WorldWideScience

Sample records for modalities helps five-month-olds

  1. Mosaic Trisomy 18 in a Five-Month-Old Infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Fitas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with mosaic trisomy 18, only approximately 5% of all trisomy 18 cases, carry both a trisomy 18 and an euploid cell line. Their clinical findings are highly variable, from the absence of dysmorphic features to the complete trisomy 18 syndrome. A five-month-old daughter of a 38-year-old mother, with vomiting and feeding problems, was referred to our department. She was undernourished and had axial hypotony and developmental delay, an irregular pattern of hypopigmentation on the right side of the abdomen, and moderate sagittal body asymmetry with left-side muscular hemihypotrophy. Mild craniofacial dysmorphy included dolichocephaly, frontal bossing, prominent occiput, long downslanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, and retrognathia. A complex heart defect with atrial and ventricular septal defects, pulmonary artery stenosis, and bicuspid aortic valve was identified. Cytogenetic analysis revealed mosaic trisomy 18 with trisomy in 90% of peripheral lymphocytes and 17% of skin fibroblasts. This case adds to our knowledge of the phenotypic spectrum and the natural history of mosaic trisomy 18 by adding a dysmorphic feature and a cardiac abnormality that, to the best of our knowledge, had not been previously described.

  2. A Five Month Old Girl with Deletion in 5th Chromosome: Cri du Chat Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Altuğ Şen

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This five month-old girl was admitted to our clinic due to failure to thrive. On physical examination, her weight, length and head circumference was below the 3rd percentile, she had blond hair, facial dysmorphism and high arched palate. Pronounced hypotonia and motor retardation was present and high-pitched crying was striking. In echocardiographic examination, secundum type ASD and midtrabecular VSD without any important hemodynamic effect was present. In cranial MRI exmination, dilated 4th ventricles and delayed myelinisation in basal ganglia was detected. By the help of high resolution binding teqhnique, deletion in the short arm of the 5th chromosome was detected and diagnosis of Cri du Chat Syndrome was made. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2008; 6: 86-8

  3. High anorectal malformation in a five-month-old boy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Anand

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Anorectal malformation, one of the most common congenital defects, may present with a wide spectrum of defects. Almost all male patients present within first few days of life. Case presentation A five-month-old baby boy of Indian origin and nationality presented with anal atresia and associated rectourethral prostatic fistula. The anatomy of the malformation and our patient's good condition permitted a primary definitive repair of the anomaly. A brief review of the relevant literature is included. Conclusion Delayed presentation of a patient with high anorectal malformation is rare. The appropriate treatment can be rewarding.

  4. Automatic facial mimicry in response to dynamic emotional stimuli in five-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isomura, Tomoko; Nakano, Tamami

    2016-12-14

    Human adults automatically mimic others' emotional expressions, which is believed to contribute to sharing emotions with others. Although this behaviour appears fundamental to social reciprocity, little is known about its developmental process. Therefore, we examined whether infants show automatic facial mimicry in response to others' emotional expressions. Facial electromyographic activity over the corrugator supercilii (brow) and zygomaticus major (cheek) of four- to five-month-old infants was measured while they viewed dynamic clips presenting audiovisual, visual and auditory emotions. The audiovisual bimodal emotion stimuli were a display of a laughing/crying facial expression with an emotionally congruent vocalization, whereas the visual/auditory unimodal emotion stimuli displayed those emotional faces/vocalizations paired with a neutral vocalization/face, respectively. Increased activation of the corrugator supercilii muscle in response to audiovisual cries and the zygomaticus major in response to audiovisual laughter were observed between 500 and 1000 ms after stimulus onset, which clearly suggests rapid facial mimicry. By contrast, both visual and auditory unimodal emotion stimuli did not activate the infants' corresponding muscles. These results revealed that automatic facial mimicry is present as early as five months of age, when multimodal emotional information is present. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Using recovery modalities between training sessions in elite athletes: does it help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    Achieving an appropriate balance between training and competition stresses and recovery is important in maximising the performance of athletes. A wide range of recovery modalities are now used as integral parts of the training programmes of elite athletes to help attain this balance. This review examined the evidence available as to the efficacy of these recovery modalities in enhancing between-training session recovery in elite athletes. Recovery modalities have largely been investigated with regard to their ability to enhance the rate of blood lactate removal following high-intensity exercise or to reduce the severity and duration of exercise-induced muscle injury and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Neither of these reflects the circumstances of between-training session recovery in elite athletes. After high-intensity exercise, rest alone will return blood lactate to baseline levels well within the normal time period between the training sessions of athletes. The majority of studies examining exercise-induced muscle injury and DOMS have used untrained subjects undertaking large amounts of unfamiliar eccentric exercise. This model is unlikely to closely reflect the circumstances of elite athletes. Even without considering the above limitations, there is no substantial scientific evidence to support the use of the recovery modalities reviewed to enhance the between-training session recovery of elite athletes. Modalities reviewed were massage, active recovery, cryotherapy, contrast temperature water immersion therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, compression garments, stretching, electromyostimulation and combination modalities. Experimental models designed to reflect the circumstances of elite athletes are needed to further investigate the efficacy of various recovery modalities for elite athletes. Other potentially important factors associated with recovery, such as the rate of post-exercise glycogen synthesis and the role

  6. Modality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge, Alex; Müller, Henrik Høeg

    Modality: Studies in Form and Function reflects the diversity of theoretical frameworks and the heterogeneity of linguistic phenomena under the general heading of modality. Researchers in the fields of logic, philosophy and linguistics have for many years been pondering the elusive nature...

  7. How Can New Imaging Modalities Help in the Practice of Radiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirimoglu, Berhan; Sade, Recep; Ogul, Hayri; Kantarci, Mecit; Eren, Suat; Levent, Akın

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to provide an up-to-date review on the spectrum of new imaging applications in the practice of radiology. New imaging techniques have been developed with the objective of obtaining structural and functional analyses of different body systems. Recently, new imaging modalities have aroused the interest of many researchers who are studying the applicability of these modalities in the evaluation of different organs and diseases. In this review article, we present the efficiency and utilization of current imaging modalities in daily radiological practice. PMID:28149149

  8. When Do Pictures Help Learning from Expository Text? Multimedia and Modality Effects in Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrlinger, Simone; Höffler, Tim N.; Opfermann, Maria; Leutner, Detlev

    2016-06-01

    Adding pictures to a text is very common in today's education and might be especially beneficial for elementary school children, whose abilities to read and understand pure text have not yet been fully developed. Our study examined whether adding pictures supports learning of a biology text in fourth grade and whether the text modality (spoken or written) plays a role. Results indicate that overall, pictures enhanced learning but that the text should be spoken rather than written. These results are in line with instructional design principles derived from common multimedia learning theories. In addition, for elementary school children, it might be advisable to read texts out to the children. Reading by themselves and looking at pictures might overload children's cognitive capacities and especially their visual channel. In this case, text and pictures would not be integrated into one coherent mental model, and effective learning would not take place.

