women, was carried out using a technique proposed by Dutrillaux with slight modification. Five drops of blood were taken from a peripheral vessel and was incubated on a PHA (phytohemarglutinine)-containing medium at 37°C for about 72 hours. Cell division was blocked by adding colchicine solution, an antimitotic agent, into this medium. A mixture of distilled water, magnesium chloride, hyaluronidase, and goat serum was used as hy...

  7. Elementary theory of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Sierpinski, Waclaw

    1988-01-01

    Since the publication of the first edition of this work, considerable progress has been made in many of the questions examined. This edition has been updated and enlarged, and the bibliography has been revised.The variety of topics covered here includes divisibility, diophantine equations, prime numbers (especially Mersenne and Fermat primes), the basic arithmetic functions, congruences, the quadratic reciprocity law, expansion of real numbers into decimal fractions, decomposition of integers into sums of powers, some other problems of the additive theory of numbers and the theory of Gaussian

  8. The emergence of number

    CERN Document Server

    Crossley, John N

    1987-01-01

    This book presents detailed studies of the development of three kinds of number. In the first part the development of the natural numbers from Stone-Age times right up to the present day is examined not only from the point of view of pure history but also taking into account archaeological, anthropological and linguistic evidence. The dramatic change caused by the introduction of logical theories of number in the 19th century is also treated and this part ends with a non-technical account of the very latest developments in the area of Gödel's theorem. The second part is concerned with the deve

  9. 新考试模式下提高护士执业资格考试成绩策略%How to improve nursing licensing examination scores under the new test mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢兵; 武江; 陈明远

    2016-01-01

    全国护士执业资格考试关系护理专业学生的就业,其通过率是评价学校教学质量及办学水平的重要指标。护理职业教育应在重视素质教育的同时积极应对护士执业资格考试。2011年全国护士执业资格考试大纲发生了重大变革。针对新考纲、新题型、新考法,从教学计划和教学内容革新、实习过程管理、回校复习管理等方面进行改革,提高护士执业资格考试通过率。%The National Qualification Examination for Nurse Practitioners is related to the employment of nursing students.The passing rate is one of the very important indicators which are used to evaluate the quality and the lev-el of school teaching.We should pay more attention to the quality education and deal with the nurses’ qualification examination actively.In 2011,the outline of National Nurse Licensing Examination changed a lot.For the new test,new questions,and new test method,in order to analyse how to improve the passing rate of the qualification examination,this thesis studies a kind of reform from the aspect of the teaching plan,teaching content innovation, and the management of the process and the back school review of students’ internship.

  10. Assessment of Animated Self-Directed Learning Activities Modules for Children's Number Sense Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Der-Ching; Li, Mao-Neng

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relative effectiveness of two different learning modes; namely, a computer animation self-directed learning approach and a paper version of the self-directed learning approach, to 5th-graders' number sense development. Two 5th-grade classes, 30 students each, were selected from a public elementary…

  11. Introducing Complex Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudgian, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    One of the difficulties in any teaching of mathematics is to bridge the divide between the abstract and the intuitive. Throughout school one encounters increasingly abstract notions, which are more and more difficult to relate to everyday experiences. This article examines a familiar approach to thinking about negative numbers, that is an…

  12. Minimum fuel mode evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

    1995-01-01

    The minimum fuel mode of the NASA F-15 research aircraft is designed to minimize fuel flow while maintaining constant net propulsive force (FNP), effectively reducing thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC), during cruise flight conditions. The test maneuvers were at stabilized flight conditions. The aircraft test engine was allowed to stabilize at the cruise conditions before data collection initiated; data were then recorded with performance seeking control (PSC) not-engaged, then data were recorded with the PSC system engaged. The maneuvers were flown back-to-back to allow for direct comparisons by minimizing the effects of variations in the test day conditions. The minimum fuel mode was evaluated at subsonic and supersonic Mach numbers and focused on three altitudes: 15,000; 30,000; and 45,000 feet. Flight data were collected for part, military, partial, and maximum afterburning power conditions. The TSFC savings at supersonic Mach numbers, ranging from approximately 4% to nearly 10%, are in general much larger than at subsonic Mach numbers because of PSC trims to the afterburner.

  13. 基于B/S模式的无纸化考试系统整合平台%The Paperless Examination System Integration Platform Based on B/S Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周卫忠

    2014-01-01

    随着现代化教育的高速发展、信息技术以及计算机网络技术在教育领域的不断推广和应用,无纸化考试系统应运而生。在考试系统越来越多的情况下一个自动化的整合性平台是非常必要的。该文简单介绍了如何基于B/S结构以ASP技术设计一个简易的整合性的平台。%With the rapid development of modern education, information technology and the further promotion of computer network technology in the field of education and application of paperless examination system arises at the historic moment. Un⁃der the condition of the examination system more and more an automated integration platform is very necessary. This article sim⁃ply introduces how to based on B/S structure with ASP technology to design a simple integrated platform.

  14. Examining the Development of Secondary Mathematics Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge on Numbers [Ortaokul Matematik Öğretmenlerinin Sayılarla İlgili Pedagojik Alan Bilgilerinin Gelişiminin İncelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Şahin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our research is to determine the change in the pedagogical content knowledge levels of the teachers on numbers in the period from their university education to their active teaching profession. The sample of the study is composed of a total of 210 people, 67 of whom are third grade pre-service mathematics teacher, 98 of whom are 4th grade pre-service mathematics teachers and 45 of whom are mathematics teachers who are working in various provinces of Turkey. As for the data collection tools of this research, “Mathematics Pedagogical Content Knowledge Test (MPCKT” was used. Cross-sectional comparative study, which is among the descriptive research designs, was used in this research. it was observed that the secondary mathematics teachers’ levels of knowledge of understanding students and knowledge of instructional strategies, which constitute two sub-components of pedagogical content knowledge, exhibited development from their third-year in university to the period in which they carry out teaching profession. [Bu çalışmanın amacı; öğretmenlerin sayılarla ilgili pedagojik alan bilgi düzeylerinin üniversite eğitimlerinden aktif öğretmenlik mesleğine kadar olan süreçte nasıl değiştiğini tespit etmektir. Çalışmanın örneklemini, ilköğretim matematik öğretmenliği programında öğrenim gören 67 üçüncü sınıf öğretmen adayı, 98 dördüncü sınıf matematik öğretmeni adayı ve Türkiye’nin farklı illerinde görev yapan 45 matematik öğretmeni olmak üzere toplam 210 kişi oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmada veri toplama aracı olarak Matematik Pedagojik Alan Bilgi Testi (MPABT kullanılmıştır. Bu araştırmada, betimsel araştırma yöntemlerinden biri olan enlemesine (kesitsel araştırma yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Çalışma sonunda, ilköğretim matematik öğretmenlerinin öğrencileri anlama bilgisi ve öğretim stratejileri bilgilerine ilişkin pedagojik alan bilgilerinin zamanla geli

  15. Geodesic acoustic modes with poloidal mode couplings ad infinitum

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Rameswar; Garbet, X; Hennequin, P; Vermare, L; Morel, P; Singh, R

    2015-01-01

    Geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) are studied, for the first time, including all poloidal mode $(m)$ couplings using drift reduced fluid equations. The nearest neighbor coupling pattern, due to geodesic curvature, leads to a semi-infinite chain model of the GAM with the mode-mode coupling matrix elements proportional to the radial wave number $k_{r}$. The infinite chain can be reduced to a renormalized bi-nodal chain with a matrix continued fractions. Convergence study of linear GAM dispersion with respect to $k_{r}$ and the $m$-spectra confirms that high m couplings become increasingly important with $k_{r}$. The radially sorted roots overlap with experimentally measured GAM frequency profile in low collisionality shots in Tore Supra thus explaining the reduced frequency of GAM in Tore Supra.

  16. Experimental verification of microbending theory using mode coupling to discrete cladding modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, C. B.; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Andreasen, S. B.

    1989-01-01

    a microbending theory in which coupling between the guided mode and a number of discrete cladding modes is considered. Very good agreement between theory and measurement is achieved. The consequences of the existence of discrete cladding modes with regard to the proper choice of artificial microbending spectrum...

  17. Frequency doubling perimetry screening mode compared to the full-threshold mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoutenbeek, R; Heeg, GP; Jansonius, NM

    2004-01-01

    The diagnostic performance of the frequency doubling perimetry (FDT) C20-1 screening mode was compared to that of the C20 full-threshold mode. For the number of defects p <1% in the total deviation plot, both modes appeared to perform similarly in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and area under th

  18. Voltage Mode-to-Current Mode Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejmal S. Rathore

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a procedure for converting a class of Op Amp-, FTFN-, CC- and CFAbased voltage mode circuits to corresponding current mode circuits without requiring any additional circuit elements and finally from Op Amp-based voltage mode circuits to any of the FTFN, CC and CFA current mode circuits. The latter circuits perform better at high frequency than the former ones. The validity of the transformation has been checked on simulated circuits with PSPICE.

  19. Viscous, Resistive Magnetorotational Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Pessah, Martin E

    2008-01-01

    We carry out a comprehensive analysis of the behavior of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in viscous, resistive plasmas. We find exact, non-linear solutions of the non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations describing the local dynamics of an incompressible, differentially rotating background threaded by a vertical magnetic field when disturbances with wavenumbers perpendicular to the shear are considered. We provide a geometrical description of these viscous, resistive MRI modes and show how their physical structure is modified as a function of the Reynolds and magnetic Reynolds numbers. We demonstrate that when finite dissipative effects are considered, velocity and magnetic field disturbances are no longer orthogonal (as it is the case in the ideal MHD limit) unless the magnetic Prandtl number is unity. We generalize previous results found in the ideal limit and show that a series of key properties of the mean Reynolds and Maxwell stresses also hold for the viscous, resistive MRI. In particular, ...

  20. Beyond natural numbers: negative number representation in parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Kristen P; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Tsang, Jessica M; Schwartz, Daniel L; Menon, Vinod

    2012-01-01

    Unlike natural numbers, negative numbers do not have natural physical referents. How does the brain represent such abstract mathematical concepts? Two competing hypotheses regarding representational systems for negative numbers are a rule-based model, in which symbolic rules are applied to negative numbers to translate them into positive numbers when assessing magnitudes, and an expanded magnitude model, in which negative numbers have a distinct magnitude representation. Using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging design, we examined brain responses in 22 adults while they performed magnitude comparisons of negative and positive numbers that were quantitatively near (difference 6). Reaction times (RTs) for negative numbers were slower than positive numbers, and both showed a distance effect whereby near pairs took longer to compare. A network of parietal, frontal, and occipital regions were differentially engaged by negative numbers. Specifically, compared to positive numbers, negative number processing resulted in greater activation bilaterally in intraparietal sulcus (IPS), middle frontal gyrus, and inferior lateral occipital cortex. Representational similarity analysis revealed that neural responses in the IPS were more differentiated among positive numbers than among negative numbers, and greater differentiation among negative numbers was associated with faster RTs. Our findings indicate that despite negative numbers engaging the IPS more strongly, the underlying neural representation are less distinct than that of positive numbers. We discuss our findings in the context of the two theoretical models of negative number processing and demonstrate how multivariate approaches can provide novel insights into abstract number representation.

  1. Acoustic modes in fluid networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulos, C. D.; Clark, Robert W., Jr.; Doiron, Harold H.

    Pressure and flow rate eigenvalue problems for one-dimensional flow of a fluid in a network of pipes are derived from the familiar transmission line equations. These equations are linearized by assuming small velocity and pressure oscillations about mean flow conditions. It is shown that the flow rate eigenvalues are the same as the pressure eigenvalues and the relationship between line pressure modes and flow rate modes is established. A volume at the end of each branch is employed which allows any combination of boundary conditions, from open to closed, to be used. The Jacobi iterative method is used to compute undamped natural frequencies and associated pressure/flow modes. Several numerical examples are presented which include acoustic modes for the Helium Supply System of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Main Propulsion System. It should be noted that the method presented herein can be applied to any one-dimensional acoustic system involving an arbitrary number of branches.

  2. Few-mode fiber technology for mode division multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takayoshi; Sakamoto, Taiji; Wada, Masaki; Yamamoto, Takashi; Nakajima, Kazuhide

    2017-02-01

    We review recent progress on few-mode fiber (FMF) technologies for mode-division multiplexing (MDM) transmission. First, we introduce fibers for use without and with multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) digital signal processing (DSP) to compensate for modal crosstalk, and briefly report recent work on FMF for use without/with a MIMO DSP system. We next discuss in detail a fiber for MIMO transmission systems, and show numerically that a graded-index core can flexibly tune the differential mode group delay (DMD) and a cladding trench can flexibly control the guiding mode number. We optimized the spacing of the core and trench. Accordingly, we can achieve a 6 LP (10 spatial) mode operation and a low DMD while preventing the high index difference that leads to manufacturing difficulties and any loss increase. We finally describe our experimental results for a 6 LP (10 spatial) mode transmission line for use in a C + L band wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) MDM transmission with MIMO DSP.

  3. The theory of algebraic numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Pollard, Harry

    1998-01-01

    An excellent introduction to the basics of algebraic number theory, this concise, well-written volume examines Gaussian primes; polynomials over a field; algebraic number fields; and algebraic integers and integral bases. After establishing a firm introductory foundation, the text explores the uses of arithmetic in algebraic number fields; the fundamental theorem of ideal theory and its consequences; ideal classes and class numbers; and the Fermat conjecture. 1975 edition. References. List of Symbols. Index.

  4. Modes of the Kerr geometry with purely imaginary frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, Gregory B

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the behavior of modes of the Kerr geometry when the mode's frequency is purely imaginary. We demonstrate that quasinormal modes must be polynomial in nature if their frequency is purely imaginary, and present a method for computing such modes. The nature of these modes, however, is not always easy to determine. Some of the polynomial modes we compute are quasinormal modes. However, some are simultaneously quasinormal modes and total transmission modes, while others fail to satisfy the requisite boundary conditions for either. This analysis is, in part, an extension of the results known for Schwarzschild black holes, but clarifies misconceptions for the behavior of modes when the black hole has angular momentum. We also show that the algebraically special modes of Kerr with m=0 have an additional branch of solutions not seen before in the literature. All of these results are in precise agreement with new numerical solutions for sequences of gravitational quasinormal modes of Kerr. How...

  5. Number of Compositions and Convolved Fibonacci numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Janjic, Milan

    2010-01-01

    We consider two type of upper Hessenberg matrices which determinants are Fibonacci numbers. Calculating sums of principal minors of the fixed order of the first type leads us to convolved Fibonacci numbers. Some identities for these and for Fibonacci numbers are proved. We also show that numbers of compositions of a natural number with fixed number of ones appear as coefficients of characteristic polynomial of a Hessenberg matrix which determinant is a Fibonacci number. We derive the explicit...

  6. Higher-mode effect on the seismic responses of buildings with viscoelastic dampers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In conventional modal analysis procedures, usually only a few dominant modes are required to describe thedynamic behavior of multi-degrees-of-freedom buildings. The number of modes needed in the dynamic analysis depends on thehigher-mode contribution to the structural response, which is called the higher-mode effect. The modal analysis approach,however, may not be directly applied to the dynamic analysis of viscoelastically damped buildings. This is because the dynamicproperties of the viscoelastic dampers depend on their vibration frequency. Therefore, the structural stiffness and dampingcontributed from those dampers would be different for each mode. In this study, the higher-mode effect is referred to as theresponse difference induced by the frequency-dependent property of viscoelastic dampers at higher modes. Modal analysisprocedures for buildings with viscoelastic dampers distributed proportionally and non-proportionally to the stiffness of thebuildings are developed to consider the higher-mode effect. Numerical studies on shear-type viscoelastically damped buildingmodels are conducted to examine the accuracy of the proposed procedures and to investigate the significance of the higher-modeeffect on their seismic response. Two damper models are used to estimate the peak damper forces in the proposed procedures.Study results reveal that the higher-mode effect is significant for long-period viscoelastically damped buildings. Thehigher-mode effect on base shear is less significant than on story acceleration response. Maximum difference of the seismicresponse usually occurs at the top story. Also, the higher-mode effect may not be reduced by decreasing the damping ratioprovided by the viscoelastic dampers. For practical application, it is realized that the linear viscous damping model withoutconsidering the higher-mode effect may predict larger damper forces and hence, is on the conservative side.

  7. Tearing mode instability due to anomalous resistivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuya, Atsushi [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, Sanae I.; Yagi, Masatoshi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    2000-09-01

    Tearing mode instability in the presence of microscopic truculence is investigates. The effects of microscopic turbulence on tearing mode are taken as drags which are calculated by one-point renormalization method and mean-field approximation. These effects are reduced to effective diffusivities in reduced MHD equations. Using these equations, the stability analyses of the tearing mode are performed. It is shown that a finite amplitude of fluctuation enhances the growth rate of tearing mode. For very high values of turbulent diffusivities, marginally stable state exists. The effects of each turbulent diffusivity on mode stability are examined near marginal stability boundary. Parameter dependence of the resistive ballooning mode turbulence on tearing mode is analyzed as an example. (author)

  8. The evolution of transmission mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Mark R.; Hauffe, Heidi C.; Kallio, Eva R.; Okamura, Beth; Sait, Steven M.

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews research on the evolutionary mechanisms leading to different transmission modes. Such modes are often under genetic control of the host or the pathogen, and often in conflict with each other via trade-offs. Transmission modes may vary among pathogen strains and among host populations. Evolutionary changes in transmission mode have been inferred through experimental and phylogenetic studies, including changes in transmission associated with host shifts and with evolution of the unusually complex life cycles of many parasites. Understanding the forces that determine the evolution of particular transmission modes presents a fascinating medley of problems for which there is a lack of good data and often a lack of conceptual understanding or appropriate methodologies. Our best information comes from studies that have been focused on the vertical versus horizontal transmission dichotomy. With other kinds of transitions, theoretical approaches combining epidemiology and population genetics are providing guidelines for determining when and how rapidly new transmission modes may evolve, but these are still in need of empirical investigation and application to particular cases. Obtaining such knowledge is a matter of urgency in relation to extant disease threats. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission’. PMID:28289251

  9. Active control of multiple resistive wall modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsell, P. R.; Yadikin, D.; Gregoratto, D.; Paccagnella, R.; Liu, Y. Q.; Bolzonella, T.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.; Kuldkepp, M.; Manduchi, G.; Marchiori, G.; Marrelli, L.; Martin, P.; Menmuir, S.; Ortolani, S.; Rachlew, E.; Spizzo, G.; Zanca, P.

    2005-12-01

    A two-dimensional array of saddle coils at Mc poloidal and Nc toroidal positions is used on the EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch (Brunsell P R et al 2001 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 43 1457) to study active control of resistive wall modes (RWMs). Spontaneous growth of several RWMs with poloidal mode number m = 1 and different toroidal mode number n is observed experimentally, in agreement with linear MHD modelling. The measured plasma response to a controlled coil field and the plasma response computed using the linear circular cylinder MHD model are in quantitive agreement. Feedback control introduces a linear coupling of modes with toroidal mode numbers n, n' that fulfil the condition |n - n'| = Nc. Pairs of coupled unstable RWMs are present in feedback experiments with an array of Mc × Nc = 4 × 16 coils. Using intelligent shell feedback, the coupled modes are generally not controlled even though the field is suppressed at the active coils. A better suppression of coupled modes may be achieved in the case of rotating modes by using the mode control feedback scheme with individually set complex gains. In feedback with a larger array of Mc × Nc = 4 × 32 coils, the coupling effect largely disappears, and with this array, the main internal RWMs n = -11, -10, +5, +6 are all simultaneously suppressed throughout the discharge (7 8 wall times). With feedback there is a two-fold extension of the pulse length, compared to discharges without feedback.

  10. Number of Compositions and Convolved Fibonacci numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Janjic, Milan

    2010-01-01

    We consider two type of upper Hessenberg matrices which determinants are Fibonacci numbers. Calculating sums of principal minors of the fixed order of the first type leads us to convolved Fibonacci numbers. Some identities for these and for Fibonacci numbers are proved. We also show that numbers of compositions of a natural number with fixed number of ones appear as coefficients of characteristic polynomial of a Hessenberg matrix which determinant is a Fibonacci number. We derive the explicit formula for the number of such compositions, in terms of convolutions of Fibonacci numbers.

  11. Lateral Modes in Quantum Cascade Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory C. Dente

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We will examine the waveguide mode losses in ridge-guided quantum cascade lasers. Our analysis illustrates how the low-loss mode for broad-ridge quantum cascade lasers (QCLs can be a higher-order lateral waveguide mode that maximizes the feedback from the sloped ridge-wall regions. The results are in excellent agreement with the near- and far-field data taken on broad-ridge-guided quantum cascade lasers processed with sloped ridge walls.

  12. Free-Boundary Resistive Modes in Tokamaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, G. T. A.; Goedbloed, J. P.; Kerner, W.

    1993-01-01

    There exist a number of observations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity that can be related to resistive MHD modes localized near the plasma boundary. To study the stability of these modes, a free boundary description of the plasma is essential. The resistive plasma-vacuum boundary conditions hav

  13. Transformation and Modes of Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    modes of production and examine the ways of life that are enabled by the two modes of production. The central questions are around how market-based fisheries management transforms the principal preconditions for the self-employed fishers; and, in turn, why capitalist organized large-scale fisheries......The introduction of private and individual transferable quotas is widely considered to have a negative impact on small- and medium-sized fishing operations. In this chapter, I set out to explore this in a theoretical manner. I discuss the differences in the fishing operations as two contrasting...... are promoted by this type of fisheries management....

  14. Simultaneous Emotions: Entwining Modes in Children's Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadden, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Critics and teachers tend to pay attention to genre and ignore mode as an area of consideration. This study examines three novels for young readers that are comparable in terms of their entwining opposing modes (irony and romance, comedy and tragedy) as a successful crossover strategy for appeal to readers young and old. I share implications for…

  15. Simultaneous Emotions: Entwining Modes in Children's Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadden, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Critics and teachers tend to pay attention to genre and ignore mode as an area of consideration. This study examines three novels for young readers that are comparable in terms of their entwining opposing modes (irony and romance, comedy and tragedy) as a successful crossover strategy for appeal to readers young and old. I share implications for…

  16. Numbers their history and meaning

    CERN Document Server

    Flegg, Graham

    2003-01-01

    Readable, jargon-free book examines the earliest endeavors to count and record numbers, initial attempts to solve problems by using equations, and origins of infinite cardinal arithmetic. "Surprisingly exciting." - Choice.

  17. Normal modes and mode transformation of pure electron vortex beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunavukkarasu, G.; Mousley, M.; Babiker, M.; Yuan, J.

    2017-02-01

    Electron vortex beams constitute the first class of matter vortex beams which are currently routinely produced in the laboratory. Here, we briefly review the progress of this nascent field and put forward a natural quantum basis set which we show is suitable for the description of electron vortex beams. The normal modes are truncated Bessel beams (TBBs) defined in the aperture plane or the Fourier transform of the transverse structure of the TBBs (FT-TBBs) in the focal plane of a lens with the said aperture. As these modes are eigenfunctions of the axial orbital angular momentum operator, they can provide a complete description of the two-dimensional transverse distribution of the wave function of any electron vortex beam in such a system, in analogy with the prominent role Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams played in the description of optical vortex beams. The characteristics of the normal modes of TBBs and FT-TBBs are described, including the quantized orbital angular momentum (in terms of the winding number l) and the radial index p>0. We present the experimental realization of such beams using computer-generated holograms. The mode analysis can be carried out using astigmatic transformation optics, demonstrating close analogy with the astigmatic mode transformation between LG and Hermite-Gaussian beams. This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.

  18. Reconfigurable Mixed Mode Universal Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelofer Afzal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel mixed mode universal filter configuration capable of working in voltage and transimpedance mode. The proposed single filter configuration can be reconfigured digitally to realize all the five second order filter functions (types at single output port. Other salient features of proposed configuration include independently programmable filter parameters, full cascadability, and low sensitivity figure. However, all these features are provided at the cost of quite large number of active elements. It needs three digitally programmable current feedback amplifiers and three digitally programmable current conveyors. Use of six active elements is justified by introducing three additional reduced hardware mixed mode universal filter configurations and its comparison with reported filters.

  19. Numbers and sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ruffino

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I discuss the intuition behind Frege's and Russell's definitions of numbers as sets, as well as Benacerraf's criticism of it. I argue that Benacerraf's argument is not as strong as some philosophers tend to think. Moreover, I examine an alternative to the Fregean-Russellian definition of numbers proposed by Maddy, and point out some problems faced by it.Neste artigo discuto a intuição subjacente à definição de n∨meros como conjuntos proposta por Frege e Russell, assim como a crítica de Benacerraf a esta definição. Eu tento mostrar que o argumento de Benacerraf não é tão forte como alguns filósofos o tomaram. Adicionalmente, examino uma alternativa à definição de Frege e Russell proposta por Maddy, e indico algumas dificuldades encontrada pela mesma.

  20. $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric mode-locking

    CERN Document Server

    Longhi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Parity-time ($\\mathcal{PT}$) symmetry is one of the most important accomplishments in optics over the past decade. Here the concept of $\\mathcal{PT}$ mode-locking of a laser is introduced, in which active phase locking of cavity axial modes is realized by asymmetric mode coupling in a complex time crystal. $\\mathcal{PT}$ mode-locking shows a transition from single to double pulse emission as the $\\mathcal{PT}$ symmetry breaking point is crossed. The transition can show a turbulent behavior, depending on a dimensionless modulation parameter that plays the same role as the Reynolds number in hydrodynamic flows.

  1. Amplification of maximally-path-entangled number states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, G. S.; Chaturvedi, S.; Rai, Amit

    2010-04-01

    We examine the behavior of a non-Gaussian state like the maximally path-entangled number state commonly known as a N00N state under phase-insensitive amplification. We derive an analytical result for the density matrix of the N00N state for arbitrary gain of the amplifier. We consider cases of both symmetric and antisymmetric amplification of the two modes of the N00N state. We quantitatively evaluate the loss of entanglement by the amplifier in terms of the logarithmic negativity parameter. We find that N00N states are more robust than their Gaussian counterparts.

  2. 基于教、学、做、考、研五位一体的校内会计上岗证模式考试系统开发与设计%Development and design of the examination system for accounting work license based on five-in-one mode of teaching, learning, doing, examination and research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴兴才

    2016-01-01

    会计是一门实践技能比较强的课程,在我国会计上岗要有上岗证,具有上岗证的会计具有一定的知识与水平,能适应会计工作的岗位。在高校中培养学生会计的职业岗位要求,必须全面提高学生综合素质,应从教、学、做、考、研五个方面培养学生技能,以适应工作岗位,提高学生上岗率。会计上岗证模拟考试系统开发有助于提高学生练习,以掌握答题技巧,符合现代会计技能考核需要。会计上岗证模拟考试系统开发是高校会计专业的发展需要,也是社会发展对会计毕业生的要求。%Accounting is a course wit h relatively strong practical skills. It is necessary to have an appointment card in China's accounting work. The accountant with the appointment card has certain knowledge and can adapt to the position of accounting work. It is necessary to cultivate students' skills in teaching, learning, doing, examining and researching so as to adapt to the work position and improve employment rate. The development of accounting simulation test system can help students to practice, to master the skills and meet the needs of modern accounting skill assessment. The development of accounting simulation test system is the need of the development of accounting in colleges and universities, and also the requirement of social development for accounting graduates.

  3. Leaky Modes of Dielectric Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Mansuripur, Masud; Jakobsen, Per

    2016-01-01

    In the absence of external excitation, light trapped within a dielectric medium generally decays by leaking out (and also by getting absorbed within the medium). We analyze the leaky modes of a parallel-plate slab, a solid glass sphere, and a solid glass cylinder, by examining those solutions of Maxwell's equations (for dispersive as well as non-dispersive media) which admit of a complex-valued oscillation frequency. Under certain circumstances, these leaky modes constitute a complete set into which an arbitrary distribution of the electromagnetic field residing inside a dielectric body can be expanded. We provide completeness proofs, and also present results of numerical calculations that illustrate the relationship between the leaky modes and the resonances of dielectric cavities formed by a simple parallel-plate slab, a glass sphere, and a glass cylinder.

  4. Dark propagation modes in optical lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Schiavoni, M; Carminati, F R; Renzoni, F; Grynberg, G; Schiavoni, Michele; Sanchez-Palencia, Laurent; Carminati, Francois-Regis; Renzoni, Ferruccio; Proxy, Gilbert Grynberg; ccsd-00000108, ccsd

    2002-01-01

    We examine the stimulated light scattering onto the propagation modes of a dissipative optical lattice. We show that two different pump-probe configurations may lead to the excitation, via different mechanisms, of the same mode. We found that in one configuration the scattering on the propagation mode results in a resonance in the probe transmission spectrum while in the other configuration no modification of the scattering spectrum occurs, i.e. the mode is dark. A theoretical explanation of this behaviour is provided.

  5. The Super Patalan Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the super Patalan numbers, a generalization of the super Catalan numbers in the sense of Gessel, and prove a number of properties analagous to those of the super Catalan numbers. The super Patalan numbers generalize the super Catalan numbers similarly to how the Patalan numbers generalize the Catalan numbers.

  6. Algebraic description of intrinsic modes in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leviatan, A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    We present a procedure for extracting normal modes in algebraic number-conserving systems of interacting bosons relevant for collective states in even-even nuclei. The Hamiltonian is resolved into intrinsic (bandhead related) and collective (in-band related) parts. Shape parameters are introduced through non-spherical boson bases. Intrinsic modes decoupled from the spurious modes are obtained from the intrinsic part of the Hamiltonian in the limit of large number of bosons. Intrinsic states are constructed and serve to evaluate electromagnetic transition rates. The method is illustrated for systems with one type of boson as well as with proton-neutron bosons. (author).

  7. Algebraic description of intrinsic modes in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leviatan, A.

    1989-01-01

    We present a procedure for extracting normal modes in algebraic number-conserving systems of interacting bosons relevant for collective states in even-even nuclei. The Hamiltonian is resolved into intrinsic (bandhead related) and collective (in-band related) parts. Shape parameters are introduced through non-spherical boson bases. Intrinsic modes decoupled from the spurious modes are obtained from the intinsic part of the Hamiltonian in the limit of large number of bosons. Intrinsic states are constructed and serve to evaluate electromagnetic transition rates. The method is illustrated for systems with one type of boson as well as with proton-neutron bosons. 28 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Mode analysis of numerical geodynamo models

    CERN Document Server

    Schrinner, Martin; Hoyng, Peter

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested in Hoyng (2009) that dynamo action can be analysed by expansion of the magnetic field into dynamo modes and statistical evaluation of the mode coefficients. We here validate this method by analysing a numerical geodynamo model and comparing the numerically derived mean mode coefficients with the theoretical predictions. The model belongs to the class of kinematically stable dynamos with a dominating axisymmetric, antisymmetric with respect to the equator and non-periodic fundamental dynamo mode. The analysis requires a number of steps: the computation of the so-called dynamo coefficients, the derivation of the temporally and azimuthally averaged dynamo eigenmodes and the decomposition of the magnetic field of the numerical geodynamo model into the eigenmodes. For the determination of the theoretical mode excitation levels the turbulent velocity field needs to be projected on the dynamo eigenmodes. We compare the theoretically and numerically derived mean mode coefficients and find reason...

