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Sample records for mode magneto-acoustic wave

  1. Magneto-acoustic Waves in a Magnetic Slab Embedded in an Asymmetric Magnetic Environment: The Effects of Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsámberger, Noémi Kinga; Allcock, Matthew; Erdélyi, Róbert

    2018-02-01

    Modeling the behavior of magnetohydrodynamic waves in a range of magnetic geometries mimicking solar atmospheric waveguides, from photospheric flux tubes to coronal loops, can offer a valuable contribution to the field of solar magneto-seismology. The present study uses an analytical approach to derive the dispersion relation for magneto-acoustic waves in a magnetic slab of homogeneous plasma enclosed on its two sides by semi-infinite plasma of different densities, temperatures, and magnetic field strengths, providing an asymmetric plasma environment. This is a step further in the generalization of the classic magnetic slab model, which is symmetric about the slab, was developed by Roberts, and is an extension of the work by Allcock & Erdélyi where a magnetic slab is sandwiched in an asymmetric nonmagnetic plasma environment. In contrast to the symmetric case, the dispersion relation governing the asymmetric slab cannot be factorized into separate sausage and kink eigenmodes. The solutions obtained resemble these well-known modes; however, their properties are now mixed. Therefore we call these modes quasi-sausage and quasi-kink modes. If conditions on the two sides of the slab do not differ strongly, then a factorization of the dispersion relation can be achieved for the further analytic study of various limiting cases representing a solar environment. In the current paper, we examine the incompressible limit in detail and demonstrate its possible application to photospheric magnetic bright points. After the introduction of a mechanical analogy, we reveal a relationship between the external plasma and magnetic parameters, which allows for the existence of quasi-symmetric modes.

  2. Resonant magneto-acoustic switching: influence of Rayleigh wave frequency and wavevector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuszewski, P.; Camara, I. S.; Biarrotte, N.; Becerra, L.; von Bardeleben, J.; Savero Torres, W.; Lemaître, A.; Gourdon, C.; Duquesne, J.-Y.; Thevenard, L.

    2018-06-01

    We show on in-plane magnetized thin films that magnetization can be switched efficiently by 180 degrees using large amplitude Rayleigh waves travelling along the hard or easy magnetic axis. Large characteristic filament-like domains are formed in the latter case. Micromagnetic simulations clearly confirm that this multi-domain configuration is compatible with a resonant precessional mechanism. The reversed domains are in both geometries several hundreds of , much larger than has been shown using spin transfer torque- or field-driven precessional switching. We show that surface acoustic waves can travel at least 1 mm before addressing a given area, and can interfere to create magnetic stripes that can be positioned with a sub-micronic precision.

  3. REFLECTION OF PROPAGATING SLOW MAGNETO-ACOUSTIC WAVES IN HOT CORONAL LOOPS: MULTI-INSTRUMENT OBSERVATIONS AND NUMERICAL MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Sudip; Banerjee, Dipankar; Pant, Vaibhav [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India); Yuan, Ding; Fang, Xia; Doorsselaere, Tom Van, E-mail: sudip@iiap.res.in, E-mail: xia.fang@wis.kuleuven.be [Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, bus 2400, 3001, Leuven (Belgium)

    2016-09-10

    Slow MHD waves are important tools for understanding coronal structures and dynamics. In this paper, we report a number of observations from the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) on board HINODE and Solar Dynamic Observatory /Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) of reflecting longitudinal waves in hot coronal loops. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this kind as seen from the XRT and simultaneously with the AIA. The wave appears after a micro-flare occurs at one of the footpoints. We estimate the density and temperature of the loop plasma by performing differential emission measure (DEM) analysis on the AIA image sequence. The estimated speed of propagation is comparable to or lower than the local sound speed, suggesting it to be a propagating slow wave. The intensity perturbation amplitude, in every case, falls very rapidly as the perturbation moves along the loop and eventually vanishes after one or more reflections. To check the consistency of such reflection signatures with the obtained loop parameters, we perform a 2.5D MHD simulation, which uses the parameters obtained from our observation as inputs, and perform forward modeling to synthesize AIA 94 Å images. Analyzing the synthesized images, we obtain the same properties of the observables as for the real observation. From the analysis we conclude that a footpoint heating can generate a slow wave which then reflects back and forth in the coronal loop before fading. Our analysis of the simulated data shows that the main agent for this damping is anisotropic thermal conduction.

  4. Magneto acoustic emission and magnetic barkhausen noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neyra Astudillo, M R; Nunez, N; Lopez Pumarega, M I; Ruzzante, J

    2012-01-01

    Results obtained in the characterization of a sample of A508 Class II steel, are showed. This material is usually used for pressure vessels construction. Two techniques not very spread in our country, but developed at our Research Group were used: Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) and Magneto Acoustic Emission (MAE). Both techniques only can be used with ferromagnetic materials. A sinusoidal low frequency magnetic field (10 Hz) was applied on the material under test, producing a sudden movement of the magnetic domain walls. This movement produces an induced EMF. In this case it is amplified and filtered in the wide band between 20 kHz and 300 kHz. The electrical signal generated at the sensing coil is called Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN). The MBN was known since 1919 when it was observed for the first time. The movement of the magnetic domain walls generates at the same time elastic waves which propagate inside the material. Fixing a piezoelectric transducer on the sample surface, it is possible to detect these waves. This phenomenon is known as Magneto Acoustic Emission (MAE) and its frequency band is 20 kHz up to 1 MHz. As it is widely known, the domain structure and their walls movement are deeply influenced by the metal defects and microstructure (stress, grain size, precipitates, etc.). Then studying the domain wall movement it is possible to induce the material state. At the present study, we can infer that the material analyzed with these two techniques, has an anisotropy showed at the polar graphs, but does not totally showed at the metallographic study. Subsequent studies employing the Baumann imprint technique showed that manganese sulphides present an orientation similar to that founded with MNB and MAE. This work is completed with MEB and EDAX (author)

  5. Modelling of magneto-acoustic resonance in ferrite-piezoelectric bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bichurin, M I; Petrov, V M; Averkin, S V; Filippov, A V [Institute for Electronic Information Systems, Novgorod State University, Veliky Novgorod 173003 (Russian Federation); Liverts, E [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beersheva 84105 (Israel); Mandal, S; Srinivasan, G [Physics Department, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309 (United States)

    2009-11-07

    A model is discussed for magnetoelectric (ME) effects in a single-crystal ferrite-piezoelectric bilayer on a substrate. The specific focus is on coupling at magneto-acoustic resonance (MAR) at the coincidence of ferromagnetic resonance in the ferrite and thickness modes of the electromechanical resonance in the piezoelectric. The clamping effect of the substrate has been considered in determining the ME voltage coefficient and applied to a model system of a bilayer of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and yttrium iron garnet (YIG) on a gadolinium gallium garnet substrate. The theory predicts a giant ME effect at MAR due to interaction and transfer of energy between elastic modes and the uniform precession spin-wave mode. It is shown that the ME coupling strength decreases with increasing substrate thickness. Estimates for YIG-PZT for nominal film parameters predict MAR at 5 GHz and ME coefficients on the order of 5-70 V cm{sup -1} Oe{sup -1}. The phenomenon is of importance for the realization of multifunctional ME sensors and transducers operating at microwave frequencies.

  6. Magneto-acoustic intensification of the cleaning process phosphatidic concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Shestakova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In work propose an efficient technology and machine-instrumental scheme of purification of phosphatidic concentrate magneto-acoustic method with application of the distillation of the alcoholic solvent from the modified cuts of vegetable oil. Processing in ultrasound 10 W/cm2 in pulsed magnetic field of 2 T to provide high-quality lecythidaceae product in the form of granules insoluble in alcohol fraction and a fat part with the low value for waste, are absorbed by the silica gel. The research objective is to study the influence of hydrodynamic effects on the complex processes of Association and deassociation free fatty acids and other related lipids in the composition waste of deodorization of the sunflower oils, the rationale for the use of silica gel as an efficient neutralizing and adsorbing agent, the definition of rational modes of process of obtaining high-quality lecythidaceae product in vacuum molecular distillation. The relevance of the work «Improvement of process and equipment for distillation cuts of vegetable oils processed in ultrasound» is that now in Russia practically there are no domestic scientific works in this direction. The proposed technology of modified sunflower lecitinov, allows you to receive as graded lecithin with acetonrastvorimyh substances more than 60%, and fat-free egg lecithin with acetonnerastvorimyh substances to 95% with an increased content of physiologically valuable groups of phospholipids.

  7. Tuning Coler Magnetic Current Apparatus with Magneto-Acoustic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Thorsten

    An attempt was made to tune the Coler magnetic current apparatus with the magneto acoustic resonance of the magnetic rods. Measurements with a replica of the famous Coler "Magnetstromapparat" were conducted. In order to tune the acoustic, magnetic and electric resonance circuits of the Coler device the magneto-acoustic resonance was measured with a frequency scan through a function generator and a lock-in amplifier. The frequency generator was powering a driving coil, while the lock-in was connected to a pickup coil. Both coils were placed on a magnetic rod. Resonances were observed up to the 17th harmonic. The quality Q of the observed resonances was 270. To study the magneto-acoustic resonance in the time domain a pair of Permendur rods were employed. The magneto-acoustic resonances of the Permendur rods were observed with an oscilloscope. Spectra of the magneto acoustic resonance were measured for the Permendur rods and for a Coler replica magnet in the frequency range from 25 kHz to 380 kHz. The next step was to bring the resonances of the Permendur rods close together so that they overlap. The 10thharmonic was chosen because it was close to the 180 kHz that Hans Coler related to ferromagnetism. Further more magneto-acoustic coupling between the Permendur rods was studied. Finally the question was explored if Hans Coler converted vacuum fluctuations via magnetic and acoustic resonance into electricity. There is a strong connection between magnetism and quantum field zero point energy (ZPE). An outlook is given on next steps in the experiments to unveil the working mechanism of the Coler magnetic current apparatus.

  8. About the magneto-acoustic instabilities in mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonkov, A.V.; Timofeev, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that the characteristic of a plasma in mirrors anisotropy of io on distribution function versus velocities may results in the drive of magneto-acoustic instabilities. This instability, in contast to the well known Alyven oscillation instability, is driven on ion cyclotron frequency harmonics The instability in question has been possibly observed during the experiments a at the tmx device, where the oscillations have been excited both at the ion cycl tron frequency and harmonics

  9. Magneto-acoustic resonance in a non-uniform current carrying plasma column

    OpenAIRE

    Vaclavik, J.

    2017-01-01

    The forced radial magneto-acoustic oscillations in a plasma column with nonuniform mass density and temperature are investigated. It turns out that the oscillations have a resonant character similar to that of the magneto-acoustic oscillations in a uniform plasma column. The properties of the axial and azimuthal components of the oscillating magnetic field are discussed in detail

  10. Magneto acoustical emission in nanocrystalline Mn–Zn ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praveena, K.; Murthty, S.R.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Mn 0.4 Zn 0.6 Fe 2 O 4 powders were prepared by microwave hydrothermal method. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope. The powders were sintered at different temperatures 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 and 900 °C/30 min using microwave sintering method. The grain size was estimated by scanning electron microscope. The room temperature dielectric and magnetic properties were studied in the frequency range (100 kHz–1.8 GHz). The magnetization properties were measured upto 1.5 T. The acoustic emission has been measured along the hysteresis loops from 80 K to Curie temperature. It is found that the magneto-acoustic emission (MAE) activity along hysteresis loop is proportional to the hysteresis losses during the same loop. This law has been verified on series of polycrystalline ferrites and found that the law is valid whatever the composition, the grain size and temperature. It is also found that the domain wall creation/or annihilation processes are the origin of the MAE. - Highlights: • The AE been measured along the hysteresis loops from 80 K to Curie temperature. • The MAE activity along hysteresis loop is proportional to P h during the same loop. • It is found that the domain wall creation/or annihilation processes are the origin of the MAE. - Abstract: Mn 0.4 Zn 0.6 Fe 2 O 4 powders were prepared by microwave hydrothermal method. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope. The powders were sintered at different temperatures 400, 500, 600, 700, 800 and 900 °C/30 min using microwave sintering method. The grain size was estimated by scanning electron microscope. The room temperature dielectric and magnetic properties were studied in the frequency range (100 kHz–1.8 GHz). The magnetization properties were measured upto 1.5 T. The acoustic emission has been measured along the hysteresis loops from 80 K to Curie temperature. It is found that the magneto-acoustic

  11. Theoretical analysis of transcranial magneto-acoustical stimulation with Hodgkin–Huxley neuron model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi eYuan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magneto-acoustical stimulation (TMAS is a novel stimulation technology in which an ultrasonic wave within a magnetostatic field generates an electric current in an area of interest in the brain to modulate neuronal activities. As a key part of the neural network, neurons transmit information in the nervous system. However, the effect of TMAS on the neuronal firing rhythm remains unknown. To address this problem, we investigated the stimulatory mechanism of TMAS on neurons with a Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model. The simulation results indicate that the magnetostatic field intensity and ultrasonic power can affect the amplitude and interspike interval of neuronal action potential under continuous wave ultrasound. The simulation results also show that the ultrasonic power, duty cycle and repetition frequency can alter the firing rhythm of neural action potential under pulsed ultrasound. This study can help to reveal and explain the biological mechanism of TMAS and to provide a theoretical basis for TMAS in the treatment or rehabilitation of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  12. The Physics of Alfvén Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Cramer, Neil F

    2011-01-01

    Low-frequency wave modes of magnetized inhomogeneous plasmas have been subject to intense study in the last decade because they play important roles in the transport of energy in the plasmas. The "Alfvén wave heating" scheme has been investigated as a supplementary heating scheme for fusion plasma devices, and it has been invoked as a model of the heating of the solar and stellar coronae.This book covers the latest research into the properties and applications of low-frequency wave modes in magnetized plasmas, the Alfvén waves and magneto-acoustic waves, in the context of laborat

  13. Dynamic behaviour of magneto-acoustic emission in a grain-oriented steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stupakov, Alexandr; Perevertov, Oleksiy; Landa, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 426, Mar (2017), s. 685-690 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G; GA ČR GA13-18993S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388998 Keywords : magneto-acoustic emission * magnetization dynamics * Barkhausen noise * surface field measurement * magnetization waveform control Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.630, year: 2016

  14. Magnetic Barkhausen noise and magneto acoustic emission in pressure vessel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neyra Astudillo, Miriam Rocío; López Pumarega, María Isabel; Núñez, Nicolás Marcelo; Pochettino, Alberto; Ruzzante, José

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) and Magneto Acoustic Emission (MAE) were studied in A508 Class II forged steel used for pressure vessels in nuclear power stations. The magnetic experimental determinations were completed with a macro graphic study of sulfides and the texture analysis of the material. The analysis of these results allows us to determine connections between the magnetic anisotropy, texture and microstructure of the material. Results clearly suggest that the plastic flow direction is different from the forging direction indicated by the material supplier - Highlights: • MBN and MAE studied in nuclear power pressure vessel steel. • Comparison with macro graphic study of sulfides and texture analysis of the material. • Connections with magnetic anisotropy, texture and microstructure of material. • Plastic flow direction different from the forging direction indicated.

  15. Magnetic Barkhausen noise and magneto acoustic emission in pressure vessel steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neyra Astudillo, Miriam Rocío, E-mail: neyra@cnea.gov.ar [IT Sabato, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, UNSAM, Av. General Paz 1499, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Tecnológica Nacional UTN, Regional Delta, Buenos Aires (Argentina); López Pumarega, María Isabel, E-mail: lopezpum@cnea.gov.ar [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, CNEA, Av. General Paz 1499, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Núñez, Nicolás Marcelo, E-mail: nnunez@cnea.gov.ar [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, CNEA, Av. General Paz 1499, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Pochettino, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.poch@gmail.com [Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, CNEA, Av. General Paz 1499, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Investigación e Ingeniería Ambiental (3iA), Campus Miguelete, UNSAM, Av. 25 de Mayo y Francia, 1650 San Martín Argentina (Argentina); Ruzzante, José, E-mail: ruzzante@gmail.com [Universidad Tecnológica Nacional UTN, Regional Delta, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de Tres de Febrero UNTREF, Caseros, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de Chilecito, UNdeC, La Rioja (Argentina)

    2017-03-15

    Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) and Magneto Acoustic Emission (MAE) were studied in A508 Class II forged steel used for pressure vessels in nuclear power stations. The magnetic experimental determinations were completed with a macro graphic study of sulfides and the texture analysis of the material. The analysis of these results allows us to determine connections between the magnetic anisotropy, texture and microstructure of the material. Results clearly suggest that the plastic flow direction is different from the forging direction indicated by the material supplier - Highlights: • MBN and MAE studied in nuclear power pressure vessel steel. • Comparison with macro graphic study of sulfides and texture analysis of the material. • Connections with magnetic anisotropy, texture and microstructure of material. • Plastic flow direction different from the forging direction indicated.

  16. How to turn gravity waves into Alfven waves and other such tricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newington, Marie E; Cally, Paul S

    2011-01-01

    Recent observations of travelling gravity waves at the base of the chromosphere suggest an interplay between gravity wave propagation and magnetic field. Our aims are: to explain the observation that gravity wave flux is suppressed in magnetic regions; to understand why we see travelling waves instead of standing waves; and to see if gravity waves can undergo mode conversion and couple to Alfven waves in regions where the plasma beta is of order unity. We model gravity waves in a VAL C atmosphere, subject to a uniform magnetic field of various orientations, considering both adiabatic and radiatively damped propagation. Results indicate that in the presence of a magnetic field, the gravity wave can propagate as a travelling wave, with the magnetic field orientation playing a crucial role in determining the wave character. For the majority of magnetic field orientations, the gravity wave is reflected at low heights as a slow magneto-acoustic wave, explaining the observation of reduced flux in magnetic regions. In a highly inclined magnetic field, the gravity wave undergoes mode conversion to either field guided acoustic waves or Alfven waves. The primary effect of incorporating radiative damping is a reduction in acoustic and magnetic fluxes measured at the top of the integration region. By demonstrating the mode conversion of gravity waves to Alfven waves, this work identifies a possible pathway for energy transport from the solar surface to the upper atmosphere.

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic waves driven by p-modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomenko, Elena; Santamaria, Irantzu Calvo

    2013-01-01

    Waves are observed at all layers of the solar atmosphere and the magnetic field plays a key role in their propagation. While deep down in the atmosphere the p-modes are almost entirely of acoustic nature, in the upper layers magnetic forces are dominating, leading to a large variety of new wave modes. Significant advances have been made recently in our understanding of the physics of waves interaction with magnetic structures, with the help of analytical theories, numerical simulations, as well as high-resolution observations. In this contribution, we review recent observational findings and current theoretical ideas in the field, with an emphasis on the following questions: (i) Peculiarities of the observed wave propagation in network, plage and facular regions; (ii) Role of the mode transformation and observational evidences of this process: (iii) Coupling of the photosphere, chromosphere, and above by means of waves propagating in magnetic structures.

  18. Mode coupling of electron plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harte, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The driven coupled mode equations are derived for a two fluid, unequal temperature (T/sub e/ much greater than T/sub i/) plasma in the one-dimensional, electrostatic model and applied to the coupling of electron plasma waves. It is assumed that the electron to ion mass ratio identical with m/sub e/M/sub i// much less than 1 and eta 2 /sub ko/k lambda/sub De/ less than 1 where eta 2 /sub ko/ is the pump wave's power normalized to the plasma thermal energy, k the mode wave number and lambda/sub De/ the electron Debye length. Terms up to quadratic in pump power are retained. The equations describe the linear plasma modes oscillating at the wave number k and at ω/sub ek/, the Bohn Gross frequency, and at Ω/sub k/, the ion acoustic frequency, subject to the damping rates ν/sub ek/ and ν/sub ik/ for electrons and ions and their interactions due to intense high frequency waves E/sub k//sup l/. n/sub o/ is the background density, n/sub ik/ the fluctuating ion density, ω/sub pe/ the plasma frequency

  19. Long wave polar modes in semiconductor heterostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Trallero-Giner, C; García-Moliner, F; Garc A-Moliner, F; Perez-Alvarez, R; Garcia-Moliner, F

    1998-01-01

    Long Wave Polar Modes in Semiconductor Heterostructures is concerned with the study of polar optical modes in semiconductor heterostructures from a phenomenological approach and aims to simplify the model of lattice dynamics calculations. The book provides useful tools for performing calculations relevant to anyone who might be interested in practical applications. The main focus of Long Wave Polar Modes in Semiconductor Heterostructures is planar heterostructures (quantum wells or barriers, superlattices, double barrier structures etc) but there is also discussion on the growing field of quantum wires and dots. Also to allow anyone reading the book to apply the techniques discussed for planar heterostructures, the scope has been widened to include cylindrical and spherical geometries. The book is intended as an introductory text which guides the reader through basic questions and expands to cover state-of-the-art professional topics. The book is relevant to experimentalists wanting an instructive presentatio...

  20. Magneto-acoustic study near the quantum critical point of the frustrated quantum antiferromagnet Cs{sub 2}CuCl{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, P. T., E-mail: t.pham@hzdr.de [Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Physics Institute, Goethe University Frankfurt, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Postulka, L.; Wolf, B.; Ritter, F.; Assmus, W.; Krellner, C.; Lang, M., E-mail: michael.lang@physik.uni-frankfurt.de [Physics Institute, Goethe University Frankfurt, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Well, N. van [Physics Institute, Goethe University Frankfurt, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2016-10-14

    Magneto-acoustic investigations of the frustrated triangular-lattice antiferromagnet Cs{sub 2}CuCl{sub 4} were performed for the longitudinal modes c{sub 11} and c{sub 33} in magnetic fields along the a-axis. The temperature dependence of the sound velocity at zero field shows a mild softening at low temperature and displays a small kink-like anomaly at T{sub N}. Isothermal measurements at T < T{sub N} of the sound attenuation α reveal two closely spaced features of different characters on approaching the material's quantum-critical point (QCP) at B{sub s} ≈ 8.5 T for B || a. The peak at slightly lower fields remains sharp down to the lowest temperature and can be attributed to the ordering temperature T{sub N}(B). The second anomaly, which is rounded and which becomes reduced in size upon cooling, is assigned to the material's spin-liquid properties preceding the long-range antiferromagnetic ordering with decreasing temperature. These two features merge upon cooling suggesting a coincidence at the QCP. The elastic constant at lowest temperatures of our experiment at 32 mK can be well described by a Landau free energy model with a very small magnetoelastic coupling constant G/k{sub B} ≈ 2.8 K. The applicability of this classical model indicates the existence of a small gap in the magnetic excitation spectrum which drives the system away from quantum criticality.

  1. Full wave simulations of fast wave mode conversion and lower hybrid wave propagation in tokamaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wright, J.C.; Bonoli, P.T.; Brambilla, M.

    2004-01-01

    Fast wave (FW) studies of mode conversion (MC) processes at the ion-ion hybrid layer in toroidal plasmas must capture the disparate scales of the FW and mode converted ion Bernstein and ion cyclotron waves. Correct modeling of the MC layer requires resolving wavelengths on the order of k...

  2. Quasi-optical millimeter wave rotating TE62 mode generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shaopu; Zhang Conghui; Wang Zhong; Guo Feng; Chen Hongbin; Hu Linlin; Pan Wenwu

    2011-01-01

    The design,measurement technique and experimental results of rotating TE 6 2 mode generator are presented. The source includes millimeter wave optical system and open coaxial wave guide system. The millimeter wave optical system consists of pyramid antenna, hyperbolical reflector, parabolic reflector and quasi parabolic reflector. The open coaxial wave guide system contains open coaxial wave guide cavity, cylinder wave guide and output antenna. It is tested by network analyser and millimeter wave near field pattern auto-test system, and the purity of rotating TE 6 2 mode at 96.4 GHz is about 97%. (authors)

  3. Dual-cavity mode converter for a fundamental mode output in an over-moded relativistic backward-wave oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jiawei; Huang, Wenhua; Xiao, Renzhen; Bai, Xianchen; Zhang, Yuchuan; Zhang, Xiaowei; Shao, Hao; Chen, Changhua; Zhu, Qi

    2015-01-01

    A dual-cavity TM 02 –TM 01 mode converter is designed for a dual-mode operation over-moded relativistic backward-wave oscillator. With the converter, the fundamental mode output is achieved. Particle-in-cell simulation shows that the efficiency of beam-wave conversion was over 46% and a pureTM 01 mode output was obtained. Effects of end reflection provided by the mode converter were studied. Adequate TM 01 mode feedback provided by the converter enhances conversion efficiency. The distance between the mode converter and extraction cavity critically affect the generation of microwaves depending on the reflection phase of TM 01 mode feedback

  4. Study of a condition for the mode conversion from purely perpendicular electrostatic waves to electromagnetic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalaee, Mohammad Javad, E-mail: mjkalaee@ut.ac.ir [Space Physics Group, Institute of Geophysics, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Katoh, Yuto, E-mail: yuto@stpp.gp.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Geophysics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University (Japan)

    2016-07-15

    One of the mechanisms for generating electromagnetic plasma waves (Z-mode and LO-mode) is mode conversion from electrostatic waves into electromagnetic waves in inhomogeneous plasma. Herein, we study a condition required for mode conversion of electrostatic waves propagating purely perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, by numerically solving the full dispersion relation. An approximate model is derived describing the coupling between electrostatic waves (hot plasma Bernstein mode) and Z-mode waves at the upper hybrid frequency. The model is used to study conditions required for mode conversion from electrostatic waves (electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic waves, including Bernstein mode) into electromagnetic plasma waves (LO-mode). It is shown that for mode conversion to occur in inhomogeneous plasma, the angle between the boundary surface and the magnetic field vector should be within a specific range. The range of the angle depends on the norm of the k vector of waves at the site of mode conversion in the inhomogeneous region. The present study reveals that inhomogeneity alone is not a sufficient condition for mode conversion from electrostatic waves to electromagnetic plasma waves and that the angle between the magnetic field and the density gradient plays an important role in the conversion process.

  5. Electron heating and current drive by mode converted slow waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majeski, R.; Phillips, C.K.; Wilson, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    An approach to obtaining efficient single pass mode conversion at high parallel wave number from the fast magnetosonic wave to the slow ion Bernstein wave, in a two-ion species tokamak plasma, is described. The intent is to produce localized electron heating or current drive via the mode converted slow wave. In particular, this technique can be adapted to off-axis current drive for current profile control. Modeling for the case of deuterium-tritium plasmas in TFTR is presented

  6. Electron heating and current drive by mode converted slow waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majeski, R.; Phillips, C.K.; Wilson, J.R.

    1994-08-01

    An approach to obtaining efficient single pass mode conversion at high parallel wavenumber from the fast magnetosonic wave to the slow ion Bernstein wave, in a two ion species tokamak plasma, is described. The intent is to produce localized electron heating or current drive via the mode converted slow wave. In particular, this technique can be adapted to off-axis current drive for current profile control. Modelling for the case of deuterium-tritium plasmas in TFTR is presented

  7. Nonlinear excitation of geodesic acoustic modes by drift waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, N.; Singh, R.; Kaw, P. K.; Guzdar, P. N.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, two mode-coupling analyses for the nonlinear excitation of the geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in tokamak plasmas by drift waves are presented. The first approach is a coherent parametric process, which leads to a three-wave resonant interaction. This investigation allows for the drift waves and the GAMs to have comparable scales. The second approach uses the wave-kinetic equations for the drift waves, which then couples to the GAMs. This requires that the GAM scale length be large compared to the wave packet associated with the drift waves. The resonance conditions for these two cases lead to specific predictions of the radial wave number of the excited GAMs

  8. Can plane wave modes be physical modes in soliton models?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldabe, F.

    1995-08-01

    I show that plane waves may not be used as asymptotic states in soliton models because they describe unphysical states. When asymptotic states are taken to the physical there is not T-matrix of O(1). (author). 9 refs

  9. The characteristic response of whistler mode waves to interplanetary shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, C.; Chen, L.; Bortnik, J.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R. M.; Angelopoulos, V.; Li, J.; An, X.; Zhou, C.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetospheric whistler mode waves play a key role in regulating the dynamics of the electron radiation belts. Recent satellite observations indicate a significant influence of interplanetary (IP) shocks on whistler mode wave power in the inner magnetosphere. In this study, we statistically investigate the response of whistler mode chorus and plasmaspheric hiss to IP shocks based on Van Allen Probes and THEMIS satellite observations. Immediately after the IP shock arrival, chorus wave power is usually intensified, often at dawn, while plasmaspheric hiss wave power predominantly decreases near the dayside but intensifies near the nightside. We conclude that chorus wave intensification outside the plasmasphere is probably associated with the suprathermal electron flux enhancement caused by the IP shock. On the other hand, the solar wind dynamic pressure increase changes the magnetic field configuration to favor ray penetration into the nightside and promote ray refraction away from the dayside, explaining the magnetic local time (MLT) dependent responses of plasmaspheric hiss waves following IP shock arrivals.

  10. Collisional drift waves in the H-mode edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S.

    1994-01-01

    The stability of the collisional drift wave in a sheared slab geometry is found to be severely restricted at the H-mode edge plasma due to the very steep density gradient. However, a radially varying transverse velocity field is found to play the key role in stability. Velocity profiles usually found in the H-mode plasma stabilize drift waves. On the other hand, velocity profiles corresponding to the L-mode render collisional drift waves unstable even though the magnetic shear continues to play its stabilizing role. (author). 24 refs

  11. Mode Identification of Guided Ultrasonic Wave using Time- Frequency Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Byung Sik; Yang, Seung Han; Cho, Yong Sang; Kim, Yong Sik; Lee, Hee Jong

    2007-01-01

    The ultrasonic guided waves are waves whose propagation characteristics depend on structural thickness and shape such as those in plates, tubes, rods, and embedded layers. If the angle of incidence or the frequency of sound is adjusted properly, the reflected and refracted energy within the structure will constructively interfere, thereby launching the guided wave. Because these waves penetrate the entire thickness of the tube and propagate parallel to the surface, a large portion of the material can be examined from a single transducer location. The guided ultrasonic wave has various merits like above. But various kind of modes are propagating through the entire thickness, so we don't know the which mode is received. Most of applications are limited from mode selection and mode identification. So the mode identification is very important process for guided ultrasonic inspection application. In this study, various time-frequency analysis methodologies are developed and compared for mode identification tool of guided ultrasonic signal. For this study, a high power tone-burst ultrasonic system set up for the generation and receive of guided waves. And artificial notches were fabricated on the Aluminum plate for the experiment on the mode identification

  12. Dual-cavity mode converter for a fundamental mode output in an over-moded relativistic backward-wave oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jiawei; Huang, Wenhua [Department of Electronic Engineering and Information Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China); Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China); Xiao, Renzhen; Bai, Xianchen; Zhang, Yuchuan; Zhang, Xiaowei; Shao, Hao; Chen, Changhua [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China); Zhu, Qi [Department of Electronic Engineering and Information Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230027 (China)

    2015-03-16

    A dual-cavity TM{sub 02}–TM{sub 01} mode converter is designed for a dual-mode operation over-moded relativistic backward-wave oscillator. With the converter, the fundamental mode output is achieved. Particle-in-cell simulation shows that the efficiency of beam-wave conversion was over 46% and a pureTM{sub 01} mode output was obtained. Effects of end reflection provided by the mode converter were studied. Adequate TM{sub 01} mode feedback provided by the converter enhances conversion efficiency. The distance between the mode converter and extraction cavity critically affect the generation of microwaves depending on the reflection phase of TM{sub 01} mode feedback.

  13. CHROMOSPHERIC AND CORONAL WAVE GENERATION IN A MAGNETIC FLUX SHEATH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Yoshiaki; Hansteen, Viggo; Gudiksen, Boris; Wedemeyer, Sven; Carlsson, Mats; Steiner, Oskar

    2016-01-01

    Using radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the solar atmospheric layers from the upper convection zone to the lower corona, we investigate the self-consistent excitation of slow magneto-acoustic body waves (slow modes) in a magnetic flux concentration. We find that the convective downdrafts in the close surroundings of a two-dimensional flux slab “pump” the plasma inside it in the downward direction. This action produces a downflow inside the flux slab, which encompasses ever higher layers, causing an upwardly propagating rarefaction wave. The slow mode, excited by the adiabatic compression of the downflow near the optical surface, travels along the magnetic field in the upward direction at the tube speed. It develops into a shock wave at chromospheric heights, where it dissipates, lifts the transition region, and produces an offspring in the form of a compressive wave that propagates further into the corona. In the wake of downflows and propagating shock waves, the atmosphere inside the flux slab in the chromosphere and higher tends to oscillate with a period of ν ≈ 4 mHz. We conclude that this process of “magnetic pumping” is a most plausible mechanism for the direct generation of longitudinal chromospheric and coronal compressive waves within magnetic flux concentrations, and it may provide an important heat source in the chromosphere. It may also be responsible for certain types of dynamic fibrils.

  14. CHROMOSPHERIC AND CORONAL WAVE GENERATION IN A MAGNETIC FLUX SHEATH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Yoshiaki; Hansteen, Viggo; Gudiksen, Boris; Wedemeyer, Sven; Carlsson, Mats [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Steiner, Oskar, E-mail: yoshiaki.kato@astro.uio.no [Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstrasse 6, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2016-08-10

    Using radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the solar atmospheric layers from the upper convection zone to the lower corona, we investigate the self-consistent excitation of slow magneto-acoustic body waves (slow modes) in a magnetic flux concentration. We find that the convective downdrafts in the close surroundings of a two-dimensional flux slab “pump” the plasma inside it in the downward direction. This action produces a downflow inside the flux slab, which encompasses ever higher layers, causing an upwardly propagating rarefaction wave. The slow mode, excited by the adiabatic compression of the downflow near the optical surface, travels along the magnetic field in the upward direction at the tube speed. It develops into a shock wave at chromospheric heights, where it dissipates, lifts the transition region, and produces an offspring in the form of a compressive wave that propagates further into the corona. In the wake of downflows and propagating shock waves, the atmosphere inside the flux slab in the chromosphere and higher tends to oscillate with a period of ν ≈ 4 mHz. We conclude that this process of “magnetic pumping” is a most plausible mechanism for the direct generation of longitudinal chromospheric and coronal compressive waves within magnetic flux concentrations, and it may provide an important heat source in the chromosphere. It may also be responsible for certain types of dynamic fibrils.

  15. Traveling Wave Modes of a Plane Layered Anelastic Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    grant, “Coupled Modes in Elastic Bottoms” (1) is the publication “Traveling wave modes of a plane layered anelastic earth ” accepted for...anelastic earth Robert I. Odom Applied Physics Laboratory and Department of Earth and Space Sciences University of Washington, 1013 NE 40th St., Seattle...contrast to a similar standing wave problem for the earth free oscillations (Tromp and Dahlen, 1990). Attenuation is commonly incorporated into synthetic

  16. Nonlinear effects on mode-converted lower-hybrid waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehl, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    Nonlinear ponderomotive force effects on mode-converted lower-hybrid waves are considered. The nonlinear distortion of these waves is shown to be governed by the cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation. The threshold condition for self-focusing and filamentation is derived

  17. Mode repulsion of ultrasonic guided waves in rails

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loveday, Philip W

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available . The modes can therefore be numbered in the same way that Lamb waves in plates are numbered, making it easier to communicate results. The derivative of the eigenvectors with respect to wavenumber contains the same repulsion term and shows how the mode shapes...

  18. Dipping-interface mapping using mode-separated Rayleigh waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Xu, Y.; Zeng, C.; Miller, R.D.; Liu, Q.

    2009-01-01

    Multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method is a non-invasive geophysical technique that uses the dispersive characteristic of Rayleigh waves to estimate a vertical shear (S)-wave velocity profile. A pseudo-2D S-wave velocity section is constructed by aligning 1D S-wave velocity profiles at the midpoint of each receiver spread that are contoured using a spatial interpolation scheme. The horizontal resolution of the section is therefore most influenced by the receiver spread length and the source interval. Based on the assumption that a dipping-layer model can be regarded as stepped flat layers, high-resolution linear Radon transform (LRT) has been proposed to image Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy and separate modes of Rayleigh waves from a multichannel record. With the mode-separation technique, therefore, a dispersion curve that possesses satisfactory accuracy can be calculated using a pair of consecutive traces within a mode-separated shot gather. In this study, using synthetic models containing a dipping layer with a slope of 5, 10, 15, 20, or 30 degrees and a real-world example, we assess the ability of using high-resolution LRT to image and separate fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves from raw surface-wave data and accuracy of dispersion curves generated by a pair of consecutive traces within a mode-separated shot gather. Results of synthetic and real-world examples demonstrate that a dipping interface with a slope smaller than 15 degrees can be successfully mapped by separated fundamental waves using high-resolution LRT. ?? Birkh??user Verlag, Basel 2009.

  19. Nonlinear damping of oblique whistler mode waves through Landau resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Y.; Omura, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Nonlinear trapping of electrons through Landau resonance is a characteristic dynamics in oblique whistler-mode wave particle interactions. The resonance velocity of the Landau resonance at quasi-parallel propagation becomes very close to the parallel group velocity of whistler-mode wave at frequency around 0.5 Ωe, causing a long distance of resonant interaction and strong acceleration of resonant electrons [1]. We demonstrate these effective accelerations for electrons with high equatorial pitch angle ( > 60°) by test particle simulations with parameters for the Earth's inner magnetosphere at L=5. In the simulations, we focus on slightly oblique whistler mode waves with wave normal angle 10.1002/2016JA023255.

  20. Preliminary assessment of combustion modes for internal combustion wave rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalim, M. Razi

    1995-01-01

    Combustion within the channels of a wave rotor is examined as a means of obtaining pressure gain during heat addition in a gas turbine engine. Several modes of combustion are considered and the factors that determine the applicability of three modes are evaluated in detail; premixed autoignition/detonation, premixed deflagration, and non-premixed compression ignition. The last two will require strong turbulence for completion of combustion in a reasonable time in the wave rotor. The compression/autoignition modes will require inlet temperatures in excess of 1500 R for reliable ignition with most hydrocarbon fuels; otherwise, a supplementary ignition method must be provided. Examples of combustion mode selection are presented for two core engine applications that had been previously designed with equivalent 4-port wave rotor topping cycles using external combustion.

  1. Piezoelectric transducer parameter selection for exciting a single mode from multiple modes of Lamb waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hai-Yan; Yu Jian-Bo

    2011-01-01

    Excitation and propagation of Lamb waves by using rectangular and circular piezoelectric transducers surface-bonded to an isotropic plate are investigated in this work. Analytical stain wave solutions are derived for the two transducer shapes, giving the responses of these transducers in Lamb wave fields. The analytical study is supported by a numerical simulation using the finite element method. Symmetric and antisymmetric components in the wave propagation responses are inspected in detail with respect to test parameters such as the transducer geometry, the length and the excitation frequency. By placing only one piezoelectric transducer on the top or the bottom surface of the plate and weakening the strength of one mode while enhancing the strength of the other modes to find the centre frequency, with which the peak wave amplitude ratio between the S0 and A0 modes is maximum, a single mode excitation from the multiple modes of the Lamb waves can be achieved approximately. Experimental data are presented to show the validity of the analyses. The results are used to optimize the Lamb wave detection system. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  2. Shear Alfven wave excitation by direct antenna coupling and fast wave resonant mode conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, G.G.

    1994-01-01

    Antenna coupling to the shear Alfven wave by both direct excitation and fast wave resonant mode conversion is modelled analytically for a plasma with a one dimensional linear density gradient. We demonstrate the existence of a shear Alfven mode excited directly by the antenna. For localised antennas, this mode propagates as a guided beam along the steady magnetic field lines intersecting the antenna. Shear Alfven wave excitation by resonant mode conversion of a fast wave near the Alfven resonance layer is also demonstrated and we prove that energy is conserved in this process. We compare the efficiency of these two mechanisms of shear Alfven wave excitation and present a simple analytical formula giving the ratio of the coupled powers. Finally, we discuss the interpretation of some experimental results. 45 refs., 7 figs

  3. Plane wave fast color flow mode imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolic, Ibrahim; Udesen, Jesper; Gran, Fredrik

    2006-01-01

    A new Plane wave fast color flow imaging method (PWM) has been investigated, and performance evaluation of the PWM based on experimental measurements has been made. The results show that it is possible to obtain a CFM image using only 8 echo-pulse emissions for beam to flow angles between 45...... degrees and 75 degrees. Compared to the conventional ultrasound imaging the frame rate is similar to 30 - 60 times higher. The bias, B-est of the velocity profile estimate, based on 8 pulse-echo emissions, is between 3.3% and 6.1% for beam to flow angles between 45 degrees and 75 degrees, and the standard...

  4. Alfvén wave dissipation in the solar chromosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Samuel D. T.; Jess, David B.; Zaqarashvili, Teimuraz V.; Beck, Christian; Socas-Navarro, Hector; Aschwanden, Markus J.; Keys, Peter H.; Christian, Damian J.; Houston, Scott J.; Hewitt, Rebecca L.

    2018-05-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic Alfvén waves1 have been a focus of laboratory plasma physics2 and astrophysics3 for over half a century. Their unique nature makes them ideal energy transporters, and while the solar atmosphere provides preferential conditions for their existence4, direct detection has proved difficult as a result of their evolving and dynamic observational signatures. The viability of Alfvén waves as a heating mechanism relies upon the efficient dissipation and thermalization of the wave energy, with direct evidence remaining elusive until now. Here we provide the first observational evidence of Alfvén waves heating chromospheric plasma in a sunspot umbra through the formation of shock fronts. The magnetic field configuration of the shock environment, alongside the tangential velocity signatures, distinguish them from conventional umbral flashes5. Observed local temperature enhancements of 5% are consistent with the dissipation of mode-converted Alfvén waves driven by upwardly propagating magneto-acoustic oscillations, providing an unprecedented insight into the behaviour of Alfvén waves in the solar atmosphere and beyond.

  5. Mode conversion and its utilization of degenerating surface wave modes on a plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, S.; Akao, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Both mode conversion at degenerating points of dispersion relations for surface wave modes on a discharge plasma column and the methods for their detection and utilization are presented. Mode conversions at three degenerating points become observable by using a surface wave resonator when an azimuthal inhomogeneity of plasma is produced by a static magnetic field of about 1 G applied perpendicular to the column axis. Two of the three detected degenerating points can be utilized for an easy and exact determination of the electron density and its distribution in the discharge tube

  6. No further gravitational wave modes in F(T) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamba, Kazuharu, E-mail: bamba@kmi.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Kobayashi–Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Capozziello, Salvatore, E-mail: capozziello@na.infn.it [Kobayashi–Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II” (Italy); INFN Sez. di Napoli, Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); De Laurentis, Mariafelicia, E-mail: felicia@na.infn.it [Kobayashi–Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II” (Italy); INFN Sez. di Napoli, Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Edificio G, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Nojiri, Shin' ichi, E-mail: nojiri@phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Kobayashi–Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Sáez-Gómez, Diego, E-mail: diego.saezgomez@uct.ac.za [Kobayashi–Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC) and Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); Fisika Teorikoaren eta Zientziaren Historia Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 Posta Kutxatila, 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2013-11-25

    We explore the possibility of further gravitational wave modes in F(T) gravity, where T is the torsion scalar in teleparallelism. It is explicitly demonstrated that gravitational wave modes in F(T) gravity are equivalent to those in General Relativity. This result is achieved by calculating the Minkowskian limit for a class of analytic function of F(T). This consequence is also confirmed by the preservative analysis around the flat background in the weak field limit with the scalar–tensor representation of F(T) gravity.

  7. No further gravitational wave modes in F(T) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamba, Kazuharu; Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Sáez-Gómez, Diego

    2013-01-01

    We explore the possibility of further gravitational wave modes in F(T) gravity, where T is the torsion scalar in teleparallelism. It is explicitly demonstrated that gravitational wave modes in F(T) gravity are equivalent to those in General Relativity. This result is achieved by calculating the Minkowskian limit for a class of analytic function of F(T). This consequence is also confirmed by the preservative analysis around the flat background in the weak field limit with the scalar–tensor representation of F(T) gravity

  8. Enhanced coupling of the fast wave to electrons through mode conversion to the ion hybrid wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashmore-Davies, C.N.; Fuchs, V.; Ram, A.K.; Bers, A.

    1996-07-01

    The mode conversion of the fast compressional Alfven wave to the ion hybrid wave is analyzed with particular reference to a plasma with two ion species present in approximately equal proportions. Two configurations are considered, the first referring to the usual resonance-cut-off case and the second to a cut-off-resonance-cut-off situation. The optimum conditions for maximising the mode converted energy are given. The second order fast wave equation is generalised to include the effect of the parallel electric field. Hence, all ion and electron loss mechanisms for the fast wave are incorporated, including mode conversion at the two-ion hybrid resonance. The significance of the approximate equality of the two ion species concentrations is that the mode converted ion hybrid wave is damped only by the electrons. The damping of the ion hybrid wave is described with the aid of the local dispersion relation and by means of a toroidal ray tracing code. In particular, the ray tracing calculation shows that the mode converted energy is totally absorbed by the electrons close to the two-ion hybrid resonance. The generalised fast wave equation is solved to determine how much energy is lost from the fast wave, incident from the low field side, before it encounters the two-ion hybrid resonance. For comparable concentrations of the two ion species, the mode converted power can be separated from the power directly absorbed by the ions and electrons from the fast wave. This allows the conditions to be ascertained under which strong electron heating through mode conversion dominates the direct dissipation of the fast wave. (UK)

  9. Wave Propagation of Coupled Modes in the DNA Double Helix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabi, Conrad B.; Mohamadou, Alidou; Kofane, Timoleon C.

    2010-06-01

    The dynamics of waves propagating along the DNA molecule is described by the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations. We consider both the single and the coupled nonlinear excitation modes, and we discuss their biological implications. Furthermore, the characteristics of the coupled mode solution are discussed and we show that such a solution can describe the local opening observed within the transcription and the replication phenomena. (author)

  10. High frequency single mode traveling wave structure for particle acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanyan, M.I.; Danielyan, V.A.; Grigoryan, B.A.; Grigoryan, A.H. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Tsakanian, A.V. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Technische Universität Darmstadt, Institut TEMF, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Tsakanov, V.M., E-mail: tsakanov@asls.candle.am [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Vardanyan, A.S.; Zakaryan, S.V. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia)

    2016-09-01

    The development of the new high frequency slow traveling wave structures is one of the promising directions in accomplishment of charged particles high acceleration gradient. The disc and dielectric loaded structures are the most known structures with slowly propagating modes. In this paper a large aperture high frequency metallic two-layer accelerating structure is studied. The electrodynamical properties of the slowly propagating TM{sub 01} mode in a metallic tube with internally coated low conductive thin layer are examined.

  11. Geodesic acoustic modes excited by finite beta drift waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, Nikhil Kumar; Guzdar, P.N.; Kleva, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Presented in this paper is a mode-coupling analysis for the nonlinear excitation of the geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in tokamak plasmas by finite beta drift waves. The finite beta effects give rise to a strong stabilizing influence on the parametric excitation process. The dominant finite beta...... effect is the combination of the Maxwell stress, which has a tendency to cancel the primary drive from the Reynolds stress, and the finite beta modification of the drift waves. The zonal magnetic field is also excited at the GAM frequency. However, it does not contribute to the overall stability...... of the three-wave process for parameters of relevance to the edge region of tokamaks....

  12. Quasinormal modes and classical wave propagation in analogue black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berti, Emanuele; Cardoso, Vitor; Lemos, Jose P.S.

    2004-01-01

    Many properties of black holes can be studied using acoustic analogues in the laboratory through the propagation of sound waves. We investigate in detail sound wave propagation in a rotating acoustic (2+1)-dimensional black hole, which corresponds to the 'draining bathtub' fluid flow. We compute the quasinormal mode frequencies of this system and discuss late-time power-law tails. Because of the presence of an ergoregion, waves in a rotating acoustic black hole can be superradiantly amplified. We also compute superradiant reflection coefficients and instability time scales for the acoustic black hole bomb, the equivalent of the Press-Teukolsky black hole bomb. Finally we discuss quasinormal modes and late-time tails in a nonrotating canonical acoustic black hole, corresponding to an incompressible, spherically symmetric (3+1)-dimensional fluid flow

  13. Evaluation by means of magneto-acoustic emission and Barkhausen effect of time and space distribution of magnetic flux density in ferromagnetic plate magnetized by a C-core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustyniak, Marek; Augustyniak, Boleslaw; Piotrowski, Leszek; Chmielewski, Marek; Sadowski, Wojciech

    2006-01-01

    Experimental results are shown of magneto-acoustic emission (MAE) and Barkhausen effect (BE) for two ferritic steel plates of different dimensions. The paper presents preliminary results of modelling the MAE, based on the finite element method (FEM), taking into account the key role of the eddy currents. Explanations are suggested as to the effects of MAE peak maximum growth, shift, as well as the characteristic BE profiles at the bottom of the large plates

  14. Characteristics of fundamental acoustic wave modes in thin piezoelectric plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, S G; Zaitsev, B D; Kuznetsova, I E; Teplykh, A A; Pasachhe, A

    2006-12-22

    The characteristics of the three lowest order plate waves (A(0), S(0), and SH(0)) propagating in piezoelectric plates whose thickness h is much less than the acoustic wavelength lambda are theoretically analyzed. It is found that these waves can provide much higher values of electromechanical coupling coefficient K(2) and lower values of temperature coefficient of delay (TCD) than is possible with surface acoustic waves (SAWs). For example, in 30Y-X lithium niobate, the SH(0) mode has K(2)=0.46 and TCD=55 ppm/degrees C. The corresponding values for SAW in the widely used, strong coupling material of 128Y-X lithium niobate are K(2)=0.053 and TCD=75 ppm/degrees C. Another important advantage of plate waves is that, unlike the case of SAWs, they can operate satisfactorily in contact with a liquid medium, thus making possible their use in liquid phase sensors.

  15. On the unstable mode merging of gravity-inertial waves with Rossby waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. McKenzie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We recapitulate the results of the combined theory of gravity-inertial-Rossby waves in a rotating, stratified atmosphere. The system is shown to exhibit a "local" (JWKB instability whenever the phase speed of the low-frequency-long wavelength westward propagating Rossby wave exceeds the phase speed ("Kelvin" speed of the high frequency-short wavelength gravity-inertial wave. This condition ensures that mode merging, leading to instability, takes place in some intermediate band of frequencies and wave numbers. The contention that such an instability is "spurious" is not convincing. The energy source of the instability resides in the background enthalpy which can be released by the action of the gravitational buoyancy force, through the combined wave modes.

  16. Laser vibrometer measurement of guided wave modes in rail track

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loveday, PW

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ) in the laboratory and on an operational rail track (with S-4 60-SAR profile) and example results are presented in this section. The measurements 5 were performed using a Polytec PSV-400-M2-20 high frequency scanning vibrometer 6 equipped with the VD-09 velocity...Hz on operational rail track and to identify the modes that are capable of 16 propagating large distances. 17 18 KEYWORDS: Semi-analytical finite element method; modes of guided wave 19 propagation; laser vibrometer measurement; rail track 20 PACs...

  17. Empirical Mode Decomposition of the atmospheric wave field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. McDonald

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the utility of the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD time-series analysis technique to separate the horizontal wind field observed by the Scott Base MF radar (78° S, 167° E into its constituent parts made up of the mean wind, gravity waves, tides, planetary waves and instrumental noise. Analysis suggests that EMD effectively separates the wind field into a set of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs which can be related to atmospheric waves with different temporal scales. The Intrinsic Mode Functions resultant from application of the EMD technique to Monte-Carlo simulations of white- and red-noise processes are compared to those obtained from the measurements and are shown to be significantly different statistically. Thus, application of the EMD technique to the MF radar horizontal wind data can be used to prove that this data contains information on internal gravity waves, tides and planetary wave motions.

    Examination also suggests that the EMD technique has the ability to highlight amplitude and frequency modulations in these signals. Closer examination of one of these regions of amplitude modulation associated with dominant periods close to 12 h is suggested to be related to a wave-wave interaction between the semi-diurnal tide and a planetary wave. Application of the Hilbert transform to the IMFs forms a Hilbert-Huang spectrum which provides a way of viewing the data in a similar manner to the analysis from a continuous wavelet transform. However, the fact that the basis function of EMD is data-driven and does not need to be selected a priori is a major advantage. In addition, the skeleton diagrams, produced from the results of the Hilbert-Huang spectrum, provide a method of presentation which allows quantitative information on the instantaneous period and amplitude squared to be displayed as a function of time. Thus, it provides a novel way to view frequency and amplitude-modulated wave phenomena and potentially non

  18. Ion-Bernstein wave mode conversion in hot tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaun, A.; Hellsten, T.; Chiu, S.C.

    1997-08-01

    Mode conversion at the second harmonic cyclotron resonance is studied in a toroidal plasma, showing how the ion-Bernstein wave can dramatically affect the power profile and partition among the species. The results obtained with the gyrokinetic toroidal PENN code in particular suggest that off-axis electron and second harmonic core ion heating should become important when the temperatures in JET reach 10 keV. (author) 1 fig., 11 refs

  19. Mode locking in overdamped charge-density-wave systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alstroem, P.; Levinsen, M.T.

    1988-01-01

    We show that the rich mode-locking structure observed in overdamped charge-density-wave (CDW) systems can be understood in terms of a simple model of driven damped 'particles' without inertia in a non-sinusoidal periodic potential. The analysis shows that the nonchaotic system of a driven overdamped CDW without inertia in general has a 'close-to-chaotic' behavior in an appropriate frequency range. Our results also provide a natural basis for studies of spatially extended CDW systems. (orig.)

  20. Whispering gallery modes for elastic waves in disk resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kaproulias

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The resonant modes of elastic waves in disk resonators are computationally studied with the finite difference time domain method. Different materials examined for the disk such as platinum and silicon. The effect of a glass substrate is also important especially in the case of silicon disks because of the similarity of sound velocities and mass densities between the two materials. The possibility of using those structures as sensors is also considered.

  1. Parameter spaces for linear and nonlinear whistler-mode waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, Danny; Tang, Rongxin; Omura, Yoshiharu; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2013-01-01

    We examine the growth of magnetospheric whistler-mode waves which comprises a linear growth phase followed by a nonlinear growth phase. We construct time-profiles for the wave amplitude that smoothly match at the transition between linear and nonlinear wave growth. This matching procedure can only take place over a limited “matching region” in (N h /N 0 ,A T )-space, where A T is the electron thermal anisotropy, N h is the hot (energetic) electron number density, and N 0 is the cold (background) electron number density. We construct this matching region and determine how the matching wave amplitude varies throughout the region. Further, we specify a boundary in (N h /N 0 ,A T )-space that separates a region where only linear chorus wave growth can occur from the region in which fully nonlinear chorus growth is possible. We expect that this boundary should prove of practical use in performing computationally expensive full-scale particle simulations, and in interpreting experimental wave data

  2. Elastic Wave-equation Reflection Traveltime Inversion Using Dynamic Warping and Wave Mode Decomposition

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, T.

    2017-05-26

    Elastic full waveform inversion (EFWI) provides high-resolution parameter estimation of the subsurface but requires good initial guess of the true model. The traveltime inversion only minimizes traveltime misfits which are more sensitive and linearly related to the low-wavenumber model perturbation. Therefore, building initial P and S wave velocity models for EFWI by using elastic wave-equation reflections traveltime inversion (WERTI) would be effective and robust, especially for the deeper part. In order to distinguish the reflection travletimes of P or S-waves in elastic media, we decompose the surface multicomponent data into vector P- and S-wave seismogram. We utilize the dynamic image warping to extract the reflected P- or S-wave traveltimes. The P-wave velocity are first inverted using P-wave traveltime followed by the S-wave velocity inversion with S-wave traveltime, during which the wave mode decomposition is applied to the gradients calculation. Synthetic example on the Sigbee2A model proves the validity of our method for recovering the long wavelength components of the model.

  3. Upper Mantle Shear Wave Structure Beneath North America From Multi-mode Surface Wave Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, K.; Ekström, G.

    2008-12-01

    The upper mantle structure beneath the North American continent has been investigated from measurements of multi-mode phase speeds of Love and Rayleigh waves. To estimate fundamental-mode and higher-mode phase speeds of surface waves from a single seismogram at regional distances, we have employed a method of nonlinear waveform fitting based on a direct model-parameter search using the neighbourhood algorithm (Yoshizawa & Kennett, 2002). The method of the waveform analysis has been fully automated by employing empirical quantitative measures for evaluating the accuracy/reliability of estimated multi-mode phase dispersion curves, and thus it is helpful in processing the dramatically increasing numbers of seismic data from the latest regional networks such as USArray. As a first step toward modeling the regional anisotropic shear-wave velocity structure of the North American upper mantle with extended vertical resolution, we have applied the method to long-period three-component records of seismic stations in North America, which mostly comprise the GSN and US regional networks as well as the permanent and transportable USArray stations distributed by the IRIS DMC. Preliminary multi-mode phase-speed models show large-scale patterns of isotropic heterogeneity, such as a strong velocity contrast between the western and central/eastern United States, which are consistent with the recent global and regional models (e.g., Marone, et al. 2007; Nettles & Dziewonski, 2008). We will also discuss radial anisotropy of shear wave speed beneath North America from multi-mode dispersion measurements of Love and Rayleigh waves.

  4. Modes in light wave propagating in semiconductor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manko, Margarita A.

    1994-01-01

    The study of semiconductor laser based on an analogy of the Schrodinger equation and an equation describing light wave propagation in nonhomogeneous medium is developed. The active region of semiconductor laser is considered as optical waveguide confining the electromagnetic field in the cross-section (x,y) and allowing waveguide propagation along the laser resonator (z). The mode structure is investigated taking into account the transversal and what is the important part of the suggested consideration longitudinal nonhomogeneity of the optical waveguide. It is shown that the Gaussian modes in the case correspond to spatial squeezing and correlation. Spatially squeezed two-mode structure of nonhomogeneous optical waveguide is given explicitly. Distribution of light among the laser discrete modes is presented. Properties of the spatially squeezed two-mode field are described. The analog of Franck-Condon principle for finding the maxima of the distribution function and the analog of Ramsauer effect for control of spatial distribution of laser emission are discussed.

  5. An Analysis of Fundamental Mode Surface Wave Amplitude Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardong, L.; Ferreira, A. M.; van Heijst, H. J.; Ritsema, J.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic tomography is a powerful tool to decipher the Earth's interior structure at various scales. Traveltimes of seismic waves are widely used to build velocity models, whereas amplitudes are still only seldomly accounted for. This mainly results from our limited ability to separate the various physical effects responsible for observed amplitude variations, such as focussing/defocussing, scattering and source effects. We present new measurements from 50 global earthquakes of fundamental-mode Rayleigh and Love wave amplitude anomalies measured in the period range 35-275 seconds using two different schemes: (i) a standard time-domain amplitude power ratio technique; and (ii) a mode-branch stripping scheme. For minor-arc data, we observe amplitude anomalies with respect to PREM in the range of 0-4, for which the two measurement techniques show a very good overall agreement. We present here a statistical analysis and comparison of these datasets, as well as comparisons with theoretical calculations for a variety of 3-D Earth models. We assess the geographical coherency of the measurements, and investigate the impact of source, path and receiver effects on surface wave amplitudes, as well as their variations with frequency in a wider range than previously studied.

  6. Neutrino induced vorticity, Alfven waves and the normal modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Jitesh R. [Theory Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad (India); George, Manu [Theory Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad (India); Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Ahmedabad (India)

    2017-08-15

    We consider a plasma consisting of electrons and ions in the presence of a background neutrino gas and develop the magnetohydrodynamic equations for the system. We show that the electron neutrino interaction can induce vorticity in the plasma even in the absence of any electromagnetic perturbations if the background neutrino density is left-right asymmetric. This induced vorticity supports a new kind of Alfven wave whose velocity depends on both the external magnetic field and on the neutrino asymmetry. The normal mode analysis show that in the presence of neutrino background the Alfven waves can have different velocities. We also discuss our results in the context of dense astrophysical plasma such as magnetars and show that the difference in the Alfven velocities can be used to explain the observed pulsar kick. We discuss also the relativistic generalisation of the electron fluid in presence of an asymmetric neutrino background. (orig.)

  7. Mode Identification of Guided Waves in a Curved Pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Heung-Seop; Lim, Sa-Hoe; Kim, Jae-Hee

    2006-01-01

    Ultrasonic guided wave technique has been widely employed for the long range inspection of structures such as plates and pipes because it has the ability to propagate over long distances. In the nuclear power field, there recently appeared a need for on-line nondestructive monitoring which can be employed during the operation stage of power plants. As ultrasonic guided waves have shown promise for on-line monitoring of power plants, a lot of work has been done in the institutes and universities on this matter. In the case of detecting defects in simple straight pipes, the dispersion curves obtained from the modeling processes are closely akin to the experimental results. But the modeling of wave propagation in some structures, such as an elbow region of a pipe, is not practical due to elbow echo and unpredictable interface conditions. This paper presents an experimental approach to identify the most dominant modes of guided waves in a curved region of a pipe, which is a key factor in detecting flaws in a pipe

  8. Electrostatic lower hybrid waves excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves scattering from planar magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, T.F.; Ngo, H.D.

    1990-01-01

    Recent satellite observations demonstrate that high amplitude, short wavelength (5 m ≤ λ ≤ 100 m) electrostatic waves are commonly excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves propagating in regions of the magnetosphere and topside ionosphere where small-scale magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities are thought to exist. A new theoretical model of this phenomenon is presented, based upon passive linear scattering in a cold magnetoplasma. In this model the electrostatic waves are excited by linear mode coupling as the incident electromagnetic whistler mode waves scatter from the magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities. The excited short wavelength waves are quasi-electrostatic whistler mode waves, a type of lower hybrid wave, whose wave normal lies near the whistler mode resonance cone where the wave refractive index becomes very large. The amplitude of the excited electrostatic lower hybrid waves is calculated for a wide range of values of input electromagnetic wave frequency, wave normal direction, electron plasma frequency, gyrofrequency, ion composition, and irregularity scale and density enhancement. Results indicate that high amplitude lower hybrid waves can be excited over a wide range of parameters for irregularity density enhancements as low as 5% whenever the scale of the irregularity is of the same order as the lower hybrid wavelength

  9. Exchange anisotropy pinning of a standing spin-wave mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaraggia, R.; Kennewell, K.; Kostylev, M.; Stamps, R. L.; Ali, M.; Greig, D.; Hickey, B. J.; Marrows, C. H.