  9. Twenty-Five-Month-Old Children Do Not Have a Grammatical Category of Verb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguin, Raquel; Tomasello, Michael

    1993-01-01

    A study of two year olds investigated the nature and development of children's early productivity with verb-argument structure and verb morphology. Results indicated that the children showed no signs of productive verb morphology, but they did use newly learned verbs in some creative ways involving nounlike uses and the appending of locatives.…

  10. An abused five-month-old girl: Hangman's fracture or congenital arch defect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, R.R. van; Kool, D.R.; Witt-Hamer, P.C. de; Majoie, C.B.

    2005-01-01

    Hangman's fractures are a rare finding in childhood. In case of suspected or proven child abuse, differentiation with a congenital defect of the posterior arch of C2 is essential. We present the case of a 5-month-old girl, who had a history of being physically abused by one of her caretakers. On the

  11. Mechanisms of Visual Object Recognition in Infancy: Five-Month-Olds Generalize beyond the Interpolation of Familiar Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mash, Clay; Arterberry, Martha E.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2007-01-01

    This work examined predictions of the interpolation of familiar views (IFV) account of object recognition performance in 5-month-olds. Infants were familiarized to an object either from a single viewpoint or from multiple viewpoints varying in rotation around a single axis. Object recognition was then tested in both conditions with the same object…

  12. Buen Comienzo, Buen Futuro: El Bebe de Cinco Meses (Healthy Start, Grow Smart: Your Five-Month Old).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    Distributed by the U.S. Departments of Agriculture, Education, and Health and Human Services, this Spanish-language pamphlet provides parents with information and advice about their infants in the fifth month of life. Following a brief description of developmental characteristics at this age, the pamphlet offers information on topics including…

  13. The effect of maternal nutrient restriction during late gestation on muscle, bone and meat parameters in five month old lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Therkildsen, M.

    2007-01-01

    ) combined with minimal fat thickness above LD (Meat, M). The male offspring (n=23) from these ewes were studied with regard to production, fibre type, bone parameters and meat quality traits. Maternal nutrient restriction during late gestation caused a reduced birth weight of the offspring, a low growth...... rate from birth to weaning, yet compensatory growth after weaning. No relation was found between maternal nutrient restriction during late gestation and meat quality in terms of proteolytic potential, myofibrillar fragmentation index or shear force measured in meat from 5 month old lambs. The data do...... not support the hypothesis of a long-term programming effect of maternal nutrient restriction during late gestation on meat ternderness. However, a long-term effect of maternal nutrient restirction was found for bone trowth. Femur weight was significantly reduced in L-lambs and cortical bone density and mean...

  14. What Modals Are: Modal Verbs, Modal Words, and Auxiliary Modals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazira A. Kakzhanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The modals are a complicated grammatical phenomenon. As of today, the status of modals is still not precisely defined in the linguistics literature, and they are described under different names: modal verbs, modal words, auxiliary modals, or defective verbs. Modals express the result of the conversion of thought processes (deep structure about the realization of actions into surface structure. As articles determine the status of nouns as indefinite or definite things, modals determine the relation of a person to actions or the quality of an action as realizable or unrealizable. Modals cannot truly be ‘modal verbs’, because they lack the morphological characteristics of verbs (aspect, voice, mood, and tense, and the term ‘defective verb’ is flawed for the same reason. Furthermore, they cannot be ‘auxiliary modals’, because they don’t neutralize their main meanings when they become auxiliary. Thus, I propose to refer to these elements only as modals or modal words.

  15. Changing modalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renardel de Lavalette, Gerard R.

    2004-01-01

    The dynamic modal logic DML is presented, featuring actions that change the interpretation of a propositional variable or a modality. The semantics is defined both in terms of modal structures and of labelled transition systems (Kripke models). The extension µDML with recursively defined actions aim

  16. Defeasible modalities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available with a preference ordering on worlds in Kripke models. The resulting family of modal logics allow for the elegant expression of defeasible modalities. We also propose a tableau calculus which is sound and complete with respect to our preferential...

  17. Noninvasive imaging modalities and sudden cardiac arrest in the young: can they help distinguish subjects with a potentially life-threatening abnormality from normals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Printz, Beth Feller

    2012-03-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in the young is always tragic, but fortunately it is an unusual event. When it does occur, it usually happens in active individuals, often while they are participating in physical activity. Depending on the population's characteristics, the most common causes of sudden cardiac arrest in these subjects are hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, congenital coronary abnormalities, arrhythmia in the presence of a structurally normal heart (ion channelopathies or abnormal conduction pathways), aortic rupture, and arrhythmogenic right-ventricular cardiomyopathy. Two-dimensional echocardiography (2-DE) has been proposed as a screening tool that can potentially detect four of these five causes of SCA, and many groups now sponsor community-based 2-DE SCA-screening programs. "Basic" 2-DE screening may include assessment of ventricular volumes, mass, and function; left atrial size; and cardiac and thoracic vascular (including coronary) anatomy. "Advanced" echocardiographic techniques, such as tissue Doppler and strain imaging, can help in diagnosis when the history, electrocardiogram (ECG), and/or standard 2-DE screening suggest there may be an abnormality, e.g., to help differentiate those with "athlete's heart" from hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging or cardiac computed tomography can be added to increase diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in select cases when an abnormality is suggested during SCA screening. Test availability, cost, and ethical issues related to who to screen, as well as the detection of those with potential disease but low risk, must be balanced when deciding what tests to perform to assess for increased SCA risk.

  18. Analysis on Modals and Semi-Modals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈力

    2014-01-01

    The modal is a type of auxiliary verb that is used to indicate modality. There are thirteen modal auxiliaries including some past tense forms. In this paper, the modals and semi-modals will be studied through analyzing fifteen sample sentences and referring some grammar books. At last, some suggestions for ESL or ESL teacher to teach modals will be provided.

  19. Modal Indicators for Operational Modal Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, L.; Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.