  9. CMB Delensing Beyond the B Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Daniel; van Engelen, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational lensing by large-scale structure significantly impacts observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB): it smooths the acoustic peaks in temperature and $E$-mode polarization power spectra, correlating previously uncorrelated modes; and it converts $E$-mode polarization into $B$-mode polarization. The act of measuring and removing the effect of lensing from CMB maps, or delensing, has been well studied in the context of $B$ modes, but little attention has been given to the delensing of the temperature and $E$ modes. In this paper, we model the expected delensed $T$ and $E$ power spectra to all orders in the lensing potential, demonstrating the sharpening of the acoustic peaks and a significant reduction in lens-induced power spectrum covariances. We then perform cosmological forecasts, demonstrating that delensing will yield improved sensitivity to parameters with upcoming surveys. We highlight the breaking of the degeneracy between the effective number of neutrino species and primordial h...

  10. Audit mode change, corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Cao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates changes in audit strategy in China following the introduction of risk-based auditing standards rather than an internal control-based audit mode. Specifically, we examine whether auditors are implementing the risk-based audit mode to evaluate corporate governance before distributing audit resources. The results show that under the internal control-based audit mode, the relationship between audit effort and corporate governance was weak. However, implementation of the risk-based mode required by the new auditing standards has significantly enhanced the relationship between audit effort and corporate governance. Since the change in audit mode, the Big Ten have demonstrated a significantly better grasp of governance risk and allocated their audit effort accordingly, relative to smaller firms. The empirical evidence indicates that auditors have adjusted their audit strategy to meet the regulations, risk-based auditing is being achieved to a degree, reasonable and effective corporate governance helps to optimize audit resource allocation, and smaller auditing firms in particular should urgently strengthen their risk-based auditing capability. Overall, our findings imply that the mandatory switch to risk-based auditing has optimized audit effort in China.

  11. Mode-to-mode energy transfers in convective patterns

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mahendra K Verma; Krishna Kumar; Bhaskar Kamble

    2006-12-01

    We investigate the energy transfer between various Fourier modes in a low-dimensional model for thermal convection. We have used the formalism of mode-to-mode energy transfer rate in our calculation. The evolution equations derived using this scheme is the same as those derived using the hydrodynamical equations for thermal convection in Boussinesq fluids. Numerical and analytical studies of this model show that convective rolls appear as the Rayleigh number is raised above its critical value c. Further increase of Rayleigh number generates rolls in the perpendicular directions as well, and we obtain a dynamic asymmetric square pattern. This pattern is due to Hopf bifurcation. There are two sets of limit cycles corresponding to the two competing asymmetric square patterns. When the Rayleigh number is increased further, the limit cycles become unstable simultaneously, and chaotic motion sets in. The onset of chaos is via intermittent route. The trajectories wander for quite a long time almost periodically before jumping irregularly to one of the two ghost limit cycles.

  12. Integrating decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory model and failure mode and effect analysis to determine the priority in solving production problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Cheng Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Failure mode and effect analysis has been applied in manufacturing and service industries but can still be improved. Failure mode and effect analysis is a common tool used to evaluate risk priority number; however, numerous scholars have doubted the effectiveness of failure mode and effect analysis and have thus proposed methods for correcting failure mode and effect analysis from its conventional formula. Because implemented actions can determine or influence resource allocation and its effects, completing one corrective action can occasionally simultaneously improve various failure modes. In this study, failure mode and effect analysis and decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory were integrated to correct failure modes and increase their effectiveness. First, failure mode and effect analysis was employed to identify the items for improvement. Second, decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory was adopted to examine the reciprocal influences and causality among these items. Finally, the priority for improving the items was proposed. By combining the advantages of failure mode and effect analysis and decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory, this research method complemented the shortcomings of the two techniques. According to the empirical research of this case study in which decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory was employed to analyze the causality among the items of the failure modes, the malfunction of production lines can be solved faster and more effectively compared with merely considering the size of risk priority number values.

  13. Number matters: control of mammalian mitochondrial DNA copy number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay Montier, Laura L; Deng, Janice J; Bai, Yidong

    2009-03-01

    Regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis is essential for proper cellular functioning. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion and the resulting mitochondrial malfunction have been implicated in cancer, neurodegeneration, diabetes, aging, and many other human diseases. Although it is known that the dynamics of the mammalian mitochondrial genome are not linked with that of the nuclear genome, very little is known about the mechanism of mtDNA propagation. Nevertheless, our understanding of the mode of mtDNA replication has advanced in recent years, though not without some controversies. This review summarizes our current knowledge of mtDNA copy number control in mammalian cells, while focusing on both mtDNA replication and turnover. Although mtDNA copy number is seemingly in excess, we reason that mtDNA copy number control is an important aspect of mitochondrial genetics and biogenesis and is essential for normal cellular function.

  14. Few-mode fibers for mode division multiplexing transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Hirokazu; Morioka, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    A study is presented of the fiber properties needed to achieve 10-mode multiplexing transmission. A combination of MIMO processing with optical LP mode separation is proposed to prevent the need for massive MIMO computation. The impact of mode crosstalk, differential mode delay, and the mode dependent loss of the few-mode fibers on mode multiplexing are discussed.

  15. Particle transport in density gradient driven TE mode turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Skyman, Andreas; Strand, P I

    2011-01-01

    The turbulent transport of main ion and trace impurities in a tokamak device in the presence of steep electron density gradients has been studied. The parameters are chosen for trapped electron (TE) mode turbulence, driven primarily by steep electron density gradients relevant to H-mode physics, but with a transition to temperature gradient driven turbulence as the density gradient flattens. Results obtained through non-linear (NL) and quasilinear (QL) gyrokinetic simulations using the GENE code are compared with results obtained from a fluid model. Main ion and impurity transport is studied by examining the balance of convective and diffusive transport, as quantified by the density gradient corresponding to zero particle flux (peaking factor). Scalings are obtained for the impurity peaking with the background electron density gradient and the impurity charge number. It is shown that the impurity peaking factor is weakly dependent on impurity charge and significantly smaller than the driving electron density ...

  16. Transverse modes of plane-mirror waveguide resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, C.A. (Laser Devices and Techniques Div., Royal Signals and Radar Establishment, Malvern (GB))

    1988-09-01

    Large numbers of waveguide gas lasers (CO/sub 2/ ones especially) have found medical, military, industrial, and scientific application in the past few years. The simplest resonator design, with a plane mirror close to each end of a long thin dielectric tube, is still the most common. The authors examine what familiar first-order theory predicts about plane-plane resonator behavior, stressing the similarities and differences between circular-bore and square-bore devices. The effects of moving a mirror away from the guide are discussed, and illustrated with new results for the modes and losses of single-guide and U-folded designs with square bores. It appears that laser performance cannot be accurately predicted by previous treatments which use only a few (1-3) waveguide modes.

  17. Reformulation of the Fourier-Bessel steady state mode solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Robert C.

    2016-09-01

    The Fourier-Bessel resonator state mode solver is reformulated using Maxwell's field coupled curl equations. The matrix generating expressions are greatly simplified as well as a reduction in the number of pre-computed tables making the technique simpler to implement on a desktop computer. The reformulation maintains the theoretical equivalence of the permittivity and permeability and as such structures containing both electric and magnetic properties can be examined. Computation examples are presented for a surface nanoscale axial photonic resonator and hybrid { ε , μ } quasi-crystal resonator.

  18. MANAGEMENT OF EXAMINATIONS: ETHICAL ISSUES.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    examinations, creating in the students, sense of responsibility and good study habit. ... of a great number of soldiers for the purpose of assigning them to different military tasks. .... Classroom tests are achievement tests prepared by the teacher.

  19. Subordinate regulatory mode and leader power: Interpersonal regulatory complementarity predicts task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamstra, M.R.W.; Orehek, E.; Holleman, M.

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the implications of locomotion regulatory mode (orientation toward making progress on goals) and assessment regulatory mode (orientation toward critically evaluating alternatives) for employees' performance. Regulatory mode theory suggests that, although these are both integra

  20. Global mode analysis of ideal MHD modes in a heliotron/torsatron system. 1. Mercier-unstable equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.; Nakajima, N.; Okamoto, M.

    1998-12-01

    By means of a global mode analysis of ideal MHD modes for Mercier-unstable equilibria in a planar axis L=2/M=10 heliotron/torsatron system with an inherently large Shafranov shift, the conjecture from local mode analysis for Mercier-unstable equilibria given in [N. Nakajima, Phys. Plasmas 3, 4556 (1996)] has been confirmed and the properties of pressure-driven modes, namely, ballooning modes and interchange modes, inherent to such three-dimensional systems have been clarified. The change of the local magnetic shear due to the Shafranov shift, which is related to toroidicity, reduces the field line bending stabilizing effects on ballooning modes. According to the degree of the reduction of the local magnetic shear by the Shafranov shift, the Mercier-unstable equilibria are categorized into toroidicity-dominant (strong reduction) and helicity-dominant (weak reduction) Mercier-unstable equilibria. Since the local magnetic curvature due to helicity has the same period M in the toroidal direction as the toroidal field period of the equilibria, the characteristics of the pressure-driven modes in such Mercier-unstable equilibria dramatically change, both according to the reduction of the local magnetic shear by the Shafranov shift and also according to the relative magnitude of the typical toroidal mode number n of the perturbation compared with the toroidal field period of the equilibria M. In the toroidicity-dominant Mercier-unstable equilibria, the pressure-driven modes change from interchange modes for low toroidal mode numbers n < M, to tokamak-like poloidally localized ballooning modes with a weak toroidal mode coupling for moderate toroidal mode numbers n - M, and finally to both poloidally and toroidally localized ballooning modes purely inherent to three-dimensional systems for fairly high toroidal mode numbers n >> M. In the helicity-dominant Mercier-unstable equilibria, the pressure-driven modes change from interchange modes for n < M or n - M, directly to both

  1. Mode selection laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to a semiconductor mode selection laser, particularly to a VCSEL laser (200) having mode selection properties. The mode selection capability of the laser is achieved by configuring one of the reflectors (15,51) in the resonance cavity so that a reflectivity of the reflector...... (15) varies spatially in one dimension or two dimensions. Accordingly, the reflector (15) with spatially varying reflectivity is part both of the resonance cavity and the mode selection functionality of the laser. A plurality of the lasers configured with different mode selectors, i.e. different...... spatial reflector variations, may be combined to generate a laser beam containing a plurality of orthogonal modes. The laser beam may be injected into a few- mode optical fiber, e.g. for the purpose of optical communication. The VCSEL may have intra-cavity contacts (31,37) and a Tunnel junction (33...

  2. On Number of Compositions of Natural Numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Janjic, Milan

    2010-01-01

    We first give a combinatorial interpretation of coefficients of Chebyshev polynomials, which allows us to connect them with compositions of natural numbers. Then we describe a relationship between the number of compositions of a natural number in which a certain number of parts are p-1, and other parts are not less than p with compositions in which all parts are not less than p. Then we find a relationship between principal minors of a type of Hessenberg matrices and compositions of natural numbers.

  3. Exploring vortex structures in orbital-angular-momentum beams generated from planar geometric modes with a mode converter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, J C; Liang, H C; Lu, T H; Huang, K F; Chen, Y F

    2016-10-03

    It is theoretically demonstrated that the planar geometric mode with a π/2 mode converter, so called the circularly geometric mode, can be solved from the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation by considering the pump distribution on the lasing mode. Theoretical analysis clearly reveal that the vortex structures of circularly geometric modes are determined by the minimum order of transverse lasing modes, the total number of transverse lasing modes and the degenerate condition in the cavity. Moreover, we experimentally manifest that the circularly geometric mode can be generated from the selective pumped solid-state laser with an external π/2 mode converter. To explore the vortex structures of the generated geometric modes, the interference patterns are performed by an experimental apparatus consisting of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The good agreement between experimental observations and numerical calculations confirms the analysis of vortex structures is reliable.

  4. 实验室信息管理系统中临床生化检验质量控制模的功能探讨%Study on the function of the quality control mode of clinical biochemistry examination in the laboratory information management system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐颂; 黄旭东; 李旭衡

    2016-01-01

    With the continuous improvement of the development level of clinical medicine in our country, medical testing requirements are further enhanced, to standardize the medical examination process and improve the quality level of medical inspection, more and more hospitals establish and improve the laboratory information management system to realize the automation of laboratory information management, networking and information technology by applying modern network technology and electronic computer technology, which has promoted the improvement of the quality level of medical examination to a certain extent. Clinical biochemistry examination is an important component in the modern medical testing system, the examination quality of which is directly related to the laboratory information management level. This thesis analyzes and studies the function of the quality control mode of clinical biochemistry examination in the laboratory information management system.%随着我国临床医学发展水平的不断提升,医学检测的要求也进一步提升,为了规范医学检验流程,提升医学检验质量水平,越来越多的医院开始建立和完善实验室信息管理系统,运用现代网络技术、电子计算机技术等先进的科学技术来实现实验室信息管理的自动化、网络化和信息化,这在一定程度上促进了医学检验质量水平的提升,临床生化检验作为现代医学检测系统中的重要组成部分,其检测质量的高低对实验室信息管理水平具有直接影响,本文就实验室信息管理系统中临床生化检验质量控制模块的功能进行了分析和研究。

  5. On Multiplying Negative Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Mary L.; Dunn, Kenneth A.

    1985-01-01

    Comments on the history of negative numbers, some methods that can be used to introduce the multiplication of negative numbers to students, and an explanation of why the product of two negative numbers is a positive number are included. (MNS)

  6. Selective Mode Excitation And Detection Of Micromachined Resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prak, Albert; Elwenspoek, Miko; Fluitman, Jan H.J

    1992-01-01

    Distributed mechanical systems such as micromachined resonant strain gages possess an infinite number of modes of vibration. Mostly, one is interested in only one or a few modes. A method is described with which only the desired modes are excited and detected. This is achieved by geometrically shapi

  7. Role of stable modes in zonal flow regulated ITG turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makwana, Kirit; Terry, Paul; Hatch, David; Pueschel, M. J.

    2012-10-01

    Stable modes are studied in zonal flow regulated ITG turbulence using the gyrokinetic code GENE. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) modes are employed to investigate the eigenmode space of the distribution function. Both the unstable and stable POD modes show strong nonlinear energy transfer via three wave interactions that include zonal modes. The zonal mode itself absorbs a small fraction of the energy injected by the unstable mode. The remaining energy is deposited in the stable modes of non-zonal wavenumbers that are involved in the three wave coupling. These stable modes lie mostly within the wavenumber range of the instability. This indicates that zonal flows mediate energy transfer from unstable to stable modes, leading to saturation. The amplitude attenuation rate (AAR) of POD modes shows an equipartition across a large range of stable modes. This rate is balanced by three wave correlations of the POD modes and their time dependent amplitudes. These correlations are large if they involve zonal modes and they also show an equipartition for higher mode numbers. A similar analysis using linear eigenmodes also shows rough equipartition among the linear modes. Thus, AAR provides a handle to collectively describe the multitude of stable modes in a gyrokinetic simulation.

  8. All Square Chiliagonal Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A?iru, Muniru A.

    2016-01-01

    A square chiliagonal number is a number which is simultaneously a chiliagonal number and a perfect square (just as the well-known square triangular number is both triangular and square). In this work, we determine which of the chiliagonal numbers are perfect squares and provide the indices of the corresponding chiliagonal numbers and square…

  9. Single-Mode VCSELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Anders; Gustavsson, Johan S.

    The only active transverse mode in a truly single-mode VCSEL is the fundamental mode with a near Gaussian field distribution. A single-mode VCSEL produces a light beam of higher spectral purity, higher degree of coherence and lower divergence than a multimode VCSEL and the beam can be more precisely shaped and focused to a smaller spot. Such beam properties are required in many applications. In this chapter, after discussing applications of single-mode VCSELs, we introduce the basics of fields and modes in VCSELs and review designs implemented for single-mode emission from VCSELs in different materials and at different wavelengths. This includes VCSELs that are inherently single-mode as well as inherently multimode VCSELs where higher-order modes are suppressed by mode selective gain or loss. In each case we present the current state-of-the-art and discuss pros and cons. At the end, a specific example with experimental results is provided and, as a summary, the most promising designs based on current technologies are identified.

  10. Mode coupling in spin torque oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Steven S.-L., E-mail: ZhangShule@missouri.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Zhou, Yan, E-mail: yanzhou@hku.hk [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Center of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Li, Dong, E-mail: geodesic.ld@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Centre for Nonlinear Studies, and Beijing-Hong Kong-Singapore Joint Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Systems, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Heinonen, Olle, E-mail: heinonen@anl.gov [Material Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Northwestern-Argonne Institute of Science and Technology, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Computation Institute, The Unversity of Chicago, 5735 S Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    A number of recent experimental works have shown that the dynamics of a single spin torque oscillator can exhibit complex behavior that stems from interactions between two or more modes of the oscillator, such as observed mode-hopping or mode coexistence. There has been some initial work indicating how the theory for a single-mode (macro-spin) spin torque oscillator should be generalized to include several modes and the interactions between them. In the present work, we rigorously derive such a theory starting with the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation for magnetization dynamics by expanding up to third-order terms in deviation from equilibrium. Our results show how a linear mode coupling, which is necessary for observed mode-hopping to occur, arises through coupling to a magnon bath. The acquired temperature dependence of this coupling implies that the manifold of orbits and fixed points may shift with temperature. - Highlights: • Deriving equations for coupled modes in spin torque oscillators. • Including Hamiltonian formalism and elimination of three–magnon processes. • Thermal bath of magnons central to mode coupling. • Numerical examples of circular and elliptical devices.

  11. Adapting on Demand Examination System in National Open University of Nigeria End of Semester Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, Charity Akuadi

    2011-01-01

    Teaching-learning process is incomplete without effective and meaningful assessment of students learning outcomes. This applies to both conventional modes of education as well as to open and distance learning modes. So far, conduct of examinations at the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN), has been cumbersome and be-decked with "hydra…

  12. From Lyapunov modes to their exponents for hard disk systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tony; Truant, Daniel; Morriss, Gary P

    2010-06-01

    We demonstrate the preservation of the Lyapunov modes in a system of hard disks by the underlying tangent space dynamics. This result is exact for the Zero modes and correct to order ϵ for the Transverse and Longitudinal-Momentum modes, where ϵ is linear in the mode number. For sufficiently large mode numbers, the ϵ terms become significant and the dynamics no longer preserves the mode structure. We propose a modified Gram-Schmidt procedure based on orthogonality with respect to the center zero space that produces the exact numerical mode. This Gram-Schmidt procedure can also exploit the orthogonality between conjugate modes and their symplectic structure in order to find a simple relation that determines the Lyapunov exponent from the Lyapunov mode. This involves a reclassification of the modes into either direction preserving or form preserving. These analytic methods assume a knowledge of the ordering of the modes within the Lyapunov spectrum, but gives both predictive power for the values of the exponents from the modes and describes the modes in greater detail than was previously achievable. Thus the modes and the exponents contain the same information.

  13. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis of Active Magnetic Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P. Lijesh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present research work Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA of an Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB has been presented. Various possible failures modes of AMBs and the corresponding effects of those failures on performance of AMBs have been identified. The identified failure modes of AMBs will facilitate designer to incorporate necessary design features that would prevent the occurrence of the failure. The severity, occurrence and detection of the failures modes are determined based on a rating scale of 1 to 5 to quantify the Risk Priority Number (RPN of the failure modes. The methods to eliminate or reduce the high-risk-failure modes are proposed.

  14. Examining maintenance responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, K C

    2001-06-01

    This paper has examined the important responsibilities of the two organisations involved in the provision of maintenance service for the vital building services in many of our highly serviced buildings. The issues raised could be put to beneficial use in both clients and maintenance providers. All in all, the clients should work closely with their maintenance providers. Engineering services in buildings will not perform satisfactorily and efficiently if both parties do not work together and understand the maintenance tasks based on a business partnering mode. Put forward is the view that the management of the activities involved in the operation and maintenance process is a "shared commitment/involvement" between the client and the maintenance provider. It is obvious that many factors can influence the continued effectiveness of a quality maintenance scheme set up by client and provider. Some of these factors are: Change in key personnel Updates in technology Amendments to engineering practice Implementation of legislative requirements Changes in operation by client or provider Change of use of building Passage of time These factors must be fully reviewed by both parties from time to time, and necessary actions taken. A cooperative team working relationship and improved communication should be fostered by the client and his provider for the best management of services maintenance. This arrangement will contribute to better building services systems with continuous improvement; improved value for clients and higher return for the maintenance provider.

  15. Global Structures of Alfven-Ballooning Modes in Magnetospheric Plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetoulis, Georgios

    1995-01-01

    The problem of radial localization of kinetically excited Alfven-type waves in the terrestial magnetosphere is examined using WKB approximations in the radial direction. These modes have been called drift Alfven ballooning modes (DABM) by CHEN and HASEGAWA, (1991)^1 and are the prime candidates to explain Pc4-Pc5 waves observed during storms. Pc4-5 type geomagnetic oscillations are long-lasting pulsations with large amplitudes and periods on the order of 500 sec. They are typically observed in the inner magnetosphere. Up to now, work on the theory of these pulsations has been done in one dimension, along the equilibrium magnetic field. In this dissertation, we include the effects of both parallel and perpendicular plasma inhomogeneities and investigate the issue of whether such a wave can be radially localized. In the first part, we formulate the theoretical approach neglecting the wave -particle resonances and using the one-fluid MHD limit. A local dispersion relationship is found on each flux surface of the equilibrium, and a global quantization condition is derived. To each flux surface correspond certain characteristic frequencies, (determined as eigenvalues of appropriate one-dimensional problems along the equilibrium magnetic field), and if the appropriate frequency matches the global mode frequency, then this surface is called resonant. In the picture developed here, the global mode is trapped at the outer side of a storm-time ring current by a steep pressure gradient. At the same time, energy from it tunnels through a barrier, and gets absorbed at its corresponding resonant flux surface, which in space physics terminology is called field line resonance. This energy absorption would lead to the damping of the mode, in the absence of an excitation mechanism. A strong dependence of the damping rate on the azimuthal wave number m is established, as well as on the equilibrium profile. First, it is found that the equilibrium pressure gradient has to be steeper

  16. Numbers Defy the Law of Large Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Ruma; Lann, Avital Lavie

    2015-01-01

    As the number of independent tosses of a fair coin grows, the rates of heads and tails tend to equality. This is misinterpreted by many students as being true also for the absolute numbers of the two outcomes, which, conversely, depart unboundedly from each other in the process. Eradicating that misconception, as by coin-tossing experiments,…

  17. Parameterizing by the Number of Numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Fellows, Michael R; Rosamond, Frances A

    2010-01-01

    The usefulness of parameterized algorithmics has often depended on what Niedermeier has called, "the art of problem parameterization". In this paper we introduce and explore a novel but general form of parameterization: the number of numbers. Several classic numerical problems, such as Subset Sum, Partition, 3-Partition, Numerical 3-Dimensional Matching, and Numerical Matching with Target Sums, have multisets of integers as input. We initiate the study of parameterizing these problems by the number of distinct integers in the input. We rely on an FPT result for ILPF to show that all the above-mentioned problems are fixed-parameter tractable when parameterized in this way. In various applied settings, problem inputs often consist in part of multisets of integers or multisets of weighted objects (such as edges in a graph, or jobs to be scheduled). Such number-of-numbers parameterized problems often reduce to subproblems about transition systems of various kinds, parameterized by the size of the system descripti...

  18. Numerical analysis of intermodal delay in few-mode fibers for mode division multiplexing in optical fiber communication systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abid Munir; XIN Xiang-jun; LIU Bo; Abdul Latif; Aftab Hussain; Shahab Ahmad Niazi

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve higher spectral efficiency,mode division multiplexing (MDM) in few-mode fibers is a new research area.The idea faces lots of technical issues including intermodal delay and mode coupling which limit the achievable length of the system.This paper is designated to complete the analysis of intermodal delay in step-index few-mode fibers.We analyze numerically all the parameters of fiber,which could impact intermodal delay in few-mode fibers and identify the conditions which can increase the number of multiplex modes without significant increase in maximum intermodal delay.

  19. Number Comparison and Number Line Estimation Rely on Different Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Sasanguie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The performance in comparison and number line estimation is assumed to rely on the same underlying representation, similar to a compressed mental number line that becomes more linear with age. We tested this assumption explicitly by examining the relation between the linear/logarithmic fit in a non-symbolic number line estimation task and the size effect (SE in a non-symbolic comparison task in first-, second-, and third graders. In two experiments, a correlation between the estimation pattern in number line estimation and the SE in comparison was absent. An ANOVA showed no difference between the groups of children with a linear or a logarithmic representation considering their SE in comparison. This suggests that different mechanisms underlie both basic number processing tasks.

  20. Preparation of topological modes by Lyapunov control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Z C; Zhao, X L; Yi, X X

    2015-09-08

    By Lyapunov control, we present a proposal to drive quasi-particles into a topological mode in quantum systems described by a quadratic Hamiltonian. The merit of this control is the individual manipulations on the boundary sites. We take the Kitaev's chain as an illustration for Fermi systems and show that an arbitrary excitation mode can be steered into the Majorana zero mode by manipulating the chemical potential of the boundary sites. For Bose systems, taking the noninteracting Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model as an example, we illustrate how to drive the system into the edge mode. The sensitivity of the fidelity to perturbations and uncertainties in the control fields and initial modes is also examined. The experimental feasibility of the proposal and the possibility to replace the continuous control field with square wave pulses is finally discussed.

  1. Low-Voltage Hall Thruster Mode Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Technical Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) June 2014- July 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House Low-Voltage Hall Thruster Mode...ABSTRACT Past investigations of the 6kW-class H6 Hall thruster during low-voltage operation revealed two operating modes, corresponding to the...topologies were characterized for the H6 Hall thruster from 100V to 200V discharge, with variation in cathode flow fraction, cathode position inside and

  2. Number words and number symbols a cultural history of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Menninger, Karl

    1992-01-01

    Classic study discusses number sequence and language and explores written numerals and computations in many cultures. "The historian of mathematics will find much to interest him here both in the contents and viewpoint, while the casual reader is likely to be intrigued by the author's superior narrative ability.

  3. Dipole modes with depressed amplitudes in red giants are mixed modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosser, B.; Belkacem, K.; Pinçon, C.; Takata, M.; Vrard, M.; Barban, C.; Goupil, M.-J.; Kallinger, T.; Samadi, R.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Seismic observations with the space-borne Kepler mission have shown that a number of evolved stars exhibit low-amplitude dipole modes, which is referred to as depressed modes. Recently, these low amplitudes have been attributed to the presence of a strong magnetic field in the stellar core of those stars. Subsequently, and based on this scenario, the prevalence of high magnetic fields in evolved stars has been inferred. It should be noted, however, that this conclusion remains indirect. Aims: We intend to study the properties of mode depression in evolved stars, which is a necessary condition before reaching conclusions about the physical nature of the mechanism responsible for the reduction of the dipole mode amplitudes. Methods: We perform a thorough characterization of the global seismic parameters of depressed dipole modes and show that these modes have a mixed character. The observation of stars showing dipole mixed modes that are depressed is especially useful for deriving model-independent conclusions on the dipole mode damping. We use a simple model to explain how mode visibilities are connected to the extra damping seen in depressed modes. Results: Observations prove that depressed dipole modes in red giants are not pure pressure modes but mixed modes. This result, observed in more than 90% of the bright stars (mV ≤ 11), invalidates the hypothesis that depressed dipole modes result from the suppression of the oscillation in the radiative core of the stars. Observations also show that, except for visibility, seismic properties of the stars with depressed modes are equivalent to those of normal stars. The measurement of the extra damping that is responsible for the reduction of mode amplitudes, without any prior on its physical nature, potentially provides an efficient tool for elucidating the mechanism responsible for the mode depression. Conclusions: The mixed nature of the depressed modes in red giants and their unperturbed global seismic

  4. Research on the Production Assignment Based on the Triangular Intuitionistic Fuzzy Numbers Under the Mass Customization Mode%大规模定制模式下基于三角直觉模糊信息的生产指派问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程德通; 李登峰; 余高锋

    2016-01-01

    According to the problems of fuzzy uncertainty which production assignment should face under the mode of mass customization , this article discusses how to apply the triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers to con-struct the production assignment model in order to get the most satisfied production assignment .First, we use the triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers to describe and design a customer satisfaction function and profit function which is based on the factors such as the individual customer needs and business output relative deviation , deliv-ery time and price and so on .Second, harmonic function , which corporates profits and customer satisfaction , is established to construct the production assignment model .It is also proved that this model has feasible and opti-mal solutions and then illustrates the proposed method .Last, the solution process and its effectiveness and ration-ality of production assignment model are illustrated and analyzed through an example .%针对大规模定制模式下生产指派面临的模糊不确定性等问题,探讨如何运用三角直觉模糊数构建生产指派模型进而确定最满意的生产指派方案。首先,运用三角直觉模糊数刻画、设计基于顾客个性化需求与企业产出的相对偏差、产品价格与交货期等影响因素的顾客满意度函数和企业利润函数。其次,建立了兼顾企业利润和顾客满意度的调和函数,据此构建了生产指派模型,并证明该模型有可行解和最优解,然后说明模型的求解方法。最后,通过具体实例说明生产指派模型的求解过程及其有效性、合理性。

  5. Distribution of whistler mode bursts at Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarf, F. L.; Jordan, K. F.; Russell, C. T.

    1987-01-01

    Several thousand impulsive whistler mode noise bursts were detected by the Pioneer Venus wave instrument during the first 10 seasons with nightside traversals at low altitudes. The altitude distribution for these events shows that essentially all of the bursts were detected when the orbiter was less than 2000 km above the planet, suggesting that the varying plasma conditions could not maintain coherent whistler mode field-aligned guidance over greater distances. Within the 2000-km range, the distribution of the number of events versus altitude shows that there are two distinct subregions. These results are interpreted in terms of two types of whistler mode propagation from sources below the ionosphere.