    2011-02-01

    Standing spin waves in a thin film are used as sensitive probes of interface pinning induced by an antiferromagnet through exchange anisotropy. Using coplanar waveguide ferromagnetic resonance, pinning of the lowest energy spin-wave thickness mode in Ni80Fe20/Ir25Mn75 exchange-biased bilayers was studied for a range of Ir25Mn75 thicknesses. We show that pinning of the standing mode can be used to amplify, relative to the fundamental resonance, frequency shifts associated with exchange bias. The shifts provide a unique “fingerprint” of the exchange bias and can be interpreted in terms of an effective ferromagnetic film thickness and ferromagnet-antiferromagnet interface anisotropy. Thermal effects are studied for ultrathin antiferromagnetic Ir25Mn75 thicknesses, and the onset of bias is correlated with changes in the pinning fields. The pinning strength magnitude is found to grow with cooling of the sample, while the effective ferromagnetic film thickness simultaneously decreases. These results suggest that exchange bias involves some deformation of magnetic order in the interface region.

  10. SAR Wave Mode Processing- Improvements Towards Sentinel-1 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Harald; Collard, Fabrice

    2013-03-01

    The Sentinel-1 level-2 (L2) ocean product (OCN) has been designed to deliver geophysical parameters related to the wind, waves and surface velocity to a large panel of end-users. Each L2 OCN product contains up to three geophysical components: the radial velocity (RVL), the ocean surface wind field (OWI) and the ocean swell wave spectra (OSW) components. The Sentinel-1 Level 2 OSW component is the two-dimensional ocean surface wave spectra estimated from a Sentinel-1 Level 1 Single-Look Complex (SLC) SAR image by inversion of the corresponding image cross-spectra. The cross spectra are computed by performing inter-looking in azimuth followed by co- and cross-spectra estimation among the detected individual look images. The image from which a single OSW is computed can be a SLC vignette from the WV mode, or a co-polarized subimage extracted from a SM SLC image. The experiences with ASAR have shown the need to improve the modulation transfer functions (MTF), especially the wind dependency in the RAR MTF. The OSW processing scheme is an upgraded version of the ASAR WM Level 2 processing accounting for these findings. The Sentinel-1 Level 2 OSW processing has been evaluated using ASAR WM and ASAR SM data, and preliminary key results are presented in this paper.

  11. Effect of Wave Accessibility on Lower Hybrid Wave Current Drive in Experimental Advanced Superconductor Tokamak with H-Mode Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xin-Xia; Xiang Nong; Gan Chun-Yun

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the wave accessibility condition on the lower hybrid current drive in the experimental advanced superconductor Tokamak (EAST) plasma with H-mode operation is studied. Based on a simplified model, a mode conversion layer of the lower hybrid wave between the fast wave branch and the slow wave branch is proved to exist in the plasma periphery for typical EAST H-mode parameters. Under the framework of the lower hybrid wave simulation code (LSC), the wave ray trajectory and the associated current drive are calculated numerically. The results show that the wave accessibility condition plays an important role on the lower hybrid current drive in EAST plasma. For wave rays with parallel refractive index n ‖ = 2.1 or n ‖ = 2.5 launched from the outside midplane, the wave rays may penetrate the core plasma due to the toroidal geometry effect, while numerous reflections of the wave ray trajectories in the plasma periphery occur. However, low current drive efficiency is obtained. Meanwhile, the wave accessibility condition is improved if a higher confined magnetic field is applied. The simulation results show that for plasma parameters under present EAST H-mode operation, a significant lower hybrid wave current drive could be obtained for the wave spectrum with peak value n ‖ = 2.1 if a toroidal magnetic field B T = 2.5 T is applied. (paper)

  12. Three-dimensional ray tracing of electrostatic cyclotron harmonic waves and Z mode electromagnetic waves in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, K.; Yamaashi, K.; Kimura, I.; Kyoto Univ., Japan)

    1987-01-01

    Three-dimensional ray tracing is performed for electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic waves and Z mode electromagnetic waves in the earth's magnetosphere using the hot dispersion relation. Propagation characteristics of cyclotron harmonic waves under the electrostatic approximation are considered, and it is noted that waves starting near the equator can propagate over a long distance without damping. Ray tracing without the electrostatic approximation confirms mode conversion from cyclotron harmonic waves to Z mode electromagnetic waves, and the conditions for the conversion are clarified. It is suggested that further conversion to the L-O mode continuum radiation is possible under strict constraints. The present results are not inconsistent with the conversion mechanism for the generation of escaping continuum radiation in the magnetosphere. 20 references

  13. Subphotospheric fluctuations in magnetized radiative envelopes: contribution from unstable magnetosonic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Koushik; Fernández, Rodrigo; Socrates, Aristotle

    2018-06-01

    We examine the excitation of unstable magnetosonic waves in the radiative envelopes of intermediate- and high-mass stars with a magnetic field of ˜kG strength. Wind clumping close to the star and microturbulence can often be accounted for when including small-scale, subphotospheric density or velocity perturbations. Compressional waves - with wavelengths comparable to or shorter than the gas pressure scale height - can be destabilized by the radiative flux in optically thick media when a magnetic field is present, in a process called the radiation-driven magneto-acoustic instability (RMI). The instability does not require radiation or magnetic pressure to dominate over gas pressure, and acts independently of subsurface convection zones. Here we evaluate the conditions for the RMI to operate on a grid of stellar models covering a mass range 3-40 M⊙ at solar metallicity. For a uniform 1 kG magnetic field, fast magnetosonic modes are unstable down to an optical depth of a few tens, while unstable slow modes extend beyond the depth of the iron convection zone. The qualitative behaviour is robust to magnetic field strength variations by a factor of a few. When combining our findings with previous results for the saturation amplitude of the RMI, we predict velocity fluctuations in the range ˜0.1-10 km s-1. These amplitudes are a monotonically increasing function of the ratio of radiation to gas pressure, or alternatively, of the zero-age main sequence mass.

  14. Frequency conversion through spontaneous degenerate four wave mixing in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin

    2014-01-01

    Frequency conversion through spontaneous degenerate four wave mixing (FWM) is investigated in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers. Different FWM processes are observed, phasematching between fiber modes of orthogonal polarization, intermodal phasematching across bandgaps, and intramodal...

  15. Evidence of conversion from Z-mode waves to the electromagnetic L-O mode waves at the plasmapause detected by JIKIKEN (EXOS-B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oya, Hiroshi; Morioka, Akira

    1982-01-01

    JIKIKEN satellite that has the initial perigee and apogee of 250 km and 30,050 km, respectively, and has an inclination of -31 0 has passed through critical regions where the AKR spectra were carved out by the plasma surounding the satellite, at least five times during a period from January 31, 1979, to June 21, 1980. On all these occasions the usual type of AKR spectra are disclosed to show cutoff phenomena at the local Z-cutoff frequency indicating a continuation crossing over the local X-cutoff frequency from the high frequency side down to the Z mode wave frequency range rather than to be cut at the local X-cutoff frequency; i.e., the AKR waves consist of the spectra that continuously cover the frequency range corresponding to Z-mode and L-O mode waves when the observation is made near the source region. The most posible mechanism that can give cinsistent interpretations to this spectra characteristics is the mode conversion theory; i.e., the plasma waves generated in the form of the hybrid mode waves in the source regions is converted into the Z-mode wave which propagates towards dense plasma regions where the wave frequency coincides with the local plasma frequency and a part of the energy of Z-mode waves is transported to the L-O mode waves that can escape towards outer space. This conversion mechanism gives also a self-consistent interpretation of previously presented evidences reported as the cutoff phenomena of AKR near the local electron cyclotron frequency, using the mechanism of the propagation of the Z-mode waves. There is no confliction between the conversion mechanism of the AKR generation and the previous polarization observation carried out by the Voyager spacecrafts because there remains wide variety of the selection of the source region that are pertinent to give the possiblity of the LH polarization waves as the results of the conversion of the radiation waves from the Z-mode to the L-O mode in the northern polar regions. (author)

  16. Kinematic parameters of internal waves of the second mode in the South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kurkina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Spatial distributions of the main properties of the mode function and kinematic and non-linear parameters of internal waves of the second mode are derived for the South China Sea for typical summer conditions in July. The calculations are based on the Generalized Digital Environmental Model (GDEM climatology of hydrological variables, from which the local stratification is evaluated. The focus is on the phase speed of long internal waves and the coefficients at the dispersive, quadratic and cubic terms of the weakly non-linear Gardner model. Spatial distributions of these parameters, except for the coefficient at the cubic term, are qualitatively similar for waves of both modes. The dispersive term of Gardner's equation and phase speed for internal waves of the second mode are about a quarter and half, respectively, of those for waves of the first mode. Similarly to the waves of the first mode, the coefficients at the quadratic and cubic terms of Gardner's equation are practically independent of water depth. In contrast to the waves of the first mode, for waves of the second mode the quadratic term is mostly negative. The results can serve as a basis for expressing estimates of the expected parameters of internal waves for the South China Sea.

  17. Evaluation of mode purity of ordinary and extraordinary modes by fixed elliptically polarized wave for ECH and ECCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saigusa, Mikio

    1991-08-01

    Mode separation ratio from an arbitrary elliptically polarized electromagnetic wave to an ordinary and an extraordinary modes on a plasma surface for oblique launch is evaluated quantitatively for designing an electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) antenna. An optimized elliptical polarization for the wide range of injection angles and magnetic fields is firstly investigated for ECCD and ECH experiments. (author)

  18. Antisymmetric-Symmetric Mode Conversion of Ultrasonic Lamb Waves and Negative Refraction on Thin Steel Plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young H.; Sung, Jin Woo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, focusing of ultrasonic Lamb wave by negative refraction with mode conversion from antisymmetric to symmetric mode was investigated. When a wave propagates backward by negative refraction, the energy flux is antiparallel to the phase velocity. Backward propagation of Lamb wave is quite well known, but the behavior of backward Lamb wave at an interface has rarely been investigated. A pin-type transducer is used to detect Lamb wave propagating on a steel plate with a step change in thickness. Conversion from forward to backward propagating mode leads to negative refraction and thus wave focusing. By comparing the amplitudes of received Lamb waves at a specific frequency measured at different distance between transmitter and interface, the focusing of Lamb wave due to negative refraction was confirmed.

  19. Interface-guided mode of Lamb waves in a two-dimensional phononic crystal plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Ping-Ping; Yao Yuan-Wei; Zhang Xin; Li Jing; Hu Ai-Zhen; Wu Fu-Gen

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the interface-guided mode of Lamb waves in a phononic crystal heterostructures plate, which is composed of two different semi-infinite phononic crystal (PC) plates. The interface-guided modes of the Lamb wave can be obtained by the lateral lattice slipping or by the interface longitudinal gliding. Significantly, it is observed that the condition to generate the interface-guided modes of the Lamb wave is more demanding than that of the studied fluid–fluid system. The interface-guided modes are strongly affected not only by the relative movement of the two semi-infinite PCs but also by the thickness of the PC plate. (paper)

  20. Guiding, bending, and splitting of coupled defect surface modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Zhang, Baile, E-mail: blzhang@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore 637371 (Singapore); Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2016-01-25

    We experimentally demonstrate a type of waveguiding mechanism for coupled surface-wave defect modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal. Unlike conventional spoof surface plasmon waveguides, waveguiding of coupled surface-wave defect modes is achieved through weak coupling between tightly localized defect cavities in an otherwise gapped surface-wave photonic crystal, as a classical wave analogue of tight-binding electronic wavefunctions in solid state lattices. Wave patterns associated with the high transmission of coupled defect surface modes are directly mapped with a near-field microwave scanning probe for various structures including a straight waveguide, a sharp corner, and a T-shaped splitter. These results may find use in the design of integrated surface-wave devices with suppressed crosstalk.

  1. Guiding, bending, and splitting of coupled defect surface modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Zhen; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a type of waveguiding mechanism for coupled surface-wave defect modes in a surface-wave photonic crystal. Unlike conventional spoof surface plasmon waveguides, waveguiding of coupled surface-wave defect modes is achieved through weak coupling between tightly localized defect cavities in an otherwise gapped surface-wave photonic crystal, as a classical wave analogue of tight-binding electronic wavefunctions in solid state lattices. Wave patterns associated with the high transmission of coupled defect surface modes are directly mapped with a near-field microwave scanning probe for various structures including a straight waveguide, a sharp corner, and a T-shaped splitter. These results may find use in the design of integrated surface-wave devices with suppressed crosstalk

  2. Mode Conversion of a Solar Extreme-ultraviolet Wave over a Coronal Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zong, Weiguo [Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Center for Space Weather, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing 100081 (China); Dai, Yu, E-mail: ydai@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics (Nanjing University), Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2017-01-10

    We report on observations of an extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wave event in the Sun on 2011 January 13 by Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory and Solar Dynamics Observatory in quadrature. Both the trailing edge and the leading edge of the EUV wave front in the north direction are reliably traced, revealing generally compatible propagation velocities in both perspectives and a velocity ratio of about 1/3. When the wave front encounters a coronal cavity near the northern polar coronal hole, the trailing edge of the front stops while its leading edge just shows a small gap and extends over the cavity, meanwhile getting significantly decelerated but intensified. We propose that the trailing edge and the leading edge of the northward propagating wave front correspond to a non-wave coronal mass ejection component and a fast-mode magnetohydrodynamic wave component, respectively. The interaction of the fast-mode wave and the coronal cavity may involve a mode conversion process, through which part of the fast-mode wave is converted to a slow-mode wave that is trapped along the magnetic field lines. This scenario can reasonably account for the unusual behavior of the wave front over the coronal cavity.

  3. How to adapt broad-band gravitational-wave searches for r-modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, Benjamin J.

    2010-01-01

    Up to now there has been no search for gravitational waves from the r-modes of neutron stars in spite of the theoretical interest in the subject. Several oddities of r-modes must be addressed to obtain an observational result: The gravitational radiation field is dominated by the mass current (gravitomagnetic) quadrupole rather than the usual mass quadrupole, and the consequent difference in polarization affects detection statistics and parameter estimation. To astrophysically interpret a detection or upper limit it is necessary to convert the gravitational-wave amplitude to an r-mode amplitude. Also, it is helpful to know indirect limits on gravitational-wave emission to gauge the interest of various searches. Here I address these issues, thereby providing the ingredients to adapt broad-band searches for continuous gravitational waves to obtain r-mode results. I also show that searches of existing data can already have interesting sensitivities to r-modes.

  4. Width dependent transition of quantized spin-wave modes in Ni80Fe20 square nanorings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Chandrima; Saha, Susmita; Barman, Saswati; Rousseau, Olivier; Otani, YoshiChika; Barman, Anjan

    2014-10-01

    We investigated optically induced ultrafast magnetization dynamics in square shaped Ni80Fe20 nanorings with varying ring width. Rich spin-wave spectra are observed whose frequencies showed a strong dependence on the ring width. Micromagnetic simulations showed different types of spin-wave modes, which are quantized upto very high quantization number. In the case of widest ring, the spin-wave mode spectrum shows quantized modes along the applied field direction, which is similar to the mode spectrum of an antidot array. As the ring width decreases, additional quantization in the azimuthal direction appears causing mixed modes. In the narrowest ring, the spin-waves exhibit quantization solely in azimuthal direction. The different quantization is attributed to the variation in the internal field distribution for different ring width as obtained from micromagnetic analysis and supported by magnetic force microscopy.

  5. Dynamic Mode Tuning of Ultrasonic Guided Wave Using an Array Transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young H.; Song, Sung J.; Park, Joon S.; Kim, Jae H.; Eom, Heung S.

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves have been widely employed for long range inspection of structures such as plates, rods and pipes. There are numerous modes with different wave velocities, and the appropriate mode selection is one of key techniques in the application of guided waves. In the present work, phase tuning by an array transducer was applied to generate ultrasonic guided waves. For this purpose, 8-channel ultrasonic pulser/receiver and their controller which enables sequential activation of each channels with given time delay were developed. Eight transducers were fabricated in order to generate guided waves by using an array transducer. The selective tuning of wave mode can be achieved by changing the interval between elements of an array transducer

  6. Stabilization of ion temperature gradient driven modes by lower hybrid wave in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuley, Animesh; Tripathi, V. K.

    2009-01-01

    A gyrokinetic formalism has been developed to study lower hybrid wave stabilization of ion temperature gradient driven modes, responsible for anomalous ion transport in the inner region of tokamak. The parametric coupling between lower hybrid and drift waves produce lower hybrid sideband waves. The pump and the sidebands exert a ponderomotive force on electrons, modifying the eigenfrequency of the drift wave and influencing the growth rate. The longer wavelength drift waves are destabilized by the lower hybrid wave while the shorter wavelengths are suppressed. The requiste lower hybrid power is in the range of ∼900 kW at 4.6 GHz.

  7. Nonlocal analysis of the excitation of the geodesic acoustic mode by drift waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzdar, P.N.; Kleva, R.G.; Chakrabarti, N.

    2009-01-01

    The geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) are typically observed in the edge region of toroidal plasmas. Drift waves have been identified as a possible cause of excitation of GAMs by a resonant three wave parametric process. A nonlocal theory of excitation of these modes in inhomogeneous plasmas typical...... of the edge region of tokamaks is presented in this paper. The continuum GAM modes with coupling to the drift waves can create discrete "global" unstable eigenmodes localized in the edge "pedestal" region of the plasma. Multiple resonantly driven unstable radial eigenmodes can coexist on the edge pedestal....

  8. Electromagnetic mode conversion: understanding waves that suddenly change their nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, D B; Berry, L A; Bonoli, P T; Carter, M D; Choi, M; D'Azevedo, E; D'Ippolito, D A; Gorelenkov, N; Harvey, R W; Jaeger, E F; Myra, J R; Okuda, H; Phillips, C K; Smithe, D N; Wright, J C

    2005-01-01

    In a magnetized plasma, such as in fusion devices or the Earth's magnetosphere, several different kinds of waves can simultaneously exist, having very different physical properties. Under the right conditions one wave can quite suddenly convert to another type. Depending on the case, this can be either a great benefit or a problem for the use of waves to heat and control fusion plasmas. Understanding and accurately modeling such behavior is a major computational challenge

  9. Spatial mode structures of electrostatic drift waves in a collisional cylindrical helicon plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, C.; Grulke, O.; Klinger, T.

    2004-01-01

    In a cylindrical helicon plasma, mode structures of coherent drift waves are studied in the poloidal plane, the plane perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. The mode structures rotate with a constant angular velocity in the direction of the electron diamagnetic drift and show significant...... radial bending. The experimental observations are compared with numerical solutions of a linear nonlocal cylindrical model for drift waves [ Ellis , Plasma Phys. 22, 113 (1980) ]. In the numerical model, a transition to bended mode structures is found if the plasma collisionality is increased....... This finding proves that the experimentally observed bended mode structures are the result of high electron collisionality. (C) 2004 American Institute of Physics....

  10. Study of a high-order-mode gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C. C.; Tsai, C. Y.; Kao, S. H.; Chu, K. R.; Barnett, L. R.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Physics and performance issues of a TE 01 -mode gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier are studied in theory. For a high order mode, absolute instabilities on neighboring modes at the fundamental and higher cyclotron harmonic frequencies impose severe constraints to the device capability. Methods for their stabilization are outlined, on the basis of which the performance characteristics are examined in a multidimensional parameter space under the marginal stability criterion. The results demonstrate the viability of a high-order-mode traveling-wave amplifier and provide a roadmap for design tradeoffs among power, bandwidth, and efficiency. General trends are observed and illustrated with specific examples.

  11. Inertial wave beams and inertial wave modes in a rotating cylinder with time-modulated rotation rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcia, Ion D.; Ghasemi V., Abouzar; Harlander, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    Inertial gravity waves play an crucial role in atmospheres, oceans, and the fluid inside of planets and moons. In the atmosphere, the effect of rotation is neglected for small wavelength and the waves bear the character of internal gravity waves. For long waves, the hydrostatic assumption is made which in turn makes the atmosphere inelastic with respect to inertial motion. In contrast, in the Earth's interior, pure inertial waves are considered as an important fundamental part of the motion. Moreover, as the deep ocean is nearly homogeneous, there the inertial gravity waves bear the character of inertial waves. Excited at the oceans surface mainly due to weather systems the waves can propagate downward and influence the deep oceans motion. In the light of the aforesaid it is important to understand better fundamental inertial wave dynamics. We investigate inertial wave modes by experimental and numerical methods. Inertial modes are excited in a fluid filled rotating annulus by modulating the rotation rate of the outer cylinder and the upper and lower lids. This forcing leads to inertial wave beams emitted from the corner regions of the annulus due to periodic motions in the boundary layers (Klein et al., 2013). When the forcing frequency matches with the eigenfrequency of the rotating annulus the beam pattern amplitude is increasing, the beams broaden and mode structures can be observed (Borcia et al., 2013a). The eigenmodes are compared with analytical solutions of the corresponding inviscid problem (Borcia et al, 2013b). In particular for the pressure field a good agreement can be found. However, shear layers related to the excited wave beams are present for all frequencies. This becomes obvious in particular in the experimental visualizations that are done by using Kalliroscope particles, highlighting relative motion in the fluid. Comparing the eigenfrequencies we find that relative to the analytical frequencies, the experimental and numerical ones show a small

  12. SAR Imaging of Wave Tails: Recognition of Second Mode Internal Wave Patterns and Some Mechanisms of their Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jose C. B.; Magalhaes, J. M.; Buijsman, M. C.; Garcia, C. A. E.

    2016-08-01

    Mode-2 internal waves are usually not as energetic as larger mode-1 Internal Solitary Waves (ISWs), but they have attracted a great deal of attention in recent years because they have been identified as playing a significant role in mixing shelf waters [1]. This mixing is particularly effective for mode-2 ISWs because the location of these waves in the middle of the pycnocline plays an important role in eroding the barrier between the base of the surface mixed layer and the stratified deep layer below. An urgent problem in physical oceanography is therefore to account for the magnitude and distribution of ISW-driven mixing, including mode-2 ISWs. Several generation mechanisms of mode-2 ISWs have been identified. These include: (1) mode-1 ISWs propagating onshore (shoaling) and entering the breaking instability stage, or propagating over a steep sill; (2) a mode-1 ISW propagating offshore (antishoaling) over steep slopes of the shelf break, and undergoing modal transformation; (3) intrusion of the whole head of a gravity current into a three-layer fluid; (4) impingement of an internal tidal beam on the pycnocline, itself emanating from critical bathymetry; (5) nonlinear disintegration of internal tide modes; (6) lee wave mechanism. In this paper we provide methods to identify internal wave features denominated "Wave Tails" in SAR images of the ocean surface, which are many times associated with second mode internal waves. The SAR case studies that are presented portray evidence of the aforementioned generation mechanisms, and we further discuss possible methods to discriminate between the various types of mode-2 ISWs in SAR images, that emerge from these physical mechanisms. Some of the SAR images correspond to numerical simulations with the MITgcm in fully nonlinear and nonhydrostatic mode and in a 2D configuration with realistic stratification, bathymetry and other environmental conditions.Results of a global survey with some of these observations are presented

  13. Kinetic Alfven Waves at the Magnetopause-Mode Conversion, Transport and Formation of LLBL; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay R. Johnson; C.Z. Cheng

    2002-01-01

    At the magnetopause, large amplitude, low-frequency (ULF), transverse MHD waves are nearly always observed. These waves likely result from mode conversion of compressional MHD waves observed in the magnetosheath to kinetic Alfven waves at the magnetopause where there is a steep gradient in the Alfven velocity[Johnson and Cheng, Geophys. Res. Lett. 24 (1997) 1423]. The mode-conversion process can explain the following wave observations typically found during satellite crossings of the magnetopause: (1) a dramatic change in wave polarization from compressional in the magnetosheath to transverse at the magnetopause, (2) an amplification of wave amplitude at the magnetopause, (3) a change in Poynting flux from cross-field in the magnetosheath to field-aligned at the magnetopause, and (4) a steepening in the wave power spectrum at the magnetopause. We examine magnetic field data from a set of ISEE1, ISEE2, and WIND magnetopause crossings and compare with the predictions of theoretical wave solutions based on the kinetic-fluid model with particular attention to the role of magnetic field rotation across the magnetopause. The results of the study suggest a good qualitative agreement between the observations and the theory of mode conversion to kinetic Alfven waves. Because mode-converted kinetic Alfven waves readily decouple particles from the magnetic field lines, efficient quasilinear transport (D(approx) 109m2/s) can occur. Moreover, if the wave amplitude is sufficiently large (Bwave/B0 and gt; 0.2) stochastic particle transport also occurs. This wave-induced transport can lead to significant heating and particle entry into the low latitude boundary layer across closed field lines.At the magnetopause, large amplitude, low-frequency (ULF), transverse MHD waves are nearly always observed. These waves likely result from mode conversion of compressional MHD waves observed in the magnetosheath to kinetic Alfven waves at the magnetopause where there is a steep gradient in

  14. An overmoded relativistic backward wave oscillator with efficient dual-mode operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Renzhen; Li, Jiawei; Bai, Xianchen; Song, Zhimin; Teng, Yan; Ye, Hu; Li, Xiaoze; Sun, Jun; Chen, Changhua; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2014-01-01

    A dual-mode operation mechanism in an overmoded relativistic backward wave oscillator is presented. The electron beam interacts with the −1st space harmonic of TM 01 mode synchronously in the slow wave structure. Then the backward propagating TM 01 mode is converted to the forward propagating TM 02 mode. As the phase velocity of the volume harmonic of TM 02 mode is about twice that of the surface harmonic of TM 01 mode, the TM 02 mode also plays an important role in the high-power microwave generation. Particle-in-cell simulation shows that an efficiency of 48% and a significant improvement of the power capacity have been obtained

  15. Pitch Angle Scattering of Upgoing Electron Beams in Jupiter's Polar Regions by Whistler Mode Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, S. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Clark, G.; Mauk, B. H.; Bolton, S. J.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Levin, S. M.

    2018-02-01

    The Juno spacecraft's Jupiter Energetic-particle Detector Instrument has observed field-aligned, unidirectional (upgoing) electron beams throughout most of Jupiter's entire polar cap region. The Waves instrument detected intense broadband whistler mode emissions occurring in the same region. In this paper, we investigate the pitch angle scattering of the upgoing electron beams due to interactions with the whistler mode waves. Profiles of intensity versus pitch angle for electron beams ranging from 2.53 to 7.22 Jovian radii show inconsistencies with the expected adiabatic invariant motion of the electrons. It is believed that the observed whistler mode waves perturb the electron motion and scatter them away from the magnetic field line. The diffusion equation has been solved by using diffusion coefficients which depend on the magnetic intensity of the whistler mode waves.

  16. Effect of parallel electric fields on the whistler mode wave propagation in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, G.P.; Singh, R.N.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of parallel electric fields on whistler mode wave propagation has been studied. To account for the parallel electric fields, the dispersion equation has been analyzed, and refractive index surfaces for magnetospheric plasma have been constructed. The presence of parallel electric fields deforms the refractive index surfaces which diffuse the energy flow and produce defocusing of the whistler mode waves. The parallel electric field induces an instability in the whistler mode waves propagating through the magnetosphere. The growth or decay of whistler mode instability depends on the direction of parallel electric fields. It is concluded that the analyses of whistler wave records received on the ground should account for the role of parallel electric fields

  17. A fast pointwise strategy for anisotropic wave-mode separation in TI media

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Qiancheng

    2017-08-17

    The multi-component wavefield contains both compressional and shear waves. Separating wave-modes has many applications in seismic workflows. Conventionally, anisotropic wave-mode separation is implemented by either directly filtering in the wavenumber domain or nonstationary filtering in the space domain, which are computationally expensive. These methods could be categorized into the pseudo-derivative family and only work well within Finite Difference (FD) methods. In this paper, we establish a relationship between group-velocity direction and polarity direction and propose a method, which could go beyond modeling by FD. In particular, we are interested in performing wave-mode separation in a Spectral Element Method (SEM), which is widely used for seismic wave propagation on various scales. The separation is implemented pointwise, independent of its neighbor points, suitable for running in parallel. Moreover, no correction for amplitude and phase changes caused by the derivative operator is required. We have verified our scheme using numerical examples.

  18. A fast pointwise strategy for anisotropic wave-mode separation in TI media

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Qiancheng; Peter, Daniel; Lu, Yongming

    2017-01-01

    The multi-component wavefield contains both compressional and shear waves. Separating wave-modes has many applications in seismic workflows. Conventionally, anisotropic wave-mode separation is implemented by either directly filtering in the wavenumber domain or nonstationary filtering in the space domain, which are computationally expensive. These methods could be categorized into the pseudo-derivative family and only work well within Finite Difference (FD) methods. In this paper, we establish a relationship between group-velocity direction and polarity direction and propose a method, which could go beyond modeling by FD. In particular, we are interested in performing wave-mode separation in a Spectral Element Method (SEM), which is widely used for seismic wave propagation on various scales. The separation is implemented pointwise, independent of its neighbor points, suitable for running in parallel. Moreover, no correction for amplitude and phase changes caused by the derivative operator is required. We have verified our scheme using numerical examples.

  19. A Study on the Guided Wave Mode Conversion using Self-calibrating Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung Chul; Cho, Youn Ho

    2000-01-01

    The guided wave mode conversion phenomena were investigated for the NDE of a plate-like structure with thickness variation. The ratios of reflection and transmission (R/T) were measured via the self-calibrating procedure which allows us to obtain experimental guided wave data in a more reliable way regardless of the coupling uncertainty between transducer and specimen. The results on R/T could be used to determine the thickness reduction of the structure. It was shown that not only the incident modes but also the converted ones need to be considered in the self-calibrating guided wave inspection to extract a reasonable correlation between experimental data and the thickness variation. Through this study, the potential of guided wave inspection as a quantitative NDE technique was explored based on the combined concept of self-calibration and multi-mode conversion in guided wave scattering problems

  20. Enhancement of mode-converted electron Bernstein wave emission during National Spherical Torus Experiment H-mode plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.; Efthimion, P.C.; Jones, B.; Le Blanc, B.P.; Maingi, R.

    2002-01-01

    A sudden, threefold increase in emission from fundamental electrostatic electron Bernstein waves (EBW) which mode convert and tunnel to the electromagnetic X-mode has been observed during high energy and particle confinement (H-mode) transitions in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) plasma [M. Ono, S. Kaye, M. Peng et al., in Proceedings of the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (IAEA, Vienna, Austria, 1999), Vol. 3, p. 1135]. The mode-converted EBW emission viewed normal to the magnetic field on the plasma midplane increases when the density profile steepens in the vicinity of the mode conversion layer, which is located in the plasma scrape off. The measured conversion efficiency during the H-mode is consistent with the calculated EBW to X-mode conversion efficiency derived using edge density data. Calculations indicate that there may also be a small residual contribution to the measured X-mode electromagnetic radiation from polarization-scrambled, O-mode emission, converted from EBWs

  1. Intermodal parametric gain of degenerate four wave mixing in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard

    2013-01-01

    Intermodal degenerate four wave mixing (FWM) is investigated numerically in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers. The dispersion is controlled independently of core size, and thus allows for power scaling of the FWM process.......Intermodal degenerate four wave mixing (FWM) is investigated numerically in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers. The dispersion is controlled independently of core size, and thus allows for power scaling of the FWM process....

  2. Plasma heating via electron Bernstein wave heating using ordinary and extraodinary mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Parvazian

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetically confined plasma can be heated with high power microwave sources. In spherical torus the electron plasma frequency exeeds the electron cyclotron frequency (EC and, as a consequence, electromagnetic waves at fundamental and low harmonic EC cannot propagate within the plasma. In contrast, electron Bernstein waves (EBWs readily propagate in spherical torus plasma and are absorbed strongly at the electron cyclotron resonances. In order to proagate EBWs beyond the upper hybrid resonance (UHR, that surrounds the plasma, the EBWs must convert via one of two processes to either ordinary (O-mode or extraordinary (X-mode electromagnetic waves. O-mode and X-mode electromagnetic waves lunched at the plasma edge can convert to the electron Bernstein waves (EBWs which can propagate without and cut-off into the core of the plasma and damp on electrons. Since the electron Bernstein wave (EBW has no cut-off limits, it is well suited to heat an over-dense plasma by resonant absorption. An important problem is to calculate mode conversion coefficient that is very sensitive to density. Mode conversion coefficient depends on Budden parameter ( ñ and density scale length (Ln in upper hybrid resonance (UHR. In Mega Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST, the optimized conversion efficiency approached 72.5% when Ln was 4.94 cm and the magnetic field was 0.475 Tesla in the core of the plasma.

  3. Coupling effect of piezoelectric wafer transducers in distortions of primary Lamb wave modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijudas, C R; Mitra, M; Mujumdar, P M

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric wafer transducers (PWT) are widely used for Lamb wave based damage detection schemes. The size of the damage that can be detected is dependent on the wavelength of the Lamb wave employed. Thus it is essential to explore the higher frequency range within the (fundamental) bandwidth of S 0 and A 0 modes, however below the cut-off frequencies of A 1 and S 1 . It is observed that the Lamb wave modes S 0 and A 0 generated using PWT undergo distortion within this fundamental bandwidth. This behavior is experimentally observed for different PWT sizes and types. The nature of this observed distortion is very different from the distortion of wave modes due to dispersion. In addition, the distortion, in many cases, tends towards the appearance of new wave modes close to the S 0 and A 0 modes. To understand this experimental observation, a theoretical study is performed. First, finite element (FE) simulations of Lamb waves considering pin-force, thermal analogy, and couple field models of surface mounted PWT are carried out. These simulation studies reveal that the wavepacket distortion can be attributed mostly to electro-mechanical coupling effect of the PWT. Next, the dispersion plot of piezoelectric layer considering electro-mechanical coupling is obtained using spectral finite element (SFE) method. These dispersion characteristics of the PWT are found to be significantly different from the conventional Lamb wave dispersion characteristics and may explain the experimental observation. (paper)

  4. Strong Scattering of High Power Millimeter Waves in Tokamak Plasmas with Tearing Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhof, E.; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Oosterbeek, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    In tokamak plasmas with a tearing mode, strong scattering of high power millimeter waves, as used for heating and noninductive current drive, is shown to occur. This new wave scattering phenomenon is shown to be related to the passage of the O point of a magnetic island through the high power...

  5. TRACING p -MODE WAVES FROM THE PHOTOSPHERE TO THE CORONA IN ACTIVE REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Junwei; Chen, Ruizhu [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Felipe, Tobías; Khomenko, Elena [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38025 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2016-10-10

    Atmosphere above sunspots is abundant with different types of waves. Among these waves are running penumbral waves in the chromosphere, quasi-periodic oscillations in the lower coronal loops, and recently reported running waves in sunspots’ photosphere, all of which were interpreted as magnetoacoustic waves by some authors. Are these waves in different atmospheric layers related to each other, what is the nature of these waves, and where are the ultimate sources of these waves? Applying a time–distance helioseismic analysis over a suite of multi-wavelength observations above a sunspot, we demonstrate that the helioseismic p -mode waves are able to channel up from the photosphere through the chromosphere and transition region into the corona, and that the magnetoacoustic waves observed in different atmospheric layers are a same wave originating from the photosphere but exhibiting differently under different physical conditions. We also show waves of different frequencies travel along different paths, which can be used to derive the physical properties of the atmosphere above sunspots. Our numerical simulation of traveling of waves from a subphotospheric source qualitatively resembles the observed properties of the waves and offers an interpretation of the shapes of the wavefronts above the photosphere.

  6. Measurements of ion cyclotron range of frequencies mode converted wave intensity with phase contrast imaging in Alcator C-Mod and comparison with full-wave simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujii, N.; Porkolab, M.; Bonoli, P. T.; Lin, Y.; Wright, J. C.; Wukitch, S. J.; Jaeger, E. F.; Green, D. L.; Harvey, R. W.

    2012-01-01

    Radio frequency waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) are widely used to heat tokamak plasmas. In ICRF heating schemes involving multiple ion species, the launched fast waves convert to ion cyclotron waves or ion Bernstein waves at the two-ion hybrid resonances. Mode converted waves are of interest as actuators to optimise plasma performance through current drive and flow drive. In order to describe these processes accurately in a realistic tokamak geometry, numerical simulations are essential, and it is important that these codes be validated against experiment. In this study, the mode converted waves were measured using a phase contrast imaging technique in D-H and D- 3 He plasmas. The measured mode converted wave intensity in the D- 3 He mode conversion regime was found to be a factor of ∼50 weaker than the full-wave predictions. The discrepancy was reduced in the hydrogen minority heating regime, where mode conversion is weaker.

  7. General Properties of Scattering Matrix for Mode Conversion Process between B Waves and External EM Waves and Their Consequence to Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, T.; Tanaka, H.; Uchida, M.; Igami, H.

    2003-01-01

    General properties of scattering matrix, which governs the mode conversion process between electron Bernstein (B) waves and external electromagnetic (EM) waves in the presence of steep density gradient, are theoretically analyzed. Based on the analysis, polarization adjustment of incident EM waves for optimal mode conversion to B waves is possible and effective for a range of density gradient near the upper hybrid resonance, which are not covered by the previously proposed schemes of perpendicular injection of X mode and oblique injection of O mode. Furthermore, the analysis shows that the polarization of the externally emitted EM waves from B waves is uniquely related to the optimized polarization of incident EM waves for B wave heating and that the mode conversion rate is the same for the both processes of emission and the injection with the optimized polarization

  8. Transverse kick in misaligned traveling wave structures driven at the fundamental mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittum, D.H.

    1998-04-01

    Fabrication errors in traveling wave structures result in non-axisymmetric RF fields that couple to the rf drive at the fundamental mode frequency. The authors calculate the excitation of the dipole mode and the integrated effect on the beam, using the thin iris and small hole approximation

  9. Mode-Selective Wavelength Conversion Based on Four-Wave Mixing in a Multimode Silicon Waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Xu, Jing; Ou, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    We report all-optical mode-selective wavelength conversion based on four-wave mixing in a multimode Si waveguide. A two-mode division multiplexing circuit using tapered directional coupler based (de)multiplexers is used for the application. Experimental results show clear eye-diagrams and moderate...

  10. Gravitational waves from nonlinear couplings of radial and polar nonradial modes in relativistic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passamonti, Andrea; Stergioulas, Nikolaos; Nagar, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    The postbounce oscillations of newly-born relativistic stars are expected to lead to gravitational-wave emission through the excitation of nonradial oscillation modes. At the same time, the star is oscillating in its radial modes, with a central density variation that can reach several percent. Nonlinear couplings between radial oscillations and polar nonradial modes lead to the appearance of combination frequencies (sums and differences of the linear mode frequencies). We study such combination frequencies using a gauge-invariant perturbative formalism, which includes bilinear coupling terms between different oscillation modes. For typical values of the energy stored in each mode we find that gravitational waves emitted at combination frequencies could become detectable in galactic core-collapse supernovae with advanced interferometric or wideband resonant detectors

  11. Mode conversion of fast Alfvacute en waves at the ion endash ion hybrid resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram, A.K.; Bers, A.; Schultz, S.D.; Fuchs, V.

    1996-01-01

    Substantial radio-frequency power in the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies can be effectively coupled to a tokamak plasma from poloidal current strap antennas at the plasma edge. If there exists an ion endash ion hybrid resonance inside the plasma, then some of the power from the antenna, delivered into the plasma by fast Alfvacute en waves, can be mode converted to ion-Bernstein waves. In tokamak confinement fields the mode-converted ion-Bernstein waves can damp effectively and locally on electrons [A. K. Ram and A. Bers, Phys. Fluids B 3, 1059 (1991)]. The usual mode-conversion analysis that studies the propagation of fast Alfvacute en waves in the immediate vicinity of the ion endash ion hybrid resonance is extended to include the propagation and reflection of the fast Alfvacute en waves on the high magnetic-field side of the ion endash ion hybrid resonance. It is shown that there exist plasma conditions for which the entire fast Alfvacute en wave power incident on the ion endash ion hybrid resonance can be converted to ion-Bernstein waves. In this extended analysis of the mode conversion process, the fast Alfvacute en waves can be envisioned as being coupled to an internal plasma resonator. This resonator extends from the low magnetic-field cutoff near the ion endash ion hybrid resonance to the high magnetic-field cutoff. The condition for 100% mode conversion corresponds to a critical coupling of the fast Alfvacute en waves to this internal resonator. As an example, the appropriate plasma conditions for 100% mode conversion are determined for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [R. Majeski et al., Proceedings of the 11th Topical Conference on RF Power in Plasmas, Palm Springs (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1995), Vol. 355, p. 63] experimental parameters. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  12. The internal wave field in Sau reservoir : Observation and modeling of a third vertical mode

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal Hurtado, Javier; Casamitjana, Xavier; Colomer, Jordi; Serra Putellas, Teresa

    2005-01-01

    Water withdrawal from Mediterranean reservoirs in summer is usually very high. Because of this, stratification is often continuous and far from the typical two-layered structure, favoring the excitation of higher vertical modes. The analysis of wind, temperature, and current data from Sau reservoir (Spain) shows that the third vertical mode of the internal seiche (baroclinic mode) dominated the internal wave field at the beginning of September 2003. We used a continuous stratification two-dim...

  13. Global mode of Pi2 waves in the equatorial region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Tai-ichi; Saka, Ousuke; Shimoizumi, Masashi

    1988-01-01

    Fluxgate magnetometers with accurate timing data logger were set up at two equatorial stations (Garous-Marous and Huancayo), and also at a middle latitude station (Kuju). The phase of Pi2 waves is compared among these stations. It is found that 1) Pi2 pulsations in low and equatorial latitudes are linearly polarized approximately along the magnetic meridian, 2) phase difference of the H component of Pi2 waves at different stations is much less than 1 - 10 of the pulsation period despite a large longitudinal separation (∼ 90 deg) of the stations, showing the so-called azimuthal wave number, m, to be much less than unity and 3) phase difference of the D component at different stations is variable. (author)

  14. Mode conversion of lower hybrid waves at high ion cyclotron harmonics. Appendix F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, D.G.; Cho, S.

    1985-05-01

    The problem of ion cyclotron harmonic absorption for a lower hybrid wave is shown to be a mode conversion problem. A new form of the dispersion relation is developed and then expanded to get a differential equation identical to that for the second harmonic problem. The validity of this model is restricted to the region far from the lower hybrid resonance layer. It is shown that mode couplings occur among the incident cold wave and two other waves, and the tunneling factor becomes singular there

  15. Survivability Mode and Extreme Loads on the Mooring Lines of the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report is a product of the cooperation agreement between Wave Dragon and Aalborg University regarding phase 2 of the development of the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter. The research is carried out by testing the 1:51.8 scale model of the Wave Dragon, aiming at the assessment of the surviva......This report is a product of the cooperation agreement between Wave Dragon and Aalborg University regarding phase 2 of the development of the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter. The research is carried out by testing the 1:51.8 scale model of the Wave Dragon, aiming at the assessment...... of the department of Civil Engineering at Aalborg University. The outcome of the research will be used as input for future research work aimed at the design of the mooring system and the certification of the structural design for the full scale Wave Dragon demonstrator....

  16. Propagation and damping of mode converted ion-Bernstein waves in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram, A.K.; Bers, A.

    1991-01-01

    In the heating of tokamak plasmas by waves in the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies, the fast Alfven waves launched at the plasma edge can mode convert to the ion-Bernstein waves (IBW). The propagation and damping of these mode converted waves was studied using a ray tracing code that follows the fast phase and the amplitude of the electromagnetic field along the IBW ray trajectories in a toroidal plasma. A simple analytical model is developed that describes the numerically observed features of propagation and damping of the IBW's. It is found that along the ray trajectory of the IBW there is an upshift of the poloidal mode numbers, which can lead to the electron Landau damping of the wave. This damping is dependent on the strength of the toroidal plasma current. From the properties of the upshift of the poloidal mode numbers, it is concluded that the mode converted ion-Bernstein waves are not suitable candidates for electron current drive

  17. Internal wave mode resonant triads in an arbitrarly stratified finite-depth ocean with background rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Dheeraj; Mathur, Manikandan

    2017-11-01

    Internal tides generated by barotropic tides on bottom topography or the spatially compact near-inertial mixed layer currents excited by surface winds can be conveniently represented in the linear regime as a superposition of vertical modes at a given frequency in an arbitrarily stratified ocean of finite depth. Considering modes (m , n) at a frequency ω in the primary wave field, we derive the weakly nonlinear solution, which contains a secondary wave at 2 ω that diverges when it forms a resonant triad with the primary waves. In nonuniform stratifications, resonant triads are shown to occur when the horizontal component of the classical RTI criterion k->1 +k->2 +k->3 = 0 is satisfied along with a non-orthogonality criterion. In nonuniform stratifications with a pycnocline, infinitely more pairs of primary wave modes (m , n) result in RTI when compared to a uniform stratification. Further, two nearby high modes at around the near-inertial frequency often form a resonant triad with a low mode at 2 ω , reminiscent of the features of PSI near the critical latitude. The theoretical framework is then adapted to investigate RTI in two different scenarios: low-mode internal tide scattering over topography, and internal wave beams incident on a pycnocline. The authors thank the Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India for financial support under the Monsoon Mission Grant MM/2014/IND-002.

  18. Signatures of mode conversion and kinetic Alfven waves at the magnetopause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Jay R.; Cheng, C. Z.

    2000-01-01

    It has been suggested that resonant mode conversion of compressional MHD waves into kinetic Alfven waves at the magnetopause can explain the abrupt transition in wave polarization from compressional to transverse commonly observed during magnetopause crossings. The authors analyze magnetic field data for magnetopause crossings as a function of magnetic shear angle (defined as the angle between the magnetic fields in the magnetosheath and magnetosphere) and compare with the theory of resonant mode conversion. The data suggest that amplification in the transverse magnetic field component at the magnetopause is not significant up to a threshold magnetic shear angle. Above the threshold angle significant amplification results, but with weak dependence on magnetic shear angle. Waves with higher frequency are less amplified and have a higher threshold angle. These observations are qualitatively consistent with theoretical results obtained from the kinetic-fluid wave equations

  19. Color M-mode and pulsed wave tissue Doppler echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, J E; Søndergaard, E; Poulsen, S H

    2001-01-01

    To assess the association between color M-mode flow propagation velocity and the early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E(m)) obtained with tissue Doppler echocardiography and to assess the prognostic implications of the indexes, echocardiography was performed on days 1 and 5, and 1 and 3 month...

  20. Design of a spin-wave majority gate employing mode selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingler, S., E-mail: klingler@physik.uni-kl.de; Pirro, P.; Brächer, T.; Leven, B.; Hillebrands, B.; Chumak, A. V. [Fachbereich Physik and Landesforschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2014-10-13

    The design of a microstructured, fully functional spin-wave majority gate is presented and studied using micromagnetic simulations. This all-magnon logic gate consists of three-input waveguides, a spin-wave combiner, and an output waveguide. In order to ensure the functionality of the device, the output waveguide is designed to perform spin-wave mode selection. We demonstrate that the gate evaluates the majority of the input signals coded into the spin-wave phase. Moreover, the all-magnon data processing device is used to perform logic AND-, OR-, NAND-, and NOR- operations.

  1. High-Energy Four-Wave Mixing, with Large-Mode-Area Higher-Order Modes in Optical Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishøj, Lars Søgaard; Steinvurzel, P. E.; Chen, Y.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time, four-wave mixing, in the 1-μm spectral regime, in an LMA silica fiber. Pumping a 618-μm2 LP07 mode (λo = 1038.4 nm) with a 1064.6-nm Nd:YAG laser results in the generation of modulation instability, and multiple Stokes/anti-Stokes lines, opening up the prospect...

  2. Multi-scale phenomena of rotation-modified mode-2 internal waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepwell, David; Stastna, Marek; Coutino, Aaron

    2018-03-01

    We present high-resolution, three-dimensional simulations of rotation-modified mode-2 internal solitary waves at various rotation rates and Schmidt numbers. Rotation is seen to change the internal solitary-like waves observed in the absence of rotation into a leading Kelvin wave followed by Poincaré waves. Mass and energy is found to be advected towards the right-most side wall (for a Northern Hemisphere rotation), leading to increased amplitude of the leading Kelvin wave and the formation of Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instabilities on the upper and lower edges of the deformed pycnocline. These fundamentally three-dimensional instabilities are localized within a region near the side wall and intensify in vigour with increasing rotation rate. Secondary Kelvin waves form further behind the wave from either resonance with radiating Poincaré waves or the remnants of the K-H instability. The first of these mechanisms is in accord with published work on mode-1 Kelvin waves; the second is, to the best of our knowledge, novel to the present study. Both types of secondary Kelvin waves form on the same side of the channel as the leading Kelvin wave. Comparisons of equivalent cases with different Schmidt numbers indicate that while adopting a numerically advantageous low Schmidt number results in the correct general characteristics of the Kelvin waves, excessive diffusion of the pycnocline and various density features precludes accurate representation of both the trailing Poincaré wave field and the intensity and duration of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities.

  3. ICRF Mode Conversion Studies with Phase Contrast Imaging and Comparisons with Full-Wave Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujii, N.; Bonoli, P. T.; Lin, Y.; Wright, J. C.; Wukitch, S. J.; Porkolab, M.; Jaeger, E. F.; Harvey, R. W.

    2011-01-01

    Waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) are widely used to heat toka-mak plasmas. In a multi-ion-species plasma, the FW converts to ion cyclotron waves (ICW) and ion Bernstein waves (IBW) around the ion-ion hybrid resonance (mode conversion). The mode converted wave is of interest as an actuator to optimise plasma performance through flow drive and current drive. Numerical simulations are essential to describe these processes accurately, and it is important that these simulation codes be validated. On Alcator C-Mod, direct measurements of the mode converted waves have been performed using Phase Contrast Imaging (PCI), which measures the line-integrated electron density fluctuations. The results were compared to full-wave simulations AORSA and TORIC. AORSA is coupled to a Fokker-Planck code CQL3D for self-consistent simulation of the wave electric field and the minority distribution function. The simulation results are compared to PCI measurements using synthetic diagnostic. The experiments were performed in D-H and D- 3 He plasmas over a wide range of ion species concentrations. The simulations agreed well with the measurements in the strong absorption regime. However, the measured fluctuation intensity was smaller by 1-2 orders of magnitudes in the weakly abosorbing regime, and a realistic description of the plasma edge including dissipation and antenna geometry may be required in these cases.

  4. Influence of field and geometric configurations on the mode conversion characteristics of hybrid waves in a magnetoplasma slab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae [Department of Physics, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 15588 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, MC 0407, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0407 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • The mode conversion characteristics of hybrid surface waves are investigated in a magneto dusty plasma slab. • Upper- and lower-hybrid waves are found for the symmetric mode when the magnetic field is parallel to the slab surfaces. • The hybrid property of the surface waves disappears for the anti-symmetric mode. • The variations of the surface hybrid waves with the change of field and geometric configurations are also discussed. - Abstract: We explore the mode conversion characteristics of electrostatic hybrid surface waves due to the magnetic field orientation in a magnetoplasma slab. We obtain the dispersion relations for the symmetric and anti-symmetric modes of hybrid surface waves for two different magnetic field configurations: parallel and perpendicular. For the parallel magnetic field configuration, we have found that the symmetric mode propagates as upper- and lower-hybrid waves. However, the hybrid characteristics disappear and two non-hybrid waves are produced for the anti-symmetric mode. For the perpendicular magnetic field configuration, however, the anti-symmetric mode propagates as the upper- and lower-hybrid waves and the symmetric mode produces two non-hybrid branches of waves.

  5. Influence of field and geometric configurations on the mode conversion characteristics of hybrid waves in a magnetoplasma slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The mode conversion characteristics of hybrid surface waves are investigated in a magneto dusty plasma slab. • Upper- and lower-hybrid waves are found for the symmetric mode when the magnetic field is parallel to the slab surfaces. • The hybrid property of the surface waves disappears for the anti-symmetric mode. • The variations of the surface hybrid waves with the change of field and geometric configurations are also discussed. - Abstract: We explore the mode conversion characteristics of electrostatic hybrid surface waves due to the magnetic field orientation in a magnetoplasma slab. We obtain the dispersion relations for the symmetric and anti-symmetric modes of hybrid surface waves for two different magnetic field configurations: parallel and perpendicular. For the parallel magnetic field configuration, we have found that the symmetric mode propagates as upper- and lower-hybrid waves. However, the hybrid characteristics disappear and two non-hybrid waves are produced for the anti-symmetric mode. For the perpendicular magnetic field configuration, however, the anti-symmetric mode propagates as the upper- and lower-hybrid waves and the symmetric mode produces two non-hybrid branches of waves.

  6. Dependence of Whistler-mode Wave Induced Electron Precipitation on k-vector Direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, P.; Inan, U. S.; Bell, T. F.; Bortnik, J.

    2007-12-01

    Whistler-mode waves that are either spontaneously generated in-situ (i.e., chorus), or externally injected (lightning, VLF transmitters) are known to be responsible for the loss of radiation belt electrons. An important determinant in the quantification of this loss is the dependence of the cyclotron resonant pitch angle scattering on the initial wave normal angles of the driving waves. Inan et al. (U.S. Inan et al., Controlled precipitation of radiation belt electrons, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 108 (A5), 1186, doi: 10.1029/2002JA009580, 2003.) suggested that the lifetime of > 1 MeV electrons in the inner radiation belts might be moderated by in situ injection of VLF whistler mode waves at frequencies of a few kHz. The formulation of Wang and Bell (T.N.C. Wang and T.F. Bell, Radiation resisitance of a short dipole immersed in a cold magnetoionic medium, Radio Science, 4(2), 167-177, February 1969) for an electric dipole antenna located in the inner magnetosphere established that most of the radiated power is concentrated in waves whose wave normal angles lie near the local resonance cone. Such waves, compared to those injected at less oblique initial wave normal angles, undergo several more magnetospheric reflections, persist in the magnetospheric cavity for longer periods of time, and resonate with electrons of higher energies. Accordingly, such waves may be highly effective in contributing to the loss of electrons from the inner belt and slot regions [Inan et al., 2006]. Nevertheless, it has been noted (Inan et al. [2006], Inan and Bell [1991] and Albert [1999]) that > 1 MeV electrons may not be effectively scattered by waves propagating with very high wave normal angles, due to the generally reduced gyroresonant diffusion coefficients for wave normals near the resonance cone. We use the Stanford 2D VLF raytracing program to determine the energetic electron pitch angle scattering and the precipitated flux signatures that would be detected for

  7. Identification of low-frequency kinetic wave modes in the Earth's ion foreshock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Blanco-Cano

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we use ion and magnetic field data from the AMPTE-UKS mission to study the characteristics of low frequency (ωr « Ωp waves observed upstream of the Earth's bow shock. We test the application of various plasma-field correlations and magnetic ratios derived from linear Vlasov theory to identify the modes in this region. We evaluate (for a parameter space consistent with the ion foreshock the Alfvén ratio, the parallel compressibility, the cross-helicity, the noncoplanar ratio, the magnetic compression and the polarization for the two kinetic instabilities that can be generated in the foreshock by the interaction of hot diffuse ions with the solar wind: the left-hand resonant and the right-hand resonant ion beam instabilities. Comparison of these quantities with the observed plasma-field correlations and various magnetic properties of the waves observed during 10 intervals on 30 October 1984, where the waves are associated with diffuse ions, allows us to identify regions with Alfvénic waves and regions where the predominant mode is the right-hand resonant instability. In all the cases the waves are transverse, propagating at angles ≤ 33° and are elliptically polarized. Our results suggest that while the observed Alfvén waves are generated locally by hot diffuse ions, the right-handed waves may result from the superposition of waves generated by two different types of beam distribution (i.e. cold beam and diffuse ions. Even when there was good agreement between the values of observed transport ratios and the values given by the theory, some discrepancies were found. This shows that the observed waves are different from the theoretical modes and that mode identification based only on polarization quantities does not give a complete picture of the waves' characteristics and can lead to mode identification of waves whose polarization may agree with theoretical predictions even when other properties can diverge from those of the

  8. Identification of low-frequency kinetic wave modes in the Earth's ion foreshock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Blanco-Cano

    Full Text Available In this work we use ion and magnetic field data from the AMPTE-UKS mission to study the characteristics of low frequency (ωr « Ωp waves observed upstream of the Earth's bow shock. We test the application of various plasma-field correlations and magnetic ratios derived from linear Vlasov theory to identify the modes in this region. We evaluate (for a parameter space consistent with the ion foreshock the Alfvén ratio, the parallel compressibility, the cross-helicity, the noncoplanar ratio, the magnetic compression and the polarization for the two kinetic instabilities that can be generated in the foreshock by the interaction of hot diffuse ions with the solar wind: the left-hand resonant and the right-hand resonant ion beam instabilities. Comparison of these quantities with the observed plasma-field correlations and various magnetic properties of the waves observed during 10 intervals on 30 October 1984, where the waves are associated with diffuse ions, allows us to identify regions with Alfvénic waves and regions where the predominant mode is the right-hand resonant instability. In all the cases the waves are transverse, propagating at angles ≤ 33° and are elliptically polarized. Our results suggest that while the observed Alfvén waves are generated locally by hot diffuse ions, the right-handed waves may result from the superposition of waves generated by two different types of beam distribution (i.e. cold beam and diffuse ions. Even when there was good agreement between the values of observed transport ratios and the values given by the theory, some discrepancies were found. This shows that the observed waves are different from the theoretical modes and that mode identification based only on polarization quantities does not give a complete picture of the waves' characteristics and can lead to mode identification of waves whose polarization may agree with theoretical predictions even when

  9. Piezoelectricity induced defect modes for shear waves in a periodically stratified supperlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piliposyan, Davit

    2018-01-01

    Properties of shear waves in a piezoelectric stratified periodic structure with a defect layer are studied for a superlattice with identical piezoelectric materials in a unit cell. Due to the electro-mechanical coupling in piezoelectric materials the structure exhibits defect modes in the superlattice with full transmission peaks both for full contact and electrically shorted interfaces. The results show an existence of one or two transmission peaks depending on the interfacial conditions. In the long wavelength region where coupling between electro-magnetic and elastic waves creates frequency band gaps the defect layer introduces one or two defect modes transmitting both electro-magnetic and elastic energies. Other parameters affecting the defect modes are the thickness of the defect layer, differences in refractive indexes and the magnitude of the angle of the incident wave. The results of the paper may be useful in the design of narrow band filters or multi-channel piezoelectric filters.

  10. Mode Selection for Axial Flaw Detection in Steam Generator Tube Using Ultrasonic Guided Wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Byung Sik; Yang, Seung Han; Guon, Ki Il; Kim, Yong Sik

    2009-01-01

    The eddy current testing method is mainly used to inspect steam generator tube during in-service inspection period. But the general problem of assessing the structural integrity of the steam generator tube using eddy current inspection is rather complex due to the presence of noise and interference signal under various conditions. However, ultrasonic testing as a nondestructive testing tool has become quite popular and effective for the flaw detection and material characterization. Currently, ultrasonic guided wave is emerging technique in power industry because of its various merits. But most of previous studies are focused on detection of circumferential oriented flaws. In this study, the steam generator tube of nuclear power plant was selected to detect axially oriented flaws and investigate guided wave mode identification. The longitudinal wave mode is generated using piezoelectric transducer frequency from 0.5 MHz, 1.0 MHz, 2.25MHz and 5MHz. Dispersion based STFT algorithm is used as mode identification tool

  11. Gravitational waves from a spinning particle scattered by a relativistic star: Axial mode case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Kazuhiro; Saijo, Motoyuki; Maeda, Kei-ichi

    2001-01-01

    We use a perturbation method to study gravitational waves from a spinning test particle scattered by a relativistic star. The present analysis is restricted to axial modes. By calculating the energy spectrum, the wave forms, and the total energy and angular momentum of gravitational waves, we analyze the dependence of the emitted gravitational waves on particle spin. For a normal neutron star, the energy spectrum has one broad peak whose characteristic frequency corresponds to the angular velocity at the turning point (a periastron). Since the turning point is determined by the orbital parameter, there exists a dependence of the gravitational wave on particle spin. We find that the total energy of l=2 gravitational waves gets larger as the spin increases in the antiparallel direction to the orbital angular momentum. For an ultracompact star, in addition to such an orbital contribution, we find the quasinormal modes excited by a scattered particle, whose excitation rate to gravitational waves depends on the particle spin. We also discuss the ratio of the total angular momentum to the total energy of gravitational waves and explain its spin dependence

  12. Guided wave mode selection for inhomogeneous elastic waveguides using frequency domain finite element approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chillara, Vamshi Krishna; Ren, Baiyang; Lissenden, Cliff J

    2016-04-01

    This article describes the use of the frequency domain finite element (FDFE) technique for guided wave mode selection in inhomogeneous waveguides. Problems with Rayleigh-Lamb and Shear-Horizontal mode excitation in isotropic homogeneous plates are first studied to demonstrate the application of the approach. Then, two specific cases of inhomogeneous waveguides are studied using FDFE. Finally, an example of guided wave mode selection for inspecting disbonds in composites is presented. Identification of sensitive and insensitive modes for defect inspection is demonstrated. As the discretization parameters affect the accuracy of the results obtained from FDFE, effect of spatial discretization and the length of the domain used for the spatial fast Fourier transform are studied. Some recommendations with regard to the choice of the above parameters are provided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. High-power millimeter-wave mode converters in overmoded circular waveguides using periodic wall perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thumm, M.