    2001-01-01

    Modal validation is of paramount importance for all two-stage time domain modal identification algorithms. However, due to a higher noise/signal ratio in operational/ambient modal analysis, being able to determine the right model order and to distinguish between structural modes and computational...... modes become more significant than in traditional modal analysis. The two major modal indicators, i.e. Modal Confidence Factor (MCF) and Modal Amplitude Coherence (MAmC) are extended to two-stage time domain modal identification algorithms, together with a newly developed indicator, named as Modal...... Participation Indicator (MPI). The application of the three indicators is illustrated on different cases of operational/ambient modal identification. Three major time domain modal identification algorithms are used the Polyreference Complex Exponential (PRCE), Extended Ibrahim Time Domain (EITD), Eigensystem...

  20. Helping Kids Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, E. Renee

    2008-01-01

    Educators need to help kids help others so that they can help themselves. Volunteering does not involve competition or grades. This is one area where students don't have to worry about measuring up to the expectations of parents, teachers, and coaches. Students participate in charitable work to add another line to a college transcript or job…

  1. Experimental modal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, M.

    2006-12-15

    This technical report concerns the basic theory and principles for experimental modal analysis. The sections within the report are: Output-only modal analysis software, general digital analysis, basics of structural dynamics and modal analysis and system identification. (au)

  2. On modal energy in civil structural control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao PANG; Tie-jiong LOU; Ming ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    A new control strategy based on modal energy criterion is proposed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the control system in reducing structural earthquake responses. The modal control algorithm combining LQR (linear quadratic regulator) control algorithm is adopted in the discrete time-history analysis. The various modal energy forms are derived by definition of the generalized absolute displacement vector. A preliminary numerical study of the effectiveness of this control strategy is carried out on a 20-storey framed steel structural model. The controlled performance of the model is studied from the perspectives of both response and modal energy. Results show that the modal energy-based control strategy is very effective in reducing structural responses as well as in consuming a large amount of modal energy, while augmentation of additional generalized control force corresponding to the modes that contain little modal energy is unnecessary, as it does little help to improve the controlled structural performance.

  3. Modal Epistemology and Conceivability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philosophical argumentation often depends on modal facts, i.e. facts about what is possible, contingent, or necessary. For thought and cognition outside the domain of philosophy modal facts are also often decisive. It seems we have an easy access to modal facts, but how so? Through a presentation...... of the state-of-the-art in modal epistemology I wish to outline a research project based on conceivability that will try to explain how we come to know modal facts....

  4. Experimental modal analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, Morten

    This technical report concerns the basic theory and principles for experimental modal analysis. The sections within the report are: Output-only modal analysis software (section 1.1), general digital analysis (section 1.2), basics of structural dynamics and modal analysis (section 1.3) and system ...

  5. Husserl’s Modal Sense of Evidence: Modality versus Modalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Anton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenomenological evidence has been characterized as fulfillment of a meaning intention, comprehension that tends to assimilate evidence to fulfilled consciousness, without making justice to the essential and mutual implication of emptiness and fullness that constitutes it out of its horizontic-intentional kind. The horizon, typically configured, offers the field of possible fulfillment; that is why it can be said that evidence takes place in a consciousness of possibility, namely, a modal one, though in an originary material and not doxic or positional sense,because it is the first one that is incumbent upon relationships of fulfillment. Modality that essentially characterizes evidence does not reveal itself then in the possible modalization as positional modification of a unitary content, but in its “outlined” material configuration of fullness and emptiness that gives somethingas something referring to other possibilities as moments of its own validity.

  6. Operational Modal Analysis Tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Palle

    analysis in an easier way and in many cases more effectively than traditional modal analysis methods. It can be applied for modal testing and analysis on a wide range of structures and not only for problems generally investigated using traditional modal analysis, but also for those requiring load......In this paper the basic principles in operational modal testing and analysis are presented and discussed. A brief review of the techniques for operational modal testing and identification is presented, and it is argued, that there is now a wide range of techniques for effective identification...... estimation, vibration level estimation and fatigue analysis....

  7. Conservative treatment modalities in retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Chawla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy of childhood. A potentially curable cancer, its treatment has improved significantly over the last few decades. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on various conservative treatment modalities available for the treatment of retinoblastoma and their effectiveness, when used alone or in combination. Pubmed, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane library were searched through 2012 for published peer reviewed data on conservative treatment modalities for retinoblastoma. Various studies show that while enucleation remains the standard of care for advanced intraocular tumors, conservative modalities that can result in globe salvage and preservation of useful vision are being increasingly employed. Such modalities include systemic chemotherapy, focal consolidation with transpupillary thermotherapy, laser photocoagulation and cryotherapy, plaque brachytherapy, and delivery of local chemotherapy using subconjunctival, sub-tenon, or intra-arterial routes. When used alone or in combination, these treatment modalities can help in avoidance of external beam radiotherapy or enucleation, thus reducing the potential for long-term side effects, while salvaging useful vision. Radioactive plaque brachytherapy has an established role in selected patients with intraocular retinoblastoma. Local injections of chemotherapeutic agents via the sub-tenon or sub-conjunctival route have been used with varying degrees of success, usually as an adjunct to systemic chemotherapy. Intra-arterial ophthalmic artery delivery of melphalan has shown promising results. It is important to recognize that today, several treatment options are available that can obviate the need for enucleation, and cure the cancer with preservation of functional vision. A thorough knowledge and understanding of these conservative treatment modalities is essential for appropriate management.

  8. Getting Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents & Students Home > Special Features > Getting Help Getting Help Resources from NIAAA Treatment for Alcohol Problems: Finding ... and find ways to make a change. Professional help Your doctor. Primary care and mental health practitioners ...

  9. Arithmetic Memory Is Modality Specific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Myers

    Full Text Available In regards to numerical cognition and working memory, it is an open question as to whether numbers are stored into and retrieved from a central abstract representation or from separate notation-specific representations. This study seeks to help answer this by utilizing the numeral modality effect (NME in three experiments to explore how numbers are processed by the human brain. The participants were presented with numbers (1-9 as either Arabic digits or written number words (Arabic digits and dot matrices in Experiment 2 at the first (S1 and second (S2 stimuli. The participant's task was to add the first two stimuli together and verify whether the answer (S3, presented simultaneously with S2, was correct. We hypothesized that if reaction time (RT at S2/S3 depends on the modality of S1 then numbers are retrieved from modality specific memory stores. Indeed, RT depended on the modality of S1 whenever S2 was an Arabic digit which argues against the concept of numbers being stored and retrieved from a central, abstract representation.