  6. On the number of special numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KEVSER AKTAS; M RAM MURTY

    2017-06-01

    For lack of a better word, a number is called special if it has mutually distinct exponents in its canonical prime factorizaton for all exponents. Let $V (x)$ be the number of special numbers $\\leq x$. We will prove that there is a constant $c$ > 1 such that $V (x) \\sim \\frac{cx}{log x}$. We will make some remarks on determining the error term at the end. Using the explicit abc conjecture, we will study the existence of 23 consecutive special integers.

  7. Climate Modes of the Phanerozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakes, Lawrence A.; Francis, Jane E.; Syktus, Jozef I.

    1992-11-01

    This book views the Earth's climate as a global system, by describing the evolution of climate throughout the past 600 million years, from the Cambrian to the Quaternary. Palaeoclimates are examined in terms of Cold and Warm modes--phases during which the Earth's climates were either relatively cool with ice forming in high latitudes or when high levels of CO2 led to "greenhouse" warmings and temperate floras and faunas inhabited polar regions. Evidence for climate changes, such as biological indicators, geochemical parameters, and the presence of ice, are compared between these modes. These studies have highlighted the crucial role of tectonics and continental distribution in governing ocean circulation, the distribution of sea ice, sea level changes and global temperature distribution. Orbital forcing and the carbon cycle are also shown as important influences, particularly on short term climatic variations.

  8. Propagation of spinning acoustic modes in partially choked converging ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Kelly, J. J.; Watson, L. T.

    1982-01-01

    A computer model based on the wave-envelope technique is used to study the propagation of spinning acoustic modes in converging hard-walled and lined circular ducts carrying near sonic mean flows. The results show that with increasing spinning mode number the intensification of the acoustic signal at the throat decreases for upstream propagation. The influence of the throat Mach number, frequency, boundary-layer thickness, and liner admittance on the propagation of spinning modes is considered.

  9. Numbers and Numerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David Eugene; Ginsburg, Jekuthiel

    Counting, naming numbers, numerals, computation, and fractions are the topics covered in this pamphlet. Number lore and interesting number properties are noted; the derivation of some arithmetic terms is briefly discussed. (DT)

  10. Mode decomposition evolution equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Guo-Wei; Yang, Siyang

    2012-03-01

    Partial differential equation (PDE) based methods have become some of the most powerful tools for exploring the fundamental problems in signal processing, image processing, computer vision, machine vision and artificial intelligence in the past two decades. The advantages of PDE based approaches are that they can be made fully automatic, robust for the analysis of images, videos and high dimensional data. A fundamental question is whether one can use PDEs to perform all the basic tasks in the image processing. If one can devise PDEs to perform full-scale mode decomposition for signals and images, the modes thus generated would be very useful for secondary processing to meet the needs in various types of signal and image processing. Despite of great progress in PDE based image analysis in the past two decades, the basic roles of PDEs in image/signal analysis are only limited to PDE based low-pass filters, and their applications to noise removal, edge detection, segmentation, etc. At present, it is not clear how to construct PDE based methods for full-scale mode decomposition. The above-mentioned limitation of most current PDE based image/signal processing methods is addressed in the proposed work, in which we introduce a family of mode decomposition evolution equations (MoDEEs) for a vast variety of applications. The MoDEEs are constructed as an extension of a PDE based high-pass filter (Europhys. Lett., 59(6): 814, 2002) by using arbitrarily high order PDE based low-pass filters introduced by Wei (IEEE Signal Process. Lett., 6(7): 165, 1999). The use of arbitrarily high order PDEs is essential to the frequency localization in the mode decomposition. Similar to the wavelet transform, the present MoDEEs have a controllable time-frequency localization and allow a perfect reconstruction of the original function. Therefore, the MoDEE operation is also called a PDE transform. However, modes generated from the present approach are in the spatial or time domain and can be

  11. Effects of spanwise instabilities on the suppression of wake mode in flow over a long rectangular cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yiyang; Taira, Kunihiko; Cattafesta, Louis; Ukeiley, Lawrence

    2016-11-01

    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) and biglobal stability analysis are performed to examine the spanwise effects on the appearance of the so-called wake mode in the flow over long rectangular cavities. The wake mode has been reported to exhibit high-amplitude fluctuations and eject large spanwise vortices in numerical studies, despite its lack of observation in experiments, leaving its existence an open question. The present study focuses on a rectangular cavity flow with aspect ratio of L / D = 6 , free stream Mach number of M∞ = 0 . 6 and ReD = 502 . The properties of the wake mode are revealed via 2D DNS. From the biglobal stability analysis, the wake mode can be captured with a zero spanwise wavenumber. Furthermore, 3D eigenmodes are calculated with spanwise wavelength λ / D ∈ [ 0 . 5 , 2 ] . With the knowledge of the features of the wake mode and the 3D eigenmodes, 3D DNS are performed with width-to-depth ratio of W / D = 1 and 2. We find the flow exhibits the wake mode with W / D = 1 but presents a moderate shear-layer mode with W / D = 2 . Based on the findings, we argue that the spanwise instabilities in flows over wide cavities redistribute energy from spanwise vortices to streamwise vortical structures, which suppresses the emergence of the wake mode in the 3D cavity flows. This work was supported by the US Air Force Office of Scientific Research (Grant FA9550-13-1-0091).

  12. Those fascinating numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Koninck, Jean-Marie De

    2009-01-01

    Who would have thought that listing the positive integers along with their most remarkable properties could end up being such an engaging and stimulating adventure? The author uses this approach to explore elementary and advanced topics in classical number theory. A large variety of numbers are contemplated: Fermat numbers, Mersenne primes, powerful numbers, sublime numbers, Wieferich primes, insolite numbers, Sastry numbers, voracious numbers, to name only a few. The author also presents short proofs of miscellaneous results and constantly challenges the reader with a variety of old and new n

  13. Assimilation of Mode-S EHS aircraft observations with a local EnKF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Heiner; Janjic, Tijana

    2016-04-01

    Aircraft observations of wind and temperature collected by airport surveillance radars (Mode-S EHS) were assimilated in COSMO-KENDA (Kilometre-scale ENsemble Data Assimilation) which couples an Ensemble Kalman Filter to a 40 member ensemble of the convection permitting COSMO-DE (Consortium for Small-Scale Modelling) model. The number of observing aircrafts in Mode-S EHS was about 15 times larger than in the AMDAR system. Between both aircraft observation systems, comparable observation error standard deviations in wind and a larger error in temperature were diagnosed a posteriori using analysis/forecast residuals in observation space (Desrozier's method). With the high density of Mode-S EHS observations, a reduction of temperature and wind error in forecasts of one and three hours was found mainly in the flight level and less near the surface. The amount of Mode-S EHS data was reduced by random thinning to test the effect of a varying observation density. With the current data assimilation setup, a saturation of the forecast error reduction was apparent when more than 50 percent of the Mode-S EHS data were assimilated. Forecast kinetic energy spectra indicated that the reduction in error is related to analysis updates on all scales resolved by COSMO-DE. Evolution (every 15 minutes) of forecast kinetic energy spectra compared to the control experiment showed different behavior of COSMO-DE model depending on amount of data assimilated.

  14. On the Squeezed Number States and their Phase Space Representations

    CERN Document Server

    Albano, L; Stephany, J

    2002-01-01

    We compute the photon number distribution, the Q distribution function and the wave functions in the momentum and position representation for a single mode squeezed number state. We discuss the oscillations which appear in the photon number distribution of squeezed number states for high values of the squeezing parameter. We compare our results with the formalism based on the interference in phase space.

  15. Recovering hidden dynamical modes from the generalized Langevin equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Shinnosuke; Miyazaki, Yusuke

    2016-09-01

    In studying large molecular systems, insights can better be extracted by selecting a limited number of physical quantities for analysis rather than treating every atomic coordinate in detail. Some information may, however, be lost by projecting the total system onto a small number of coordinates. For such problems, the generalized Langevin equation (GLE) is shown to provide a useful framework to examine the interaction between the observed variables and their environment. Starting with the GLE obtained from the time series of the observed quantity, we perform a transformation to introduce a set of variables that describe dynamical modes existing in the environment. The introduced variables are shown to effectively recover the essential information of the total system that appeared to be lost by the projection.

  16. Introduction to number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Vazzana, Anthony; Garth, David

    2007-01-01

    One of the oldest branches of mathematics, number theory is a vast field devoted to studying the properties of whole numbers. Offering a flexible format for a one- or two-semester course, Introduction to Number Theory uses worked examples, numerous exercises, and two popular software packages to describe a diverse array of number theory topics.

  17. δ-FIBONACCI NUMBERS

    OpenAIRE

    Damian Slota; Roman Witula

    2009-01-01

    The scope of the paper is the definition and discussion of the polynomial generalizations of the {sc Fibonacci} numbers called here $delta$-{sc Fibonacci} numbers. Many special identities and interesting relations for these new numbers are presented. Also, different connections between $delta$-{sc Fibonacci} numbers and {sc Fibonacci} and {sc Lucas} numbersare proven in this paper.

  18. Building Numbers from Primes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…

  19. Silicon Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Mazzillo; S. Billotta; G. Bonanno; A. Campisi; L. Cosentino; P. Finocchiaro; F. Musumeci; S.Privitera; S. Tudisco; G. Condorelli; D. Sanfilippo; G. Fallica; E. Sciacca; S. Aurite; S. Lombardo; E. Rlmini; M. Belluso

    2007-01-01

    In this letter we present the results regarding the electrical and optical characterization of Geiger mode silicon avalanche photodiodes (GMAP) fabricated by silicon standard planar technology. Low dark count rates, negligible afterpulsing effects,good timing resolution and high quantum detection efficiency in all the visible range have been measured. The very good electro-optical performances of our photodiodes make them attractive for the fabrication of arrays with a large number of GMAP to be used both in the commercial and the scientific fields, as telecommunications and nuclear medical imaging.

  20. Mode choice model parameters estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Strnad, Irena

    2010-01-01

    The present work focuses on parameter estimation of two mode choice models: multinomial logit and EVA 2 model, where four different modes and five different trip purposes are taken into account. Mode choice model discusses the behavioral aspect of mode choice making and enables its application to a traffic model. Mode choice model includes mode choice affecting trip factors by using each mode and their relative importance to choice made. When trip factor values are known, it...

  1. Effect of a static external magnetic perturbation on resistive mode stability in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, R. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Institute for Fusion Studies; Hender, T.C. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Institute for Fusion Studies]|[Culham Lab., Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    1994-03-01

    The influence of a general static external magnetic perturbation on the stability of resistive modes in a tokamak plasma is examined. There are three main parts to this investigation. Firstly, the vacuum perturbation is expanded as a set of well-behaved toroidal ring functions and is, thereafter, specified by the coefficients of this expansion. Secondly, a dispersion relation is derived for resistive plasma instabilities in the presence of a general external perturbation and finally, this dispersion relation is solved for the amplitudes of the tearing and twisting modes driven in the plasma by a specific perturbation. It is found that the amplitudes of driven tearing and twisting modes are negligible until a certain critical perturbation strength is exceeded. Only tearing modes are driven in low-{beta} plasmas with {epsilon}{beta}{sub p} << 1. However, twisting modes may also be driven if {epsilon}{beta}{sub p}{approx}>1. For error-field perturbations made up of a large number of different poloidal and toroidal harmonics the critical strength to drive locked modes has a {open_quote}staircase{close_quote} variation with edge-q, characterized by strong discontinuities as coupled rational surfaces enter or leave the plasma. For single harmonic perturbations the variation with edge-q is far smoother. Both types of behaviour have been observed experimentally. The critical perturbation strength is found to decrease strongly close to an ideal external kink stability boundary. This is also in agreement with experimental observations.

  2. Effects of field-aligned flows on standing kink and sausage modes supported by coronal loops

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, S -X; Xia, L -D; Chen, Y -J; Yu, H

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental standing modes and their overtones play an important role in coronal seismology. We examine how a significant field-aligned flow affects standing modes supported by coronal loops, modeled here as cold magnetic slabs. Of particular interest are the period ratios of the fundamental to its $(n-1)$-th overtone ($P_1/nP_n$) for both kink and sausage modes, and the threshold half-width-to-length ratio for sausage modes. For standing kink modes, the flow significantly reduces $P_1/nP_n$ in general, the effect being particularly strong for larger $n$ and when the density contrast $\\rho_0/\\rho_e$ between loops and their surroundings is weak. That said, even when $\\rho_0/\\rho_e$ approaches infinity, this effect is still substantial, reducing the minimal $P_1/nP_n$ by up to 13.7% (24.5%) for $n=2$ ($n=4$) relative to the static case, when the Alfv\\'en Mach number $M_A$ reaches 0.8 where $M_A$ measures the loop flow speed in units of the internal Alfv\\'en speed. For standing sausage modes, though not negligib...

  3. Hyper Space Complex Number

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Shanguang

    2007-01-01

    A new kind of numbers called Hyper Space Complex Numbers and its algebras are defined and proved. It is with good properties as the classic Complex Numbers, such as expressed in coordinates, triangular and exponent forms and following the associative and commutative laws of addition and multiplication. So the classic Complex Number is developed from in complex plane with two dimensions to in complex space with N dimensions and the number system is enlarged also.

  4. Microwave bessel beams generation using guided modes

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed

    2011-06-01

    A novel method is devised for Bessel beams generation in the microwave regime. The beam is decomposed in terms of a number of guided transverse electric modes of a metallic waveguide. Modal expansion coefficients are computed from the modal power orthogonality relation. Excitation is achieved by means of a number of inserted coaxial loop antennas, whose currents are calculated from the excitation coefficients of the guided modes. The efficiency of the method is evaluated and its feasibility is discussed. Obtained results can be utilized to practically realize microwave Bessel beam launchers. © 2006 IEEE.

  5. FMEA Based Risk Assessment of Component Failure Modes in Industrial Radiography

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Alok; Sonawane, A U; Rawat, Prashant S

    2016-01-01

    Industrial radiography has its inimitable role in non-destructive examinations. Industrial radiography devices, consisting of significantly high activity of the radioisotopes, are operated manually by remotely held control unit. Malfunctioning of these devices may cause potential exposure to the operator and nearby public, and thus should be practiced under a systematic risk control. To ensure the radiation safety, proactive risk assessment should be implemented. Risk assessment in industrial radiography using the Failure Modes & Effect Analysis (FMEA) for the design and operation of industrial radiography exposure devices has been carried out in this study. Total 56 component failure modes were identified and Risk Priority Numbers (RPNs) were assigned by the FMEA expert team, based on the field experience and reported failure data of various components. Results shows all the identified failure modes have RPN in the range of 04 to 216 and most of the higher RPN are due to low detectability and high severi...

  6. Surface modes in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sernelius, Bo E

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic surface modes are present at all surfaces and interfaces between material of different dielectric properties. These modes have very important effects on numerous physical quantities: adhesion, capillary force, step formation and crystal growth, the Casimir effect etc. They cause surface tension and wetting and they give rise to forces which are important e.g. for the stability of colloids.This book is a useful and elegant approach to the topic, showing how the concept of electromagnetic modes can be developed as a unifying theme for a range of condensed matter physics. The

  7. Higher Order Mode Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Stine Møller

    . The research presented in this thesis falls in three parts. In the first part, a first time demonstration of the break of the azimuthal symmetry of the Bessel-like LP0X modes is presented. This effect, known as the bowtie effect, causes the mode to have an azimuthal dependence as well as a quasi...... and polarization state are investigated. For this fiber, the onset of the bowtie effect is shown numerically to be LP011. The characteristics usually associated with Bessel-likes modes such as long diffraction free length and selfhealing are shown to be conserved despite the lack of azimuthal symmetry...

  8. Dimensionless numbers in additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, T.; Manvatkar, V.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of many process variables and alloy properties on the structure and properties of additively manufactured parts are examined using four dimensionless numbers. The structure and properties of components made from 316 Stainless steel, Ti-6Al-4V, and Inconel 718 powders for various dimensionless heat inputs, Peclet numbers, Marangoni numbers, and Fourier numbers are studied. Temperature fields, cooling rates, solidification parameters, lack of fusion defects, and thermal strains are examined using a well-tested three-dimensional transient heat transfer and fluid flow model. The results show that lack of fusion defects in the fabricated parts can be minimized by strengthening interlayer bonding using high values of dimensionless heat input. The formation of harmful intermetallics such as laves phases in Inconel 718 can be suppressed using low heat input that results in a small molten pool, a steep temperature gradient, and a fast cooling rate. Improved interlayer bonding can be achieved at high Marangoni numbers, which results in vigorous circulation of liquid metal, larger pool dimensions, and greater depth of penetration. A high Fourier number ensures rapid cooling, low thermal distortion, and a high ratio of temperature gradient to the solidification growth rate with a greater tendency of plane front solidification.

  9. Modes of relating to music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Melo Campos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of modes of relating to music is presented, consisting of three conceptual levels and organized into thirteen analytical dimensions that may be operationalized for the purposes of observing empirical situations. It involves closely examining a diversified set of relationships specific to musical practices, in an integrated manner, qualitatively typifying the forms of enjoying them around two poles: the essential and the relational. Although formulated to analyze professional musicians, it is maintained that the concept is also suitable (with adaptations for the analysis of musical consumptions and other spheres of cultural production (intellectual and artistic.

  10. Possible number systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rips, Lance J; Thompson, Samantha

    2014-03-01

    Number systems-such as the natural numbers, integers, rationals, reals, or complex numbers-play a foundational role in mathematics, but these systems can present difficulties for students. In the studies reported here, we probed the boundaries of people's concept of a number system by asking them whether "number lines" of varying shapes qualify as possible number systems. In Experiment 1, participants rated each of a set of number lines as a possible number system, where the number lines differed in their structures (a single straight line, a step-shaped line, a double line, or two branching structures) and in their boundedness (unbounded, bounded below, bounded above, bounded above and below, or circular). Participants also rated each of a group of mathematical properties (e.g., associativity) for its importance to number systems. Relational properties, such as associativity, predicted whether participants believed that particular forms were number systems, as did the forms' ability to support arithmetic operations, such as addition. In Experiment 2, we asked participants to produce properties that were important for number systems. Relational, operation, and use-based properties from this set again predicted ratings of whether the number lines were possible number systems. In Experiment 3, we found similar results when the number lines indicated the positions of the individual numbers. The results suggest that people believe that number systems should be well-behaved with respect to basic arithmetic operations, and that they reject systems for which these operations produce ambiguous answers. People care much less about whether the systems have particular numbers (e.g., 0) or sets of numbers (e.g., the positives).

  11. Onset and Saturation of a Non-resonant Internal Mode in NSTX and Implications For AT Modes in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. Breslau, M.S. Chance, J. Chen, G.Y. Fu, S,. Gerhardt, N. Gorelenkov, S.C. Jardin and J. Manickam

    2011-08-01

    Motivated by experimental observations of apparently triggerless tearing modes, we have performed linear and nonlinear MHD analysis showing that a non-resonant mode with toroidal mode number n = 1 can develop in the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) at moderate normalized βN when the shear is low and the central safety factor q0 is close to but greater than one. This mode, which is related to previously identified ‘infernal’ modes, will saturate and persist, and can develop poloidal mode number m = 2 magnetic islands in agreement with experiments. We have also extended this analysis by performing a free-boundary transport simulation of an entire discharge and showing that, with reasonable assumptions, we can predict the time of mode onset. __________________________________________________

  12. Algebraic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Jarvis, Frazer

    2014-01-01

    The technical difficulties of algebraic number theory often make this subject appear difficult to beginners. This undergraduate textbook provides a welcome solution to these problems as it provides an approachable and thorough introduction to the topic. Algebraic Number Theory takes the reader from unique factorisation in the integers through to the modern-day number field sieve. The first few chapters consider the importance of arithmetic in fields larger than the rational numbers. Whilst some results generalise well, the unique factorisation of the integers in these more general number fields often fail. Algebraic number theory aims to overcome this problem. Most examples are taken from quadratic fields, for which calculations are easy to perform. The middle section considers more general theory and results for number fields, and the book concludes with some topics which are more likely to be suitable for advanced students, namely, the analytic class number formula and the number field sieve. This is the fi...

  13. All square chiliagonal numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aṣiru, Muniru A.

    2016-10-01

    A square chiliagonal number is a number which is simultaneously a chiliagonal number and a perfect square (just as the well-known square triangular number is both triangular and square). In this work, we determine which of the chiliagonal numbers are perfect squares and provide the indices of the corresponding chiliagonal numbers and square numbers. The study revealed that the determination of square chiliagonal numbers naturally leads to a generalized Pell equation x2 - Dy2 = N with D = 1996 and N = 9962, and has six fundamental solutions out of which only three yielded integer values for use as indices of chiliagonal numbers. The crossing/independent recurrence relations satisfied by each class of indices of the corresponding chiliagonal numbers and square numbers are obtained. Finally, the generating functions serve as a clothesline to hang up the indices of the corresponding chiliagonal numbers and square numbers for easy display and this was used to obtain the first few sequence of square chiliagonal numbers.

  14. Characteristics of magnetoacoustic sausage modes

    CERN Document Server

    Inglis, A R; Brady, C S; Nakariakov, V M; 10.1051/0004-6361/200912088

    2013-01-01

    Aims: We perform an advanced study of the fast magnetoacoustic sausage oscillations of coronal loops in the context of MHD coronal seismology to establish the dependence of the sausage mode period and cut-off wavenumber on the plasma-beta of the loop-filling plasma. A parametric study of the ratios for different harmonics of the mode is also carried out. Methods: Full magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations were performed using Lare2d, simulating hot, dense loops in a magnetic slab environment. The symmetric Epstein profile and a simple step-function profile were both used to model the density structure of the simulated loops. Analytical expressions for the cut-off wavenumber and the harmonic ratio between the second longitudinal harmonic and the fundamental were also examined. Results: It was established that the period of the global sausage mode is only very weakly dependent on the value of the plasma-beta inside a coronal loop, which justifies the application of this model to hot flaring loops. The cut-o...

  15. Observations of sausage modes in magnetic pores

    CERN Document Server

    Morton, R J; Jess, D B; Mathioudakis, M

    2010-01-01

    We present here evidence for the observation of the magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) sausage modes in magnetic pores in the solar photosphere. Further evidence for the omnipresent nature of acoustic global modes is also found. The empirical decomposition method of wave analysis is used to identify the oscillations detected through a 4170 {\\AA} 'blue continuum' filter observed with the Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere (ROSA) instrument. Out of phase, periodic behavior in pore size and intensity is used as an indicator of the presence of magneto-acoustic sausage oscillations. Multiple signatures of the magneto-acoustic sausage mode are found in a number of pores. The periods range from as short as 30 s up to 450 s. A number of the magneto-acoustic sausage mode oscillations found have periods of 3 and 5 minutes, similar to the acoustic global modes of the solar interior. It is proposed that these global oscillations could be the driver of the sausage type magneto-acoustic MHD wave modes in pores.

  16. Resonance vector mode locking

    CERN Document Server

    Kolpakov, Stanislav A; Loika, Yuri; Tarasov, Nikita; Kalashnikov, Vladimir; Agrawal, Govind P

    2015-01-01

    A mode locked fibre laser as a source of ultra-stable pulse train has revolutionised a wide range of fundamental and applied research areas by offering high peak powers, high repetition rates, femtosecond range pulse widths and a narrow linewidth. However, further progress in linewidth narrowing seems to be limited by the complexity of the carrier-envelope phase control. Here for the first time we demonstrate experimentally and theoretically a new mechanism of resonance vector self-mode locking where tuning in-cavity birefringence leads to excitation of the longitudinal modes sidebands accompanied by the resonance phase locking of sidebands with the adjacent longitudinal modes. An additional resonance with acoustic phonons provides the repetition rate tunability and linewidth narrowing down to Hz range that drastically reduces the complexity of the carrier-envelope phase control and so will open the way to advance lasers in the context of applications in metrology, spectroscopy, microwave photonics, astronomy...

  17. A model for the multiplex dynamics of two-mode and one-mode networks, with an application to employment preference, friendship, and advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, Tom A B; Lomi, Alessandro; Torló, Vanina Jasmine

    2013-05-01

    We propose a new stochastic actor-oriented model for the co-evolution of two-mode and one-mode networks. The model posits that activities of a set of actors, represented in the two-mode network, co-evolve with exchanges and interactions between the actors, as represented in the one-mode network. The model assumes that the actors, not the activities, have agency. The empirical value of the model is demonstrated by examining how employment preferences co-evolve with friendship and advice relations in a group of seventy-five MBA students. The analysis shows that activity in the two-mode network, as expressed by number of employment preferences, is related to activity in the friendship network, as expressed by outdegrees. Further, advice ties between students lead to agreement with respect to employment preferences. In addition, considering the multiplexity of advice and friendship ties yields a better understanding of the dynamics of the advice relation: tendencies to reciprocation and homophily in advice relations are mediated to an important extent by friendship relations. The discussion pays attention to the implications of this study in the broader context of current efforts to model the co-evolutionary dynamics of social networks and individual behavior.

  18. Safety-in-numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Bjørnskau, Torkel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •26 studies of the safety-in-numbers effect are reviewed. •The existence of a safety-in-numbers effect is confirmed. •Results are consistent. •Causes of the safety-in-numbers effect are incompletely known.......Highlights •26 studies of the safety-in-numbers effect are reviewed. •The existence of a safety-in-numbers effect is confirmed. •Results are consistent. •Causes of the safety-in-numbers effect are incompletely known....

  19. Odd Multiperfect Numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shi-Chao

    2011-01-01

    A natural number $n$ is called {\\it multiperfect} or {\\it$k$-perfect} for integer $k\\ge2$ if $\\sigma(n)=kn$, where $\\sigma(n)$ is the sum of the positive divisors of $n$. In this paper, we establish the structure theorem of odd multiperfect numbers analogous as Euler's theorem on odd perfect numbers. We prove the divisibility of the Euler part of odd multiperfect numbers and characterize the forms of odd perfect numbers $n=\\pi^\\alpha M^2$ such that $\\pi\\equiv\\alpha(\\text{mod}8)$. We also present some examples to show the nonexistence of odd perfect numbers as applications.

  20. Instability properties under a model mode-1 internal tide

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, S.; Peter, D.

    2016-11-01

    The instability properties of the bottom boundary layer (BBL) under a model mode-1 internal tide in linearly stratified finite-depth water are studied, using 2-D direct numerical simulations (DNS) based on a spectral multidomain penalty method model. This model internal tide is a proxy for its lower-mode oceanic counterpart which is generated when stratified water is forced over topography by barotropic tidal currents. Such low-mode internal tidal waves tend to propagate long distances from the point of generation, carrying with them large amounts of energy. One mechanism through which this energy is dissipated is through wave-BBL interactions, where strong shear layers develop along the bed, leading to focused instabilities which are precursors for localized turbulent events. Such events in the BBL can cause sediment resuspension and drive benthic nutrient fluxes, playing a crucial role in ecosystem balances. In the model problem, the stability response of the time-dependent BBL is examined by introducing low-amplitude perturbations near the bed. The corresponding time-evolving BBL-integrated perturbation energy growth rates are then computed, by comparing both the perturbed and unperturbed cases. When an instability actually occurs, its vorticity structure and preferred location is identified. Ultimately, a stability boundary is constructed as a function of perturbation amplitude and internal wave steepness, aspect ration and Reynolds number.

  1. Supersymmetric mode converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Matthias; Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Stützer, Simon; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, the ever-increasing demand for high-capacity transmission systems has driven remarkable advances in technologies that encode information on an optical signal. Mode-division multiplexing makes use of individual modes supported by an optical waveguide as mutually orthogonal channels. The key requirement in this approach is the capability to selectively populate and extract specific modes. Optical supersymmetry (SUSY) has recently been proposed as a particularly elegant way to resolve this design challenge in a manner that is inherently scalable, and at the same time maintains compatibility with existing multiplexing strategies. Supersymmetric partners of multimode waveguides are characterized by the fact that they share all of their effective indices with the original waveguide. The crucial exception is the fundamental mode, which is absent from the spectrum of the partner waveguide. Here, we demonstrate experimentally how this global phase-matching property can be exploited for efficient mode conversion. Multimode structures and their superpartners are experimentally realized in coupled networks of femtosecond laser-written waveguides, and the corresponding light dynamics are directly observed by means of fluorescence microscopy. We show that SUSY transformations can readily facilitate the removal of the fundamental mode from multimode optical structures. In turn, hierarchical sequences of such SUSY partners naturally implement the conversion between modes of adjacent order. Our experiments illustrate just one of the many possibilities of how SUSY may serve as a building block for integrated mode-division multiplexing arrangements. Supersymmetric notions may enrich and expand integrated photonics by versatile optical components and desirable, yet previously unattainable, functionalities.

  2. Mode Gaussian beam tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, M. Yu.; Zakharenko, A. D.; Kozitskiy, S. B.

    2016-10-01

    A mode parabolic equation in the ray centered coordinates for 3D underwater sound propagation is developed. The Gaussian beam tracing in this case is constructed. The test calculations are carried out for the ASA wedge benchmark and proved an excellent agreement with the source images method in the case of cross-slope propagation. But in the cases of wave propagation at some angles to the cross-slope direction an account of mode interaction becomes necessary.

  3. Applications of sliding mode control in science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Lien, Chang-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Gathering 20 chapters contributed by respected experts, this book reports on the latest advances in and applications of sliding mode control in science and engineering. The respective chapters address applications of sliding mode control in the broad areas of chaos theory, robotics, electrical engineering, physics, chemical engineering, memristors, mechanical engineering, environmental engineering, finance, and biology. Special emphasis has been given to papers that offer practical solutions, and which examine design and modeling involving new types of sliding mode control such as higher order sliding mode control, terminal sliding mode control, super-twisting sliding mode control, and integral sliding mode control. This book serves as a unique reference guide to sliding mode control and its recent applications for graduate students and researchers with a basic knowledge of electrical and control systems engineering.

  4. Examination Management and Examination Malpractice: The Nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunji, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Examination malpractice or cheating has become a global phenomenon. In different countries of the world today, developed and developing, academic dishonesty especially cheating in examinations has heightened and taken frightening dimension. In many countries of the world this phenomenon has become a serious matter of concern that has left many…

  5. New modes of assisted mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Sipmann, F

    2014-05-01

    Recent major advances in mechanical ventilation have resulted in new exciting modes of assisted ventilation. Compared to traditional ventilation modes such as assisted-controlled ventilation or pressure support ventilation, these new modes offer a number of physiological advantages derived from the improved patient control over the ventilator. By implementing advanced closed-loop control systems and using information on lung mechanics, respiratory muscle function and respiratory drive, these modes are specifically designed to improve patient-ventilator synchrony and reduce the work of breathing. Depending on their specific operational characteristics, these modes can assist spontaneous breathing efforts synchronically in time and magnitude, adapt to changing patient demands, implement automated weaning protocols, and introduce a more physiological variability in the breathing pattern. Clinicians have now the possibility to individualize and optimize ventilatory assistance during the complex transition from fully controlled to spontaneous assisted ventilation. The growing evidence of the physiological and clinical benefits of these new modes is favoring their progressive introduction into clinical practice. Future clinical trials should improve our understanding of these modes and help determine whether the claimed benefits result in better outcomes.