    1984-07-01

    This work reports on measurements and calculations (coupled mode equations) on the conversion of circular elecric TEsub(0n) gyrotron mode compositions (TE 01 to TE 04 ) at 28 and 70 GHz to the linearly polarized TE 11 mode by means of a mode converter system using periodic waveguide wall perturbations. Mode transducers with axisymmetric radius perturbations transform the TEsub(0n) gyrotron mode mixture to the more convenient TE 01 mode for long-distance transmission through overmoded waveguides. Proper matching of the phase differences between the TEsub(0n) modes and of lengths and perturbation amplitudes of the several converter sections is required. A mode converter with constant diameter and periodically perturbed curvature transfers the unpolarized TE 01 mode into the TE 11 mode which produces an almost linearly polarized millimeter-wave beam needed for efficient electron cyclotron heating (ECRH) of plasmas in thermonuclear fusion devices. The experimentally determined TEsub(0n)-to-TE 01 conversion efficiency is (98+-1)% at 28 and 70 GHz (99% predicted) while the TE 01 -to-TE 11 converter has a (96+-2)% conversion efficiency at 28 GHz (95% predicted) and (94+-2)% at 70 GHz (93% predicted); ohmic losses are included. (orig./AH)

  14. Second-order interference of two independent and tunable single-mode continuous-wave lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianbin; Chen Hui; Zheng Huaibin; Xu Zhuo; Wei Dong; Zhou Yu; Gao Hong; Li Fu-Li

    2016-01-01

    The second-order temporal interference of two independent single-mode continuous-wave lasers is discussed by employing two-photon interference in Feynman’s path integral theory. It is concluded that whether the second-order temporal interference pattern can or cannot be retrieved via two-photon coincidence counting rate is dependent on the resolution time of the detection system and the frequency difference between these two lasers. Two identical and tunable single-mode continuous-wave diode lasers are employed to verify the predictions. These studies are helpful to understand the physics of two-photon interference with photons of different spectra. (paper)

  15. Effect of surface modes on coupling to fast waves in the LHRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsker, R.I.; Colestock, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of surface modes of propagation on coupling to fast waves in the LHRF is studied theoretically and experimentally. The previously reported 'up-down' poloidal phasing asymmetry for coupling to a uniform plasma is shown to be due to the properties of a mode which carries energy along the plasma-conducting wall interface. Comparison of the theory with coupling experiments performed on the PLT tokamak with a phased array of twelve dielectric-loaded waveguides at 800 MHz shows that the observed dependence of the net reflection coefficient on toroidal phase angle can be explained only if the surface wave is taken into account. 43 refs., 10 figs

  16. Source signature estimation from multimode surface waves via mode-separated virtual real source method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lingli; Pan, Yudi

    2018-05-01

    The correct estimation of the seismic source signature is crucial to exploration geophysics. Based on seismic interferometry, the virtual real source (VRS) method provides a model-independent way for source signature estimation. However, when encountering multimode surface waves, which are commonly seen in the shallow seismic survey, strong spurious events appear in seismic interferometric results. These spurious events introduce errors in the virtual-source recordings and reduce the accuracy of the source signature estimated by the VRS method. In order to estimate a correct source signature from multimode surface waves, we propose a mode-separated VRS method. In this method, multimode surface waves are mode separated before seismic interferometry. Virtual-source recordings are then obtained by applying seismic interferometry to each mode individually. Therefore, artefacts caused by cross-mode correlation are excluded in the virtual-source recordings and the estimated source signatures. A synthetic example showed that a correct source signature can be estimated with the proposed method, while strong spurious oscillation occurs in the estimated source signature if we do not apply mode separation first. We also applied the proposed method to a field example, which verified its validity and effectiveness in estimating seismic source signature from shallow seismic shot gathers containing multimode surface waves.

  17. Evidence of L-mode electromagnetic wave pumping of ionospheric plasma near geomagnetic zenith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. B. Leyser

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The response of ionospheric plasma to pumping by powerful HF (high frequency electromagnetic waves transmitted from the ground into the ionosphere is the strongest in the direction of geomagnetic zenith. We present experimental results from transmitting a left-handed circularly polarized HF beam from the EISCAT (European Incoherent SCATter association Heating facility in magnetic zenith. The CASSIOPE (CAScade, Smallsat and IOnospheric Polar Explorer spacecraft in the topside ionosphere above the F-region density peak detected transionospheric pump radiation, although the pump frequency was below the maximum ionospheric plasma frequency. The pump wave is deduced to arrive at CASSIOPE through L-mode propagation and associated double (O to Z, Z to O conversion in pump-induced radio windows. L-mode propagation allows the pump wave to reach higher plasma densities and higher ionospheric altitudes than O-mode propagation so that a pump wave in the L-mode can facilitate excitation of upper hybrid phenomena localized in density depletions in a larger altitude range. L-mode propagation is therefore suggested to be important in explaining the magnetic zenith effect.

  18. Overmoded subterahertz surface wave oscillator with pure TM01 mode output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guangqiang; Zeng, Peng; Wang, Dongyang; Wang, Jianguo; Li, Shuang

    2016-01-01

    Overmoded O-type Cerenkov generators using annular electron beams are facing the problem of multi-modes output due to the inevitable structural discontinuities. A simple but effective method to achieve the pure TM 01 mode output is applied on the 0.14 THz overmoded surface wave oscillator (SWO) in this paper. In spite of still using an overmoded slow wave structure to ensure the easy fabrication, the followed smooth circular waveguide is shrinkingly tapered to the output waveguide with appropriate radius that it cuts off other higher modes except TM 01 mode. Moreover, the modified device here has the same power capacity as the previous one according to the numerical analysis. By optimized lengths of the transition waveguide and tapered waveguide, particle-in-cell simulation results indicate that the subterahertz wave with output power increased 14.2% at the same frequency is obtained from the proposed SWO under the previous input conditions, and importantly, the output power is all carried by TM 01 mode as expected. Further simulation results in the pulse regime confirm the feasibility of the optimized structure in the actual experiments. This simple and viable design is also applicable to overmoded devices in the lower frequency band of subterahertz wave

  19. Strong electron dissipation by a mode converted ion hybrid (Bernstein) wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashmore-Davies, C.N.; Ram, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    The fast wave approximation, extended to include the effects of electron dissipation, is used to calculate the power mode converted to the ion hybrid (Bernstein) wave in the vicinity of the ion hybrid resonance. The power absorbed from the fast wave by ion cyclotron damping and by electron Landau and transit time damping (including cross terms) is also calculated. The fast wave equation is solved for either the Budden configuration of a cut-off-resonance pair or the triplet configuration of cut-off-resonance-cut-off. The fraction mode converted is compared for the triplet case and the Budden multi-pass situation. The electron damping rate of the ion hybrid wave is obtained from the local dispersion relation and a ray tracing code is used to calculate the damping of the mode converted ion hybrid wave by the electrons as it propagates away from the resonance. Quantitative results for a range of conditions relevant to JET, TFTR and ITER are given. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  20. Theory of Collective Spin-Wave Modes of Interacting Ferromagnetic Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-29

    Office (Durham) through Contract No. CS0001028. R. A. thanks also Proyecto Fondecyt Grant No. 7030063. *Present address: Universidad de Chile...Departamento de Fisica FCFM, Santiago, Chile. 1 For examples of experimental studies of the collective spin wave modes of superlattices and multilayers, see M...character to those shown above. In this case, there is no simple symmetry de - composition one canmake for the collective modes, so all branches appear

  1. The influence of different auto-ignition modes on the behavior of pressure waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Han; Yao, Anren; Yao, Chunde

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Modes of pressure oscillations in knocking, HCCI and super knock are recognized. • Three representative auto-ignition modes in engines are proposed. • A new method of “Energy Injected” is brought into understanding pressure wave. • Simulation results revealed the decisive factors for these three auto-ignition modes. • Different modes lead to different pressure wave behaviors damaging engines. - Abstract: For internal combustion engines, the knock of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition engines, the conventional knock of gasoline engines and the super knock are all caused by the auto-ignition of unburned mixture which leads to the oscillation burning, but their Maximal Pressure Oscillation Amplitude (MPOA) and Maximum Pressure Rising Rate (MPRR) are totally different. In order to explore the reason, we propose three typical auto-ignition modes and then bring up the method of “Energy Injected” (EI) which is based on the experiment measured heat release rate. Through changing the heat source term in the energy equation for different auto-ignition modes, we conducted a series of numerical simulations for these three modes. After that, the following pressure oscillations can be compared and analyzed. The numerical simulation results show that different combustion pressure waves with different oscillation characteristics come from different auto-ignition modes, thus the macroscopic MPRR and MPOA are totally different. Furthermore, the method of “EI” based on the experiment measured heat release rate can accurately and rapidly help to research the formation and propagation of pressure waves in the engine combustion chamber.

  2. Narrow-band modulation of semiconductor lasers at millimeter wave frequencies (7100 GHz) by mode locking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, K.Y.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the possibility of mode locking a semiconductor laser at millimeter wave frequencies approaching and beyond 100 GHz which was investigated theoretically and experimentally. It is found that there are no fundamental theoretical limitations in mode locking at frequencies below 100 GHz. AT these high frequencies, only a few modes are locked and the output usually takes the form of a deep sinusoidal modulation which is synchronized in phase with the externally applied modulation at the intermodal heat frequency. This can be regarded for practical purposes as a highly efficient means of directly modulating an optical carrier over a narrow band at millimeter wave frequencies. Both active and passive mode locking are theoretically possible. Experimentally, predictions on active mode locking have been verified in prior publications up to 40 GHz. For passive mode locking, evidence consistent with passive mode locking was observed in an inhomogeneously pumped GaAIAs laser at a frequency of approximately 70 GHz. A large differential gain-absorption ratio such as that present in an inhomogeneously pumped single quantum well laser is necessary for pushing the passive mode-locking frequency beyond 100 GHz

  3. Effect of dynamical phase on the resonant interaction among tsunami edge wave modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.

    2018-01-01

    Different modes of tsunami edge waves can interact through nonlinear resonance. During this process, edge waves that have very small initial amplitude can grow to be as large or larger than the initially dominant edge wave modes. In this study, the effects of dynamical phase are established for a single triad of edge waves that participate in resonant interactions. In previous studies, Jacobi elliptic functions were used to describe the slow variation in amplitude associated with the interaction. This analytical approach assumes that one of the edge waves in the triad has zero initial amplitude and that the combined phase of the three waves φ = θ1 + θ2 − θ3 is constant at the value for maximum energy exchange (φ = 0). To obtain a more general solution, dynamical phase effects and non-zero initial amplitudes for all three waves are incorporated using numerical methods for the governing differential equations. Results were obtained using initial conditions calculated from a subduction zone, inter-plate thrust fault geometry and a stochastic earthquake slip model. The effect of dynamical phase is most apparent when the initial amplitudes and frequencies of the three waves are within an order of magnitude. In this case, non-zero initial phase results in a marked decrease in energy exchange and a slight decrease in the period of the interaction. When there are large differences in frequency and/or initial amplitude, dynamical phase has less of an effect and typically one wave of the triad has very little energy exchange with the other two waves. Results from this study help elucidate under what conditions edge waves might be implicated in late, large-amplitude arrivals.

  4. Effect of Dynamical Phase on the Resonant Interaction Among Tsunami Edge Wave Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.

    2018-04-01

    Different modes of tsunami edge waves can interact through nonlinear resonance. During this process, edge waves that have very small initial amplitude can grow to be as large or larger than the initially dominant edge wave modes. In this study, the effects of dynamical phase are established for a single triad of edge waves that participate in resonant interactions. In previous studies, Jacobi elliptic functions were used to describe the slow variation in amplitude associated with the interaction. This analytical approach assumes that one of the edge waves in the triad has zero initial amplitude and that the combined phase of the three waves φ = θ 1 + θ 2 - θ 3 is constant at the value for maximum energy exchange ( φ = 0). To obtain a more general solution, dynamical phase effects and non-zero initial amplitudes for all three waves are incorporated using numerical methods for the governing differential equations. Results were obtained using initial conditions calculated from a subduction zone, inter-plate thrust fault geometry and a stochastic earthquake slip model. The effect of dynamical phase is most apparent when the initial amplitudes and frequencies of the three waves are within an order of magnitude. In this case, non-zero initial phase results in a marked decrease in energy exchange and a slight decrease in the period of the interaction. When there are large differences in frequency and/or initial amplitude, dynamical phase has less of an effect and typically one wave of the triad has very little energy exchange with the other two waves. Results from this study help elucidate under what conditions edge waves might be implicated in late, large-amplitude arrivals.

  5. Effect of Dynamical Phase on the Resonant Interaction Among Tsunami Edge Wave Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.

    2018-02-01

    Different modes of tsunami edge waves can interact through nonlinear resonance. During this process, edge waves that have very small initial amplitude can grow to be as large or larger than the initially dominant edge wave modes. In this study, the effects of dynamical phase are established for a single triad of edge waves that participate in resonant interactions. In previous studies, Jacobi elliptic functions were used to describe the slow variation in amplitude associated with the interaction. This analytical approach assumes that one of the edge waves in the triad has zero initial amplitude and that the combined phase of the three waves φ = θ 1 + θ 2 - θ 3 is constant at the value for maximum energy exchange (φ = 0). To obtain a more general solution, dynamical phase effects and non-zero initial amplitudes for all three waves are incorporated using numerical methods for the governing differential equations. Results were obtained using initial conditions calculated from a subduction zone, inter-plate thrust fault geometry and a stochastic earthquake slip model. The effect of dynamical phase is most apparent when the initial amplitudes and frequencies of the three waves are within an order of magnitude. In this case, non-zero initial phase results in a marked decrease in energy exchange and a slight decrease in the period of the interaction. When there are large differences in frequency and/or initial amplitude, dynamical phase has less of an effect and typically one wave of the triad has very little energy exchange with the other two waves. Results from this study help elucidate under what conditions edge waves might be implicated in late, large-amplitude arrivals.

  6. Polarization properties of Gendrin mode waves observed in the Earth's magnetosphere: observations and theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Verkhoglyadova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We show a case of an outer zone magnetospheric electromagnetic wave propagating at the Gendrin angle, within uncertainty of the measurements. The chorus event occurred in a "minimum B pocket". For the illustrated example, the measured angle of wave propagation relative to the ambient magnetic field θkB was 58°±4°. For this event the theoretical Gendrin angle was 62°. Cold plasma model is used to demonstrate that Gendrin mode waves are right-hand circularly polarized, in excellent agreement with the observations.

  7. Thermal chiral vortical and magnetic waves: New excitation modes in chiral fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalaydzhyan, Tigran, E-mail: tigran@caltech.edu [Department of Physics, University of Illinois, 845 W Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Dr, M/S 298, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Murchikova, Elena [TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, MC 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    In certain circumstances, chiral (parity-violating) medium can be described hydrodynamically as a chiral fluid with microscopic quantum anomalies. Possible examples of such systems include strongly coupled quark–gluon plasma, liquid helium {sup 3}He-A, neutron stars and the Early Universe. We study first-order hydrodynamics of a chiral fluid on a vortex background and in an external magnetic field. We show that there are two previously undiscovered modes describing heat waves propagating along the vortex and magnetic field. We call them the Thermal Chiral Vortical Wave and Thermal Chiral Magnetic Wave. We also identify known gapless excitations of density (chiral vortical and chiral magnetic waves) and transverse velocity (chiral Alfvén wave). We demonstrate that the velocity of the chiral vortical wave is zero, when the full hydrodynamic framework is applied, and hence the wave is absent and the excitation reduces to the charge diffusion mode. We also comment on the frame-dependent contributions to the obtained propagation velocities.

  8. Thermal chiral vortical and magnetic waves: New excitation modes in chiral fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalaydzhyan, Tigran; Murchikova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    In certain circumstances, chiral (parity-violating) medium can be described hydrodynamically as a chiral fluid with microscopic quantum anomalies. Possible examples of such systems include strongly coupled quark–gluon plasma, liquid helium "3He-A, neutron stars and the Early Universe. We study first-order hydrodynamics of a chiral fluid on a vortex background and in an external magnetic field. We show that there are two previously undiscovered modes describing heat waves propagating along the vortex and magnetic field. We call them the Thermal Chiral Vortical Wave and Thermal Chiral Magnetic Wave. We also identify known gapless excitations of density (chiral vortical and chiral magnetic waves) and transverse velocity (chiral Alfvén wave). We demonstrate that the velocity of the chiral vortical wave is zero, when the full hydrodynamic framework is applied, and hence the wave is absent and the excitation reduces to the charge diffusion mode. We also comment on the frame-dependent contributions to the obtained propagation velocities.

  9. Thermal chiral vortical and magnetic waves: New excitation modes in chiral fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigran Kalaydzhyan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In certain circumstances, chiral (parity-violating medium can be described hydrodynamically as a chiral fluid with microscopic quantum anomalies. Possible examples of such systems include strongly coupled quark–gluon plasma, liquid helium 3He-A, neutron stars and the Early Universe. We study first-order hydrodynamics of a chiral fluid on a vortex background and in an external magnetic field. We show that there are two previously undiscovered modes describing heat waves propagating along the vortex and magnetic field. We call them the Thermal Chiral Vortical Wave and Thermal Chiral Magnetic Wave. We also identify known gapless excitations of density (chiral vortical and chiral magnetic waves and transverse velocity (chiral Alfvén wave. We demonstrate that the velocity of the chiral vortical wave is zero, when the full hydrodynamic framework is applied, and hence the wave is absent and the excitation reduces to the charge diffusion mode. We also comment on the frame-dependent contributions to the obtained propagation velocities.

  10. 532 nm continuous wave mode-locked Nd:GdVO4 laser with SESAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L; Liu, J; Liu, M; Liu, S; Chen, F; Wang, W; Wang, Y

    2009-01-01

    We obtain continuous wave mode-locked Nd:GdVO 4 -KTP laser with a SESAM. This is the first report of CW mode-locked Nd:GdVO 4 -KTP laser with a SESAM to our knowledge. 396 mw CW mode-locked pulse is achieved at the incident power of 7.653 W, with the repetition about 95 MHz. The pulse duration is assumed to be 5.5 ps, this is the shortest green pulse of 532 nm with SESAM

  11. Space-time evolution of whistler mode wave growth in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, C.R.; Helliwell, R.A.; Inan, U.S.

    1990-01-01

    A new model is developed to simulate the space-time evolution of a propagating coherent whistler mode wave pulse in the magnetosphere. The model is applied to the case of single frequency (2-6 kHz) wave pulses injected into the magnetosphere near L ≅ 4, using the VLF transmitting facility at Siple Station, Antarctica. The mechanism for growth is cyclotron resonance between the circularly polarized waves and the gyrating energetic electrons of the radiation belts. Application of this model reproduces observed exponential wave growth up to a saturated level. Additionally, the model predicts the observed initial linear increase in the output frequency versus time. This is the first time these features have been reproduced using applied wave intensities small enough to be consistent with satellite measurements. The center velocities of the electrons entering the wave pulse are selected in a way which maximizes the growth rate. The results show the importance of the transient aspects in the wave growth process. The growth established as the wave propagates toward the geomagnetic equator results in a spatially advancing wave phase structure due mainly to the geomagnetic inhomogeneity. Through the feedback of this radiation upon other electrons, conditions are established which result in a linearly increasing output frequency with time

  12. Electromagnetic waves in a topological insulator thin film stack: helicon-like wave mode and photonic band structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Jun-ichi

    2013-09-09

    We theoretically explore the electromagnetic modes specific to a topological insulator superlattice in which topological and conventional insulator thin films are stacked periodically. In particular, we obtain analytic formulas for low energy mode that corresponds to a helicon wave, as well as those for photonic bands. We illustrate that the system can be modeled as a stack of quantum Hall layers whose conductivity tensors alternately change signs, and then we analyze the photonic band structures. This subject is a natural extension of a previous study by Tselis et al., which took into consideration a stack of identical quantum Hall layers but their discussion was limited into a low energy mode. Thus we provide analytic formulas for photonic bands and compare their features between the two systems. Our central findings in the topological insulator superlattice are that a low energy mode corresponding to a helicon wave has linear dispersion instead of the conventional quadratic form, and that a robust gapless photonic band appears although the system considered has spacial periodicity. In addition, we demonstrate that the photonic bands agree with the numerically calculated transmission spectra.

  13. Generation mechanism of the whistler-mode waves in the plasma sheet prior to magnetic reconnection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wei, X. H.; Cao, J. B.; Zhou, G. C.; Fu, H. S.; Santolík, Ondřej; Reme, H.; Dandouras, I.; Cornilleau, N.; Fazakerley, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2013), s. 205-210 ISSN 0273-1177 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : whistler-mode waves * electron temperature anisotropy * Reconnection * the plasma sheet Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.238, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273117713001221

  14. Current Mode Full-Wave Rectifier Based on a Single MZC-CDTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a current mode full-wave rectifier based on single modified Z copy current difference transconductance amplifier (MZC-CDTA and two switches. The circuit is simple and is suitable for IC implementation. The functionality of the circuit is verified with SPICE simulation using 0.35 μm TSMC CMOS technology parameters.

  15. Correlation coefficient measurement of the mode-locked laser tones using four-wave mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthur, Aravind P; Panapakkam, Vivek; Vujicic, Vidak; Merghem, Kamel; Lelarge, Francois; Ramdane, Abderrahim; Barry, Liam P

    2016-06-01

    We use four-wave mixing to measure the correlation coefficient of comb tones in a quantum-dash mode-locked laser under passive and active locked regimes. We study the uncertainty in the measurement of the correlation coefficient of the proposed method.

  16. Precipitated Fluxes of Radiation Belt Electrons via Injection of Whistler-Mode Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, P.; Inan, U. S.; Bell, T. F.

    2005-12-01

    Inan et al. (U.S. Inan et al., Controlled precipitation of radiation belt electrons, Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics, 108 (A5), 1186, doi: 10.1029/2002JA009580, 2003.) suggested that the lifetime of energetic (a few MeV) electrons in the inner radiation belts may be moderated by in situ injection of whistler mode waves at frequencies of a few kHz. We use the Stanford 2D VLF raytracing program (along with an accurate estimation of the path-integrated Landau damping based on data from the HYDRA instrument on the POLAR spacecraft) to determine the distribution of wave energy throughout the inner radiation belts as a function of injection point, wave frequency and injection wave normal angle. To determine the total wave power injected and its initial distribution in k-space (i.e., wave-normal angle), we apply the formulation of Wang and Bell ( T.N.C. Wang and T.F. Bell, Radiation resistance of a short dipole immersed in a cold magnetoionic medium, Radio Science, 4 (2), 167-177, February 1969) for an electric dipole antenna placed at a variety of locations throughout the inner radiation belts. For many wave frequencies and wave normal angles the results establish that most of the radiated power is concentrated in waves whose wave normals are located near the resonance cone. The combined use of the radiation pattern and ray-tracing including Landau damping allows us to make quantitative estimates of the magnetospheric distribution of wave power density for different source injection points. We use these results to estimate the number of individual space-based transmitters needed to significantly impact the lifetimes of energetic electrons in the inner radiation belts. Using the wave power distribution, we finally determine the energetic electron pitch angle scattering and the precipitated flux signatures that would be detected.

  17. Enhanced Mode Conversion of Thermally Emitted Electron Bernstein Waves (EBW)to Extraordinary Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.; Efthimion, P.C.; Taylor, G.; Munsat, T.; Wilson, J.R.; Hosea, J.C.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Maingi, R.; Shiraiwa, S.; Spaleta, J.

    2002-01-01

    In the CDX-U spherical torus, approximately 100% conversion of thermal EBWs to X-mode has been observed by controlling the electron density scale length (Ln) in the conversion region with a local limiter outside the last closed flux surface. The radiation temperature profile agrees with Thomson scattering electron temperature data. Results are consistent with theoretical calculations of conversion efficiency using measured Ln. By reciprocity of the conversion process, prospects for efficient coupling in EBW heating and current drive scenarios are strongly supported

  18. Enhanced Mode Conversion of Thermally Emitted Electron Bernstein Waves (EBW)to Extraordinary Mode; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B. Jones; P.C. Efthimion; G. Taylor; T. Munsat; J.R. Wilson; J.C. Hosea; R. Kaita; R. Majeski; R. Maingi; S. Shiraiwa; J. Spaleta

    2002-01-01

    In the CDX-U spherical torus, approximately 100% conversion of thermal EBWs to X-mode has been observed by controlling the electron density scale length (Ln) in the conversion region with a local limiter outside the last closed flux surface. The radiation temperature profile agrees with Thomson scattering electron temperature data. Results are consistent with theoretical calculations of conversion efficiency using measured Ln. By reciprocity of the conversion process, prospects for efficient coupling in EBW heating and current drive scenarios are strongly supported

  19. Resonant transmission and mode modulation of acoustic waves in H-shaped metallic gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Yu-Qiang; Fan, Ren-Hao; Zhang, Kun; Peng, Ru-Wen; Qi, Dong-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate that resonant full transmission of acoustic waves exists in subwavelength H-shaped metallic gratings, and transmission peaks can be efficiently tuned by adjusting the grating geometry. We investigate this phenomenon through both numerical simulations and theoretical calculations based on rigorous-coupled wave analysis. The transmission peaks are originated from Fabry-Perot resonances together with the couplings between the diffractive wave on the surface and the multiple guided modes in the slits. Moreover, the transmission modes can be efficiently tuned by adjusting the cavity geometry, without changing the grating thickness. The mechanism is analyzed based on an equivalent circuit model and verified by both the theoretical calculations and the numerical simulations. This research has potential application in acoustic-device miniaturization over a wide range of wavelengths

  20. Fast wave current drive in H mode plasmas on the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; Grassie, J.S. de; Baity, F.W.

    1999-01-01

    Current driven by fast Alfven waves is measured in H mode and VH mode plasmas on the DIII-D tokamak for the first time. Analysis of the poloidal flux evolution shows that the fast wave current drive profile is centrally peaked but sometimes broader than theoretically expected. Although the measured current drive efficiency is in agreement with theory for plasmas with infrequent ELMs, the current drive efficiency is an order of magnitude too low for plasmas with rapid ELMs. Power modulation experiments show that the reduction in current drive with increasing ELM frequency is due to a reduction in the fraction of centrally absorbed fast wave power. The absorption and current drive are weakest when the electron density outside the plasma separatrix is raised above the fast wave cut-off density by the ELMs, possibly allowing an edge loss mechanism to dissipate the fast wave power since the cut-off density is a barrier for fast waves leaving the plasma. (author)

  1. Birefringence induced by pp-wave modes in an electromagnetically active dynamic aether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpin, Timur Yu.; Balakin, Alexander B.

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of the Einstein-Maxwell-aether theory we study the birefringence effect, which can occur in the pp-wave symmetric dynamic aether. The dynamic aether is considered to be a latently birefringent quasi-medium, which displays this hidden property if and only if the aether motion is non-uniform, i.e., when the aether flow is characterized by the non-vanishing expansion, shear, vorticity or acceleration. In accordance with the dynamo-optical scheme of description of the interaction between electromagnetic waves and the dynamic aether, we shall model the susceptibility tensors by the terms linear in the covariant derivative of the aether velocity four-vector. When the pp-wave modes appear in the dynamic aether, we deal with a gravitationally induced degeneracy removal with respect to hidden susceptibility parameters. As a consequence, the phase velocities of electromagnetic waves possessing orthogonal polarizations do not coincide, thus displaying the birefringence effect. Two electromagnetic field configurations are studied in detail: longitudinal and transversal with respect to the aether pp-wave front. For both cases the solutions are found, which reveal anomalies in the electromagnetic response on the action of the pp-wave aether mode. (orig.)

  2. Birefringence induced by pp-wave modes in an electromagnetically active dynamic aether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alpin, Timur Yu.; Balakin, Alexander B. [Kazan Federal University, Department of General Relativity and Gravitation, Institute of Physics, Kazan (Russian Federation)

    2017-10-15

    In the framework of the Einstein-Maxwell-aether theory we study the birefringence effect, which can occur in the pp-wave symmetric dynamic aether. The dynamic aether is considered to be a latently birefringent quasi-medium, which displays this hidden property if and only if the aether motion is non-uniform, i.e., when the aether flow is characterized by the non-vanishing expansion, shear, vorticity or acceleration. In accordance with the dynamo-optical scheme of description of the interaction between electromagnetic waves and the dynamic aether, we shall model the susceptibility tensors by the terms linear in the covariant derivative of the aether velocity four-vector. When the pp-wave modes appear in the dynamic aether, we deal with a gravitationally induced degeneracy removal with respect to hidden susceptibility parameters. As a consequence, the phase velocities of electromagnetic waves possessing orthogonal polarizations do not coincide, thus displaying the birefringence effect. Two electromagnetic field configurations are studied in detail: longitudinal and transversal with respect to the aether pp-wave front. For both cases the solutions are found, which reveal anomalies in the electromagnetic response on the action of the pp-wave aether mode. (orig.)

  3. Study of Wave-Particle Interactions for Whistler Mode Waves at Oblique Angles by Utilizing the Gyroaveraging Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Kai; Omura, Yoshiharu

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the properties of whistler mode wave-particle interactions at oblique wave normal angles to the background magnetic field. We find that electromagnetic energy of waves at frequencies below half the electron cyclotron frequency can flow nearly parallel to the ambient magnetic field. We thereby confirm that the gyroaveraging method, which averages the cyclotron motion to the gyrocenter and reduces the simulation from two-dimensional to one-dimensional, is valid for oblique wave-particle interaction. Multiple resonances appear for oblique propagation but not for parallel propagation. We calculate the possible range of resonances with the first-order resonance condition as a function of electron kinetic energy and equatorial pitch angle. To reveal the physical process and the efficiency of electron acceleration by multiple resonances, we assume a simple uniform wave model with constant amplitude and frequency in space and time. We perform test particle simulations with electrons starting at specific equatorial pitch angles and kinetic energies. The simulation results show that multiple resonances contribute to acceleration and pitch angle scattering of energetic electrons. Especially, we find that electrons with energies of a few hundred keV can be accelerated efficiently to a few MeV through the n = 0 Landau resonance.

  4. A dual-mode operation overmoded coaxial millimeter-wave generator with high power capacity and pure transverse electric and magnetic mode output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhen; Zhang, Jun; Zhong, Huihuang

    2016-04-01

    An overmoded coaxial millimeter-wave generator with high power capacity and pure transverse electric and magnetic (TEM) mode output is designed and presented, by using a kind of coaxial slow wave structure (SWS) with large transversal dimension and small distance between inner and outer conductors. The generator works in dual-mode operation mechanism. The electron beam synchronously interacts with 7π/8 mode of quasi-TEM, at the meanwhile exchanges energy with 3π/8 mode of TM01. The existence of TM01 mode, which is traveling wave, not only increases the beam-wave interaction efficiency but also improves the extraction efficiency. The large transversal dimension of coaxial SWS makes its power capacity higher than that of other reported millimeter-wave devices and the small distance between inner and outer conductors allows only two azimuthally symmetric modes to coexist. The converter after the SWS guarantees the mode purity of output power. Particle-in-cell simulation shows that when the diode voltage is 400 kV and beam current is 3.8 kA, the generation of microwave at 32.26 GHz with an output power of 611 MW and a conversion efficiency of 40% is obtained. The power percentage carried by TEM mode reaches 99.7% in the output power.

  5. A dual-mode operation overmoded coaxial millimeter-wave generator with high power capacity and pure transverse electric and magnetic mode output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Zhen; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: zhangjun@nudt.edu.cn; Zhong, Huihuang [College of Optoelectric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2016-04-15

    An overmoded coaxial millimeter-wave generator with high power capacity and pure transverse electric and magnetic (TEM) mode output is designed and presented, by using a kind of coaxial slow wave structure (SWS) with large transversal dimension and small distance between inner and outer conductors. The generator works in dual-mode operation mechanism. The electron beam synchronously interacts with 7π/8 mode of quasi-TEM, at the meanwhile exchanges energy with 3π/8 mode of TM{sub 01}. The existence of TM{sub 01} mode, which is traveling wave, not only increases the beam-wave interaction efficiency but also improves the extraction efficiency. The large transversal dimension of coaxial SWS makes its power capacity higher than that of other reported millimeter-wave devices and the small distance between inner and outer conductors allows only two azimuthally symmetric modes to coexist. The converter after the SWS guarantees the mode purity of output power. Particle-in-cell simulation shows that when the diode voltage is 400 kV and beam current is 3.8 kA, the generation of microwave at 32.26 GHz with an output power of 611 MW and a conversion efficiency of 40% is obtained. The power percentage carried by TEM mode reaches 99.7% in the output power.

  6. Detailed phase matching characterization of inter-modal four-wave mixing in a two-mode fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Jung, Y.; Begleris, I.

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally characterize the phase matching properties of two inter-modal four-wave mixing processes in a graded index fiber guiding the LP01 and LP11 mode-groups.......We experimentally characterize the phase matching properties of two inter-modal four-wave mixing processes in a graded index fiber guiding the LP01 and LP11 mode-groups....

  7. Modeling guided wave excitation in plates with surface mounted piezoelectric elements: coupled physics and normal mode expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Baiyang; Lissenden, Cliff J.

    2018-04-01

    Guided waves have been extensively studied and widely used for structural health monitoring because of their large volumetric coverage and good sensitivity to defects. Effectively and preferentially exciting a desired wave mode having good sensitivity to a certain defect is of great practical importance. Piezoelectric discs and plates are the most common types of surface-mounted transducers for guided wave excitation and reception. Their geometry strongly influences the proportioning between excited modes as well as the total power of the excited modes. It is highly desirable to predominantly excite the selected mode while the total transduction power is maximized. In this work, a fully coupled multi-physics finite element analysis, which incorporates the driving circuit, the piezoelectric element and the wave guide, is combined with the normal mode expansion method to study both the mode tuning and total wave power. The excitation of circular crested waves in an aluminum plate with circular piezoelectric discs is numerically studied for different disc and adhesive thicknesses. Additionally, the excitation of plane waves in an aluminum plate, using a stripe piezoelectric element is studied both numerically and experimentally. It is difficult to achieve predominant single mode excitation as well as maximum power transmission simultaneously, especially for higher order modes. However, guidelines for designing the geometry of piezoelectric elements for optimal mode excitation are recommended.

  8. Extreme Loads on the Mooring Lines and Survivability Mode for the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Friis-Madsen, E.

    2011-01-01

    Dragon aims at optimizing the power production by adapting the floating level to the incoming waves and by activating the hydro-turbines and regulating their working speed. In extreme conditions though, the control strategy could be changed in order to reduce the forces in the mooring system, lowering...

  9. Rayleigh waves ellipticity and mode mis-identification in multi-channel analysis of surface waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boaga, Jacopo; Cassiani, Giorgio; Strobbia, Claudio

    dispersion curve which is then inverted. Typically, single component vertical and multi channel receivers are used. In most cases the inversion of the dispersion properties is carried out assuming that the experimental dispersion curve corresponds to a single mode, mostly the fundamental Rayleigh mode...... to each other reaching similar Rayleigh velocity. It is known ‘osculation’ happens generally in presence of strong velocity contrasts, typically with a fast bedrock underlying loose sediments. The practical limitations of the acquired data affect the spectral and modal resolution, making it often...

  10. Spinor-electron wave guided modes in coupled quantum wells structures by solving the Dirac equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, Jesus; Nistal, Maria C.

    2009-01-01

    A quantum analysis based on the Dirac equation of the propagation of spinor-electron waves in coupled quantum wells, or equivalently coupled electron waveguides, is presented. The complete optical wave equations for Spin-Up (SU) and Spin-Down (SD) spinor-electron waves in these electron guides couplers are derived from the Dirac equation. The relativistic amplitudes and dispersion equations of the spinor-electron wave-guided modes in a planar quantum coupler formed by two coupled quantum wells, or equivalently by two coupled slab electron waveguides, are exactly derived. The main outcomes related to the spinor modal structure, such as the breaking of the non-relativistic degenerate spin states, the appearance of phase shifts associated with the spin polarization and so on, are shown.

  11. Dispersion characteristics of electromagnetic waves in dipolar (m=±1) modes travelling along a magnetized plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benova, E.; Ghanashev, I.; Zhelyazkov, I.

    1992-01-01

    The modelling of isotropic plasma columns sustained by travelling electromagnetic waves in the dipolar mode (angular dependence exp imφ, m=±1) shows that the m=±1 modes have identical dispersion characteristics. In the presence of an external static magnetic field, however, the modes behave rather differently. This observation arose in studying the axial structures of magnetized plasma columns surrounded by vacuum and produced by travelling electromagnetic waves in the dipolar modes. We examine the propagation of electromagnetic waves along a homogeneous cold plasma column of radius R and electron number density n immersed in an axial constant magnetic field. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs

  12. Quasi-B-mode generated by high-frequency gravitational waves and corresponding perturbative photon fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fangyu, E-mail: cqufangyuli@hotmail.com [Institute of Gravitational Physics, Department of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Wen, Hao [Institute of Gravitational Physics, Department of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Fang, Zhenyun [Institute of Gravitational Physics, Department of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Wei, Lianfu; Wang, Yiwen; Zhang, Miao [Quantum Optoelectronics Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Interaction of very low-frequency primordial (relic) gravitational waves (GWs) to cosmic microwave background (CMB) can generate B-mode polarization. Here, for the first time we point out that the electromagnetic (EM) response to high-frequency GWs (HFGWs) would produce quasi-B-mode distribution of the perturbative photon fluxes. We study the duality and high complementarity between such two B-modes, and it is shown that such two effects are from the same physical origin: the tensor perturbation of the GWs and not the density perturbation. Based on this quasi-B-mode in HFGWs and related numerical calculation, it is shown that the distinguishing and observing of HFGWs from the braneworld would be quite possible due to their large amplitude, higher frequency and very different physical behaviors between the perturbative photon fluxes and background photons, and the measurement of relic HFGWs may also be possible though face to enormous challenge.

  13. Cascade mode locking: a possible route to chaos in the two-waves hamiltonian system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gell, Y.; Nakach, R.

    1989-06-01

    We present a numerical study of the two-waves Hamiltonian system which reveals the route to large scale stochasticity as a process based on the mode-locking phenomenon. The final chaos is reached after a cascade of lockings, appearing successively for different independent modes of oscillation in the system. Using a Fourier analysis, the different steps in this cascade process are detected by following the change in the frequency of the pronounced modes in the power spectrum; when changing the strength of the pertubation, one observes the locking of the relevant mode to a fixed frequency inherent to the system. It is shown that this mechanism allows for the generation of low frequency oscillations which, due to the nonlinear coupling existing in the system, combine with all the existing peaks into a raised spectrum consisting of broad diffuse patterns, which is the signature of chaotic motion

  14. Basic mode of nonlinear spin-wave resonance in normally magnetized ferrite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulyaev, Yu.V.; Zil'berman, P.E.; Timiryazev, A.G.; Tikhomirova, M.P.

    2000-01-01

    Modes of nonlinear and spin-wave resonance (SWR) in the normally magnetized ferrite films were studied both theoretically and experimentally. The particular emphasis was placed on the basic mode of SWR. One showed theoretically that with the growth of the precession amplitude the profile of the basic mode changed. The nonlinear shift of the resonance field depends on the parameters of fixing of the surface spins. Films of ferroyttrium garnet (FYG) with strong gradient of the single-axis anisotropy field along the film thickness, as well as, FYG films of the submicron thickness where investigated experimentally. With the intensification of Uhf-power one observed the sublinear shift of the basic mode resonance field following by the superlinear growth of the absorbed power. That kind of behaviour is explained by variation of the profile of the varying magnetization space distribution [ru

  15. Quasi-B-mode generated by high-frequency gravitational waves and corresponding perturbative photon fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Y. Fangyu Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of very low-frequency primordial (relic gravitational waves (GWs to cosmic microwave background (CMB can generate B-mode polarization. Here, for the first time we point out that the electromagnetic (EM response to high-frequency GWs (HFGWs would produce quasi-B-mode distribution of the perturbative photon fluxes. We study the duality and high complementarity between such two B-modes, and it is shown that such two effects are from the same physical origin: the tensor perturbation of the GWs and not the density perturbation. Based on this quasi-B-mode in HFGWs and related numerical calculation, it is shown that the distinguishing and observing of HFGWs from the braneworld would be quite possible due to their large amplitude, higher frequency and very different physical behaviors between the perturbative photon fluxes and background photons, and the measurement of relic HFGWs may also be possible though face to enormous challenge.

  16. Generation of two-temporal-mode photon states by vector four-wave mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mckinstrie, C. J.; Christensen, J. B.; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Photon pair states and multiple-photon squeezed states have many applications in quantum information science. In this paper, Green functions are derived for spontaneous four-wave mixing in the low-and high-gain regimes. Nondegenerate four-wave mixing in a strongly-birefringent medium generates...... signal and idler photons that are associated with only one pair of temporal (Schmidt) modes, for a wide range of pump powers and arbitrary pump shapes. The Schmidt coefficients (expected photon numbers) depend sensitively on the pump powers, and the Schmidt functions (shapes of the photon wavepackets...

  17. Wave mode instabilities in a two-stream free-electron laser with a background plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadrifard, Shabnam; Maraghechi, B; Mohsenpour, T

    2013-01-01

    A theory is presented for a two-stream free-electron laser (FEL) with a background plasma. A dispersion relation (DR) for the unstable couplings of wave modes is derived using fluid formulation. This DR is solved numerically to find the unstable modes and their growth rate. The effect of the velocity difference of the two electron beams as well as the background plasma on the FEL resonance and the two-stream instability is studied. It is shown that their separate as well as combined effects can increase the growth rates. (paper)

  18. BURNING PLASMA PROJECTIONS USING DRIFT WAVE TRANSPORT MODELS AND SCALINGS FOR THE H-MODE PEDESTAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KINSEY, J.E.; ONJUN, T.; BATEMAN, G.; KRITZ, A.; PANKIN, A.; STAEBLER, G.M.; WALTZ, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    OAK-B135 The GLF23 and Multi-Mode (MM95) transport models are used along with a model for the H-mode pedestal to predict the fusion performance for the ITER, FIRE, and IGNITOR tokamak designs. The drift-wave predictive transport models reproduce the core profiles in a wide variety of tokamak discharges, yet they differ significantly in their response to temperature gradient (stiffness). Recent gyro-kinetic simulations of ITG/TEM and ETG modes motivate the renormalization of the GLF23 model. The normalizing coefficients for the ITG/TEM modes are reduced by a factor of 3.7 while the ETG mode coefficient is increased by a factor of 4.8 in comparison with the original model. A pedestal temperature model is developed for type I ELMy H-mode plasmas based on ballooning mode stability and a theory-motivated scaling for the pedestal width. In this pedestal model, the pedestal density is proportional to the line-averaged density and the pedestal temperature is inversely related to the pedestal density

  19. Statistical analysis of mirror mode waves in sheath regions driven by interplanetary coronal mass ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-Lahti, Matti M.; Kilpua, Emilia K. J.; Dimmock, Andrew P.; Osmane, Adnane; Pulkkinen, Tuija; Souček, Jan

    2018-05-01

    We present a comprehensive statistical analysis of mirror mode waves and the properties of their plasma surroundings in sheath regions driven by interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME). We have constructed a semi-automated method to identify mirror modes from the magnetic field data. We analyze 91 ICME sheath regions from January 1997 to April 2015 using data from the Wind spacecraft. The results imply that similarly to planetary magnetosheaths, mirror modes are also common structures in ICME sheaths. However, they occur almost exclusively as dip-like structures and in mirror stable plasma. We observe mirror modes throughout the sheath, from the bow shock to the ICME leading edge, but their amplitudes are largest closest to the shock. We also find that the shock strength (measured by Alfvén Mach number) is the most important parameter in controlling the occurrence of mirror modes. Our findings suggest that in ICME sheaths the dominant source of free energy for mirror mode generation is the shock compression. We also suggest that mirror modes that are found deeper in the sheath are remnants from earlier times of the sheath evolution, generated also in the vicinity of the shock.

  20. Spherical space Bessel-Legendre-Fourier mode solver for Maxwell's wave equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Mohammed A.; Gauthier, Robert C.

    2015-02-01

    For spherically symmetric dielectric structures, a basis set composed of Bessel, Legendre and Fourier functions, BLF, are used to cast Maxwell's wave equations into an eigenvalue problem from which the localized modes can be determined. The steps leading to the eigenmatrix are reviewed and techniques used to reduce the order of matrix and tune the computations for particular mode types are detailed. The BLF basis functions are used to expand the electric and magnetic fields as well as the inverse relative dielectric profile. Similar to the common plane wave expansion technique, the BLF matrix returns the eigen-frequencies and eigenvectors, but in BLF only steady states, non-propagated, are obtained. The technique is first applied to a air filled spherical structure with perfectly conducting outer surface and then to a spherical microsphere located in air. Results are compared published values were possible.

  1. A standing wave linear ultrasonic motor operating in in-plane expanding and bending modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijiang; Li, Xiaotian; Ci, Penghong; Liu, Guoxi; Dong, Shuxiang

    2015-03-01

    A novel standing wave linear ultrasonic motor operating in in-plane expanding and bending modes was proposed in this study. The stator (or actuator) of the linear motor was made of a simple single Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) ceramic square plate (15 × 15 × 2 mm(3)) with a circular hole (D = 6.7 mm) in the center. The geometric parameters of the stator were computed with the finite element analysis to produce in-plane bi-mode standing wave vibration. The calculated results predicted that a driving tip attached at midpoint of one edge of the stator can produce two orthogonal, approximate straight-line trajectories, which can be used to move a slider in linear motion via frictional forces in forward or reverse direction. The investigations showed that the proposed linear motor can produce a six times higher power density than that of a previously reported square plate motor.

  2. Detecting free-mass common-mode motion induced by incident gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobar, Michael Edmund; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Kuroda, Kazuaki

    1999-05-01

    In this paper we show that information on both the differential and common mode free-mass response to a gravitational wave can provide important information on discriminating the direction of the gravitational wave source and between different theories of gravitation. The conventional Michelson interferometer scheme only measures the differential free-mass response. By changing the orientation of the beam splitter, it is possible to configure the detector so it is sensitive to the common-mode of the free-mass motion. The proposed interferometer is an adaptation of the Fox-Smith interferometer. A major limitation to the new scheme is its enhanced sensitivity to laser frequency fluctuations over the conventional, and we propose a method of cancelling these fluctuations. The configuration could be used in parallel to the conventional differential detection scheme with a significant sensitivity and bandwidth.

  3. Full-wave modeling of the O-X mode conversion in the Pegasus toroidal experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehn, A. [Institut fuer Plasmaforschung, Universitaet Stuttgart, D-70569 (Germany); Jacquot, J. [IRFM, CEA, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Bongard, M. W.; Hinson, E. T.; Volpe, F. A. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Gallian, S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The ordinary-extraordinary (O-X) mode conversion is modeled with the aid of a 2D full-wave code in the Pegasus toroidal experiment as a function of the launch angles. It is shown how the shape of the plasma density profile in front of the antenna can significantly influence the mode conversion efficiency and, thus, the generation of electron Bernstein waves (EBWs). It is therefore desirable to control the density profile in front of the antenna for successful operation of an EBW heating and current drive system. On the other hand, the conversion efficiency is shown to be resilient to vertical displacements of the plasma as large as {+-}10 cm.

  4. Double pass locking and spatial mode locking for gravitational wave detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cusack, B J; Slagmolen, B; Vine, G D; Gray, M B; McClelland, D E

    2002-01-01

    We present novel techniques for overcoming problems relating to the use of high-power lasers in mode cleaner cavities for second generation laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Rearranging the optical components into a double pass locking regime can help to protect locking detectors from damage. Modulator thermal lensing can be avoided by using a modulation-free technique such as tilt locking, or its recently developed cousin, flip locking.

  5. Possible wave modes of wideband nonthermal continuum radiation in its source region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grimald, S.; Santolík, Ondřej

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 115, - (2010), A06209/1-A06209/8 ISSN 0148-0227 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1253; GA MŠk ME09107 Grant - others:ESA(XE) PECS98025 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : nonthermal continuum * NTC * wave modes Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.303, year: 2010

  6. Modulation of energetic particle fluxes by a mixed mode of transverse and compressional waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.S.; Parks, G.K.

    1982-01-01

    Modulation characteristics of particle fluxes in the presence of a mixed mode of compressional and transverse magnetic waves at hydromagnetic frequencies have been studied by means of kinetic perturbation of the distribution function. The magnetospheric medium in which the particles are modulated contains both the magnetic and pressure gradients. It is found that the modulation features are strongly dependent on the energy and pitch angle of the particles. Drifting particles can resonate with waves whose phase velocities are near their drift velocities. When this happens, the amplitude of the modulations become significantly large and large phase shifts will occur. Resonance is important for particles with mid pitch angles (40 0 --70 0 ). The phase shift between the particle modulations and the magnetic field oscillations are strongly controlled by combined effects of transverse and compressional wave components and/or the occurrence of drift resonance. We have performed numerical calculations by using the dispersion relation of drift mirror Alfven waves as an example of waves with both compressional and transverse components. The results derived in this study may be of importance in studying the relationship of particles and Pc 4--5 waves that are observed during magnetically disturbed times

  7. Width dependent transition of quantized spin-wave modes in Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} square nanorings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Chandrima; Saha, Susmita; Barman, Saswati; Barman, Anjan, E-mail: abarman@bose.res.in [Thematic Unit of Excellence on Nanodevice Technology, Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Rousseau, Olivier [CEMS-RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Otani, YoshiChika [CEMS-RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)

    2014-10-28

    We investigated optically induced ultrafast magnetization dynamics in square shaped Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} nanorings with varying ring width. Rich spin-wave spectra are observed whose frequencies showed a strong dependence on the ring width. Micromagnetic simulations showed different types of spin-wave modes, which are quantized upto very high quantization number. In the case of widest ring, the spin-wave mode spectrum shows quantized modes along the applied field direction, which is similar to the mode spectrum of an antidot array. As the ring width decreases, additional quantization in the azimuthal direction appears causing mixed modes. In the narrowest ring, the spin-waves exhibit quantization solely in azimuthal direction. The different quantization is attributed to the variation in the internal field distribution for different ring width as obtained from micromagnetic analysis and supported by magnetic force microscopy.

  8. A novel technique to measure intensity fluctuations in EUV images and to detect coronal sound waves nearby active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenborg, G.; Marsch, E.; Vourlidas, A.; Howard, R.; Baldwin, K.

    2011-02-01

    Context. In the past years, evidence for the existence of outward-moving (Doppler blue-shifted) plasma and slow-mode magneto-acoustic propagating waves in various magnetic field structures (loops in particular) in the solar corona has been found in ultraviolet images and spectra. Yet their origin and possible connection to and importance for the mass and energy supply to the corona and solar wind is still unclear. There has been increasing interest in this problem thanks to the high-resolution observations available from the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imagers on the Solar TErrestrial RElationships Observatory (STEREO) and the EUV spectrometer on the Hinode mission. Aims: Flows and waves exist in the corona, and their signatures appear in EUV imaging observations but are extremely difficult to analyse quantitatively because of their weak intensity. Hence, such information is currently available mostly from spectroscopic observations that are restricted in their spatial and temporal coverage. To understand the nature and origin of these fluctuations, imaging observations are essential. Here, we present measurements of the speed of intensity fluctuations observed along apparently open field lines with the Extreme UltraViolet Imagers (EUVI) onboard the STEREO mission. One aim of our paper is to demonstrate that we can make reliable kinematic measurements from these EUV images, thereby complementing and extending the spectroscopic measurements and opening up the full corona for such an analysis. Another aim is to examine the assumptions that lead to flow versus wave interpretation for these fluctuations. Methods: We have developed a novel image-processing method by fusing well established techniques for the kinematic analysis of coronal mass ejections (CME) with standard wavelet analysis. The power of our method lies with its ability to recover weak intensity fluctuations along individual magnetic structures at any orientation , anywhere within the full solar disk , and

  9. Equations for collective modes spectrum in a mixed d-wave state of unconventional superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.Y.

    2004-01-01

    Direct observation of the collective modes in unconventional superconductors (USC) by microwave impedance technique experiments has made the very important study of the collective excitations in these systems. One of the problem is still the exact form of the order parameter of unconventional superconductors. Among the possibilities there are extended s-wave pairing, mixture of s- and d-states, as well as of different d-wave states. I consider the mixed (1-γ)d x 2 -y 2 +iγd xy state in high temperature superconductors (HTSC) and derive for the first time a full set of equations for collective modes spectrum in mixed d-wave state with arbitrary admixture of d xy state. Obtained results allow to calculate the whole collective mode spectrum, which could be used for interpretation of the sound attenuation and microwave absorption data as well as for identification of the type of pairing and order parameter in unconventional superconductors. In particular, they allow to estimate the extent of admixture of d xy state in a possible mixed state

  10. Giant enhancement of reflectance due to the interplay between surface confined wave modes and nonlinear gain in dielectric media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangbum; Kim, Kihong

    2017-12-11

    We study theoretically the interplay between the surface confined wave modes and the linear and nonlinear gain of the dielectric layer in the Otto configuration. The surface confined wave modes, such as surface plasmons or waveguide modes, are excited in the dielectric-metal bilayer by obliquely incident p waves. In the purely linear case, we find that the interplay between linear gain and surface confined wave modes can generate a large reflectance peak with its value much greater than 1. As the linear gain parameter increases, the peak appears at smaller incident angles, and the associated modes also change from surface plasmons to waveguide modes. When the nonlinear gain is turned on, the reflectance shows very strong multistability near the incident angles associated with surface confined wave modes. As the nonlinear gain parameter is varied, the reflectance curve undergoes complicated topological changes and sometimes displays separated closed curves. When the nonlinear gain parameter takes an optimally small value, a giant amplification of the reflectance by three orders of magnitude occurs near the incident angle associated with a waveguide mode. We also find that there exists a range of the incident angle where the wave is dissipated rather than amplified even in the presence of gain. We suggest that this can provide the basis for a possible new technology for thermal control in the subwavelength scale.

  11. Measurement of current drive profile using electron cyclotron wave attenuation near the O-mode cutoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidone, I.; Meyer, R.L.; Caron, X.

    1992-01-01

    A method for determining the radial profile of the lower-hybrid current drive in tokamaks using electron cyclotron attenuation of the O mode for frequencies ω near the cutoff frequency is discussed. The basic idea is that, for a given wave frequency, the cutoff plays the role of a spatial filter selecting a variable portion of the noninductive current. It is shown that the incremental attenuation resulting from a small increase of ω displays specific features related to the current density near the cutoff point. Using the relation between the wave damping and the current density, it is possible to determine the radial profile of the current drive from the wave attenuation measurements. A numerical application is also presented for plasma parameters in the reactor regime

  12. Investigation of Kelvin wave periods during Hai-Tang typhoon using Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, P.; Jayalakshmi, J.; Lin, Pay-Liam; Velicogna, Isabella; Sutterley, Tyler C.; Ciracì, Enrico; Mohajerani, Yara; Kumar, S. Balaji

    2017-11-01

    Equatorial Kelvin waves (KWs) are fundamental components of the tropical climate system. In this study, we investigate Kelvin waves (KWs) during the Hai-Tang typhoon of 2005 using Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) of regional precipitation, zonal and meridional winds. For the analysis, we use daily precipitation datasets from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and wind datasets from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim Re-analysis (ERA-Interim). As an additional measurement, we use in-situ precipitation datasets from rain-gauges over the Taiwan region. The maximum accumulated precipitation was approximately 2400 mm during the period July 17-21, 2005 over the southwestern region of Taiwan. The spectral analysis using the wind speed at 950 hPa found in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) reveals prevailing Kelvin wave periods of ∼3 days, ∼4-6 days, and ∼6-10 days, respectively. From our analysis of precipitation datasets, we found the Kelvin waves oscillated with periods between ∼8 and 20 days.

  13. Coronal Seismology of Flare-Excited Standing Slow-Mode Waves Observed by SDO/AIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tongjiang; Ofman, Leon; Davila, Joseph M.

    2016-05-01

    Flare-excited longitudinal intensity oscillations in hot flaring loops have been recently detected by SDO/AIA in 94 and 131 Å bandpasses. Based on the interpretation in terms of a slow-mode wave, quantitative evidence of thermal conduction suppression in hot (>9 MK) loops has been obtained for the first time from measurements of the polytropic index and phase shift between the temperature and density perturbations (Wang et al. 2015, ApJL, 811, L13). This result has significant implications in two aspects. One is that the thermal conduction suppression suggests the need of greatly enhanced compressive viscosity to interpret the observed strong wave damping. The other is that the conduction suppression provides a reasonable mechanism for explaining the long-duration events where the thermal plasma is sustained well beyond the duration of impulsive hard X-ray bursts in many flares, for a time much longer than expected by the classical Spitzer conductive cooling. In this study, we model the observed standing slow-mode wave in Wang et al. (2015) using a 1D nonlinear MHD code. With the seismology-derived transport coefficients for thermal conduction and compressive viscosity, we successfully simulate the oscillation period and damping time of the observed waves. Based on the parametric study of the effect of thermal conduction suppression and viscosity enhancement on the observables, we discuss the inversion scheme for determining the energy transport coefficients by coronal seismology.

  14. Unsteady Heat-Flux Measurements of Second-Mode Instability Waves in a Hypersonic Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kergerise, Michael A.; Rufer, Shann J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we report on the application of the atomic layer thermopile (ALTP) heat- flux sensor to the measurement of laminar-to-turbulent transition in a hypersonic flat plate boundary layer. The centerline of the flat-plate model was instrumented with a streamwise array of ALTP sensors and the flat-plate model was exposed to a Mach 6 freestream over a range of unit Reynolds numbers. Here, we observed an unstable band of frequencies that are associated with second-mode instability waves in the laminar boundary layer that forms on the flat-plate surface. The measured frequencies, group velocities, phase speeds, and wavelengths of these instability waves are in agreement with data previously reported in the literature. Heat flux time series, and the Morlet-wavelet transforms of them, revealed the wave-packet nature of the second-mode instability waves. In addition, a laser-based radiative heating system was developed to measure the frequency response functions (FRF) of the ALTP sensors used in the wind tunnel test. These measurements were used to assess the stability of the sensor FRFs over time and to correct spectral estimates for any attenuation caused by the finite sensor bandwidth.

  15. MODELING OF REFLECTIVE PROPAGATING SLOW-MODE WAVE IN A FLARING LOOP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, X.; Yuan, D.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Keppens, R.; Xia, C. [Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-11-01

    Quasi-periodic propagating intensity disturbances have been observed in large coronal loops in extreme ultraviolet images over a decade, and are widely accepted to be slow magnetosonic waves. However, spectroscopic observations from Hinode/EIS revealed their association with persistent coronal upflows, making this interpretation debatable. We perform a 2.5D magnetohydrodynamic simulation to imitate the chromospheric evaporation and the following reflected patterns in a flare loop. Our model encompasses the corona, transition region, and chromosphere. We demonstrate that the quasi periodic propagating intensity variations captured by the synthesized Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly 131, 94 Å emission images match the previous observations well. With particle tracers in the simulation, we confirm that these quasi periodic propagating intensity variations consist of reflected slow mode waves and mass flows with an average speed of 310 km s{sup −1} in an 80 Mm length loop with an average temperature of 9 MK. With the synthesized Doppler shift velocity and intensity maps of the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation Fe xix line emission, we confirm that these reflected slow mode waves are propagating waves.

  16. Mode Dynamics in the Bragg FEL Based on Coupling of Propagating and Trapped Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Ginzburg, N S; Peskov, N Yu; Rozental, R M; Sergeev, A; Zaslavsky, V Yu

    2005-01-01

    A novel Bragg FEL scheme is discussed in which an electron beam synchronously interacts with a propagating wave, and the latter is coupled to a quasi cut-off mode. This coupling is realized by either helical or asimuthally symmetric corrugation of the waveguide walls. The quasi cut-off mode provides feedback in the system leading to self-excitation of the whole system while the efficiency in steady-state regime of generation is almost completely determined by the propagating mode, synchronous to the beam. Analysis based on averaged time domain approach as well as on direct PIC code simulation shows that the efficiency of such a device in the single mode single frequency regime can be rather high. The main advantage of the novel Bragg resonator is provision of higher selectivity over transverse index than traditional scheme of Bragg FEL. The cold microwave testing of the Bragg structure based on coupling of propagating and trapped waves in the Ka band demonstrated a good agreement with theoretical consideratio...

  17. Quasi-parallel whistler mode waves observed by THEMIS during near-earth dipolarizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Contel, O.; Roux, A.; Jacquey, C.; Robert, P.; Berthomier, M.; Chust, T.; Grison, B.; Angelopoulos, V.; Sibeck, D.; Chaston, C. C.; Cully, C. M.; Ergun, B.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Auster, U.; McFadden, J.; Carlson, C.; Larson, D.; Bonnell, J. W.; Mende, S.; Russell, C. T.; Donovan, E.; Mann, I.; Singer, H.

    2009-06-01

    We report on quasi-parallel whistler emissions detected by the near-earth satellites of the THEMIS mission before, during, and after local dipolarization. These emissions are associated with an electron temperature anisotropy α=T⊥e/T||e>1 consistent with the linear theory of whistler mode anisotropy instability. When the whistler mode emissions are observed the measured electron anisotropy varies inversely with β||e (the ratio of the electron parallel pressure to the magnetic pressure) as predicted by Gary and Wang (1996). Narrow band whistler emissions correspond to the small α existing before dipolarization whereas the broad band emissions correspond to large α observed during and after dipolarization. The energy in the whistler mode is leaving the current sheet and is propagating along the background magnetic field, towards the Earth. A simple time-independent description based on the Liouville's theorem indicates that the electron temperature anisotropy decreases with the distance along the magnetic field from the equator. Once this variation of α is taken into account, the linear theory predicts an equatorial origin for the whistler mode. The linear theory is also consistent with the observed bandwidth of wave emissions. Yet, the anisotropy required to be fully consistent with the observations is somewhat larger than the measured one. Although the discrepancy remains within the instrumental error bars, this could be due to time-dependent effects which have been neglected. The possible role of the whistler waves in the substorm process is discussed.