  10. Operational Modal Analysis Tutorial

    OpenAIRE

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Palle

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the basic principles in operational modal testing and analysis are presented and discussed. A brief review of the techniques for operational modal testing and identification is presented, and it is argued, that there is now a wide range of techniques for effective identification of modal parameters of practical interest - including the mode shape scaling factor - with a high degree of accuracy. It is also argued that the operational technology offers the user a number of advanta...

  11. Modal extension rule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xia; SUN Jigui; LIN Hai; FENG Shasha

    2005-01-01

    Modal logics are good candidates for a formal theory of agents. The efficiency of reasoning method in modal logics is very important, because it determines whether or not the reasoning method can be widely used in systems based on agent. In this paper,we modify the extension rule theorem proving method we presented before, and then apply it to P-logic that is translated from modal logic by functional transformation. At last, we give the proof of its soundness and completeness.

  12. Advances in Modal Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modal logic is a subject with ancient roots in the western logical tradition. Up until the last few generations, it was pursued mainly as a branch of philosophy. But in recent years, the subject has taken new directions with connections to topics in computer science and mathematics. This volume...... is the proceedings of the conference of record in its fi eld, Advances in Modal Logic. Its contributions are state-of-the-art papers. The topics include decidability and complexity results for specifi c modal logics, proof theory of modal logic, logics for reasoning about time and space, provability logic, dynamic...... epistemic logic, and the logic of evidence....

  13. Modals of Strong Obligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews-Bresky, R. J. H.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses regularities and peculiarities in the use of the modal verbs of obligation "must,""need" and "should," also of the non-modals "have (got) to" and "need to." Agreements and differences in the use of the verbs are shown, with examples. Use of the various tense-forms is discussed. (IFS/WGA)

  14. Video: Modalities and Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Mark; Haw, Kaye

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we set out to explore what we describe as the use of video in various modalities. For us, modality is a synthesizing construct that draws together and differentiates between the notion of "video" both as a method and as a methodology. It encompasses the use of the term video as both product and process, and as a data collection…

  15. Advances in Modal Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modal logic is a subject with ancient roots in the western logical tradition. Up until the last few generations, it was pursued mainly as a branch of philosophy. But in recent years, the subject has taken new directions with connections to topics in computer science and mathematics. This volume i...... epistemic logic, and the logic of evidence.......Modal logic is a subject with ancient roots in the western logical tradition. Up until the last few generations, it was pursued mainly as a branch of philosophy. But in recent years, the subject has taken new directions with connections to topics in computer science and mathematics. This volume...... is the proceedings of the conference of record in its fi eld, Advances in Modal Logic. Its contributions are state-of-the-art papers. The topics include decidability and complexity results for specifi c modal logics, proof theory of modal logic, logics for reasoning about time and space, provability logic, dynamic...

  16. Parametric modal transition systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beneš, Nikola; Křetínský, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand;

    2011-01-01

    Modal transition systems (MTS) is a well-studied specification formalism of reactive systems supporting a step-wise refinement methodology. Despite its many advantages, the formalism as well as its currently known extensions are incapable of expressing some practically needed aspects in the refin......Modal transition systems (MTS) is a well-studied specification formalism of reactive systems supporting a step-wise refinement methodology. Despite its many advantages, the formalism as well as its currently known extensions are incapable of expressing some practically needed aspects...... in the refinement process like exclusive, conditional and persistent choices. We introduce a new model called parametric modal transition systems (PMTS) together with a general modal refinement notion that overcome many of the limitations and we investigate the computational complexity of modal refinement checking....

  17. Coherence for Modalities

    CERN Document Server

    Dosen, K

    2008-01-01

    Positive modalities in systems in the vicinity of S4 and S5 are investigated in terms of categorial proof theory. Coherence and maximality results are demonstrated, and connections with mixed distributive laws and Frobenius algebras are exhibited.

  18. Modalities in medieval logic

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation is an exercise in conceptual archeology. Using the tools of contemporary logic we analyse texts in medieval logic and reconstruct their logical theories by creating a formal framework which models them. Our focus is medieval texts which deal with various modalities: the writings on alethic modalities by William of Sherwood, Pseudo-Aquinas, and St. Thomas Aquinas in the 13th century, St. Anselm of Canterbury’s writings on facere and debere in the late 11th century; Lambert of...

  19. Toward predicate approaches to modality

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    In this volume, the author investigates and argues for, a particular answer to the question: What is the right way to logically analyze modalities from natural language within formal languages? The answer is: by formalizing modal expressions in terms of predicates. But, as in the case of truth, the most intuitive modal principles lead to paradox once the modal notions are conceived as predicates. The book discusses the philosophical interpretation of these modal paradoxes and argues that any satisfactory approach to modality will have to face the paradoxes independently of the grammatical category of the modal notion. By systematizing modal principles with respect to their joint consistency and inconsistency, Stern provides an overview of the options and limitations of the predicate approach to modality that may serve as a useful starting point for future work on predicate approaches to modality. Stern also develops a general strategy for constructing philosophically attractive theories of modal notions conce...

  20. Help LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    Carreras,R; Lehmann,P

    1988-01-01

    première partie: Help LEP ou le tunnel de l'infini- pièce radiophonique intéréssant sur l'origine de la matière deuxième partie: Help LEP débat; suite à cette pièce interview avec 3 physiciens du Cern sur le projet LEP et le but du Cern qui est la recherche fondamentale

  1. The Difference Between Modal Verbs in Deontic and Epistemic Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menik Winiharti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Modality is always interesting to discuss. Understanding it is crucial for both language teachers and learners. This essay discusses the concept of modality, its types and uses. It has a goal to find the difference between deontic and epistemic modality that is indicated by their modal verbs. It also provides the readers a better understanding of modality, particularly of its types and uses. The result of the analysis shows that in general, deontic modality indicates obligation and permission, while epistemic modality expresses possibility and prediction. However, the difference between deontic and epistemic modality is not a clear cut, since one single modal verb can express both types, and one single proposition can be expressed by more than one modal verb.  

  2. Refinement Modal Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Bozzelli, Laura; French, Tim; Hales, James; Pinchinat, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present refinement modal logic. A refinement is like a bisimulation, except that from the three relational requirements only 'atoms' and 'back' need to be satisfied. Our logic contains a new operator 'forall' in additional to the standard modalities 'Box' for each agent. The operator 'forall' acts as a quantifier over the set of all refinements of a given model. We call it the refinement operator. As a variation on a bisimulation quantifier, it can be seen as a refinement quantifier over a variable not occurring in the formula bound by the operator. The logic combines the simplicity of multi-agent modal logic with some powers of monadic second order quantification. We present a sound and complete axiomatization of multiagent refinement modal logic. We also present an extension of the logic to the modal mu-calculus, and an axiomatization for the single-agent version of this logic. Examples and applications are also discussed: to software verification and design (the set of agents can also be s...