  6. THE UNSTABLE MODES OF NATURAL CONVECTION BOUNDARY LAYER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Jianjun; Zhuang Fenggan; Yan Dachun

    2000-01-01

    The instability of natural convection boundary layer around a vertical heated flat plate is analyzed theoretically in this paper. The results illustrate that the “loop” in the neutral curve is not a real loop but a twist of the curve is the frequencywave number-Grashof number space, and there is only one unstable mode at small Prandtl numbers. Specially, when the Prandtl number is large enough two unstable modes will be found in the “loop” region. Along the amplifying surface intersection the two unstable modes have the same Grashof number, wave number and frequency but different amplifying rates. Their instability characteristics are analyzed and the criterion for determining the existence of the multi-unstable modes is also discussed.

  7. Localized modes in orientation-disordered uniaxial medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Zhenzhu; Han Yanling [School of Mathematics and Physics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang Hong, E-mail: wanghong745@sohu.com, E-mail: w_pearl2008@163.com [Center of Information and Laboratory, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2011-02-01

    Using a 4x4 transfer matrix method, localized modes in orientation-disordered uniaxial medium have been investigated. We confirm that localized modes origin from the randomness of spatial orientation of optical axes. The misalignment of the optical axe provides the opportunity for a rearrangement of the localized modes. The number of localize mode also closely relative to the spatial orientation of optical axis. Numerical results indicate that it is possible to adjust the localized modes through altering the relative orientation of the optical axes of scatterers. This study is an importance for well understanding of localization of light wave and lasing action in anisotropic random media.

  8. Evidence for distinct modes of solar activity

    CERN Document Server

    Usoskin, I G; Gallet, Y; Roth, R; Licht, A; Joos, F; Kovaltsov, G A; Thebault, E; Khokhlov, A

    2014-01-01

    Aims. The Sun shows strong variability in its magnetic activity, from Grand minima to Grand maxima, but the nature of the variability is not fully understood, mostly because of the insufficient length of the directly observed solar activity records and of uncertainties related to long-term reconstructions. Here we present a new adjustment-free reconstruction of solar activity over three millennia and study its different modes. Methods. We present a new adjustment-free, physical reconstruction of solar activity over the past three millennia, using the latest verified carbon cycle, 14C production, and archeomagnetic field models. This great improvement allowed us to study different modes of solar activity at an unprecedented level of details. Results. The distribution of solar activity is clearly bi-modal, implying the existence of distinct modes of activity. The main regular activity mode corresponds to moderate activity that varies in a relatively narrow band between sunspot numbers about 20 and 67. The exist...

  9. Mode Conversion of Solar p-Modes in Non-Vertical Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, A. D.; Cally, P. S.

    2005-03-01

    Sunspots absorb and scatter incident f- and p-modes. Until recently, the responsible absorption mechanism was uncertain. The most promising explanation appears to be mode conversion to slow magnetoacoustic-gravity waves, which carry energy down the magnetic field lines into the interior. In vertical magnetic field, mode conversion can adequately explain the observed f-mode absorption, but is too inefficient to account for the absorption of p-modes. In the first paper of the present series we calculated the efficiency of fast-to-slow magnetoacoustic-gravity wave conversion in uniform non-vertical magnetic fields. We assumed two-dimensional propagation, where the Alfvén waves decouple. In comparison to vertical field, it was found that mode conversion is significantly enhanced in moderately inclined fields, especially at higher frequencies. Using those results, Cally, Crouch, and Braun showed that the resultant p-mode absorption produced by simple sunspot models with non-vertical magnetic fields is ample to explain the observations. In this paper, we further examine mode conversion in non-vertical magnetic fields. In particular, we consider three-dimensional propagation, where the fast and slow magnetoacoustic-gravity waves and the Alfvén waves are coupled. Broadly speaking, the p-mode damping rates are not substantially different to the two-dimensional case. However, we do find that the Alfvén waves can remove similar quantities of energy to the slow MAG waves.

  10. Process for Operating a Dual-Mode Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefny, Charles J. (Inventor); Dippold, Vance F. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A new dual-mode ramjet combustor used for operation over a wide flight Mach number range is described. Subsonic combustion mode is usable to lower flight Mach numbers than current dual-mode scramjets. High speed mode is characterized by supersonic combustion in a free-jet that traverses the subsonic combustion chamber to a variable nozzle throat. Although a variable combustor exit aperture is required, the need for fuel staging to accommodate the combustion process is eliminated. Local heating from shock-boundary-layer interactions on combustor walls is also eliminated.

  11. Analytic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Kohji

    2002-01-01

    The book includes several survey articles on prime numbers, divisor problems, and Diophantine equations, as well as research papers on various aspects of analytic number theory such as additive problems, Diophantine approximations and the theory of zeta and L-function Audience Researchers and graduate students interested in recent development of number theory

  12. Survey on fusible numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Junyan

    2012-01-01

    We point out that the recursive formula that appears in Erickson's presentation "Fusible Numbers" is incorrect, and pose an alternate conjecture about the structure of fusible numbers. Although we are unable to solve the conjecture, we succeed in establishing some basic properties of fusible numbers. We suggest some possible approaches to the conjecture, and list further problems in the final chapter.

  13. Discovery: Prime Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mestre, Neville

    2008-01-01

    Prime numbers are important as the building blocks for the set of all natural numbers, because prime factorisation is an important and useful property of all natural numbers. Students can discover them by using the method known as the Sieve of Eratosthenes, named after the Greek geographer and astronomer who lived from c. 276-194 BC. Eratosthenes…

  14. Low-frequency electrostatic dust-modes in a non-uniform magnetized dusty plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S S Duha; S K Paul; A K Banerjee; A A Mamun

    2004-11-01

    A self-consistent and general description of obliquely propagating low-frequency electrostatic dust-modes in a non-uniform magnetized dusty plasma system has been presented. A number of different situations, which correspond to different low-frequency electrostatic dust-modes, namely, dust-acoustic mode, dust-drift mode, dust-cyclotron mode, dust-lower-hybrid mode, and other associated modes (such as, accelerated and retarded dust-acoustic modes, accelerated and retarded dust-lower-hybrid modes, etc.), have also been investigated. It has been shown that the effects of obliqueness and inhomogeneities in plasma particle number densities introduce new electrostatic dust modes as well as significantly modify the dispersion properties of the other low-frequency electrostatic dust associated modes. The implications of these results to some space and astrophysical dusty plasma systems, especially to planetary ring-systems and cometary tails, are briefly mentioned.

  15. Mode Selection in Compressible Active Flow Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrow, Aden; Woodhouse, Francis G.; Dunkel, Jörn

    2017-07-01

    Coherent, large-scale dynamics in many nonequilibrium physical, biological, or information transport networks are driven by small-scale local energy input. Here, we introduce and explore an analytically tractable nonlinear model for compressible active flow networks. In contrast to thermally driven systems, we find that active friction selects discrete states with a limited number of oscillation modes activated at distinct fixed amplitudes. Using perturbation theory, we systematically predict the stationary states of noisy networks and find good agreement with a Bayesian state estimation based on a hidden Markov model applied to simulated time series data. Our results suggest that the macroscopic response of active network structures, from actomyosin force networks to cytoplasmic flows, can be dominated by a significantly reduced number of modes, in contrast to energy equipartition in thermal equilibrium. The model is also well suited to study topological sound modes and spectral band gaps in active matter.

  16. Contained Modes In Mirrors With Sheared Rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2010-10-08

    In mirrors with E × B rotation, a fixed azimuthal perturbation in the lab frame can appear as a wave in the rotating frame. If the rotation frequency varies with radius, the plasma-frame wave frequency will also vary radially due to the Doppler shift. A wave that propagates in the high rotation plasma region might therefore be evanescent at the plasma edge. This can lead to radially localized Alfven eigenmodes with high azimuthal mode numbers. Contained Alfven modes are found both for peaked and non-peaked rotation profiles. These modes might be useful for alpha channeling or ion heating, as the high azimuthal wave number allows the plasma wave frequency in the rotating frame to exceed the ion cyclotron frequency. __________________________________________________

  17. Nonlinear Bogolyubov-Valatin transformations: 2 modes

    CERN Document Server

    Scharnhorst, K

    2010-01-01

    Extending our earlier study of nonlinear Bogolyubov-Valatin transformations (canonical transformations for fermions) for one fermionic mode, in the present paper we perform a thorough study of general (nonlinear) canonical transformations for two fermionic modes. We find that the Bogolyubov-Valatin group for n=2 fermionic modes which can be implemented by means of unitary SU(2^n = 4) transformations is isomorphic to SO(6;R)/Z_2. The investigation touches on a number of subjects. As a novelty from a mathematical point of view, we study the structure of nonlinear basis transformations in a Clifford algebra [specifically, in the Clifford algebra C(0,4)] entailing (supersymmetric) transformations among multivectors of different grades. A prominent algebraic role in this context is being played by biparavectors (products of Dirac matrices, quadriquaternions, sedenions) and spin bivectors (antisymmetric complex matrices). The studied biparavectors are equivalent to Eddington's E-numbers and can be understood in ter...

  18. Trivelpiece-Gould modes in a uniform unbounded plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) modes originally described electrostatic surface waves on an axially magnetized cylindrical plasma column. Subsequent studies of electromagnetic waves in such plasma columns revealed two modes, a predominantly magnetic helicon mode (H) and the mixed magnetic and electrostatic Trivelpiece-Gould modes (TG). The latter are similar to whistler modes near the oblique cyclotron resonance in unbounded plasmas. The wave propagation in cylindrical geometry is assumed to be paraxial while the modes exhibit radial standing waves. The present work shows that TG modes also arise in a uniform plasma without radial standing waves. It is shown experimentally that oblique cyclotron resonance arises in large mode number helicons. Their azimuthal wave number far exceeds the axial wave number which creates whistlers near the oblique cyclotron resonance. Cyclotron damping absorbs the TG mode and can energize electrons in the center of a plasma column rather than the edge of conventional TG modes. The angular orbital field momentum can produce new perpendicular wave-particle interactions.

  19. Applied number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Niederreiter, Harald

    2015-01-01

    This textbook effectively builds a bridge from basic number theory to recent advances in applied number theory. It presents the first unified account of the four major areas of application where number theory plays a fundamental role, namely cryptography, coding theory, quasi-Monte Carlo methods, and pseudorandom number generation, allowing the authors to delineate the manifold links and interrelations between these areas.  Number theory, which Carl-Friedrich Gauss famously dubbed the queen of mathematics, has always been considered a very beautiful field of mathematics, producing lovely results and elegant proofs. While only very few real-life applications were known in the past, today number theory can be found in everyday life: in supermarket bar code scanners, in our cars’ GPS systems, in online banking, etc.  Starting with a brief introductory course on number theory in Chapter 1, which makes the book more accessible for undergraduates, the authors describe the four main application areas in Chapters...

  20. The Impact of Trust on the Mode of Transaction Governance between Manufacturer and Distributor: Evidence from Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George BERULAVA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to explore main determinants of the mode of transaction governance between manufacturers and distributors. We examine a number of types of transaction governance, viz., markets, relational transacting, and hierarchies. The model proposed in the paper integrates the concept of trust with key dimensions of transaction cost economics, being estimated with data from a sample of Georgian manufacturing industries. The main finding of the study is that trust along with traditional dimensions of transaction cost economics has a significant impact on the choice of exchange governance mode

  1. Graphing Powers and Roots of Complex Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embse, Charles Vonder

    1993-01-01

    Using De Moivre's theorem and a parametric graphing utility, examines powers and roots of complex numbers and allows students to establish connections between the visual and numerical representations of complex numbers. Provides a program to numerically verify the roots of complex numbers. (MDH)

  2. Generation of SU(2) Coherent States for a Cavity Mode and a Collective Atomic Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shi-Biao

    2009-01-01

    We propose a scheme for generation of SU(2) coherent states for an atomic ensemble and a cavity mode. In the scheme a collection of two-level atoms resonantly interact with a single-mode quantized field. Under certain conditions, the system can evolve from a Fock state to a highly entangled SU(2) coherent state. The operation speed increases as the number of atoms increases, which is important in view of decoherence.

  3. A farce called the National Board of Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarbadhikari, Suptendra Nath

    2010-01-01

    The National Board of Examinations is a body formed to enhance the standards of post graduate examinations in modern medicine in India. Unfortunately, the outdated mode of examinations and the arbitrarily set high cut-off marks for passing the examinations defeat the very purpose of its formation and functioning.

  4. High Confinement Mode and Edge Localized Mode Characteristics in a Near-Unity Aspect Ratio Tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thome, K E; Bongard, M W; Barr, J L; Bodner, G M; Burke, M G; Fonck, R J; Kriete, D M; Perry, J M; Schlossberg, D J

    2016-04-29

    Tokamak experiments at near-unity aspect ratio A≲1.2 offer new insights into the self-organized H-mode plasma confinement regime. In contrast to conventional A∼3 plasmas, the L-H power threshold P_{LH} is ∼15× higher than scaling predictions, and it is insensitive to magnetic topology, consistent with modeling. Edge localized mode (ELM) instabilities shift to lower toroidal mode numbers as A decreases. These ultralow-A operations enable heretofore inaccessible J_{edge}(R,t) measurements through an ELM that show a complex multimodal collapse and the ejection of a current-carrying filament.

  5. Enhanced gauge symmetry and winding modes in double field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldazabal, G. [Centro Atómico Bariloche,8400 S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNC) and CONICET,8400 S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Graña, M. [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA/ Saclay,91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Iguri, S. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), Universidad de Buenos Aires,1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mayo, M. [Centro Atómico Bariloche,8400 S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNC) and CONICET,8400 S.C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Nuñez, C. [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), Universidad de Buenos Aires,1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Física, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires,C.C. 67 - Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rosabal, J.A. [Departamento de Física, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires,C.C. 67 - Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-03-15

    We provide an explicit example of how the string winding modes can be incorporated in double field theory. Our guiding case is the closed bosonic string compactified on a circle of radius close to the self-dual point, where some modes with non-zero winding or discrete momentum number become massless and enhance the U(1)×U(1) symmetry to SU(2)×SU(2). We compute three-point string scattering amplitudes of massless and slightly massive states, and extract the corresponding effective low energy gauge field theory. The enhanced gauge symmetry at the self-dual point and the Higgs-like mechanism arising when changing the compactification radius are examined in detail. The extra massless fields associated to the enhancement are incorporated into a generalized frame with ((O(d+3,d+3))/(O(d+3)×O(d+3))) structure, where d is the number of non-compact dimensions. We devise a consistent double field theory action that reproduces the low energy string effective action with enhanced gauge symmetry. The construction requires a truly non-geometric frame which explicitly depends on both the compact coordinate along the circle and its dual.

  6. Sliding mode control and observation

    CERN Document Server

    Shtessel, Yuri; Fridman, Leonid; Levant, Arie

    2014-01-01

    The sliding mode control methodology has proven effective in dealing with complex dynamical systems affected by disturbances, uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics. Robust control technology based on this methodology has been applied to many real-world problems, especially in the areas of aerospace control, electric power systems, electromechanical systems, and robotics. Sliding Mode Control and Observation represents the first textbook that starts with classical sliding mode control techniques and progresses toward newly developed higher-order sliding mode control and observation algorithms and their applications. The present volume addresses a range of sliding mode control issues, including: *Conventional sliding mode controller and observer design *Second-order sliding mode controllers and differentiators *Frequency domain analysis of conventional and second-order sliding mode controllers *Higher-order sliding mode controllers and differentiators *Higher-order sliding mode observers *Sliding mode disturbanc...

  7. Predicting Lotto Numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Claus Bjørn; Suetens, Sigrid; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    numbers based on recent drawings. While most players pick the same set of numbers week after week without regards of numbers drawn or anything else, we find that those who do change, act on average in the way predicted by the law of small numbers as formalized in recent behavioral theory. In particular......We investigate the “law of small numbers” using a unique panel data set on lotto gambling. Because we can track individual players over time, we can measure how they react to outcomes of recent lotto drawings. We can therefore test whether they behave as if they believe they can predict lotto......, on average they move away from numbers that have recently been drawn, as suggested by the “gambler’s fallacy”, and move toward numbers that are on streak, i.e. have been drawn several weeks in a row, consistent with the “hot hand fallacy”....

  8. Predicting Lotto Numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Claus Bjørn; Suetens, Sigrid; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    We investigate the “law of small numbers” using a unique panel data set on lotto gambling. Because we can track individual players over time, we can measure how they react to outcomes of recent lotto drawings. We can therefore test whether they behave as if they believe they can predict lotto...... numbers based on recent drawings. While most players pick the same set of numbers week after week without regards of numbers drawn or anything else, we find that those who do change, act on average in the way predicted by the law of small numbers as formalized in recent behavioral theory. In particular......, on average they move away from numbers that have recently been drawn, as suggested by the “gambler’s fallacy”, and move toward numbers that are on streak, i.e. have been drawn several weeks in a row, consistent with the “hot hand fallacy”....

  9. Long-Term Sunspot Number Prediction based on EMD Analysis and AR Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Xu; Jian Wu; Zhen-Sen Wu; Qiang Li

    2008-01-01

    The Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and Auto-Regressive model (AR) are applied to a long-term prediction of sunspot numbers. With the sample data of sunspot numbers from 1848 to 1992, the method is evaluated by examining the measured data of the solar cycle 23 with the prediction: different time scale components are obtained by the EMD method and multi-step predicted values are combined to reconstruct the sunspot number time series. The result is remarkably good in comparison to the predictions made by the solar dynamo and precursor approaches for cycle 23. Sunspot numbers of the coming solar cycle 24 are obtained with the data from 1848 to 2007, the maximum amplitude of the next solar cycle is predicted to be about 112 in 2011-2012.

  10. Test Anxiety in Written and Oral Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparfeldt, Jorn R.; Rost, Detlef H.; Baumeister, Ulrike M.; Christ, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The distinction of different test anxiety reactions (e.g., worry, emotionality) is well established. Recently, additional relevance has been given to school-subject-specific test anxiety factors. The present study explored a further aspect concerning the structure of test anxiety experiences, specifically oral versus written examination modes. A…

  11. Quantum Random Number Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero-Collantes, Miguel; Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Random numbers are a fundamental resource in science and engineering with important applications in simulation and cryptography. The inherent randomness at the core of quantum mechanics makes quantum systems a perfect source of entropy. Quantum random number generation is one of the most mature quantum technologies with many alternative generation methods. We discuss the different technologies in quantum random number generation from the early devices based on radioactive decay to the multipl...

  12. Wireless Telegraphy Number 2,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-09

    from one of the Moscow institutes. In childhood he played at hypnosis with his sister and hypnotized her. He studies In the 11th grade at night school...O R M I N G OR G. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR( s ) 8 C O N T R A C T OR GRANT NUMBER(e) Lev Kolodnyy 9. PERFORMING O R G A N I Z A T I O N NAME AND

  13. Frequency Stabilization of a Single Mode Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser to the Kilohertz Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-27

    Frequency stabilization of a single mode terahertz quantum cascade laser to the kilohertz level 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...primarily in a single-longitudinal mode (SLM) up to a bias voltage of 3.7 V and a multi-lodgitudinal mode ( MLM ) at higher voltages. It was mounted in a

  14. Beurling generalized numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Diamond, Harold G; Cheung, Man Ping

    2016-01-01

    "Generalized numbers" is a multiplicative structure introduced by A. Beurling to study how independent prime number theory is from the additivity of the natural numbers. The results and techniques of this theory apply to other systems having the character of prime numbers and integers; for example, it is used in the study of the prime number theorem (PNT) for ideals of algebraic number fields. Using both analytic and elementary methods, this book presents many old and new theorems, including several of the authors' results, and many examples of extremal behavior of g-number systems. Also, the authors give detailed accounts of the L^2 PNT theorem of J. P. Kahane and of the example created with H. L. Montgomery, showing that additive structure is needed for proving the Riemann hypothesis. Other interesting topics discussed are propositions "equivalent" to the PNT, the role of multiplicative convolution and Chebyshev's prime number formula for g-numbers, and how Beurling theory provides an interpretation of the ...

  15. Predicting Lotto Numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetens, Sigrid; Galbo-Jørgensen, Claus B.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2016-01-01

    as formalized in recent behavioral theory. In particular, players tend to bet less on numbers that have been drawn in the preceding week, as suggested by the ‘gambler’s fallacy’, and bet more on a number if it was frequently drawn in the recent past, consistent with the ‘hot-hand fallacy’.......We investigate the ‘law of small numbers’ using a data set on lotto gambling that allows us to measure players’ reactions to draws. While most players pick the same set of numbers week after week, we find that those who do change react on average as predicted by the law of small numbers...

  16. Numbers, sequences and series

    CERN Document Server

    Hirst, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Number and geometry are the foundations upon which mathematics has been built over some 3000 years. This book is concerned with the logical foundations of number systems from integers to complex numbers. The author has chosen to develop the ideas by illustrating the techniques used throughout mathematics rather than using a self-contained logical treatise. The idea of proof has been emphasised, as has the illustration of concepts from a graphical, numerical and algebraic point of view. Having laid the foundations of the number system, the author has then turned to the analysis of infinite proc

  17. Predicting Lotto Numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetens, Sigrid; Galbo-Jørgensen, Claus B.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the ‘law of small numbers’ using a data set on lotto gambling that allows us to measure players’ reactions to draws. While most players pick the same set of numbers week after week, we find that those who do change react on average as predicted by the law of small numbers...... as formalized in recent behavioral theory. In particular, players tend to bet less on numbers that have been drawn in the preceding week, as suggested by the ‘gambler’s fallacy’, and bet more on a number if it was frequently drawn in the recent past, consistent with the ‘hot-hand fallacy’....

  18. The adventure of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Godefroy, Gilles

    2004-01-01

    Numbers are fascinating. The fascination begins in childhood, when we first learn to count. It continues as we learn arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and so on. Eventually, we learn that numbers not only help us to measure the world, but also to understand it and, to some extent, to control it. In The Adventure of Numbers, Gilles Godefroy follows the thread of our expanding understanding of numbers to lead us through the history of mathematics. His goal is to share the joy of discovering and understanding this great adventure of the mind. The development of mathematics has been punctuated by a n

  19. Mode og mozzarella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak

    2013-01-01

    Under en samtale i Paolo Sorrentinos La grande bellezza/da. Den store skønhed (2013) anføres det, at Italiens primære eksportvarer er mode og mozzarella. Selve filmen vidner om, at Italien har andet at byde på – heriblandt filmkunst og Roms righoldige kulturhistorie.......Under en samtale i Paolo Sorrentinos La grande bellezza/da. Den store skønhed (2013) anføres det, at Italiens primære eksportvarer er mode og mozzarella. Selve filmen vidner om, at Italien har andet at byde på – heriblandt filmkunst og Roms righoldige kulturhistorie....

  20. The Unum Number Format: Mathematical Foundations, Implementation and Comparison to IEEE 754 Floating-Point Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Hunhold, Laslo

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines a modern concept for machine numbers based on interval arithmetic called 'Unums' and compares it to IEEE 754 floating-point arithmetic, evaluating possible uses of this format where floating-point numbers are inadequate. In the course of this examination, this thesis builds theoretical foundations for IEEE 754 floating-point numbers, interval arithmetic based on the projectively extended real numbers and Unums.

  1. An empirical test of schema mode conceptualizations in personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbestael, Jill; Van Vreeswijk, Michiel F; Arntz, Arnoud

    2008-07-01

    Although the use of schema modes in schema-focused therapy (SFT) has been very popular since its introduction, Young's schema mode concept remained largely empirically untested. In order to provide insight into the mode conceptualization of personality disorders (PDs), the current study assessed the relationships between 14 schema modes and all PDs. Relationships between dimensional PD scores and self-reported mode scores were tested in a mixed study group of 489 participants, consisting of axis I and axis II patients, and non-patients. Psychopathology was assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV axis I and axis II disorders (SCID I and SCID II) or the Structural Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SIDP-IV), and modes were assessed by the Schema Mode Inventory. Kendall's partial tau coefficients, controlling each PD-mode correlation for all other PD scores, indicated unique mode profiles for all PDs and corroborated most of the hypothesized PD-mode correlations, supporting the construct validity of the mode model. Nevertheless, the high number of correlations found for some PDs raises concerns about the specificity of the mode model. Implications for both research and therapy are discussed.

  2. Mode correlation and coherent-mode decomposition of laser beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彬; 文侨; 楚晓亮

    2003-01-01

    Theory of the coherent-mode decomposition of laser beams is proposed.The new model for the flat-topped beams proposed by Li recently is taken as an example.The analytical expressions for the M2-factor and mode coherence coefficients of flat-topped beams have been derived in the rectangular coordinate system,by means of which the mode correlation,mode structure,and coherent-mode decomposition of flat-topped beams can be analysed.

  3. Graphene with vacancies: Supernumerary zero modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weik, Norman; Schindler, Johannes; Bera, Soumya; Solomon, Gemma C.; Evers, Ferdinand

    2016-08-01

    The density of states ϱ (E ) of graphene is investigated within the tight-binding (Hückel) approximation in the presence of vacancies. They introduce a nonvanishing density of zero modes nzm that act as midgap states, ϱ (E ) =nzmδ (E ) +smooth . As is well known, the actual number of zero modes per sample can, in principle, exceed the sublattice imbalance, Nzm≥|NA-NB| , where NA,NB denote the number of carbon atoms in each sublattice. In this paper, we establish a stronger relation that is valid in the thermodynamic limit and that involves the concentration of zero modes, nzm>|cA-cB| , where cA and cB denote the concentration of vacancies per sublattice; in particular, nzm is nonvanishing even in the case of balanced disorder, NA/NB=1 . Adopting terminology from benzoid graph theory, the excess modes associated with the current carrying backbone (percolation cluster) are called supernumerary. In the simplest cases, such modes can be associated with structural elements such as carbon atoms connected with a single bond, only. Our result suggests that the continuum limit of bipartite hopping models supports nontrivial "supernumerary" terms that escape the present continuum descriptions.

  4. Mode visibilities in rapidly rotating stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, D. R.; Prat, V.; Barban, C.; van 't Veer-Menneret, C.; MacGregor, K. B.

    2013-02-01

    Context. Mode identification is a crucial step to comparing observed frequencies with theoretical ones. However, it has proven to be particularly difficult in rapidly rotating stars. An important reason for this is the lack of simple frequency patterns such as those present in solar-type pulsators. This problem is further aggravated in δ Scuti stars by their particularly rich frequency spectra. Aims: As a first step to obtaining further observational constraints towards mode identification in rapid rotators, we aim to accurately calculate mode visibilities and amplitude ratios while fully taking into account the effects of rotation. Methods: We derive the relevant equations for calculating mode visibilities in different photometric bands while fully taking into account the geometric distortion from both the centrifugal deformation and the pulsation modes, the variations in effective gravity, and an approximate treatment of the temperature variations, given the adiabatic nature of the pulsation modes. These equations are then applied to 2D oscillation modes, calculated using the TOP code (Two-dimension Oscillation Program), in fully distorted 2D models based on the self-consistent field (SCF) method. The specific intensities come from a grid of Kurucz atmospheres, thereby taking into account limb and gravity darkening. Results: We obtain mode visibilities and amplitude ratios for 2 M⊙ models with rotation rates ranging from 0 to 80% of the critical rotation rate. Based on these calculations, we confirm a number of results from earlier studies, such as the increased visibility of numerous chaotic modes at sufficient rotation rates, the simpler frequency spectra with dominant island modes for pole-on configurations, or the dependence of amplitude ratios on inclination and azimuthal order in rotating stars. In addition, we explain how the geometric shape of the star leads to a smaller contrast between pole-on and equator-on visibilities of equatorially

  5. Safety-relevant mode confusions-modelling and reducing them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredereke, Jan [Universitaet Bremen, FB 3, P.O. Box 330 440, D-28334 Bremen (Germany)]. E-mail: brederek@tzi.de; Lankenau, Axel [Universitaet Bremen, FB 3, P.O. Box 330 440, D-28334 Bremen (Germany)

    2005-06-01

    Mode confusions are a significant safety concern in safety-critical systems, for example in aircraft. A mode confusion occurs when the observed behaviour of a technical system is out of sync with the user's mental model of its behaviour. But the notion is described only informally in the literature. We present a rigorous way of modelling the user and the machine in a shared-control system. This enables us to propose precise definitions of 'mode' and 'mode confusion' for safety-critical systems. We then validate these definitions against the informal notions in the literature. A new classification of mode confusions by cause leads to a number of design recommendations for shared-control systems. These help in avoiding mode confusion problems. Our approach supports the automated detection of remaining mode confusion problems. We apply our approach practically to a wheelchair robot.

  6. MRE properties under shear and squeeze modes and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, K M [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Machine Elements, Design and Production, Agricolastrasse 1, 09599 Freiberg (Germany); Zhang, X Z; Li, W H; Kosasih, P B [University of Wollongong, School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, NSW 2522 (Australia)], E-mail: Kristin.Popp@imkf.tu-freiberg.de, E-mail: weihuali@uow.edu.au

    2009-02-01

    Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) belong to the group of so called smart materials. Due to an applied magnetic field the MREs change their material properties like the stiffness. This feature has resulted in a number of novel applications, such as adaptive tuned dynamic vibration absorbers (ATDVA) for suppressing unwanted vibrations over a wide frequency range. MRE based devices operate in different modes, such as shear mode and squeeze mode but the study of mechanical performances of MREs under squeeze mode is very rare. This paper aims to investigate MRE performances under both shear and squeeze modes. Both experimental and simulation studies were conducted to analyze the MR effect in both modes. These studies indicate that MRE working in squeeze mode would result in higher MR effects. As a case study, a MRE based ATDVA was analyzed, which demonstrated good capabilities in reducing vibrations.

  7. An analytical framework for understanding tropical Meridional Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Villalobos, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical framework is developed for understanding the transient growth and propagation characteristics of thermodynamically coupled, meridional mode-like structures in the tropics. The model consists of a Gill-Matsuno type steady atmosphere under the longwave approximation coupled via a wind-evaporation-sea surface temperature (WES) feedback to a "slab" ocean model. When projected onto basis functions for the atmosphere the system simplifies to a non-normal set of equations that describes the evolution of individual sea surface temperature (SST) modes, with clean separation between symmetric and anti-symmetric modes. The following major findings result from analysis of the system: (i) a transient growth process exists whereby specific SST modes propagate toward lower order modes at the expense of the higher-order modes; (ii) the same dynamical mechanisms govern the evolution of symmetric and anti-symmetric SST modes except for the lowest-order wave number, where for symmetric structures the atmospheric K...