  18. Quasi-parallel whistler mode waves observed by THEMIS during near-earth dipolarizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Le Contel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on quasi-parallel whistler emissions detected by the near-earth satellites of the THEMIS mission before, during, and after local dipolarization. These emissions are associated with an electron temperature anisotropy α=T⊥e/T||e>1 consistent with the linear theory of whistler mode anisotropy instability. When the whistler mode emissions are observed the measured electron anisotropy varies inversely with β||e (the ratio of the electron parallel pressure to the magnetic pressure as predicted by Gary and Wang (1996. Narrow band whistler emissions correspond to the small α existing before dipolarization whereas the broad band emissions correspond to large α observed during and after dipolarization. The energy in the whistler mode is leaving the current sheet and is propagating along the background magnetic field, towards the Earth. A simple time-independent description based on the Liouville's theorem indicates that the electron temperature anisotropy decreases with the distance along the magnetic field from the equator. Once this variation of α is taken into account, the linear theory predicts an equatorial origin for the whistler mode. The linear theory is also consistent with the observed bandwidth of wave emissions. Yet, the anisotropy required to be fully consistent with the observations is somewhat larger than the measured one. Although the discrepancy remains within the instrumental error bars, this could be due to time-dependent effects which have been neglected. The possible role of the whistler waves in the substorm process is discussed.

  19. On the ambiguity in the notion of transverse traceless modes of gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Bonga, Béatrice

    2017-09-01

    Somewhat surprisingly, in many of the widely used monographs and review articles the term Transverse-Traceless modes of linearized gravitational waves is used to denote two entirely different notions. These treatments generally begin with a decomposition of the metric perturbation that is local in the momentum space (and hence non-local in physical space), and denote the resulting transverse traceless modes by h_{ab}^{TT}. However, while discussing gravitational waves emitted by an isolated system—typically in a later section—the relevant modes are extracted using a `projection operator' that is local in physical space. These modes are also called transverse-traceless and again labeled h_{ab}^{TT}, implying that this is just a reformulation of the previous notion. But the two notions are conceptually distinct and the difference persists even in the asymptotic region. We show that this confusion arises already in Maxwell theory that is often discussed as a prelude to the gravitational case. Finally, we discuss why the distinction has nonetheless remained largely unnoticed, and also point out that there are some important physical effects where only one of the notions gives the correct answer.

  20. Experimental study on slow flexural waves around the defect modes in a phononic crystal beam using fiber Bragg gratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Kuo-Chih, E-mail: chuangkc@zju.edu.cn; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Hua-Xin

    2016-12-09

    Highlights: • Slow waves around the defect modes in a phononic crystal beam are validated. • A fiber Bragg grating displacement sensing system can measure the defect mode. • The defect mode is analyzed by a transfer matrix method with a supercell technique. - Abstract: This work experimentally studies influences of the point defect modes on the group velocity of flexural waves in a phononic crystal Timoshenko beam. Using the transfer matrix method with a supercell technique, the band structures and the group velocities around the defect modes are theoretically obtained. Particularly, to demonstrate the existence of the localized defect modes inside the band gaps, a high-sensitivity fiber Bragg grating sensing system is set up and the displacement transmittance is measured. Slow propagation of flexural waves via defect coupling in the phononic crystal beam is then experimentally demonstrated with Hanning windowed tone burst excitations.

  1. Interannual and Decadal Variations of Planetary Wave Activity, Stratospheric Cooling, and Northern Hemisphere Annular Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yongyun; Kit Tung, Ka

    2002-07-01

    Using NCEP-NCAR 51-yr reanalysis data, the interannual and decadal variations of planetary wave activity and its relationship to stratospheric cooling, and the Northern Hemisphere Annular mode (NAM), are studied. It is found that winter stratospheric polar temperature is highly correlated on a year-to-year basis with the Eliassen-Palm (E-P) wave flux from the troposphere, implying a dynamical control of the former by the latter, as often suggested. Greater (lower) wave activity from the troposphere implies larger (smaller) poleward heat flux into the polar region, which leads to warmer (colder) polar temperature. A similar highly correlated antiphase relationship holds for E-P flux divergence and the strength of the polar vortex in the stratosphere. It is tempting to extrapolate these relationships found for interannual timescales to explain the recent stratospheric polar cooling trend in the past few decades as caused by decreased wave activity in the polar region. This speculation is not supported by the data. On timescales of decades the cooling trend is not correlated with the trend in planetary wave activity. In fact, it is found that planetary wave amplitude, E-P flux, and E-P flux convergence all show little statistical evidence of decrease in the past 51 yr, while the stratosphere is experiencing a cooling trend and the NAM index has a positive trend during the past 30 yr. This suggests that the trends in the winter polar temperature and the NAM index can reasonably be attributed to the radiative cooling of the stratosphere, due possibly to increasing greenhouse gases and ozone depletion. It is further shown that the positive trend of the NAM index in the past few decades is not through the inhibition of upward planetary wave propagation from the troposphere to the stratosphere, as previously suggested.

  2. Quasi-periodic Radio Bursts Associated with Fast-mode Waves near a Magnetic Null Point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pankaj [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Nakariakov, Valery M. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Cho, Kyung-Suk, E-mail: pankaj.kumar@nasa.gov [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents an observation of quasi-periodic rapidly propagating waves observed in the Atmospheric Image Assembly (AIA) 171/193 Å channels during the impulsive phase of an M1.9 flare that occurred on 2012 May 7. The instant period was found to decrease from 240 to 120 s, and the speed of the wavefronts was in the range of ∼664–1416 km s{sup −1}. Almost simultaneously, quasi-periodic bursts with similar instant periods, ∼70 and ∼140 s, occur in the microwave emission and in decimetric type IV and type III radio bursts, and in the soft X-ray emission. The magnetic field configuration of the flare site was consistent with a breakout topology, i.e., a quadrupolar field along with a magnetic null point. The quasi-periodic rapidly propagating wavefronts of the EUV emission are interpreted as a fast magnetoacoustic wave train. The observations suggest that the fast-mode waves are generated during the quasi-periodic magnetic reconnection in the cusp region above the flare arcade loops. For the first time, we provide evidence of a tadpole wavelet signature at about 70–140 s in decimetric (245/610 MHz) radio bursts, along with the direct observation of a coronal fast-mode wave train in EUV. In addition, at AIA 131/193 Å we observed quasi-periodic EUV disturbances with periods of 95 and 240 s propagating downward at apparent speeds of 172–273 km s{sup −1}. The nature of these downward propagating disturbances is not revealed, but they could be connected to magnetoacoustic waves or periodically shrinking loops.

  3. Quasi-periodic Radio Bursts Associated with Fast-mode Waves near a Magnetic Null Point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Nakariakov, Valery M.; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an observation of quasi-periodic rapidly propagating waves observed in the Atmospheric Image Assembly (AIA) 171/193 Å channels during the impulsive phase of an M1.9 flare that occurred on 2012 May 7. The instant period was found to decrease from 240 to 120 s, and the speed of the wavefronts was in the range of ∼664–1416 km s −1 . Almost simultaneously, quasi-periodic bursts with similar instant periods, ∼70 and ∼140 s, occur in the microwave emission and in decimetric type IV and type III radio bursts, and in the soft X-ray emission. The magnetic field configuration of the flare site was consistent with a breakout topology, i.e., a quadrupolar field along with a magnetic null point. The quasi-periodic rapidly propagating wavefronts of the EUV emission are interpreted as a fast magnetoacoustic wave train. The observations suggest that the fast-mode waves are generated during the quasi-periodic magnetic reconnection in the cusp region above the flare arcade loops. For the first time, we provide evidence of a tadpole wavelet signature at about 70–140 s in decimetric (245/610 MHz) radio bursts, along with the direct observation of a coronal fast-mode wave train in EUV. In addition, at AIA 131/193 Å we observed quasi-periodic EUV disturbances with periods of 95 and 240 s propagating downward at apparent speeds of 172–273 km s −1 . The nature of these downward propagating disturbances is not revealed, but they could be connected to magnetoacoustic waves or periodically shrinking loops.

  4. A universal mirror wave-mode threshold condition for non-thermal space plasma environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Leubner

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic fluctuations are recognized in a large variety of space plasmas by increasingly high resolution, in situ observations as mirror wave mode structures. A typical requirement for the excitation of mirror modes is a dominant perpendicular pressure in a high-beta plasma environment. Contrary, we demonstrate from a realistic kinetic analysis how details of the velocity space distributions are of considerable significance for the instability threshold. Introducing the most common characteristics of observed ion and electron distributions by a mixed suprathermal-loss-cone, we derive a universal mirror instability criterion from an energy principle for collisionless plasmas. As a result, the transition from two temperature Maxwellians to realistic non-thermal features provides a strong source for the generation of mirror wave mode activity, reducing drastically the instability threshold. In particular, a number of space-related examples illuminate how the specific structure of the velocity space distribution dominates as a regulating excitation mechanism over the effects related to changes in the plasma parameters.

  5. Estimates of ocean wave heights and attenuation in sea ice using the SAR wave mode on Sentinel-1A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardhuin, Fabrice; Collard, Fabrice; Chapron, Bertrand; Girard-Ardhuin, Fanny; Guitton, Gilles; Mouche, Alexis; Stopa, Justin E.

    2015-04-01

    Swell evolution from the open ocean into sea ice is poorly understood, in particular the amplitude attenuation expected from scattering and dissipation. New synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data from Sentinel-1A wave mode reveal intriguing patterns of bright oscillating lines shaped like instant noodles. We investigate cases in which the oscillations are in the azimuth direction, around a straight line in the range direction. This observation is interpreted as the distortion by the SAR processing of crests from a first swell, due to the presence of a second swell. Since deviations from a straight line should be proportional to the orbital velocity toward the satellite, swell height can be estimated, from 1.5 to 5 m in the present case. The evolution of this 13 s period swell across the ice pack is consistent with an exponential attenuation on a length scale of 200 km.

  6. Electron Bernstein wave heating of over-dense H-mode plasmas in the TCV tokamak via O-X-B double mode conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochelon, A.; Mueck, A.; Curchod, L.; Camenen, Y.; Coda, S.; Duval, B.P.; Goodman, T.P.; Klimanov, I.; Laqua, H.P.; Martin, Y.; Moret, J.-M.; Porte, L.; Sushkov, A.; Udintsev, V.S.; Volpe, F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the first demonstration of electron Bernstein wave heating (EBWH) by double mode conversion from ordinary (O-) to Bernstein (B-) via the extraordinary (X-) mode in an over-dense tokamak plasma, using low field side launch, achieved in the TCV tokamak H-mode, making use of its naturally generated steep density gradient. This technique offers the possibility of overcoming the upper density limit of conventional EC microwave heating. The sensitive dependence of the O-X mode conversion on the microwave launching direction has been verified experimentally. Localized power deposition, consistent with theoretical predictions, has been observed at densities well above the conventional cut-off. Central heating has been achieved, at powers up to two megawatts. This demonstrates the potential of EBW in tokamak H-modes, the intended mode of operation for a reactor such as ITER

  7. Wave-particle dualism and complementarity unraveled by a different mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Ralf; Puhlmann, Dirk; Heuer, Axel; Schleich, Wolfgang P

    2012-06-12

    The precise knowledge of one of two complementary experimental outcomes prevents us from obtaining complete information about the other one. This formulation of Niels Bohr's principle of complementarity when applied to the paradigm of wave-particle dualism--that is, to Young's double-slit experiment--implies that the information about the slit through which a quantum particle has passed erases interference. In the present paper we report a double-slit experiment using two photons created by spontaneous parametric down-conversion where we observe interference in the signal photon despite the fact that we have located it in one of the slits due to its entanglement with the idler photon. This surprising aspect of complementarity comes to light by our special choice of the TEM(01) pump mode. According to quantum field theory the signal photon is then in a coherent superposition of two distinct wave vectors giving rise to interference fringes analogous to two mechanical slits.

  8. Simulation of mode converted ion Bernstein wave - beam deuteron interactions on TFTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Mark; Fisch, Nathaniel

    1998-11-01

    Experiments on TFTR have documented strong interactions between mode converted ion Bernstein waves (MCIBW) and beam deuterons(D. S. Darrow et al.), Nucl. Fusion 36, 509 (1996).^,(N. J. Fisch et al.), IAEA, Vol. 1, p. 271 (1996). This is of particular interest in the study of α channelling, since the most promising scenarios(M. C. Herrmann and N. J. Fisch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79), 1495 (1997). rely on a suitable combination of MCIBW and Alfvén eigenmodes to achieve the cooling of the α particles. Collisional effects, realistic wave fields, and a detailed model of the wave-particle interaction have been added to the Monte Carlo simulations which are used to simulate α channelling in order to model TFTR experiments(M. C. Herrmann, Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, 1998.). The results are found to be in qualitative agreement with the data. In addition, the simulation is used, in conjunction with the data, to demonstrate the existence of the k_\\|-flip of the MCIBW, and to infer a diffusion coefficient for the beam deuterons interacting with the wave. This diffusion coefficient significantly exceeds what would be expected on the basis of quasilinear theory with the fields specified by 1 D ray tracing of the MCIBW.

  9. Formation of whispering gallery modes by scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave by two cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramov, Arnold, E-mail: qulaser@gmail.com [Kuang-Chi Institute of Advanced Technology, Shenzhen, 518057 (China); Kostikov, Alexander [Donbass State Engineering Academy, 84303, Kramatorsk, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    2017-03-26

    We report the effect of scattering of electromagnetic plane waves by two cylinders on whispering gallery mode (WGM) formation in a cylinder. WGM can occur because of the presence of additional cylinder scatterers at specific location, while WGMs can only form in a single cylinder for specific cylinder radius and/or wavelength values, the matching accuracy required would be much greater than that required in our model for the additional cylinders locations. Analysis of the general solution to the problem showed that the effect can be explained by the interference of waves scattered by additional cylinders and incident on the main cylinder. - Highlights: • We consider scattering of electromagnetic plane waves by two cylinders. • WGMs occur because of the presence of additional cylinder at specific location. • The accuracy for the locations is much less than required for specific values of single cylinder. • The interference of waves scattered by additional cylinders and incident on the main is responsible for the effect.

  10. Degenerate four wave mixing in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous degenerate four wave mixing (FWM) is investigated in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers, in which photonic bandgap guidance and index guidance is combined. Calculations show the parametric gain is maximum on the edge of a photonic bandgap, for a large range of pump...... wavelengths. The FWM products are observed on the edges of a transmission band experimentally, in good agreement with the numerical results. Thereby the bandedges can be used to control the spectral positions of FWM products through a proper fiber design. The parametric gain control combined with a large mode...... area fiber design potentially allows for power scaling of light at wavelengths not easily accessible with e.g. rare earth ions....

  11. Majorana zero modes in the hopping-modulated one-dimensional p-wave superconducting model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yi; Zhou, Tao; Huang, Huaixiang; Huang, Ran

    2015-11-20

    We investigate the one-dimensional p-wave superconducting model with periodically modulated hopping and show that under time-reversal symmetry, the number of the Majorana zero modes (MZMs) strongly depends on the modulation period. If the modulation period is odd, there can be at most one MZM. However if the period is even, the number of the MZMs can be zero, one and two. In addition, the MZMs will disappear as the chemical potential varies. We derive the condition for the existence of the MZMs and show that the topological properties in this model are dramatically different from the one with periodically modulated potential.

  12. Normal-mode-based analysis of electron plasma waves with second-order Hermitian formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, J. J.; White, R. L.

    2018-03-01

    The classic problem of the dynamic evolution and Landau damping of linear Langmuir electron waves in a collisionless plasma with Maxwellian background is cast as a second-order, self-adjoint problem with a continuum spectrum of real and positive squared frequencies. The corresponding complete basis of singular normal modes is obtained, along with their orthogonality relation. This yields easily the general expression of the time-reversal-invariant solution for any initial-value problem. Examples are given for specific initial conditions that illustrate different behaviors of the Landau-damped macroscopic moments of the perturbations.

  13. Astigmatism compensation in mode-cleaner cavities for the next generation of gravitational wave interferometric detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga, Pablo J. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)]. E-mail: pbarriga@cyllene.uwa.edu.au; Zhao Chunnong [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Blair, David G. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2005-06-06

    Interferometric gravitational wave detectors use triangular ring cavities to filter spatial and frequency instabilities from the input laser beam. The next generation of interferometric detectors will use high laser power and greatly increased circulating power inside the cavities. The increased power inside the cavities increases thermal effects in their mirrors. The triangular configuration of conventional mode-cleaners creates an intrinsic astigmatism that can be corrected by using the thermal effects to advantage. In this Letter we show that an astigmatism free output beam can be created if the design parameters are correctly chosen.

  14. Astigmatism compensation in mode-cleaner cavities for the next generation of gravitational wave interferometric detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga, Pablo J.; Zhao Chunnong; Blair, David G.

    2005-01-01

    Interferometric gravitational wave detectors use triangular ring cavities to filter spatial and frequency instabilities from the input laser beam. The next generation of interferometric detectors will use high laser power and greatly increased circulating power inside the cavities. The increased power inside the cavities increases thermal effects in their mirrors. The triangular configuration of conventional mode-cleaners creates an intrinsic astigmatism that can be corrected by using the thermal effects to advantage. In this Letter we show that an astigmatism free output beam can be created if the design parameters are correctly chosen

  15. Two-Mode Resonator and Contact Model for Standing Wave Piezomotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, B.; Blanke, Mogens; Helbo, J.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents a model for a standing wave piezoelectric motor with a two bending mode resonator. The resonator is modelled using Hamilton's principle and the Rayleigh-Ritz method. The contact is modelled using the Lagrange Multiplier method under the assumption of slip and it is showed how...... to solve the set of differential-algebraic equations. Detailed simulations show resonance frequencies as function of the piezoelement's position, tip trajectories and contact forces. The paper demonstrates that contact stiffness and stick should be included in such model to obtain physically realistic...

  16. Extremely high Q-factor mechanical modes in quartz bulk acoustic wave resonators at millikelvin temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goryachev, M.; Creedon, D. L.; Ivanov, E. N.; Tobar, M. E. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley WA 6009 (Australia); Galliou, S.; Bourquin, R. [Department of Time and Frequency, FEMTO-ST Institute, ENSMM, 26 Chemin de l' Épitaphe, 25000, Besançon (France)

    2014-12-04

    We demonstrate that Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) quartz resonator cooled down to millikelvin temperatures are excellent building blocks for hybrid quantum systems with extremely long coherence times. Two overtones of the longitudinal mode at frequencies of 15.6 and 65.4 MHz demonstrate a maximum f.Q product of 7.8×10{sup 16} Hz. With this result, the Q-factor in such devices near the quantum ground state can be four orders of magnitude better than previously attained in other mechanical systems. Tested quartz resonators possess the ultra low acoustic losses crucial for electromagnetic cooling to the phonon ground state.

  17. Study of inter-modal four wave mixing in two few-mode fibres with different phase matching properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmigiani, F.; Jung, Y.; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally study inter-modal four-wave mixing (FWM) in few-mode fibres with different phase matching properties. The possibility of transmitting two spatial modes without intermodal FWM cross-talk in the C-band is presented....

  18. Gravitational Waves from F-modes Excited by the Inspiral of Highly Eccentric Neutron Star Binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirenti, Cecilia; Gold, Roman; Miller, M. Coleman

    2017-01-01

    As gravitational wave instrumentation becomes more sensitive, it is interesting to speculate about subtle effects that could be analyzed using upcoming generations of detectors. One such effect that has great potential for revealing the properties of very dense matter is fluid oscillations of neutron stars. These have been found in numerical simulations of the hypermassive remnants of double neutron star mergers and of highly eccentric neutron star orbits. Here we focus on the latter and sketch out some ideas for the production, gravitational-wave detection, and analysis of neutron star oscillations. These events will be rare (perhaps up to several tens per year could be detected using third-generation detectors such as the Einstein Telescope or the Cosmic Explorer), but they would have unique diagnostic power for the analysis of cold, catalyzed, dense matter. Furthermore, these systems are unusual in that analysis of the tidally excited f-modes of the stars could yield simultaneous measurements of their masses, moments of inertia, and tidal Love numbers, using the frequency, damping time, and amplitude of the modes. They would thus present a nearly unique opportunity to test the I-Love-Q relation observationally. The analysis of such events will require significant further work in nuclear physics and general relativistic nonlinear mode coupling, and thus we discuss further directions that will need to be pursued. For example, we note that for nearly grazing encounters, numerical simulations show that the energy delivered to the f-modes may be up to two orders of magnitude greater than predicted in the linear theory.

  19. Quasi-parallel whistler mode waves observed by THEMIS during near-earth dipolarizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Le Contel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on quasi-parallel whistler emissions detected by the near-earth satellites of the THEMIS mission before, during, and after local dipolarization. These emissions are associated with an electron temperature anisotropy α=Te/T||e>1 consistent with the linear theory of whistler mode anisotropy instability. When the whistler mode emissions are observed the measured electron anisotropy varies inversely with β||e (the ratio of the electron parallel pressure to the magnetic pressure as predicted by Gary and Wang (1996. Narrow band whistler emissions correspond to the small α existing before dipolarization whereas the broad band emissions correspond to large α observed during and after dipolarization. The energy in the whistler mode is leaving the current sheet and is propagating along the background magnetic field, towards the Earth. A simple time-independent description based on the Liouville's theorem indicates that the electron temperature anisotropy decreases with the distance along the magnetic field from the equator. Once this variation of α is taken into account, the linear theory predicts an equatorial origin for the whistler mode. The linear theory is also consistent with the observed bandwidth of wave emissions. Yet, the anisotropy required to be fully consistent with the observations is somewhat larger than the measured one. Although the discrepancy remains within the instrumental error bars, this could be due to time-dependent effects which have been neglected. The possible role of the whistler waves in the substorm process is discussed.

  20. Gravitational Waves from F-modes Excited by the Inspiral of Highly Eccentric Neutron Star Binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chirenti, Cecilia [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, UFABC, 09210-170 Santo André-SP (Brazil); Gold, Roman [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Miller, M. Coleman [Department of Astronomy and Joint Space-Science Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    As gravitational wave instrumentation becomes more sensitive, it is interesting to speculate about subtle effects that could be analyzed using upcoming generations of detectors. One such effect that has great potential for revealing the properties of very dense matter is fluid oscillations of neutron stars. These have been found in numerical simulations of the hypermassive remnants of double neutron star mergers and of highly eccentric neutron star orbits. Here we focus on the latter and sketch out some ideas for the production, gravitational-wave detection, and analysis of neutron star oscillations. These events will be rare (perhaps up to several tens per year could be detected using third-generation detectors such as the Einstein Telescope or the Cosmic Explorer), but they would have unique diagnostic power for the analysis of cold, catalyzed, dense matter. Furthermore, these systems are unusual in that analysis of the tidally excited f-modes of the stars could yield simultaneous measurements of their masses, moments of inertia, and tidal Love numbers, using the frequency, damping time, and amplitude of the modes. They would thus present a nearly unique opportunity to test the I-Love-Q relation observationally. The analysis of such events will require significant further work in nuclear physics and general relativistic nonlinear mode coupling, and thus we discuss further directions that will need to be pursued. For example, we note that for nearly grazing encounters, numerical simulations show that the energy delivered to the f-modes may be up to two orders of magnitude greater than predicted in the linear theory.

  1. Energy trapping of thickness-extensional modes in thin film bulk acoustic wave filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinan Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the thickness-extensional vibration of a rectangular piezoelectric thin film bulk acoustic wave filter with two pairs of electrodes symmetrically deposited on the center of the zinc oxide film. The two-dimensional scalar differential equations which were first derived to describe in-plane vibration distribution by Tiersten and Stevens are employed. The Ritz method with trigonometric functions as basis functions is used based on a variational formulation developed in our previous paper. Free vibration resonant frequencies and corresponding modes are obtained. The modes may separate into symmetric and antisymmetric ones for such a structurally symmetric filter. Trapped modes with vibrations mainly under the driving electrodes are exhibited. The six corner-type regions of the filter neglected by Tiersten and Stevens for an approximation are taken into account in our analysis. Results show that their approximation can lead to an inaccuracy on the order of dozens of ppm for the fundamental mode, which is quite significant in filter operation and application.

  2. Inspection of helicopter rotor blades with the help of guided waves and "turning modes": Experimental and finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Daniel; Chakrapani, Sunil Kishore; Dayal, Vinay

    2013-01-01

    Modern helicopter rotor blades constructed of composite materials offer significant inspection challenges, particularly at inner structures, where geometry and differing material properties and anisotropy make placement of the probing energy difficult. This paper presents an application of Lamb waves to these structures, where mode conversion occurs at internal geometric discontinuities. These additional modes were found to successfully propagate to the targeted regions inside the rotor and back out, allowing evaluation of the structure. A finite element model was developed to simulate wave propagation and mode conversion in the structure and aid in identifying the signals received in the laboratory experiment. A good correlation between numerical and experimental results was observed.

  3. Damage detection in composite panels based on mode-converted Lamb waves sensed using 3D laser scanning vibrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieczonka, Łukasz; Ambroziński, Łukasz; Staszewski, Wiesław J.; Barnoncel, David; Pérès, Patrick

    2017-12-01

    This paper introduces damage identification approach based on guided ultrasonic waves and 3D laser Doppler vibrometry. The method is based on the fact that the symmetric and antisymmetric Lamb wave modes differ in amplitude of the in-plane and out-of-plane vibrations. Moreover, the modes differ also in group velocities and normally they are well separated in time. For a given time window both modes can occur simultaneously only close to the wave source or to a defect that leads to mode conversion. By making the comparison between the in-plane and out-of-plane wave vector components the detection of mode conversion is possible, allowing for superior and reliable damage detection. Experimental verification of the proposed damage identification procedure is performed on fuel tank elements of Reusable Launch Vehicles designed for space exploration. Lamb waves are excited using low-profile, surface-bonded piezoceramic transducers and 3D scanning laser Doppler vibrometer is used to characterize the Lamb wave propagation field. The paper presents theoretical background of the proposed damage identification technique as well as experimental arrangements and results.

  4. EXPLAINING INVERTED-TEMPERATURE LOOPS IN THE QUIET SOLAR CORONA WITH MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVE-MODE CONVERSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiff, Avery J.; Cranmer, Steven R. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Coronal loops trace out bipolar, arch-like magnetic fields above the Sun’s surface. Recent measurements that combine rotational tomography, extreme-ultraviolet imaging, and potential-field extrapolation have shown the existence of large loops with inverted-temperature profiles, i.e., loops for which the apex temperature is a local minimum, not a maximum. These “down loops” appear to exist primarily in equatorial quiet regions near solar minimum. We simulate both these and the more prevalent large-scale “up loops” by modeling coronal heating as a time-steady superposition of (1) dissipation of incompressible Alfvén wave turbulence and (2) dissipation of compressive waves formed by mode conversion from the initial population of Alfvén waves. We found that when a large percentage (>99%) of the Alfvén waves undergo this conversion, heating is greatly concentrated at the footpoints and stable “down loops” are created. In some cases we found loops with three maxima that are also gravitationally stable. Models that agree with the tomographic temperature data exhibit higher gas pressures for “down loops” than for “up loops,” which is consistent with observations. These models also show a narrow range of Alfvén wave amplitudes: 3 to 6 km s{sup -1} at the coronal base. This is low in comparison to typical observed amplitudes of 20–30 km s{sup -1} in bright X-ray loops. However, the large-scale loops we model are believed to compose a weaker diffuse background that fills much of the volume of the corona. By constraining the physics of loops that underlie quiescent streamers, we hope to better understand the formation of the slow solar wind.

  5. Electron-cyclotron wave propagation, absorption and current drive in the presence of neoclassical tearing modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isliker, Heinz; Chatziantonaki, Ioanna; Tsironis, Christos; Vlahos, Loukas

    2012-09-01

    We analyze the propagation of electron-cyclotron waves, their absorption and current drive when neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs), in the form of magnetic islands, are present in a tokamak plasma. So far, the analysis of the wave propagation and power deposition in the presence of NTMs has been performed mainly in the frame of an axisymmetric magnetic field, ignoring any effects from the island topology. Our analysis starts from an axisymmetric magnetic equilibrium, which is perturbed such as to exhibit magnetic islands. In this geometry, we compute the wave evolution with a ray-tracing code, focusing on the effect of the island topology on the efficiency of the absorption and current drive. To increase the precision in the calculation of the power deposition, the standard analytical flux-surface labeling for the island region has been adjusted from the usual cylindrical to toroidal geometry. The propagation up to the O-point is found to be little affected by the island topology, whereas the power absorbed and the driven current are significantly enhanced, because the resonant particles are bound to the small volumes in between the flux surfaces of the island. The consequences of these effects on the NTM evolution are investigated in terms of the modified Rutherford equation.

  6. Electron-cyclotron wave propagation, absorption and current drive in the presence of neoclassical tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isliker, Heinz; Chatziantonaki, Ioanna; Tsironis, Christos; Vlahos, Loukas

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the propagation of electron-cyclotron waves, their absorption and current drive when neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs), in the form of magnetic islands, are present in a tokamak plasma. So far, the analysis of the wave propagation and power deposition in the presence of NTMs has been performed mainly in the frame of an axisymmetric magnetic field, ignoring any effects from the island topology. Our analysis starts from an axisymmetric magnetic equilibrium, which is perturbed such as to exhibit magnetic islands. In this geometry, we compute the wave evolution with a ray-tracing code, focusing on the effect of the island topology on the efficiency of the absorption and current drive. To increase the precision in the calculation of the power deposition, the standard analytical flux-surface labeling for the island region has been adjusted from the usual cylindrical to toroidal geometry. The propagation up to the O-point is found to be little affected by the island topology, whereas the power absorbed and the driven current are significantly enhanced, because the resonant particles are bound to the small volumes in between the flux surfaces of the island. The consequences of these effects on the NTM evolution are investigated in terms of the modified Rutherford equation. (paper)

  7. Low-order-mode harmonic multiplying gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier in W band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Y. S.; Chen, C. H.; Yang, S. J.; Lai, C. H.; Lin, T. Y.; Lo, Y. C.; Hong, J. W.; Hung, C. L.; Chang, T. H.

    2012-01-01

    Harmonic multiplying gyrotron traveling-wave amplifiers (gyro-TWAs) allow for magnetic field reduction and frequency multiplication. To avoid absolute instabilities, this work proposes a W-band harmonic multiplying gyro-TWA operating at low-order modes. By amplifying a fundamental harmonic TE 11 drive wave, the second harmonic component of the beam current initiates a TE 21 wave to be amplified. Absolute instabilities in the gyro-TWA are suppressed by shortening the interaction circuit and increasing wall losses. Simulation results reveal that compared with Ka-band gyro-TWTs, the lower wall losses effectively suppress absolute instabilities in the W-band gyro-TWA. However, a global reflective oscillation occurs as the wall losses decrease. Increasing the length or resistivity of the lossy section can reduce the feedback of the oscillation to stabilize the amplifier. The W-band harmonic multiplying gyro-TWA is predicted to yield a peak output power of 111 kW at 98 GHz with an efficiency of 25%, a saturated gain of 26 dB, and a bandwidth of 1.6 GHz for a 60 kV, 7.5 A electron beam with an axial velocity spread of 8%.

  8. Mode Conversion of Langmuir to Electromagnetic Waves with Parallel Inhomogeneity in the Solar Wind and the Corona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun-Hwa; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, Peter A.

    2008-06-09

    Linear mode conversion of Langmuir waves to radiation near the plasma frequency at density gradients is potentially relevant to multiple solar radio emissions, ionospheric radar experiments, laboratory plasma devices, and pulsars. Here we study mode conversion in warm magnetized plasmas using a numerical electron fluid simulation code with the density gradient parallel to the ambient magnetic field B0 for a range of incident Langmuir wavevectors. Our results include: (1) Both o- and x-mode waves are produced for Ω ∝ (ωL)1/3(ωc/ω) somewhat less than 1, contrary to previous ideas. Only o mode is produced for Ω and somewhat greater than 1.5. Here ωc is the (angular) electron cyclotron frequency, ω the angular wave frequency, and L the length scale of the (linear) density gradient. (2) In the unmagnetized limit, equal amounts of o- and x-mode radiation are produced. (3) The mode conversion window narrows as Ω increases. (4) As Ω increases the total electromagnetic field changes from linear to circular polarization, with the o- and x- mode signals remaining circularly polarized. (5) The conversion efficiency to the x mode decreases monotonically as Ω increases while the o-mode conversion efficiency oscillates due to an interference phenomenon between incoming and reflected Langmuir/z modes. (6) The total conversion efficiency for wave energy from the Langmuir/z mode to radiation is typically less than 10%, but the corresponding power efficiencies differ by the ratio of the group speeds for each mode and are of order 50 – 70%. (7) The interference effect and the disappearance of the x mode at Ω somewhat greater than 1 can be accounted for semiquantitatively using a WKB-like analysis. (8) Constraints on density turbulence are developed for the x mode to be generated and be able to propagate from the source. (9) Standard parameters for the corona and the solar wind near 1 AU suggest that linear mode conversion should produce both o- and x- mode radiation for

  9. Linear mode conversion of Langmuir/z-mode waves to radiation: Scalings of conversion efficiencies and propagation angles with temperature and magnetic field orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleyer, F.; Cairns, Iver H.; Kim, E.-H.

    2013-01-01

    Linear mode conversion (LMC) is the linear transfer of energy from one wave mode to another in an inhomogeneous plasma. It is relevant to laboratory plasmas and multiple solar system radio emissions, such as continuum radiation from planetary magnetospheres and type II and III radio bursts from the solar corona and solar wind. This paper simulates LMC of waves defined by warm, magnetized fluid theory, specifically the conversion of Langmuir/z-mode waves to electromagnetic (EM) radiation. The primary focus is the calculation of the energy and power conversion efficiencies for LMC as functions of the angle of incidence θ of the Langmuir/z-mode wave, temperature β=T e /m e c 2 , adiabatic index γ, and orientation angle φ between the ambient density gradient ∇N 0 and ambient magnetic field B 0 in a warm, unmagnetized plasma. The ratio of these efficiencies is found to agree well as a function of θ, γ, and β with an analytical relation that depends on the group speeds of the Langmuir/z and EM wave modes. The results demonstrate that the energy conversion efficiency ε is strongly dependent on γβ, φ and θ, with ε∝(γβ) 1/2 and θ∝(γβ) 1/2 . The power conversion efficiency ε p , on the other hand, is independent of γβ but does vary significantly with θ and φ. The efficiencies are shown to be maximum for approximately perpendicular density gradients (φ≈90°) and minimal for parallel orientation (φ=0°) and both the energy and power conversion efficiencies peak at the same θ.

  10. 60-GHz Millimeter-wave Over Fiber with Directly Modulated Dual-mode Laser Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Lin, Chi-Hsiang; Lin, Chun-Ting; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2016-01-01

    A directly modulated dual-mode laser diode (DMLD) with third-order intermodulation distortion (IMD3) suppression is proposed for a 60-GHz millimeter-wave over fiber (MMWoF) architecture, enabling new fiber-wireless communication access to cover 4-km single-mode-fiber (SMF) and 3-m wireless 16-QAM OFDM transmissions. By dual-mode injection-locking, the throughput degradation of the DMLD is mitigated with saturation effect to reduce its threshold, IMD3 power and relative intensity noise to 7.7 mA, −85 dBm and −110.4 dBc/Hz, respectively, providing huge spurious-free dynamic range of 85.8 dB/Hz2/3. This operation suppresses the noise floor of the DMLD carried QPSK-OFDM spectrum by 5 dB. The optical receiving power is optimized to restrict the power fading effect for improving the bit error rate to 1.9 × 10−3 and the receiving power penalty to 1.1 dB. Such DMLD based hybrid architecture for 60-GHz MMW fiber-wireless access can directly cover the current optical and wireless networks for next-generation indoor and short-reach mobile communications. PMID:27297267

  11. Conversion of electrostatic upper hybrid emissions to electromagnetic O and X mode waves in the Earth's magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budden, K.G.; Jones, D.

    1987-01-01

    The linear conversion of electrostatic upper hybrid emissions via the Z mode to electromagnetic ordinary (O) mode waves has for some time been invoked for the source of Terrestrial and Saturnian myriametric and Jovian kilometric radiations. The conversion occurs by virtue of the emissions' propagation in concentration gradients, and for it to be efficient it is necessary for the gradient to be normal to the ambient magnetic field. Suitable concentration gradients are believed to occur at the plasmapause and at the magnetopause. Ray theory predicts only O mode production whereas full wave theory in a cold plasma shows that both O and X (extraordinary) mode are produced, their relative intensities depending on the plasma parameters. Full wave theory in a warm plasma, besides yielding more accurate information on the O and X modes also provides an insight into the effect of conversion on the source plasma wave. Results obtained from these three levels of theory are compared using plasma parameters derived from wave experiments on spacecraft

  12. Conversion of electrostatic upper hybrid emissions to electromagnetic O and X mode waves in the Earth's magnetosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budden, K.G.; Jones, D.

    1987-02-01

    The linear conversion of electrostatic upper hybrid emissions via the Z mode to electromagnetic ordinary (O) mode waves has for some time been invoked for the source of Terrestrial and Saturnian myriametric and Jovian kilometric radiations. The conversion occurs by virtue of the emissions' propagation in concentration gradients, and for it to be efficient it is necessary for the gradient to be normal to the ambient magnetic field. Suitable concentration gradients are believed to occur at the plasmapause and at the magnetopause. Ray theory predicts only O mode production whereas full wave theory in a cold plasma shows that both O and X (extraordinary) mode are produced, their relative intensities depending on the plasma parameters. Full wave theory in a warm plasma, besides yielding more accurate information on the O and X modes also provides an insight into the effect of conversion on the source plasma wave. Results obtained from these three levels of theory are compared using plasma parameters derived from wave experiments on spacecraft.

  13. Ducting of the Whistler-Mode Waves by Magnetic Field-Aligned Density Enhancements in the Radiation Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streltsov, A. V.; Bengtson, M.; English, D.; Miller, M.; Turco, L.

    2017-12-01

    Whistler-mode waves (or whistlers) are the right-hand polarized electromagnetic waves with a frequency in the range above the lower hybrid frequency and below the electron cyclotron frequency. They can efficiently interact with energetic electrons in the equatorial magnetosphere and remediate them from the earth's radiation belt. These interactions are non-linear, they depend on the wave amplitude, and for them to be efficient the wave power needs to be delivered from the transmitter to the interaction region without significant losses. The main physical mechanism which can solve this problem is ducting/guiding of whistlers by magnetic field-aligned density inhomogeneities or ducts. We present results from a modeling of whistler-mode waves observed by the NASA Van Allen Probes satellites inside the ducts formed by density enhancements (also known as, high-density ducts or HDD). Our previous studies suggest that HDD can confine without leakage only waves with some particular parameters (frequency, perpendicular and parallel wavelength) connected with the parameters of the duct (like duct's "width" and "depth"). Our numerical results confirm that 1) the high-density ducts with amplitudes and perpendicular sizes observed by the RBSP satellites can indeed guide whistlers over significant distances along the ambient magnetic field with small leakage, and 2) the quality of the ducting indeed depends on the wave perpendicular and parallel wavelengths and, therefore, the fact that the wave is ducted by HDD can be used to determine parameters of the wave.

  14. Ultra-High-Speed Travelling Wave Protection of Transmission Line Using Polarity Comparison Principle Based on Empirical Mode Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional polarity comparison based travelling wave protection, using the initial wave information, is affected by initial fault angle, bus structure, and external fault. And the relationship between the magnitude and polarity of travelling wave is ignored. Because of the protection tripping and malfunction, the further application of this protection principle is affected. Therefore, this paper presents an ultra-high-speed travelling wave protection using integral based polarity comparison principle. After empirical mode decomposition of the original travelling wave, the first-order intrinsic mode function is used as protection object. Based on the relationship between the magnitude and polarity of travelling wave, this paper demonstrates the feasibility of using travelling wave magnitude which contains polar information as direction criterion. And the paper integrates the direction criterion in a period after fault to avoid wave head detection failure. Through PSCAD simulation with the typical 500 kV transmission system, the reliability and sensitivity of travelling wave protection were verified under different factors’ affection.

  15. Mode Conversion of Langmuir to Electromagnetic Waves with Parallel Inhomogeneity in the Solar Wind and the Corona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun-Hwa; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    Linear mode conversion of Langmuir waves to radiation near the plasma frequency at density gradients is potentially relevant to multiple solar radio emissions, ionospheric radar experiments, laboratory plasma devices, and pulsars. Here we study mode conversion in warm magnetized plasmas using a numerical electron fluid simulation code with the density gradient parallel to the ambient magnetic field B0 for a range of incident Langmuir wavevectors. Our results include: (1) Both o- and x-mode waves are produced for (Omega) ∝ (ωL) 1/3 (ω c /ω) ∼ 1.5. Here ω c is the (angular) electron cyclotron frequency, ω the angular wave frequency, and L the length scale of the (linear) density gradient. (2) In the unmagnetized limit, equal amounts of o- and x-mode radiation are produced. (3) The mode conversion window narrows as (Omega) increases. (4) As (Omega) increases the total electromagnetic field changes from linear to circular polarization, with the o- and x- mode signals remaining circularly polarized. (5) The conversion efficiency to the x mode decreases monotonically as (Omega) increases while the o-mode conversion efficiency oscillates due to an interference phenomenon between incoming and reflected Langmuir/z modes. (6) The total conversion efficiency for wave energy from the Langmuir/z mode to radiation is typically less than 10%, but the corresponding power efficiencies differ by the ratio of the group speeds for each mode and are of order 50-70%. (7) The interference effect and the disappearance of the x mode at (Omega) ∼> 1 can be accounted for semiquantitatively using a WKB-like analysis. (8) Constraints on density turbulence are developed for the x mode to be generated and be able to propagate from the source. (9) Standard parameters for the corona and the solar wind near 1 AU suggest that linear mode conversion should produce both o- and x- mode radiation for solar and interplanetary radio bursts. It is therefore possible that linear mode conversion

  16. Gravitational wave spectroscopy of binary neutron star merger remnants with mode stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Yagi, Kent; Lehner, Luis; Pretorius, Frans; Yunes, Nicolás

    2018-01-01

    A binary neutron star coalescence event has recently been observed for the first time in gravitational waves, and many more detections are expected once current ground-based detectors begin operating at design sensitivity. As in the case of binary black holes, gravitational waves generated by binary neutron stars consist of inspiral, merger, and postmerger components. Detecting the latter is important because it encodes information about the nuclear equation of state in a regime that cannot be probed prior to merger. The postmerger signal, however, can only be expected to be measurable by current detectors for events closer than roughly ten megaparsecs, which given merger rate estimates implies a low probability of observation within the expected lifetime of these detectors. We carry out Monte Carlo simulations showing that the dominant postmerger signal (the ℓ=m =2 mode) from individual binary neutron star mergers may not have a good chance of observation even with the most sensitive future ground-based gravitational wave detectors proposed so far (the Einstein Telescope and Cosmic Explorer, for certain equations of state, assuming a full year of operation, the latest merger rates, and a detection threshold corresponding to a signal-to-noise ratio of 5). For this reason, we propose two methods that stack the postmerger signal from multiple binary neutron star observations to boost the postmerger detection probability. The first method follows a commonly used practice of multiplying the Bayes factors of individual events. The second method relies on an assumption that the mode phase can be determined from the inspiral waveform, so that coherent mode stacking of the data from different events becomes possible. We find that both methods significantly improve the chances of detecting the dominant postmerger signal, making a detection very likely after a year of observation with Cosmic Explorer for certain equations of state. We also show that in terms of detection

  17. Mode-converted electron Bernstein wave emission research on CDX-U and NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.; Efthimion, P.C; Jones, B.; Munsat, T.; Hosea, J.C; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Spaleta, J.; Wilson, J.R.; Wilgen, J.B.; Bell, G.L.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Ram, A.K.; Bers, A.; Harvey, R.W.; Smirnov, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    Electron Bernstein waves (EBWs) may enable electron temperature profile measurements and local electron heating and current drive in high β overdense (ω pe /ω ce >>1) plasmas. Significant results are presented from the measurement of X-mode radiation, converted from EBWs observed normal to the magnetic field on the mid-plane of overdense plasmas in CDX-U and NSTX. A radially scannable, in-vessel, quad-ridged antenna and Langmuir probe array on CDX-U studied EBW to X-mode conversion. A local limiter optimized the conversion efficiency by modifying the density scale length at the mode conversion layer. The fundamental EBW conversion efficiency increased, by an order of magnitude, to ∼100% when the local limiter and antenna were inserted near the conversion layer. This technique can be extended to large, high temperature devices. Another significant observation was that the EBW emission source was localized near the electron cyclotron resonance. As a result, mode-converted EBW radiometry has measured radial transport in CDX-U. In addition, a threefold increase in conversion efficiency was observed at the L to H transition in NSTX. Measured conversion efficiency agreed well with theoretical predictions. EBW ray tracing and bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck codes are being used to model EBW heating and current drive scenarios for NSTX equilibria with β up to 40%. So far, results show that it is possible to drive localized currents on the high field side of the magnetic axis in NSTX at β ∼ 12% with current drive efficiency which compares favorably with ECCD. (authors)

  18. The interaction between fishbone modes and shear Alfvén waves in tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongda; Liu, Yueqiang; Dong, J. Q.; Hao, G. Z.; Wu, Tingting; He, Zhixiong; Zhao, K.

    2016-05-01

    The resonant interaction between the energetic particle triggered fishbone mode and the shear Alfvén waves is computationally investigated and firmly demonstrated based on a tokamak plasma equilibrium, using the self-consistent MHD-kinetic hybrid code MARS-K (Liu et al 2008 Phys. Plasmas 15 112503). This type of continuum resonance, occurring critically due to the mode’s toroidal rotation in the plasma frame, significantly modifies the eigenmode structure of the fishbone instability, by introducing two large peaks of the perturbed parallel current density near but offside the q  =  1 rational surface (q is the safety factor). The self-consistently computed radial plasma displacement substantially differs from that being assumed in the conventional fishbone theory.

  19. Study of mode-converted and directly-excited ion Bernstein waves by CO2 laser scattering in Alcator C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Y.; Fiore, C.L.; McDermott, F.S.; Moody, J.D.; Porkolab, M.; Shepard, T.; Squire, J.

    1987-01-01

    Mode-converted and directly excited ion Bernstein waves (IBW) were studied using CO 2 laser scattering in the Alcator C tokamak. During the ICRF fast wave heating experiments, mode-converted IBW was observed on the high-field side of the resonance in both second harmonic and minority heating regimes. By comparing the relative scattered powers from the two antennas separated by 180 0 toroidally, an increased toroidal wave damping with increasing density was inferred. In the IBW heating experiments, optimum direct excitation is obtained when an ion-cyclotron harmonic layer is located just behind the antenna. Wave absorption at the ω = 3Ω/sub D/ = 1.5Ω/sub H/ layer was directly observed. Edge ion heating was inferred from the IBW dispersion when this absorption layer was located in the plasma periphery, which may be responsible for the observed improvement in particle confinement

  20. CONSTRAINING THE R-MODE SATURATION AMPLITUDE FROM A HYPOTHETICAL DETECTION OF R-MODE GRAVITATIONAL WAVES FROM A NEWBORN NEUTRON STAR: SENSITIVITY STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mytidis, Antonis; Whiting, Bernard; Coughlin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper consists of two related parts: in the first part we derive an expression of the moment of inertia (MOI) of a neutron star as a function of observables from a hypothetical r-mode gravitational-wave detection. For a given r-mode detection we show how the value of the MOI of a neutron star constrains the equation of state (EOS) of the matter in the core of the neutron star. Subsequently, for each candidate EOS, we derive a possible value of the saturation amplitude, α, of the r-mode oscillations on the neutron star. Additionally, we argue that an r-mode detection will provide clues about the cooling rate mechanism of the neutron star. The above physics that can be derived from a hypothetical r-mode detection constitutes our motivation for the second part of the paper. In that part we present a detection strategy to efficiently search for r-modes in gravitational-wave data. R-mode signals were injected into simulated noise colored with the advanced LIGO (aLIGO) and Einstein Telescope (ET) sensitivity curves. The r-mode waveforms used are those predicted by early theories based on polytropic EOS neutron star matter. In our best case scenario (α of order 10 −1 ), the maximum detection distance when using the aLIGO sensitivity curve is ∼1 Mpc (supernova event rate of 3–4 per century) while the maximum detection distance when using the ET sensitivity curve is ∼10 Mpc (supernova event rate of 1–2 per year)

  1. Extracting surface waves, hum and normal modes: time-scale phase-weighted stack and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventosa, Sergi; Schimmel, Martin; Stutzmann, Eleonore

    2017-10-01

    Stacks of ambient noise correlations are routinely used to extract empirical Green's functions (EGFs) between station pairs. The time-frequency phase-weighted stack (tf-PWS) is a physically intuitive nonlinear denoising method that uses the phase coherence to improve EGF convergence when the performance of conventional linear averaging methods is not sufficient. The high computational cost of a continuous approach to the time-frequency transformation is currently a main limitation in ambient noise studies. We introduce the time-scale phase-weighted stack (ts-PWS) as an alternative extension of the phase-weighted stack that uses complex frames of wavelets to build a time-frequency representation that is much more efficient and fast to compute and that preserve the performance and flexibility of the tf-PWS. In addition, we propose two strategies: the unbiased phase coherence and the two-stage ts-PWS methods to further improve noise attenuation, quality of the extracted signals and convergence speed. We demonstrate that these approaches enable to extract minor- and major-arc Rayleigh waves (up to the sixth Rayleigh wave train) from many years of data from the GEOSCOPE global network. Finally we also show that fundamental spheroidal modes can be extracted from these EGF.

  2. Simulation and modeling of whistler-mode wave growth through cyclotron resonance with energetic electrons in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    New models and simulations of wave growth experienced by electromagnetic waves propagating through the magnetosphere in the whistler mode are presented. For these waves, which have frequencies below the electron gyro and plasma frequencies, the magnetospheric plasma acts like a natural amplifier often amplifying the waves by ∼ 30 dB. The mechanism for growth is cyclotron resonance between the circularly polarized waves and the gyrating energetic electrons which make up the Van Allen radiation belts. The main emphasis is to simulate single-frequency wave pulses, in the 2-6 kHz range, that have been injected into the magnetosphere, near L ∼ 4, by the Stanford transmitting facility at Siple station, Antarctica. However, the results can also be applied to naturally occurring signals, signals from other transmitters, non-CW signals, and signals in other parts of the magnetosphere not probed by the Siple Station transmitter. Results show the importance of the transient aspects in the wave-growth process. The wave growth established as the wave propagates toward the equator, is given a spatially advancing wave phase structure by the geomagnetic inhomogeneity. Through the feedback of this radiation upon other electrons, conditions are set up that results in the linearly increasing output frequency with time

  3. Higgs-mode radiance and charge-density-wave order in 2 H -NbSe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasset, Romain; Cea, Tommaso; Gallais, Yann; Cazayous, Maximilien; Sacuto, Alain; Cario, Laurent; Benfatto, Lara; Méasson, Marie-Aude

    2018-03-01

    Despite being usually considered two competing phenomena, charge-density wave and superconductivity coexist in few systems, the most emblematic one being the transition-metal dichalcogenide 2 H -NbSe2 . This unusual condition is responsible for specific Raman signatures across the two phase transitions in this compound. While the appearance of a soft phonon mode is a well-established fingerprint of the charge-density-wave order, the nature of the sharp subgap mode emerging below the superconducting temperature is still under debate. In this work we use external pressure as a knob to unveil the delicate interplay between the two orders, and consequently the nature of the superconducting mode. Thanks to an advanced extreme-conditions Raman technique, we are able to follow the pressure evolution and the simultaneous collapse of the two intertwined charge-density-wave and superconducting modes. The comparison with microscopic calculations in a model system supports the Higgs-type nature of the superconducting mode and suggests that charge-density wave and superconductivity in 2 H -NbSe2 involve mutual electronic degrees of freedom. These findings fill the knowledge gap on the electronic mechanisms at play in transition-metal dichalcogenides, a crucial step to fully exploit their properties in few-layer systems optimized for device applications.

  4. Long-term evolution of electron distribution function due to nonlinear resonant interaction with whistler mode waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, Anton V.; Neishtadt, Anatoly I.; Vasiliev, Alexei A.

    2018-04-01

    Accurately modelling and forecasting of the dynamics of the Earth's radiation belts with the available computer resources represents an important challenge that still requires significant advances in the theoretical plasma physics field of wave-particle resonant interaction. Energetic electron acceleration or scattering into the Earth's atmosphere are essentially controlled by their resonances with electromagnetic whistler mode waves. The quasi-linear diffusion equation describes well this resonant interaction for low intensity waves. During the last decade, however, spacecraft observations in the radiation belts have revealed a large number of whistler mode waves with sufficiently high intensity to interact with electrons in the nonlinear regime. A kinetic equation including such nonlinear wave-particle interactions and describing the long-term evolution of the electron distribution is the focus of the present paper. Using the Hamiltonian theory of resonant phenomena, we describe individual electron resonance with an intense coherent whistler mode wave. The derived characteristics of such a resonance are incorporated into a generalized kinetic equation which includes non-local transport in energy space. This transport is produced by resonant electron trapping and nonlinear acceleration. We describe the methods allowing the construction of nonlinear resonant terms in the kinetic equation and discuss possible applications of this equation.

  5. The application of low frequency longitudinal guided wave mode for the inspection of multi-hole steel floral pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z H; Xie, X D; Wu, B; Li, Y H; He, C F

    2012-01-01

    Shed-pipe grouting technology, an effective advanced supporting method, is often used in the excavation of soft strata. Steel floral pipes are one of the key load-carrying components of shed-pipe grouting supporting structures. Guided waves are a very attractive methodology to inspect multi-hole steel floral pipes as they offer long range inspection capability, mode and frequency tuning, and cost effectiveness. In this contribution, preliminary experiments are described for the inspection of steel floral pipes using a low frequency longitudinal guided wave mode, L(0,2). The relation between the number of grouting holes and the peak-to-peak amplitude of the first end-reflected signal was obtained. The effect of the grouting holes in steel floral pipes on the propagation velocity of the L(0,2) mode at 30 kHz was analyzed. Experimental results indicate that the typical grouting holes in steel floral pipe have no significant effect on the propagation of this mode. As a result, low frequency longitudinal guided wave modes have potential for the non-destructive long range inspection of multi-hole steel floral pipes. Furthermore, the propagation velocity of the investigated L(0,2) mode at 30 kHz decreases linearly with the increase of the number of grouting holes in a steel floral pipe. It is also noticeable that the effect of the grouting holes cumulates along with the increase in the number of grouting holes and subsequent increase in reflection times of longitudinal guided waves in the steel floral pipe. The application potential of the low frequency longitudinal guided wave technique for the inspection of embedded steel floral pipes is discussed.

  6. A survey of mode-conversion transparency windows between external electromagnetic waves and electron Bernstein waves for various plasma slab boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igami, H; Tanaka, H; Maekawa, T

    2006-01-01

    For the plasma slab boundary with monotonically increasing density profile along the x axis and the magnetic field along the z axis, both N z and N y components of the refractive index are parallel to the plasma slab and are conserved in the mode-conversion process between the vacuum transverse electromagnetic (TEM) waves and the electron Bernstein (B) waves. Information of N z and N y is sufficient to identify the waves uniquely both for TEM waves and B waves coupled by mode conversion. Furthermore, the wave differential equation which governs the mode-conversion process can be written in the normalized form with a few numbers of the normalized parameters and variables for the linear density profile. Thus, the mode-conversion transparency window, which is presented as a contour plot of the mode-conversion rate versus the N z -N y plane, can be categorized for the pair of parameters of the density scale length normalized to the wavelength in vacuum L n /λ 0 and the frequency to the cyclotron frequency ω/Ω. A survey of the transparency windows for various parameter ranges of L n /λ 0 and ω/Ω is presented. The windows are categorized into four types. The frosted type at the steepest density gradient region has a broad transparency profile but even the peak is not completely transparent. The perpendicular-X type at the next steep density gradient region also has a broad transparency profile with a completely transparent peak by the perpendicularly propagating extraordinary waves. The OXB type at the gentle density gradient region has a pair of completely transparent sharp peaks by the obliquely propagating ordinary waves at the optimal propagation angles with N z = ±N parallelopt and N y 0. The fourth is the g 1 type in the intermediate density gradient region between the above two cases, which has two completely transparent peaks in the window. Finally, a simulation to examine the applicability of the survey to experiments is made using a test density profile

  7. Evidence of Boundary Reflection of Kelvin and First-Mode Rossby Waves from Topex/Poseidon Sea Level Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, Jean-Philippe; Fu, Lee-Lueng

    1996-01-01

    The TOPEX/POSEIDON sea level data lead to new opportunities to investigate some theoretical mechanisms suggested to be involved in the El Nino-Southern Oscillation phenomenon in the tropical Pacific ocean. In particular, we are interested in studying the western boundary reflection, a process crucial for the delayed action oscillator theory, by using the TOPEX/POSEIDON data from November 1992 to May 1995. We first projected the sea level data onto Kelvin and first-mode Ross waves. Then we estimated the contribution of wind forcing to these waves by using a single baroclinic mode simple wave model forced by the ERS-1 wind data. Wave propagation was clearly observed with amplitudes well explained by the wind forcing in the ocean interior. Evidence of wave reflection was detected at both the western and eastern boundaries of the tropical Pacific ocean. At the eastern boundary, Kelvin waves were seen to reflect as first-mode Rossby waves during the entire period. The reflection efficiency (in terms of wave amplitude) of the South American coasts was estimated to be 80% of that of an infinite meridional wall. At the western boundary, reflection was observed in April-August 1993, in January-June 1994, and, later, in December 1994 to February 1995. Although the general roles of these reflection events in the variability observed in the equatorial Pacific ocean are not clear, the data suggest that the reflections in January-June 1994 have played a role in the onset of the warm conditions observed in late 1994 to early 1995. Indeed, during the January-June 1994 period, as strong downwelling first-mode Rossby waves reflected into downwelling Kelvin waves, easterly wind and cold sea surface temperature anomalies located near the date line weakened and eventually reversed in June-July 1994. The presence of the warm anomalies near the date line then favored convection and westerly wind anomalies that triggered strong downwelling Kelvin waves propagating throughout the basin

  8. Localization of Geological Inhomogeneities on the Arctic Shelf by Analysis of the Seismoacoustic Wave Field Mode Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobisevich, A. L.; Presnov, D. A.; Sobisevich, L. E.; Shurup, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    The results of analysis of wave modes in the ambient noise induced in the layered structure "lithosphere-hydrosphere-ice sheet" are presented. It is shown that instrumental monitoring over background noises in an ice-covered shallow sea allows us to apply methods of seismic tomography in order to determine the structural parameters of a layered geophysical media.

  9. An Alternative Millimeter Wave Oscillator using a Dielectric Puck in the Whispering Gallery Mode, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A majority of millimeter wave based systems used for space exploration, communications and research, require a millimeter wave oscillator. These oscillators have...

  10. Formation of core transport barrier and CH-Mode by ion Bernstein wave heating in PBX-M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, R.; Bernabei, S.; Gettelfinger, G.; Hatcher, R.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Manickam, J.

    1995-01-01

    Observation of core transport barrier formation (for particles, ion and electron energies, and toroidal momentum) by ion Bernstein wave heating (IBWH) in PBX-M plasma is reported. The formation of a transport barrier leads to a strong peaking and significant increase of the core pressure (70%) and toroidal momentum (20%), and has been termed the core-high confinement mode (CH-Mode). This formation of a transport barrier is consistent, in terms of the expected barrier location as well as the required threshold power, with a theoretical model based on the poloidal sheared flow generation by the ion Bernstein wave power. The use of ion Bernstein wave (IBW) induced sheared flow as a tool to control plasma pressure and bootstrap current profiles shows a favorable scaling for the use in future reactor grade tokamak plasmas

  11. Modification of ordinary-mode reflectometry system to detect lower-hybrid waves in Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, S. G.; Shiraiwa, S.; Parker, R. R.; Dominguez, A.; Kramer, G. J.; Marmar, E. S.

    2012-10-01

    Backscattering experiments to detect lower-hybrid (LH) waves have been performed in Alcator C-Mod, using the two modified channels (60 GHz and 75 GHz) of an ordinary-mode reflectometry system with newly developed spectral recorders that can continuously monitor spectral power at a target frequency. The change in the baseline of the spectral recorder during the LH wave injection is highly correlated to the strength of the X-mode non-thermal electron cyclotron emission. In high density plasmas where an anomalous drop in the lower hybrid current drive efficiency is observed, the observed backscattered signals are expected to be generated near the last closed flux surface, demonstrating the presence of LH waves within the plasma. This experimental technique can be useful in identifying spatially localized LH electric fields in the periphery of high-density plasmas.

  12. Topological valley transport of plate-mode waves in a homogenous thin plate with periodic stubbed surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiu-Jiu Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study for exotic topological effects of sound has attracted uprising interests in fundamental physics and practical applications. Based on the concept of valley pseudospin, we demonstrate the topological valley transport of plate-mode waves in a homogenous thin plate with periodic stubbed surface, where a deterministic two-fold Dirac degeneracy is form by two plate modes. We show that the topological property can be controlled by the height of stubs deposited on the plate. By adjusting the relative heights of adjacent stubs, the valley vortex chirality and band inversion are induced, giving rise to a phononic analog of valley Hall phase transition. We further numerically demonstrate the valley states of plate-mode waves with robust topological protection. Our results provide a new route to design unconventional elastic topological insulators and will significantly broaden its practical application in the engineering field.