  3. Education Solutions for Child Poverty: New Modalities from New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airini

    2015-01-01

    This article describes education solutions to child poverty. Through a focus on New Zealand, the article explores the meaning of child poverty, children's perspectives on child poverty and solutions, and modalities in citizenship, social and economics education to help address child poverty. Four modalities are proposed: centre our work in…

  4. Education Solutions for Child Poverty: New Modalities from New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airini

    2015-01-01

    This article describes education solutions to child poverty. Through a focus on New Zealand, the article explores the meaning of child poverty, children's perspectives on child poverty and solutions, and modalities in citizenship, social and economics education to help address child poverty. Four modalities are proposed: centre our work in…

  5. A modal nonmonotonic logic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林作铨

    1996-01-01

    A modal nonmonotonic logic is presented based on an experiential modal semantics on typicality and exception.The syntactic and semantics of modal nonmonotonic logic are provided,and the completeness theorem and the theorems relating it to major nonmonotonic logics are proved.It directly formalizes the intuition of nonmonotonic reasoning.Among other things,it provides us a first-order extension of default logic and autoepistemic logic,and simultaneously has the capability of circumscription to infer universal statement.It has important applications in logic programming and deductive data base.As a result,it provides a uniform basis for various nonmonotonic logics,from which the correspondent relationship among major nonmonotonic logics can coincide.

  6. Dominant modal decomposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombovari, Zoltan

    2017-03-01

    The paper deals with the automatic decomposition of experimental frequency response functions (FRF's) of mechanical structures. The decomposition of FRF's is based on the Green function representation of free vibratory systems. After the determination of the impulse dynamic subspace, the system matrix is formulated and the poles are calculated directly. By means of the corresponding eigenvectors, the contribution of each element of the impulse dynamic subspace is determined and the sufficient decomposition of the corresponding FRF is carried out. With the presented dominant modal decomposition (DMD) method, the mode shapes, the modal participation vectors and the modal scaling factors are identified using the decomposed FRF's. Analytical example is presented along with experimental case studies taken from machine tool industry.

  7. Teaching German Modal Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosler, Dietmar

    1982-01-01

    Believes modern linguistics has done little to explore German modal particles because by focusing on sentences as the basic category for linguistic thinking these words did not seem to matter. Describes model which gives students experience with these particles in meaningful communication. (Author/BK)

  8. Tense, aspect, and modality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfau, R.; Steinbach, M.; Woll, B.; Pfau, R.; Steinbach, M.; Woll, B.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-linguistically, the grammatical categories tense, aspect, and modality - when they are overtly expressed - are generally realized by free morphemes (such as adverbials and auxiliaries) or by bound inflectional markers. The discussion in this chapter will make clear that this generalization als

  9. Modalities in medieval logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uckelman, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation is an exercise in conceptual archeology. Using the tools of contemporary logic we analyse texts in medieval logic and reconstruct their logical theories by creating a formal framework which models them. Our focus is medieval texts which deal with various modalities: the writings on

  10. Help Others,Help Me

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    WHEN they first came to Xingcheng, Huang Jing and her husband Ma Shiyu didn’t come to help others. They came to seek their own fortune in this small, ancient coastal town where they saw prospects of prosperity. So when the couple decided to move to Xingcheng, they didn’t know their coming would be a turning point for many locals. too.

  11. Help Us to Help Ourselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Local authorities have a strong tradition of supporting communities to help themselves, and this is nowhere better illustrated than in the learning they commission and deliver through the Adult Safeguarded Learning budget. The budget was set up to protect at least a minimum of provision for adult liberal education, family learning and learning for…

  12. Das modale Hilfsverb "will" (The Modal Auxiliary Verb "Will")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunsmann, Peter W.

    1975-01-01

    That "will" and "shall" are modal, not temporal, verbs is shown by their syntactic similarity to the modals and by the fact that they follow the same transformational rules as the modals. This example demonstrates the usefulness of transformational grammar in explaining grammatical relationships to students. (Text is in…

  13. New Modal Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hollowood, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    We describe an interpretation of quantum mechanics based on reduced density matrices of sub-systems from which the standard Copenhagen interpretation emerges as an effective description for macro-systems. The interpretation is a modal one, but does not suffer from the range of problems that plague other modal interpretations. The key feature is that quantum states carry an additional property assignment in the form of one the eigenvectors of the reduced density matrix which evolves evolves according to a stochastic process driven by the unmodified Schrodinger equation, but it is usually hidden from the emergent classical description due to the ergodic nature of its dynamics. However, during a quantum measurement, ergodicity is broken by decoherence and definite outcomes occur with probabilities that agree with the Born rule.

  14. Preferential reasoning for modal logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Modal logic is the foundation for a versatile and well-established class of knowledge representation formalisms in artificial intelligence. Enriching modal logics with non-monotonic reasoning capabilities such as preferential reasoning as developed...

  15. Semantic Structure of English Modals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Walter A.

    1978-01-01

    English modal verbs constitute a problem for the student of English as a foreign language. This study presents a methodology for a systematic presentation of the meaning of modal verbs. The modals "can,""may,""must," and "have to" are studied. (SW)

  16. An application of operational modal analysis in modal filtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurowski, Piotr; Mendrok, Krzysztof; Uhl, Tadeusz, E-mail: mendrok@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059, Krakow (Poland)

    2011-07-19

    Modal filtration in the field of damage detection has many advantages, including: its autonomous operation (without the interaction of qualified staff), low computational cost and low sensitivity to changes in external conditions. However, the main drawback of this group of damage detection methods is its limited applicability to operational data. In this paper a method of modal filter formulation from the in-operational data is described. The basis for this approach is FRFs synthesis using knowledge of the operational modal model. For that purpose a method of operational mode shape scaling is described. This is based on the measurements of several FRFs of the object. The method is then applied to the construction of modal filters and modal filtration. Additionally, the study presents verification of the method using data obtained from simulation and laboratory experiments. Verification consisted of comparing the results of modal filtering based on classical experimental modal analysis with the results of the approach proposed in the work.