  8. Mode imaging and selection in strongly coupled nanoantennas

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Jer-Shing; Geisler, Peter; Weinmann, Pia; Kamp, Martin; Forchel, Alfred; Biagioni, Paolo; Hecht, Bert

    2010-01-01

    The number of eigenmodes in plasmonic nanostructures increases with complexity due to mode hybridization, raising the need for efficient mode characterization and selection. Here we experimentally demonstrate direct imaging and selective excitation of the bonding and antibonding plasmon mode in symmetric dipole nanoantennas using confocal two-photon photoluminescence mapping. Excitation of a high-quality-factor antibonding resonance manifests itself as a two-lobed pattern instead of the single spot observed for the broad bonding resonance, in accordance with numerical simulations. The two-lobed pattern is observed due to the fact that excitation of the antibonding mode is forbidden for symmetric excitation at the feedgap, while concomitantly the mode energy splitting is large enough to suppress excitation of the bonding mode. The controlled excitation of modes in strongly coupled plasmonic nanostructures is mandatory for efficient sensors, in coherent control as well as for implementing well-defined functiona...

  9. Mode Imaging and Selection in Strongly Coupled Nanoantennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jer-Shing; Kern, Johannes; Geisler, Peter; Weinmann, Pia; Kamp, Martin; Forchel, Alfred; Biagioni, Paolo; Hecht, Bert

    2010-06-01

    The number of eigenmodes in plasmonic nanostructures increases with complexity due to mode hybridization, raising the need for efficient mode characterization and selection. Here we experimentally demonstrate direct imaging and selective excitation of the bonding and antibonding plasmon mode in symmetric dipole nanoantennas using confocal two-photon photoluminescence mapping. Excitation of a high-quality-factor antibonding resonance manifests itself as a two-lobed pattern instead of the single spot observed for the broad bonding resonance, in accordance with numerical simulations. The two-lobed pattern is observed due to the fact that excitation of the antibonding mode is forbidden for symmetric excitation at the feedgap, while concomitantly the mode energy splitting is large enough to suppress excitation of the bonding mode. The controlled excitation of modes in strongly coupled plasmonic nanostructures is mandatory for efficient sensors, in coherent control as well as for implementing well-defined functionalities in complex plasmonic devices.

  10. MODE THEORY OF MULTILAYER WAVEGUIDE STRUCTURE WITH DISCONTINUITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong Weihua; Liang Changhong

    2003-01-01

    TEn mode (whose electric field is zero in the normal direction of theboundafiesbetween layers) and TMn mode (whose magnetic field is zero in the normal direction of the bound-aries between layers) are defined. Then conditions under which pure TEn (TMn) modes may existin multilayer waveguide structure with discontinuities are presented. E (H) step wavguides, ridgedwavguides, microstrip lines and fin lines all satisfy the conditions, and hold for TEn (TMn) mode.The conventional conclusion that ridged waveguides with inhomogeneous dielectric-slab loading,microstrip lines and fin lines only hold for hybrid modes is revised. Compared with hybrid modes,the number of unknown variations and matching equations is reduced by half for pure TEn (TMn)modes, and the computation cost is decreased dramatically.

  11. Mixed Mode Oscillations due to the Generalized Canard Phenomenon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Morten; Krupa, Martin; Wechselberger, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Mixed mode oscillations combine features of small oscillations and large oscillations of relaxation type. We describe a mechanism for mixed mode oscillations based on the presence of canard solutions, which are trajectories passing from a stable to an unstable slow manifold. An important ingredient...... on mixed mode periodic orbits with Farey sequences of the form 1s. We also show how to generalize the context of one fast variable to an arbitrary number of fast variables....

  12. Bounded Algebra and Current-Mode Digital Circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xunwei; Massoud Pedram

    1999-01-01

    This paper proposes two boundedarithmetic operations, which are easily realized with current signals.Based on these two operations, a bounded algebra system suitable fordescribing current-mode digital circuits is developed and itsrelationship with the Boolean algebra, which is suitable for representingvoltage-mode digital circuits, is investigated. Design procedure forcurrent-mode circuits using the proposed algebra system is demonstratedon a number of common circuit elements which are used to realizearithmetic operations, such as adders and multipliers.

  13. Free boundary resistive modes in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huysmans, G. T. A.; Goedbloed, J. P.; Kerner, W.

    1993-05-01

    There exist a number of observations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity that can be related to resistive MHD modes localized near the plasma boundary. To study the stability of these modes, a free boundary description of the plasma is essential. The resistive plasma-vacuum boundary conditions have been implemented in the fully toroidal resistive spectral code castor (Complex Alfvén Spectrum in Toroidal Geometry) [Proceedings of the 18th Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics, Berlin, edited by P. Bachmann and D. C. Robinson (European Physical Society, Petit-Lancy, Switzerland, 1991), p. 89]. The influence of a free boundary, as compared to a fixed boundary on the stability of low-m tearing modes, is studied. It is found that the stabilizing (toroidal) effect of a finite pressure due the plasma compression is lost in the free boundary case for modes localized near the boundary. Since the stabilization due to the favorable average curvature in combination with a pressure gradient near the boundary is small, the influence of the pressure on the stability is much less important for free boundary modes than for fixed boundary modes.

  14. Discrete mode lasers for communications applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, L. P.; Herbert, C.; Jones, D.; Kaszubowska-Anandarajah, A.; Kelly, B.; O'Carroll, J.; Phelan, R.; Anandarajah, P.; Shi, K.; O'Gorman, J.

    2009-02-01

    The wavelength spectra of ridge waveguide Fabry Perot lasers can be modified by perturbing the effective refractive index of the guided mode along very small sections of the laser cavity. One way of locally perturbing the effective index of the lasing mode is by etching features into the ridge waveguide such that each feature has a small overlap with the transverse field profile of the unperturbed mode, consequently most of the light in the laser cavity is unaffected by these perturbations. A proportion of the propagating light is however reflected at the boundaries between the perturbed and the unperturbed sections. Suitable positioning of these interfaces allows the mirror loss spectrum of a Fabry Perot laser to be manipulated. In order to achieve single longitudinal mode emission, the mirror loss of a specified mode must be reduced below that of the other cavity modes. Here we review the latest results obtained from devices containing such features. These results clearly demonstrate that these devices exceed the specifications required for a number of FTTH and Datacomms applications, such as GEPON, LX4 and CWDM. As well as this we will also present initial results on the linewidth of these devices.

  15. Trapped ion mode in toroidally rotating plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artun, M.; Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.

    1995-04-01

    The influence of radially sheared toroidal flows on the Trapped Ion Mode (TIM) is investigated using a two-dimensional eigenmode code. These radially extended toroidal microinstabilities could significantly influence the interpretation of confinement scaling trends and associated fluctuation properties observed in recent tokamak experiments. In the present analysis, the electrostatic drift kinetic equation is obtained from the general nonlinear gyrokinetic equation in rotating plasmas. In the long perpendicular wavelength limit k{sub {tau}}{rho}{sub bi} {much_lt} 1, where {rho}{sub bi} is the average trapped-ion banana width, the resulting eigenmode equation becomes a coupled system of second order differential equations nmo for the poloidal harmonics. These equations are solved using finite element methods. Numerical results from the analysis of low and medium toroidal mode number instabilities are presented using representative TFTR L-mode input parameters. To illustrate the effects of mode coupling, a case is presented where the poloidal mode coupling is suppressed. The influence of toroidal rotation on a TFTR L-mode shot is also analyzed by including a beam species with considerable larger temperature. A discussion of the numerical results is presented.

  16. Hyperquarks and generation number

    CERN Document Server

    Buchmann, Alfons J

    2013-01-01

    In a model in which quarks and leptons are built up from two spin 1/2 preons as fundamental entities, a new class of fermionic bound states (hyperquarks) arises. It turns out that these hyperquarks are necessary to fulfill the 't Hooft anomaly constraint, which then links the number of fermionic generations to the number of colors and hypercolors.

  17. Multispecies quantum Hurwitz numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Harnad, J

    2014-01-01

    The construction of hypergeometric 2D Toda $\\tau$-functions as generating functions for quantum Hurwitz numbers is extended here to multispecies families. Both the enumerative geometrical significance of these multispecies quantum Hurwitz numbers as weighted enumerations of branched coverings of the Riemann sphere and their combinatorial significance in terms of weighted paths in the Cayley graph of $S_n$ are derived.

  18. The Fibonacci Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstad, Torgeir

    1991-01-01

    After a brief historical account of Leonardo Pisano Fibonacci, some basic results concerning the Fibonacci numbers are developed and proved, and entertaining examples are described. Connections are made between the Fibonacci numbers and the Golden Ratio, biological nature, and other combinatorics examples. (MDH)

  19. A Numbers Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Bruce R; McCall, Ingrid C.; Perrot, Veronique

    2017-01-01

    We postulate that the inhibition of growth and low rates of mortality of bacteria exposed to ribosome-binding antibiotics deemed bacteriostatic can be attributed almost uniquely to these drugs reducing the number of ribosomes contributing to protein synthesis, i.e., the number of effective riboso...

  20. On the Lyapunov numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Kolyada, Sergiy; Rybak, Oleksandr

    2013-01-01

    We introduce and study the Lyapunov numbers -- quantitative measures of the sensitivity of a dynamical system $(X,f)$ given by a compact metric space $X$ and a continuous map $f:X \\to X$. In particular, we prove that for a minimal topologically weakly mixing system all Lyapunov numbers are the same.

  1. Mode Gaussian beam tracing

    CERN Document Server

    Trofimov, M Yu; Kozitskiy, S B

    2015-01-01

    An adiabatic mode Helmholtz equation for 3D underwater sound propagation is developed. The Gaussian beam tracing in this case is constructed. The test calculations are carried out for the crosswedge benchmark and proved an excellent agreement with the source images method.

  2. Free carboxylate stretching modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, J.; Steill, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    We report the first IR spectroscopic observation of carboxylate stretching modes in free space, i.e., in the complete absence of solvent or counterions. Gas-phase spectra of a series of benzoate anions have been recorded and compared to condensed-phase spectra, revealing the profound influence of th

  3. Modes of Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewatripont, Mathias; Tirole, Jean

    2005-01-01

    The paper develops a theory of costly communication in which the sender's and receiver's motivations and abilities endogenously determine the communication mode and the transfer of knowledge. Communication is modeled as a problem of moral hazard in teams, in which the sender and receiver select persuasion and message elaboration efforts. The model…

  4. Thermodynamics of Radiation Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Eduardo; de la Selva, Sara Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    We study the equilibrium thermodynamics of the electromagnetic radiation in a cavity of a given volume and temperature. We found three levels of description, the thermodynamics of one mode, the thermodynamics of the distribution of frequencies in a band by summing over the frequencies in it and the global thermodynamics by summing over all the…

  5. Financial Performance of Entry Mode Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie; Hollensen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    Based on a survey of 170 Danish SMEs the paper examines influences on entry mode choices and the financial outcome of these decisions. The main research objectives are divided into two steps: Step 1: To determine the factors influencing the choice of foreign entry modes by Danish companies. Step ...... and implications are provided for companies willing to invest more into foreign markets in order to achieve a higher degree of control and better financial results.......Based on a survey of 170 Danish SMEs the paper examines influences on entry mode choices and the financial outcome of these decisions. The main research objectives are divided into two steps: Step 1: To determine the factors influencing the choice of foreign entry modes by Danish companies. Step 2......: To determine the relationship between the choice of entry mode and export performance, measured in terms of financial outcome. Drawing from transaction cost theory the authors develop and test a model where different factors affect the level of control chosen by the parent company. This study contributes...

  6. Particle Distribution Modification by Low Amplitude Modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R. B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Van Zeeland, M. A.

    2009-08-28

    Modification of a high energy particle distribution by a spectrum of low amplitude modes is investigated using a guiding center code. Only through resonance are modes effective in modifying the distribution. Diagnostics are used to illustrate the mode-particle interaction and to find which effects are relevant in producing significant resonance, including kinetic Poincare plots and plots showing those orbits with time averaged mode-particle energy transfer. Effects of pitch angle scattering and drag are studied, as well as plasma rotation and time dependence of the equilibrium and mode frequencies. A specific example of changes observed in a DIII-D deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude experimentally validated Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes is examined in detail. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam profile modification, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold.

  7. Waveguide Modes and Refractive Index in Photoreceptors of Invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    The refractive index of visual photoreceptors, if estimated by utilizing waveguide propagation, has to be corrected by a factor depending on the occurring mode. The correction factor is presented graphically for a number of relevant modes. Applied to the honeybee rhabdoms, it is shown that the

  8. Numbers in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugani, Rosa; Sartori, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Humans show a remarkable tendency to describe and think of numbers as being placed on a mental number line (MNL), with smaller numbers located on the left and larger ones on the right. Faster responses to small numbers are indeed performed on the left side of space, while responses to large numbers are facilitated on the right side of space (spatial-numerical association of response codes, SNARC effect). This phenomenon is considered the experimental demonstration of the MNL and has been extensively replicated throughout a variety of paradigms. Nevertheless, the majority of previous literature has mainly investigated this effect by means of response times and accuracy, whereas studies considering more subtle and automatic measures such as kinematic parameters are rare (e.g., in a reaching-to-grasp movement, the grip aperture is enlarged in responding to larger numbers than in responding to small numbers). In this brief review we suggest that numerical magnitude can also affect the what and how of action execution (i.e., temporal and spatial components of movement). This evidence could have large implications in the strongly debated issue concerning the effect of experience and culture on the orientation of MNL.

  9. Elementary number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dudley, Underwood

    2008-01-01

    Ideal for a first course in number theory, this lively, engaging text requires only a familiarity with elementary algebra and the properties of real numbers. Author Underwood Dudley, who has written a series of popular mathematics books, maintains that the best way to learn mathematics is by solving problems. In keeping with this philosophy, the text includes nearly 1,000 exercises and problems-some computational and some classical, many original, and some with complete solutions. The opening chapters offer sound explanations of the basics of elementary number theory and develop the fundamenta

  10. Numbers and computers

    CERN Document Server

    Kneusel, Ronald T

    2015-01-01

    This is a book about numbers and how those numbers are represented in and operated on by computers. It is crucial that developers understand this area because the numerical operations allowed by computers, and the limitations of those operations, especially in the area of floating point math, affect virtually everything people try to do with computers. This book aims to fill this gap by exploring, in sufficient but not overwhelming detail, just what it is that computers do with numbers. Divided into two parts, the first deals with standard representations of integers and floating point numb

  11. Generalized Erdos Numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Greg

    2010-01-01

    We propose a simple real-valued generalization of the well known integer-valued Erdos number as a topological, non-metric measure of the `closeness' felt between two nodes in an undirected, weighted graph. These real-valued Erdos numbers are asymmetric and are able to distinguish between network topologies that standard distance metrics view as identical. We use this measure to study some simple analytically tractable networks, and show the utility of our measure to devise a ratings scheme based on the generalized Erdos number that we deploy on the data from the NetFlix prize, and find a significant improvement in our ratings prediction over a baseline.

  12. Professor Stewart's incredible numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Ian Stewart explores the astonishing properties of numbers from 1 to10 to zero and infinity, including one figure that, if you wrote it out, would span the universe. He looks at every kind of number you can think of - real, imaginary, rational, irrational, positive and negative - along with several you might have thought you couldn't think of. He explains the insights of the ancient mathematicians, shows how numbers have evolved through the ages, and reveals the way numerical theory enables everyday life. Under Professor Stewart's guidance you will discover the mathematics of codes,

  13. Brief history of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Corry, Leo

    2015-01-01

    The world around us is saturated with numbers. They are a fundamental pillar of our modern society, and accepted and used with hardly a second thought. But how did this state of affairs come to be? In this book, Leo Corry tells the story behind the idea of number from the early days of the Pythagoreans, up until the turn of the twentieth century. He presents an overview of how numbers were handled and conceived in classical Greek mathematics, in the mathematics of Islam, in European mathematics of the middle ages and the Renaissance, during the scientific revolution, all the way through to the

  14. Fundamentals of number theory

    CERN Document Server

    LeVeque, William J

    1996-01-01

    This excellent textbook introduces the basics of number theory, incorporating the language of abstract algebra. A knowledge of such algebraic concepts as group, ring, field, and domain is not assumed, however; all terms are defined and examples are given - making the book self-contained in this respect.The author begins with an introductory chapter on number theory and its early history. Subsequent chapters deal with unique factorization and the GCD, quadratic residues, number-theoretic functions and the distribution of primes, sums of squares, quadratic equations and quadratic fields, diopha

  15. Algebraic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Edwin

    1998-01-01

    Careful organization and clear, detailed proofs characterize this methodical, self-contained exposition of basic results of classical algebraic number theory from a relatively modem point of view. This volume presents most of the number-theoretic prerequisites for a study of either class field theory (as formulated by Artin and Tate) or the contemporary treatment of analytical questions (as found, for example, in Tate's thesis).Although concerned exclusively with algebraic number fields, this treatment features axiomatic formulations with a considerable range of applications. Modem abstract te

  16. Supersymmetric Displaced Number States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy R. Zypman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We introduce, generate and study a family of supersymmetric displaced number states (SDNS that can be considered generalized coherent states of the supersymmetric harmonic oscillator. The family is created from the seminal supersymmetric boson-fermion entangling annihilation operator introduced by Aragone and Zypman and later expanded by Kornbluth and Zypman. Using the momentum representation, the states are obtained analytically in compact form as displaced supersymmetric number states. We study their position-momentum uncertainties, and their bunchiness by classifying them according to their Mandel Q-parameter in phase space. We were also able to find closed form analytical representations in the space and number basis.

  17. Advanced number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cohn, Harvey

    1980-01-01

    ""A very stimulating book ... in a class by itself."" - American Mathematical MonthlyAdvanced students, mathematicians and number theorists will welcome this stimulating treatment of advanced number theory, which approaches the complex topic of algebraic number theory from a historical standpoint, taking pains to show the reader how concepts, definitions and theories have evolved during the last two centuries. Moreover, the book abounds with numerical examples and more concrete, specific theorems than are found in most contemporary treatments of the subject.The book is divided into three parts

  18. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Items Awareness Store In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly ... use this video. UPDATED: November 23, 2016 Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly ...

  19. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, ...

  20. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, ...

  1. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Store In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ... video. UPDATED: November 23, 2016 Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ...

  2. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Store In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ... video. UPDATED: November 23, 2016 Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ...

  3. Beam Distribution Modification By Alfven Modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R. B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Van Zeeland, M. A.

    2010-01-25

    Modification of a deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes in a toroidal magnetic confinement device is examined. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam transport, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold. The modes produce a substantial central flattening of the beam distribution.

  4. Beam Distribution Modification by Alfven Modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R. B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Van Zeeland, M. A.

    2010-04-03

    Modification of a deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes in a toroidal magnetic confinement device is examined. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam transport, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold. The modes produce a substantial central flattening of the beam distribution.

  5. Really big numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Richard Evan

    2014-01-01

    In the American Mathematical Society's first-ever book for kids (and kids at heart), mathematician and author Richard Evan Schwartz leads math lovers of all ages on an innovative and strikingly illustrated journey through the infinite number system. By means of engaging, imaginative visuals and endearing narration, Schwartz manages the monumental task of presenting the complex concept of Big Numbers in fresh and relatable ways. The book begins with small, easily observable numbers before building up to truly gigantic ones, like a nonillion, a tredecillion, a googol, and even ones too huge for names! Any person, regardless of age, can benefit from reading this book. Readers will find themselves returning to its pages for a very long time, perpetually learning from and growing with the narrative as their knowledge deepens. Really Big Numbers is a wonderful enrichment for any math education program and is enthusiastically recommended to every teacher, parent and grandparent, student, child, or other individual i...

  6. Drawing a random number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen Bundgaard; Sørensen, Majken Vildrik

    2006-01-01

    highly uniform multidimensional draws, which are highly relevant for todays traffic models. This paper shows among others combined shuffling and scrambling seems needless, that scrambling gives the lowest correlation and that there are detectable differences between random numbers, dependent...

  7. Logo and Negative Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawn, Candace A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes LOGO's turtle graphics capabilities based on a sixth-grade classroom's activities with negative numbers and Logo programming. A sidebar explains LOGO and offers suggestions to teachers for using LOGO effectively. (LRW)

  8. Quantum random number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Collantes, Miguel; Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Random numbers are a fundamental resource in science and engineering with important applications in simulation and cryptography. The inherent randomness at the core of quantum mechanics makes quantum systems a perfect source of entropy. Quantum random number generation is one of the most mature quantum technologies with many alternative generation methods. This review discusses the different technologies in quantum random number generation from the early devices based on radioactive decay to the multiple ways to use the quantum states of light to gather entropy from a quantum origin. Randomness extraction and amplification and the notable possibility of generating trusted random numbers even with untrusted hardware using device-independent generation protocols are also discussed.

  9. Solar Indices - Sunspot Numbers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  10. Examining the Link Between Public Transit Use and Active Commuting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Bopp

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: An established relationship exists between public transportation (PT use and physical activity. However, there is limited literature that examines the link between PT use and active commuting (AC behavior. This study examines this link to determine if PT users commute more by active modes. Methods: A volunteer, convenience sample of adults (n = 748 completed an online survey about AC/PT patterns, demographic, psychosocial, community and environmental factors. t-test compared differences between PT riders and non-PT riders. Binary logistic regression analyses examined the effect of multiple factors on AC and a full logistic regression model was conducted to examine AC. Results: Non-PT riders (n = 596 reported less AC than PT riders. There were several significant relationships with AC for demographic, interpersonal, worksite, community and environmental factors when considering PT use. The logistic multivariate analysis for included age, number of children and perceived distance to work as negative predictors and PT use, feelings of bad weather and lack of on-street bike lanes as a barrier to AC, perceived behavioral control and spouse AC were positive predictors. Conclusions: This study revealed the complex relationship between AC and PT use. Further research should investigate how AC and public transit use are related.

  11. Terahertz and Cultural Heritage Science: Examination of Art and Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Cosentino

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cultural Heritage scientists need methodologies to examine Art and Archaeology in order to understand artistic materials and techniques and devise better conservation procedures. This review discusses the most successful and promising applications of Terahertz (THz technology in Cultural Heritage Science. THz is used in homeland security and for plenty of other industrial sectors and it presents a number of valuable features specifically for the investigation of Art and Archaeology: No radiation risk, low power, non-contact and reflection mode. Recent technical advancements are also making its application fast, mobile and relatively affordable creating a potential for its diffused implementation in museums. While THz is most promising for the investigation of multilayered art, such as paintings, it has been tested on a very large range of artifacts, from manuscripts to mummies and lacquered historical furniture.

  12. Fibonacci's Forgotten Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ezra; Brunson, Cornelius

    2008-01-01

    Fibonacci's forgotten number is the sexagesimal number 1;22,7,42,33,4,40, which he described in 1225 as an approximation to the real root of x[superscript 3] + 2x[superscript 2] + 10x - 20. In decimal notation, this is 1.36880810785...and it is correct to nine decimal digits. Fibonacci did not reveal his method. How did he do it? There is also a…

  13. Anomalous Dispersion of the S1 Lamb Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiz Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The S1 mode of the Lamb spectrum of an isotropic plate exhibits negative group velocity in a narrow frequency domain. This anomalous behavior is explained analytically by examining the slope of each mode first in its initial state and then near its turning points.

  14. Effect of Fertilization Mode, the Woman's Age, Reproductive History and Numbers of Retrieved Oocytes on Abnormal Fertilization in Human IVF/ICSI%受精方式、女方年龄、生育史和取卵数对体外异常受精的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    习海涛; 陈华; 葛红山; 单丹; 吕杰强

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the affecting factors of abnormal fertilization in human IVF/ICSI. Methods: The 15 364 oocytes from 1 004 IVF cycles and 250 ICSI cycles were retrospectively analyzed by the fertilization mode, the age of women, reproductive history, the number of retrieved oocytes of the incidence of normal fertilization rate (2 pronuclear, 2PN) and abnormal fertilization rate (1PN, 3PN, 4PN). Results: 1) The incidence of 1PN rate was lower in the ICSI group than that in the IVF group, however, the incidence of 3PN/4PN fertilization rate was higher in the ICSI group than that in the IVF group. 2) In the ICSI group the incidence of 3PN/4PN was significantly increased when the age of female was older than 35 (P<0.05). 3) The incidence of 1PN in the group of primary infertility was obviously more than that in the group of secondary infertility. 4) Total normal fertility rate in the group of 6-10 retrieved oocytes was higher than that in the other groups(P<0.05), and the incidence rate of abnormal fertilization (1PN, 3PN, 4PN) in the group of 11-15 oocytes was singnificantly higher than that in the other groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: The affecting factors and fertilization mechanism are different between IVF and ICSI: considering multiple factors for every couple of infertility and optimal fertilization modality in IVF may decline the incidence of abnormal fertilization and improve the normal fertilizaton rate.%目的:探讨人卵子体外受精后单原核(PN)和多原核胚胎形成的影响因素,为提高正常受精率探寻可行的方法.方法:回顾性分析1 004个IVF周期和250个ICSI周期,共计15 364个卵细胞资料,研究胚胎原核形成与体外受精方式、女方年龄、生育史、获卵数的关系.结果:①ICSI周期的1PN率明显高于IVF周期,而3PN和4PN形成率则明显低于IVF(P<0.05).②当女方年龄>35岁时,1PN、3PN和4PN形成率均显著高于年龄≤35岁者(P<0.05);当女方年龄在28~35岁时2PN(-正-

  15. Interferometric characterization of few-mode fibers (FMF) for mode-division multiplexing (MDM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muliar, O.; Usuga, M. A.; Rottwitt, K.; Lægsgaard, J.

    2015-03-01

    The rapid growth of global data traffic demands the continuous search for new technologies and systems that could increase transmission capacity in optical links and recent experiments show that to do so, it is advantageous to explore new degrees of freedom such as polarization, wavelength or optical modes. Mode division multiplexing (MDM) appears in this context as a promising and viable solution for such capacity increase, since it utilizes multiple spatial modes of an optical fiber as individual communication channels for data transmission. In order to evaluate its performance, a MDM system requires advanced characterization methods with regard to the modal content of its photonics components and in particular of the fibers involved for data transmission. In this contribution we present a time-domain interferometric technique for a full modal characterization of few mode fibers (FMF), commonly used in a MDM scenario. This experimental technique requires the use of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, where the reference's path length is controlled by an optical delay line. The interference between the output beams of reference and fiber under test (FUT) is recorded on a CCD camera and a careful evaluation of the resulting interferograms allows us to have full access to key parameters such as number of modes, modal weight, differential time delay between propagating modes and intensity profiles. In this work, we apply this simple and complete characterization method to the case of a short link with two optical modes propagating in a FMF, which illustrates its potential as a diagnostic tool for MDM systems.

  16. Sparsity-promoting dynamic mode decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Jovanović, Mihailo R; Nichols, Joseph W

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) represents an effective means for capturing the essential features of numerically or experimentally generated flow fields. In order to achieve a desirable tradeoff between the quality of approximation and the number of modes that are used to approximate the given fields, we develop a sparsity-promoting variant of the standard DMD algorithm. In our method, sparsity is induced by regularizing the least-squares deviation between the matrix of snapshots and the linear combination of DMD modes with an additional term that penalizes the $\\ell_1$-norm of the vector of DMD amplitudes. The globally optimal solution of the resulting regularized convex optimization problem is computed using the alternating direction method of multipliers, an algorithm well-suited for large problems. Several examples of flow fields resulting from numerical simulations and physical experiments are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the developed method.

  17. Nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics of edge localized mode precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Z. B., E-mail: guozhipku@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China); WCI Center for Fusion Theory, NFRI, Gwahangno 113, Yusung-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Lu [SEEE, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Wang, X. G. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China)

    2015-02-15

    A possible origin of edge-localized-mode (ELM) precursors based on nonlinear ideal peeling-ballooning mode is reported. Via nonlinear variational principle, a nonlinear evolution equation of the radial displacement is derived and solved, analytically. Besides an explosive growth in the initial nonlinear phase, it is found that the local displacement evolves into an oscillating state in the developed nonlinear phase. The nonlinear frequency of the ELM precursors scales as ω{sub pre}∼x{sup 1/3}ξ{sup ^}{sub ψ,in}{sup 2/3}n, with x position in radial direction, ξ{sup ^}{sub ψ,in} strength of initial perturbation, and n toroidal mode number.

  18. Modes Of The Spiral Clock Gong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, R.; Charnley, T.; Swallowe, G. M.; Banu, H.

    1993-03-01

    The modal frequencies of a spiral clock gong have been measured. The mode numbers and forms of vibrations have been identified by finite element modelling and photographic techniques; very good agreement between modelling and experiment was achieved. All modes were found to be either purely in-plane or out-of-plane. In both cases plots of log (2 n - 1) vs. log ƒ yielded curves with two distinct regions, the transition occurring where the wavelength corresponded to one turn of the spiral. Both sets of lower modes were very complex but the modal frequencies above n = 11 were found to fit a modified form of Chladni's law. It is suggested that the modified Chladni law may form the basis of many musical sounds.

  19. Mechanical Weyl Modes in Topological Maxwell Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocklin, D. Zeb; Chen, Bryan Gin-ge; Falk, Martin; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Lubensky, T. C.

    2016-04-01

    We show that two-dimensional mechanical lattices can generically display topologically protected bulk zero-energy phonon modes at isolated points in the Brillouin zone, analogs of massless fermion modes of Weyl semimetals. We focus on deformed square lattices as the simplest Maxwell lattices, characterized by equal numbers of constraints and degrees of freedom, with this property. The Weyl points appear at the origin of the Brillouin zone along directions with vanishing sound speed and move away to the zone edge (or return to the origin) where they annihilate. Our results suggest a design strategy for topological metamaterials with bulk low-frequency acoustic modes and elastic instabilities at a particular, tunable finite wave vector.

  20. Numerical simulation of flow past twin near-wall circular cylinders in tandem arrangement at low Reynolds number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-qiang Tang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluid flow past twin circular cylinders in a tandem arrangement placed near a plane wall was investigated by means of numerical simulations. The two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations were solved with a three-step finite element method at a relatively low Reynolds number of Re = 200 for various dimensionless ratios of and , where D is the cylinder diameter, L is the center-to-center distance between the two cylinders, and G is the gap between the lowest surface of the twin cylinders and the plane wall. The influences of and on the hydrodynamic force coefficients, Strouhal numbers, and vortex shedding modes were examined. Three different vortex shedding modes of the near wake were identified according to the numerical results. It was found that the hydrodynamic force coefficients and vortex shedding modes are quite different with respect to various combinations of and . For very small values of , the vortex shedding is completely suppressed, resulting in the root mean square (RMS values of drag and lift coefficients of both cylinders and the Strouhal number for the downstream cylinder being almost zero. The mean drag coefficient of the upstream cylinder is larger than that of the downstream cylinder for the same combination of and . It is also observed that change in the vortex shedding modes leads to a significant increase in the RMS values of drag and lift coefficients.