  13. Optimization and experimental validation of stiff porous phononic plates for widest complete bandgap of mixed fundamental guided wave modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayatrasa, Saeid; Kersemans, Mathias; Abhary, Kazem; Uddin, Mohammad; Van Paepegem, Wim

    2018-01-01

    Phononic crystal plates (PhPs) have promising application in manipulation of guided waves for design of low-loss acoustic devices and built-in acoustic metamaterial lenses in plate structures. The prominent feature of phononic crystals is the existence of frequency bandgaps over which the waves are stopped, or are resonated and guided within appropriate defects. Therefore, maximized bandgaps of PhPs are desirable to enhance their phononic controllability. Porous PhPs produced through perforation of a uniform background plate, in which the porous interfaces act as strong reflectors of wave energy, are relatively easy to produce. However, the research in optimization of porous PhPs and experimental validation of achieved topologies has been very limited and particularly focused on bandgaps of flexural (asymmetric) wave modes. In this paper, porous PhPs are optimized through an efficient multiobjective genetic algorithm for widest complete bandgap of mixed fundamental guided wave modes (symmetric and asymmetric) and maximized stiffness. The Pareto front of optimization is analyzed and variation of bandgap efficiency with respect to stiffness is presented for various optimized topologies. Selected optimized topologies from the stiff and compliant regimes of Pareto front are manufactured by water-jetting an aluminum plate and their promising bandgap efficiency is experimentally observed. An optimized Pareto topology is also chosen and manufactured by laser cutting a Plexiglas (PMMA) plate, and its performance in self-collimation and focusing of guided waves is verified as compared to calculated dispersion properties.

  14. Fast Waves Mode Conversion and Energy Deposition in Simulated, Pre-Heated, Neoclassical, Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruma, C.; Cuperman, S.; Komoshvili, K.

    1999-01-01

    Some basic aspects of wave-plasma interaction of interest for tight aspect ratio spherical tokamaks are investigated theoretically. The following scenario is considered: A. Fast magnetosonic waves are launched by an external antenna into a simulated spherical Tokamak plasma; these waves are converted to Alfven waves at points (layer) satisfying the Alfven resonance condition. B. The simulated spherical tokamaks-plasma has a circular cross-section and toroidicity effects are simulated by Grad-Shafranov type, radially dependent axial magnetic field and its shear. (J. Actual equilibrium profiles (magnetic field, pressure and current) observed in the low field side (LFS) of spherical tokamaks (viz., START at Culham, UK) are used. D. The study is based on the numerical solution of the full e.m. wave equation which includes a quite general resistive MHD dielectric tensor, with consideration of equilibrium current and neoclassical effects. Two kinds of results will be presented: I. Proofs validating the computational algorithm used and including convergence and energy conservation. II. Exact quantitative results concerning (i) the structure and space dependence of the mode-converted Alfven waves and (ii) the basic features of the deposited p over . The dependence of the results on the launched wave characteristics (wave numbers, frequency and intensity) as well as on those of the equilibrium plasma (equilibrium current, neoclassical resistivity and electron inertia) will be discussed

  15. Long-term evolution and gravitational wave radiation of neutron stars with differential rotation induced by r-modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yunwei; Cao Xiaofeng; Zheng Xiaoping

    2009-01-01

    In a second-order r-mode theory, Sa and Tome found that the r-mode oscillation in neutron stars (NSs) could induce stellar differential rotation, which naturally leads to a saturated state of the oscillation. Based on a consideration of the coupling of the r-modes and the stellar spin and thermal evolution, we carefully investigate the influences of the differential rotation on the long-term evolution of isolated NSs and NSs in low-mass X-ray binaries, where the viscous damping of the r-modes and its resultant effects are taken into account. The numerical results show that, for both kinds of NSs, the differential rotation can significantly prolong the duration of the r-modes. As a result, the stars can keep nearly a constant temperature and constant angular velocity for over a thousand years. Moreover, the persistent radiation of a quasi-monochromatic gravitational wave would also be predicted due to the long-term steady r-mode oscillation and stellar rotation. This increases the detectability of gravitational waves from both young isolated and old accreting NSs. (research papers)

  16. Microwave pre-heating of natural rubber using a rectangular wave guide (MODE: TE10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doo-ngam, N.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of microwave radiation for pre-heating of natural rubbercompounding with various sulphur contents. The natural rubber-compounding was pre-heated by microwave radiation using a rectangular wave guide system (MODE: TE10 operating at frequency of 2.45 GHz in which the power can vary from 0 to 1500 W. In the present work, the influence of power input, sample thickness, and sulphur content were examined after applying microwave radiation to the rubber samples. Results are discussed regarding the thermal properties, 3-D network, dielectric properties and chemical structures. From the result, firstly, it was found that microwave radiation can be applied to pre-heating natural rubber-compounding before the vulcanization process. Secondly, microwave radiation was very useful for pre-heating natural rubber-compounding that has a thickness greater than 5mm. Thirdly, crosslinking in natural rubber-compounding may occurs after pre-heating by microwave radiation though Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy(FTIR. Finally, there a little effect of sulphur content on temperature profiles after applying microwave radiation to the natural rubber-compounding. Moreover, natural rubber-compounding without carbon black showed a lower heat absorption compared with natural rubbercompounding filled carbon black. This is due to the difference in dielectric loss factor. This preliminary result will be useful information in terms of microwave radiation for pre-heating natural rubber-compounding and rubber processing in industry.

  17. The dominant mode of standing Alfven waves at the synchronous orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, W.D.; Countee, C.; Lyons, D.; Wiley, W. III

    1975-01-01

    Low-frequency oscillations of the earth's magnetic field recorded by the University of California at Los Angeles magnetometer on board ATS 1 have been examined for the 6-month interval January-June 1968. Using evidence from Ogo 5 and ATS 5 as well as the data from ATS 1, we argue that the dominant mode at ATS 1 must be the fundamental rather than the second harmonic of a standing Alfven wave. We also conclude that these transverse oscillations are more accurately associated with magnetically disturbed days than with quiet days. Both of these results represent changes of tentative conclusions based on our initial analysis. From 14 instances when oscillations of distinctly different periods occurred during the same time interval at ATS 1 we also conclude that higher harmonics can exist. The period ratio in seven of the 14 cases corresponds to the simultaneous occurrence of the second harmonic with the fundamental, and four other cases could be identified as the simultaneous occurrence of the fourth harmonic with the fundamental

  18. Picosecond pulses from wavelength-swept continuous-wave Fourier domain mode-locked lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenwillig, Christoph M; Wieser, Wolfgang; Todor, Sebastian; Biedermann, Benjamin R; Klein, Thomas; Jirauschek, Christian; Huber, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Ultrafast lasers have a crucial function in many fields of science; however, up to now, high-energy pulses directly from compact, efficient and low-power semiconductor lasers are not available. Therefore, we introduce a new approach based on temporal compression of the continuous-wave, wavelength-swept output of Fourier domain mode-locked lasers, where a narrowband optical filter is tuned synchronously to the round-trip time of light in a kilometre-long laser cavity. So far, these rapidly swept lasers enabled orders-of-magnitude speed increase in optical coherence tomography. Here we report on the generation of ~60-70 ps pulses at 390 kHz repetition rate. As energy is stored optically in the long-fibre delay line and not as population inversion in the laser-gain medium, high-energy pulses can now be generated directly from a low-power, compact semiconductor-based oscillator. Our theory predicts subpicosecond pulses with this new technique in the future.

  19. Observations of whistler mode waves in the Jovian system and their consequences for the onboard processing within the RPWI instrument for JUICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolik, O.; Soucek, J.; Kolmasova, I.; Grison, B.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Bergmann, J.

    2013-09-01

    Evidence for a magnetosphere at Ganymede has been found in 1996 using measurements of plasma waves onboard the Galileo spacecraft (fig. 1). This discovery demonstrates the importance of measurements of waves in plasmas around Jovian moons [1]. Galileo also observed whistler-mode waves in the magnetosphere of Ganymede similar to important classes of waves in the Earth magnetosphere: chorus and hiss [2]. Data from the Galileo spacecraft have therefore shown the importance of measurements of waves in plasmas around Jovian moons, especially in the light of recent advances in analysis of whistler-mode waves in the Earth magnetosphere and their importance for acceleration of radiation belt electrons to relativistic energies. Multicomponent measurements of the fluctuating magnetic and electric fields are needed for localization and characterization of source regions of these waves. Radio & Plasma Waves Investigation (RPWI) experiment will be implemented on the JUICE (JUpiter ICy moon Explorer) spacecraft. RPWI is a highly integrated instrument package that provides a comprehensive set of plasma and fields measurements. Proposed measurement modes for the low frequency receiver subsystem of RPWI include onboard processing which will be suitable for analysis of whistler-mode waves: (1) Polarization and propagation analysis based on phase relations to identify wave modes and propagation directions (2) Poynting vector to determine source regions (3) Detailed frequency-time structure, polarization, wave vector directions to identify linear or nonlinear source mechanisms

  20. The magnetic particle in a box: Analytic and micromagnetic analysis of probe-localized spin wave modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adur, Rohan; Du, Chunhui; Manuilov, Sergei A.; Wang, Hailong; Yang, Fengyuan; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Hammel, P. Chris

    2015-05-01

    The dipole field from a probe magnet can be used to localize a discrete spectrum of standing spin wave modes in a continuous ferromagnetic thin film without lithographic modification to the film. Obtaining the resonance field for a localized mode is not trivial due to the effect of the confined and inhomogeneous magnetization precession. We compare the results of micromagnetic and analytic methods to find the resonance field of localized modes in a ferromagnetic thin film, and investigate the accuracy of these methods by comparing with a numerical minimization technique that assumes Bessel function modes with pinned boundary conditions. We find that the micromagnetic technique, while computationally more intensive, reveals that the true magnetization profiles of localized modes are similar to Bessel functions with gradually decaying dynamic magnetization at the mode edges. We also find that an analytic solution, which is simple to implement and computationally much faster than other methods, accurately describes the resonance field of localized modes when exchange fields are negligible, and demonstrating the accessibility of localized mode analysis.

  1. A Single MO-CFTA Based Electronically/Temperature Insensitive Current-mode Half-wave and Full-wave Rectifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Weerapon Kongnun; Phamorn Silapan

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a current-mode full-wave rectifier employing multiple output current follower transconductance amplifier (MO-CFTA). The both circuits description is very simple, it merely comprises only single MO-CFTA, without external passive element. In addition, the magnitude and direction of output currents can be controlled via electronically method. Furthermore, the outputs are independent of the thermal voltage (VT). The performances of the proposed circuits are investigated thro...

  2. Fast waves mode conversion and energy deposition in simulated, pre-heated, neoclassical, tight aspect ratio tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruma, C.; Komoshvili, K. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics and Astronomy; Coll. of Judea and Samaria, Ariel (Israel); Cuperman, S. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics and Astronomy

    2000-11-01

    Some basic aspects of wave-plasma interaction of special interest for tight aspect ratio (spherical) tokamaks (ST's) are investigated numerically; these aspects include fast mode conversion and energy deposition. The study is based on the numerical solution of the full electro-magnetic (e.m.) wave equation which includes a quite general two-fluid, resistive MHD dielectric tensor, with consideration of equilibrium current and neoclassical effects. A generalized expression for the power absorption appropriate for the above scenario, with consideration of all the basic effects also present in the dielectric tensor-operator, was derived and used. The current-carrying ST-plasma has a circular cross-section and toroidicity effects are simulated by a Grad-Shafranov type, radially dependent axial magnetic field and its shear; however, the Shafranov shift is not considered. Actually, the equilibrium parameters and radial profiles (magnetic field, pressure and current) observed in the low field side (LFS) of spherical tokamaks (viz., START at Culham, UK) are used. Fast magnetosonic waves are launched from an external antenna into this simulated spherical tokamak plasma; these waves are converted to Alfven waves at points (layers) satisfying the Alfven resonance condition. Quantitative-results concerning (i) the structure and space dependence of the mode-converted Alfven waves and (ii) the basic features of the deposited power are presented. Their dependence on the equilibrium plasma current, neoclassical resistivity and electron inertia as well as on those of the antenna launched wave (wave numbers, frequency and current intensity) is systematically studied and discussed. (orig.)

  3. Fast waves mode conversion and energy deposition in simulated, pre-heated, neoclassical, tight aspect ratio tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruma, C.; Komoshvili, K.; Cuperman, S.

    2000-01-01

    Some basic aspects of wave-plasma interaction of special interest for tight aspect ratio (spherical) tokamaks (ST's) are investigated numerically; these aspects include fast mode conversion and energy deposition. The study is based on the numerical solution of the full electro-magnetic (e.m.) wave equation which includes a quite general two-fluid, resistive MHD dielectric tensor, with consideration of equilibrium current and neoclassical effects. A generalized expression for the power absorption appropriate for the above scenario, with consideration of all the basic effects also present in the dielectric tensor-operator, was derived and used. The current-carrying ST-plasma has a circular cross-section and toroidicity effects are simulated by a Grad-Shafranov type, radially dependent axial magnetic field and its shear; however, the Shafranov shift is not considered. Actually, the equilibrium parameters and radial profiles (magnetic field, pressure and current) observed in the low field side (LFS) of spherical tokamaks (viz., START at Culham, UK) are used. Fast magnetosonic waves are launched from an external antenna into this simulated spherical tokamak plasma; these waves are converted to Alfven waves at points (layers) satisfying the Alfven resonance condition. Quantitative-results concerning (i) the structure and space dependence of the mode-converted Alfven waves and (ii) the basic features of the deposited power are presented. Their dependence on the equilibrium plasma current, neoclassical resistivity and electron inertia as well as on those of the antenna launched wave (wave numbers, frequency and current intensity) is systematically studied and discussed. (orig.)

  4. The Main Principles of Formation of the Transverse Modes in the Multilayered Waveguides of Surface Acoustic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveshnikov, B. V.; Bagdasaryan, A. S.

    2016-07-01

    We develop a self-consistent model allowing one to analyze the properties of the interdigital transducer of the surface acoustic waves as a symmetric five-layered waveguide on a piezoelectric substrate with three possible values of the phase velocity of the acoustic-wave propagation along the longitudinal axis of the system. The transcendental dispersion relation for describing the waves in such a system is derived and the method for its instructive graphic analysis is proposed. The condition under which only the fundamental transverse mode is excited in the waveguide is formulated. The method for calculating the normalized power and the transverse distribution of the field of the continuous-spectrum waves radiated from the considered waveguide is described. It is shown that the characteristic spatial scale of the longitudinal damping of the amplitude of this field at the waveguide center can be a qualitative estimate of the transverse-mode formation length. The efficiency of a new method for suppressing the higher-order transverse waveguide modes is demonstrated.

  5. Acoustic mode coupling induced by shallow water nonlinear internal waves: sensitivity to environmental conditions and space-time scales of internal waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colosi, John A

    2008-09-01

    While many results have been intuited from numerical simulation studies, the precise connections between shallow-water acoustic variability and the space-time scales of nonlinear internal waves (NLIWs) as well as the background environmental conditions have not been clearly established analytically. Two-dimensional coupled mode propagation through NLIWs is examined using a perturbation series solution in which each order n is associated with nth-order multiple scattering. Importantly, the perturbation solution gives resonance conditions that pick out specific NLIW scales that cause coupling, and seabed attenuation is demonstrated to broaden these resonances, fundamentally changing the coupling behavior at low frequency. Sound-speed inhomogeneities caused by internal solitary waves (ISWs) are primarily considered and the dependence of mode coupling on ISW amplitude, range width, depth structure, location relative to the source, and packet characteristics are delineated as a function of acoustic frequency. In addition, it is seen that significant energy transfer to modes with initially low or zero energy involves at least a second order scattering process. Under moderate scattering conditions, comparisons of first order, single scattering theoretical predictions to direct numerical simulation demonstrate the accuracy of the approach for acoustic frequencies upto 400 Hz and for single as well as multiple ISW wave packets.

  6. Phonon Self-Energy Corrections to Nonzero Wave-Vector Phonon Modes in Single-Layer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, P. T.; Mafra, D. L.; Sato, K.; Saito, R.; Kong, J.; Dresselhaus, M. S.

    2012-07-01

    Phonon self-energy corrections have mostly been studied theoretically and experimentally for phonon modes with zone-center (q=0) wave vectors. Here, gate-modulated Raman scattering is used to study phonons of a single layer of graphene originating from a double-resonant Raman process with q≠0. The observed phonon renormalization effects are different from what is observed for the zone-center q=0 case. To explain our experimental findings, we explored the phonon self-energy for the phonons with nonzero wave vectors (q≠0) in single-layer graphene in which the frequencies and decay widths are expected to behave oppositely to the behavior observed in the corresponding zone-center q=0 processes. Within this framework, we resolve the identification of the phonon modes contributing to the G⋆ Raman feature at 2450cm-1 to include the iTO+LA combination modes with q≠0 and also the 2iTO overtone modes with q=0, showing both to be associated with wave vectors near the high symmetry point K in the Brillouin zone.

  7. Stimulated scattering of electromagnetic waves by magnetosonic modes in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenflo, L.

    1985-01-01

    The dispersion relation for magnetosonic waves in a dissipative plasma, which is penetrated by a high-frequency electromagnetic wave, is derived. Previous results are generalized and discussed. (author)

  8. Demonstration of a High-Order Mode Input Coupler for a 220-GHz Confocal Gyrotron Traveling Wave Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiaotong; Fu, Wenjie; Yan, Yang

    2018-02-01

    A design of high-order mode input coupler for 220-GHz confocal gyrotron travelling wave tube is proposed, simulated, and demonstrated by experimental tests. This input coupler is designed to excite confocal TE 06 mode from rectangle waveguide TE 10 mode over a broadband frequency range. Simulation results predict that the optimized conversion loss is about 2.72 dB with a mode purity excess of 99%. Considering of the gyrotron interaction theory, an effective bandwidth of 5 GHz is obtained, in which the beam-wave coupling efficiency is higher than half of maximum. The field pattern under low power demonstrates that TE 06 mode is successfully excited in confocal waveguide at 220 GHz. Cold test results from the vector network analyzer perform good agreements with simulation results. Both simulation and experimental results illustrate that the reflection at input port S11 is sensitive to the perpendicular separation of two mirrors. It provides an engineering possibility for estimating the assembly precision.

  9. Localized spin-wave modes in a triangular magnetic element studied by micro-focused Brillouin light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, S.; Kwon, J.-H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of); Grünberg, P. [Grünberg Center for Magnetic Nanomaterials, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, B.K., E-mail: chobk@gist.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-01

    Highlights: • Direct evidence of localized mode in a triangular nano-magnet using μ-BLS. • Localized regions are identified by the internal field distribution. • The spatially resolved measurement was performed to obtain 2-D intensity map. • Spin modes in same positions can be distinguish comparing with simulated spectrum. • Localized modes were identified by comparing with the simulated spatial profiles. - Abstract: Localized spin-wave modes, which were thermally excited at a specific position in a triangular magnetic element, were investigated using micro-focused Brillouin light scattering in two saturated states, the buckle and Y-states, with an applied magnetic field of 0.24 T parallel and perpendicular to the basal edge, respectively. The measured frequency spectrum at a specific beam spot position, rather than an integrated spectrum, was analyzed by comparing it with the simulation data at a precisely selected position within the beam spot area. The analyzed results were used to plot a two-dimensional intensity map and simulation spatial profile to verify the validity of the analysis. From the analysis process, two localized spin-wave modes in a triangular magnetic element were successfully identified near the apex region in the buckle state and near the basal edge region in the Y-state.

  10. Full-vectorial propagation model and modified effective mode area of four-wave mixing in straight waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Kai; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge

    2017-01-01

    We derive from Maxwell's equations full-vectorial nonlinear propagation equations of four-wave mixing valid in straight semiconductor-on-insulator waveguides. Special attention is given to the resulting effective mode area, which takes a convenient form known from studies in photonic crystal fibers......, but has not been introduced in the context of integrated waveguides. We show that the difference between our full-vectorial effective mode area and the scalar equivalent often referred to in the literature may lead to mistakes when evaluating the nonlinear refractive index and optimizing designs of new...

  11. TUNING IN TO FISH SWIMMING WAVES - BODY FORM, SWIMMING MODE AND MUSCLE FUNCTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WARDLE, CS; VIDELER, JJ; ALTRINGHAM, JD

    Most fish species swim with lateral body undulations running from head to tail, These waves run more slowly than the waves of muscle activation causing them, reflecting the effect of the interaction between the fish's body and the reactive forces from the water, The coupling between both waves

  12. Spin wave mode coexistence on the nanoscale: A consequence of the Oersted field induced asymmetric energy landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Randy

    2014-03-01

    The emerging field of magnonics relies on the systematic generation, manipulation, and detection of spin waves (SWs). Nanocontact spin torque oscillators (NC-STOs) provide an ideal platform to study spin transfer torque induced SW emission. In analogy to two species competing for the same food supply it has been argued that only one SW mode can survive in the steady state. However, as evidenced in many experiments clear signatures of mode-hopping are often observed. Here, we present a third possibility, namely that under the correct experimental conditions, mode coexistencecan be realized in NC-STOs. Micromagnetic simulations reveal that the SW modes are spatially separated under the NC. Mode coexistence is facilitated by the local field asymmetries induced by the spatially inhomogeneous Oersted field in the vicinity of the NC and further promoted by SW localization. Finally, both simulation and experiment reveal a weak low frequency signal exactly at the difference of the mode frequencies, consistent with inter-modulation of two coexistent modes. The Swedish Research Council, The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research, and the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation are acknowledged. ANL is a US DOE Science Laboratory operated under contract no. DE-AC02-06CH11357 by UChicago Argonne, LLC.

  13. Tunable rotary orbits of matter-wave nonlinear modes in attractive Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Y J; Wang, H Z; Malomed, Boris A; Mihalache, Dumitru

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that by spatially modulating the Bessel optical lattice where a Bose-Einstein condensate is loaded, we get tunable rotary orbits of nonlinear lattice modes. We show that the radially expanding or shrinking Bessel lattice can drag the nonlinear localized modes to orbits of either larger or smaller radii and the rotary velocity of nonlinear modes can be changed accordingly. The localized modes can even be transferred to the Bessel lattice core when the localized modes' rotations are stopped. Effects beyond the quasi-particle approximation such as destruction of the nonlinear modes by nonadiabatic dragging are also explored

  14. Benchmarking of a T-wave alternans detection method based on empirical mode decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Velasco, Manuel; Goya-Esteban, Rebeca; Cruz-Roldán, Fernando; García-Alberola, Arcadi; Rojo-Álvarez, José Luis

    2017-07-01

    T-wave alternans (TWA) is a fluctuation of the ST-T complex occurring on an every-other-beat basis of the surface electrocardiogram (ECG). It has been shown to be an informative risk stratifier for sudden cardiac death, though the lack of gold standard to benchmark detection methods has promoted the use of synthetic signals. This work proposes a novel signal model to study the performance of a TWA detection. Additionally, the methodological validation of a denoising technique based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD), which is used here along with the spectral method, is also tackled. The proposed test bed system is based on the following guidelines: (1) use of open source databases to enable experimental replication; (2) use of real ECG signals and physiological noise; (3) inclusion of randomized TWA episodes. Both sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) are separately analyzed. Also a nonparametric hypothesis test, based on Bootstrap resampling, is used to determine whether the presence of the EMD block actually improves the performance. The results show an outstanding specificity when the EMD block is used, even in very noisy conditions (0.96 compared to 0.72 for SNR = 8 dB), being always superior than that of the conventional SM alone. Regarding the sensitivity, using the EMD method also outperforms in noisy conditions (0.57 compared to 0.46 for SNR=8 dB), while it decreases in noiseless conditions. The proposed test setting designed to analyze the performance guarantees that the actual physiological variability of the cardiac system is reproduced. The use of the EMD-based block in noisy environment enables the identification of most patients with fatal arrhythmias. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Synchronization of propagating spin-wave modes in a double-contact spin-torque oscillator: A micromagnetic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puliafito, V.; Consolo, G.; Lopez-Diaz, L.; Azzerboni, B.

    2014-01-01

    This work tackles theoretical investigations on the synchronization of spin-wave modes generated by spin-transfer-torque in a double nano-contact geometry. The interaction mechanisms between the resulting oscillators are analyzed in the case of propagating modes which are excited via a normal-to-plane magnetic bias field. To characterize the underlying physical mechanisms, a multi-domain analysis is performed. It makes use of an equivalent electrical circuit, to deduce the output electrical power, and of micromagnetic simulations, through which information on the frequency spectra and on the spatial distribution of the wavefront of the emitted spin-waves is extracted. This study provides further and intriguing insights into the physical mechanisms giving rise to synchronization of spin-torque oscillators

  16. Optimal Control of a Surge-Mode WEC in Random Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertok, Allan [Resolute Marine Energy, Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Ceberio, Olivier [Resolute Marine Energy, Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Staby, Bill [Resolute Marine Energy, Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Previsic, Mirko [Re Vision Consulting, Sacramento, CA (United States); Scruggs, Jeffrey [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Van de Ven, James [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-08-30

    The objective of this project was to develop one or more real-time feedback and feed-forward (MPC) control algorithms for an Oscillating Surge Wave Converter (OSWC) developed by RME called SurgeWEC™ that leverages recent innovations in wave energy converter (WEC) control theory to maximize power production in random wave environments. The control algorithms synthesized innovations in dynamic programming and nonlinear wave dynamics using anticipatory wave sensors and localized sensor measurements; e.g. position and velocity of the WEC Power Take Off (PTO), with predictive wave forecasting data. The result was an advanced control system that uses feedback or feed-forward data from an array of sensor channels comprised of both localized and deployed sensors fused into a single decision process that optimally compensates for uncertainties in the system dynamics, wave forecasts, and sensor measurement errors.

  17. The Properties of Lion Roars and Electron Dynamics in Mirror Mode Waves Observed by the Magnetospheric MultiScale Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuillard, H.; Le Contel, O.; Chust, T.; Berthomier, M.; Retino, A.; Turner, D. L.; Nakamura, R.; Baumjohann, W.; Cozzani, G.; Catapano, F.; Alexandrova, A.; Mirioni, L.; Graham, D. B.; Argall, M. R.; Fischer, D.; Wilder, F. D.; Gershman, D. J.; Varsani, A.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Marklund, G.; Ergun, R. E.; Goodrich, K. A.; Ahmadi, N.; Burch, J. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Needell, G.; Chutter, M.; Rau, D.; Dors, I.; Russell, C. T.; Magnes, W.; Strangeway, R. J.; Bromund, K. R.; Wei, H.; Plaschke, F.; Anderson, B. J.; Le, G.; Moore, T. E.; Giles, B. L.; Paterson, W. R.; Pollock, C. J.; Dorelli, J. C.; Avanov, L. A.; Saito, Y.; Lavraud, B.; Fuselier, S. A.; Mauk, B. H.; Cohen, I. J.; Fennell, J. F.

    2018-01-01

    Mirror mode waves are ubiquitous in the Earth's magnetosheath, in particular behind the quasi-perpendicular shock. Embedded in these nonlinear structures, intense lion roars are often observed. Lion roars are characterized by whistler wave packets at a frequency ˜100 Hz, which are thought to be generated in the magnetic field minima. In this study, we make use of the high time resolution instruments on board the Magnetospheric MultiScale mission to investigate these waves and the associated electron dynamics in the quasi-perpendicular magnetosheath on 22 January 2016. We show that despite a core electron parallel anisotropy, lion roars can be generated locally in the range 0.05-0.2fce by the perpendicular anisotropy of electrons in a particular energy range. We also show that intense lion roars can be observed up to higher frequencies due to the sharp nonlinear peaks of the signal, which appear as sharp spikes in the dynamic spectra. As a result, a high sampling rate is needed to estimate correctly their amplitude, and the latter might have been underestimated in previous studies using lower time resolution instruments. We also present for the first-time 3-D high time resolution electron velocity distribution functions in mirror modes. We demonstrate that the dynamics of electrons trapped in the mirror mode structures are consistent with the Kivelson and Southwood (1996) model. However, these electrons can also interact with the embedded lion roars: first signatures of electron quasi-linear pitch angle diffusion and possible signatures of nonlinear interaction with high-amplitude wave packets are presented. These processes can lead to electron untrapping from mirror modes.

  18. High-frequency dual mode pulsed wave Doppler imaging for monitoring the functional regeneration of adult zebrafish hearts

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Bong Jin; Park, Jinhyoung; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Hyung Ham; Lee, Changyang; Hwang, Jae Youn; Lien, Ching-Ling; Shung, K. Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Adult zebrafish is a well-known small animal model for studying heart regeneration. Although the regeneration of scars made by resecting the ventricular apex has been visualized with histological methods, there is no adequate imaging tool for tracking the functional recovery of the damaged heart. For this reason, high-frequency Doppler echocardiography using dual mode pulsed wave Doppler, which provides both tissue Doppler (TD) and Doppler flow in a same cardiac cycle, is developed with a 30 ...

  19. Evidence for crustal low shear-wave speed in western Saudi Arabia from multi-scale fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group-velocity tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Zheng

    2018-05-15

    We investigate the crustal and upper-mantle shear-velocity structure of Saudi Arabia by fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group-velocity tomography and shear-wave velocity inversion. The seismic dataset is compiled using ∼140 stations of the Saudi National Seismic Network (SNSN) operated by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). We measure Rayleigh-wave group-velocities at periods of 8–40 s from regional earthquakes. After obtaining 1-D shear-wave velocity models by inverting group-velocities at each grid node, we construct a 3-D shear-velocity model for Saudi Arabia and adjacent regions by interpolating the 1-D models. Our 3-D model indicates significant lateral variations in crustal and lithospheric thickness, as well as in the shear-wave velocity over the study region. In particular, we identify zones of reduced shear-wave speed at crustal levels beneath the Cenozoic volcanic fields in the Arabian Shield. The inferred reductions of 2–5% in shear-wave speed may be interpreted as possibly indicating the presence of partial melts. However, their precise origin we can only speculate about. Our study also reveals an upper-mantle low velocity zone (LVZ) below the Arabian Shield, supporting the model of lateral mantle flow from the Afar plume. Further geophysical experiments are needed to confirm (or refute) the hypothesis that partial melts may exist below the Cenozoic volcanism in western Saudi Arabia, and to build a comprehensive geodynamic–geological model for the evolution and present state of the lithosphere of the Arabian Plate and the Red Sea.

  20. Evidence for crustal low shear-wave speed in western Saudi Arabia from multi-scale fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group-velocity tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Zheng; Mai, Paul Martin; Chang, Sung-Joon; Zahran, Hani

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the crustal and upper-mantle shear-velocity structure of Saudi Arabia by fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave group-velocity tomography and shear-wave velocity inversion. The seismic dataset is compiled using ∼140 stations of the Saudi National Seismic Network (SNSN) operated by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). We measure Rayleigh-wave group-velocities at periods of 8–40 s from regional earthquakes. After obtaining 1-D shear-wave velocity models by inverting group-velocities at each grid node, we construct a 3-D shear-velocity model for Saudi Arabia and adjacent regions by interpolating the 1-D models. Our 3-D model indicates significant lateral variations in crustal and lithospheric thickness, as well as in the shear-wave velocity over the study region. In particular, we identify zones of reduced shear-wave speed at crustal levels beneath the Cenozoic volcanic fields in the Arabian Shield. The inferred reductions of 2–5% in shear-wave speed may be interpreted as possibly indicating the presence of partial melts. However, their precise origin we can only speculate about. Our study also reveals an upper-mantle low velocity zone (LVZ) below the Arabian Shield, supporting the model of lateral mantle flow from the Afar plume. Further geophysical experiments are needed to confirm (or refute) the hypothesis that partial melts may exist below the Cenozoic volcanism in western Saudi Arabia, and to build a comprehensive geodynamic–geological model for the evolution and present state of the lithosphere of the Arabian Plate and the Red Sea.

  1. The role of plasma radius as a condition for sustaining a coaxial discharge at various wave modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, K; Bogdanov, T; Benova, E

    2012-01-01

    A gas discharge can be produced and sustained by travelling electromagnetic waves in various geometries: planar, spherical, cylindrical and coaxial. An electromagnetic wave travelling along a dielectric tube can produce plasma outside the tube when a metal rod is placed along the tube axis, which is the typical arrangement of a coaxial surface-wave-sustained discharge (CSWD). The CSWD has been studied intensively both theoretically and experimentally since 1998. In the case of a SWD in cylindrical geometry, plasma is mainly produced and sustained by the azimuthally symmetric waves. In coaxial geometry, there are both experimental and theoretical indications showing that higher wave modes may also produce and sustain plasma under certain conditions. In order to find out these conditions theoretically, we developed a one-dimensional fluid model. The purpose of this work is to investigate theoretically the behavior of wave phase diagrams under various discharge conditions and to find the discharge conditions under which plasma can be produced, as well as those conditions when this is not possible.

  2. Whimsicality of multi-mode Hasegawa space-charge waves in a complex plasma containing collision-dominated electrons and streaming ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae

    2017-09-01

    The influence of collision-dominated electrons on multi-mode Hasegawa space-charge waves are investigated in a complex plasma containing streaming ions. The dispersion relation for the multi-mode Hasegawa space-charge wave propagating in a cylindrical waveguide filled with dusty plasma containing collision-dominated electrons and streaming ions is derived by using the fluid equations and Poisson’s equation which lead to a Bessel equation. By the boundary condition, the roots of the Bessel function would characterize the property of space-charge wave propagation. It is found that two solutions exist for wave frequency, which are affected by the radius of waveguide and the roots of the Bessel function. The damping and growing modes are found to be enhanced by an increase of the radius. However, an increase of electron collision frequency would suppress the damping and the growing modes of the propagating space-charge wave in a cylindrical waveguide plasma.

  3. Numerical investigation of the propagation of elastic wave modes in a one-dimensional phononic crystal plate coated on a uniform substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Zhilin; Assouar, Badreddine M

    2009-01-01

    The propagation of wave modes in a two-layer free standing plate composed of a one-dimensional phononic crystal (PC) thin layer coated on a uniform substrate was investigated numerically by the modified plane wave expansion method. The band structures of the system with different thicknesses of the substrate were calculated. The numerical result showed that Bragg scattering by the periodic structure in a PC and wave scattering by the free surface could be coupled to each other with an added substrate layer. The properties of the confined modes in such a system, for example, the Love-wave-like mode, the confined PC mode (which is localized mainly in the PC layer) and the surface mode on the free surface of the substrate layer, were investigated.

  4. SWRT: A package for semi-analytical solutions of surface wave propagation, including mode conversion, across transversely aligned vertical discontinuities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Arjun

    2018-03-01

    We present a suite of programs that implement decades-old algorithms for computation of seismic surface wave reflection and transmission coefficients at a welded contact between two laterally homogeneous quarter-spaces. For Love as well as Rayleigh waves, the algorithms are shown to be capable of modelling multiple mode conversions at a lateral discontinuity, which was not shown in the original publications or in the subsequent literature. Only normal incidence at a lateral boundary is considered so there is no Love-Rayleigh coupling, but incidence of any mode and coupling to any (other) mode can be handled. The code is written in Python and makes use of SciPy's Simpson's rule integrator and NumPy's linear algebra solver for its core functionality. Transmission-side results from this code are found to be in good agreement with those from finite-difference simulations. In today's research environment of extensive computing power, the coded algorithms are arguably redundant but SWRT can be used as a valuable testing tool for the ever evolving numerical solvers of seismic wave propagation. SWRT is available via GitHub (https://github.com/arjundatta23/SWRT.git).

  5. SWRT: A package for semi-analytical solutions of surface wave propagation, including mode conversion, across transversely aligned vertical discontinuities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Datta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a suite of programs that implement decades-old algorithms for computation of seismic surface wave reflection and transmission coefficients at a welded contact between two laterally homogeneous quarter-spaces. For Love as well as Rayleigh waves, the algorithms are shown to be capable of modelling multiple mode conversions at a lateral discontinuity, which was not shown in the original publications or in the subsequent literature. Only normal incidence at a lateral boundary is considered so there is no Love–Rayleigh coupling, but incidence of any mode and coupling to any (other mode can be handled. The code is written in Python and makes use of SciPy's Simpson's rule integrator and NumPy's linear algebra solver for its core functionality. Transmission-side results from this code are found to be in good agreement with those from finite-difference simulations. In today's research environment of extensive computing power, the coded algorithms are arguably redundant but SWRT can be used as a valuable testing tool for the ever evolving numerical solvers of seismic wave propagation. SWRT is available via GitHub (https://github.com/arjundatta23/SWRT.git.

  6. A numerical model for ocean ultra-low frequency noise: wave-generated acoustic-gravity and Rayleigh modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardhuin, Fabrice; Lavanant, Thibaut; Obrebski, Mathias; Marié, Louis; Royer, Jean-Yves; d'Eu, Jean-François; Howe, Bruce M; Lukas, Roger; Aucan, Jerome

    2013-10-01

    The generation of ultra-low frequency acoustic noise (0.1 to 1 Hz) by the nonlinear interaction of ocean surface gravity waves is well established. More controversial are the quantitative theories that attempt to predict the recorded noise levels and their variability. Here a single theoretical framework is used to predict the noise level associated with propagating pseudo-Rayleigh modes and evanescent acoustic-gravity modes. The latter are dominant only within 200 m from the sea surface, in shallow or deep water. At depths larger than 500 m, the comparison of a numerical noise model with hydrophone records from two open-ocean sites near Hawaii and the Kerguelen islands reveal: (a) Deep ocean acoustic noise at frequencies 0.1 to 1 Hz is consistent with the Rayleigh wave theory, in which the presence of the ocean bottom amplifies the noise by 10 to 20 dB; (b) in agreement with previous results, the local maxima in the noise spectrum support the theoretical prediction for the vertical structure of acoustic modes; and (c) noise level and variability are well predicted for frequencies up to 0.4 Hz. Above 0.6 Hz, the model results are less accurate, probably due to the poor estimation of the directional properties of wind-waves with frequencies higher than 0.3 Hz.

  7. Measurement of current drive profile using electron cyclotron wave attenuation near the O-mode cut-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidone, I.

    1991-01-01

    A method for determining the radial profile of the lower-hybrid current drive in tokamaks uing electron-cyclotron attenuation of the O-mode for frequencies ω near the cut-off frequency is discussed. The basic idea is that for a given wave frequency, the cut-off plays the role of a spatial filter selecting a variable portion of the non-inductive current. It is shown that the incremental attenuation resulting from a small increase of ω displays specific features related to the current density near the cut-off point. Using the relation between the wave damping and the current density it is possible to determine the radial profile of the current drive from the wave attenuation measurements. A numerical application is also presented for plasma parameters in the reactor regime

  8. Unsteady heat-flux measurements of second-mode instability waves in a hypersonic flat-plate boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegerise, Michael A.; Rufer, Shann J.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we report on the application of the atomic layer thermopile (ALTP) heat-flux sensor to the measurement of laminar-to-turbulent transition in a hypersonic flat-plate boundary layer. The centerline of the flat-plate model was instrumented with a streamwise array of ALTP sensors, and the flat-plate model was exposed to a Mach 6 freestream over a range of unit Reynolds numbers. Here, we observed an unstable band of frequencies that are associated with second-mode instability waves in the laminar boundary layer that forms on the flat-plate surface. The measured frequencies, group velocities, phase speeds, and wavelengths of these instability waves are consistent with data previously reported in the literature. Heat flux time series, and the Morlet wavelet transforms of them, revealed the wave-packet nature of the second-mode instability waves. In addition, a laser-based radiative heating system was used to measure the frequency response functions (FRF) of the ALTP sensors used in the wind tunnel test. These measurements were used to assess the stability of the sensor FRFs over time and to correct spectral estimates for any attenuation caused by the finite sensor bandwidth.

  9. EVIDENCE OF THERMAL CONDUCTION SUPPRESSION IN A SOLAR FLARING LOOP BY CORONAL SEISMOLOGY OF SLOW-MODE WAVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tongjiang; Ofman, Leon; Provornikova, Elena; Sun, Xudong; Davila, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of a longitudinal wave event observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory is presented. A time sequence of 131 Å images reveals that a C-class flare occurred at one footpoint of a large loop and triggered an intensity disturbance (enhancement) propagating along it. The spatial features and temporal evolution suggest that a fundamental standing slow-mode wave could be set up quickly after meeting of two initial disturbances from the opposite footpoints. The oscillations have a period of ∼12 minutes and a decay time of ∼9 minutes. The measured phase speed of 500 ± 50 km s −1 matches the sound speed in the heated loop of ∼10 MK, confirming that the observed waves are of slow mode. We derive the time-dependent temperature and electron density wave signals from six AIA extreme-ultraviolet channels, and find that they are nearly in phase. The measured polytropic index from the temperature and density perturbations is 1.64 ± 0.08 close to the adiabatic index of 5/3 for an ideal monatomic gas. The interpretation based on a 1D linear MHD model suggests that the thermal conductivity is suppressed by at least a factor of 3 in the hot flare loop at 9 MK and above. The viscosity coefficient is determined by coronal seismology from the observed wave when only considering the compressive viscosity dissipation. We find that to interpret the rapid wave damping, the classical compressive viscosity coefficient needs to be enhanced by a factor of 15 as the upper limit

  10. Reduction of the heat leak in superconducting system at half-wave-rectified current mode by peltier current lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Takayuki; Ohtaki, Naohiro; Nakamura, Keiji; Yamaguchi, Satarou; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro

    2002-01-01

    Experiments of Peltier current lead (PCL) were performed by the way of half-wave-rectified current (HWRC) for an evaluation of the PCL system in the drive with the large-rippled current. The current ripple of the HWRC is large, and we discussed the cooling capability of the current ripple. The experimental results revealed that the temperature difference of the thermoelectric-element (TE) increased with the magnitude of the current in the PCL system, despite the large current ripple. Calorimetric measurements revealed that the PCL reduced the heat leak of 60% for the peak current 90A. We compared the PCL systems of the direct current (dc) mode and the HWRC mode. The results showed that the current dependence of the temperature difference in the HWRC mode did not match that of the dc mode, but those of the heat leak matched well. The performance of the Peltier cooling in the HWRC mode is reduced to be 2/π time of the Seebeck coefficient for the dc mode by using the time-average method. (author)

  11. Reduction of the heat leak in superconducting system at half-wave-rectified current mode by peltier current lead

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaguchi, T; Nakamura, K; Yamaguchi, S; Hasegawa, Y

    2002-01-01

    Experiments of Peltier current lead (PCL) were performed by the way of half-wave-rectified current (HWRC) for an evaluation of the PCL system in the drive with the large-rippled current. The current ripple of the HWRC is large, and we discussed the cooling capability of the current ripple. The experimental results revealed that the temperature difference of the thermoelectric-element (TE) increased with the magnitude of the current in the PCL system, despite the large current ripple. Calorimetric measurements revealed that the PCL reduced the heat leak of 60% for the peak current 90A. We compared the PCL systems of the direct current (dc) mode and the HWRC mode. The results showed that the current dependence of the temperature difference in the HWRC mode did not match that of the dc mode, but those of the heat leak matched well. The performance of the Peltier cooling in the HWRC mode is reduced to be 2/pi time of the Seebeck coefficient for the dc mode by using the time-average method. (author)

  12. Gain analysis of higher-order-mode amplification in a dielectric-implanted multi-beam traveling wave structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, Anthony; Shin, Young-Min

    2013-01-01

    A multi-beam traveling wave amplifier designed with an overmoded staggered double grating array was examined by small signal analysis combined with simulation. Eigenmode and S-parameter analyses show that the 2cm long slow wave structure (SWS) has 1-5dB insertion loss over the passband (TM31 mode) with ~28% cold bandwidth. Analytic gain calculation indicates that in the SWS, TM31-mode is amplified with 15–20 dB/beam at 64–84GHz with three elliptical beams of 10kV and 150mA/beam, which was compared with particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. PIC analysis on the analysis of instability with zero-input driving excitations demonstrated that background noises and non-operating lower order modes are noticeably suppressed by implanting equidistant dielectric absorbers; the overmoded structure only allowed the desired 3rd order mode to propagate in the structure. The designed circuit structure can be widely applied to multi-beam devices for high power RF generation.

  13. Gain analysis of higher-order-mode amplification in a dielectric-implanted multi-beam traveling wave structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, Anthony; Shin, Young-Min

    2013-01-01

    A multi-beam traveling wave amplifier designed with an overmoded staggered double grating array was examined by small signal analysis combined with simulation. Eigenmode and S-parameter analyses show that the 2 cm long slow wave structure (SWS) has 1–5 dB insertion loss over the passband (TM 31 mode) with ∼28% cold bandwidth. Analytic gain calculation indicates that in the SWS, TM 31 -mode is amplified with 15–20 dB/beam at 64–84 GHz with three elliptical beams of 10 kV and 150 mA/beam, which was compared with particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. PIC analysis on the analysis of instability with zero-input driving excitations demonstrated that background noises and non-operating lower order modes are noticeably suppressed by implanting equidistant dielectric absorbers; the overmoded structure only allowed the desired 3rd order mode to propagate in the structure. The designed circuit structure can be widely applied to multi-beam devices for high power RF generation

  14. Characteristics of enhanced-mode AlGaN/GaN MIS HEMTs for millimeter wave applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Min; Ahn, Ho-Kyun; Jung, Hyun-Wook; Shin, Min Jeong; Lim, Jong-Won

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, an enhanced-mode (E-mode) AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) was developed by using 4-inch GaN HEMT process. We designed and fabricated Emode HEMTs and characterized device performance. To estimate the possibility of application for millimeter wave applications, we focused on the high frequency performance and power characteristics. To shift the threshold voltage of HEMTs we applied the Al2O3 insulator to the gate structure and adopted the gate recess technique. To increase the frequency performance the e-beam lithography technique was used to define the 0.15 um gate length. To evaluate the dc and high frequency performance, electrical characterization was performed. The threshold voltage was measured to be positive value by linear extrapolation from the transfer curve. The device leakage current is comparable to that of the depletion mode device. The current gain cut-off frequency and the maximum oscillation frequency of the E-mode device with a total gate width of 150 um were 55 GHz and 168 GHz, respectively. To confirm the power performance for mm-wave applications the load-pull test was performed. The measured power density of 2.32 W/mm was achieved at frequencies of 28 and 30 GHz.

  15. TEMPERATURE ANISOTROPY IN THE PRESENCE OF ULTRA LOW FREQUENCY WAVES IN THE TERRESTRIAL FORESHOCK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selzer, L. A.; Hnat, B.; Osman, K. T.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Eastwood, J. P.; Burgess, D.

    2014-01-01

    We report the first study of the correlation between elevated solar wind core plasma temperatures and temperature anisotropy in the terrestrial foreshock. Plasma temperature is enhanced near the fire hose marginal stability threshold in the presence of ultra low frequency (ULF) large amplitude magnetic perturbations, which are intrinsically right-hand circularly polarized. Direct comparison of contemporaneous anisotropic temperatures in the upstream solar wind and the foreshock suggests that the net heating of plasma is mediated via increase of the parallel temperature in the foreshock region where the ULF waves are present. We consider the possibility that a mechanism based on Landau damping, where solar wind plasma temperature parallel to the background magnetic field is increased by interaction with oblique compressible fast magneto-acoustic ULF waves, influences temperature anisotropy

  16. TEMPERATURE ANISOTROPY IN THE PRESENCE OF ULTRA LOW FREQUENCY WAVES IN THE TERRESTRIAL FORESHOCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selzer, L. A.; Hnat, B.; Osman, K. T.; Nakariakov, V. M. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Eastwood, J. P. [Space and Atmospheric Physics, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Burgess, D., E-mail: L.A.Selzer@warwick.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-10

    We report the first study of the correlation between elevated solar wind core plasma temperatures and temperature anisotropy in the terrestrial foreshock. Plasma temperature is enhanced near the fire hose marginal stability threshold in the presence of ultra low frequency (ULF) large amplitude magnetic perturbations, which are intrinsically right-hand circularly polarized. Direct comparison of contemporaneous anisotropic temperatures in the upstream solar wind and the foreshock suggests that the net heating of plasma is mediated via increase of the parallel temperature in the foreshock region where the ULF waves are present. We consider the possibility that a mechanism based on Landau damping, where solar wind plasma temperature parallel to the background magnetic field is increased by interaction with oblique compressible fast magneto-acoustic ULF waves, influences temperature anisotropy.

  17. A Study on Scattered Wave Amplitude Closed-Form Solution Calculation of Torsional Wave Mode by Reciprocity Theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaesun; Cho, Younho; Achenbach, Jan D.

    2016-01-01

    Guided waves can be used for the inspection of long range pipelines. Surface corrosion is often found as a major defect type in pipelines. The reciprocity relation is a well-established theorem by which one can simplify complicated mathematical expressions. The approach has been already applied to plate and half-space structures to obtain the closed-form solutions of scattered amplitude. However, results for the case of cylindrical structures have not been reported yet. In this paper, the scattering of torsional waves, which is widely used in commercial applications, is explored by the reciprocity theorem approach. Obtaining closed-form solutions of the amplitudes of propagating waves is much simplified by using the reciprocal relation. The scattered amplitudes for elliptical and rectangular defect shapes are calculated with respect to defect depth and width, at frequencies between 0 and 500 kHz. The amplitude shows the periodic result as a function of frequency. The derived closed-form solutions can play a significant role in quantitative signal interpretation

  18. Optimal Design of a Traveling-Wave Kinetic Inductance Amplifier Operated in Three-Wave Mixing Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Robert; Bal, Mustafa; Ku, Ksiang-Sheng; Wu, Xian; Pappas, David

    In the presence of a DC bias, an injected pump, of frequency fP, and a signal, of frequency fS, undergo parametric three-way mixing (3WM) within a traveling-wave kinetic inductance (KIT) amplifier, producing an idler product of frequency fI =fP -fS . Periodic frequency stops are engineered into the coplanar waveguide of the device to enhance signal amplification. With fP placed just above the first frequency stop gap, 3WM broadband signal gain is achieved with maximum gain at fS =fP / 2 . Within a theory of the dispersion of traveling waves in the presence of these engineered loadings, which accounts for this broadband signal gain, we show how an optimal frequency-stop design may be constructed to achieve maximum signal amplification. The optimization approach we describe can be applied to the design of other nonlinear traveling-wave parametric amplifiers. This work was supported by the Army Research Office and the Laboratory for Physical Sciences under EAO221146, EAO241777, and the NIST Quantum Initiative. RPE acknowledges Grant 60NANB14D024 from the US Department of Commerce, NIST.

  19. A Study on Scattered Wave Amplitude Closed-Form Solution Calculation of Torsional Wave Mode by Reciprocity Theorem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jaesun; Cho, Younho [Pusan National Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Achenbach, Jan D. [Northwestern Univ., Everston (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Guided waves can be used for the inspection of long range pipelines. Surface corrosion is often found as a major defect type in pipelines. The reciprocity relation is a well-established theorem by which one can simplify complicated mathematical expressions. The approach has been already applied to plate and half-space structures to obtain the closed-form solutions of scattered amplitude. However, results for the case of cylindrical structures have not been reported yet. In this paper, the scattering of torsional waves, which is widely used in commercial applications, is explored by the reciprocity theorem approach. Obtaining closed-form solutions of the amplitudes of propagating waves is much simplified by using the reciprocal relation. The scattered amplitudes for elliptical and rectangular defect shapes are calculated with respect to defect depth and width, at frequencies between 0 and 500 kHz. The amplitude shows the periodic result as a function of frequency. The derived closed-form solutions can play a significant role in quantitative signal interpretation.

  20. Recent Results from Analysis of Flow Structures and Energy Modes Induced by Viscous Wave around a Surface-Piercing Cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Alfonsi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its relevance in ocean engineering, the subject of the flow field generated by water waves around a vertical circular cylinder piercing the free surface has recently started to be considered by several research groups. In particular, we studied this problem starting from the velocity-potential framework, then the implementation of the numerical solution of the Euler equations in their velocity-pressure formulation, and finally the performance of the integration of the Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables. We also developed and applied methods of extraction of the flow coherent structures and most energetic modes. In this work, we present some new results of our research directed, in particular, toward the clarification of the main nonintuitive character of the phenomenon of interaction between a wave and a surface-piercing cylinder, namely, the fact that the wave exerts its maximum force and exhibits its maximum run-up on the cylindrical obstacle at different instants. The understanding of this phenomenon becomes of crucial importance in the perspective of governing the entity of the wave run-up on the obstacle by means of wave-flow-control techniques.

  1. Splitting and oscillation of Majorana zero modes in the p-wave BCS-BEC evolution with plural vortices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizushima, T.; Machida, K.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate how the vortex-vortex separation changes Majorana zero modes in the vicinity of the BCS-BEC (Bose-Einstein condensation) topological phase transition of p-wave resonant Fermi gases. By analytically and numerically solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation for spinless p-wave superfluids with plural vortices, it is demonstrated that the quasiparticle tunneling between neighboring vortices gives rise to the quantum oscillation of the low-lying spectra on the scale of the Fermi wavelength in addition to the exponential splitting. This rapid oscillation, which appears in the weak-coupling regime as a consequence of quantum oscillations of quasiparticle wave functions, disappears in the vicinity of the BCS-BEC topological phase transition. This is understandable from that the wave function of the Majorana zero modes is described by the modified Bessel function in the strong-coupling regime, and thus it becomes spread over the vortex core region. Due to the exponential divergence of the modified Bessel function, the concrete realization of the Majorana zero modes near the topological phase transition requires the neighboring vortices to be separated beyond the length scale defined by the coherence length and the dimensionless coupling constant. All these behaviors are also confirmed by carrying out the full numerical diagonalization of the nonlocal Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation in a two-dimensional geometry. Furthermore, this argument is expanded into the case of three-vortex systems, where a pair of core-bound and edge-bound Majorana states survive at zero-energy state regardless of the vortex separation.

  2. Excitation of higher radial modes of azimuthal surface waves in the electron cyclotron frequency range by rotating relativistic flow of electrons in cylindrical waveguides partially filled by plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girka, Igor O.; Pavlenko, Ivan V.; Thumm, Manfred

    2018-05-01

    Azimuthal surface waves are electromagnetic eigenwaves of cylindrical plasma-dielectric waveguides which propagate azimuthally nearby the plasma-dielectric interface across an axial external stationary magnetic field. Their eigenfrequency in particular can belong to the electron cyclotron frequency range. Excitation of azimuthal surface waves by rotating relativistic electron flows was studied in detail recently in the case of the zeroth radial mode for which the waves' radial phase change within the layer where the electrons gyrate is small. In this case, just the plasma parameters cause the main influence on the waves' dispersion properties. In the case of the first and higher radial modes, the wave eigenfrequency is higher and the wavelength is shorter than in the case of the zeroth radial mode. This gain being of interest for practical applications can be achieved without any change in the device design. The possibility of effective excitation of the higher order radial modes of azimuthal surface waves is demonstrated here. Getting shorter wavelengths of the excited waves in the case of higher radial modes is shown to be accompanied by decreasing growth rates of the waves. The results obtained here are of interest for developing new sources of electromagnetic radiation, in nano-physics and in medical physics.

  3. VLP seismicity from resonant modes of acoustic-gravity waves in a conduit-crack system filled with multiphase magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C.; Prochnow, B. N.; OReilly, O. J.; Dunham, E. M.; Karlstrom, L.

    2016-12-01

    Oscillation of magma in volcanic conduits connected to cracks (dikes and sills) has been suggested as an explanation for very long period (VLP) seismic signals recorded at active basaltic volcanoes such as. Kilauea, Hawaii, and Erebus, Antarctica. We investigate the VLP seismicity using a linearized model for waves in and associated eigenmodes of a coupled conduit-crack system filled with multiphase magma, an extension of the Karlstrom and Dunham (2016) model for acoustic-gravity waves in volcanic conduits. We find that the long period surface displacement (as recorded on broadband seismometers) is dominated by opening/closing of the crack rather than the deformation of the conduit conduit walls. While the fundamental eigenmode is sensitive to the fluid properties and the geometry of the magma plumbing system, a closer scrutiny of various resonant modes reveals that the surface displacement is often more sensitive to higher modes. Here we present a systematic analysis of various long period acoustic-gravity wave resonant modes of a coupled conduit-crack system that the surface displacement is most sensitive to. We extend our previous work on a quasi-one-dimensional conduit model with inviscid magma to a more general axisymmetric conduit model that properly accounts for viscous boundary layers near the conduit walls, based on the numerical method developed by Prochnow et al. (submitted to Computers and Fluids, 2016). The surface displacement is dominated by either the fundamental or higher eigenmodes, depending on magma properties and the geometry of conduit and crack. An examination of the energetics of these modes reveals the complex interplay of different restoring forces (magma compressibility in the conduit, gravity, and elasticity of the crack) driving the VLP oscillations. Both nonequilibrium bubble growth and resorption and viscosity contribute to the damping of VLP signals. Our models thus provide a means to infer properties of open-vent basaltic volcanoes

  4. Observations of Equatorial Kelvin Wave Modes in FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC GPS RO Temperature Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potula Sree Brahmanandam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyze FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (F3/C GPS radio occultation (RO derived temperature components for the period September 2006 to February 2008. Results show the presence of slow Kelvin waves (wave period > 10 days with higher zonal wavenumbers (either one or two in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS. The vertical wavelengths of these waves are found to be in the range of 5 - 12 km. The predominant Kelvin waves observed in the temperature fluctuations are in the altitude range between 15 and 28 km and centered on the tropical tropopause. The downward phase progression of these waves suggests that the derived waves are propagating upward, with the source region located at lower altitudes possibly due to tropical convective heating. The zonal winds retrieved using radiosonde observations over Singapore (1¢XN, 104¢XE during this period show a periodicity of ~24 - 26 months in the stratosphere, and quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO characteristics with eastward zonal winds from March 2006 to May 2007 and westward winds from June 2007 to July 2008 respectively. Our results further show that the Kelvin wave characteristics are enhanced during the westward phase of QBO and diminish during the eastward phase, in line with the previous reported results. Furthermore, an examination of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR data shows that deep convection activity is developed episodically over the Indonesian archipelago during the observation period, thereby indicating that the Kelvin wave events observed in temperature fluctuations are either driven by convective activity (convectively coupled waves or by a broad spectrum of convective variability (free waves over the Indonesian region.

  5. Research on the Lift-off Effect of Receiving Longitudinal Mode Guided Waves in Pipes Based on the Villari Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The magnetostrictive guided wave technology as a non-contact measurement can generate and receive guided waves with a large lift-off distance up to tens of millimeters. However, the lift-off distance of the receiving coil would affect the coupling efficiency from the elastic energy to the electromagnetic energy. In the existing magnetomechanical models, the change of the magnetic field in the air gap was ignored since the permeability of the rod is much greater than that of air. The lift-off distance of the receiving coil will not affect the receiving signals based on these models. However, the experimental phenomenon is in contradiction with these models. To solve the contradiction, the lift-off effect of receiving the longitudinal mode guided waves in pipes is investigated based on the Villari effect. A finite element model of receiving longitudinal guided waves in pipes is obtained based on the Villari effect, which takes into account the magnetic field in the pipe wall and the air zone at the same time. The relation between the amplitude of the induced signals and the radius (lift-off distance of the receiving coil is obtained, which is verified by experiment. The coupling efficiency of the receiver is a monotonic decline with the lift-off distance increasing. The decay rate of the low frequency wave is slower than the high frequency wave. Additionally, the results show that the rate of change of the magnetic flux in the air zone and in the pipe wall is the same order of magnitude, but opposite. However, the experimental results show that the error of the model in the large lift-off distance is obvious due to the diffusion of the magnetic field in the air, especially for the high frequency guided waves.

  6. Massive, massless and ghost modes of gravitational waves from higher-order gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanos, Charalampos; Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia

    We linearize the field equations for higher order theories that contain scalar invariants other than the Ricci scalar. We find that besides a massless spin-2 field (the standard graviton), the theory contains also spin-0 and spin-2 massive modes with the latter being, in general, ghost modes. Then...

  7. Toroidal effects on propagation, damping, and linear mode conversion of lower hybrid waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignat, D.W.

    1980-09-01

    A common simplifying assumption made in the consideration of radio-frequency heating of tokamaks near the lower hybrid frequency is that the wave-length imposed by the coupling device parallel to the magnetic field is not modified by gradients along the field. In the present calculation, the parallel wave-length is allowed to vary, and important effects are found on wave penetration and damping if the toroidal aspect ratio (R/sub major//r/sub minor/) is less than approx. 5. The calculation shows that heating at the center of a small aspect ratio torus is inhibited by a decrease of k/sub parallel/ if waves are launched at the outside, and that it may be possible to change the plasma current via electron Landau damping with a coupler of symmetric power spectrum by placing the coupler at the top (or bottom) of the torus

  8. Photon-Pair Sources Based on Intermodal Four-Wave Mixing in Few-Mode Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Rottwitt

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Four-wave mixing in optical fibers has been proven to have many applications within processing of classical optical signals. In addition, recent developments in multimode fibers have made it possible to achieve the necessary phase-matching for efficient four-wave mixing over a very wide bandwidth. Thus, the combination of multimode fiber optics and four-wave mixing is very attractive for various applications. This is especially the case for applications in quantum communication, for example in photon-pair generation. This is the subject of this work, where we discuss the impact of fluctuations in core radius on the quality of the heralded single-photon states and demonstrate experimental results of intermodal spontaneous four-wave mixing for photon-pair generation.

  9. Electron acceleration at Jupiter: input from cyclotron-resonant interaction with whistler-mode chorus waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Woodfield

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Jupiter has the most intense radiation belts of all the outer planets. It is not yet known how electrons can be accelerated to energies of 10 MeV or more. It has been suggested that cyclotron-resonant wave-particle interactions by chorus waves could accelerate electrons to a few MeV near the orbit of Io. Here we use the chorus wave intensities observed by the Galileo spacecraft to calculate the changes in electron flux as a result of pitch angle and energy diffusion. We show that, when the bandwidth of the waves and its variation with L are taken into account, pitch angle and energy diffusion due to chorus waves is a factor of 8 larger at L-shells greater than 10 than previously shown. We have used the latitudinal wave intensity profile from Galileo data to model the time evolution of the electron flux using the British Antarctic Survey Radiation Belt (BAS model. This profile confines intense chorus waves near the magnetic equator with a peak intensity at ∼5° latitude. Electron fluxes in the BAS model increase by an order of magnitude for energies around 3 MeV. Extending our results to L = 14 shows that cyclotron-resonant interactions with chorus waves are equally important for electron acceleration beyond L = 10. These results suggest that there is significant electron acceleration by cyclotron-resonant interactions at Jupiter contributing to the creation of Jupiter's radiation belts and also increasing the range of L-shells over which this mechanism should be considered.