  17. An application of operational modal analysis in modal filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurowski, Piotr; Mendrok, Krzysztof; Uhl, Tadeusz

    2011-07-01

    Modal filtration in the field of damage detection has many advantages, including: its autonomous operation (without the interaction of qualified staff), low computational cost and low sensitivity to changes in external conditions. However, the main drawback of this group of damage detection methods is its limited applicability to operational data. In this paper a method of modal filter formulation from the in-operational data is described. The basis for this approach is FRFs synthesis using knowledge of the operational modal model. For that purpose a method of operational mode shape scaling is described. This is based on the measurements of several FRFs of the object. The method is then applied to the construction of modal filters and modal filtration. Additionally, the study presents verification of the method using data obtained from simulation and laboratory experiments. Verification consisted of comparing the results of modal filtering based on classical experimental modal analysis with the results of the approach proposed in the work.

  18. Modal aerosol dynamics modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitby, E.R.; McMurry, P.H.; Shankar, U.; Binkowski, F.S.

    1991-02-01

    The report presents the governing equations for representing aerosol dynamics, based on several different representations of the aerosol size distribution. Analytical and numerical solution techniques for these governing equations are also reviewed. Described in detail is a computationally efficient numerical technique for simulating aerosol behavior in systems undergoing simultaneous heat transfer, fluid flow, and mass transfer in and between the gas and condensed phases. The technique belongs to a general class of models known as modal aerosol dynamics (MAD) models. These models solve for the temporal and spatial evolution of the particle size distribution function. Computational efficiency is achieved by representing the complete aerosol population as a sum of additive overlapping populations (modes), and solving for the time rate of change of integral moments of each mode. Applications of MAD models for simulating aerosol dynamics in continuous stirred tank aerosol reactors and flow aerosol reactors are provided. For the application to flow aerosol reactors, the discussion is developed in terms of considerations for merging a MAD model with the SIMPLER routine described by Patankar (1980). Considerations for incorporating a MAD model into the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Regional Particulate Model are also described. Numerical and analytical techniques for evaluating the size-space integrals of the modal dynamics equations (MDEs) are described. For multimodal logonormal distributions, an analytical expression for the coagulation integrals of the MDEs, applicable for all size regimes, is derived, and is within 20% of accurate numerical evaluation of the same moment coagulation integrals. A computationally efficient integration technique, based on Gauss-Hermite numerical integration, is also derived.

  19. No Can Do Modal Verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašper Ilc

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the systems of modal verbs in Slovene and English, and it focuses on comprehension and usage problems that advanced students of English may have when dealing with modal verb constructions. The paper identifies the key factors that give rise to various problems, such as in-vacuo vs. in-context treatment of modal verbs and absolute vs. relative temporal relations. It is argued that most students fail to fully understand contextualised modal verb constructions mostly due to the polysemy of modal verbs as well as their relative tense value. This is particularly the case when a (narrative text containing modal verb constructions has a past time reference, and combines different narrative techniques.

  20. On Modal Refinement and Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyman, Ulrik; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    Almost 20 years after the original conception, we revisit several fundamental question about modal transition systems. First, we demonstrate the incompleteness of the standard modal refinement using a counterexample due to Hüttel. Deciding any refinement, complete with respect to the standard...... notions of implementation, is shown to be computationally hard (co-NP hard). Second, we consider four forms of consistency (existence of implementations) for modal specifications. We characterize each operationally, giving algorithms for deciding, and for synthesizing implementations, together...

  1. Load Estimation from Modal Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aenlle, Manuel López; Brincker, Rune; Fernández, Pelayo Fernández;

    2007-01-01

    In Natural Input Modal Analysis the modal parameters are estimated just from the responses while the loading is not recorded. However, engineers are sometimes interested in knowing some features of the loading acting on a structure. In this paper, a procedure to determine the loading from a FRF...... matrix assembled from modal parameters and the experimental responses recorded using standard sensors, is presented. The method implies the inversion of the FRF which, in general, is not full rank matrix due to the truncation of the modal space. Furthermore, some ecommendations are included to improve...

  2. Metaphysical Modality, Modality of Predicate and the Theory of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    l nabavi

    2010-05-01

    This paper discusses the historical overview of the metaphysical modality firstly and then shows that the theory of "Decisive Necessity” is true and justified in a model of modal logic with equivalent accessibility relation and homogeneous possible world view (fixed domain.

  3. A Modal Walk Through Space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiello, Marco; Benthem, Johan van

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the major mathematical theories of space from a modal standpoint: topology, affine geometry, metric geometry, and vector algebra. This allows us to see new fine-structure in spatial patterns which suggests analogies across these mathematical theories in terms of modal, temporal, and c

  4. Modal Logics for Cryptographic Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frendrup, U.; Huttel, Hans; Jensen, N. J.

    2002-01-01

    We present three modal logics for the spi-calculus and show that they capture strong versions of the environment sensitive bisimulation introduced by Boreale et al. Our logics differ from conventional modal logics for process calculi in that they allow us to describe the knowledge of an attacker ...

  5. Constraint methods for modal satisfiability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, S.; Gennari, R.; de Rijke, M.; Apt, K.R.; Fages, F.; Rossi, F.

    2004-01-01

    Modal and modal-like formalisms such as temporal or description logics go beyond propositional logic by introducing operators that allow for a guarded form of quantication over states or paths of transition systems. Thus, they are more expressive than propositional logic, yet computationally better

  6. Modal abstractions of concurrent behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nanz, Sebastian; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2011-01-01

    We present an effective algorithm for the automatic construction of finite modal transition systems as abstractions of potentially infinite concurrent processes. Modal transition systems are recognized as valuable abstractions for model checking because they allow for the validation as well as re...

  7. Hetero-manifold Regularisation for Cross-modal Hashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Feng; Tang, Yi; Shao, Ling

    2016-12-28

    Recently, cross-modal search has attracted considerable attention but remains a very challenging task because of the integration complexity and heterogeneity of the multi-modal data. To address both challenges, in this paper, we propose a novel method termed hetero-manifold regularisation (HMR) to supervise the learning of hash functions for efficient cross-modal search. A hetero-manifold integrates multiple sub-manifolds defined by homogeneous data with the help of cross-modal supervision information. Taking advantages of the hetero-manifold, the similarity between each pair of heterogeneous data could be naturally measured by three order random walks on this hetero-manifold. Furthermore, a novel cumulative distance inequality defined on the hetero-manifold is introduced to avoid the computational difficulty induced by the discreteness of hash codes. By using the inequality, cross-modal hashing is transformed into a problem of hetero-manifold regularised support vector learning. Therefore, the performance of cross-modal search can be significantly improved by seamlessly combining the integrated information of the hetero-manifold and the strong generalisation of the support vector machine. Comprehensive experiments show that the proposed HMR achieve advantageous results over the state-of-the-art methods in several challenging cross-modal tasks.