  1. Tour Level Mode Choice Analysis of Madison Area in Wisconsin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Miao; Cheng Yang

    2008-01-01

    This study is to investigate what factors and how they affect tours (trip chains) behavior. The key issue is the understanding and definition of tour and tour level mode. Also, these definitions should fit for the data. A semi-home based tour definition is stated, and a competing mode based tour mode is defined. Based on the definition, this study used Madison Area Data from National Household Survey to estimate a MNL structured model. It is found that travel distance could be a positive factor for car mode. Meanwhile, the number of trips is also a positive factor for choosing car.

  2. A Comparison of Numbers in Chinese and English Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高慧

    2009-01-01

    This thesis introduces the rehtionship between number and culture.Numbers are an important part ofculture.with the develop ment of human civilization,in different countries or nationalities,numbers have different implications and characteristics.From the expression of quantity,specific things and proportion,we can find the differences of culture.The focus is on"Mode Numbers"in CMnese and English culture.

  3. Spatio-temporal variability and principal components of the particle number size distribution in an urban atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Costabile

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the presence of diffusive anthropogenic sources in urban areas, the spatio-temporal variability of fine (diameter <1 μm and ultrafine (<0.1 μm aerosol particles has been a challenging issue in particle exposure assessment as well as atmospheric research in general. We examined number size distributions of atmospheric aerosol particles (size range 3–800 nm that were measured simultaneously at a maximum of eight observation sites in and around a city in Central Europe (Leipzig, Germany. Two main experiments were conducted with different time span and number of observation sites (2 years at 3 sites; 1 month at 8 sites. A general observation was that the particle number size distribution varied in time and space in a complex fashion as a result of interaction between local and far-range sources, and the meteorological conditions. To identify statistically independent factors in the urban aerosol, different runs of principal component analysis were conducted encompassing aerosol, gas phase, and meteorological parameters from the multiple sites. Several of the resulting principal components, outstanding with respect to their temporal persistence and spatial coverage, could be associated with aerosol particle modes: a first accumulation mode ("droplet mode", 300–800 nm, considered to be the result of liquid phase processes and far-range transport; a second accumulation mode (centered around diameters 90–250 nm, considered to result from primary emissions as well as aging through condensation and coagulation; an Aitken mode (30–200 nm linked to urban traffic emissions in addition to an urban and a rural Aitken mode; a nucleation mode (5–20 nm linked to urban traffic emissions; nucleation modes (3–20 nm linked to photochemically induced particle formation; an aged nucleation mode (10–50 nm. A number of additional components were identified to represent only local sources at a single site each, or infrequent phenomena. In summary

  4. Report number codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.N. (ed.)

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  5. Polarization Mode Dispersion Probability Distribution for Arbitrary Mode Coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The probability distribution of the differential group delay for arbitrary mode coupling is simulated with Monte-Carlo method. Fitting the simulation results, we obtain probability distribution function for arbitrary mode coupling.

  6. Resonance modes in optical fibres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余寿绵; 余恬

    2002-01-01

    The weakly nonlinear boundary value problem of wave propagation in an optical fibre (for the transverse electric mode, for example) is formulated and a modified linear solution is obtained. It is shown that a self-consistent theory of fibre optics should be weakly nonlinear. The mode of critical refraction that does not exist in the linear theory is obtained, showing that it is a mode consisting of resonance modes. It is shown that the signal carriers in a long fibre are of resonance modes, not normal modes. Some experimental data are given for comparison with the theoretical predictions, and the agreement seems satisfactory.

  7. modes of presentation, management and outcome of retinoblastoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SITWALA COMPUTERS

    modes of presentation, management of retinoblastoma and. UTH from January ... only whilst 3.4% had exenteration, chemotherapy and ... surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. .... 57.6% of the patients had Examination Under Anesthesia.

  8. Application of Concentration-Number and Concentration-Volume Fractal Models to Recognize Mineralized Zones in North Anomaly Iron Ore Deposit, Central Iran / Zastosowanie Modeli Fraktalnych Typu K-L (Koncentracja-Liczba), Oraz K-O (Koncentracja Objętość) Do Rozpoznawania Stref Występowania Surowców Mineralnych W Regionie Złóż Rud Żelaza North Anomaly, W Środkowym Iranie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Peyman; Ghasempour, Reza; Mokhtari, Ahmad Reza; Haroni, Hooshang Asadi

    2015-09-01

    Identification of various mineralized zones in an ore deposit is essential for mine planning and design. This study aims to distinguish the different mineralized zones and the wall rock in the Central block of North Anomaly iron ore deposit situated in Bafq (Central Iran) utilizing the concentration-number (C-N) and concentration-volume (C-V) fractal models. The C-N model indicates four mineralized zones described by Fe thresholds of 8%, 21%, and 50%, with zones 50% Fe representing wall rocks and highly mineralized zone, respectively. The C-V model reveals geochemical zones defined by Fe thresholds of 12%, 21%, 43% and 57%, with zones 50% zawartości żelaza, co odpowiada pasmu skalnemu oraz strefie o wysokim stopniu zawartości rudy. Model koncentracja-objętość wskazuje na istnienie stref geochemicznych określonych poprzez progowe wartości zawartości żelaza: 12%, 21%, 43% i 57 % oraz strefy <12%, co odpowiada ścianie skalnej. Obydwa modele stwierdzają obecność stref o wysokim stopniu zawartości surowca w środkowej i zachodniej części złoża. Wyniki walidacji modeli fraktalnych przy użyciu modeli geologicznych wskazują, ze model fraktalny koncentracja-liczba lepiej odwzorowuje obecność stref o wysokiej zawartości rud niż model fraktalny typu koncentracja-objętość.

  9. Period ratios for standing kink and sausage modes in magnetized structures with siphon flow on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Chen, Shao-Xia; Li, Bo; Xia, Li-Dong

    2016-06-01

    Standing oscillations with multiple periods have been found in a number of atmospheric structures on the Sun. The ratio of the period of the fundamental to twice the one of its first overtone, P 1/2P 2, is important in applications of solar magneto-seismology. We examine how field-aligned flows impact P 1/2P 2 of standing modes in solar magnetic cylinders. For coronal loops, the flow effects are significant for both fast kink and sausage modes. For kink modes, they reduce P 1/2P 2 by up to 17% relative to the static case even when the density contrast between the loop and its surroundings approaches infinity. For sausage modes, the reduction in P 1/2P 2 due to flow is typically ≲ 5.5% compared with the static case. However, the threshold aspect ratio, only above which can trapped sausage modes be supported, may increase dramatically with the flow magnitude. For photospheric tubes, the flow effect on P 1/2P 2 is not as strong. However, when applied to sausage modes, introducing field-aligned flows offers more possibilities in interpreting the multiple periods that have recently been measured. We conclude that field-aligned flows should be taken into account to help better understand what causes the departure of P 1/2P 2 from unity.

  10. Constraining primordial vector mode from B-mode polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saga, Shohei; Ichiki, Kiyotomo [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Shiraishi, Maresuke, E-mail: saga.shohei@nagoya-u.jp, E-mail: maresuke.shiraishi@pd.infn.it, E-mail: ichiki@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Università degli Studi di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131, Padova (Italy)

    2014-10-01

    The B-mode polarization spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) may be the smoking gun of not only the primordial tensor mode but also of the primordial vector mode. If there exist nonzero vector-mode metric perturbations in the early Universe, they are known to be supported by anisotropic stress fluctuations of free-streaming particles such as neutrinos, and to create characteristic signatures on both the CMB temperature, E-mode, and B-mode polarization anisotropies. We place constraints on the properties of the primordial vector mode characterized by the vector-to-scalar ratio r{sub v} and the spectral index n{sub v} of the vector-shear power spectrum, from the Planck and BICEP2 B-mode data. We find that, for scale-invariant initial spectra, the ΛCDM model including the vector mode fits the data better than the model including the tensor mode. The difference in χ{sup 2} between the vector and tensor models is Δχ{sup 2} = 3.294, because, on large scales the vector mode generates smaller temperature fluctuations than the tensor mode, which is preferred for the data. In contrast, the tensor mode can fit the data set equally well if we allow a significantly blue-tilted spectrum. We find that the best-fitting tensor mode has a large blue tilt and leads to an indistinct reionization bump on larger angular scales. The slightly red-tilted vector mode supported by the current data set can also create O(10{sup -22})-Gauss magnetic fields at cosmological recombination. Our constraints should motivate research that considers models of the early Universe that involve the vector mode.

  11. The LHC in numbers

    CERN Multimedia

    Alizée Dauvergne

    2010-01-01

    What makes the LHC the biggest particle accelerator in the world? Here are some of the numbers that characterise the LHC, and their equivalents in terms that are easier for us to imagine.   Feature Number Equivalent Circumference ~ 27 km   Distance covered by beam in 10 hours ~ 10 billion km a round trip to Neptune Number of times a single proton travels around the ring each second 11 245   Speed of protons first entering the LHC 299 732 500 m/s 99.9998 % of the speed of light Speed of protons when they collide 299 789 760 m/s 99.9999991 % of the speed of light Collision temperature ~ 1016 °C ove...

  12. Chromosome numbers in Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotias-de-Oliveira Ana Lúcia Pires

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports chromosome numbers of 17 species of Bromeliaceae, belonging to the genera Encholirium, Bromelia, Orthophytum, Hohenbergia, Billbergia, Neoglaziovia, Aechmea, Cryptanthus and Ananas. Most species present 2n = 50, however, Bromelia laciniosa, Orthophytum burle-marxii and O. maracasense are polyploids with 2n = 150, 2n = 100 and 2n = 150, respectively, while for Cryptanthus bahianus, 2n = 34 + 1-4B. B chromosomes were observed in Bromelia plumieri and Hohenbergia aff. utriculosa. The chromosome number of all species was determined for the first time, except for Billbergia chlorosticta and Cryptanthus bahianus. Our data supports the hypothesis of a basic number of x = 25 for the Bromeliaceae family and decreasing aneuploidy in the genus Cryptanthus.

  13. Quantum random number generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiongfeng; Yuan, Xiao; Cao, Zhu; Qi, Bing; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-06-01

    Quantum physics can be exploited to generate true random numbers, which have important roles in many applications, especially in cryptography. Genuine randomness from the measurement of a quantum system reveals the inherent nature of quantumness—coherence, an important feature that differentiates quantum mechanics from classical physics. The generation of genuine randomness is generally considered impossible with only classical means. On the basis of the degree of trustworthiness on devices, quantum random number generators (QRNGs) can be grouped into three categories. The first category, practical QRNG, is built on fully trusted and calibrated devices and typically can generate randomness at a high speed by properly modelling the devices. The second category is self-testing QRNG, in which verifiable randomness can be generated without trusting the actual implementation. The third category, semi-self-testing QRNG, is an intermediate category that provides a tradeoff between the trustworthiness on the device and the random number generation speed.

  14. Experimental realization of quantum random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubusta, Jan; Haderka, Ondrej; Hendrych, Martin; Pavlicek, Pavel

    2003-11-01

    We present our experimental realization of a quantum random number generator (RNG) based on the quantum random process of division of light pulse on a fiber coupler. Our prototype consists of fiber optics elements: a pigtailcd laser diode, two mechanical attenuators, a fiber coupler, and two single photon detectors. The RNG contains all necessary electronics for the generation of light pulses, synchronized reading of detectors' states, processing of these results, and transfer of data to a host computer. The connection to the computer is done via a 25-pin parallel port, that makes our device easy to use with any personal computer (PC). The RNG can be operated in four different modes, that arc selected by the PC. The zeroth mode is just for the device control, the first mode serves for appropriate setting of generation efficiency, the second mode is designed for raw data sequence generation at a rate of 114 kByte/s, and the last mode provides balanced data sequence at a rate of 28 kByte/s utilizing von Ncumann's extraction procedure. This procedure is used to gain a properly balanced ratio between '0's and '1's. The balanced data sequence generated by the RNG in the third mode passes all kinds of tests we arc using [for example 15 tests proposed by G. Marsaglia, WWW: http://stat.fsu.edu/ geo/diehard.html 1. The raw data sequence can be used for purposes that do not need properly balanced data, because raw data passes tests that arc not inspecting the sequence balance.

  15. The Power of Numbers in Global Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Mühlen-Schulte, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    The deployment of numbers have become a sine qua non in governance practices worldwide in recent decades. But the reasons behind this development and its implications for governance practices have not been systematically researched and theorised. This introductory article provides a short overview...... of the historical and contemporary role of numbers in different governance settings. It includes a discussion of the capacity of numbers to foster social identities, relations and truths across national boundaries, to construct issue areas and to enable various modes of surveillance, communication and action...... at a distance in the global political economy. It argues that the use of numbers in global governance should not be regarded only as a platform for knowledge sharing and learning. More than this, it needs to be understood in broader terms as a mechanism of inclusion and exclusion from complex social hierarchies...

  16. A streamlined failure mode and effects analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Eric C., E-mail: eford@uw.edu; Smith, Koren; Terezakis, Stephanie; Croog, Victoria; Gollamudi, Smitha; Gage, Irene; Keck, Jordie; DeWeese, Theodore; Sibley, Greg [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Explore the feasibility and impact of a streamlined failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) using a structured process that is designed to minimize staff effort. Methods: FMEA for the external beam process was conducted at an affiliate radiation oncology center that treats approximately 60 patients per day. A structured FMEA process was developed which included clearly defined roles and goals for each phase. A core group of seven people was identified and a facilitator was chosen to lead the effort. Failure modes were identified and scored according to the FMEA formalism. A risk priority number,RPN, was calculated and used to rank failure modes. Failure modes with RPN > 150 received safety improvement interventions. Staff effort was carefully tracked throughout the project. Results: Fifty-two failure modes were identified, 22 collected during meetings, and 30 from take-home worksheets. The four top-ranked failure modes were: delay in film check, missing pacemaker protocol/consent, critical structures not contoured, and pregnant patient simulated without the team's knowledge of the pregnancy. These four failure modes hadRPN > 150 and received safety interventions. The FMEA was completed in one month in four 1-h meetings. A total of 55 staff hours were required and, additionally, 20 h by the facilitator. Conclusions: Streamlined FMEA provides a means of accomplishing a relatively large-scale analysis with modest effort. One potential value of FMEA is that it potentially provides a means of measuring the impact of quality improvement efforts through a reduction in risk scores. Future study of this possibility is needed.

  17. CONFUSION WITH TELEPHONE NUMBERS

    CERN Document Server

    Telecom Service

    2002-01-01

    he area code is now required for all telephone calls within Switzerland. Unfortunately this is causing some confusion. CERN has received complaints that incoming calls intended for CERN mobile phones are being directed to private subscribers. This is caused by mistakenly dialing the WRONG code (e.g. 022) in front of the mobile number. In order to avoid these problems, please inform your correspondents that the correct numbers are: 079 201 XXXX from Switzerland; 0041 79 201 XXXX from other countries. Telecom Service

  18. CONFUSION WITH TELEPHONE NUMBERS

    CERN Document Server

    Telecom Service

    2002-01-01

    The area code is now required for all telephone calls within Switzerland. Unfortunately this is causing some confusion. CERN has received complaints that incoming calls intended for CERN mobile phones are being directed to private subscribers. This is caused by mistakenly dialing the WRONG code (e.g. 022) in front of the mobile number. In order to avoid these problems, please inform your correspondents that the correct numbers are: 079 201 XXXX from Switzerland; 0041 79 201 XXXX from other countries. Telecom Service  

  19. Earthquake number forecasts testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Yan Y.

    2017-10-01

    We study the distributions of earthquake numbers in two global earthquake catalogues: Global Centroid-Moment Tensor and Preliminary Determinations of Epicenters. The properties of these distributions are especially required to develop the number test for our forecasts of future seismic activity rate, tested by the Collaboratory for Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP). A common assumption, as used in the CSEP tests, is that the numbers are described by the Poisson distribution. It is clear, however, that the Poisson assumption for the earthquake number distribution is incorrect, especially for the catalogues with a lower magnitude threshold. In contrast to the one-parameter Poisson distribution so widely used to describe earthquake occurrences, the negative-binomial distribution (NBD) has two parameters. The second parameter can be used to characterize the clustering or overdispersion of a process. We also introduce and study a more complex three-parameter beta negative-binomial distribution. We investigate the dependence of parameters for both Poisson and NBD distributions on the catalogue magnitude threshold and on temporal subdivision of catalogue duration. First, we study whether the Poisson law can be statistically rejected for various catalogue subdivisions. We find that for most cases of interest, the Poisson distribution can be shown to be rejected statistically at a high significance level in favour of the NBD. Thereafter, we investigate whether these distributions fit the observed distributions of seismicity. For this purpose, we study upper statistical moments of earthquake numbers (skewness and kurtosis) and compare them to the theoretical values for both distributions. Empirical values for the skewness and the kurtosis increase for the smaller magnitude threshold and increase with even greater intensity for small temporal subdivision of catalogues. The Poisson distribution for large rate values approaches the Gaussian law, therefore its skewness

  20. Algebraic theory of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Samuel, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Algebraic number theory introduces students not only to new algebraic notions but also to related concepts: groups, rings, fields, ideals, quotient rings and quotient fields, homomorphisms and isomorphisms, modules, and vector spaces. Author Pierre Samuel notes that students benefit from their studies of algebraic number theory by encountering many concepts fundamental to other branches of mathematics - algebraic geometry, in particular.This book assumes a knowledge of basic algebra but supplements its teachings with brief, clear explanations of integrality, algebraic extensions of fields, Gal

  1. Analytic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Iwaniec, Henryk

    2004-01-01

    Analytic Number Theory distinguishes itself by the variety of tools it uses to establish results, many of which belong to the mainstream of arithmetic. One of the main attractions of analytic number theory is the vast diversity of concepts and methods it includes. The main goal of the book is to show the scope of the theory, both in classical and modern directions, and to exhibit its wealth and prospects, its beautiful theorems and powerful techniques. The book is written with graduate students in mind, and the authors tried to balance between clarity, completeness, and generality. The exercis

  2. Minimal Niven Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-26

    265–275. [7] H. G. Grundman, ‘ Sequences of consecutive Niven numbers’, Fibonacci Quart. 32 (1994), 174–175. [8] D. R. Heath-Brown and S. Konyagin...paper, we define a natural sequence in relation to q-Niven numbers. For a fixed but arbitrary k ∈ N and a base q ≥ 2, one may ask whether or not there...other words, ak is the smallest Niven number whose sum of the digits is a given positive integer k. We denote by ck the companion sequence ck = ak/k

  3. The role of MHD instabilities in the improved H-mode scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaws, Asher

    2009-02-16

    Recently a regime of tokamak operation has been discovered, dubbed the improved H-mode scenario, which simultaneously achieves increased energy confinement and stability with respect to standard H-mode discharges. It has been suggested that magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities play some role in establishing this regime. In this thesis MHD instabilities were identified, characterised, and catalogued into a database of improved H-mode discharges in order to statistically examine their behaviour. The onset conditions of MHD instabilities were compared to existing models based on previous H-mode studies. Slight differences were found, most notably a reduced {beta}{sub N} onset threshold for the frequently interrupted regime for neoclassical tearing modes (NTM). This reduced threshold is due to the relatively low magnetic shear of the improved H-mode regime. This study also provided a first-time estimate for the seed island size of spontaneous onset NTMs, a phenomenon characteristic of the improved H-mode scenario. Energy confinement investigations found that, although the NTM impact on confinement follows the same model applicable to other operating regimes, the improved H-mode regime acts to mitigate the impact of NTMs by limiting the saturated island sizes for NTMs with toroidal mode number n {>=} 2. Surprisingly, although a significant loss in energy confinement is observed during the sawtooth envelope, it has been found that discharges containing fishbones and low frequency sawteeth achieve higher energy confinement than those without. This suggests that fishbone and sawtooth reconnection may indeed play a role in establishing the high confinement regime. It was found that the time evolution of the central magnetic shear consistently locks in the presence of sawtooth and fishbone reconnection. Presumably this is due to the periodic redistribution of the central plasma current, an effect which is believed to help establish and maintain the characteristic current

  4. Same but different: Comparative modes of information processing are implicated in the construction of perceptions of autonomy support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca Rachael; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D

    2017-01-11

    An implicit assumption behind tenets of self-determination theory is that perceptions of autonomy support are a function of absolute modes of information processing. In this study, we examined whether comparative modes of information processing were implicated in the construction of perceptions of autonomy support. In an experimental study, we demonstrated that participants employed comparative modes of information processing in evaluating receipt of small, but not large, amounts of autonomy support. In addition, we found that social comparison processes influenced a number of outcomes that are empirically related to perceived autonomy support such as sense of autonomy, positive affect, perceived usefulness, and effort. Findings shed new light upon the processes underpinning construction of perceptions related to autonomy support and yield new insights into how to increase the predictive validity of models that use autonomy support as a determinant of motivation and psychological well-being.

  5. Fluid Modes of a Spherically Confined Yukawa Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Kählert, H

    2010-01-01

    The normal modes of a three-dimensional Yukawa plasma in an isotropic, harmonic confinement are investigated by solving the linearized cold fluid equations. The eigenmodes are found analytically and expressed in terms of hypergeometric functions. It is found that the mode frequencies solely depend on the dimensionless plasma parameter $\\xi=\\kappa R$, where $R$ is the plasma radius and $\\kappa$ the inverse screening length. The eigenfrequencies increase monotonically with $\\xi$ and saturate in the limit $\\xi\\to\\infty$. Compared with the results in the Coulomb limit~[D. H. E. Dubin, Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{66}, 2076 (1991)], we find a new class of modes characterized by the number $n$ which determines the number of radial nodes in the perturbed potential. These modes originate from the degenerate bulk modes of the Coulomb system. Analytical formulas for the eigenfrequencies are derived for limiting cases.

  6. Fluid Modes of a Spherically Confined Yukawa Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaehlert, Hanno; Bonitz, Michael

    2010-11-01

    The normal modes of a three-dimensional Yukawa plasma in an isotropic, harmonic confinement are investigated by solving the linearized cold fluid equations. The eigenmodes are found analytically in terms of hypergeometric functions. The mode frequencies solely depend on the dimensionless plasma parameter ξ=κR, where R is the plasma radius and κ the inverse screening length. The eigenfrequencies increase monotonically with ξ and saturate in the limit ξ->∞. Compared with the results in the Coulomb limit [D. H. E. Dubin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2076 (1991)], we find a new class of modes characterized by the number n which determines the number of radial nodes in the perturbed potential. We compare the fluid modes with molecular dynamics simulations and find good agreement for low order modes and weak to moderate screening.

  7. Correlated rigid modes in protein families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegel, D. A.; Wojtowicz, D.; Przytycka, T. M.; Periwal, V.

    2016-04-01

    A great deal of evolutionarily conserved information is contained in genomes and proteins. Enormous effort has been put into understanding protein structure and developing computational tools for protein folding, and many sophisticated approaches take structure and sequence homology into account. Several groups have applied statistical physics approaches to extracting information about proteins from sequences alone. Here, we develop a new method for sequence analysis based on first principles, in information theory, in statistical physics and in Bayesian analysis. We provide a complete derivation of our approach and we apply it to a variety of systems, to demonstrate its utility and its limitations. We show in some examples that phylogenetic alignments of amino-acid sequences of families of proteins imply the existence of a small number of modes that appear to be associated with correlated global variation. These modes are uncovered efficiently in our approach by computing a non-perturbative effective potential directly from the alignment. We show that this effective potential approaches a limiting form inversely with the logarithm of the number of sequences. Mapping symbol entropy flows along modes to underlying physical structures shows that these modes arise due to correlated compensatory adjustments. In the protein examples, these occur around functional binding pockets.

  8. Myoelectric walking mode classification for transtibial amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jason D; Beazer, Mahyo Seyedali; Hahn, Michael E

    2013-10-01

    Myoelectric control algorithms have the potential to detect an amputee's motion intent and allow the prosthetic to adapt to changes in walking mode. The development of a myoelectric walking mode classifier for transtibial amputees is outlined. Myoelectric signals from four muscles (tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius (MG), vastus lateralis, and biceps femoris) were recorded for five nonamputee subjects and five transtibial amputees over a variety of walking modes: level ground at three speeds, ramp ascent/descent, and stair ascent/descent. These signals were decomposed into relevant features (mean absolute value, variance, wavelength, number of slope sign changes, number of zero crossings) over three subwindows from the gait cycle and used to test the ability of classification algorithms for transtibial amputees using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. Detection of all seven walking modes had an accuracy of 97.9% for the amputee group and 94.7% for the nonamputee group. Misclassifications occurred most frequently between different walking speeds due to the similar nature of the gait pattern. Stair ascent/descent had the best classification accuracy with 99.8% for the amputee group and 100.0% for the nonamputee group. Stability of the developed classifier was explored using an electrode shift disturbance for each muscle. Shifting the electrode placement of the MG had the most pronounced effect on the classification accuracy for both samples. No increase in classification accuracy was observed when using SVM compared to LDA for the current dataset.

  9. Multiprocessor system with multiple concurrent modes of execution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Daniel; Ceze, Luis H.; Chen, Dong Chen; Gara, Alan; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin

    2016-11-22

    A multiprocessor system supports multiple concurrent modes of speculative execution. Speculation identification numbers (IDs) are allocated to speculative threads from a pool of available numbers. The pool is divided into domains, with each domain being assigned to a mode of speculation. Modes of speculation include TM, TLS, and rollback. Allocation of the IDs is carried out with respect to a central state table and using hardware pointers. The IDs are used for writing different versions of speculative results in different ways of a set in a cache memory.

  10. An Exploratory Study of a Number Sense Program to Develop Kindergarten Students' Number Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Sheetal; Jitendra, Asha K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a number sense program on kindergarten students' number proficiency and responsiveness to treatment as a function of students' risk for mathematics difficulties. The program targeted development of relationships among numbers (e.g., spatial, more and less). A total of 101 kindergarten students (not at risk:…

  11. Negative numbers are generated in the mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganor-Stern, Dana; Tzelgov, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to disentangle two possible representations of negative numbers--the holistic representation, where absolute magnitude is integrated with polarity; and the components representation, where absolute magnitude is stored separately from polarity. Participants' performance was examined in two tasks involving numbers from--100 to 100. In the numerical comparison task, participants had to decide which number of a pair was numerically larger/smaller. In the number line task, participants were presented with a spatial number line on which they had to place a number. The results of both tasks support the components representation of negative numbers. The findings suggest that processing of negative numbers does not involve retrieval of their meaning from memory, but rather the integration of the polarity sign with the digits' magnitudes.

  12. What Do Numbers Do in Transnational Governance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Porter, Tony

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how numbers in transnational governance constitute actors, objects, and relationships, including relationships of power. We review the existing literatures on numbers for insights relevant to their role in transnational governance, including the ontology of numbers, the history...... of numbers and their role in governance. On this basis, we set out the main distinctive ways that numbers are implicated in transnational governance. We conclude that studies of transnational governance would benefit from paying more attention to the much overlooked performative role of numbers in governance...... processes. Numbers have properties that differ from words, and shifts from one to the other in governance, for instance in the displacement of laws or norms with risk models or rankings based on numbers, have particular effects, including political effects on states, firms, individuals, and other actors...

  13. CFPC's Certification Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handfield-Jones, Richard; Hollingworth, Gary R.

    1990-01-01

    The certification examination of the College of Family Physicians of Canada is designed to assess the extent to which the College's educational objectives have been achieved. Since the first examination in 1969, more than 7000 physicians have received their certification. The authors describe the basic elements of this test and the process through which the Committee on Examinations designs and sets the examination. The authors comment on the role of the certification process in the education of family physicians in Canada. Imagesp2073-a PMID:21233952

  14. Gravitational wave polarization modes in $f(R)$ theories

    CERN Document Server

    Rizwana, Kausar H; Philippe, Jetzer

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have been carried out in the literature to evaluate the number of polarization modes of gravitational waves in modified theories, in particular in $f(R)$ theories. In the latter ones, besides the usual two transverse-traceless tensor modes present in general relativity, there are two additional scalar ones: a massive longitudinal mode and a massless transverse mode (the so-called breathing mode). This last mode has often been overlooked in the literature, due to the assumption that the application of the Lorenz gauge implies transverse-traceless wave solutions. We however show that this is in general not possible and, in particular, that the traceless condition cannot be imposed due to the fact that we no longer have a Minkowski background metric. Our findings are in agreement with the results found using the Newman-Penrose formalism, and thus clarify the inconsistencies found so far in the literature.

  15. Higher Order Reentrant Post Modes in Cylindrical Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    McAllister, Ben T; Parker, Stephen R; Tobar, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Reentrant cavities are microwave resonant devices employed in a number of different areas of physics. They are appealing due to their simple frequency tuning mechanism, which offers large tuning ranges. Reentrant cavities are, in essence, 3D lumped LC circuits consisting of a conducting central post embedded in a resonant cavity. The lowest order reentrant mode (which transforms from the TM010 mode) has been extensively studied in past publications. In this work we show the existence of higher order reentrant post modes (which transform from the TM01n mode family). We characterize these new modes in terms of their frequency tuning, filling factors and quality factors, as well as discuss some possible applications of these modes in fundamental physics tests.

  16. Revisiting the Sunspot Number

    CERN Document Server

    Clette, Frédéric; Vaquero, José M; Cliver, Edward W

    2014-01-01

    Our knowledge of the long-term evolution of solar activity and of its primary modulation, the 11-year cycle, largely depends on a single direct observational record: the visual sunspot counts that retrace the last 4 centuries, since the invention of the astronomical telescope. Currently, this activity index is available in two main forms: the International Sunspot Number initiated by R. Wolf in 1849 and the Group Number constructed more recently by Hoyt and Schatten (1998a,b). Unfortunately, those two series do not match by various aspects, inducing confusions and contradictions when used in crucial contemporary studies of the solar dynamo or of the solar forcing on the Earth climate. Recently, new efforts have been undertaken to diagnose and correct flaws and biases affecting both sunspot series, in the framework of a series of dedicated Sunspot Number Workshops. Here, we present a global overview of our current understanding of the sunspot number calibration. While the early part of the sunspot record befor...