  10. Response of spherical gravitational wave antenna modes to high-energy cosmic ray particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jr, R M Marinho; Magalhaes, N S; Aguiar, O D; Frajuca, C

    2002-01-01

    High-energy cosmic ray particles are expected to be a significant source of noise in resonant mass gravitational wave detectors close to the quantum limit. The spherical, fourth generation antennas have been designed to attain such a limit. In this work we will show how the energy of a cosmic ray particle interacting with such an antenna is distributed over its eigenmodes. We will then make some comments on the relevant consequences of such a distribution for gravitational wave detection

  11. Response of spherical gravitational wave antenna modes to high-energy cosmic ray particles

    CERN Document Server

    Marinho, R M; Aguiar, O D; Frajuca, C

    2002-01-01

    High-energy cosmic ray particles are expected to be a significant source of noise in resonant mass gravitational wave detectors close to the quantum limit. The spherical, fourth generation antennas have been designed to attain such a limit. In this work we will show how the energy of a cosmic ray particle interacting with such an antenna is distributed over its eigenmodes. We will then make some comments on the relevant consequences of such a distribution for gravitational wave detection.

  12. Excitation of half-integer up-shifted decay channel and quasi-mode in plasma edge for high power electron Bernstein wave heating scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ali Asgarian

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Electron Bernstein waves (EBW consist of promising tools in driving localized off-axis current needed for sustained operation as well as effective selective heating scenarios in advanced over dense fusion plasmas like spherical tori and stellarators by applying high power radio frequency waves within the range of Megawatts. Here some serious non-linear effects like parametric decay modes are highly expect-able which have been extensively studied theoretically and experimentally. In general, the decay of an EBW depends on the ratio of the incident frequency and electron cyclotron frequency. At ratios less than two, parametric decay leads to a lower hybrid wave (or an ion Bernstein wave and EBWs at a lower frequency. For ratios more than two, the daughter waves constitute either an electron cyclotron quasi-mode and another EBW or an ion wave and EBW. However, in contrast with these decay patterns, the excitation of an unusual up-shifted frequency decay channel for the ratio less than two is demonstrated in this study which is totally different as to its generation and persistence. It is shown that this mode varies from the conventional parametric decay channels which necessarily satisfy the matching conditions in frequency and wave-vector. Moreover, the excitation of some less-known local non-propagating quasi-modes (virtual modes through weak-turbulence theory and their contributions to energy leakage from conversion process leading the reduction in conversion efficiency is assessed.

  13. Excitation of half-integer up-shifted decay channel and quasi-mode in plasma edge for high power electron Bernstein wave heating scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Asgarian, M.; Abbasi, M.

    2018-04-01

    Electron Bernstein waves (EBW) consist of promising tools in driving localized off-axis current needed for sustained operation as well as effective selective heating scenarios in advanced over dense fusion plasmas like spherical tori and stellarators by applying high power radio frequency waves within the range of Megawatts. Here some serious non-linear effects like parametric decay modes are highly expect-able which have been extensively studied theoretically and experimentally. In general, the decay of an EBW depends on the ratio of the incident frequency and electron cyclotron frequency. At ratios less than two, parametric decay leads to a lower hybrid wave (or an ion Bernstein wave) and EBWs at a lower frequency. For ratios more than two, the daughter waves constitute either an electron cyclotron quasi-mode and another EBW or an ion wave and EBW. However, in contrast with these decay patterns, the excitation of an unusual up-shifted frequency decay channel for the ratio less than two is demonstrated in this study which is totally different as to its generation and persistence. It is shown that this mode varies from the conventional parametric decay channels which necessarily satisfy the matching conditions in frequency and wave-vector. Moreover, the excitation of some less-known local non-propagating quasi-modes (virtual modes) through weak-turbulence theory and their contributions to energy leakage from conversion process leading the reduction in conversion efficiency is assessed.

  14. An anisotropic shear velocity model of the Earth's mantle using normal modes, body waves, surface waves and long-period waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulik, P.; Ekström, G.

    2014-12-01

    We use normal-mode splitting functions in addition to surface wave phase anomalies, body wave traveltimes and long-period waveforms to construct a 3-D model of anisotropic shear wave velocity in the Earth's mantle. Our modelling approach inverts for mantle velocity and anisotropy as well as transition-zone discontinuity topographies, and incorporates new crustal corrections for the splitting functions that are consistent with the non-linear corrections we employ for the waveforms. Our preferred anisotropic model, S362ANI+M, is an update to the earlier model S362ANI, which did not include normal-mode splitting functions in its derivation. The new model has stronger isotropic velocity anomalies in the transition zone and slightly smaller anomalies in the lowermost mantle, as compared with S362ANI. The differences in the mid- to lowermost mantle are primarily restricted to features in the Southern Hemisphere. We compare the isotropic part of S362ANI+M with other recent global tomographic models and show that the level of agreement is higher now than in the earlier generation of models, especially in the transition zone and the lower mantle. The anisotropic part of S362ANI+M is restricted to the upper 300 km in the mantle and is similar to S362ANI. When radial anisotropy is allowed throughout the mantle, large-scale anisotropic patterns are observed in the lowermost mantle with vSV > vSH beneath Africa and South Pacific and vSH > vSV beneath several circum-Pacific regions. The transition zone exhibits localized anisotropic anomalies of ˜3 per cent vSH > vSV beneath North America and the Northwest Pacific and ˜2 per cent vSV > vSH beneath South America. However, small improvements in fits to the data on adding anisotropy at depth leave the question open on whether large-scale radial anisotropy is required in the transition zone and in the lower mantle. We demonstrate the potential of mode-splitting data in reducing the trade-offs between isotropic velocity and

  15. Revealing Extremely Low Energy Amplitude Modes in the Charge-Density-Wave Compound LaAgSb_{2}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R Y; Zhang, S J; Zhang, M Y; Dong, T; Wang, N L

    2017-03-10

    Using infrared spectroscopy and ultrafast pump probe measurement, we have studied the two charge-density-wave (CDW) instabilities in the layered compound LaAgSb_{2}. The development of CDW energy gaps was clearly observed by optical spectroscopy, which removed most of the free carrier spectral weight. More interestingly, our time-resolved measurements revealed two coherent oscillations that softened by approaching the two phase transition temperatures, respectively. We addressed that these two oscillations come from the amplitude modes of CDW collective excitations, the surprisingly low energies (0.12 THz and 0.34 THz for the higher and lower temperature ones, respectively) of which are associated with the extremely small nesting wave vectors. Additionally, the amplitude and relaxation time of photoinduced reflectivity of LaAgSb_{2} single crystals stayed unchanged across the CDW phase transitions, which is quite rare and deserves further investigation.

  16. Blume-Capel ferromagnet driven by propagating and standing magnetic field wave: Dynamical modes and nonequilibrium phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharyya, Muktish, E-mail: muktish.physics@presiuniv.ac.in; Halder, Ajay, E-mail: ajay.rs@presiuniv.ac.in

    2017-03-15

    The dynamical responses of Blume-Capel (S=1) ferromagnet to the plane propagating (with fixed frequency and wavelength) and standing magnetic field waves are studied separately in two dimensions by extensive Monte Carlo simulation. Depending on the values of temperature, amplitude of the propagating magnetic field and the strength of anisotropy, two different dynamical phases are observed. For a fixed value of anisotropy and the amplitude of the propagating magnetic field, the system undergoes a dynamical phase transition from a driven spin wave propagating phase to a pinned or spin frozen state as the system is cooled down. The time averaged magnetisation over a full cycle of the propagating magnetic field plays the role of the dynamic order parameter. A comprehensive phase diagram is plotted in the plane formed by the amplitude of the propagating wave and the temperature of the system. It is found that the phase boundary shrinks inward as the anisotropy increases. The phase boundary, in the plane described by the strength of the anisotropy and temperature, is also drawn. This phase boundary was observed to shrink inward as the field amplitude increases. - Highlights: • The Blume-Capel ferromagnet in propagating and standing magnetic wave. • Monte Carlo single spin flip Metropolis algorithm is employed. • The dynamical modes are observed. • The nonequilibrium phase transitions are studied. • The phase boundaries are drawn.

  17. Study of Oblique Propagating Whistler Mode Waves in Presence of Parallel DC Electric Field in Magnetosphere of Saturn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kaur

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper whistler mode waves have been investigated in magnetosphere of Saturn. The derivation for perturbed distribution function, dispersion relation and growth rate have been determined by using the method of characteristic and kinetic approach. Analytical expressions for growth rate and real frequency of whistlers propagating oblique to magnetic field direction are attained. Calculations have been performed at 6 radial distances in plasma sheet region of Saturn’s magnetosphere as per data provided by Cassini. Work has been extended for bi-Maxwellian as well as Loss-cone distribution function. Parametric analysis show that temperature anisotropy, increase in number density, energy density and angle of propagation increases the growth rate of whistler waves along with significant shift in wave number. In case of Loss-cone distribution, increase in growth rate of whistlers is significantly more than for bi-Maxwellian distribution function. Generation of second harmonics can also be seen in the graphs plotted. It is concluded that parallel DC field stabilizes the wave and temperature anisotropy, angle of propagation, number density and energy density of electrons enhances the growth rate. Thus the results are of importance in analyzing observed VLF emissions over wide spectrum of frequency range in Saturnian magnetosphere. The analytical model developed can also be used to study various types of instabilities in planetary magnetospheres.

  18. Imaging the Earth's anisotropic structure with Bayesian Inversion of fundamental and higher mode surface-wave dispersion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenna, Matteo; Lebedev, Sergei; Celli, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    We develop a Markov Chain Monte Carlo inversion of fundamental and higher mode phase-velocity curves for radially and azimuthally anisotropic structure of the crust and upper mantle. In the inversions of Rayleigh- and Love-wave dispersion curves for radially anisotropic structure, we obtain probabilistic 1D radially anisotropic shear-velocity profiles of the isotropic average Vs and anisotropy (or Vsv and Vsh) as functions of depth. In the inversions for azimuthal anisotropy, Rayleigh-wave dispersion curves at different azimuths are inverted for the vertically polarized shear-velocity structure (Vsv) and the 2-phi component of azimuthal anisotropy. The strength and originality of the method is in its fully non-linear approach. Each model realization is computed using exact forward calculations. The uncertainty of the models is a part of the output. In the inversions for azimuthal anisotropy, in particular, the computation of the forward problem is performed separately at different azimuths, with no linear approximations on the relation of the Earth's elastic parameters to surface wave phase velocities. The computations are performed in parallel in order reduce the computing time. We compare inversions of the fundamental mode phase-velocity curves alone with inversions that also include overtones. The addition of higher modes enhances the resolving power of the anisotropic structure of the deep upper mantle. We apply the inversion method to phase-velocity curves in a few regions, including the Hangai dome region in Mongolia. Our models provide constraints on the Moho depth, the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary, and the alignment of the anisotropic fabric and the direction of current and past flow, from the crust down to the deep asthenosphere.

  19. Raman scattering evidence for a cascade-like evolution of the charge-density-wave collective amplitude mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiter, Hans-Martin; Tassini, Leonardo; Muschler, Bernhard; Hackl, Rudi [Walther Meissner Institute, Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities, 85748 Garching (Germany); Lavagnini, Michela; Degiorgi, Leonardo [Laboratorium fuer Festkoerperphysik, ETH - Zuerich, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Chu, Jiun-Haw; Ru, Nancy; Fisher, Ian R. [GLAM, Stanford University, CA 94304 (United States)

    2010-07-01

    We report results of Raman scattering experiments as a function of temperature on the charge-density-wave (CDW) systems DyTe{sub 3} and on LaTe{sub 3} at 6 GPa applied pressure. We clearly identify the unidirectional collective CDW amplitude excitation and follow their temperature dependence in the range from 6 K to 311 K. Surprisingly, we discover that the amplitude mode develops as a succession of two mean-field, BCS-like transitions at two different temperatures. Tri-tellurides with heavier rare-earth atoms (i.e. Tm, Er, Ho, Dy) undergo another phase transition to a bidirectional CDW at low temperatures. In DyTe{sub 3} we find spectroscopic evidence for the amplitude mode excitation associated with the bidirectional CDW occuring below 50 K.

  20. Dominant phonon wave vectors and strain-induced splitting of the 2D Raman mode of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Rohit; Bonini, Nicola; Marzari, Nicola; Reich, Stephanie

    2012-03-01

    The dominant phonon wave vectors q* probed by the 2D Raman mode of pristine and uniaxially strained graphene are determined via a combination of ab initio calculations and a full two-dimensional integration of the transition matrix. We show that q* are highly anisotropic and rotate about K with the polarizer and analyzer condition relative to the lattice. The corresponding phonon-mediated electronic transitions show a finite component along K-Γ that sensitively determines q*. We invalidate the notion of “inner” and “outer” processes. The characteristic splitting of the 2D mode of graphene under uniaxial tensile strain and given polarizer and analyzer setting is correctly predicted only if the strain-induced distortion and red-shift of the in-plane transverse optical (iTO) phonon dispersion as well as the changes in the electronic band structure are taken into account.

  1. SiOx Ink-Repellent Layer Deposited by Radio Frequency (RF) Plasmas in Continuous Wave and Pulse Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qiang; Fu Yabo; Pang Hua; Zhang Yuefei; Zhang Guangqiu

    2007-01-01

    Low surface energy layers, proposed application for non-water printing in computer to plate (CTP) technology, are deposited in both continuous wave and pulse radio frequency (13.56 MHz) plasma with hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) as precursor. It is found that the plasma mode dominates the polymer growth rate and the surface composition. Derived from the spectra of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and combined with printable test it is concluded that concentration of Si in coatings plays an important role for the ink printability and the ink does not adhere on the surface with high silicon concentration

  2. A Numerical Study of 2-D Surface Roughness Effects on the Growth of Wave Modes in Hypersonic Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Kahei Danny

    The current understanding and research efforts on surface roughness effects in hypersonic boundary-layer flows focus, almost exclusively, on how roughness elements trip a hypersonic boundary layer to turbulence. However, there were a few reports in the literature suggesting that roughness elements in hypersonic boundary-layer flows could sometimes suppress the transition process and delay the formation of turbulent flow. These reports were not common and had not attracted much attention from the research community. Furthermore, the mechanisms of how the delay and stabilization happened were unknown. A recent study by Duan et al. showed that when 2-D roughness elements were placed downstream of the so-called synchronization point, the unstable second-mode wave in a hypersonic boundary layer was damped. Since the second-mode wave is typically the most dangerous and dominant unstable mode in a hypersonic boundary layer for sharp geometries at a zero angle of attack, this result has pointed to an explanation on how roughness elements delay transition in a hypersonic boundary layer. Such an understanding can potentially have significant practical applications for the development of passive flow control techniques to suppress hypersonic boundary-layer transition, for the purpose of aero-heating reduction. Nevertheless, the previous study was preliminary because only one particular flow condition with one fixed roughness parameter was considered. The study also lacked an examination on the mechanism of the damping effect of the second mode by roughness. Hence, the objective of the current research is to conduct an extensive investigation of the effects of 2-D roughness elements on the growth of instability waves in a hypersonic boundary layer. The goal is to provide a full physical picture of how and when 2-D roughness elements stabilize a hypersonic boundary layer. Rigorous parametric studies using numerical simulation, linear stability theory (LST), and parabolized

  3. Low-Frequency Raman Modes of 2H-TaSe2 in the Charge Density Wave Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Sugata; Simpson, J.; Einstein, T. L.; Hight Walker, A. R.; Theoretical Collaboration

    With changes in temperatures, tantalum diselenide (2H-TaSe2) , a layered, transition metal chalcogenides (TMD) exhibits unique super-lattice structures. The metallic ground state changes to an incommensurate charge density wave (CDW) state at 122?K followed by a commensurate CDW state at 90?K, and eventually a superconducting state 0.14 K. These phase transitions are driven by strong electron-phonon coupling and favored by the particular form of the Fermi surface of these systems. Here we theoretically studied the structural origin of low-frequency Raman modes of bulk 2H-TaSe2\\ in the CDW phases. Our calculations reveal that changes observed in the Raman modes are associated with the thermal expansion in the basal plane of 2H-TaSe2. The Grüneisen parameters of these two Raman modes increase in the CDW phases. Changes in the lattice parameter ``a'' are large compared to ``c'' which induces strain along the a-axis. We compared our results with experimental data which show low-frequency Raman phonon modes are very sensitive to temperature and are not observed in the metallic room-temperature state. In addition, we found that cation displacement is more than anion in CDW phase. Our results may shed more light on exact nature of the CDW instability and optical properties in this system.

  4. WET-NZ Multi-Mode Wave Energy Converter Advancement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopf, Steven

    2013-10-15

    The overall objective of the project was to verify the ocean wavelength functionality of the WET-NZ through targeted hydrodynamic testing at wave tank scale and controlled open sea deployment of a 1/2 scale (1:2) experimental device. This objective was accomplished through a series of tasks designed to achieve four specific goals: Wave Tank Testing to Characterize Hydrodynamic Characteristics;  Open-Sea Testing of a New 1:2 Scale Experimental Model;  Synthesis and Analysis to Demonstrate and Confirm TRL5/6 Status;  Market Impact & Competitor Analysis, Business Plan and Commercialization Strategy.

  5. Two modes of wave propagation manifested in vertical electric dipole radiation over a sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houdzoumis, Vassilios A.

    2000-01-01

    The radiation of a vertical electric dipole over an electrically homogeneous sphere is considered anew, starting with a novel mathematical formulation. Both the dipole and the point of observation are assumed to lie on the spherical interface. The analysis is valid for a sphere whose radius is much larger than the wavelength in the outside region. Contributions to the value of the fields come, on the one hand, from the waves that propagate along the interface and, on the other hand, from the waves that propagate through the sphere by successive reflections. (c) 2000 American Geophysical Union

  6. On the Fundamental Mode Love Wave in Devices Incorporating Thick Viscoelastic Layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jian-Sheng; Wang Li-Jun; He Shi-Tang

    2015-01-01

    A detailed investigation is presented for Love waves (LWs) with thick viscoelastic guiding layers. A theoretical calculation and an experiment are carried out for LW devices incorporating an SU-8 guiding layer, an ST-90° X quartz substrate and two 28-μm periodic interdigital transducers. Both the calculated and the measured results show an increase in propagation velocity when h/λ > 0.05. The measured insertion loss of LWs is consistent with the calculated propagation loss. The insertion loss of bulk waves is also measured and is compared with that of LWs. (paper)

  7. Azimuthally spinning wave modes and heat release in an annular combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygard, Hakon; Mazur, Marek; Dawson, James R.; Worth, Nicholas A.

    2017-11-01

    In order to reduce NOx emissions from aeroengines and stationary gas turbines the fuel-air mixture can be made leaner, at the risk of introducing potentially damaging thermo-acoustic instabilities. At present this phenomenon is not understood well enough to eliminate these instabilities at the design stage. Recently, the presence of different azimuthal modes in annular combustors has been demonstrated both experimentally and numerically. These naturally occurring instabilities in annular geometry have been observed to constantly switch between spinning and standing modes, making it more difficult to analyse the flame structure and dynamics. Very recently this issue was partially addressed using novel acoustic forcing to generate a standing mode. In the present study this concept has been developed further by creating an azimuthal array of loud speakers, which for the first time permits predominantly spinning modes to be set up inside the combustion chamber. The use of pressure and high speed OH* measurements enables the study of the flame dynamics and heat release rate oscillations of the combustor, which will be reported in the current paper. The ability to precisely control the azimuthal mode of oscillation greatly enhances our further understanding of the phenomenon. This project has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (Grant Agreement No 677931 TAIAC).

  8. Standing spin-wave mode structure and linewidth in partially disordered hexagonal arrays of perpendicularly magnetized sub-micron Permalloy discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, N.; Kostylev, M.; Stamps, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    Standing spin wave mode frequencies and linewidths in partially disordered perpendicular magnetized arrays of sub-micron Permalloy discs are measured using broadband ferromagnetic resonance and compared to analytical results from a single, isolated disc. The measured mode structure qualitatively reproduces the structure expected from the theory. Fitted demagnetizing parameters decrease with increasing array disorder. The frequency difference between the first and second radial modes is found to be higher in the measured array systems than predicted by theory for an isolated disc. The relative frequencies between successive spin wave modes are unaffected by reduction of the long-range ordering of discs in the array. An increase in standing spin wave resonance linewidth at low applied magnetic fields is observed and grows more severe with increased array disorder.

  9. A Novel Current-Mode Full-Wave Rectifier Based on One CDTA and Two Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Khateb

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Precision rectifiers are important building blocks for analog signal processing. The traditional approach based on diodes and operational amplifiers (OpAmps exhibits undesirable effects caused by limited OpAmp slew rate and diode commutations. In the paper, a full-wave rectifier based on one CDTA and two Schottky diodes is presented. The PSpice simulation results are included.

  10. Low Loss Single-Mode Porous-Core Kagome Photonic Crystal Fiber for THz Wave Guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasanuzzaman, G. K. M.; Habib, Selim; Abdur Razzak, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    A novel porous-core kagome lattice photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is designed and analyzed in this paper for terahertz (THz) wave guidance. Using finite element method (FEM), properties of the proposed kagome lattice PCF are simulated in details including the effective material loss (EML), confinem...

  11. Refraction, scattering, absorption and mode conversion of ECRH waves in RTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smits, F.M.A.; Oomens, A.A.M.; Bank, S.L.; Bongers, W.A.; Polman, R.W.; Schueller, F.C.

    1993-01-01

    A diagnostic, TraP, has been installed which measures the Transmitted Power fraction of one of the two additional Electron Cyclotron Heating sources on the RTP tokamak (R=0.72 m, B 0 ≤2.5 T, a=0.164 m). The ECH power (60 GHz, 180 kW) of this source is launched in O-mode radially from the low field side into RTP. TraP is installed opposite to this launcher at the high field side to measure the transmitted power fraction. With TraP, studies on the refraction, scattering, absorption and mode conversion of the incoming beam have been performed. (orig.)

  12. Magnetic Field Control of the Entry into the Ionosphere of Whistler-Mode Waves Produced by Venus Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Christopher; Wei, Hanying; Zhang, Tielong

    The sampling rate of the Venus Express fluxgate magnetometer was set so that it could register the 100 Hz signals previously reported by the electric antenna on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter. At least two minutes of each periapsis pass is devoted to recording at 128 Hz. Many of these passes do observe signals near 100 Hz, and these signals invariably have the properties expected for whistler-mode waves. They are nearly circularly polarized, and they propagate very closely to along the magnetic field. The waves are also only a fraction of a second in duration. They do not occur every orbit. The magnetic field is often nearly horizontal throughout the periapsis pass. When it is, no signals are seen. When the field deviates more than 15o from the horizontal, signals can reach the spacecraft but they again are not always present. The number 15o is quite similar to the size of the cone of non-propagation of the whistler-mode perpendicular to the magnetic field. Thus this observation, too, is consistent with a cloud level source of electric discharges whose electromagnetic radiation is refracted along the vertical upon entering the ionosphere. Only when and where this field is inclined to the horizontal can the signal enter the ionosphere. We continue to refine our estimate of the rate of lightning on Venus, but it is clear that the rate is very significant, comparable to activity in the terrestrial atmosphere.

  13. Continuous-wave to pulse regimes for a family of passively mode-locked lasers with saturable nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikandé, Alain M.; Voma Titafan, J.; Essimbi, B. Z.

    2017-10-01

    The transition dynamics from continuous-wave to pulse regimes of operation for a generic model of passively mode-locked lasers with saturable absorbers, characterized by an active medium with non-Kerr nonlinearity, are investigated analytically and numerically. The system is described by a complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with a general m:n saturable nonlinearity (i.e {I}m/{(1+{{Γ }}I)}n, where I is the field intensity and m and n are two positive numbers), coupled to a two-level gain equation. An analysis of stability of continuous waves, following the modulational instability approach, provides a global picture of the self-starting dynamics in the system. The analysis reveals two distinct routes depending on values of the couple (m, n), and on the dispersion regime: in the normal dispersion regime, when m = 2 and n is arbitrary, the self-starting requires positive values of the fast saturable absorber and nonlinearity coefficients, but negative values of these two parameters for the family with m = 0. However, when the spectral filter is negative, the laser can self-start for certain values of the input field and the nonlinearity saturation coefficient Γ. The present work provides a general map for the self-starting mechanisms of rare-earth doped figure-eight fiber lasers, as well as Kerr-lens mode-locked solid-state lasers.

  14. Design and measurement of a TE{sub 13} input converter for high order mode gyrotron travelling wave amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Guo, E-mail: liuguo@uestc.edu.cn; Shu, Guoxiang; Yan, Ran; Wang, Li; Agurgo Balfour, E.; Fu, Hao; Luo, Yong [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Wang, Shafei, E-mail: rockingsandstorm@163.com [North Electronic Device Research Institution, Box 947, Beijing 100141 (China)

    2016-03-15

    A technique to launch a circular TE{sub 13} mode to interact with the helical electron beam of a gyrotron travelling wave amplifier is proposed and verified by simulation and cold test in this paper. The high order (HOM) TE{sub 13} mode is excited by a broadband Y-type power divider with the aid of a cylindrical waveguide system. Using grooves and convex strips loaded at the lateral planes of the output cylindrical waveguide, the electric fields of the potential competing TE{sub 32} and TE{sub 71} modes are suppressed to allow the transmission of the dominant TE{sub 13} mode. The converter performance for different structural dimensions of grooves and convex strips is studied in detail and excellent results have been achieved. Simulation predicts that the average transmission is ∼−1.8 dB with a 3 dB bandwidth of 7.2 GHz (91.5–98.7 GHz) and port reflection is less than −15 dB. The conversion efficiency to the TE{sub 32} and TE{sub 71} modes are, respectively, under −15 dB and −24 dB in the operating frequency band. Such an HOM converter operating at W-band has been fabricated and cold tested with the radiation boundary. Measurement from the vector network analyzer cold test and microwave simulations show a good reflection performance for the converter.

  15. Energy loss of solar p modes due to the excitation of magnetic sausage tube waves: Importance of coupling the upper atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascoyne, A.; Jain, R.; Hindman, B. W.

    2014-01-01

    We consider damping and absorption of solar p modes due to their energy loss to magnetic tube waves that can freely carry energy out of the acoustic cavity. The coupling of p modes and sausage tube waves is studied in a model atmosphere composed of a polytropic interior above which lies an isothermal upper atmosphere. The sausage tube waves, excited by p modes, propagate along a magnetic fibril which is assumed to be a vertically aligned, stratified, thin magnetic flux tube. The deficit of p-mode energy is quantified through the damping rate, Γ, and absorption coefficient, α. The variation of Γ and α as a function of frequency and the tube's plasma properties is studied in detail. Previous similar studies have considered only a subphotospheric layer, modeled as a polytrope that has been truncated at the photosphere. Such studies have found that the resulting energy loss by the p modes is very sensitive to the upper boundary condition, which, due to the lack of an upper atmosphere, have been imposed in a somewhat ad hoc manner. The model presented here avoids such problems by using an isothermal layer to model the overlying atmosphere (chromosphere, and, consequently, allows us to analyze the propagation of p-mode-driven sausage waves above the photosphere. In this paper, we restrict our attention to frequencies below the acoustic cut off frequency. We demonstrate the importance of coupling all waves (acoustic, magnetic) in the subsurface solar atmosphere with the overlying atmosphere in order to accurately model the interaction of solar f and p modes with sausage tube waves. In calculating the absorption and damping of p modes, we find that for low frequencies, below ≈3.5 mHz, the isothermal atmosphere, for the two-region model, behaves like a stress-free boundary condition applied at the interface (z = –z 0 ).

  16. Energy loss of solar p modes due to the excitation of magnetic sausage tube waves: Importance of coupling the upper atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gascoyne, A.; Jain, R. [Applied Mathematics Department, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Hindman, B. W., E-mail: a.d.gascoyne@sheffield.ac.uk, E-mail: r.jain@sheffield.ac.uk [JILA and Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    We consider damping and absorption of solar p modes due to their energy loss to magnetic tube waves that can freely carry energy out of the acoustic cavity. The coupling of p modes and sausage tube waves is studied in a model atmosphere composed of a polytropic interior above which lies an isothermal upper atmosphere. The sausage tube waves, excited by p modes, propagate along a magnetic fibril which is assumed to be a vertically aligned, stratified, thin magnetic flux tube. The deficit of p-mode energy is quantified through the damping rate, Γ, and absorption coefficient, α. The variation of Γ and α as a function of frequency and the tube's plasma properties is studied in detail. Previous similar studies have considered only a subphotospheric layer, modeled as a polytrope that has been truncated at the photosphere. Such studies have found that the resulting energy loss by the p modes is very sensitive to the upper boundary condition, which, due to the lack of an upper atmosphere, have been imposed in a somewhat ad hoc manner. The model presented here avoids such problems by using an isothermal layer to model the overlying atmosphere (chromosphere, and, consequently, allows us to analyze the propagation of p-mode-driven sausage waves above the photosphere. In this paper, we restrict our attention to frequencies below the acoustic cut off frequency. We demonstrate the importance of coupling all waves (acoustic, magnetic) in the subsurface solar atmosphere with the overlying atmosphere in order to accurately model the interaction of solar f and p modes with sausage tube waves. In calculating the absorption and damping of p modes, we find that for low frequencies, below ≈3.5 mHz, the isothermal atmosphere, for the two-region model, behaves like a stress-free boundary condition applied at the interface (z = –z{sub 0}).

  17. Reflection and transformation of acoustic waves at the interface in superfluid 3He-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kekutiya, Sh.E.; Chkhaidze, N.D.

    1997-01-01

    Reflection and transformation of acoustic waves in 3 He-A and 3 He-A 1 are considered for two cases: (1) at the boundary with a solid impermeable wall at an arbitrary angle of incidence of a wave and (2) for normal incidence of waves on the interface between a free liquid and a system of periodic plane-parallel capillaries filling the semi-space. For the first case we have calculated the reflection coefficients of the first and the second sounds and spin and spin-temperature waves as well as the coefficients of transformation of these waves into each other. It is shown that the longitudinal wave undergoes no transformation into other waves, there occurs instead its complete reflection from the solid wall. The angle of incidence at which the energy attenuation coefficient of the first sound is maximum, and the interval of angles corresponding to the attenuation and the total interval reflection of the second sound are estimated. For the second case we have obtained: the coefficients of excitation of the fourth sound and the magneto-acoustic wave by the first and the second sounds; the reflection coefficients for the first and the second sounds and the longitudinal spin wave; the coefficient of transformation of the first sound into the second one and vice versa; the coefficient of reflection of the fourth sound from the capillary system - free liquid interface; the coefficient of excitation of longitudinal spin wave in free helium by the same wave in a capillary

  18. Mode stability analysis in the beam—wave interaction process for a three-gap Hughes-type coupled cavity chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Ji-Run; Zhu Min; Guo Wei; Cui Jian

    2013-01-01

    Based on space-charge wave theory, the formulae of the beam—wave coupling coefficient and the beam-loaded conductance are given for the beam—wave interaction in an N-gap Hughes-type coupled cavity chain. The ratio of the non-beam-loaded quality factor of the coupled cavity chain to the beam quality factor is used to determine the stability of the beam—wave interaction. As an example, the stabilities of the beam—wave interaction in a three-gap Hughes-type coupled cavity chain are discussed with the formulae and the CST code for the operations of the 2π, π, and π/2 modes, respectively. The results show that stable operation of the 2π, π, and π/2 modes may all be realized in an extended-interaction klystron with the three-gap Hughes-type coupled cavity chain

  19. Modelling of a plasma column sustained by a travelling circularly polarized electromagnetic wave (m=1 mode) in the presence of a constant axial magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benova, E.; Staikov, P.; Zhelyazkov, I.

    1992-01-01

    A set of equations modelling a low-pressure plasma column sustained by a travelling electromagnetic wave in the dipolar mode in the presence of a constant external magnetic field is presented. It is shown that, from a practical point of view, only the m = 1 mode (the right-hand-polarized wave) can sustain plasma columns in a wide region of gas-discharge conditions: plasma radius R, wave frequency ω, magnetic field B 0 and low pressures, irrespective of the nature of the gas. The main result of this study is that the magnetic field makes it possible to sustain a plasma column for values of σ smaller than σ cr = 0.3726, below which, in the absence of a magnetic field, the dipolar wave cannot produce a plasma. Moreover, at a fixed wave power, the magnetic field - in contrast with the case of plasma columns sustained by azimuthally symmetric waves - increases the plasma density and its axial gradient. The limit of an infinite external magnetic field (Ω → ∞) is also considered. A three-dimensional wave structure is obtained, and it indicates that the wave can be a generalized surface mode, a pure surface or a pseudosurface one. (author)

  20. Control of sawteeth and neo-classical tearing modes in tokamaks using electron cyclotron waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, M.R. de; Bongers, W.A.; Berkel, M. van; Doelman, N.J.; Hennen, B.A.; Nuij, P.; Oosterbeek, J.W.; Steinbuch, M.; Westerhof, E.; Witvoet, G.

    2011-01-01

    Resistive magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities are expected to limit the performance of nuclear fusion reactors. Prime examples are the sawtooth instability and the neoclassical tearing modes. The sawtooth instability will affect the refueling of the plasma core and the fast particle concentration. In

  1. Inter-modal four-wave mixing study in a two-mode fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Begleris, I.; Jung, Y.

    2016-01-01

    ) idlers are generated in the LP11 mode. For these processes we experimentally characterize their phase matching efficiency and bandwidth and find that they depend critically on the wavelength separation of the two pumps, in good agreement with the numerical study we carried out. We also confirm...

  2. Mode-selective wavelength conversion based on four-wave mixing in a multimode silicon waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Xu, Jing; Ou, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    to phase mismatch. A two-mode division multiplexing circuit with tapered directional coupler based (de)multiplexers and a multimode waveguide is designed and fabricated for this application. Experimental results show clear eye-diagrams and moderate power penalties for the wavelength conversion of both...

  3. Non linear evolution of plasma waves excited to mode conversion at the vicinity of plasma resonance. Application to experiments of ionosphere modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cros, Brigitte

    1989-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the non linear evolution of plasma waves excited by mode conversion in a non homogeneous, non collisional, and free-of-external-magnetic-field plasma. Experiments performed in the microwave domain in a plasma created by means of a multi-polar device show that the evolution of plasma waves displays a transition between a non linear quasi-steady regime and a stochastic regime when the power of incident electromagnetic waves or plasma gradient length is increased. These regimes are characterized through a numerical resolution of Zakharov equations which describe the coupled evolution of plasma wave envelope and low frequency density perturbations [fr

  4. CMB B-mode auto-bispectrum produced by primordial gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Hiroaki W. H.; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2018-01-01

    Gravitational waves from inflation induce polarization patterns in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). It is known that there are only two types of non-Gaussianities of the gravitational waves in the most general covariant scalar field theory having second-order field equations, namely, generalized G-inflation. One originates from the inherent non-Gaussianity in general relativity, and the other from a derivative coupling between the Einstein tensor and the scalar field. We calculate polarization bispectra induced by these non-Gaussianities by transforming them into separable forms by virtue of the Laplace transformation. It is shown that future experiments can constrain the new one but cannot detect the general relativistic one.

  5. Whistler mode waves and the electron heat flux in the solar wind: Cluster observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lacombe, C.; Alexandrova, O.; Matteini, L.; Santolík, Ondřej; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Mangeney, A.; De Conchy, Y.; Maksimovic, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 796, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-11 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/2279; GA MŠk LH12231 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : solar wind * turbulence * waves Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 5.993, year: 2014 http://iopscience.iop.org/0004-637X/796/1/5/article

  6. Splitting of standing spin-wave modes in circular submicron ferromagnetic dot under axial symmetry violation

    OpenAIRE

    Bunyaev, S. A.; Golub, V. O.; Salyuk, O. Yu.; Tartakovskaya, E. V.; Santos, N. M.; Timopheev, A. A.; Sobolev, N. A.; Serga, A. A.; Chumak, A. V.; Hillebrands, B.; Kakazei, G. N.

    2015-01-01

    The spin wave dynamics in patterned magnetic nanostructures is under intensive study during the last two decades. On the one hand, this interest is generated by new physics that can be explored in such structures. On the other hand, with the development of nanolithography, patterned nanoelements and their arrays can be used in many practical applications (magnetic recording systems both as media and read-write heads, magnetic random access memory, and spin-torque oscillators just to name a fe...

  7. Gauge-invariant gravitational wave modes in pre-big bang cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraoni, Valerio

    2010-01-01

    The t<0 branch of pre-big bang cosmological scenarios is subject to a gravitational wave instability. The unstable behaviour of tensor perturbations is derived in a very simple way in Hwang's covariant and gauge-invariant formalism developed for extended theories of gravity. A simple interpretation of this instability as the effect of an ''antifriction'' is given, and it is argued that a universe must eventually enter the expanding phase. (orig.)

  8. Observation of quasi-periodic solar radio bursts associated with propagating fast-mode waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, C. R.; Nisticò, G.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Zimovets, I. V.; White, S. M.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: Radio emission observations from the Learmonth and Bruny Island radio spectrographs are analysed to determine the nature of a train of discrete, periodic radio "sparks" (finite-bandwidth, short-duration isolated radio features) which precede a type II burst. We analyse extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging from SDO/AIA at multiple wavelengths and identify a series of quasi-periodic rapidly-propagating enhancements, which we interpret as a fast wave train, and link these to the detected radio features. Methods: The speeds and positions of the periodic rapidly propagating fast waves and the coronal mass ejection (CME) were recorded using running-difference images and time-distance analysis. From the frequency of the radio sparks the local electron density at the emission location was estimated for each. Using an empirical model for the scaling of density in the corona, the calculated electron density was used to obtain the height above the surface at which the emission occurs, and the propagation velocity of the emission location. Results: The period of the radio sparks, δtr = 1.78 ± 0.04 min, matches the period of the fast wave train observed at 171 Å, δtEUV = 1.7 ± 0.2 min. The inferred speed of the emission location of the radio sparks, 630 km s-1, is comparable to the measured speed of the CME leading edge, 500 km s-1, and the speeds derived from the drifting of the type II lanes. The calculated height of the radio emission (obtained from the density) matches the observed location of the CME leading edge. From the above evidence we propose that the radio sparks are caused by the quasi-periodic fast waves, and the emission is generated as they catch up and interact with the leading edge of the CME. The movie associated to Fig. 2 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  9. Nonlinear interaction between a pair of oblique modes in a supersonic mixing layer: Long-wave limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsa, Thomas F.; Gartside, James

    1995-01-01

    The nonlinear interaction between a pair of symmetric, oblique, and spatial instability modes is studied in the long-wave limit using asymptotic methods. The base flow is taken to be a supersonic mixing layer whose Mach number is such that the corresponding vortex sheet is marginally stable according to Miles' criterion. It is shown that the amplitude of the mode obeys a nonlinear integro-differential equation. Numerical solutions of this equation show that, when the obliqueness angle is less than pi/4, the effect of the nonlinearity is to enhance the growth rate of the instability. The solution terminates in a singularity at a finite streamwise location. This result is reminiscent of that obtained in the vicinity of the neutral point by other authors in several different types of flows. On the other hand, when the obliqueness angle is more than pi/4, the streamwise development of the amplitude is characterized by a series of modulations. This arises from the fact that the nonlinear term in the amplitude equation may be either stabilizing or destabilizing, depending on the value of the streamwise coordinate. However, even in this case the amplitude of the disturbance increases, though not as rapidly as in the case for which the angle is less than pi/4. Quite generally then, the nonlinear interaction between two oblique modes in a supersonic mixing layer enhances the growth of the disturbance.

  10. High-frequency dual mode pulsed wave Doppler imaging for monitoring the functional regeneration of adult zebrafish hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bong Jin; Park, Jinhyoung; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Hyung Ham; Lee, Changyang; Hwang, Jae Youn; Lien, Ching-Ling; Shung, K. Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Adult zebrafish is a well-known small animal model for studying heart regeneration. Although the regeneration of scars made by resecting the ventricular apex has been visualized with histological methods, there is no adequate imaging tool for tracking the functional recovery of the damaged heart. For this reason, high-frequency Doppler echocardiography using dual mode pulsed wave Doppler, which provides both tissue Doppler (TD) and Doppler flow in a same cardiac cycle, is developed with a 30 MHz high-frequency array ultrasound imaging system. Phantom studies show that the Doppler flow mode of the dual mode is capable of measuring the flow velocity from 0.1 to 15 cm s−1 with high accuracy (p-value = 0.974 > 0.05). In the in vivo study of zebrafish, both TD and Doppler flow signals were simultaneously obtained from the zebrafish heart for the first time, and the synchronized valve motions with the blood flow signals were identified. In the longitudinal study on the zebrafish heart regeneration, the parameters for diagnosing the diastolic dysfunction, for example, E/Em < 10, E/A < 0.14 for wild-type zebrafish, were measured, and the type of diastolic dysfunction caused by the amputation was found to be similar to the restrictive filling. The diastolic function was fully recovered within four weeks post-amputation. PMID:25505135

  11. Generation of Electron Whistler Waves at the Mirror Mode Magnetic Holes: MMS Observations and PIC Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, N.; Wilder, F. D.; Usanova, M.; Ergun, R.; Argall, M. R.; Goodrich, K.; Eriksson, S.; Germaschewski, K.; Torbert, R. B.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Le Contel, O.; Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Strangeway, R. J.; Schwartz, S. J.; Giles, B. L.; Burch, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission observed electron whistler waves at the center and at the gradients of magnetic holes on the dayside magnetosheath. The magnetic holes are nonlinear mirror structures which are anti-correlated with particle density. We used expanding box Particle-in-cell simulations and produced the mirror instability magnetic holes. We show that the electron whistler waves can be generated at the gradients and the center of magnetic holes in our simulations which is in agreement with MMS observations. At the nonlinear regime of mirror instability, the proton and electron temperature anisotropy are anti-correlated with the magnetic hole. The plasma is unstable to electron whistler waves at the minimum of the magnetic field structures. In the saturation regime of mirror instability, when magnetic holes are dominant, electron temperature anisotropy develops at the edges of the magnetic holes and electrons become isotropic at the magnetic field minimum. We investigate the possible mechanism for enhancing the electron temperature anisotropy and analyze the electron pitch angle distributions and electron distribution functions in our simulations and compare it with MMS observations.

  12. Relative role of subinertial and superinertial modes in the coastal long wave response forced by the landfall of a tropical cyclone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Ziming; Yankovsky, Alexander E.

    2011-06-01

    A set of numerical experiments has been performed in order to analyze the long-wave response of the coastal ocean to a translating mesoscale atmospheric cyclone approaching the coastline at a normal angle. An idealized two-slope shelf topography is chosen. The model is forced by a radially symmetric atmospheric pressure perturbation with a corresponding gradient wind field. The cyclone's translation speed, radius, and the continental shelf width are considered as parameters whose impact on the long wave period, modal structure, and amplitude is studied. Subinertial continental shelf waves (CSW) dominate the response under typical forcing conditions and on the narrower shelves. They propagate in the downstream (in the sense of Kelvin wave propagation) direction. Superinertial edge wave modes have higher free surface amplitudes and faster phase speeds than the CSW modes. While potentially more dangerous, edge waves are not as common as subinertial shelf waves because their generation requires a wide, gently sloping shelf and a storm system translating at a relatively high (˜10 m s -1 or faster) speed. A relatively smaller size of an atmospheric cyclone also favors edge wave generation. Edge waves with the highest amplitude (up to 60% of the forced storm surge) propagate upstream. They are produced by a storm system with an Eulerian time scale equal to the period of a zero-mode edge wave with the wavelength of the storm spatial scale. Large amplitude edge waves were generated during Hurricane Wilma's landfall (2005) on the West Florida shelf with particularly severe flooding occurring upstream of the landfall site.

  13. Current and Voltage Conveyors in Current- and Voltage-Mode Precision Full-Wave Rectifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Koton

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper new versatile precision full-wave rectifiers using current and/or voltage conveyors as active elements and two diodes are presented. The performance of these circuit solutions is analysed and compared to the opamp based precision rectifier. To analyze the behavior of the functional blocks, the frequency dependent RMS error and DC transient value are evaluated for different values of input voltage amplitudes. Furthermore, experimental results are given that show the feasibilities of the conveyor based rectifiers superior to the corresponding operational amplifier based topology.

  14. Enhanced loss of fast ions during mode conversion ion Bernstein wave heating in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrow, D.S.; Majeski, R.; Fisch, N.J.; Heeter, R.F.; Herrmann, H.W.; Herrmann, M.C.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Zweben, S.J.

    1995-12-01

    A strong interaction of fast ions with ion Bernstein waves has been observed in TFTR. It results in a large increase in the fast ion loss rate, and heats the lost particles to several MeV. The lost ions are observed at the passing/trapped boundary and appear to be either DD fusion produced tritons or accelerated D neutral beam ions. Under some conditions, enhanced loss of DT alpha particles is also seen. The losses provide experimental support for some of the elements required for alpha energy channeling

  15. Evanescent-wave coupled right angled buried waveguide: Applications in carbon nanotube mode-locking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary, R.; Thomson, R. R.; Kar, A. K.; Brown, G.; Beecher, S. J.; Popa, D.; Sun, Z.; Torrisi, F.; Hasan, T.; Milana, S.; Bonaccorso, F.; Ferrari, A. C.

    2013-01-01

    We present an evanescent-field device based on a right-angled waveguide. This consists of orthogonal waveguides, with their points of intersection lying along an angled facet of the chip. Light guided along one waveguide is incident at the angled dielectric-air facet at an angle exceeding the critical angle, so that the totally internally reflected light is coupled into the second waveguide. By depositing a nanotube film on the angled surface, the chip is then used to mode-lock an Erbium doped fiber ring laser with a repetition rate of 26 MHz, and pulse duration of 800 fs

  16. Fast color flow mode imaging using plane wave excitation and temporal encoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udesen, Jesper; Gran, Fredrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2005-01-01

    In conventional ultrasound color flow mode imaging, a large number (~500) of pulses have to be emitted in order to form a complete velocity map. This lowers the frame-rate and temporal resolution. A method for color flow imaging in which a few (~10) pulses have to be emitted to form a complete ve...... deviation of 0.84% and a relative bias of 5.74%. Finally the method is tested on the common carotid artery of a healthy 33-year-old male....

  17. Coupling of Rayleigh-like waves with zero-sound modes in normal 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogacz, S.A.; Ketterson, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    The Landau kinetic equation is solved in the collisionless regime for a sample of normal 3 He excited by a surface perturbation of arbitrary ω and k. The boundary condition for the nonequilibrium particle distribution is determined for the case of specular reflection of the elementary excitations at the interface. Using the above solution, the energy flux through the boundary is obtained as a function of the surface wave velocity ω/k. The absorption spectrum and its frequency derivative are calculated numerically for typical values of temperature and pressure. The spectrum displays a sharp, resonant-like maximum concentrated at the longitudinal sound velocity and a sharp maximum of the derivative concentrated at the transverse sound velocity. The energy transfer is cut off discontinuously below the Fermi velocity. An experimental measurement of the energy transfer spectrum would permit a determination of both zero-sound velocities and the Fermi velocity with spectroscopic precision

  18. Transition from flute modes to drift waves in a magnetized plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brochard, F.; Gravier, E.; Bonhomme, G.

    2005-01-01

    Recent experiments performed on the low β plasma device Mirabelle [T. Pierre, G. Leclert, and F. Braun, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 6 (1987)] using a limiter have shown that transitions between various gradient driven instabilities occurred on increasing the magnetic field strength. New thorough measurements allow to identify unambiguously three instability regimes. At low magnetic field the strong ExB velocity shear drives a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, whereas at high magnetic field drift waves are only observed. A centrifugal (Rayleigh-Taylor) instability is also observed in between when the ExB velocity is shearless and strong enough. A close connection is made between the ratio ρ s /L perpendicular of the drift parameter to the radial density gradient length and each instability regime

  19. Full-wave feasibility study of anti-radar diagnostic of magnetic field based on O-X mode conversion and oblique reflectometry imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneghini, Orso [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States); Volpe, Francesco A., E-mail: fvolpe@columbia.edu [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    An innovative millimeter wave diagnostic is proposed to measure the local magnetic field and edge current as a function of the minor radius in the tokamak pedestal region. The idea is to identify the direction of minimum reflectivity at the O-mode cutoff layer. Correspondingly, the transmissivity due to O-X mode conversion is maximum. That direction, and the angular map of reflectivity around it, contains information on the magnetic field vector B at the cutoff layer. Probing the plasma with different wave frequencies provides the radial profile of B. Full-wave finite-element simulations are presented here in 2D slab geometry. Modeling confirms the existence of a minimum in reflectivity that depends on the magnetic field at the cutoff, as expected from mode conversion physics, giving confidence in the feasibility of the diagnostic. The proposed reflectometric approach is expected to yield superior signal-to-noise ratio and to access wider ranges of density and magnetic field, compared with related radiometric techniques that require the plasma to emit electron Bernstein waves. Due to computational limitations, frequencies of 10-20 GHz were considered in this initial study. Frequencies above the edge electron-cyclotron frequency (f > 28 GHz here) would be preferable for the experiment, because the upper hybrid resonance and right cutoff would lie in the plasma, and would help separate the O-mode of interest from spurious X-waves.

  20. The exact rogue wave recurrence in the NLS periodic setting via matched asymptotic expansions, for 1 and 2 unstable modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinevich, P. G.; Santini, P. M.

    2018-04-01

    The focusing Nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation is the simplest universal model describing the modulation instability (MI) of quasi monochromatic waves in weakly nonlinear media, the main physical mechanism for the generation of rogue (anomalous) waves (RWs) in Nature. In this paper we investigate the x-periodic Cauchy problem for NLS for a generic periodic initial perturbation of the unstable constant background solution, in the case of N = 1 , 2 unstable modes. We use matched asymptotic expansion techniques to show that the solution of this problem describes an exact deterministic alternate recurrence of linear and nonlinear stages of MI, and that the nonlinear RW stages are described by the N-breather solution of Akhmediev type, whose parameters, different at each RW appearance, are always given in terms of the initial data through elementary functions. This paper is motivated by a preceding work of the authors in which a different approach, the finite gap method, was used to investigate periodic Cauchy problems giving rise to RW recurrence.

  1. Non-leaky modes and bandgaps of surface acoustic waves in wrinkled stiff-film/compliant-substrate bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo-Yang; Xu, Guoqiang; Zheng, Yang; Cao, Yanping

    2018-03-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices have found a wide variety of technical applications, including SAW filters, SAW resonators, microfluidic actuators, biosensors, flow measurement devices, and seismic wave shields. Stretchable/flexible electronic devices, such as sensory skins for robotics, structural health monitors, and wearable communication devices, have received considerable attention across different disciplines. Flexible SAW devices are essential building blocks for these applications, wherein piezoelectric films may need to be integrated with the compliant substrates. When piezoelectric films are much stiffer than soft substrates, SAWs are usually leaky and the devices incorporating them suffer from acoustic losses. In this study, the propagation of SAWs in a wrinkled bilayer system is investigated, and our analysis shows that non-leaky modes can be achieved by engineering stress patterns through surface wrinkles in the system. Our analysis also uncovers intriguing bandgaps (BGs) related to the SAWs in a wrinkled bilayer system; these are caused by periodic deformation patterns, which indicate that diverse wrinkling patterns could be used as metasurfaces for controlling the propagation of SAWs.

  2. Ultra-wideband ladder filters using zero-th shear mode plate wave in ultrathin LiNbO3 plate with apodized interdigital transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadota, Michio; Tanaka, Shuji

    2016-07-01

    There are two kinds of plate waves propagating in a thin plate, Lamb and shear horizontal (SH) waves. The former has a velocity higher than 15,000 m/s when the plate is very thin. On the contrary, 0th SH (SH0) mode plate wave in an ultrathin LiNbO3 plate has an electro-mechanical coupling factor larger than 50%. Authors fabricated an ultra-wideband T-type ladder filter with a relative bandwidth (BW) of 41% using the SH0 mode plate wave. Although the BW of the filter fully covers the digital TV band in Japan, it does not have sufficient margin at the lower and higher end of BW. Besides, periodic small ripples due to transverse mode in pass-band of the filter were observed. In this study π-type ladder filters were fabricated by changing the pitch ratio of interdigital transducer (IDT) of parallel and series arm resonators (PR(IDT)) to control the BW, and by apodizing IDTs to improve the periodic small ripples due to transverse mode. Ultra-wideband filters without periodic small transverse mode with ultrawide bandwidth from 41 to 49% were fabricated. The BWs fully cover ultrawide digital television bands in Japan and U.S.A. These filters with an ultrawide BW and a steep characteristic show the possibility to be applied to a reported cognitive radio system and other communication systems requiring an ultrawide BW.

  3. Current induced multi-mode propagating spin waves in a spin transfer torque nano-contact with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, S. Morteza; Yazdi, H. F.; Hamdi, M.; Brächer, T.; Mohseni, S. Majid

    2018-03-01

    Current induced spin wave excitations in spin transfer torque nano-contacts are known as a promising way to generate exchange-dominated spin waves at the nano-scale. It has been shown that when these systems are magnetized in the film plane, broken spatial symmetry of the field around the nano-contact induced by the Oersted field opens the possibility for spin wave mode co-existence including a non-linear self-localized spin-wave bullet and a propagating mode. By means of micromagnetic simulations, here we show that in systems with strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in the free layer, two propagating spin wave modes with different frequency and spatial distribution can be excited simultaneously. Our results indicate that in-plane magnetized spin transfer nano-contacts in PMA materials do not host a solitonic self-localized spin-wave bullet, which is different from previous studies for systems with in plane magnetic anisotropy. This feature renders them interesting for nano-scale magnonic waveguides and crystals since magnon transport can be configured by tuning the applied current.

  4. On Special Optical Modes and Thermal Issues in Advanced Gravitational Wave Interferometric Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinet Jean-Yves

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of present ground-based gravitational wave antennas is too low to detect many events per year. It has, therefore, been planned for years to build advanced detectors allowing actual astrophysical observations and investigations. In such advanced detectors, one major issue is to increase the laser power in order to reduce shot noise. However, this is useless if the thermal noise remains at the current level in the 100 Hz spectral region, where mirrors are the main contributors. Moreover, increasing the laser power gives rise to various spurious thermal effects in the same mirrors. The main goal of the present study is to discuss these issues versus the transverse structure of the readout beam, in order to allow comparison. A number of theoretical studies and experiments have been carried out, regarding thermal noise and thermal effects. We do not discuss experimental problems, but rather focus on some theoretical results in this context about arbitrary order Laguerre–Gauss beams, and other “exotic” beams.

  5. Ratio of left ventricular peak E-wave velocity to flow propagation velocity assessed by color M-mode Doppler echocardiography in first myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, J E; Søndergaard, E; Seward, J B

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the ability of the ratio of peak E-wave velocity to flow propagation velocity (E/Vp) measured with color M-mode Doppler echocardiography to predict in-hospital heart failure and cardiac mortality in an unselected consecutive population with first myocardial infarction (MI...

  6. Factorization and resummation: A new paradigm to improve gravitational wave amplitudes. II. The higher multipolar modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Francesco; Maldarella, Alberto; Nagar, Alessandro

    2018-04-01

    The factorization and resummation approach of Nagar and Shah [Phys. Rev. D 94, 104017 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevD.94.104017], designed to improve the strong-field behavior of the post-Newtonian (PN) residual waveform amplitudes fℓm's entering the effective-one-body, circularized, gravitational waveform for spinning coalescing binaries, is improved and generalized here to all multipoles up to ℓ=6 . For a test particle orbiting a Kerr black hole, each multipolar amplitude is truncated at relative 6 PN order, both for the orbital (nonspinning) and spin factors. By taking a certain Padé approximant (typically the P24 one) of the orbital factor in conjunction with the inverse Taylor (iResum) representation of the spin factor, it is possible to push the analytical/numerical agreement of the energy flux at the level of 5% at the last-stable orbit for a quasimaximally spinning black hole with dimensionless spin parameter +0.99 . When the procedure is generalized to comparable-mass binaries, each orbital factor is kept at relative 3+3 PN order; i.e., the globally 3 PN-accurate comparable-mass terms are hybridized with higher-PN test-particle terms up to 6 PN relative order in each mode. The same Padé resummation is used for continuity. By contrast, the spin factor is only kept at the highest comparable-mass PN order currently available. We illustrate that the consistency between different truncations in the spin content of the waveform amplitudes is more marked in the resummed case than when using the standard Taylor-expanded form of Pan et al. [Phys. Rev. D 83, 064003 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevD.83.064003]. We finally introduce a method to consistently hybridize comparable-mass and test-particle information also in the presence of spin (including the spin of the particle), discussing it explicitly for the ℓ=m =2 spin-orbit and spin-square terms. The improved, factorized and resummed, multipolar waveform amplitudes presented here are expected to set a new standard for

  7. Electron Bernstein wave heating and emission measurement through the very narrow O-X-B mode conversion window in the LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igami, H.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Nishiura, M.; Seki, T.; Osakabe, M.; Mutoh, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki (Japan); Kubo, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan and Department of Energy Engineering and Science, Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan); Ogasawara, S.; Makino, R. [Department of Energy Engineering and Science, Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan); Idei, H. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyusyu Univ., Kasuga (Japan); Nagasaki, K. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan)

    2014-02-12

    In the large helical device (LHD), the theoretically predicted width of the ordinary-extraordinary-electron Bernstein wave (O-X-B) mode conversion (MC) window is comparable to the beam width and the power deposition is located in the off-axis region if the 77GHz fundamental electron cyclotron (EC) wave of is launched from an existing horizontal port antenna. In the experiment, the actual MC window location was looked for with changing the aiming. The effective aiming with that the increase of the stored energy was observed was two degrees apart from the location of the theoretical MC window at a maximum. Measurement of the waves originated from the thermally emitted EBW and radiated via the B-X-O mode conversion process is effective to improve the accuracy of the theoretical prediction with comparison between the theoretical and the experimental results. The theoretical prediction suggests that the width of the MC window of the fundamental 77GHz EC wave can be expanded if the lower port antenna is used. On the other hand, the MC window of the second harmonic 154GHz EC wave is blocked by horizontal port wall if another horizontal port antenna is used. It is required to move the final mirror of the quasi-optical antenna toward the plasma surface. Focusing of the beam at the plasma cutoff is (PC) also necessary for the effective mode conversion.

  8. Mean shear flows, zonal flows, and generalized Kelvin-Helmholtz modes in drift wave turbulence: A minimal model for L→H transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun-jin; Diamond, P.H.

    2003-01-01

    The dynamics of and an interplay among structures (mean shear flows, zonal flows, and generalized Kelvin-Helmholtz modes) are studied in drift wave turbulence. Mean shear flows are found to inhibit the nonlinear generation of zonal flows by weakening the coherent modulation response of the drift wave spectrum. Based on this result, a minimal model for the L→H (low- to high-confinement) transition is proposed, which involves the amplitude of drift waves, zonal flows, and the density gradient. A transition to quiescent H-mode sets in as the profile becomes sufficiently steep to completely damp out drift waves, following an oscillatory transition phase where zonal flows regulate drift wave turbulence. The different roles of mean flows and zonal flows are elucidated. Finally, the effect of poloidally nonaxisymmetric structures (generalized Kelvin-Helmholtz mode) on anomalous transport is investigated, especially in reference to damping of collisionless zonal flows. Results indicate that nonlinear excitation of this structure can be potentially important in enhancing anomalous transport as well as in damping zonal flows

  9. Use of the reciprocity theorem for a closed form solution of scattering of the lowest axially symmetric torsional wave mode by a defect in a pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaesun; Achenbach, Jan D; Cho, Younho

    2018-03-01

    Guided waves can effectively be used for inspection of large scale structures. Surface corrosion is often found as major defect type in large scale structures such as pipelines. Guided wave interaction with surface corrosion can provide useful information for sizing and classification. In this paper, the elastodynamic reciprocity theorem is used to formulate and solve complicated scattering problems in a simple manner. The approach has already been applied to scattering of Rayleigh and Lamb waves by defects to produce closed form solutions of amplitude of scattered waves. In this paper, the scattering of the lowest axially symmetric torsional mode, which is widely used in commercial applications, is analyzed by the reciprocity theorem. In the present paper, the theorem is used to determine the scattering of the lowest torsional mode by a tapered defect that was earlier considered experimentally and numerically by the finite element method. It is shown that by the presented method it is simple to obtain the ratio of amplitudes of scattered torsional modes for a tapered notch. The results show a good agreement with earlier numerical results. The wave field superposition technique in conjunction with the reciprocity theorem simplifies the solution of the scattering problem to yield a closed form solution which can play a significant role in quantitative signal interpretation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Quasi-static displacement calibration system for a "Violin-Mode" shadow-sensor intended for Gravitational Wave detector suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the design of, and results from, a calibration system for optical linear displacement (shadow) sensors. The shadow sensors were designed to detect "Violin-Mode" (VM) resonances in the 0.4 mm diameter silica fibre suspensions of the test masses/mirrors of Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory gravitational wave interferometers. Each sensor illuminated the fibre under test, so as to cast its narrow shadow onto a "synthesized split photodiode" detector, the shadow falling over adjacent edges of the paired photodiodes. The apparatus described here translated a vertically orientated silica test fibre horizontally through a collimated Near InfraRed illuminating beam, whilst simultaneously capturing the separate DC "shadow notch" outputs from each of the paired split photodiode detectors. As the ratio of AC to DC photocurrent sensitivities to displacement was known, a calibration of the DC response to quasi-static shadow displacement allowed the required AC sensitivity to vibrational displacement to be found. Special techniques are described for generating the required constant scan rate for the test fibre using a DC motor-driven stage, for removing "jitter" at such low translation rates from a linear magnetic encoder, and so for capturing the two shadow-notch signals at each micrometre of the test fibre's travel. Calibration, across the four detectors of this work, gave a vibrational responsivity in voltage terms of (9.45 ± 1.20) MV (rms)/m, yielding a VM displacement sensitivity of (69 ± 13) pm (rms)/√Hz, at 500 Hz, over the required measuring span of ±0.1 mm.