  8. Interpreting Metaphor of Modality in Advertising English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian

    2009-01-01

    Based on a review of the historical and current studies on modality, this paper aims at interpreting metaphor of modality and its functions in advertising English according to theories of modality system and metaphor of modality in systemic-functional linguistics with a corpus we have collected. It is pointed out that metaphor of modality, a usual…

  9. Modal abstractions of concurrent behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nanz, Sebastian; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2011-01-01

    We present an effective algorithm for the automatic construction of finite modal transition systems as abstractions of potentially infinite concurrent processes. Modal transition systems are recognized as valuable abstractions for model checking because they allow for the validation as well...... as refutation of safety and liveness properties. However, the algorithmic construction of finite abstractions from potentially infinite concurrent processes is a missing link that prevents their more widespread usage for model checking of concurrent systems. Our algorithm is a worklist algorithm using concepts...

  10. The effects of association strength and cross-modal correspondence on the development of multimodal stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zara P Y; Dyson, Benjamin J

    2015-02-01

    In addition to temporal and spatial contributions, multimodal binding is also influenced by association strength and the congruency between stimulus elements. A paradigm was established in which an audio-visual stimulus consisting of four attributes (two visual, two auditory) was presented, followed by questions regarding the specific nature of two of those attributes. We wanted to know how association strength and congruency would modulate the basic effect that responding to same-modality information (two visual or two auditory) would be easier than retrieving different-modality information (one visual and one auditory). In Experiment 1, association strengths were compared across three conditions: baseline, intramodal (100 % association within modalities, thereby benefiting same-modality retrieval), and intermodal (100 % association between modalities, thereby benefiting different-modality retrieval). Association strength was shown to damage responses to same-modality information during intermodal conditions. In Experiment 2, association strength was manipulated identically, but was combined with cross-modally corresponding stimuli (further benefiting different-modality retrieval). The locus of the effect was again on responses to same-modality information, damaging responding during intermodal conditions but helping responding during intramodal conditions. The potential contributions of association strength and cross-modal congruency in promoting learning between vision and audition are discussed in relation to a potential default within-modality binding mechanism.

  11. Imaging modalities in keratoconus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalia, Himanshu; Swarup, Rishi

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of keratoconus has greatly improved from simple clinical diagnosis with the advent of better diagnostic devices like corneal topographers based on placido disc, elevation based topographers and lately optical coherence tomography (OCT). These instruments are quite sensitive to pick up early keratoconus, which could help refractive surgeons to avoid serious complications like ectasia following keratorefractive surgeries. Each of these instruments has their advantages and disadvantages; in spite of that each one of them has its own place in the clinical practice. Currently, placido disc based topographers are the most commonly used topographers all over the world. There are many different companies making such devices, which follow the different techniques and color for the display. Due to these differences they are not directly comparable to each other. Various quantitative indices based on these topographers have been suggested and validated by different authors to aid in the diagnosis and quantification of keratoconus. OCT with its higher resolution and deeper penetration has created its place in the diagnostic armamentarium for keratoconus. PMID:23925322

  12. Imaging modalities in keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Matalia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of keratoconus has greatly improved from simple clinical diagnosis with the advent of better diagnostic devices like corneal topographers based on placido disc, elevation based topographers and lately optical coherence tomography (OCT. These instruments are quite sensitive to pick up early keratoconus, which could help refractive surgeons to avoid serious complications like ectasia following keratorefractive surgeries. Each of these instruments has their advantages and disadvantages; in spite of that each one of them has its own place in the clinical practice. Currently, placido disc based topographers are the most commonly used topographers all over the world. There are many different companies making such devices, which follow the different techniques and color for the display. Due to these differences they are not directly comparable to each other. Various quantitative indices based on these topographers have been suggested and validated by different authors to aid in the diagnosis and quantification of keratoconus. OCT with its higher resolution and deeper penetration has created its place in the diagnostic armamentarium for keratoconus.

  13. Multi-Modality Phantom Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Jennifer S.; Peng, Qiyu; Moses, William W.

    2009-03-20

    Multi-modality imaging has an increasing role in the diagnosis and treatment of a large number of diseases, particularly if both functional and anatomical information are acquired and accurately co-registered. Hence, there is a resulting need for multi modality phantoms in order to validate image co-registration and calibrate the imaging systems. We present our PET-ultrasound phantom development, including PET and ultrasound images of a simple prostate phantom. We use agar and gelatin mixed with a radioactive solution. We also present our development of custom multi-modality phantoms that are compatible with PET, transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), MRI and CT imaging. We describe both our selection of tissue mimicking materials and phantom construction procedures. These custom PET-TRUS-CT-MRI prostate phantoms use agargelatin radioactive mixtures with additional contrast agents and preservatives. We show multi-modality images of these custom prostate phantoms, as well as discuss phantom construction alternatives. Although we are currently focused on prostate imaging, this phantom development is applicable to many multi-modality imaging applications.

  14. Continuation of Weight Loss Treatment Is Associated with the Number of Self-Selected Treatment Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Corby K.; Drab-Hudson, Danae L.; York-Crowe, Emily; Mayville, Stephen B.; Yu, Ying; Greenway, Frank L.

    2007-01-01

    Behavior therapy is a cornerstone of weight loss treatment and behaviorists help direct patients' treatment. A novel design was used that allowed participants to choose different treatment modalities during behavioral weight loss treatment. The association between the selection of different treatment modalities and program completion was examined…

  15. Linear contextual modal type theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Abstract. When one implements a logical framework based on linear type theory, for example the Celf system [?], one is immediately con- fronted with questions about their equational theory and how to deal with logic variables. In this paper, we propose linear contextual modal type theory that giv...... a mathematical account of the nature of logic variables. Our type theory is conservative over intuitionistic contextual modal type theory proposed by Nanevski, Pfenning, and Pientka. Our main contributions include a mechanically checked proof of soundness and a working implementation....

  16. Modal analysis of a 2-cylinder crankshaft using ANSYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj Talikoti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Crankshaft is a relevant component in an I.C. engine which transforms the reciprocating motion into rotational motion. This makes the crankshaft liable to vibrations due to different types of stresses and loads. Modal analysis when performed on crankshaft, gives the behavior of its structure through different mode shapes at different frequencies. It also helps to determine resonance frequencies. Modal analysis is the primary stage of many useful analysis like harmonic analysis and transient dynamic analysis, which give the dynamic behavior of the crankshaft.