  17. Baryon Number Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, K S; Al-Binni, U; Banerjee, S; Baxter, D V; Berezhiani, Z; Bergevin, M; Bhattacharya, S; Brice, S; Brock, R; Burgess, T W; Castellanos, L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, M-C; Church, E; Coppola, C E; Cowen, D F; Cowsik, R; Crabtree, J A; Davoudiasl, H; Dermisek, R; Dolgov, A; Dutta, B; Dvali, G; Ferguson, P; Perez, P Fileviez; Gabriel, T; Gal, A; Gallmeier, F; Ganezer, K S; Gogoladze, I; Golubeva, E S; Graves, V B; Greene, G; Handler, T; Hartfiel, B; Hawari, A; Heilbronn, L; Hill, J; Jaffe, D; Johnson, C; Jung, C K; Kamyshkov, Y; Kerbikov, B; Kopeliovich, B Z; Kopeliovich, V B; Korsch, W; Lachenmaier, T; Langacker, P; Liu, C-Y; Marciano, W J; Mocko, M; Mohapatra, R N; Mokhov, N; Muhrer, G; Mumm, P; Nath, P; Obayashi, Y; Okun, L; Pati, J C; Pattie, R W; Phillips, D G; Quigg, C; Raaf, J L; Raby, S; Ramberg, E; Ray, A; Roy, A; Ruggles, A; Sarkar, U; Saunders, A; Serebrov, A; Shafi, Q; Shimizu, H; Shiozawa, M; Shrock, R; Sikdar, A K; Snow, W M; Soha, A; Spanier, S; Stavenga, G C; Striganov, S; Svoboda, R; Tang, Z; Tavartkiladze, Z; Townsend, L; Tulin, S; Vainshtein, A; Van Kooten, R; Wagner, C E M; Wang, Z; Wehring, B; Wilson, R J; Wise, M; Yokoyama, M; Young, A R

    2013-01-01

    This report, prepared for the Community Planning Study - Snowmass 2013 - summarizes the theoretical motivations and the experimental efforts to search for baryon number violation, focussing on nucleon decay and neutron-antineutron oscillations. Present and future nucleon decay search experiments using large underground detectors, as well as planned neutron-antineutron oscillation search experiments with free neutron beams are highlighted.

  18. Surveys in Number Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Alladi, Krishnaswami

    2008-01-01

    Contains chapters on number theory and related topics. This title covers topics that focus on multipartitions, congruences and identities, the formulas of Koshliakov and Guinand in Ramanujan's "Lost Notebook", alternating sign matrices and the Weyl character formulas, theta functions in complex analysis, and elliptic functions

  19. The magic of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Eric Temple

    1991-01-01

    From one of the foremost interpreters for lay readers of the history and meaning of mathematics: a stimulating account of the origins of mathematical thought and the development of numerical theory. It probes the work of Pythagoras, Galileo, Berkeley, Einstein, and others, exploring how ""number magic"" has influenced religion, philosophy, science, and mathematics

  20. Safety in glomerular numbers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    A low nephron number is, according to Brenner's hyperfiltration hypothesis, associated with hypertension, glomerular damage and proteinuria, and starts a vicious cycle that ends in renal failure over the long term. Nephron endowment is set during foetal life, and there is no formation of nephrons

  1. Haida Numbers and Calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogo, Robert

    Experienced traders in furs, blankets, and other goods, the Haidas of the 1700's had a well-developed decimal system for counting and calculating. Their units of linear measure included the foot, yard, and fathom, or six feet. This booklet lists the numbers from 1 to 20 in English and Haida; explains the Haida use of ten, hundred, and thousand…

  2. Uniform random number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    Methods are presented for the generation of random numbers with uniform and normal distributions. Subprogram listings of Fortran generators for the Univac 1108, SDS 930, and CDC 3200 digital computers are also included. The generators are of the mixed multiplicative type, and the mathematical method employed is that of Marsaglia and Bray.

  3. Predicting Lotto Numbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorgensen, C.B.; Suetens, S.; Tyran, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the "law of small numbers" using a unique panel data set on lotto gambling. Because we can track individual players over time, we can measure how they react to outcomes of recent lotto drawings. We can therefore test whether they behave as if they believe they can predict lotto

  4. Components representation of negative numbers: evidence from auditory stimuli detection and number classification tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feng; Zhao, Jingjing; You, Xuqun

    2012-01-01

    Past research suggested that negative numbers could be represented in terms of their components in the visual modality. The present study examined the processing of negative numbers in the auditory modality and whether it is affected by context. Experiment 1 employed a stimuli detection task where only negative numbers were presented binaurally. Experiment 2 employed the same task, but both positive and negative numbers were mixed as cues. A reverse attentional spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect for negative numbers was obtained in these two experiments. Experiment 3 employed a number classification task where only negative numbers were presented binaurally. Experiment 4 employed the same task, but both positive and negative numbers were mixed. A reverse SNARC effect for negative numbers was obtained in these two experiments. These findings suggest that negative numbers in the auditory modality are generated from the set of positive numbers, thus supporting a components representation.

  5. Approximate number sense, symbolic number processing, or number-space mappings: what underlies mathematics achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasanguie, Delphine; Göbel, Silke M; Moll, Kristina; Smets, Karolien; Reynvoet, Bert

    2013-03-01

    In this study, the performance of typically developing 6- to 8-year-old children on an approximate number discrimination task, a symbolic comparison task, and a symbolic and nonsymbolic number line estimation task was examined. For the first time, children's performances on these basic cognitive number processing tasks were explicitly contrasted to investigate which of them is the best predictor of their future mathematical abilities. Math achievement was measured with a timed arithmetic test and with a general curriculum-based math test to address the additional question of whether the predictive association between the basic numerical abilities and mathematics achievement is dependent on which math test is used. Results revealed that performance on both mathematics achievement tests was best predicted by how well childrencompared digits. In addition, an association between performance on the symbolic number line estimation task and math achievement scores for the general curriculum-based math test measuring a broader spectrum of skills was found. Together, these results emphasize the importance of learning experiences with symbols for later math abilities.

  6. Tensor modes on the string theory landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westphal, Alexander

    2012-06-15

    We attempt an estimate for the distribution of the tensor mode fraction r over the landscape of vacua in string theory. The dynamics of eternal inflation and quantum tunneling lead to a kind of democracy on the landscape, providing no bias towards large-field or small-field inflation regardless of the class of measure. The tensor mode fraction then follows the number frequency distributions of inflationary mechanisms of string theory over the landscape. We show that an estimate of the relative number frequencies for small-field vs large-field inflation, while unattainable on the whole landscape, may be within reach as a regional answer for warped Calabi-Yau flux compactifications of type IIB string theory.

  7. Tensor modes on the string theory landscape

    CERN Document Server

    Westphal, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    We attempt an estimate for the distribution of the tensor mode fraction $r$ over the landscape of vacua in string theory. The dynamics of eternal inflation and quantum tunneling lead to a kind of democracy on the landscape, providing no bias towards large-field or small-field inflation regardless of the class of measure. The tensor mode fraction then follows the number frequency distributions of inflationary mechanisms of string theory over the landscape. We show that an estimate of the relative number frequencies for small-field vs large-field inflation, while unattainable on the whole landscape, may be within reach as a regional answer for warped Calabi-Yau flux compactifications of type IIB string theory.

  8. Atomic dynamics in the mode-mode competition system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Qin; Fang Mao-Fa

    2004-01-01

    The atomic dynamical properties in the system with competing k-photon and l-photon transitions are studied fully by means of quantum theory. We discuss the influences of the mode-mode competition, the relative competing strengths of the atom and the two-mode field, and the initial state of the system on the atomic dynamics. We show that the presence of the mode-mode competition can result in quite a periodical collapses-revivals of the atomic inversion and the increase of the initial photons of the system can lead to the collapse-revival phenomenon and prolong the revival time of the atomic inversion.

  9. Mode of occurrence of chromium in four US coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Frank E.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.P.; Kolker, A.; Crowley, S.; Palmer, C.A.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    The mode of occurrence of chromium in three US bituminous coals and one US subbituminous has been examined using both X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy and a selective leaching protocol supplemented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron microprobe measurements. A synthesis of results from both methods indicates that chromium occurs principally in two forms in the bituminous coals: the major occurrence of chromium is associated with the macerals and is not readily leached by any reagent, whereas a second, lesser occurrence, which is leachable in hydrofluoric acid (HF), is associated with the clay mineral, illite. The former occurrence is believed to be a small particle oxyhydroxide phase (CrO(OH)). One coal also contained a small fraction (<5%) of the chromium in the form of a chromian magnetite, and the leaching protocol indicated the possibility of a similar small fraction of chromium in sulfide form in all three coals. There was little agreement between the two techniques on the mode of occurrence of chromium in the subbituminous coal; however, only a limited number of subbituminous coals have been analyzed by either technique. The chromium in all four coals was trivalent as no evidence was found for the Cr6+ oxidation state in any coal.

  10. Population of collective modes in light scattering by many atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, William; Kaiser, Robin

    2017-05-01

    The interaction of light with an atomic sample containing a large number of particles gives rise to many collective (or cooperative) effects, such as multiple scattering, superradiance, and subradiance, even if the atomic density is low and the incident optical intensity weak (linear optics regime). Tracing over the degrees of freedom of the light field, the system can be well described by an effective atomic Hamiltonian, which contains the light-mediated dipole-dipole interaction between atoms. This long-range interaction is at the origin of the various collective effects, or of collective excitation modes of the system. Even though an analysis of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of these collective modes does allow distinguishing superradiant modes, for instance, from other collective modes, this is not sufficient to understand the dynamics of a driven system, as not all collective modes are significantly populated. Here, we study how the excitation parameters, i.e., the driving field, determines the population of the collective modes. We investigate in particular the role of the laser detuning from the atomic transition, and demonstrate a simple relation between the detuning and the steady-state population of the modes. This relation allows understanding several properties of cooperative scattering, such as why superradiance and subradiance become independent of the detuning at large enough detuning without vanishing, and why superradiance, but not subradiance, is suppressed near resonance. We also show that the spatial properties of the collective modes allow distinguishing diffusive modes, responsible for radiation trapping, from subradiant modes.

  11. Dynamic Mode Decomposition of Jet in Channel Crossflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhao; Laurence, Dominique

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, the authors present a comparative analysis of Koopman modes computed from snap-shots of direct numerical simulations of a jet in channel crossflow (channel flow Re number = 3333, jet-to-crossflow velocity ratio = 1/6). The flow is complex due to interactions between the jet and the cross-flow, and contains geometry-dependent large-scale coherent structures; thus, the Koopman mode analysis provides a powerful tool for studying the spatial and spectral information of the flow. The Koopman modes are approximated by the DMD modes restricted to Krylov subspace, and the Koopman modes isolate structures associated with single frequency only. In this work, we address issues related to the physical interpretation of the DMD modes. The results show that the computed Koopman modes identify the relevant frequencies and the corresponding three-dimensional flow structures automatically. We present the selected DMD modes, which show big differences in the spatial structures and frequency. The shear layer vortices are separated from the horseshoe vortex. These modes have large amplitudes among all modes obtained. Acknowledging the IT Services at The University of Manchester, the use of ARCHER HPC allocated via UK EPSRC Turbulence Consortium (EPSRC Grant EP/L000261/1), the use of BlueGene/Q supercomputer sponsored by EDF R&D centre Chatou and Cedric Flageul.

  12. Localized Acoustic Surface Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2015-08-04

    We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes (ASMs). We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.

  13. Depeche Mode – 101

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Für den Tourfilm 101 der Synthie-Pop-Gruppe Depeche Mode wurde der bekannte Musikdokumentarfilmer D.A. Pennebaker zusammen mit seiner Ehefrau Chris Hedegus sowie David Dawkins engagiert, um die letzten Etappen der Tour filmisch im Stile des Direct Cinema zu begleiten. Die Wahl fiel deshalb auf genau dieses Filmteam, weil die Band einen unmanipulierten Einblick ins Tourleben geben wollte und man in Pennebaker und seinen Mitstreitern dafür die richtigen Leute vermutete. Der Sänger Dave Gahan er...

  14. Damage mechanics - failure modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajcinovic, D.; Vujosevic, M. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The present study summarizes the results of the DOE sponsored research program focused on the brittle failure of solids with disordered microstructure. The failure is related to the stochastic processes on the microstructural scale; namely, the nucleation and growth of microcracks. The intrinsic failure modes, such as the percolation, localization and creep rupture, are studied by emphasizing the effect of the micro-structural disorder. A rich spectrum of physical phenomena and new concepts that emerges from this research demonstrates the reasons behind the limitations of traditional, deterministic, and local continuum models.

  15. Compartmented mode workstation (CMW) comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolliver, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    As the Compartmented Mode Workstation (CMW) market has matured, several vendors have released new versions of their CMW operating systems. These include a new version from SecureWare (CMW + Version 2.4), and Sun`s CMW 1.1 (also known as Trusted Solaris 1.1). EC is now shipping MLS+ 3.0 for DEC Alpha platforms. Relatively new entries in the market include Loral B1/CMW for IBM RS/6000 platforms and a SecureWare-based CMW for HP platforms (HP-UX 10.09). With all these choices it is time for a comparative analysis of the features offered by the various vendors. The authors have three of the above five CMW systems plus HP-UX BLS 9.09, which is a multilevel secure operating system (OS) targeted at the B1 level but not a CMW. Each is unique in sometimes obvious, sometimes subtle ways, a situation that requires knowing and keeping straight a variety of commands to do the same thing on each system. Some vendors offer extensive GUI tools for system administration; some require entering command-line commands for certain system administration tasks. They examine the differences in system installation, system administration, and system operating among the systems. They look at trusted networking among the various systems and differences in the network databases and label encodings files. They examine the user interface on the various systems from logging in to logging out.

  16. ACCA College English Teaching Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Renlun

    2008-01-01

    This paper elucidates a new college English teaching mode--"ACCA" (Autonomous Cooperative Class-teaching All-round College English Teaching Mode). Integrated theories such as autonomous learning and cooperative learning into one teaching mode, "ACCA", which is being developed and advanced in practice as well, is the achievement…

  17. Fluxon modes in superconducting multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Madsen, Søren Peder

    2004-01-01

    We show how to construct fluxon modes from plasma modes in the inductively coupled stacked Josephson junctions, and consider some special cases of these fluxon modes analytically. In some cases we can find exact analytical solutions when we choose the bias current in a special way. We also consid...

  18. Standardization of Keyword Search Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Di

    2010-01-01

    In spite of its popularity, keyword search mode has not been standardized. Though information professionals are quick to adapt to various presentations of keyword search mode, novice end-users may find keyword search confusing. This article compares keyword search mode in some major reference databases and calls for standardization. (Contains 3…

  19. Examination Syllabus Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallatratt, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    A study was conducted based on an analysis of computer study courses leading to CSE and 0-level examinations. Several findings are discussed and questions about future developments are raised. Syllabus content (including history, hardware, basic computer science, programming, applications, and implications), format, and examinations are among the…

  20. Examination Syllabus Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallatratt, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    A study was conducted based on an analysis of computer study courses leading to CSE and 0-level examinations. Several findings are discussed and questions about future developments are raised. Syllabus content (including history, hardware, basic computer science, programming, applications, and implications), format, and examinations are among the…

  1. Calling Dunbar's Numbers

    CERN Document Server

    MacCarron, Pádraig; Dunbar, Robin

    2016-01-01

    The social brain hypothesis predicts that humans have an average of about 150 relationships at any given time. Within this 150, there are layers of friends of an ego, where the number of friends in a layer increases as the emotional closeness decreases. Here we analyse a mobile phone dataset, firstly, to ascertain whether layers of friends can be identified based on call frequency. We then apply different clustering algorithms to break the call frequency of egos into clusters and compare the number of alters in each cluster with the layer size predicted by the social brain hypothesis. In this dataset we find strong evidence for the existence of a layered structure. The clustering yields results that match well with previous studies for the innermost and outermost layers, but for layers in between we observe large variability.

  2. Sierpinski and Carmichael Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    appear. 31 [21] E. M. Matveev, ‘An explicit lower bound for a homogeneous rational linear form in logarithms of algebraic numbers. II,’ Izv. Ross. Akad...Math. Comp. 37 (1981), 587–593. [23] C. Pontreau, ‘A Mordell- Lang plus Bogomolov type result for curves in G2m,’ Monatsh. Math. 157 (2009), 267–281. [24

  3. Number Needed To… $ave?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocker, Graeme M; Verma, Jennifer Y; Demmons, Jillian; Mittmann, Nicole

    2015-02-06

    The 'Number Needed to Treat' (NNT) is a useful measure for estimating the number of patients that would need to receive a therapeutic intervention to avoid one of the adverse events that the treatment is designed to prevent. We explored the possibility of an adaption of NNT to estimate the 'Number Needed to $ave' (NN$) as a new, conceptual systems metric to estimate potential cost-savings to the health system from implementation of a treatment, or in this case, a program. We used the outcomes of the INSPIRED COPD Outreach ProgramTM to calculate that 26 patients would need to complete the program to avoid healthcare expenditures of $100,000, based on hospital bed days avoided. The NN$ does not translate into 'cost savings' per se, but redirection of resource expenditures for other purposes. We propose that the NN$ metric, if further developed, could help to inform system-level resource allocation decisions in a manner similar to the way that the NNT metric helps to inform individual-level treatment decisions.

  4. Effects of biodiesel, engine load and diesel particulate filter on nonvolatile particle number size distributions in heavy-duty diesel engine exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Li-Hao; Liou, Yi-Jyun; Cheng, Man-Ting; Lu, Jau-Huai; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Tsai, Ying I; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chen, Chung-Bang; Lai, Jim-Shoung

    2012-01-15

    Diesel engine exhaust contains large numbers of submicrometer particles that degrade air quality and human health. This study examines the number emission characteristics of 10-1000 nm nonvolatile particles from a heavy-duty diesel engine, operating with various waste cooking oil biodiesel blends (B2, B10 and B20), engine loads (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%) and a diesel oxidation catalyst plus diesel particulate filter (DOC+DPF) under steady modes. For a given load, the total particle number concentrations (N(TOT)) decrease slightly, while the mode diameters show negligible changes with increasing biodiesel blends. For a given biodiesel blend, both the N(TOT) and mode diameters increase modestly with increasing load of above 25%. The N(TOT) at idle are highest and their size distributions are strongly affected by condensation and possible nucleation of semivolatile materials. Nonvolatile cores of diameters less than 16 nm are only observed at idle mode. The DOC+DPF shows remarkable filtration efficiency for both the core and soot particles, irrespective of the biodiesel blend and engine load under study. The N(TOT) post the DOC+DPF are comparable to typical ambient levels of ≈ 10(4)cm(-3). This implies that, without concurrent reductions of semivolatile materials, the formation of semivolatile nucleation mode particles post the after treatment is highly favored. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of survey mode on response patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Illemann; Ekholm, Ola; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While face-to-face interviews are considered the gold standard of survey modes, self-administered questionnaires are often preferred for cost and convenience. This article examines response patterns in two general population health surveys carried out by face-to-face interview and self......-administered questionnaire, respectively. METHOD: Data derives from a health interview survey in the Region of Southern Denmark (face-to-face interview) and The Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2010 (self-administered questionnaire). Identical questions were used in both surveys. Data on all individuals were obtained from...... administrative registers and linked to survey data at individual level. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the effect of survey mode on response patterns. RESULTS: The non-response rate was higher in the self-administered survey (37.9%) than in the face-to-face interview survey (23...

  6. Modes of fossil preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  7. Mixed-mode fracture in unidirectional graphite epoxy composite laminates with central notch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Reddy, E. S.

    1992-01-01

    Mixed-mode matrix fracture in central notched off-axis unidirectional composite laminates was investigated. A limited number of unidirectional tensile type specimens with a central, horizontal, notch were tested. Crack initiation and propagation were examined under various local stress fields that were controlled by fiber orientations. The tested specimens were simulated using a two dimensional finite element method with constant strain loading. The strain energy release rates along the crack were evaluated via crack closure technique. The variation of critical strain energy rates with off-axis angle was studied. The results from single (one-sided) and double (two-sided) crack simulations were presented and compared.

  8. Spatio-temporal variability and principal components of the particle number size distribution in an urban atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Costabile

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A correct description of fine (diameter <1 μm and ultrafine (<0.1 μm aerosol particles in urban areas is of interest for particle exposure assessment but also basic atmospheric research. We examined the spatio-temporal variability of atmospheric aerosol particles (size range 3–800 nm using concurrent number size distribution measurements at a maximum of eight observation sites in and around Leipzig, a city in Central Europe. Two main experiments were conducted with different time span and number of observation sites (2 years at 3 sites; 1 month at 8 sites. A general observation was that the particle number size distribution varied in time and space in a complex fashion as a result of interaction between local and far-range sources, and the meteorological conditions. To identify statistically independent factors in the urban aerosol, different runs of principal component (PC analysis were conducted encompassing aerosol, gas phase, and meteorological parameters from the multiple sites. Several of the resulting PCs, outstanding with respect to their temporal persistence and spatial coverage, could be associated with aerosol particle modes: a first accumulation mode ("droplet mode", 300–800 nm, considered to be the result of liquid phase processes and far-range transport; a second accumulation mode (centered around diameters 90–250 nm, considered to result from primary emissions as well as aging through condensation and coagulation; an Aitken mode (30–200 nm linked to urban traffic emissions in addition to an urban and a rural Aitken mode; a nucleation mode (5–20 nm linked to urban traffic emissions; nucleation modes (3–20 nm linked to photochemically induced particle formation; an aged nucleation mode (10–50 nm. Additional PCs represented only local sources at a single site, or infrequent phenomena. In summary, the analysis of size distributions of high time and size resolution yielded a surprising wealth of statistical aerosol

  9. Dynamo magnetic field modes in thin astrophysical disks - An adiabatic computational approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Levy, E. H.

    1991-01-01

    An adiabatic approximation is applied to the calculation of turbulent MHD dynamo magnetic fields in thin disks. The adiabatic method is employed to investigate conditions under which magnetic fields generated by disk dynamos permeate the entire disk or are localized to restricted regions of a disk. Two specific cases of Keplerian disks are considered. In the first, magnetic field diffusion is assumed to be dominated by turbulent mixing leading to a dynamo number independent of distance from the center of the disk. In the second, the dynamo number is allowed to vary with distance from the disk's center. Localization of dynamo magnetic field structures is found to be a general feature of disk dynamos, except in the special case of stationary modes in dynamos with constant dynamo number. The implications for the dynamical behavior of dynamo magnetized accretion disks are discussed and the results of these exploratory calculations are examined in the context of the protosolar nebula and accretion disks around compact objects.

  10. Generalizations of Euler Numbers and Euler Numbers of Higher Order

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUOQiu-ming; QIFeng

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to define the generalized Euler numbers and the generalized Euler numbers of higher order, their recursion formula and some properties were established, accordingly Euler numbers and Euler numbers of higher order were extended.

  11. Essentials of musculoskeletal examination

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-08-01

    Aug 1, 2011 ... The history, physical examination and special investigations combine in the evaluation of the above ... further in that, for example, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) .... therapeutic and prognostic implications for the patient.

  12. The paediatric ophthalmic examination

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management. .... In a child who has the eyes shut, topical anaesthesia and sedation may help, but a ... Photographs are valuable – current or previous. ey may allow additional information to the examination and can be forwarded for com-.

  13. Terror of Examinations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔园玲

    2013-01-01

    Parents send their sons and daughters to schools and col eges to get education. Teachers work year in and year out to fulfil the task which society entrusts to them. Many ways of reforming the examination system have been suggested.

  14. AN EVALUATION OF PRIMARY DATA-COLLECTION MODES IN AN ADDRESS-BASED SAMPLING DESIGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Ashley; Leclere, Felicia; Carris, Kari; Liao, Youlian

    2015-01-01

    As address-based sampling becomes increasingly popular for multimode surveys, researchers continue to refine data-collection best practices. While much work has been conducted to improve efficiency within a given mode, additional research is needed on how multimode designs can be optimized across modes. Previous research has not evaluated the consequences of mode sequencing on multimode mail and phone surveys, nor has significant research been conducted to evaluate mode sequencing on a variety of indicators beyond response rates. We conducted an experiment within the Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health across the U.S. Risk Factor Survey (REACH U.S.) to evaluate two multimode case-flow designs: (1) phone followed by mail (phone-first) and (2) mail followed by phone (mail-first). We compared response rates, cost, timeliness, and data quality to identify differences across case-flow design. Because surveys often differ on the rarity of the target population, we also examined whether changes in the eligibility rate altered the choice of optimal case flow. Our results suggested that, on most metrics, the mail-first design was superior to the phone-first design. Compared with phone-first, mail-first achieved a higher yield rate at a lower cost with equivalent data quality. While the phone-first design initially achieved more interviews compared to the mail-first design, over time the mail-first design surpassed it and obtained the greatest number of interviews.

  15. Breast Self- Examination Contradiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla Akkas Gursoy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is very important health problem among women in the World and Turkey. Although treatment chance is very rising and survival is getting longer thanks to early diagnosis in breast cancer. Some discussion is making related to breast self examination which is one of the early detection methods in recent years. This article consider the discussions about breast self examination under the historical development light. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(3.000: 257-260

  16. Topics in number theory

    CERN Document Server

    LeVeque, William J

    2002-01-01

    Classic two-part work now available in a single volume assumes no prior theoretical knowledge on reader's part and develops the subject fully. Volume I is a suitable first course text for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. Volume II requires a much higher level of mathematical maturity, including a working knowledge of the theory of analytic functions. Contents range from chapters on binary quadratic forms to the Thue-Siegel-Roth Theorem and the Prime Number Theorem. Includes numerous problems and hints for their solutions. 1956 edition. Supplementary Reading. List of Symb

  17. The number system

    CERN Document Server

    Thurston, H A

    2007-01-01

    The teaching of mathematics has undergone extensive changes in approach, with a shift in emphasis from rote memorization to acquiring an understanding of the logical foundations and methodology of problem solving. This book offers guidance in that direction, exploring arithmetic's underlying concepts and their logical development.This volume's great merit lies in its wealth of explanatory material, designed to promote an informal and intuitive understanding of the rigorous logical approach to the number system. The first part explains and comments on axioms and definitions, making their subseq

  18. Is Baryon Number Conserved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Jogesh C.; Salam, Abdus

    We suggest that baryon-number conservation may not be absolute and that an integrally charged quark may disintegrate into two leptons and an antilepton with a coupling strength G Bmp2≲ 10-9. On the other hand, if quarks are much heavier than low-lying hadrons, the decay of a three-quark system like the proton is highly forbidden (proton lifetime ≳ 1028 y). Motivation for these ideas appears to arise within a unified theory of hadrons and leptons and their gauge interactions. We emphasize the consequences of such a possibility for real quark searches.

  19. Cohomology of number fields

    CERN Document Server

    Neukirch, Jürgen; Wingberg, Kay

    2013-01-01

    The second edition is a corrected and extended version of the first. It is a textbook for students, as well as a reference book for the working mathematician, on cohomological topics in number theory. The first part provides algebraic background: cohomology of profinite groups, duality groups, free products, and homotopy theory of modules, with new sections on spectral sequences and on Tate cohomology of profinite groups. The second part deals with Galois groups of local and global fields: Tate duality, structure of absolute Galois groups of local fields, extensions with restricted ramificatio

  20. Quantum random number generator

    CERN Document Server

    Stipcevic, M

    2006-01-01

    We report upon a novel principle for realization of a fast nondeterministic random number generator whose randomness relies on intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical processes of photonic emission in semiconductors and subsequent detection by the photoelectric effect. Timing information of detected photons is used to generate binary random digits-bits. The bit extraction method based on restartable clock theoretically eliminates both bias and autocorrelation while reaching efficiency of almost 0.5 bits per random event. A prototype has been built and statistically tested.

  1. 不同种植模式对作物根系生长、产量及根际土壤微生物数量的影响%Effects of different cropping modes on crop root growth, yield, and rhizosphere soil microbes' number

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雍太文; 杨文钰; 向达兵; 陈小容

    2012-01-01

    A multi-year field experiment was conducted to study the variation features of rhizosphere environment and crop root growth under the cropping modes of wheat-soybean (A1 ) , wheat-sweet potato ( A2 ) , maize ( A3 ) , wheat/maize/soybean ( A4) , and wheat/maize/sweet potato ( A5 ). Among the five modes, A4 increased the plant biomass, root activity, and root dry mass of wheat, maize, and soybean at their flowering and maturing stages, and the quantity of rhizosphere soil bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes. The biomass and quantity of rhizosphere soil microbes were relay strip intercropping > single cropping, soybean > sweet potato, and fringe row > center row. It was suggested that wheat/maize/soybean relay trip intercropping could improve rhizosphere environment , promote the crops root growth and increase their aboveground biomass, and accordingly, realize yield-increasing.%采用多年大田试验研究了小麦-大豆(A1)、小麦-甘薯(A2)、玉米(A3)、小麦/玉米/大豆(A4)和小麦/玉米/甘薯(A5)5种种植模式的根际环境变化特征和根系生长特性.结果表明:与A1、A2、A3和A5相比,A4提高了小麦、玉米、大豆在开花期和成熟期的生物量、根系活力和根干质量,提高了各作物根际土壤细菌、真菌和放线菌数量.各种植模式之间,植株生物量和根际微生物数量的变化规律为套作>单作、大豆茬口>甘薯茬口、边行>中行.小麦/玉米/大豆(A4)套作模式通过改善3种作物的根际环境,促进了作物地下部根系生长和地上部生物量的增加,从而实现作物增产.

  2. A Solar Model with g-Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Charles L.; Niemann, Hasso (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Good evidence is assembled showing that the Suit's core arid surface vary on time scales from a month to a decade arid that a number of scales are similar. The most plausible source for numerous long time scales and periodicities is long-lived global oscillations. This suggests g-modes (oscillations restored mainly by buoyancy) because they particularly affect the core and base of the convective envelope, which then indirectly modulates the surface. Also, standing g-modes have rotational properties that match many observed periodicities. But the standard solar model (SSM) has a static core and excites few if any g-modes. making new interior structures worth exploring. The model outlined here assumes two well mixed shells near 0.18 and 0.68 R, (13 = solar radius) where sound speed data shows sharp deviations from the SSM. Mixing is sustained by flows driven by the oscillations. The shells form a cavity that excludes g-modes from their main damping region below 0.1 R, assisting their net excitation and increasing their oscillation periods by at least a factor of two and probably much more. In terms of the solar luminosity L, the modes transport up through the cavity a power approx. 0.004 L as a lower limit and 0.11 L as all upper limit. The modes dissipate energy in the outer shell and cool the inner shell, asymmetrically in each case, and this stimulates occasional convective events whose response time is typically 0.8 years longer near the inner shell. Such events cool the core and reduce neutrino flux while heating the envelope and increasing solar activity. This gives a physical basis for a well mixed Sun with low neutrino flux and basis for the observed anticorrelation and lag of neutrino behind surface activity.

  3. Efficient multi-mode to single-mode coupling in a photonic lantern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordegraaf, Danny; Skovgaard, Peter M.; Nielsen, Martin D.;

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a high performance multi-mode (MM) to single-mode (SM) splitter or “photonic lantern”, first described by Leon-Saval et al. (2005). Our photonic lantern is a solid all-glass version, and we show experimentally that this device can be used to achieve efficient...... and reversible coupling between a MM fiber and a number of SM fibers, when perfectly matched launch conditions into the MM fiber are ensured. The fabricated photonic lantern has a coupling loss for a MM to SM tapered transition of only 0.32 dB which proves the feasibility of the technology...