  11. Measurement of guided mode wave vectors by analysis of the transfer matrix obtained with multi-emitters and multi-receivers in contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minonzio, Jean-Gabriel; Talmant, Maryline; Laugier, Pascal, E-mail: jean-gabriel.minonzio@upmc.fr [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7623, LIP, 15 rue de l' ecole de medecine F-75005, Paris (France)

    2011-01-01

    Different quantitative ultrasound techniques are currently developed for clinical assessment of human bone status. This paper is dedicated to axial transmission: emitters and receivers are linearly arranged on the same side of the skeletal site, preferentially the forearm. In several clinical studies, the signal velocity of the earliest temporal event has been shown to discriminate osteoporotic patients from healthy subjects. However, a multi parameter approach might be relevant to improve bone diagnosis and this be could be achieved by accurate measurement of guided waves wave vectors. For clinical purposes and easy access to the measurement site, the length probe is limited to about 10 mm. The limited number of acquisition scan points on such a short distance reduces the efficiency of conventional signal processing techniques, such as spatio-temporal Fourier transform. The performance of time-frequency techniques was shown to be moderate in other studies. Thus, optimised signal processing is a critical point for a reliable estimate of guided mode wave vectors. Toward this end, a technique, taking benefit of using both multiple emitters and multiple receivers, is proposed. The guided mode wave vectors are obtained using a projection in the singular vectors basis. Those are determined by the singular values decomposition of the transmission matrix between the two arrays at different frequencies. This technique enables us to recover accurately guided waves wave vectors for moderately large array.

  12. SDO/AIA Observations of Quasi-periodic Fast (~1000 km/s) Propagating (QFP) Waves as Evidence of Fast-mode Magnetosonic Waves in the Low Corona: Statistics and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.; Ofman, L.; Title, A. M.; Zhao, J.; Aschwanden, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Recent EUV imaging observations from SDO/AIA led to the discovery of quasi-periodic fast (~2000 km/s) propagating (QFP) waves in active regions (Liu et al. 2011). They were interpreted as fast-mode magnetosonic waves and reproduced in 3D MHD simulations (Ofman et al. 2011). Since then, we have extended our study to a sample of more than a dozen such waves observed during the SDO mission (2010/04-now). We will present the statistical properties of these waves including: (1) Their projected speeds measured in the plane of the sky are about 400-2200 km/s, which, as the lower limits of their true speeds in 3D space, fall in the expected range of coronal Alfven or fast-mode speeds. (2) They usually originate near flare kernels, often in the wake of a coronal mass ejection, and propagate in narrow funnels of coronal loops that serve as waveguides. (3) These waves are launched repeatedly with quasi-periodicities in the 30-200 seconds range, often lasting for more than one hour; some frequencies coincide with those of the quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in the accompanying flare, suggestive a common excitation mechanism. We obtained the k-omega diagrams and dispersion relations of these waves using Fourier analysis. We estimate their energy fluxes and discuss their contribution to coronal heating as well as their diagnostic potential for coronal seismology.

  13. Characterization of microwave plasma in a multicusp using 2D emission based tomography: Bessel modes and wave absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Kavita; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep; Munshi, Prabhat

    2017-06-01

    A tomographic method based on the Fourier transform is used for characterizing a microwave plasma in a multicusp (MC), in order to obtain 2D distribution of plasma emissions, plasma (electron) density (Ne) and temperature (Te). The microwave plasma in the MC is characterized as a function of microwave power, gas pressure, and axial distance. The experimentally obtained 2D emission profiles show that the plasma emissions are generated in a circular ring shape. There are usually two bright rings, one at the plasma core and another near the boundary. The experimental results are validated using a numerical code that solves Maxwell's equations inside a waveguide filled with a plasma in a magnetic field, with collisions included. It is inferred that the dark and bright circular ring patterns are a result of superposition of Bessel modes (TE11 and TE21) of the wave electric field inside the plasma filled MC, which are in reasonable agreement with the plasma emission profiles. The tomographically obtained Ne and Te profiles indicate higher densities in the plasma core (˜1010 cm-3) and enhanced electron temperature in the ECR region (˜13 eV), which are in agreement with earlier results using a Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy (OES) diagnostics.

  14. Assessment of autonomic nervous system by using empirical mode decomposition-based reflection wave analysis during non-stationary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C C; Hsiao, T C; Kao, S C; Hsu, H Y

    2014-01-01

    Arterial blood pressure (ABP) is an important indicator of cardiovascular circulation and presents various intrinsic regulations. It has been found that the intrinsic characteristics of blood vessels can be assessed quantitatively by ABP analysis (called reflection wave analysis (RWA)), but conventional RWA is insufficient for assessment during non-stationary conditions, such as the Valsalva maneuver. Recently, a novel adaptive method called empirical mode decomposition (EMD) was proposed for non-stationary data analysis. This study proposed a RWA algorithm based on EMD (EMD-RWA). A total of 51 subjects participated in this study, including 39 healthy subjects and 12 patients with autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction. The results showed that EMD-RWA provided a reliable estimation of reflection time in baseline and head-up tilt (HUT). Moreover, the estimated reflection time is able to assess the ANS function non-invasively, both in normal, healthy subjects and in the patients with ANS dysfunction. EMD-RWA provides a new approach for reflection time estimation in non-stationary conditions, and also helps with non-invasive ANS assessment. (paper)

  15. Measurements of Mode Converted Ion Cyclotron Wave with Phase Contrast Imaging in Alcator C-Mod and Comparisons with Synthetic PCI Simulations in TORIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujii, N.; Porkolab, M.; Edlund, E. M.; Lin, L.; Lin, Y.; Wright, J. C.; Wukitch, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    Mode converted ion cyclotron wave (ICW) has been observed with phase contrast imaging (PCI) in D- 3 He plasmas in Alcator C-Mod. The measurements were carried out with the optical heterodyne technique using acousto-optic modulators which modulate the CO2 laser beam intensity near the ion cyclotron frequency. With recently improved calibration of the PCI system using a calibrated sound wave source, the measurements have been compared with the full-wave code TORIC, as interpreted by a synthetic diagnostic. Because of the line-integrated nature of the PCI signal, the predictions are sensitive to the exact wave field pattern. The simulations are found to be in qualitative agreement with the measurements.

  16. Phase coherence of parametric-decay modes during high-harmonic fast-wave heating in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, J. A., E-mail: carlsson@pppl.gov [Crow Radio and Plasma Science, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Wilson, J. R.; Hosea, J. C.; Greenough, N. L.; Perkins, R. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Third-order spectral analysis, in particular, the auto bicoherence, was applied to probe signals from high-harmonic fast-wave heating experiments in the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Strong evidence was found for parametric decay of the 30 MHz radio-frequency (RF) pump wave, with a low-frequency daughter wave at 2.7 MHz, the local majority-ion cyclotron frequency. The primary decay modes have auto bicoherence values around 0.85, very close to the theoretical value of one, which corresponds to total phase coherence with the pump wave. The threshold RF pump power for onset of parametric decay was found to be between 200 kW and 400 kW.

  17. Detection and mode identification of axial cracks in the steam generator tube of the nuclear power plant using ultrasonic guided wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Byungsik; Yang, Seunghan; Lee, Heejong; Kim, Yongsik

    2010-01-01

    For those people who are involved in NDE, there is a growing concern regarding the significant traveling distance of a guided wave in a structure, which ensures the inspection of a large area of the structure from a single location. A significant number of studies on the guided wave have therefore been made to apply the foregoing to a nondestructive evaluation in many different industries and resulted in an increase in the efficiency of practical guided wave inspection. Unlike the previous studies based mainly on the detection of circumferential flaws, this study is focused on the axial flaw detection in the steam generator tubes of Korean standard nuclear power plants by generating the guided wave by changing frequency and selecting the applicable mode from the dispersion curve for the steam generator tube calculated in this study, where the dispersion-based short-time Fourier transform (D-STFT) algorithm is used to enhance mode identification. In conclusion, the L (0,1) mode at 2.25 MHz is found to be most sensitive in detecting axial flaws in a steam generator tube. (author)

  18. The training on propagation of guided electromagnetic waves from the point of view of LSM LSE modes; La ensenanza de las ondas electromagneticas guiadas desde el punto de vista de los modos LSM y LSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J.

    1997-09-01

    In this work, LSM and LSE modes are proposed as a didactic alternative for modeling the propagation of guided electromagnetic waves. Our considerations can be applied to the most common electromagnetic waves guiding systems: empty metallic waveguides, metallic waveguides partially filled with dielectrics, dielectric sheet waveguides and 3-D dielectric waveguides. In all cases, our interest is focussed on modes with a defined polarization; therefore the teaching activity can be treated from the scalar wave approximation point of view. (Author)

  19. Phase diagrams and radial distribution of the electric field components of coaxial discharges with outer dielectric tube at different wave modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neichev, Z; Benova, E; Gamero, A; Sola, A

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate phase diagrams and electric field radial distribution of coaxial discharges, sustained by a traveling electromagnetic wave, assuming finite and infinite thickness of the discharge chamber in the model. The calculations are made for azimuthally symmetric and dipolar wave modes. The phase diagrams and the radial profiles of the electric field at various thicknesses of the outer dielectric tube of the chamber and different discharge conditions are obtained. For the purpose of low pressure coaxial plasma modelling, radial profiles of the electric field at different discharge conditions have been investigated experimentally and compared with the theoretical results

  20. The continuous-wave passive mode-locking operation of a diode-pumped mixed Nd:Lu0.5Y0.5VO4 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H-T; Xu, J-L; He, J-L; Zhang, S-Y; Xu, J-Q; Zhao, B

    2011-01-01

    We reported a continuous-wave (CW) passively mode-locked Nd:Lu 0.5 Y 0.5 VO 4 laser at 1064 nm. A partially reflective semiconductor saturable absorber mirror was exploited in the Z-typed resonator. The Nd:Lu 0.5 Y 0.5 VO 4 laser generated CW mode-locked pulses with an average output power of 860 mW, a repetition rate of 53.7 MHz, and a pulse duration of 8.7 ps

  1. The stability of internal transport barriers to MHD ballooning modes and drift waves: A formalism for low magnetic shear and for velocity shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.W.; Hastie, R.J.; Webster, A.J.; Wilson, H.R.

    2005-01-01

    Tokamak discharges with internal transport barriers (ITBs) provide improved confinement, so it is important to understand their stability properties. The stability to an important class of modes with high wave-numbers perpendicular to the magnetic field, is usually studied with the standard ballooning transformation and eikonal approach. However, ITBs are often characterised by radial q profiles that have regions of negative or low magnetic shear and by radially sheared electric fields. Both these features affect the validity of the standard method. A new approach to calculating stability in these circumstances is developed and applied to ideal MHD ballooning modes and to micro-instabilities responsible for anomalous transport. (author)

  2. Magnetic topology changes induced by lower hybrid waves and their profound effect on edge-localized modes in the EAST tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y; Gong, X Z; Gan, K F; Gauthier, E; Wang, L; Rack, M; Wang, Y M; Zeng, L; Denner, P; Wingen, A; Lv, B; Ding, B J; Chen, R; Hu, L Q; Hu, J S; Liu, F K; Jie, Y X; Pearson, J; Qian, J P; Shan, J F; Shen, B; Shi, T H; Sun, Y; Wang, F D; Wang, H Q; Wang, M; Wu, Z W; Zhang, S B; Zhang, T; Zhang, X J; Yan, N; Xu, G S; Guo, H Y; Wan, B N; Li, J G

    2013-06-07

    Strong mitigation of edge-localized modes has been observed on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak, when lower hybrid waves (LHWs) are applied to H-mode plasmas with ion cyclotron resonant heating. This has been demonstrated to be due to the formation of helical current filaments flowing along field lines in the scrape-off layer induced by LHW. This leads to the splitting of the outer divertor strike points during LHWs similar to previous observations with resonant magnetic perturbations. The change in the magnetic topology has been qualitatively modeled by considering helical current filaments in a field-line-tracing code.

  3. Analytical and numerical studies of approximate phase velocity matching based nonlinear S0 mode Lamb waves for the detection of evenly distributed microstructural changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, X; Xu, G H; Tao, T F; Zhang, Q; Tse, P W

    2016-01-01

    Most previous studies on nonlinear Lamb waves are conducted using mode pairs that satisfying strict phase velocity matching and non-zero power flux criteria. However, there are some limitations in existence. First, strict phase velocity matching is not existed in the whole frequency bandwidth; Second, excited center frequency is not always exactly equal to the true phase-velocity-matching frequency; Third, mode pairs are isolated and quite limited in number; Fourth, exciting a single desired primary mode is extremely difficult in practice and the received signal is quite difficult to process and interpret. And few attention has been paid to solving these shortcomings. In this paper, nonlinear S0 mode Lamb waves at low-frequency range satisfying approximate phase velocity matching is proposed for the purpose of overcoming these limitations. In analytical studies, the secondary amplitudes with the propagation distance considering the fundamental frequency, the maximum cumulative propagation distance (MCPD) with the fundamental frequency and the maximum linear cumulative propagation distance (MLCPD) using linear regression analysis are investigated. Based on analytical results, approximate phase velocity matching is quantitatively characterized as the relative phase velocity deviation less than a threshold value of 1%. Numerical studies are also conducted using tone burst as the excitation signal. The influences of center frequency and frequency bandwidth on the secondary amplitudes and MCPD are investigated. S1–S2 mode with the fundamental frequency at 1.8 MHz, the primary S0 mode at the center frequencies of 100 and 200 kHz are used respectively to calculate the ratios of nonlinear parameter of Al 6061-T6 to Al 7075-T651. The close agreement of the computed ratios to the actual value verifies the effectiveness of nonlinear S0 mode Lamb waves satisfying approximate phase velocity matching for characterizing the material nonlinearity. Moreover, the ratios derived

  4. DO OBLIQUE ALFVÉN/ION-CYCLOTRON OR FAST-MODE/WHISTLER WAVES DOMINATE THE DISSIPATION OF SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE NEAR THE PROTON INERTIAL LENGTH?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jiansen; Tu Chuanyi; Marsch, Eckart; Yao Shuo

    2012-01-01

    To determine the wave modes prevailing in solar wind turbulence at kinetic scales, we study the magnetic polarization of small-scale fluctuations in the plane perpendicular to the data sampling direction (namely, the solar wind flow direction, V SW ) and analyze its orientation with respect to the local background magnetic field B 0,local . As an example, we take only measurements made in an outward magnetic sector. When B 0,local is quasi-perpendicular to V SW , we find that the small-scale magnetic-field fluctuations, which have periods from about 1 to 3 s and are extracted from a wavelet decomposition of the original time series, show a polarization ellipse with right-handed orientation. This is consistent with a positive reduced magnetic helicity, as previously reported. Moreover, for the first time we find that the major axis of the ellipse is perpendicular to B 0,local , a property that is characteristic of an oblique Alfvén wave rather than oblique whistler wave. For an oblique whistler wave, the major axis of the magnetic ellipse is expected to be aligned with B 0,local , thus indicating significant magnetic compressibility, and the polarization turns from right to left handedness as the wave propagation angle (θ kB ) increases toward 90°. Therefore, we conclude that the observation of a right-handed polarization ellipse with orientation perpendicular to B 0,local seems to indicate that oblique Alfvén/ion-cyclotron waves rather than oblique fast-mode/whistler waves dominate in the 'dissipation' range near the break of solar wind turbulence spectra occurring around the proton inertial length.

  5. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....

  6. Impact of resonant magnetic perturbations on zonal modes, drift-wave turbulence and the L–H transition threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leconte, M.; Diamond, P.H.; Xu, Y.

    2014-01-01

    We study the effects of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) on turbulence, flows and confinement in the framework of resistive drift-wave turbulence. This work was motivated, in parts, by experiments reported at the IAEA 2010 conference (Xu et al 2011 Nucl. Fusion 51 062030) which showed a decrease of long-range correlations during the application of RMPs. We derive and apply a zero-dimensional predator–prey model coupling the drift-wave–zonal-mode system (Leconte and Diamond 2012 Phys. Plasmas 19 055903) to the evolution of mean quantities. This model has both density-gradient drive and RMP amplitude as control parameters and predicts a novel type of transport bifurcation in the presence of RMPs. This model allows a description of the full L–H transition evolution with RMPs, including the mean sheared flow evolution. The key results are the following: (i) the L–I and I–H power thresholds both increase with RMP amplitude | b-tilde x |, the relative increase of the L–I threshold scales as ΔP LI ∝| b-tilde x | 2 ν ∗ −2 ρ s −2 , where ν * is edge collisionality and ρ s is the sound gyroradius. (ii) RMPs are predicted to decrease the hysteresis between the forward and back-transition. (iii) Taking into account the mean density evolution, the density profile—sustained by the particle source—has an increased turbulent diffusion compared with the reference case without RMPs which provides one possible explanation for the density pump-out effect. (paper)

  7. Plasma Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, D. H. E.

    This chapter explores several aspects of the linear electrostatic normal modes of oscillation for a single-species non-neutral plasma in a Penning trap. Linearized fluid equations of motion are developed, assuming the plasma is cold but collisionless, which allow derivation of the cold plasma dielectric tensor and the electrostatic wave equation. Upper hybrid and magnetized plasma waves in an infinite uniform plasma are described. The effect of the plasma surface in a bounded plasma system is considered, and the properties of surface plasma waves are characterized. The normal modes of a cylindrical plasma column are discussed, and finally, modes of spheroidal plasmas, and finite temperature effects on the modes, are briefly described.

  8. Quasi-Linear Evolution of Trapped Electron Fluxes Under the Influence of Realistic Whistler-Mode Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapitov, O. V.; Mourenas, D.; Artemyev, A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.

    2014-12-01

    The evolution of fluxes of energetic trapped electrons as a function of geomagnetic activity is investigated using brand new statistical models of chorus waves derived from Cluster observations in the radiation belts. The new wave models provide the distributions of wave power and wave-normal angle with latitude as a function of either Dst or Kp indices. Lifetimes and energization of energetic electrons are examined, as well as the relevant uncertainties related to some of the wave models implicit assumptions.From the presented results, different implications concerning the characterization of relativistic flux enhancements and losses are provided.

  9. Comparison of Mooring Loads in Survivability Mode on the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter Obtained by a Numerical Model and Experimental Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Muliawan, Made Jaya; Gao, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    The Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter is ready to be up-scaled to commercial size. The design and feasibility analysis of a 1.5 MW pre-commercial unit to be deployed at the DanWEC test center in Hanstholm, Denmark, is currently ongoing. With regard to the mooring system, the design has to be carr......The Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter is ready to be up-scaled to commercial size. The design and feasibility analysis of a 1.5 MW pre-commercial unit to be deployed at the DanWEC test center in Hanstholm, Denmark, is currently ongoing. With regard to the mooring system, the design has...... to be carried out numerically, through coupled analyses of alternative solutions. The present study deals with the preliminary hydrodynamic characterization of Wave Dragon needed in order to calibrate the numerical model to be used for the mooring design. A hydrodynamic analysis of the small scale model...

  10. A Locally Generated High-Mode Nonlinear Internal Wave Detected on the Shelf of the Northern South China Sea From Marine Seismic Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qunshu; Xu, Min; Zheng, Chan; Xu, Xing; Xu, Jiang

    2018-02-01

    In this work, a secondary nonlinear internal wave (NIW) on the continental shelf of the northern South China Sea is investigated using high-resolution seismic imaging and joint inversion of water structure properties combined with in situ hydrographic observations. It is an extraordinary wave combination with two mode-2 NIWs and one elevated NIW occurring within a short distance of 2 km. The most energetic part of the NIW could be regarded as a mode-2 NIW in the upper layer between 40 and 120 m depth. The vertical particle velocity of ˜41 cm/s may exceed the critical value of wave breaking and thus collapse the strong stratification followed by a series of processes including internal wave breaking, overturning, Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, stratification splitting, and eventual restratification. Among these processes, the shear-induced Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is directly imaged using the seismic method for the first time. The stratification splitting and restratification show that the unstable stage lasts only for a few hours and spans several kilometers. It is a new observation that the elevated NIW could be generated in a deepwater region (as deep as ˜370 m). Different from the periodical NIWs originating from the Luzon Strait, this secondary NIW is most likely generated locally, at the continental shelf break during ebb tide.

  11. Mode Conversion of High-Field-Side-Launched Fast Waves at the Second Harmonic of Minority Hydrogen in Advanced Tokamak Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sund, R.; Scharer, J.

    2003-01-01

    Under advanced tokamak reactor conditions, the Ion-Bernstein wave (IBW) can be generated by mode conversion of a fast magnetosonic wave incident from the high-field side on the second harmonic resonance of a minority hydrogen component, with near 100% efficiency. IBWs have the recognized capacity to create internal transport barriers through sheared plasma flows resulting from ion absorption. The relatively high frequency (around 200 MHz) minimizes parasitic electron absorption and permits the converted IBW to approach the 5th tritium harmonic. It also facilitates compact antennas and feeds, and efficient fast wave launch. The scheme is applicable to reactors with aspect ratios < 3 such that the conversion and absorption layers are both on the high field side of the magnetic axis. Large machine size and adequate separation of the mode conversion layer from the magnetic axis minimize poloidal field effects in the conversion zone and permit a 1-D full-wave analysis. 2-D ray tracing of the IBW indicates a slightly bean-shaped equilibrium allows access to the tritium resonance

  12. Magneto-acoustic properties of UCuGe single crystal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yasin, S.; Andreev, Alexander V.; Sytcheva, A.; Wosnitza, J.; Zherlitsyn, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 159, 1-2 (2010), 105-108 ISSN 0022-2291 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/0339 Grant - others:EuroMagNET(XE) 228043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ultrasound * UTX compounds * pulse fields * field-induced transition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.403, year: 2010

  13. Evolution of coherent collective modes through consecutive charge-density-wave transitions in the (PO2)4(WO3)12 monophosphate tungsten bronze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojchevska, L.; Borovšak, M.; Foury-Leylekian, P.; Pouget, J.-P.; Mertelj, T.; Mihailovic, D.

    2017-07-01

    All-optical femtosecond relaxation dynamics in a single crystal of monophosphate tungsten bronze (PO2)4(WO3)2m with alternate stacking m =6 of WO3 layers was studied through the three consequent charge-density-wave (CDW) transitions. Several transient coherent collective modes associated with the different CDW transitions were observed and analyzed in the framework of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau theory. Remarkably, the interference of the modes leads to an apparent rectification effect in the transient reflectivity response. A saturation of the coherent-mode amplitudes with increasing pump fluence well below the CDWs destruction threshold fluence indicates a decoupling of the electronic and lattice parts of the order parameter on the femtosecond timescale.

  14. Terahertz spectra revealing the collective excitation mode in charge-density-wave single crystal LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiumei; Jin, Zuanming; Lin, Xian; Ma, Guohong [Department of Physics, Shanghai University (China); Cheng, Zhenxiang [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Balakrishnan, Geetha [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom)

    2017-09-15

    A low-energy collective excitation mode in charge-ordered multiferroic LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} is reported via terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Upon cooling from 300 to 40 K, the central resonance frequency showed a pronounced hardening from 0.85 to 1.15 THz. In analogy to the well-known low-energy optical properties of LuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, this emerging resonance was attributed to the charge-density-wave (CDW) collective excitations. By using the Drude-Lorentz model fitting, the CDW collective mode becomes increasingly damped with the increasing temperature. Furthermore, the kinks of the CDW collective mode at the magnetic transition temperature are analyzed, which indicate the coupling of spin order with electric polarization. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. The Role of Higher-Order Modes on the Electromagnetic Whistler-Cyclotron Wave Fluctuations of Thermal and Non-Thermal Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinas, Adolfo F.; Moya, Pablo S.; Navarro, Roberto; Araneda, Jamie A.

    2014-01-01

    Two fundamental challenging problems of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas are the understanding of the relaxation of a collisionless plasmas with nearly isotropic velocity distribution functions and the resultant state of nearly equipartition energy density with electromagnetic plasma turbulence. Here, we present the results of a study which shows the role that higher-order-modes play in limiting the electromagnetic whistler-like fluctuations in a thermal and non-thermal plasma. Our main results show that for a thermal plasma the magnetic fluctuations are confined by regions that are bounded by the least-damped higher order modes. We further show that the zone where the whistler-cyclotron normal modes merges the electromagnetic fluctuations shifts to longer wavelengths as the beta(sub e) increases. This merging zone has been interpreted as the beginning of the region where the whistler-cyclotron waves losses their identity and become heavily damped while merging with the fluctuations. Our results further indicate that in the case of nonthermal plasmas, the higher-order modes do not confine the fluctuations due to the effective higher-temperature effects and the excess of suprathermal plasma particles. The analysis presented here considers the second-order theory of fluctuations and the dispersion relation of weakly transverse fluctuations, with wave vectors parallel to the uniform background magnetic field, in a finite temperature isotropic bi-Maxwellian and Tsallis-kappa-like magnetized electron-proton plasma. Our results indicate that the spontaneously emitted electromagnetic fluctuations are in fact enhanced over these quasi modes suggesting that such modes play an important role in the emission and absorption of electromagnetic fluctuations in thermal or quasi-thermal plasmas.

  16. Reliability Evaluation of Monolithic Vertical Wall Breakwaters Considering Impulsive Wave Breaking Forces and Failure Modes of the Foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Sørensen, Jørgen S.; Christiani, E.

    1994-01-01

    Impulsive wave breaking forces on a vertical caisson breakwater has been included by Takahashi et al, (1994) in Goda's wave pressure formula (Goda et al. 1972 and Goda 1974). Based on these formulae a deterministic design method following the Japanese recommendations has been used for the design...

  17. Single-Phase Full-Wave Rectifier as an Effective Example to Teach Normalization, Conduction Modes, and Circuit Analysis Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Pejovic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of a single phase rectifier as an example in teaching circuit modeling, normalization, operating modes of nonlinear circuits, and circuit analysis methods is proposed.The rectifier supplied from a voltage source by an inductive impedance is analyzed in the discontinuous as well as in the continuous conduction mode. Completely analytical solution for the continuous conduction mode is derived. Appropriate numerical methods are proposed to obtain the circuit waveforms in both of the operating modes, and to compute the performance parameters. Source code of the program that performs such computation is provided.

  18. Study of the influence of semiconductor material parameters on acoustic wave propagation modes in GaSb/AlSb bi-layered structures by Legendre polynomial method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othmani, Cherif, E-mail: othmanicheriffss@gmail.com; Takali, Farid; Njeh, Anouar; Ben Ghozlen, Mohamed Hédi

    2016-09-01

    The propagation of Rayleigh–Lamb waves in bi-layered structures is studied. For this purpose, an extension of the Legendre polynomial (LP) method is proposed to formulate the acoustic wave equation in the bi-layered structures induced by thin film Gallium Antimonide (GaSb) and with Aluminum Antimonide (AlSb) substrate in moderate thickness. Acoustic modes propagating along a bi-layer plate are shown to be quite different than classical Lamb modes, contrary to most of the multilayered structures. The validation of the LP method is illustrated by a comparison between the associated numerical results and those obtained using the ordinary differential equation (ODE) method. The convergency of the LP method is discussed through a numerical example. Moreover, the influences of thin film GaSb parameters on the characteristics Rayleigh–Lamb waves propagation has been studied in detail. Finally, the advantages of the Legendre polynomial (LP) method to analyze the multilayered structures are described. All the developments performed in this work were implemented in Matlab software.

  19. Study of the influence of semiconductor material parameters on acoustic wave propagation modes in GaSb/AlSb bi-layered structures by Legendre polynomial method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othmani, Cherif; Takali, Farid; Njeh, Anouar; Ben Ghozlen, Mohamed Hédi

    2016-01-01

    The propagation of Rayleigh–Lamb waves in bi-layered structures is studied. For this purpose, an extension of the Legendre polynomial (LP) method is proposed to formulate the acoustic wave equation in the bi-layered structures induced by thin film Gallium Antimonide (GaSb) and with Aluminum Antimonide (AlSb) substrate in moderate thickness. Acoustic modes propagating along a bi-layer plate are shown to be quite different than classical Lamb modes, contrary to most of the multilayered structures. The validation of the LP method is illustrated by a comparison between the associated numerical results and those obtained using the ordinary differential equation (ODE) method. The convergency of the LP method is discussed through a numerical example. Moreover, the influences of thin film GaSb parameters on the characteristics Rayleigh–Lamb waves propagation has been studied in detail. Finally, the advantages of the Legendre polynomial (LP) method to analyze the multilayered structures are described. All the developments performed in this work were implemented in Matlab software.

  20. Relation between fine structure of energy spectra for pulsating aurora electrons and frequency spectra of whistler mode chorus waves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miyoshi, Y.; Saito, S.; Seki, K.; Nishiyama, T.; Kataoka, R.; Asamura, K.; Katoh, Y.; Ebihara, Y.; Sakanoi, T.; Hirahara, M.; Oyama, S.; Kurita, S.; Santolík, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 9 (2015), s. 7728-7736 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12231 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : pulsating aurora * chorus waves * wave-particle interactions * computer simulation * Reimei satellite Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2015JA021562/full

  1. Higgs Mode in the d -Wave Superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 +x Driven by an Intense Terahertz Pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumi, Kota; Tsuji, Naoto; Hamada, Yuki I.; Matsunaga, Ryusuke; Schneeloch, John; Zhong, Ruidan D.; Gu, Genda D.; Aoki, Hideo; Gallais, Yann; Shimano, Ryo

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the terahertz (THz)-pulse-driven nonlinear response in the d -wave cuprate superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 +x (Bi2212) using a THz pump near-infrared probe scheme in the time domain. We observe an oscillatory behavior of the optical reflectivity that follows the THz electric field squared and is markedly enhanced below Tc . The corresponding third-order nonlinear effect exhibits both A1 g and B1 g symmetry components, which are decomposed from polarization-resolved measurements. A comparison with a BCS calculation of the nonlinear susceptibility indicates that the A1 g component is associated with the Higgs mode of the d -wave order parameter.

  2. Pulsed-wave tissue Doppler and color tissue Doppler echocardiography: calibration with M-mode, agreement, and reproducibility in a clinical setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Thue; Jons, Christian; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myocardial velocities can be measured with both pulsed-wave tissue Doppler (PWTD) and color tissue Doppler (CTD) echocardiography. We aimed to (A) to explore which of the two methods better approximates true tissue motion and (B) to examine the agreement and the reproducibility...... of the two methods in a routine clinical setting. METHODS: For Study A, the displacements of 63 basal myocardial segments from 13 patients were examined with M-mode and compared with the velocity-time integral of PWTD and CTD velocities. For Study B, the basal lateral segments from 58 patients were examined...... with PWTD and CTD, and the peak myocardial velocities during systole (Sm), early diastole (Em), and late diastole (Am) were measured. RESULTS: Study A: CTD-based measurements of displacement were 12% lower than M-mode measurements (95% CI: -18%; -6%). PWTD velocity-time integrals measured at the outer edge...

  3. Comparison of Mooring Loads in Survivability Mode on the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter Obtained by a Numerical Model and Experimental Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Muliawan, Made Jaya; Gao, Zhen

    2012-01-01

    The Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter is ready to be up-scaled to commercial size. The design and feasibility analysis of a 1.5 MW pre-commercial unit to be deployed at the DanWEC test center in Hanstholm, Denmark, is currently ongoing. With regard to the mooring system, the design has...... in the frequency domain is performed by the software HydroD, which uses WAMIT as core software. The quadratic damping term, accounting for the viscous effect, is determined through an iterative procedure aimed at matching numerical predictions on the mooring tension, derived through time domain coupled analysis......, with experimental results derived from tank tests of a small scale model. Due to the complex geometry of the device, a sensitivity analysis is performed to discuss the influence of the mean position on the quality of the numerical predictions. Good correspondence is achieved between the experimental and numerical...

  4. Mode and polarization state selected guided wave spectroscopy of orientational anisotrophy in model membrane cellulosic polymer films: relevance to lab-on-a-chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Mark P.; Kanigan, Tanya

    2007-06-01

    Orientation anisotropies in structural properties relevant to the use of cellulosic polymers as membranes for lab-on-chips were investigated for cellulose acetate (CA) and regenerated cellulose (RC) films deposited as slab waveguides. Anisotropy was probed with mode and polarization state selected guided wave Raman spectroscopy. CA exhibits partial chain orientation in the plane of the film, and this orientation is independent of sample substrate and film preparation conditions. RC films also show in-plane anisotropy, where the hexose sugar rings lie roughly in the plane of the film. Explanations are given of the role of artifacts in interpreting waveguide Raman spectra, including anomalous contributions to Raman spectra that arise from deviations from right angle scattering geometry, mode-dependent contributions to longitudinal electric field components and TETM mode conversion. We explore diffusion profiles of small molecules in cellulosic films by adaptations of an inverse-Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (iWKB) recursive, noninteger virtual mode index algorithm. Perturbations in the refractive index distribution, n(z), are recovered from the measured relative propagation constants, neffective,m, of the planar waveguide. The refractive index distribution then yields the diffusion profile.

  5. Identification of the propagation mode of a solar wind wave associated with Pc5 pulsations in the magnetosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, A.D.M.; Stephenson, J.A.E. [KwaZulu-Natal Univ., Durban (South Africa). School of Chemistry and Physics

    2014-07-01

    A case study of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave in the solar wind that is strongly correlated with a magnetospheric field line resonance observed by the SuperDARN (Super Dual Auroral Radar Network) radar at Sanae, Antarctica is presented. The data from the ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) satellite at the solar libration point are analysed. The data time series are bandpass filtered at the pulsation frequency and the analytic signal deduced. From these data the partition of energy between the field components is computed. It is shown that energy is equally partitioned between the kinetic energy and transverse magnetic potential energy densities. The energy flux vector is closely aligned with the background magnetic field. The transverse magnetic and velocity components are in antiphase. This is the first identification of the triggering wave as a transverse Alfven wave which originates upstream from the space craft and is propagated to the magnetosphere to trigger the pulsation.

  6. Research on the Lift-off Effect of Receiving Longitudinal Mode Guided Waves in Pipes Based on the Villari Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jiang; Sun, Yong; Zhou, Jinhai

    2016-01-01

    The magnetostrictive guided wave technology as a non-contact measurement can generate and receive guided waves with a large lift-off distance up to tens of millimeters. However, the lift-off distance of the receiving coil would affect the coupling efficiency from the elastic energy to the electromagnetic energy. In the existing magnetomechanical models, the change of the magnetic field in the air gap was ignored since the permeability of the rod is much greater than that of air. The lift-off ...

  7. Imprints of the nuclear symmetry energy on gravitational waves from the axial w-modes of neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Dehua; Li Baoan; Krastev, Plamen G.

    2009-01-01

    The eigenfrequencies of the axial w-modes of oscillating neutron stars are studied using the continued fraction method with an equation of state (EOS) partially constrained by the recent terrestrial nuclear laboratory data. It is shown that the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy E sym (ρ) affects significantly both the frequencies and the damping times of these modes. Besides confirming the previously found universal behavior of the mass-scaled eigenfrequencies as functions of the compactness of neutron stars, we explored several alternative universal scaling functions. Moreover, the w II -mode is found to exist only for neutron stars having a compactness of M/R≥0.1078 independent of the EOS used.

  8. Comparison of Thresholds for Pulmonary Capillary Hemorrhage Induced by Pulsed-wave and B-mode Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Douglas L.; Dou, Chunyan; Raghavendran, Krishnan

    Pulsed ultrasound was found to induce pulmonary capillary hemorrhage (PCH) in mice about 25 years ago but remains a poorly understood risk factor for pulmonary diagnostic ultrasound. In early research using laboratory fixed beam ultrasound, thresholds for PCH had frequency variation from 1-4 MHz similar to the Mechanical Index. In recent research, thresholds for B mode diagnostic ultrasound from 1.5-12 MHz had little dependence on frequency. To compare the diagnostic ultrasound method to laboratory pulsed exposure, thresholds for fixed beam ultrasound were determined using comparable methods at 1.5 and 7.5 MHz. PCH thresholds were lower for simple fixed-beam pulse modes than for B mode and in approximate agreement with early research. However, for comparable timing parameters, PCH thresholds had little dependence on ultrasonic frequency. These findings suggest that the MI may not be directly useful as a dosimetric parameter for safety guidance in pulmonary ultrasound.

  9. Electron Bernstein Wave Heating by OXB-Mode Conversion at Low Magnetic Field in the WEGA Stellarator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podoba, Y.Y.; Laqua, H.P.; Warr, G.B.; Schubert, M.; Otte, M.; Marsen, S.; Wagner, F.; Andruczyk, D.; Holzhauer, E.; Preinhaelter, Josef; Urban, Jakub

    -, č. 109 (2007), s. 4-6 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Overdense plasma * Conversion * Emission * Stelarators * Elektron Bernstein waves Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.ornl.gov/sci/fed/stelnews

  10. Resonant scattering of energetic electrons in the plasmasphere by monotonic whistler-mode waves artificially generated by ionospheric modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Chang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Modulated high-frequency (HF heating of the ionosphere provides a feasible means of artificially generating extremely low-frequency (ELF/very low-frequency (VLF whistler waves, which can leak into the inner magnetosphere and contribute to resonant interactions with high-energy electrons in the plasmasphere. By ray tracing the magnetospheric propagation of ELF/VLF emissions artificially generated at low-invariant latitudes, we evaluate the relativistic electron resonant energies along the ray paths and show that propagating artificial ELF/VLF waves can resonate with electrons from ~ 100 keV to ~ 10 MeV. We further implement test particle simulations to investigate the effects of resonant scattering of energetic electrons due to triggered monotonic/single-frequency ELF/VLF waves. The results indicate that within the period of a resonance timescale, changes in electron pitch angle and kinetic energy are stochastic, and the overall effect is cumulative, that is, the changes averaged over all test electrons increase monotonically with time. The localized rates of wave-induced pitch-angle scattering and momentum diffusion in the plasmasphere are analyzed in detail for artificially generated ELF/VLF whistlers with an observable in situ amplitude of ~ 10 pT. While the local momentum diffusion of relativistic electrons is small, with a rate of −7 s−1, the local pitch-angle scattering can be intense near the loss cone with a rate of ~ 10−4 s−1. Our investigation further supports the feasibility of artificial triggering of ELF/VLF whistler waves for removal of high-energy electrons at lower L shells within the plasmasphere. Moreover, our test particle simulation results show quantitatively good agreement with quasi-linear diffusion coefficients, confirming the applicability of both methods to evaluate the resonant diffusion effect of artificial generated ELF/VLF whistlers.

  11. Instabilities and growing waves: power absorbed or generated by the various excited modes in a plasma; Instabilites et ondes croissantes: puissance absorbee - ou engendree - par les differents modes excites dans un plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolland, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-05-01

    The character, stable or unstable, of a medium can be deduced from the behavior of an ideal model of a semi-infinite medium which is subjected to an excitation only at the boundary. A new analytic method is used to solve this problem. The results obtained show a connection between the character of the medium and certain properties of the dispersion equation, and agree with those derived from other methods. Then, the energy exchange between a medium and a source of excitation is investigated. In order to include the case of growing waves associated with convective instabilities, this problem is treated in the context of the wave packet theory. We find that - even in the absence of collisions - there still is a power exchange. Thus a connexion can be established with the kinematic theories of growing waves and the modes generating power can be found. Moreover, the power absorbed by spatial dispersion is found to be identical with that due to Landau's effect for long waves. This confirms the kinematic character of the latter and bridges a gap between macroscopic and microscopic theories. (author) [French] Le caractere, stable ou instable, d'un milieu peut etre deduit du comportement d'un milieu semi-indefini soumis a une excitation a la frontiere. Une nouvelle methode analytique est developpee pour resoudre ce probleme. Les resultats obtenus montrent une connexion entre le comportement du milieu et certaines proprietes de l'equation de dispersion, et generalisent les resultats obtenus par d'autres methodes. On etudie ensuite les echanges d'energie entre un milieu et une source d'excitation. Pour inclure le cas des ondes croissantes associees aux instabilites convectives, on traite ce probleme dans le cadre de la theorie du paquet d'ondes. On trouve que meme en l'absence de collisions, la puissance echangee n'est pas nulle. Ceci permet d'etablir une connexion avec les theories cinematiques des ondes croissantes, tout en precisant quels sont les modes generateurs d

  12. One-dimensional full wave treatment of mode conversion process at the ion-ion hybrid resonance in a bounded tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monakhov, I.; Becoulet, A.; Fraboulet, D.; NGuyen, F.

    1998-09-01

    A consistent picture of the mode conversion (MC) process at the ion-ion hybrid resonance in a bounded plasma of a tokamak is discussed, which clarifies the role of the global fast wave interference and cavity effects in the determination of the MC efficiency. This picture is supported by simulations with one-dimensional full wave kinetic code 'VICE'. The concept of the 'global resonator', formed by the R = n 2 || boundary cutoffs [B. Saoutic et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1647 (1996)], is justified, as well as the importance of a proper tunneling factor choice η cr = 0.22 [A. K. Ram et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 1976 (1996)]. The MC scheme behavior appears to be very sensitive to the MC layer position relative to the global wave field pattern, i.e. to the local value of 'poloidal' electric field at the resonance. Optimal MC regimes are found to be attainable without requirement of a particular parallel wavenumber choice. (author)

  13. Single-mode electrically pumped GaSb-based VCSELs emitting continuous-wave at 2.4 and 2.6 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, Alexander; Arafin, Shamsul; Kashani-Shirazi, Kaveh

    2009-01-01

    Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are perfect light sources for spectroscopic applications, where properties such as continuous-wave (cw) operation, single-mode emission, high lifetime and often low power consumption are crucial. For applications such as tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), there is a growing interest in laser devices emitting in the near- to mid-infrared wavelength range, where many environmentally and technologically important gases show strong absorption lines. The (AlGaIn)(AsSb) material system based on GaSb is the material of choice for covering the 2.0-3.3 μm range. In this paper, we report on electrically pumped single-mode VCSELs with emission wavelengths of 2.4 and 2.6 μm, operating cw at room temperature and beyond. By (electro-) thermal tuning, the emission wavelength can be tuned mode-hop free over a range of several nanometers. In addition, low threshold currents of several milliamperes promise mobile application. In the devices, a structured buried tunnel junction with subsequent overgrowth has been used in order to achieve efficient current confinement, reduced optical losses and increased electrical conductivity. Furthermore, strong optical confinement is introduced in the lasers due to laterally differing cavity lengths.

  14. A slow mode wave as a possible source of Pi 2 and associated particle precipitation: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Saka

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available An intensification of auroral luminosity referred to as an auroral break-up often accompanies the onset of geomagnetic pulsation (Pi 2 at the dip-equator. One such auroral break-up occurred at 2239 UT on 16 June, 1986, being accompanied by weak substorm activity (AE~50 nT which was recorded in all-sky image of Syowa Station, Antarctica (66.2°S, 71.8°E in geomagnetic coordinates. The associated Pi 2 magnetic pulsation was detected by a fluxgate magnetometer in the afternoon sector at the dip-equator (Huancayo, Peru; 1.44°N, 355.9° in geomagnetic coordinates; 12.1°S, 75.2°W in geographic coordinates; L=1.00. In spite of the large separation of the two stations in longitude and latitude, the auroral break-up and subsequent luminosity modulation were seen to be correlated with the wave form of the ground Pi 2 pulsation. This occurred in such a way that the luminosity maximum was seen to occur at the phase of maximum amplitudes of Pi 2 wave form. We argue that the observed correlation could be interpreted as indicating a Pi 2-modulation of a field-aligned acceleration of the low energy electrons that may occur near the equator of the midnight magnetosphere.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; energetic particles · precipitating; MHD waves and instabilities

  15. A slow mode wave as a possible source of Pi 2 and associated particle precipitation: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Saka

    Full Text Available An intensification of auroral luminosity referred to as an auroral break-up often accompanies the onset of geomagnetic pulsation (Pi 2 at the dip-equator. One such auroral break-up occurred at 2239 UT on 16 June, 1986, being accompanied by weak substorm activity (AE~50 nT which was recorded in all-sky image of Syowa Station, Antarctica (66.2°S, 71.8°E in geomagnetic coordinates. The associated Pi 2 magnetic pulsation was detected by a fluxgate magnetometer in the afternoon sector at the dip-equator (Huancayo, Peru; 1.44°N, 355.9° in geomagnetic coordinates; 12.1°S, 75.2°W in geographic coordinates; L=1.00. In spite of the large separation of the two stations in longitude and latitude, the auroral break-up and subsequent luminosity modulation were seen to be correlated with the wave form of the ground Pi 2 pulsation. This occurred in such a way that the luminosity maximum was seen to occur at the phase of maximum amplitudes of Pi 2 wave form. We argue that the observed correlation could be interpreted as indicating a Pi 2-modulation of a field-aligned acceleration of the low energy electrons that may occur near the equator of the midnight magnetosphere.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena; energetic particles · precipitating; MHD waves and instabilities

  16. Relativistic electron dynamics produced by azimuthally localized poloidal mode ULF waves: Boomerang-shaped pitch angle evolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Y.; Zong, Q.; Zhou, X.; Rankin, R.; Chen, X.; Liu, Y.; Fu, S.; Spence, H. E.; Blake, J. B.; Reeves, G. D.

    2017-12-01

    We present an analysis of "boomerang-shaped" pitch angle evolutions of outer radiation belt relativistic electrons observed by the Van Allen Probes after the passage of an interplanetary shock on June 7th, 2014. The flux at different pitch angles is modulated by Pc5 waves, with equatorially mirroring electrons reaching the satellite first. For 90º pitch angle electrons, the phase change of the flux modulations across energy exceeds 180º, and increasingly tilts with time. Using estimates of the arrival time of particles of different pitch angles at the spacecraft location, a scenario is investigated in which shock-induced ULF waves interact with electrons through the drift resonance mechanism in a localized region westward of the spacecraft. Numerical calculations on particle energy gain with the modified ULF wave field reproduce the observed boomerang stripes and modulations in the electron energy spectrogram. The study of boomerang stripes and their relationship to drift-resonance taking place at a location different from the observation point adds new understanding of the processes controlling the dynamics of the outer radiation belt.

  17. Comparison of Monolithic Optical Frequency Comb Generators Based on Passively Mode-Locked Lasers for Continuous Wave mm-Wave and Sub-THz Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Criado, A. R.; de Dios, C.; Acedo, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, two different Passive Mode-Locked Laser Diodes (PMLLD) structures, a Fabry–Perot cavity and a ring cavity laser are characterized and evaluated as monolithic Optical Frequency Comb Generators (OFCG) for CW sub-THz generation. An extensive characterization of the devices under study...... is carried out based on an automated measurement system that systematically evaluates the dynamic characteristics of the devices, focusing on the figures of merit that define the optimum performance of a pulsed laser source when considered as an OFCG. Sub-THz signals generated with both devices at 60 GHz...... topologies that can be used for the implementation of photonic integrated sub-THz CW generation....

  18. Suppression of tungsten accumulation during ELMy H-mode by lower hybrid wave heating in the EAST tokamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available EAST tokamak has been equipped with upper tungsten divertor since 2014. The tungsten accumulation has been often observed in NBI-heated H-mode discharges suggesting deleterious tungsten confinement in the plasma core. It causes not only H-L back transition but also plasma disruption in several discharges. Suppression of the tungsten accumulation is therefore the most important issue in EAST to achieve a long pulse H-mode discharge. In order to study the tungsten behavior in the long pulse discharge, tungsten spectra have been measured at 20–140Å. The tungsten density, nw, is evaluated from the intensity of tungsten unresolved transition array (W-UTA in a wavelength range of 45–70Å which is composed of several ionization stages of tungsten, e.g. W27+-W45+ at Te0∼2.5keV. It is found that the tungsten accumulation can be suppressed when the 4.6GHz LHW with PLHW∼0.8MW is superimposed on the NBI phase (PNBI= 1.9MW. During the superimposed phase the ELM frequency, fELM, increases from ∼30Hz to ∼60Hz and the tungsten density is halved compared to the NBI-heated discharge. The H-mode discharge can be thus steadily sustained for longer period. It is found that the nw is a large function of the ratio of LHW power to the total injection power, PLHW/(PLHW+PNBI, and the nw can be reduced, at least, in an order of magnitude smaller than that in NBI-heated discharges at PLHW/(PLHW+PNBI≥0.8. The result strongly suggests a possible way toward the steady H-mode discharge.

  19. Effects of the nuclear symmetry energy on gravitational waves from the axial W-modes of isolated neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Dehua; Li, Baoan; Krastev, P.G.

    2010-01-01

    The frequencies and damping times of the axial w-mode oscillations of neutron stars are investigated using a nuclear equation of state (EOS) partially constrained by the available terrestrial laboratory data. It is found that the nuclear symmetry energy E sym (ρ), especially its high density behavior, plays an important role in determining both the eigen-frequencies and the damping times of these oscillations. (author)

  20. Wave Equation Inversion of Skeletonized SurfaceWaves

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong; Liu, Yike; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    We present a surface-wave inversion method that inverts for the S-wave velocity from the Rayleigh dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode. We call this wave equation inversion of skeletonized surface waves because the dispersion curve

  1. CMS-Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program CMS -Wave CMS -Wave is a two-dimensional spectral wind-wave generation and transformation model that employs a forward...marching, finite-difference method to solve the wave action conservation equation. Capabilities of CMS -Wave include wave shoaling, refraction... CMS -Wave can be used in either on a half- or full-plane mode, with primary waves propagating from the seaward boundary toward shore. It can

  2. Microwave plasma mode conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, H.S.; Sakanaka, P.H.; Villarroel, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of hot electrons during the process of laser-produced plasma is studied. The basic equations of mode conversion from electromagnetic waves to electrostatic waves are presented. It is shown by mode conversion, that, the resonant absorption and parametric instabilities appear simultaneously, but in different plasma regions. (M.C.K.) [pt

  3. Solution of Full Wave Equation for Global Modes in Small Aspect Ratio Tokamaks with Non-Circular Cross-Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burma, C.; Cuperman, S.; Komoshvili, K.

    1998-01-01

    The wave equation for strongly toroidal small aspect ratio (spherical) tokamaks with non-circular cross-section is properly formulated and solved for global waves, in the Alfven frequency range. The current-carrying toroidal plasma is surrounded by a helical sheet-current antenna, which is enclosed within a perfectly conducting wall. The problem is formulated in terms of the vector and scalar potentials (A,Φ), thus avoiding the numerical solution occurring in the case of (E,B) formulation. Adequate boundary conditions are applied at the vacuum - metallic wall interface and the magnetic axis. A recently derived dielectric tensor-operator, able to describe the anisotropic plasma response in spherical tokamaks, is used for this purpose; except for its linear character, no physical or geometrical limitations are imposed on it. The equilibrium profiles (magnetic field, pressure and current) are obtained from a numerical solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation. Specifically, the wave equation is solved by the aid of a numerical code we developed for the present problem, based on the well documented 2(1/2)D finite element solver proposed by E.G. Sewell. With the definitions V i (θ,ρ) = U i (-θ,ρ) (V i U i = A j , Φ; j = ρ,φ,θ), our code solves simultaneously 16 second order partial differential equations (eight equations for each of real and imaginary set of functions V i , U i ). A systematic analysis of the solutions obtained for various values and combinations of wavenumbers and frequencies in the Alfven range is presented

  4. Influence of gas puff location on the coupling of lower hybrid waves in JET ELMy H-mode plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ekedahl, A.; Petržílka, Václav; Baranov, Y.; Biewer, T.M.; Brix, M.; Goniche, M.; Jacquet, P.; Kirov, K.K.; Klepper, C.C.; Mailloux, J.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Nave, M.F.F.; Ongena, J.; Rachlew, E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 7 (2012), 074004-074004 ISSN 0741-3335. [IAEA Fusion Energy Conference 2010/23./. Daejeon, 11.10.2010-16.10.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0044; GA ČR GAP205/10/2055; GA MŠk(CZ) LG11018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : LH wave * plasma * current drive * tokamak * LHCD Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.369, year: 2012 http://iopscience.iop.org/0741-3335/54/7/074004/pdf/0741-3335_54_7_074004.pdf

  5. Millimeter wave absorption by confined acoustic modes in CdSe/CdTe core-shell quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, T-M; Lu, J-Y; Kuo, C-C; Wen, Y-C; Lai, C-W; Yang, M-J; Chou, P-T; Murray, D B; Saviot, L; Sun, C-Kuang

    2007-01-01

    Taking advantage of the specific core-shell charge separation structure in the CdSe/CdTe core-shell Type-II quantum dots (QDs), we experimentally observed the resonant-enhanced dipolar interaction between millimeter-wave (MMW) photons and their corresponding (l = 1) confined acoustic phonons. With proper choice of size, the absorption band can be tuned to desired frequency of MMW imaging. Exploiting this characteristic absorption, in a fiber-scanned MMW imaging system, we demonstrated the feasibility of CdSe/CdTe QDs as the contrast agents of MMW imaging

  6. Remote heterodyne millimeter-wave over fiber based OFDM-PON with master-to-slave injected dual-mode colorless FPLD pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiang-Yu; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2015-08-24

    A remote heterodyne millimeter-wave (MMW) carrier at 47.7 GHz over fiber synthesized with the master-to-slave injected dual-mode colorless FPLD pair is proposed, which enables the future connection between the wired fiber-optic 64-QAM OFDM-PON at 24 Gb/s with the MMW 4-QAM OFDM wireless network at 2 Gb/s. Both the single- and dual-mode master-to-slave injection-locked colorless FPLD pairs are compared to optimize the proposed 64-QAM OFDM-PON. For the unamplified single-mode master, the slave colorless FPLD successfully performs the 64-QAM OFDM data at 24 Gb/s with EVM, SNR and BER of 8.5%, 21.5 dB and 2.9 × 10(-3), respectively. In contrast, the dual-mode master-to-slave injection-locked colorless FPLD pair with amplified and unfiltered master can transmit 64-QAM OFDM data at 18 Gb/s over 25-km SMF to provide EVM, SNR and BER of 8.2%, 21.8 dB and 2.2 × 10(-3), respectively. For the dual-mode master-to-slave injection-locked colorless FPLD pair, even though the modal dispersion occurred during 25-km SMF transmission makes it sacrifice the usable OFDM bandwidth by only 1 GHz, which guarantees the sufficient encoding bitrate for the optically generated MMW carrier to implement the fusion of MMW wireless LAN and DWDM-PON with cost-effective and compact architecture. As a result, the 47.7-GHz MMW carrier remotely beat from the dual-mode master-to-slave injection-locked colorless FPLD pair exhibits an extremely narrow bandwidth of only 0.48 MHz. After frequency down-conversion operation, the 47.7-GHz MMW carrier successfully delivers 4-QAM OFDM data up to 2 Gb/s with EVM, SNR and BER of 33.5%, 9.51 dB and 1.4 × 10(-3), respectively.

  7. Relativistic electron dynamics produced by azimuthally localized poloidal mode ULF waves: Boomerang-shaped pitch angle evolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Y. X.; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Rankin, R.; Chen, X. R.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we present an analysis of “boomerang-shaped” pitch angle evolutions of outer radiation belt relativistic electrons observed by the Van Allen Probes after the passage of an interplanetary shock on 7 June 2014. The flux at different pitch angles is modulated by Pc5 waves, with equatorially mirroring electrons reaching the satellite first. For 90° pitch angle electrons, the phase change of the flux modulations across energy exceeds 180° and increasingly tilts with time. Using estimates of the arrival time of particles of different pitch angles at the spacecraft location, a scenario is investigated in which shock-induced ULF waves interact with electrons through the drift resonance mechanism in a localized region westward of the spacecraft. Numerical calculations on particle energy gain with the modified ULF wavefield reproduce the observed boomerang stripes and modulations in the electron energy spectrogram. The study of boomerang stripes and their relationship to drift resonance taking place at a location different from the observation point adds new understanding of the processes controlling the dynamics of the outer radiation belt.

  8. Amplitude modulation of quantum-ion-acoustic wavepackets in electron-positron-ion plasmas: Modulational instability, envelope modes, extreme waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Ata-ur-, E-mail: ata797@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, Islamia College Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan); Kerr, Michael Mc, E-mail: mjamckerr@gmail.com; Kourakis, Ioannis, E-mail: IoannisKourakisSci@gmail.com [Centre for Plasma Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Queen' s University Belfast, BT7 1NN Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); El-Taibany, Wael F., E-mail: eltaibany@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, New Damietta, P.O. Box 34517 (Egypt); Department of Physics, College of Science for Girls in Abha, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 960, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Qamar, A., E-mail: anisaqamar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan)

    2015-02-15

    A semirelativistic fluid model is employed to describe the nonlinear amplitude modulation of low-frequency (ionic scale) electrostatic waves in an unmagnetized electron-positron-ion plasma. Electrons and positrons are assumed to be degenerated and inertialess, whereas ions are warm and classical. A multiscale perturbation method is used to derive a nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the envelope amplitude, based on which the occurrence of modulational instability is investigated in detail. Various types of localized ion acoustic excitations are shown to exist, in the form of either bright type envelope solitons (envelope pulses) or dark-type envelope solitons (voids, holes). The plasma configurational parameters (namely, the relativistic degeneracy parameter, the positron concentration, and the ionic temperature) are shown to affect the conditions for modulational instability significantly, in fact modifying the associated threshold as well as the instability growth rate. In particular, the relativistic degeneracy parameter leads to an enhancement of the modulational instability mechanism. Furthermore, the effect of different relevant plasma parameters on the characteristics (amplitude, width) of these envelope solitary structures is also presented in detail. Finally, the occurrence of extreme amplitude excitation (rogue waves) is also discussed briefly. Our results aim at elucidating the formation and dynamics of nonlinear electrostatic excitations in superdense astrophysical regimes.

  9. Non Linear Internal Waves: Modeling of Their Influence on Acoustic Mode Energy Fluctuations and Characterization Using SAR Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Moreover, for the considered range of frequency, as R is large and α is small, one can approximate .( ). ’ 0 ( , ) ’mn R i l k r mnH R...k e dr −= ∫ by a Dirac function such as ( , ) 2 . ( )mn mnH R k k kπ δ≈ − where mn m nk k k= − is the beat wavenumber between mode m and n. The...Dirac representation of ( , ) mnH R k is really a cornerstone of this model since it enhances the fact that the resonant coupling condition is

  10. ITER Plasma at Ion Cyclotron Frequency Domain: The Fusion Alpha Particles Diagnostics Based on the Stimulated Raman Scattering of Fast Magnetosonic Wave off High Harmonic Ion Bernstein Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2014-10-01

    A novel method for alpha particle diagnostics is proposed. The theory of stimulated Raman scattering, SRS, of the fast wave and ion Bernstein mode, IBM, turbulence in multi-ion species plasmas, (Stefan University Press, La Jolla, CA, 2008). is utilized for the diagnostics of fast ions, (4)He (+2), in ITER plasmas. Nonlinear Landau damping of the IBM on fast ions near the plasma edge leads to the space-time changes in the turbulence level, (inverse alpha particle channeling). The space-time monitoring of the IBM turbulence via the SRS techniques may prove efficient for the real time study of the fast ion velocity distribution function, spatial distribution, and transport. Supported by Nikola Tesla Labs., La Jolla, CA 92037.

  11. Modulation of cosmic microwave background polarization with a warm rapidly rotating half-wave plate on the Atacama B-Mode Search instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, A; Essinger-Hileman, T; Appel, J W; Gallardo, P; Irwin, K D; Jarosik, N; Nolta, M R; Page, L A; Parker, L P; Raghunathan, S; Sievers, J L; Simon, S M; Staggs, S T; Visnjic, K

    2014-02-01

    We evaluate the modulation of cosmic microwave background polarization using a rapidly rotating, half-wave plate (HWP) on the Atacama B-Mode Search. After demodulating the time-ordered-data (TOD), we find a significant reduction of atmospheric fluctuations. The demodulated TOD is stable on time scales of 500-1000 s, corresponding to frequencies of 1-2 mHz. This facilitates recovery of cosmological information at large angular scales, which are typically available only from balloon-borne or satellite experiments. This technique also achieves a sensitive measurement of celestial polarization without differencing the TOD of paired detectors sensitive to two orthogonal linear polarizations. This is the first demonstration of the ability to remove atmospheric contamination at these levels from a ground-based platform using a rapidly rotating HWP.

  12. Coronal heating by the resonant absorption of Alfven waves - Importance of the global mode and scaling laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinolfson, Richard S.; Davila, Joseph M.

    1993-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the MHD equations for a fully compressible, low-beta, resistive plasma are used to study the resonance absorption process for the heating of coronal active region loops. Comparisons with more approximate analytic models show that the major predictions of the analytic theories are, to a large extent, confirmed by the numerical computations. The simulations demonstrate that the dissipation occurs primarily in a thin resonance layer. Some of the analytically predicted features verified by the simulations are (a) the position of the resonance layer within the initial inhomogeneity; (b) the importance of the global mode for a large range of loop densities; (c) the dependence of the resonance layer thickness and the steady-state heating rate on the dissipation coefficient; and (d) the time required for the resonance layer to form. In contrast with some previous analytic and simulation results, the time for the loop to reach a steady state is found to be the phase-mixing time rather than a dissipation time. This disagreement is shown to result from neglect of the existence of the global mode in some of the earlier analyses. The resonant absorption process is also shown to behave similar to a classical driven harmonic oscillator.

  13. Soft mode and energy gap in spin wave spectrum for a second order orientation phase transition. AFMR in YFe3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbashov, A.M.; Berezin, A.G.; Gufan, Yu.M.; Kolyadko, G.S.; Marchukov, P.Yu.; Rudashevskij, E.G.

    1987-01-01

    A pronounced energy gap of a nonmagnetoelastic origin is observed experimentally in the spectrum of the low-frequency (quasiferromagnetic) antiferromagnetic resonance branch during a second order spin-flip phase transition in an external magnetic field directed along the a axis of the rhombic weak ferromagnetic YFeO 3 . From the theory developed which takes into account the susceptibility along the antiferromagnetism axis and dissipation processes, it follows that beside the usual AFMR oscillatory branches there should also be a relaxation mode which is ''soft'' fo the given transition. The magnitude of the energy gaps, the values of the kinetic coefficients, Dzyaloshinsky field strengths and ratio of the longitudinal susceptibility to the transverse susceptibility are determined by analyzing the experimental data obtained in fields up to 130 kOe in the frequency range from 60 to 400 GHz at room temperature

  14. 1.9 W continuous-wave single transverse mode emission from 1060 nm edge-emitting lasers with vertically extended lasing area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. J., E-mail: jarez.miah@tu-berlin.de; Posilovic, K.; Kalosha, V. P.; Rosales, R.; Bimberg, D. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Kettler, T. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); PBC Lasers GmbH, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Skoczowsky, D. [PBC Lasers GmbH, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Pohl, J.; Weyers, M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-10-13

    High-brightness edge-emitting semiconductor lasers having a vertically extended waveguide structure emitting in the 1060 nm range are investigated. Ridge waveguide (RW) lasers with 9 μm stripe width and 2.64 mm cavity length yield highest to date single transverse mode output power for RW lasers in the 1060 nm range. The lasers provide 1.9 W single transverse mode optical power under continuous-wave (cw) operation with narrow beam divergences of 9° in lateral and 14° (full width at half maximum) in vertical direction. The beam quality factor M{sup 2} is less than 1.9 up to 1.9 W optical power. A maximum brightness of 72 MWcm{sup −2}sr{sup −1} is obtained. 100 μm wide and 3 mm long unpassivated broad area lasers provide more than 9 W optical power in cw operation.

  15. Acousto-optic mode coupling excited by flexural waves in simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hao; Qiu, Minghui; Wu, Zhifang; Dong, Hongguang; Liu, Bo; Miao, Yinping

    2013-01-01

    We have demonstrated the formation of an acoustic grating in a simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fiber, which consists of a hollow hexagonal core and six crown-like air holes, by applying flexural acoustic waves along the fiber axis. The dependence of the resonance wavelength on the applied acoustic frequency has been acquired on the basis of the theoretical calculation of the phase matching curve; it is in good agreement with our experimental observation of the transmission spectral evolution as the applied acoustic frequency varies. Experimental results show that the acoustic grating resonance peak possesses acoustic frequency and strain dependences of 728 nm MHz −1 and −6.98 pm με −1 , respectively, based on which high-performance acousto-optic tunable filters and fiber-optic strain sensors with high sensitivity could be achieved. And furthermore, the research work presented in this paper indicates that microbending rather than physical deformation is the main physical mechanism that leads to the formation of equivalent long-period gratings, which would be of significance for developing related grating devices based on simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fibers. (paper)

  16. Acute Effects of Exercise Mode on Arterial Stiffness and Wave Reflection in Healthy Young Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris R. Pierce

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This systematic review and meta-analysis quantified the effect of acute exercise mode on arterial stiffness and wave reflection measures including carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV, augmentation index (AIx, and heart rate corrected AIx (AIx75.Methods: Using standardized terms, database searches from inception until 2017 identified 45 studies. Eligible studies included acute aerobic and/or resistance exercise in healthy adults, pre- and post-intervention measurements or change values, and described their study design. Data from included studies were analyzed and reported in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and PRISMA guidelines. Meta-analytical data were reported via forest plots using absolute differences with 95% confidence intervals with the random effects model accounting for between-study heterogeneity. Reporting bias was assessed via funnel plots and, individual studies were evaluated for bias using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. A modified PEDro Scale was applied to appraise methodological concerns inherent to included studies.Results: Acute aerobic exercise failed to change cf-PWV (mean difference: 0.00 ms−1 [95% confidence interval: −0.11, 0.11], p = 0.96, significantly reduced AIx (−4.54% [−7.05, −2.04], p = 0.0004 and significantly increased AIx75 (3.58% [0.56, 6.61], p = 0.02. Contrastingly, acute resistance exercise significantly increased cf-PWV (0.42 ms−1 [0.17, 0.66], p = 0.0008, did not change AIx (1.63% [−3.83, 7.09], p = 0.56, and significantly increased AIx75 (15.02% [8.71, 21.33], p < 0.00001. Significant heterogeneity was evident within all comparisons except cf-PWV following resistance exercise, and several methodological concerns including low applicability of exercise protocols and lack of control intervention were identified.Conclusions: Distinct arterial stiffness and wave reflection responses were identified

  17. Seismic Interferometry of Gulf of Mexico Basin Opening (GUMBO) Data: Extraction of Body and Surface Waves with a Mixed-Mode Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangraj, J. S.; Quiros, D.; Pulliam, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Gulf of Mexico (GoM) is a relative small oceanic basin that formed by rifting between the continental blocks of North America and Yucatan in the Middle to Late Jurassic. Following the breakup, seafloor spreading continued until the Early Cretaceous. Since then, subsidence and sedimentation have shaped the GoM margin that we see today. To better understand the opening of the GoM, a long-offset (307 km) seismic refraction line was acquired in 2010. The transect was located on the northwest GoM margin, and consisted of several types of instruments. This mixed-mode array combined 31 ocean bottom seismographs (OBS), 412 high-frequency instruments (4.5 Hz geophones with RefTek 125A "Texan" digitizers) and 12 broadband stations. The R/V Iron Cat provided the airgun source used in the refraction experiment. The airgun generated 2028 shots in a period of 2.5 days which were recorded by the entire array. The airgun-generated seismic energy was clearly visible on the OBS recordings, however its amplitude was too low to be discerned on most of the onshore stations. In fact, this energy was only visible on Texan stations 1-50 (station 1 is located at the coast), extending 18 km inland, limiting the extend of the velocity model that can be obtained. Here, we apply seismic interferometry techniques to the 2.5 days of continuous data recorded by the Texan array with the goal of extending the spatial range for which the airgun-generated seismic energy can be observed. Preliminary results show that by treating the 2.5 days of continuously recorded airgun data as ambient noise, and applying time-domain cross-correlation, we can observe energy propagating 50 to 70 km inland with apparent velocities of 1800 - 2200 ms-1. These velocities agree with the compressional seismic velocity for the top 5 km of sediments under the GoM obtained from the OBS records, suggesting that we are observing compressional energy in the virtual source gathers (VSG). We also observe arrivals in the VSG

  18. Solitary-wave emission fronts, spectral chirping, and coupling to beam acoustic modes in RPIC simulation of SRS backscatter.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuBois, D. F. (Donald F.); Yin, L. (Lin); Daughton, W. S. (William S.); Bezzerides, B. (Bandel); Dodd, E. S. (Evan S.); Vu, H. X. (Hoanh X.)

    2004-01-01

    Detailed diagnostics of quasi-2D RPIC simulations of backward stimulated Raman scattering (BSRS), from single speckles under putative NIF conditions, reveal a complex spatio-temporal behavior. The scattered light consists of localized packets, tens of microns in width, traveling toward the laser at an appreciable fraction of the speed of light. Sub pico-second reflectivity pulses occur as these packets leave the system. The LW activity consists of a front traveling with the light packets with a wake of free LWs traveling in the laser direction. The parametric coupling occurs in the front where the scattered light and LW overlap and are strongest. As the light leaves the plasma the LW quickly decays, liberating its trapped electrons. The high frequency part of the |n{sub e}(k,{omega})|{sup 2} spectrum, where n{sub e} is the electron density fluctuation, consists of a narrow streak or straight line with a slope that is the velocity of the parametric front. The time dependence of |n{sub e}(k,t)|{sup 2}, shows that during each pulse the most intense value of k also 'chirps' to higher values, consistent with the k excursions seen in the |n{sub e}(k,{omega})|{sup 2} spectrum. But k does not always return, in the subsequent pulses, to the original parametrically matched value, indicating that, in spite of side loss, the electron distribution function does not return to its original Maxwellian form. Liberated pulses of hot electrons result in down-stream, bump on tail distributions that excite LWs and beam acoustic modes deeper in the plasma. The frequency broadened spectra are consistent with Thomson scatter spectra observed in TRIDENT single-hot-spot experiments in the high k{lambda}{sub D}, trapping regime. Further details including a comparison of results from full PIC simulations, and movies of the spatio-temporal behavior, will be given in the poster by L Yin et al.

  19. Saturated evanescent-wave absorption of few-layer graphene-covered side-polished single-mode fiber for all-optical switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kaung-Jay; Wu, Chun-Lung; Lin, Yung-Hsiang; Wang, Hwai-Yung; Cheng, Chih-Hsien; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2018-01-01

    Using the evanescent-wave saturation effect of hydrogen-free low-temperature synthesized few-layer graphene covered on the cladding region of a side-polished single-mode fiber, a blue pump/infrared probe-based all-optical switch is demonstrated with specific wavelength-dependent probe modulation efficiency. Under the illumination of a blue laser diode at 405 nm, the few-layer graphene exhibits cross-gain modulation at different wavelengths covering the C- and L-bands. At a probe power of 0.5 mW, the L-band switching throughput power variant of 16 μW results in a probe modulation depth of 3.2%. Blue shifting the probe wavelength from 1580 to 1520 nm further enlarges the switching throughput power variant to 24 mW and enhances the probe modulation depth to 5%. Enlarging the probe power from 0.5 to 1 mW further enlarges the switching throughput power variant from 25 to 58 μW to promote its probe modulation depth of up to 5.8% at 1520 nm. In contrast, the probe modulation depth degrades from 5.1% to 1.2% as the pumping power reduces from 85 to 24 mW, which is attributed to the saturable absorption of the few-layer graphene-based evanescent-wave absorber. The modulation depth at wavelength of 1550 nm under a probe power of 1 mW increases from 1.2% to 5.1%, as more carriers can be excited when increasing the blue laser power from 24 to 85 mW, whereas it decreases from 5.1% to 3.3% by increasing the input probe power from 1 to 2 mW to show an easier saturated condition at longer wavelength.

  20. A step-wise steerable source of illumination for low-noise "Violin-Mode" shadow sensors, intended for use in interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2016-01-01

    A steerable low-noise source of illumination is described for shadow-sensors having a displacement sensitivity of ˜100 pm (rms)/√Hz, at 500 Hz, over a measuring span of at least ±0.5 mm. These sensors were designed to detect lateral "Violin-Mode" resonances in the highly tensioned fused-silica suspension fibres of the test-masses/mirrors for the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory gravitational wave detectors. The shadow sensors—one intended for each of the four fibres in a suspension—comprised a source of Near InfraRed (NIR) radiation (emitter) and a differential shadow-displacement sensor (detector), these bracketing the fibre under test. The suspension fibres themselves were approximately 600 mm long by 0.4 mm in diameter, and when illuminated from the side, they cast narrow, vertical, shadows onto their respective detectors—these being located at an effective distance of 50 fibre diameters behind the axes of the fibres themselves. The emitter described here was designed to compensate for a significant degree of mechanical drift or creep over time in the mean position of its suspension fibre. This was achieved by employing five adjacent columns of 8 × miniature NIR LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes, λ = 890 nm), with one column being activated at a time. When used in conjunction with a "reverse Galilean" telescope, the LED sources allowed the collimated beam from the emitter to be steered azimuthally in fine angular increments (0.65°), causing the fibre's shadow to move laterally, in a step-wise manner, across the plane of its facing detector. Each step in shadow position was approximately 0.23 mm in size, and this allowed the fibre's shadow to be re-centred, so as to bridge once again both elements of its photodiode detector—even if the fibre was off-centred by as much as ±0.5 mm. Re-centring allowed Violin-Mode vibrations of the fibre to be sensed once again as differential AC photocurrents, these flowing in anti-phase in the

  1. Crystal Growth of High-Quality Protein Crystals under the Presence of an Alternant Electric Field in Pulse-Wave Mode, and a Strong Magnetic Field with Radio Frequency Pulses Characterized by X-ray Diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Rodríguez-Romero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this research was devoted to investigating the effect of alternate current (AC using four different types of wave modes (pulse-wave at 2 Hz on the crystal growth of lysozyme in solution. The best results, in terms of size and crystal quality, were obtained when protein crystals were grown under the influence of electric fields in a very specific wave mode (“breathing” wave, giving the highest resolution up to 1.34 Å in X-ray diffraction analysis compared with controls and with those crystals grown in gel. In the second part, we evaluated the effect of a strong magnetic field of 16.5 Tesla combined with radiofrequency pulses of 0.43 μs on the crystal growth in gels of tetragonal hen egg white (HEW lysozyme. The lysozyme crystals grown, both in solution applying breathing-wave and in gel under the influence of this strong magnetic field with pulses of radio frequencies, produced the larger-in-size crystals and the highest resolution structures. Data processing and refinement statistics are very good in terms of the resolution, mosaicity and Wilson B factor obtained for each crystal. Besides, electron density maps show well-defined and distinctly separated atoms at several selected tryptophan residues for the crystal grown using the “breathing wave pulses”.

  2. Standing Slow MHD Waves in Radiatively Cooling Coronal Loops ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The standing slow magneto-acoustic oscillations in cooling coronal loops ... turbation and, eventually, reduces the MHD equations to a 1D system modelling ..... where the function Q is expanded in power series with respect to ǫ, i.e.,. Q = Q0 + ...

  3. A low-noise transimpedance amplifier for the detection of "Violin-Mode" resonances in advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of an extremely low-noise differential transimpedance amplifier, which takes its two inputs from separate photodiodes. The amplifier was planned to serve as the front-end electronics for a highly sensitive shadow-displacement sensing system, aimed at detecting very low-level "Violin-Mode" (VM) oscillations in 0.4 mm diameter by 600 mm long fused-silica suspension fibres. Four such highly tensioned fibres support the 40 kg test-masses/mirrors of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory interferometers. This novel design of amplifier incorporates features which prevent "noise-gain peaking" arising from large area photodiode (and cable) capacitances, and which also usefully separate the DC and AC photocurrents coming from the photodiodes. In consequence, the differential amplifier was able to generate straightforwardly two DC outputs, one per photodiode, as well as a single high-gain output for monitoring the VM oscillations—this output being derived from the difference of the photodiodes' two, naturally anti-phase, AC photocurrents. Following a displacement calibration, the amplifier's final VM signal output was found to have an AC displacement responsivity at 500 Hz of (9.43 ± 1.20) MV(rms) m-1(rms), and, therefore, a shot-noise limited sensitivity to such AC shadow- (i.e., fibre-) displacements of (69 ± 13) picometres/√Hz at this frequency, over a measuring span of ±0.1 mm.

  4. A low-noise transimpedance amplifier for the detection of "Violin-Mode" resonances in Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockerbie, N A; Tokmakov, K V

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes the design and performance of an extremely low-noise differential transimpedance amplifier, which takes its two inputs from separate photodiodes. The amplifier was planned to serve as the front-end electronics for a highly sensitive shadow-displacement sensing system, aimed at detecting very low-level "Violin-Mode" (VM) oscillations in 0.4 mm diameter by 600 mm long fused-silica suspension fibres. Four such highly tensioned fibres support the 40 kg test-masses/mirrors of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory interferometers. This novel design of amplifier incorporates features which prevent "noise-gain peaking" arising from large area photodiode (and cable) capacitances, and which also usefully separate the DC and AC photocurrents coming from the photodiodes. In consequence, the differential amplifier was able to generate straightforwardly two DC outputs, one per photodiode, as well as a single high-gain output for monitoring the VM oscillations-this output being derived from the difference of the photodiodes' two, naturally anti-phase, AC photocurrents. Following a displacement calibration, the amplifier's final VM signal output was found to have an AC displacement responsivity at 500 Hz of (9.43 ± 1.20) MV(rms) m(-1)(rms), and, therefore, a shot-noise limited sensitivity to such AC shadow- (i.e., fibre-) displacements of (69 ± 13) picometres/√Hz at this frequency, over a measuring span of ±0.1 mm.

  5. The third post-Newtonian gravitational wave polarizations and associated spherical harmonic modes for inspiralling compact binaries in quasi-circular orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchet, Luc; Faye, Guillaume; Iyer, Bala R; Sinha, Siddhartha

    2008-01-01

    The gravitational waveform (GWF) generated by inspiralling compact binaries moving in quasi-circular orbits is computed at the third post-Newtonian (3PN) approximation to general relativity. Our motivation is two-fold: (i) to provide accurate templates for the data analysis of gravitational wave inspiral signals in laser interferometric detectors; (ii) to provide the associated spin-weighted spherical harmonic decomposition to facilitate comparison and match of the high post-Newtonian prediction for the inspiral waveform to the numerically-generated waveforms for the merger and ringdown. This extension of the GWF by half a PN order (with respect to previous work at 2.5PN order) is based on the algorithm of the multipolar post-Minkowskian formalism, and mandates the computation of the relations between the radiative, canonical and source multipole moments for general sources at 3PN order. We also obtain the 3PN extension of the source multipole moments in the case of compact binaries, and compute the contributions of hereditary terms (tails, tails-of-tails and memory integrals) up to 3PN order. The end results are given for both the complete plus and cross polarizations and the separate spin-weighted spherical harmonic modes

  6. Dark current studies on a normal-conducting high-brightness very-high-frequency electron gun operating in continuous wave mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on measurements and analysis of a field-emitted electron current in the very-high-frequency (VHF gun, a room temperature rf gun operating at high field and continuous wave (CW mode at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL. The VHF gun is the core of the Advanced Photo-injector Experiment (APEX at LBNL, geared toward the development of an injector for driving the next generation of high average power x-ray free electron lasers. High accelerating fields at the cathode are necessary for the high-brightness performance of an electron gun. When coupled with CW operation, such fields can generate a significant amount of field-emitted electrons that can be transported downstream the accelerator forming the so-called “dark current.” Elevated levels of a dark current can cause radiation damage, increase the heat load in the downstream cryogenic systems, and ultimately limit the overall performance and reliability of the facility. We performed systematic measurements that allowed us to characterize the field emission from the VHF gun, determine the location of the main emitters, and define an effective strategy to reduce and control the level of dark current at APEX. Furthermore, the energy spectra of isolated sources have been measured. A simple model for energy data analysis was developed that allows one to extract information on the emitter from a single energy distribution measurement.

  7. Analysis of the multi-component pseudo-pure-mode qP-wave inversion in vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) media

    KAUST Repository

    Djebbi, Ramzi

    2014-08-05

    Multi-parameter inversion in anisotropic media suffers from the inherent trade-off between the anisotropic parameters, even under the acoustic assumption. Multi-component data, often acquired nowadays in ocean bottom acquisition and land data, provide additional information capable of resolving anisotropic parameters under the acoustic approximation assumption. Based on Born scattering approximation, we develop formulas capable of characterizing the radiation patterns for the acoustic pseudo-pure mode P-waves. Though commonly reserved for the elastic fields, we use displacement fields to constrain the acoustic vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) representation of the medium. Using the asymptotic Green\\'s functions and a horizontal reflector we derive the radiation patterns for perturbations in the anisotropic media. The radiation pattern for the anellipticity parameter η is identically zero for the horizontal displacement. This allows us to dedicate this component to invert for velocity and δ. Computing the traveltime sensitivity kernels based on the unwrapped phase confirms the radiation patterns observations, and provide the model wavenumber behavior of the update.

  8. Comparing Performance of Combinations of Shear Wave Elastography and B-Mode Ultrasound in Diagnosing Breast Masses: Is It Influenced by Mass Size?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Rui; Li, Jing; Wang, Xuejiao

    2017-10-01

    We determined the diagnostic performance of combinations of shear wave elastography (SWE) and B-mode ultrasound (US) in differentiating malignant from benign breast masses, and we investigated whether performance is affected by mass size. In this prospective study of 315 consecutive patients with 326 breast masses, US and SWE were performed before biopsy. Masses were categorized into two subgroups on the basis of mass size (≤15 mm and >15 mm), and the optimal thresholds for the SWE parameters were determined for each subgroup using receiver operating characteristic curves. The combination proposed here achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.943, 95.00% sensitivity and 81.18% specificity, which approximated the diagnostic performance of US alone. The performance of the combinations using the subgroups' thresholds did not differ significantly from those based on the entire study group's thresholds, but the optimal thresholds were higher in the subgroup of larger masses. Further research is needed to determine whether mass size affects the performance of combinations of SWE and US. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Propagation of lower-band whistler-mode waves in the outer Van Allen belt: Systematic analysis of 11 years of multi-component data from the Cluster spacecraft

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Santolík, Ondřej; Macúšová, Eva; Kolmašová, Ivana; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; De Conchy, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 8 (2014), s. 2729-2737 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7E12026; GA ČR GAP205/10/2279 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : whistler-mode chorus * wave vector directions * Van Allen radiation belts Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.456, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014GL059815/abstract

  10. Legendre polynomial modeling for vibrations of guided Lamb waves modes in [001]c, [011]c and [111]c polarized (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (x = 0.29 and 0.33) piezoelectric plates: Physical phenomenon of multiple intertwining of An and Sn modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othmani, Cherif; Takali, Farid; Njeh, Anouar

    2017-12-01

    Guided wave devices have recently become one of the most important applications in the industry because such waves are directly related to applications in sensor technology, chemical sensing, agricultural science, fields of bio-sensing and surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices that are used in electronic filters and signal processing. On that account, this numerical investigation aims to study the propagation behavior of guided Lamb waves in a (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3- x PbTiO3 [PMN- x PT] ( x=0.29 or 0.33) piezoelectric single crystal plate. In fact, the PMN- xPT ( x=0.29 or 0.33) piezoelectric crystals are being polarized along [001]c, [011]c and [111]c of the cubic reference directions so that the macroscopic symmetries are tetragonal 4 mm, orthogonal mm2 and rhombohedral 3 m, respectively. Both open- and short-circuit conditions are considered. Here, the Legendre polynomial method is proposed to solve the guided Lamb waves equations. The validity of the proposed method is illustrated by comparison with the ordinary differential equation (ODE). The convergence of this method is discussed. Consequently, the converged results are obtained with very low truncation order M . This constitutes a major advantage of the present method when compared with the other matrix methods. There is cross-crossings among multiple modes for both symmetric ( Sn) and the anti-symmetric ( An) guided Lamb waves propagation. A displacement field has been illustrated to judge whether Sn and An modes cross with each other. Moreover, electric displacement, stress field and electric potential for the open-circuit case were presented for both S0 and A0 Lamb modes.

  11. BICEP2, Planck, spinorial space-time, pre-Big Bang.. On the possible origin of primordial CMB B-modes and gravitational waves. Potentialities of alternative cosmologies and open questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

    2015-05-01

    The field of Cosmology is currently undergoing a positive and constructive crisis. Controversies concerning inflation are not really new. But after the 2013-2014 Planck and BICEP2 announcements, and the more recent joint analysis by Planck, BICEP2 and the Keck Array (PBKA), the basic issues can involve more direct links between the Mathematical Physics aspects of cosmological patterns and the interpretation of experimental results. Open questions and new ideas on the foundations of Cosmology can emerge, while future experimental and observational programs look very promising. The BICEP2 result reporting an excess of B-mode polarization signal of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation was initially presented as a signature of primordial gravitational waves from cosmic inflation. But polarized dust emission can be at the origin of such a signal, and the evidence claimed by BICEP2 is no longer secure after the PBKA analysis. Furthermore, even assuming that significant CMB B-mode polarization has indeed been generated by the early Universe, its theoretical and cosmological interpretation would be far from obvious. Inflationary gravitational waves are not the only possible source of primordial CMB B-modes. Alternative cosmologies such as pre-Big Bang patterns and the spinorial space-time (SST) we introduced in 1996-97 can naturally produce this polarization. Furthermore, the SST automatically generates for each comoving observer a local privileged space direction (PSD) whose existence may have been confirmed by Planck data. If such a PSD exists, vector perturbations have most likely been strong in the early Universe and may have produced CMB B-modes. Pre-Big Bang cosmologies can also generate gravitational waves in the early Universe without inflation. After briefly describing detectors devoted to the study of the CMB polarization, we discuss the situation emerging from BICEP2 results, Planck results and the PBKA analysis. In particular, we further analyze

  12. Mucosal wave characteristics in three voice modes (fry, hiss & overpressure) produced by a female speaker: a preliminary study using stroboscopy, HSDI and analyzed by kymography, P-FFT & Nyquist plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebski, Krzysztof; Ward, Ronald R.; Yan, Yuling

    2012-02-01

    HSDI provides a whole new way to investigate visually intra-laryngeal behavior and posturing during phonation by providing detailed real-time information about laryngeal biomechanics that include observations about mucosal wave, wave motion directionality, glottic area wave form, asymmetry of vibrations within and across vocal folds and contact area of the glottis including posterior commissure closure. These observations are fundamental to our understanding and modeling of both normal and disordered phonation. In this preliminary report we focus on direct HSDI in vivo observations of not only the glottic region, but also on the entire supraglottic laryngeal posturing during fry, breathy/hiss and over-pressured phonation modes produced in a non-pathological settings. Analysis included spatio-temporal vibration patterns of vocal folds, multi-line kymograms, spectral PFFT analysis, and Nyquist spatio-temporal plots. The presented examples reveal that supraglottic contraction assists in prolonged closed phase of the vibratory cycle, and that prolonged closed phase is longest in fry and overpressure and shortest albeit complex in hiss. Hiss also allows for vocal fold vibration despite glottis separation. These findings need to be compared to pathologic phonation representing the three voice modes to derive at better differential diagnosis.

  13. Wave Equation Inversion of Skeletonized SurfaceWaves

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong

    2015-08-19

    We present a surface-wave inversion method that inverts for the S-wave velocity from the Rayleigh dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode. We call this wave equation inversion of skeletonized surface waves because the dispersion curve for the fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave is inverted using finite-difference solutions to the wave equation. The best match between the predicted and observed dispersion curves provides the optimal S-wave velocity model. Results with synthetic and field data illustrate the benefits and limitations of this method.

  14. Coronal Waves and Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakariakov Valery M.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Wave and oscillatory activity of the solar corona is confidently observed with modern imaging and spectral instruments in the visible light, EUV, X-ray and radio bands, and interpreted in terms of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD wave theory. The review reflects the current trends in the observational study of coronal waves and oscillations (standing kink, sausage and longitudinal modes, propagating slow waves and fast wave trains, the search for torsional waves, theoretical modelling of interaction of MHD waves with plasma structures, and implementation of the theoretical results for the mode identification. Also the use of MHD waves for remote diagnostics of coronal plasma - MHD coronal seismology - is discussed and the applicability of this method for the estimation of coronal magnetic field, transport coefficients, fine structuring and heating function is demonstrated.

  15. Tidal and gravity waves study from the airglow measurements at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The other waves may be the upward propagating gravity waves or waves resulting from the interaction of inter-mode tidal oscillations, interaction of tidal waves with planetary waves and gravity waves. Some times, the second harmonic wave has higher vertical velocity than the corresponding fundamental wave. Application ...

  16. Inflation and deflation timing of the AutoCAT 2 WAVE intra-aortic balloon pump using the autoPilot mode in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, E W M; Visser, K; van der Wal, A; Kuiper, M A; Koopmans, M; Breedveld, R

    2012-09-01

    The primary goal of this observational clinical study was to register the occurrence of incorrect inflation and deflation timing of an intra-aortic balloon pump in autoPilot mode. The secondary goal was to identify possible causes of incorrect timing. During IABP assistance of 60 patients, every four hours a strip was printed with the IABP frequency set to 1:2. Strips were examined for timing discrepancies beyond 40 ms from the dicrotic notch (inflation) and the end of the diastolic phase (deflation). In this way, 320 printed strips were examined. A total of 52 strips (16%) showed incorrect timing. On 24 of these strips, the incorrect timing was called incidental, as it showed on only one or a few beats. The other 28 cases of erroneous timing were called consistent, as more than 50% of the beats on the strip showed incorrect timing. We observed arrhythmia in 69% of all cases of incorrect timing. When timing was correct, arrhythmia was found on 13 (5%) of 268 strips. A poor quality electrocardiograph (ECG) signal showed on 37% of all strips with incorrect timing and 11% of all strips with proper timing. We conclude that inflation and deflation timing of the IABP is not always correct when using the autoPilot mode. The quality of the ECG input signal and the occurrence of arrhythmia appear to be related to erroneous timing. Switching from autoPilot mode to operator mode may not always prevent incorrect timing.

  17. Dual-Mode Gas Sensor Composed of a Silicon Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistor and a Bulk Acoustic Wave Resonator: A Case Study in Freons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Chang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop a novel dual-mode gas sensor system which comprises a silicon nanoribbon field effect transistor (Si-NR FET and a film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR. We investigate their sensing characteristics using polar and nonpolar organic compounds, and demonstrate that polarity has a significant effect on the response of the Si-NR FET sensor, and only a minor effect on the FBAR sensor. In this dual-mode system, qualitative discrimination can be achieved by analyzing polarity with the Si-NR FET and quantitative concentration information can be obtained using a polymer-coated FBAR with a detection limit at the ppm level. The complementary performance of the sensing elements provides higher analytical efficiency. Additionally, a dual mixture of two types of freons (CFC-113 and HCFC-141b is further analyzed with the dual-mode gas sensor. Owing to the small size and complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS-compatibility of the system, the dual-mode gas sensor shows potential as a portable integrated sensing system for the analysis of gas mixtures in the future.

  18. Study on the stability of a single-phase natural circulation flow in a closed loop. Demonstrative experiments on the higher-mode density wave oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Takashi

    1997-01-01

    Single-phase natural circulation loops are very important systems driven by the density variation generated thermally and have various applications in energy systems. Many theoretical and experimental works have been carried out on them and it has been known that the oscillatory instability can occur under some conditions. Most of the works on the oscillatory instability have been limited to specific geometry of the loops and they have paid attention only to the instability of fundamental mode, which has the period approximately equal to the item that the fluid goes round the loop, hereinafter referred to as the typical period. The author had applied the linear stability analysis to the simplified rectangular loop to investigate the basic stability characteristics of a natural circulation flow in a closed loop. The results indicate that various higher-mode oscillatory instabilities can be caused with a period approximately equal to one nth of the typical period according to parameters such as the pressure loss coefficient, the locations of a heat source and a heat sink, and so on. In this report, experimental tests were carried out and it was demonstrated that the higher-mode oscillatory instability can be caused with features as predicted in the analysis. The stability analysis was applied to the geometry of the experimental apparatus. The analytical results and those of experiments were compared with regard to the mode and the region of the parameters to be unstable and they have a good agreement qualitatively. (author)

  19. Using the cold plasma dispersion relation and whistler mode waves to quantify the antenna sheath impedance of the Van Allen Probes EFW instrument

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartley, D. P.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Bounds, S. R.; Averkamp, T. F.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Wygant, J. R.; Bonnell, J. W.; Santolík, Ondřej; Watt, C. E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 5 (2016), s. 4590-4606 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH15304 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : EFW * EMFISIS * plasmaspheric hiss * sheath impedance * Van Allen Probes * whistler mode chorus Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.733, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016JA022501/abstract

  20. MHD-model for low-frequency waves in a tokamak with toroidal plasma rotation and problem of existence of global geodesic acoustic modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakhin, V. P.; Sorokina, E. A., E-mail: sorokina.ekaterina@gmail.com, E-mail: vilkiae@gmail.com; Ilgisonis, V. I. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Konovaltseva, L. V. [Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A set of reduced linear equations for the description of low-frequency perturbations in toroidally rotating plasma in axisymmetric tokamak is derived in the framework of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. The model suitable for the study of global geodesic acoustic modes (GGAMs) is designed. An example of the use of the developed model for derivation of the integral conditions for GGAM existence and of the corresponding dispersion relation is presented. The paper is dedicated to the memory of academician V.D. Shafranov.

  1. Resolution enhancement of slam using transverse wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Dae Sik; Moon, Gun; Kim, Young H.

    1997-01-01

    We studied the resolution enhancement of a novel scanning laser acoustic microscope (SLAM) using transverse waves. Mode conversion of the ultrasonic wave takes place at the liquid-solid interface and some energy of the insonifying longitudinal waves in the water will convert to transverse wave energy within the solid specimen. The resolution of SLAM depends on the size of detecting laser spot and the wavelength of the insonifying ultrasonic waves. Since the wavelength of the transverse wave is shorter than that of the longitudinal wave, we are able to achieve the high resolution by using transverse waves. In order to operate SLAM in the transverse wave mode, we made wedge for changing the incident angle. Our experimental results with model 2140 SLAM and an aluminum specimen showed higher contrast of the SLAM Image In the transverse wave mode than that in the longitudinal wave mode.

  2. Nonlinear surface elastic modes in crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorentsveig, V. I.; Kivshar, Yu. S.; Kosevich, A. M.; Syrkin, E. S.

    1990-03-01

    The influence of nonlinearity on shear horizontal surface elastic waves in crystals is described on the basis of the effective nonlinear Schrödinger equation. It is shown that the corresponding solutions form a set of surface modes and the simplest mode coincides with the solution proposed by Mozhaev. The higher order modes have internal frequencies caused by the nonlinearity. All these modes decay in the crystal as uoexp(- z/ zo) atz≫ zo- u o-1 ( z is the distance from the crystal surface, uo the wave amplitude at the surface). The creation of the modes from a localized surface excitation has a threshold. The stability of the modes is discussed.

  3. Study of Raman-free photon pair generation using inter-modal four-wave mixing in a few-mode silica fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge; Koefoed, Jacob Gade

    2017-01-01

    Single-photon sources are key components in applications of photonic quantum technologies such as quantum key distribution (QKD) [1]. One way of realizing single-photon sources is generation of photon pairs (PP) using spontaneous four-wave mixing (FWM): two photons from a pump p annihilate...... and create two side-band photons at frequencies determined partly by the energy conservation 2ωρ = ω1 + ω2, where ωp,ω1,ω2 are the frequencies of the pump and the two side-bands, respectively, and partly by the phase-matching condition. PP generated spontaneously arrive at indeterministic times but even so......, they are useful for QKD because one of the photons can be heralded by detecting the other. The heralded photons are then used for transmitting the quantum key....

  4. Traveling wave laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, D.W.; Kidder, R.E.; Biehl, A.T.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described for generating a traveling wave laser pulse of almost unlimited energy content wherein a gain medium is pumped into a traveling wave mode, the traveling wave moving at essentially the velocity of light to generate an amplifying region or zone which moves through the medium at the velocity of light in the presence of directed stimulating radiation, thereby generating a traveling coherent, directed radiation pulse moving with the amplification zone through the gain medium. (U.S.)

  5. Acoustic propagation mode in a cylindrical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Yoshio; Idehara, Toshitaka; Inada, Hideyo

    1975-01-01

    The sound velocity in a cylindrical plasma produced by a high frequency discharge is measured by an interferometer system. The result shows that the acoustic wave guide effect does exist in a neutral gas and in a plasma. It is found that the wave propagates in the mode m=2 in a rigid boundary above the cut-off frequency fsub(c) and in the mode m=0 below fsub(c). Because the mode m=0 is identical to a plane wave, the sound velocity in free space can be evaluated exactly. In the mode m=2, the sound velocity approaches the free space value, when the frequency increases sufficiently. (auth.)

  6. Observations on resistive wall modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerwin, R.A.; Finn, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Several results on resistive wall modes and their application to tokamaks are presented. First, it is observed that in the presence of collisional parallel dynamics there is an exact cancellation to lowest order of the dissipative and sound wave effects for an ideal Ohm's law. This is easily traced to the fact that the parallel dynamics occurs along the perturbed magnetic field lines for such electromagnetic modes. Such a cancellation does not occur in the resistive layer of a tearing-like mode. The relevance to models for resistive wall modes using an electrostatic Hammett-Perkins type operator to model Landau damping will be discussed. Second, we observe that with an ideal Ohm's law, resistive wall modes can be destabilized by rotation in that part of parameter space in which the ideal MHD modes are stable with the wall at infinity. This effect can easily be explained by interpreting the resistive wall instability in terms of mode coupling between the backward stable MHD mode and a stable mode locked into the wall. Such an effect can occur for very small rotation for tearing-resistive wall modes in which inertia dominates viscosity in the layer, but the mode is stabilized by further rotation. For modes for which viscosity dominates in the layer, rotation is purely stabilizing. For both tearing models, a somewhat higher rotation frequency gives stability essentially whenever the tearing mode is stable with a perfectly conducting wall. These tearing/resistive wall results axe also simply explained in terms of mode coupling. It has been shown that resonant external ideal modes can be stabilized in the presence of resistive wall and resistive plasma with rotation of order the nominal tearing mode growth rate. We show that these modes behave as resistive wall tearing modes in the sense above. This strengthens the suggestion that rotational stabilization of the external kink with a resistive wall is due to the presence of resistive layers, even for ideal modes

  7. Fully quantum-mechanical dynamic analysis of single-photon transport in a single-mode waveguide coupled to a traveling-wave resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hach, Edwin E. III; Elshaari, Ali W.; Preble, Stefan F.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of single-photon transport in a single-mode waveguide coupled to a micro-optical resonator by using a fully quantum-mechanical model. We examine the propagation of a single-photon Gaussian packet through the system under various coupling conditions. We review the theory of single-photon transport phenomena as applied to the system and we develop a discussion on the numerical technique we used to solve for dynamical behavior of the quantized field. To demonstrate our method and to establish robust single-photon results, we study the process of adiabatically lowering or raising the energy of a single photon trapped in an optical resonator under active tuning of the resonator. We show that our fully quantum-mechanical approach reproduces the semiclassical result in the appropriate limit and that the adiabatic invariant has the same form in each case. Finally, we explore the trapping of a single photon in a system of dynamically tuned, coupled optical cavities.

  8. Investigation on heat transfer analysis and its effect on a multi-mode, beam-wave interaction for a 140 GHz, MW-class gyrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiao; Liu, Yinghui; Chen, Zhaowei; Niu, Xinjian; Li, Hongfu; Xu, Jianhua

    2018-04-01

    The interaction cavity of a 140 GHz, 1 MW continuous wave gyrotron developed in UESTC will be loaded with a very large heat load in the inner surface during operation. In order to reduce the heat, the axial wedge grooves of the outside surface of the cavity are considered and employed as the heat radiation structure. Thermoanalysis and structural analysis were discussed in detail to obtain the effects of heat on the cavity. In thermoanalysis, the external coolant-flow rates ranging from 20 L/min to 50 L/min were considered, and the distribution of wall loading was loaded as the heat flux source. In structural analysis, the cavity's deformation caused by the loads of heat and pressure was calculated. Compared with a non-deformed cavity, the effects of deformation on the performance of a cavity were discussed. For a cold-cavity, the results show that the quality factor would be reduced by 72, 89, 99 and 171 at the flow rates of 50 L/min, 40 L/min, 30 L/min and 20 L/min, respectively. Correspondingly, the cold-cavity frequencies would be decreased by 0.13 GHz, 0.15 GHz, 0.19 GHz and 0.38 GHz, respectively. For a hot-cavity, the results demonstrate that the output port frequencies would be dropped down, but the offset would be gradually decreased with increasing coolant-flow rate. Meanwhile, the output powers would be reduced dramatically with decreasing coolant-flow rate. In addition, when the coolant-flow rate reaches 40 L/min, the output power and the frequency are just reduced by 30 kW and 0.151 GHz, respectively.

  9. SURFACE ALFVEN WAVES IN SOLAR FLUX TUBES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, M.; Andries, J.; Soler, R.; Van Doorsselaere, T. [Centre for Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Arregui, I.; Terradas, J., E-mail: marcel.goossens@wis.kuleuven.be [Solar Physics Group, Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2012-07-10

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere. Alfven waves and magneto-sonic waves are particular classes of MHD waves. These wave modes are clearly different and have pure properties in uniform plasmas of infinite extent only. Due to plasma non-uniformity, MHD waves have mixed properties and cannot be classified as pure Alfven or magneto-sonic waves. However, vorticity is a quantity unequivocally related to Alfven waves as compression is for magneto-sonic waves. Here, we investigate MHD waves superimposed on a one-dimensional non-uniform straight cylinder with constant magnetic field. For a piecewise constant density profile, we find that the fundamental radial modes of the non-axisymmetric waves have the same properties as surface Alfven waves at a true discontinuity in density. Contrary to the classic Alfven waves in a uniform plasma of infinite extent, vorticity is zero everywhere except at the cylinder boundary. If the discontinuity in density is replaced with a continuous variation of density, vorticity is spread out over the whole interval with non-uniform density. The fundamental radial modes of the non-axisymmetric waves do not need compression to exist unlike the radial overtones. In thin magnetic cylinders, the fundamental radial modes of the non-axisymmetric waves with phase velocities between the internal and the external Alfven velocities can be considered as surface Alfven waves. On the contrary, the radial overtones can be related to fast-like magneto-sonic modes.

  10. Measurement of the electron beam mode in earth's foreshock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsager, T. G.; Holzworth, R. H.

    1990-01-01

    High frequency electric field measurements from the AMPTE IRM plasma wave receiver are used to identify three simultaneously excited electrostatic wave modes in the earth's foreshock region: the electron beam mode, the Langmuir mode, and the ion acoustic mode. A technique is developed which allows the rest frame frequecy and wave number of the electron beam waves to be determined. It is shown that the experimentally determined rest frame frequency and wave number agree well with the most unstable frequency and wave number predicted by linear homogeneous Vlasov theory for a plasma with Maxwellian background electrons and a Lorentzian electron beam. From a comparison of the experimentally determined and theoretical values, approximate limits are put on the electron foreshock beam temperatures. A possible generation mechanism for ion acoustic waves involving mode coupling between the electron beam and Langmuir modes is also discussed.

  11. Traveling wave laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, D.W.; Kidder, R.E.; Biehl, A.T.

    1975-01-01

    The invention broadly involves a method and means for generating a traveling wave laser pulse and is basically analogous to a single pass light amplifier system. However, the invention provides a traveling wave laser pulse of almost unlimited energy content, wherein a gain medium is pumped in a traveling wave mode, the traveling wave moving at essentially the velocity of light to generate an amplifying region or zone which moves through the medium at the velocity of light in the presence of directed stimulating radiation, thereby generating a traveling coherent, directed radiation pulse moving with the amplification zone through the gain medium. (U.S.)

  12. Frequency and wavenumber selective excitation of spin waves through coherent energy transfer from elastic waves

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, Yusuke; Bossini, Davide; Johansen, Tom H.; Saitoh, Eiji; Kirilyuk, Andrei; Rasing, Theo

    2017-01-01

    Using spin-wave tomography (SWaT), we have investigated the excitation and the propagation dynamics of optically-excited magnetoelastic waves, i.e. hybridized modes of spin waves and elastic waves, in a garnet film. By using time-resolved SWaT, we reveal the excitation dynamics of magnetoelastic waves through coherent-energy transfer between optically-excited pure-elastic waves and spin waves via magnetoelastic coupling. This process realizes frequency and wavenumber selective excitation of s...

  13. Ballooning modes or Fourier modes in a toroidal plasma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.W.; Taylor, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between two different descriptions of eigenmodes in a torus is investigated. In one the eigenmodes are similar to Fourier modes in a cylinder and are highly localized near a particular rational surface. In the other they are the so-called ballooning modes that extend over many rational surfaces. Using a model that represents both drift waves and resistive interchanges the transition from one of these structures to the other is investigated. In this simplified model the transition depends on a single parameter which embodies the competition between toroidal coupling of Fourier modes (which enhances ballooning) and variation in frequency of Fourier modes from one rational surface to another (which diminishes ballooning). As the coupling is increased each Fourier mode acquires a sideband on an adjacent rational surface and these sidebands then expand across the radius to form the extended mode described by the conventional ballooning mode approximation. This analysis shows that the ballooning approximation is appropriate for drift waves in a tokamak but not for resistive interchanges in a pinch. In the latter the conventional ballooning effect is negligible but they may nevertheless show a ballooning feature. This is localized near the same rational surface as the primary Fourier mode and so does not lead to a radially extended structure

  14. Undamped electrostatic plasma waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentini, F.; Perrone, D.; Veltri, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Universita della Calabria, 87036 Rende (CS) (Italy); Califano, F.; Pegoraro, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Universita di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Morrison, P. J. [Institute for Fusion Studies and Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-1060 (United States); O' Neil, T. M. [Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Electrostatic waves in a collision-free unmagnetized plasma of electrons with fixed ions are investigated for electron equilibrium velocity distribution functions that deviate slightly from Maxwellian. Of interest are undamped waves that are the small amplitude limit of nonlinear excitations, such as electron acoustic waves (EAWs). A deviation consisting of a small plateau, a region with zero velocity derivative over a width that is a very small fraction of the electron thermal speed, is shown to give rise to new undamped modes, which here are named corner modes. The presence of the plateau turns off Landau damping and allows oscillations with phase speeds within the plateau. These undamped waves are obtained in a wide region of the (k,{omega}{sub R}) plane ({omega}{sub R} being the real part of the wave frequency and k the wavenumber), away from the well-known 'thumb curve' for Langmuir waves and EAWs based on the Maxwellian. Results of nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson simulations that corroborate the existence of these modes are described. It is also shown that deviations caused by fattening the tail of the distribution shift roots off of the thumb curve toward lower k-values and chopping the tail shifts them toward higher k-values. In addition, a rule of thumb is obtained for assessing how the existence of a plateau shifts roots off of the thumb curve. Suggestions are made for interpreting experimental observations of electrostatic waves, such as recent ones in nonneutral plasmas.

  15. Undamped electrostatic plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentini, F.; Perrone, D.; Veltri, P.; Califano, F.; Pegoraro, F.; Morrison, P. J.; O'Neil, T. M.

    2012-01-01

    Electrostatic waves in a collision-free unmagnetized plasma of electrons with fixed ions are investigated for electron equilibrium velocity distribution functions that deviate slightly from Maxwellian. Of interest are undamped waves that are the small amplitude limit of nonlinear excitations, such as electron acoustic waves (EAWs). A deviation consisting of a small plateau, a region with zero velocity derivative over a width that is a very small fraction of the electron thermal speed, is shown to give rise to new undamped modes, which here are named corner modes. The presence of the plateau turns off Landau damping and allows oscillations with phase speeds within the plateau. These undamped waves are obtained in a wide region of the (k,ω R ) plane (ω R being the real part of the wave frequency and k the wavenumber), away from the well-known “thumb curve” for Langmuir waves and EAWs based on the Maxwellian. Results of nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson simulations that corroborate the existence of these modes are described. It is also shown that deviations caused by fattening the tail of the distribution shift roots off of the thumb curve toward lower k-values and chopping the tail shifts them toward higher k-values. In addition, a rule of thumb is obtained for assessing how the existence of a plateau shifts roots off of the thumb curve. Suggestions are made for interpreting experimental observations of electrostatic waves, such as recent ones in nonneutral plasmas.

  16. Acoustic rotation modes in complex plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Dongxue; Wang Zhengxiong; Wang Xiaogang

    2004-01-01

    Acoustic rotation modes in complex plasmas are investigated in a cylindrical system with an axial symmetry. The linear mode solution is derived. The mode in an infinite area is reduced to a classical dust acoustic wave in the region away from the centre. When the dusty plasma is confined in a finite region, the breathing and rotating-void behaviour are observed. Vivid structures of different mode number solutions are illustrated

  17. Gabor Wave Packet Method to Solve Plasma Wave Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pletzer, A.; Phillips, C.K.; Smithe, D.N.

    2003-01-01

    A numerical method for solving plasma wave equations arising in the context of mode conversion between the fast magnetosonic and the slow (e.g ion Bernstein) wave is presented. The numerical algorithm relies on the expansion of the solution in Gaussian wave packets known as Gabor functions, which have good resolution properties in both real and Fourier space. The wave packets are ideally suited to capture both the large and small wavelength features that characterize mode conversion problems. The accuracy of the scheme is compared with a standard finite element approach

  18. Gravitational wave astronomy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    In the past year, the LIGO-Virgo Collaboration announced the first secure detection of gravitational waves. This discovery heralds the beginning of gravitational wave astronomy: the use of gravitational waves as a tool for studying the dense and dynamical universe. In this talk, I will describe the full spectrum of gravitational waves, from Hubble-scale modes, through waves with periods of years, hours and milliseconds. I will describe the different techniques one uses to measure the waves in these bands, current and planned facilities for implementing these techniques, and the broad range of sources which produce the radiation. I will discuss what we might expect to learn as more events and sources are measured, and as this field matures into a standard part of the astronomical milieu.

  19. Alfven wave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stix, H.

    1981-01-01

    The physics of Alfven-wave heating is particularly sensitive to the character of the linear mode conversion which occurs at the Alfven resonance layer. Parameter changes can profoundly affect both the location within the plasma and the mechanism for the power absorption. Under optimal conditions the heating power may be absorbed by electron Landau damping and by electron transit-time magnetic pumping in the plasma interior, or by the same processes acting near the resonance layer on the mode-converted kinetic Alfven wave. The method is outlined for computing the coefficients for reflection, transmission and absorption at the resonance layer and some representative results are offered

  20. Resolution Enhancement of Scanning Laser Acoustic Microscope Using Transverse Wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, D. S.; Park, J. S.; Kim, Y. H.

    1997-01-01

    We studied the resolution enhancement of a novel scanning laser acoustic microscope (SLAM) using transverse waves. Mode conversion of the ultrasonic wave takes place at the liquid-solid interface and some energy of the insonifying longitudinal waves in the water will convert to transverse wave energy within the solid specimen. The resolution of SLAM depends on the size of detecting laser spot and the wavelength of the insonifying ultrasonic waves. Science the wavelength of the transverse wave is shorter than that of the longitudinal wave, we are able to achieve the high resolution by using transverse waves. In order to operate SLAM in the transverse wave mode, we made wedge for changing the incident angle. Our experimental results with model 2140 SLAM and an aluminum specimen showed higher contrast of the SLAM image in the transverse wave mode than that in the longitudinal wave mode

  1. Comment on 'Instability of the Shukla mode in a dusty plasma containing equilibrium density and magnetic field inhomogeneities' [Phys. Plasmas 11, 1732 (2004)] and 'New resonance and cut-off for low-frequency electromagnetic waves in dusty magnetoplasmas' [Phys. Plasmas 11, 2307 (2004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudakov, Leonid

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that the oscillation named by Shukla as the 'Shukla mode' is well known in the plasma physics literature as the magnetic drift wave. In addition, the instability of these modes in a cold plasma as claimed by Shukla et al. [Phys. Plasmas 11, 1732 (2004)] does not exist and is due to a mathematical error in their analysis. Also the 'new' resonance and new cutoff frequencies claimed by Shukla et al. and Mamum et al. [Phys Plasmas 11, 2307 (2004)] have been known in the published literature for decades

  2. Contained Modes In Mirrors With Sheared Rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2010-01-01

    In mirrors with E x B rotation, a fixed azimuthal perturbation in the lab frame can appear as a wave in the rotating frame. If the rotation frequency varies with radius, the plasma-frame wave frequency will also vary radially due to the Doppler shift. A wave that propagates in the high rotation plasma region might therefore be evanescent at the plasma edge. This can lead to radially localized Alfven eigenmodes with high azimuthal mode numbers. Contained Alfven modes are found both for peaked and non-peaked rotation profiles. These modes might be useful for alpha channeling or ion heating, as the high azimuthal wave number allows the plasma wave frequency in the rotating frame to exceed the ion cyclotron frequency.

  3. Contained Modes In Mirrors With Sheared Rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2010-10-08

    In mirrors with E × B rotation, a fixed azimuthal perturbation in the lab frame can appear as a wave in the rotating frame. If the rotation frequency varies with radius, the plasma-frame wave frequency will also vary radially due to the Doppler shift. A wave that propagates in the high rotation plasma region might therefore be evanescent at the plasma edge. This can lead to radially localized Alfven eigenmodes with high azimuthal mode numbers. Contained Alfven modes are found both for peaked and non-peaked rotation profiles. These modes might be useful for alpha channeling or ion heating, as the high azimuthal wave number allows the plasma wave frequency in the rotating frame to exceed the ion cyclotron frequency. __________________________________________________

  4. Contained modes in mirrors with sheared rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2010-01-01

    In mirrors with ExB rotation, a fixed azimuthal perturbation in the laboratory frame can appear as a wave in the rotating frame. If the rotation frequency varies with radius, the plasma-frame wave frequency will also vary radially due to the Doppler shift. A wave that propagates in the high rotation plasma region might therefore be evanescent at the plasma edge. This can lead to radially localized Alfven eigenmodes with high azimuthal mode numbers. Contained Alfven modes are found both for peaked and nonpeaked rotation profiles. These modes might be useful for alpha channeling or ion heating, as the high azimuthal wave number allows the plasma wave frequency in the rotating frame to exceed the ion cyclotron frequency.

  5. Nonlinear spatial mode imaging of hybrid photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Laurila, Marko

    2013-01-01

    Degenerate spontaneous four wave mixing is studied for the rst time in a large mode area hybrid photonic crystal ber, where light con nement is achieved by combined index- and bandgap guiding. Four wave mixing products are generated on the edges of the bandgaps, which is veri ed by numerical and ...... and experimental results. Since the core mode is in resonance with cladding modes near the bandedges an unconventional measurement technique is used, in this work named nonlinear spatial mode imaging....

  6. Tacoma mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.D.; Ruth, R.D.; Wang, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    The name Tacoma refers to the Tacoma Narrows Bridge which collapsed on November 8, 1940 due to massive oscillations caused by high winds. One of the destructive modes was a torsion mode which was excited by transverse wind, a dipole force, and continued until the bridge collapsed. The name is used to refer to a coherent mode of oscillation of a spectrum of oscillators in which the amplitude vs frequency graph contains one node, where the node occurs near the driving frequency and a ω is not symmetric about zero. When this result is applied to vertical instabilities in coasting beams, it implies the existence of a coherent skew quadrupole moment, Q/sub xy/, whenever a coherent dipole oscillation exists

  7. Tacoma mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.D.; Ruth, R.D.; Wang, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    The name Tacoma refers to the Tacoma Narrows Bridge which collapsed on November 8, 1940 due to massive oscillations caused by high winds. One of the destructive modes was a torsion mode which was excited by transverse wind, a dipole force, and continued until the bridge collapsed. The name is used to refer to a coherent mode of oscillation of a spectrum of oscillators in which the amplitude vs frequency graph contains one node, where the node occurs near the driving frequency and a(ω) is not symmetric about zero. When this result is applied to vertical instabilities in coasting beams, it implies the existence of a coherent skew quadrupole moment, whenever a coherent dipole oscillation exists

  8. Localized Acoustic Surface Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2015-08-04

    We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes (ASMs). We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.

  9. Mathieu Progressive Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, B. Utkin

    2011-10-01

    A new family of exact solutions to the wave equation representing relatively undistorted progressive waves is constructed using separation of variables in the elliptic cylindrical coordinates and one of the Bateman transforms. The general form of this Bateman transform in an orthogonal curvilinear cylindrical coordinate system is discussed and a specific problem of physical feasibility of the obtained solutions, connected with their dependence on the cyclic coordinate, is addressed. The limiting case of zero eccentricity, in which the elliptic cylindrical coordinates turn into their circular cylindrical counterparts, is shown to correspond to the focused wave modes of the Bessel-Gauss type.

  10. Mathieu Progressive Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utkin, Andrei B.

    2011-01-01

    A new family of exact solutions to the wave equation representing relatively undistorted progressive waves is constructed using separation of variables in the elliptic cylindrical coordinates and one of the Bateman transforms. The general form of this Bateman transform in an orthogonal curvilinear cylindrical coordinate system is discussed and a specific problem of physical feasibility of the obtained solutions, connected with their dependence on the cyclic coordinate, is addressed. The limiting case of zero eccentricity, in which the elliptic cylindrical coordinates turn into their circular cylindrical counterparts, is shown to correspond to the focused wave modes of the Bessel-Gauss type. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  11. Waves in Space Plasmas Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredricks, R. W.; Taylor, W. W. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Waves in Space Plasmas (WISP) program is a joint international effort involving instrumentation to be designed and fabricated by funding from NASA and the National Research Council of Canada. The instrumentation, with a tentatively planned payload for 1986, can be used to perturb the plasma with radio waves to solve problems in ionospheric, atmospheric, magnetospheric, and plasma physics. Among the ionospheric and plasma phenomena to be investigated using WISP instrumentation are VLF wave-particle interactions; ELF/VLF propagation; traveling ionospheric disturbances and gravity wave coupling; equatorial plasma bubble phenomena; plasma wave physics such as mode-coupling, dispersion, and instabilities; and plasma physics of the antenna-plasma interactions.

  12. Waves in Space Plasmas Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredricks, R.W.; Taylor, W.W.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Waves in Space Plasmas (WISP) program is a joint international effort involving instrumentation to be designed and fabricated by funding from NASA and the National Research Council of Canada. The instrumentation, with a tentatively planned payload for 1986, can be used to perturb the plasma with radio waves to solve problems in ionospheric, atmospheric, magnetospheric, and plasma physics. Among the ionospheric and plasma phenomena to be investigated using WISP instrumentation are VLF wave-particle interactions, ELF/VLF propagation, traveling ionospheric disturbances and gravity wave coupling, equatorial plasma bubble phenomena, plasma wave physics such as mode-coupling, dispersion, and instabilities, and plasma physics of the antenna-plasma interactions

  13. Failure Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, K. P.; Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1999-01-01

    The present appendix contains the derivation of ten different limit state equations divided on three different failure modes. Five of the limit state equations can be used independently of the characteristics of the subsoil, whereas the remaining five can be used for either drained or undrained s...

  14. Electron-Cyclotron Waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    1994-01-01

    The essential elements of the theory of electron cyclotron waves are reviewed, The two main electro-magnetic modes of propagation are identified and their dispersion and absorption properties are discussed. The importance of the use of the relativistic resonance condition is stressed.

  15. Waves and instabilities in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Plasma as a Dielectric Medium; Nyquist Technique; Absolute and Convective Instabilities; Landau Damping and Phase Mixing; Particle Trapping and Breakdown of Linear Theory; Solution of Viasov Equation via Guilding-Center Transformation; Kinetic Theory of Magnetohydrodynamic Waves; Geometric Optics; Wave-Kinetic Equation; Cutoff and Resonance; Resonant Absorption; Mode Conversion; Gyrokinetic Equation; Drift Waves; Quasi-Linear Theory; Ponderomotive Force; Parametric Instabilities; Problem Sets for Homework, Midterm and Final Examinations

  16. OBSERVATIONS OF SAUSAGE MODES IN MAGNETIC PORES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, R. J.; Erdelyi, R.; Jess, D. B.; Mathioudakis, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present here evidence for the observation of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) sausage modes in magnetic pores in the solar photosphere. Further evidence for the omnipresent nature of acoustic global modes is also found. The empirical decomposition method of wave analysis is used to identify the oscillations detected through a 4170 A 'blue continuum' filter observed with the Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere (ROSA) instrument. Out of phase, periodic behavior in pore size and intensity is used as an indicator of the presence of magnetoacoustic sausage oscillations. Multiple signatures of the magnetoacoustic sausage mode are found in a number of pores. The periods range from as short as 30 s up to 450 s. A number of the magnetoacoustic sausage mode oscillations found have periods of 3 and 5 minutes, similar to the acoustic global modes of the solar interior. It is proposed that these global oscillations could be the driver of the sausage-type magnetoacoustic MHD wave modes in pores.

  17. Ponderomotive modification of drift tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urquijo, G.; Singh, R.; Sen, A.

    1997-01-01

    The linear characteristics of drift tearing modes are investigated in the presence of a significant background of radio-frequency (RF) waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. The ponderomotive force, arising from the radial gradients in the RF field energy, is found to significantly modify the inner layer solutions of the drift tearing modes. It can have a stabilizing influence, even at moderate RF powers, provided the field energy has a decreasing radial profile at the mode rational surface. (author)

  18. Coupled mode theory of periodic waveguides arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Chigrin, Dmitry N.

    We apply the scalar coupled mode theory to the case of waveguides array consisting om two periodic waveguides. One of the waveguides is arbitrary shifted along another. A longitudinal shift acts as a parameter in the coupled mode theory. The proposed theory explains peculiarities of modes dispers...... dispersion and transmission in coupled periodic waveguides systems. Analytical results are compared with the numerical ones obtained by the plane wave expansion and FDTD methods....

  19. Scaling Fiber Lasers to Large Mode Area: An Investigation of Passive Mode-Locking Using a Multi-Mode Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Edwin; Lefrancois, Simon; Kutz, Jose Nathan; Wise, Frank W

    2011-01-01

    The mode-locking of dissipative soliton fiber lasers using large mode area fiber supporting multiple transverse modes is studied experimentally and theoretically. The averaged mode-locking dynamics in a multi-mode fiber are studied using a distributed model. The co-propagation of multiple transverse modes is governed by a system of coupled Ginzburg-Landau equations. Simulations show that stable and robust mode-locked pulses can be produced. However, the mode-locking can be destabilized by excessive higher-order mode content. Experiments using large core step-index fiber, photonic crystal fiber, and chirally-coupled core fiber show that mode-locking can be significantly disturbed in the presence of higher-order modes, resulting in lower maximum single-pulse energies. In practice, spatial mode content must be carefully controlled to achieve full pulse energy scaling. This paper demonstrates that mode-locking performance is very sensitive to the presence of multiple waveguide modes when compared to systems such as amplifiers and continuous-wave lasers.

  20. Nonlocal theory of electromagnetic wave decay into two electromagnetic waves in a rippled density plasma channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sati, Priti; Tripathi, V. K.

    2012-01-01

    Parametric decay of a large amplitude electromagnetic wave into two electromagnetic modes in a rippled density plasma channel is investigated. The channel is taken to possess step density profile besides a density ripple of axial wave vector. The density ripple accounts for the momentum mismatch between the interacting waves and facilitates nonlinear coupling. For a given pump wave frequency, the requisite ripple wave number varies only a little w.r.t. the frequency of the low frequency decay wave. The radial localization of electromagnetic wave reduces the growth rate of the parametric instability. The growth rate decreases with the frequency of low frequency electromagnetic wave.