  4. Expanded mode lasers for telecommunications applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lealman, Ian F.

    This thesis describes the development of a long wavelength (1.55 μm) expanded mode semiconductor laser. The increased spot size of the laser improves both the coupling efficiency to cleaved fibre and fibre alignment tolerances and reduces packaging cost. In this type of device the strength of the waveguide is gradually reduced towards the front facet allowing the mode to adiabatically expand so that the laser mode is better matched in size to that of a cleaved fibre. This can be achieved by either reducing the refractive index of the guide or reducing the amount of material in the core. The structure chosen was a buried heterostructure laser that utilised a twin guide consisting of an upper higher refractive index guide (the active region of the laser) above a weak passive guide. The width of the active region was reduced along part of the device allowing the mode to expand into the weak underlying guide. The guide structure was optimised using a variable grid finite difference mode solver, and the taper length calculated by an approximation to Love's method. Detailed results are presented for the measured light-current characteristic, farfield and coupling loss to cleaved fibre. These coupling losses were compared to the calculated data thus allowing the waveguide design to be optimised. Several iterations in the design of the device were undertaken, with the aim of reducing the coupling loss to cleaved single mode fibre without significantly compromising the laser performance. The final device design had extremely low coupling losses as low as 1.2 dB to cleaved fibre. Finally, the positive impact this device had on passive alignment using a silicon motherboard is examined, and the application this technology to a range of other optoelectronic components is discussed.

  5. Impact of cross-tie design on the in-plane stiffness and local mode formation of cable networks on cable-stayed bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Javaid; Cheng, Shaohong; Ghrib, Faouzi

    2016-02-01

    Suppressing unfavorable stay cable vibrations using cross-ties is becoming more popular on cable-stayed bridges though the mechanics of the formed cable network is yet fully understood. In practice, the main task in designing cross-ties or cable networks is to choose the cross-tie installation location, stiffness and number based on the main cable properties in the network. To have a more comprehensive picture of how to choose these design parameters to achieve higher in-plane network stiffness while minimizing the number of excited local modes, it is imperative to examine dynamic behavior of cable networks with general configurations. In the current study, an analytical model of a general cable network consisting of multiple main cables interconnected by multiple lines of transverse flexible cross-ties will be developed. A new term, defined as the local mode cluster, will be introduced to assess the severity of local mode excitation. Criteria for identifying the presence of local mode cluster will be proposed. A parametric study will be conducted to evaluate the impact of cross-tie installation location, stiffness and number on the network modal response. Results obtained from the present study will provide deeper insight into the selection of these system parameters to achieve the combined benefits of increasing network in-plane stiffness and minimizing the excitation of local modes.

  6. Adaptive mode control in few mode fibers and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashry, Islam; Lu, Peng; Xu, Yong

    2016-10-01

    With the development of mode-division-multiplexing (MDM), few mode fibers (FMFs) have found a wide range of applications in optical sensing and communications. However, how to precisely control the mode composition of optical signals in FMFs remains a difficult challenge. In this paper, we present an adaptive mode control method that can selectively excite the linearly polarized (LP) mode within the FMF. The method is based on using optical pulses reflected by a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) for wavefront optimization. Two potential applications are discussed. First, we theoretically demonstrate the feasibility of large scale multiplexing of absorption based fiber optical sensors. Second, we discuss the possibility of using mode dependent loss to reconstruct the spatial distributions of absorptive chemicals diffused within a FMF.

  7. Directly mapping whispering gallery modes in a microsphere through modal coupling and directional emission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunhua Dong; Yunfeng Xiao; Yong Yang; Zhengfu Han; Guangcan Guo; Lan Yang

    2008-01-01

    @@ We fabricate slightly deformed fused-silica microspheres in which whispering gallery modes possess remarkably directional escape emission from the microsphere boundary. With efficient flee-space excitation and collection, the lateral spatial distribution of whispering gallery modes with different azimuthal mode numbers, rn, is directly observed through modal coupling and directional emission. Excellent agreement with theory is obtained.

  8. Atomic Dipole Squeezing in the Correlated Two-Mode Two-Photon Jaynes-Cummings Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhengchao; Zhao, Yonglin

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we study the atomic dipole squeezing in the correlated two-mode two-photon JC model with the field initially in the correlated two-mode SU(1,1) coherent state. The effects of detuning, field intensity and number difference between the two field modes are investigated through numerical calculation.

  9. Mode evolution in polarization maintain few mode fibers and applications in mode-division-multiplexing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zeng, Xinglin; Mo, Qi; Li, Wei; Liu, Zhijian; Wu, Jian

    2016-10-01

    In few-mode polarization-maintaining-fiber (FM-PMF), the effective-index splitting exists not only between orthogonally polarization state but also between degenerated modes within a high-order mode group. Hence besides the polarization state evolution, the mode patterns in each LP set are need to be analyzed. In this letter, the completed firstorder mode (LP11 mode) evolution in PM-FMF is analyzed and represented by analogous Jones vector and Poincarésphere respectively. Furthermore, with Jones matrix analysis, the modal dynamics in FM-PMFs is conveniently analyzed. The conclusions are used to propose a PM-FMF based LP11 mode rotator and an PM-FMF based OAM generator. Both simulation and experiments are conducted to investigate performance of the two devices.

  10. Failure mode and effects analysis using intuitionistic fuzzy hybrid weighted Euclidean distance operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hu-Chen; Liu, Long; Li, Ping

    2014-10-01

    Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) has shown its effectiveness in examining potential failures in products, process, designs or services and has been extensively used for safety and reliability analysis in a wide range of industries. However, its approach to prioritise failure modes through a crisp risk priority number (RPN) has been criticised as having several shortcomings. The aim of this paper is to develop an efficient and comprehensive risk assessment methodology using intuitionistic fuzzy hybrid weighted Euclidean distance (IFHWED) operator to overcome the limitations and improve the effectiveness of the traditional FMEA. The diversified and uncertain assessments given by FMEA team members are treated as linguistic terms expressed in intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (IFNs). Intuitionistic fuzzy weighted averaging (IFWA) operator is used to aggregate the FMEA team members' individual assessments into a group assessment. IFHWED operator is applied thereafter to the prioritisation and selection of failure modes. Particularly, both subjective and objective weights of risk factors are considered during the risk evaluation process. A numerical example for risk assessment is given to illustrate the proposed method finally.

  11. Surface modes in sheared boundary layers over impedance linings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambley, E. J.

    2013-08-01

    Surface modes, being duct modes localized close to the duct wall, are analysed within a lined cylindrical duct with uniform flow apart from a thin boundary layer. As well as full numerical solutions of the Pridmore-Brown equation, simplified mathematical models are given where the duct lining and boundary layer are lumped together and modelled using a single boundary condition (a modification of the Myers boundary condition previously proposed by the author), from which a surface mode dispersion relation is derived. For a given frequency, up to six surface modes are shown to exist, rather than the maximum of four for uniform slipping flow. Not only is the different number and behaviour of surface modes important for frequency-domain mode-matching techniques, which depend on having found all relevant modes during matching, but the thin boundary layer is also shown to lead to different convective and absolute stability than for uniform slipping flow. Numerical examples are given comparing the predictions of the surface mode dispersion relation to full solutions of the Pridmore-Brown equation, and the accuracy with which surface modes are predicted is shown to be significantly increased compared with the uniform slipping flow assumption. The importance of not only the boundary layer thickness but also its profile (tanh or linear) is demonstrated. A Briggs-Bers stability analysis is also performed under the assumption of a mass-spring-damper or Helmholtz resonator impedance model.

  12. Failure modes and effects analysis of fusion magnet systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, M; Kazimi, M S; Siu, N O; Thome, R J

    1988-12-01

    A failure modes and consequence analysis of fusion magnet system is an important contributor towards enhancing the design by improving the reliability and reducing the risk associated with the operation of magnet systems. In the first part of this study, a failure mode analysis of a superconducting magnet system is performed. Building on the functional breakdown and the fault tree analysis of the Toroidal Field (TF) coils of the Next European Torus (NET), several subsystem levels are added and an overview of potential sources of failures in a magnet system is provided. The failure analysis is extended to the Poloidal Field (PF) magnet system. Furthermore, an extensive analysis of interactions within the fusion device caused by the operation of the PF magnets is presented in the form of an Interaction Matrix. A number of these interactions may have significant consequences for the TF magnet system particularly interactions triggered by electrical failures in the PF magnet system. In the second part of this study, two basic categories of electrical failures in the PF magnet system are examined: short circuits between the terminals of external PF coils, and faults with a constant voltage applied at external PF coil terminals. An electromagnetic model of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) is used to examine the mechanical load conditions for the PF and the TF coils resulting from these fault scenarios. It is found that shorts do not pose large threats to the PF coils. Also, the type of plasma disruption has little impact on the net forces on the PF and the TF coils. 39 refs., 30 figs., 12 tabs.

  13. Global kinetic ballooning mode simulations in BOUT++

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C. H.; Xu, X. Q.

    2017-01-01

    We report on simulation results of a 3+1 gyro-Landau-fluid (GLF) model in BOUT++ framework, which contributes to increasing the physics understanding of the edge turbulence. We find that there is no second stability region of kinetic ballooning modes (KBM) in the concentric circular geometry. The first unstable β of KBM decreases below the ideal ballooning mode threshold with increasing {ηi} . In order to study the KBM in the real tokamak equilibrium, we find that the approximation of shifted circular geometry (β \\ll {{\\varepsilon}2} ) is not valid for a high β global equilibrium near the second stability region of KBM. Thus we generate a series of real equilibria from a global equilibrium solver CORSICA, including both Shafranov shift and elongation effects, but not including bootstrap current. In these real equilibria, the second stability region of KBM are observed in our global linear simulations. The most unstable mode for different β are the same while the mode number spectrum near the second stability region is wider than the case near the first stability region. The nonlinear simulations show that the energy loss of an ELM keeps increasing with β, because the linear drive of the turbulence remains strong for the case near the second stability region during profile evolution.

  14. The sexual assault examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargot, L A

    1985-04-01

    The sexual assault examination poses many problems for physicians. They must deal not only with the patient's physical and emotional trauma, but also collect forensic evidence, and provide proper treatment and follow-up. Patient management has been simplified and improved in Ontario by a standardized sexual assault examination kit. It has been used at McMaster University's Regional Sexual Assault Centre since its establishment in 1979. The first step in managing victims is ensuring their wellbeing, and treating them sympathetically. The kit provides information on consent, taking the sexual assault history, recording the patient's emotional status, and treatment guidelines. It also contains equipment and instructions on collecting clothing and body evidence, and on the genital and anal examination. The collection of good forensic evidence can decrease the need for doctors and nurses to testify in court.

  15. Natural Frequencies and Vibrating Modes for a Magnetic Planetary Gear Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhong Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a dynamic model for a magnetic planetary gear drive is proposed. Based on the model, the dynamic equations for the magnetic planetary gear drive are given. From the magnetic meshing forces and torques between the elements for the drive system, the tangent and radial magnetic meshing stiffness is obtained. Using these equations, the natural frequencies and the modes of the magnetic planetary gear drive are investigated. The sensitivity of the natural frequencies to the system parameters is discussed. Results show that the pole pair number and the air gap have obvious effects on the natural frequencies. For the planetary gear number larger than two, the vibrations of the drive system include the torsion mode of the center elements, the translation mode of the center elements, and the planet modes. For the planetary gear number equal to two, the planet mode does not occur, the crown mode and the sun gear mode occur.

  16. A mode converter to generate a Gaussian-like mode for injection into the VENUS electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyneis, C., E-mail: CMLyneis@lbl.gov; Benitez, J.; Hodgkinson, A.; Strohmeier, M.; Todd, D. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Plaum, B. [Institut für Grenzflächenverfahrenstechnik und Plasmatechnologie (IGVP), Stuttgart (Germany); Thuillier, T. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Université Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, 53 rue des martyrs 38026 Grenoble cedex (France)

    2014-02-15

    A number of superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources use gyrotrons at either 24 or 28 GHz for ECR heating. In these systems, the microwave power is launched into the plasma using the TE{sub 01} circular waveguide mode. This is fundamentally different and may be less efficient than the typical rectangular, linearly polarized TE{sub 10} mode used for launching waves at lower frequencies. To improve the 28 GHz microwave coupling in VENUS, a TE{sub 01}-HE{sub 11} mode conversion system has been built to test launching HE{sub 11} microwave power into the plasma chamber. The HE{sub 11} mode is a quasi-Gaussian, linearly polarized mode, which should couple strongly to the plasma electrons. The mode conversion is done in two steps. First, a 0.66 m long “snake” converts the TE{sub 01} mode to the TE{sub 11} mode. Second, a corrugated circular waveguide excites the HE{sub 11} mode, which is launched directly into the plasma chamber. The design concept draws on the development of similar devices used in tokamaks and stellerators. The first tests of the new coupling system are described below.

  17. Interferometric characterization of few-mode fibers (FMF) for mode-division multiplexing (MDM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muliar, Olena; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.; Rottwitt, Karsten;

    2015-01-01

    The rapid growth of global data traffic demands the continuous search for new technologies and systems that could increase transmission capacity in optical links and recent experiments show that to do so, it is advantageous to explore new degrees of freedom such as polarization, wavelength...... requires advanced characterization methods with regard to the modal content of its photonics components and in particular of the fibers involved for data transmission. In this contribution we present a time-domain interferometric technique for a full modal characterization of few mode fibers (FMF...... and a careful evaluation of the resulting interferograms allows us to have full access to key parameters such as number of modes, modal weight, differential time delay between propagating modes and intensity profiles. In this work, we apply this simple and complete characterization method to the case of a short...

  18. 德国应用技术大学物流管理专业人才培养模式考察及启示-以德国代根多夫应用技术大学为例%Examination of Logistics Management Talent Cultivation Mode of German Technical Universities and Its Enlightenment for Us:In the Case of Technische Hochschule Deggendorf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴小廷

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of the talent cultivation practice of the German technical universities is highly regarded across the globe. In this paper, we examined the practice of a German technical university in the cultivation of logistics management talents and then proposed that we should learn from its emphasis on occupational foundation and practical training, its flexible teaching organization modes, and good graduate student follow-up and feed-back mechanism, etc.%德国高等教育历史悠久,经过近七百年的发展,如今在世界上处于领先地位,德国应用技术大学德制工程师的培养质量世界闻名。考察了德国应用技术大学的物流管理专业人才培养模式,借鉴其注重宽专业基础、强化实践的培养理念,灵活多样的教学组织方式、良好的毕业生跟踪反馈机制等特色,对当前我国应用技术大学的物流管理人才培养模式优化具有重要的启示与借鉴意义。

  19. Partly Tailored Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, R.

    1974-01-01

    A type of examination in which additional questions are provided was used for Grade 12 Algebra and College 1 Introductory Calculus. An hypothesis was formulated that this procedure should reveal additional knowledge which whould be reflected in superior average scores for the class group. (Editor)

  20. Partly Tailored Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, R.

    1974-01-01

    A type of examination in which additional questions are provided was used for Grade 12 Algebra and College 1 Introductory Calculus. An hypothesis was formulated that this procedure should reveal additional knowledge which whould be reflected in superior average scores for the class group. (Editor)

  1. Mini mental state examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørner, Ejnar Alex; Lauritzen, Lise; Wang, August;

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is widely used in Denmark, but often in non-validated versions. In 2000 a cross-sectional workgroup decided on a new common version of the MMSE with a corresponding manual, which is validated for the first time in the present study. MATERIALS...

  2. Students friendly medical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Chandra Chaurasia

    2014-04-01

    always a burden. The professional exams of universities are the matter of their norms and regulation, but we have day-to-day assessment through-out duration; this is enough to moralize them and prepare before final professional examination. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 412-412

  3. Examining College Writing Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncheon, Julia C.; Tierney, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing postsecondary access depends in large part on enhancing underrepresented students' writing ability, or college writing readiness. However, what exactly constitutes college-level writing is not clear-cut, complicating efforts to improve secondary preparation. This article examines recent efforts to define postsecondary writing,…

  4. Principal modes in fiber amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Moti; Dubinskii, Mark; Friesem, Asher A; Davidson, Nir

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of the state of polarization in single mode and multimode fiber amplifiers are presented. The experimental results reveal that although the state of polarizations at the output can vary over a large range when changing the temperatures of the fiber amplifiers, the variations are significantly reduced when resorting to the principal states of polarization in single mode fiber amplifiers and principal modes in multimode fiber amplifiers.

  5. Passively mode locked Raman laser

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, W; Savchenkov, A A; Matsko, A B; Seidel, D; Maleki, L

    2010-01-01

    We report on the observation of a novel mode locked optical comb generated at the Raman offset (Raman comb) in an optically pumped crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator. Mode locking is confirmed via measurement of the radio-frequency beat note produced by the optical comb on a fast photodiode. Neither the conventional Kerr comb nor hyper-parametric oscillation is observed when the Raman comb is present.

  6. On the squeezed number states and their phase space representations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albano, L [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Departamento de Fisica, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela); Mundarain, D F [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Departamento de Fisica, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela); Stephany, J [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Departamento de Fisica, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela)

    2002-10-01

    We compute the photon-number distribution, the Q({alpha}) distribution function and the wavefunctions in the momentum and position representation for a single mode squeezed number state using generating functions which allow one to obtain any matrix element in the squeezed number state representation from the matrix elements in the squeezed coherent state representation. For highly squeezed number states we discuss the previously unnoted oscillations which appear in the Q({alpha}) function. We also note that these oscillations can be related to the photon-number distribution oscillations and to the momentum representation of the wavefunction.

  7. Period ratios for standing kink and sausage modes in magnetized structures with siphon flow on the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Hui; Li, Bo; Xia, Li-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Standing oscillations with multiple periods were found in a number of atmospheric structures on the Sun. The ratio of the period of the fundamental to twice the one of its first overtone, $P_1/2P_2$, is important in applications of solar magneto-seismology. We examine how field-aligned flows impact $P_1/2P_2$ of standing modes in solar magnetic cylinders. For coronal loops, the flow effects are significant for both fast kink and sausage modes. For kink ones, they reduce $P_1/2P_2$ by up to 17\\% relative to the static case even when the density contrast between the loop and its surroundings approaches infinity. For sausage modes, the reduction in $P_1/2P_2$ due to flow is typically $\\lesssim 5.5\\%$ compared with the static case. However, the threshold aspect ratio, only above which can trapped sausage modes be supported, may increase dramatically with the flow magnitude. For photospheric tubes, the flow effect on $P_1/2P_2$ is not as strong. However, when applied to sausage modes, introducing field-aligned flo...

  8. Zero Modes and Entanglement Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Yazdi, Yasaman K

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet divergences are widely discussed in studies of entanglement entropy. Also present, but much less understood, are infrared divergences due to zero modes in the field theory. In this note, we discuss the importance of carefully handling zero modes in entanglement entropy. We give an explicit example for a chain of harmonic oscillators in 1D, where a mass regulator is necessary to avoid an infrared divergence due to a zero mode. We also comment on a surprising contribution of the zero mode to the UV-scaling of the entanglement entropy.

  9. Intelligence and musical mode preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonetti, Leonardo; Costa, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between fluid intelligence and preference for major–minor musical mode was investigated in a sample of 80 university students. Intelligence was assessed by the Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices. Musical mode preference was assessed by presenting 14 pairs of musical stimuli th...... differences at the cognitive and personality level related to the enjoyment of sad music.......The relationship between fluid intelligence and preference for major–minor musical mode was investigated in a sample of 80 university students. Intelligence was assessed by the Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices. Musical mode preference was assessed by presenting 14 pairs of musical stimuli...

  10. Tomography of Spatial Mode Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bobrov, Ivan; Markov, Anton; Straupe, Stanislav; Kulik, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Transformation and detection of photons in higher-order spatial modes usually requires complicated holographic techniques. Detectors based on spatial holograms suffer from non-idealities and should be carefully calibrated. We report a novel method for analyzing the quality of projective measurements in spatial mode basis inspired by quantum detector tomography. It allows us to calibrate the detector response using only gaussian beams. We experimentally investigate the inherent inaccuracy of the existing methods of mode transformation and provide a full statistical reconstruction of the POVM (positive operator valued measure) elements for holographic spatial mode detectors.

  11. Current-diffusive ballooning mode in low shear and negative shear regions of tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, Masatoshi; Azumi, Masafumi (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment); Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae; Fukuyama, Atsushi

    1994-01-01

    The stability of the current-diffusive ballooning mode in tokamaks with high toroidal mode number is analyzed in the region of second stability against the ideal magnetohydrodynamic mode. It is found that the growth rate of the current-diffusive ballooning mode is decreased upon the reduction of the geodesic curvature driving force. The reduction of thermal conductivity in the limit of very weak shear or negative shear in comparison with standard shear is also shown. (author).

  12. Electrostatic twisted modes in multi-component dusty plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayub, M. K. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics, Shahdra Valley Road, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Pohang University of Sciences and Technology, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Ali, S. [National Centre for Physics, Shahdra Valley Road, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Ikram, M. [Department of Physics, Hazara University, Mansehra 21300 (Pakistan)

    2016-01-15

    Various electrostatic twisted modes are re-investigated with finite orbital angular momentum in an unmagnetized collisionless multi-component dusty plasma, consisting of positive/negative charged dust particles, ions, and electrons. For this purpose, hydrodynamical equations are employed to obtain paraxial equations in terms of density perturbations, while assuming the Gaussian and Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam solutions. Specifically, approximated solutions for potential problem are studied by using the paraxial approximation and expressed the electric field components in terms of LG functions. The energy fluxes associated with these modes are computed and corresponding expressions for orbital angular momenta are derived. Numerical analyses reveal that radial/angular mode numbers as well as dust number density and dust charging states strongly modify the LG potential profiles attributed to different electrostatic modes. Our results are important for understanding particle transport and energy transfer due to wave excitations in multi-component dusty plasmas.

  13. The pollen of No. 5 , No. 27 and No. 35 of clones of Carya illinoensis was chosen as the experimental material to study the pollen viability and pollen morphology with SEM in different processing modes, plucking time and powder numbers. The results indica%3个薄壳山核桃无性系花粉活力与显微结构比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李川; 辜夕容; 姚小华; 王开良; 常君; 余裕龙

    2012-01-01

    The pollen of No. 5 , No. 27 and No. 35 of clones of Carya illinoensis was chosen as the experimental material to study the pollen viability and pollen morphology with SEM in different processing modes, plucking time and powder numbers. The results indicated that there are significant differences in the pollen viability in different processing modes, plucking time and powder numbers, also in the Polar axis and equatorial axis of the pollen of these three clones. The form of pollen is ellipsoid and has three apertures which are evenly disposed on the equatorial plane. The equatorial plane of the pollen of these three clones is oval in shape, while the polar planes of clones No. 5 and No. 27 are nearly round and that of No. 35 nearly triangular. There are indifferent granular veins on the surface of the pollen with granular risings equally distributed. This paper provides palynology basis for the origin, evolution and phylogenetic relationship of Carya illinoensis, and foundation of the selection and breeding of new varieties, and cross-hybrid breeding.%以薄壳山核桃无性系5号、27号、35号花粉为试验材料,测定了不同处理方式、不同采摘时期和不同出粉次数下的花粉活力,同时利用扫描电子显微镜对其花粉形态进行了观测.结果表明,不同处理方式、不同采摘时间和不同出粉次数下收集的同一薄壳山核桃无性系花粉,其活力存在显著性差异(P<0.05).3个无性系花粉极轴长(P)和赤道轴长(E)存在显著性差异(P<0.05),花粉粒形状均为扁球形,具有3个萌发孔,均匀分布在赤道面上;3个无性系花粉赤道面观均呈椭圆形,无性系5号和27号极面观呈近圆形,而无性系35号极面观呈近三角形;3个无性系花粉表面呈颗粒状纹饰,均匀分布着颗粒状的突起,表面纹饰差异不明显.通过研究薄壳山核桃花粉的超显微结构,可为薄壳山核桃品种的起源、演化以及种类间亲缘关系等提供孢粉

  14. Different modes of engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    Assistive robotics are a new factor to be relied upon in caring for the disabled and the elderly. A number of feeding assistive robotics (FAR) appear in the literature. However, very few ethnographic studies have explored the reception. This is the case although there are significant potential...... and also a row of unsolved problems. Challenges have been reported concerning the challenges the care providers have in succeeding to create a relevant interplay between the disabled body and the (FAR). When this effort is unsuccessful, the result is stressful work and demeaning situations for the disabled...... and for caregivers. In this paper, I take up two ethnographic resources: 1) retrospective studies of the design process of the ‘Bestic’-FAR 2) an empirical study of the reception in a housing institution for the disabled of the ‘Neater-Eater’- FAR. Analysis of this material unravels the intermingling of a number...

  15. ADAPTING ON DEMAND EXAMINATION SYSTEM IN NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA END OF SEMESTER EXAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okonkwo, Charity AKUADI

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Teaching–learning process is incomplete without effective and meaningful assessment of students learning outcomes. This applies to both conventional modes of education as well as to open and distance learning modes. So far, conduct of examinations at the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN, has been cumbersome and be-decked with ‘hydra headed’ problems, such as: dearth of skilled academics, finances, prompt marking of scripts and collation/processing of acceptable results leading to release of incomplete or meaningless results. Hence the need for re-engineering the examination process at the NOUN. This paper discusses the On Demand Examination System (ODES, an Information Communication and Technology (ICT based innovation which enables the assessment of students, as at and on their own readiness and demand. But, opined that NOUN can make better use of ODES by convenient adaptation and use of the ODES software functionalities and processes. The ODES can be used to handle the challenging examination processes such as generating items that could be administered to students as a group at the End of Semester Examination. The results of the examination can then be timely processedd and released following the laid down procedures already entrenched by the use of the software to overcome most of the burden experienced so far. Since, the institution, the students and even the staff are not technologically ready for On Demand Examination for now.

  16. Single-mode squeezing in arbitrary spatial modes

    CERN Document Server

    Semmler, Marion; Chille, Vanessa; Gabriel, Christian; Banzer, Peter; Aiello, Andrea; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    As the generation of squeezed states of light has become a standard technique in laboratories, attention is increasingly directed towards adapting the optical parameters of squeezed beams to the specific requirements of individual applications. It is known that imaging, metrology, and quantum information may benefit from using squeezed light with a tailored transverse spatial mode. However, experiments have so far been limited to generating only a few squeezed spatial modes within a given setup. Here, we present the generation of single-mode squeezing in Laguerre-Gauss and Bessel-Gauss modes, as well as an arbitrary intensity pattern, all from a single setup using a spatial light modulator (SLM). The degree of squeezing obtained is limited mainly by the initial squeezing and diffractive losses introduced by the SLM, while no excess noise from the SLM is detectable at the measured sideband. The experiment illustrates the single-mode concept in quantum optics and demonstrates the viability of current SLMs as fl...

  17. Zero modes and divergence of entanglement entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Mallayya, Krishnanand; Shankaranarayanan, S; Padmanabhan, T

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the cause of the divergence of the entanglement entropy for the free scalar fields in $(1+1)$ and $(D + 1)$ dimensional space-times. In a canonically equivalent set of variables, we show explicitly that the divergence in the entanglement entropy in $(1 + 1)-$ dimensions is due to the accumulation of large number of near-zero frequency modes as opposed to the commonly held view of divergence having UV origin. The feature revealing the divergence in zero modes is related to the observation that the entropy is invariant under a hidden scaling transformation even when the Hamiltonian is not. We discuss the role of dispersion relations and the dimensionality of the space-time on the behavior of entanglement entropy.

  18. Bi-modes alternation stepping ultrasonic motors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiamei JIN; Chunsheng ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    Based on the principle of alternative operation of two bending vibration modes in an annular stator, this paper presents a standing-wave stepping ultrasonic motor characterized by no accumulative errors driven by an open-loop control circuitry. The driving forces are generated from the motions of projections on the stator in two modes. The positioning of the motor is achieved by the cooperation between the stator projections and rotor teeth, and the number of the rotors determines the stepping angle of the motor. Two-phase sinusoidal signals corresponding to the two modal frequencies drive the motor bi-direction stepping rotation via a switch unit. The prototype runs steadily without miss-step on trial. The single-step angle displacement of the motor is 2.5°.

  19. Dust Detection Mode of the Hayabusa2 LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senshu, H.; Oshigami, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Yamada, R.; Namiki, N.; Noda, H.; Ishihara, Y.; Mizuno, T.

    2017-07-01

    We aim to use light detection and ranging (LIDAR) to detect dust grains that might be present around asteroid (162173) Ryugu (1999 JU3), the target of the Hayabusa2 mission. LIDAR is currently used for observing atmospheric aerosols on Earth by measuring the time profile of the return pulse (received light). In the case of Hayabusa2, LIDAR will be used only to determine whether the energy flux of the return pulse exceeds a certain threshold every 133.33 ns. This simplification significantly reduces the amount of down link data. The profile of the return pulse is estimated from iterative observations by changing the thresholds. Here, the performance of the dust counter mode is examined using a breadboard model, a flight model, and an engineering model. For these tests, we develop a new testing device to simulate various time profiles of the return pulse. We also estimate the lower bound of the number density of dust grains that can be detected. It is shown that the LIDAR on board Hayabusa2 is capable of detecting asteroidal dust if dust grains with size similar to the Hayabusa sample exist around the target body and their number density exceeds 105 m^{-3}.

  20. Failure mode and effects analysis: too little for too much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Franklin, Bryony; Shebl, Nada Atef; Barber, Nick

    2012-07-01

    Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a structured prospective risk assessment method that is widely used within healthcare. FMEA involves a multidisciplinary team mapping out a high-risk process of care, identifying the failures that can occur, and then characterising each of these in terms of probability of occurrence, severity of effects and detectability, to give a risk priority number used to identify failures most in need of attention. One might assume that such a widely used tool would have an established evidence base. This paper considers whether or not this is the case, examining the evidence for the reliability and validity of its outputs, the mathematical principles behind the calculation of a risk prioirty number, and variation in how it is used in practice. We also consider the likely advantages of this approach, together with the disadvantages in terms of the healthcare professionals' time involved. We conclude that although FMEA is popular and many published studies have reported its use within healthcare, there is little evidence to support its use for the quantitative prioritisation of process failures. It lacks both reliability and validity, and is very time consuming. We would not recommend its use as a quantitative technique to prioritise, promote or study patient safety interventions. However, the stage of FMEA involving multidisciplinary mapping process seems valuable and work is now needed to identify the best way of converting this into plans for action.