  17. Vulnerable Plaques, Inflammation and Newer Imaging Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatia V

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, inflammation is considered to be the central player in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. It leads to the formation of multiple plaques in the arterial beds including coronary vasculature. Recent studies using the latest imaging techniques have shown that in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS multiple plaques are ruptured and have thrombus formation on them. Various factors make these plaques unstable, these include structural components of plaque like thin fibrous cap, high lipid content of the plaque core and inflammation, both localized and generalized. It has been shown that most of the ACS are caused by plaques causing non-critical stenosis as seen on traditional X-ray angiography. Also, the phenomenon of remodelling makes angiography a poor technique for plaque visualization. Hence newer modalities are required to identify these 'vulnerable plaques'. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS, thermography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI are a few such promising techniques. Here we review the invasive and non-invasive modalities that can be helpful in the identification of these plaques before they become unstable and cause ACS, and also the available therapies to stabilize these plaques.

  18. Wavefront reconstruction by modal decomposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schulze, C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new method to determine the wavefront of a laser beam based on modal decomposition by computer-generated holograms. The hologram is encoded with a transmission function suitable for measuring the amplitudes and phases of the modes...

  19. Deafness: Cross-modal plasticity and cochlear implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Jae Sung; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Seok-Ki; Kim, Jeung-Whoon; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Kim, Chong Sun

    2001-01-01

    Hearing in profoundly deaf people can be helped by inserting an implant into the inner ear to stimulate the cochlear nerve. This also boosts the low metabolic activity of the auditory cortex, the region of the brain normally used for hearing. Other sensory modalities, such as sign language, can also activate the auditory cortex, a phenomenon known as cross-modal plasticity. Here we show that when metabolism in the auditory cortex of prelingually deaf children (whose hearing was lost before they learned to talk) has been restored by cross-modal plasticity, the auditory cortex can no longer respond to signals from a cochlear implant installed afterwards. Neural substrates in the auditory cortex might therefore be routed permanently to other cognitive processes in prelingually deaf patients.

  20. Leo Esakia on duality in modal and intuitionistic logics

    CERN Document Server

    Bezhanishvili, Guram

    2014-01-01

    This volume is dedicated to Leo Esakia's contributions to the theory of modal and intuitionistic systems. Consisting of 10 chapters, written by leading experts, this volume discusses Esakia's original contributions and consequent developments that have helped to shape duality theory for modal and intuitionistic logics and to utilize it to obtain some major results in the area. Beginning with a chapter which explores Esakia duality for S4-algebras, the volume goes on to explore Esakia duality for Heyting algebras and its generalizations to weak Heyting algebras and implicative semilattices. The book also dives into the Blok-Esakia theorem and provides an outline of the intuitionistic modal logic KM which is closely related to the Gödel-Löb provability logic GL. One chapter scrutinizes Esakia's work interpreting modal diamond as the derivative of a topological space within the setting of point-free topology. The final chapter in the volume is dedicated to the derivational semantics of modal logic and other re...

  1. ON THE REDUNDANCY OF COMPLEX MODAL PARAMETERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈奎孚; 焦群英

    2004-01-01

    Generating the simulation transfer function (TF) is indispensable to modal analysis, such as examining modal parameters identification algorithm, and assessing modal analysis software. Comparing 3 feasible algorithms to simulate TF shows that, one of them is preperable, which is expressing the TF as the function of the complex modal parameters ( CMPs ) , because the deliberate behaviors of CMPs can be implemented easily,such as, dense modals , large damping, and complex modal shape, etc. Nonetheless, even this preferable algorithms is elected, the complex modal shapes cannot be specified arbitrarily, because the number of CMPs far more exceeds that in physical coordinate. So for physical realizable system, there are redundant constraints in CMPs. By analyzing the eigenvalue problem of a complex modal system, and the inversion equations from CMPs to physical parameters, the explicit redundancy constraints were presented. For the special cases, such as the real modal, the damping free modal, and non-complete identification, the specific forms of the redundancy constraints were discussed, along with the number of independent parameters. It is worthy of noting that, redundancy constraints are automatically satisfied for the real modal case. Their equivalent forms on the transfer matrix and a column of transfer matrix were also provided. These results are applicable to generate TF, to implement identification by optimization and appreciate the identification results, to evaluate residual modal, and to verify the complementary of identified modal orders.

  2. Modal liquid crystal wavefront corrector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotova, S; Kvashnin, M; Rakhmatulin, M; Zayakin, O; Guralnik, I; Klimov, N; Clark, P; Love, Gordon; Naumov, A; Saunter, C; Loktev, M; Vdovin, G; Toporkova, L

    2002-11-04

    Results are presented of the properties of a liquid crystal wavefront corrector for adaptive optics. The device is controlled using modal addressing in which case the device behaves more like a continuous facesheet deformable mirror than a segmented one. Furthermore, the width and shape of the influence functions are electrically controllable. We describe the construction of the device, the optical properties, and we show experimental results of low order aberration generation.

  3. Modality effects in sentence recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolkasian, Paula; Foos, Paul W; Eaton, Mirrenda

    2009-04-01

    The authors examined the intrusion of lures into sentence recall when manipulating the modality of distractor-word lists and sentences separately. Participants received a list of words followed by a sentence, and the list did or did not contain a lure related to a target in the sentence. Conceptual regeneration of the sentence during recall predicted higher lure intrusions than spontaneous intrusions in all conditions. However, if surface information is remembered, the modality of sentence and list should influence intrusions. The results from Experiment 1 showed that both factors are important, as intrusions were always higher when lures were contained in the distractor-word list and when visual, rather than auditory, sentences were recalled. The authors also found distractor modality to influence the results. In Experiment 2, when interference from the word probe was reduced by removing 40% of the word probes, the disruptive effect of the auditory distractors was attenuated on the trials without the word probe. Also, the authors found lure intrusions to be dependent on the presence of the word probe.

  4. Special issue on Operational Modal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Brincker, Rune

    2010-01-01

    Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) is not really a new discipline; it has been present from the very beginning of the development of modal testing and analysis going back to the sixties and early seventies.......Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) is not really a new discipline; it has been present from the very beginning of the development of modal testing and analysis going back to the sixties and early seventies....

  5. Uncertainty calculation in (operational) modal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintelon, R.; Guillaume, P.; Schoukens, J.

    2007-08-01

    In (operational) modal analysis the modal parameters of a structure are identified from the response of that structure to (unmeasurable operational) perturbations. A key issue that remains to be solved is the calculation of uncertainty bounds on the estimated modal parameters. The present paper fills this gap. The theory is illustrated by means of a simulation and a real measurement example (operational modal analysis of a bridge).

  6. Extending Modal Transition Systems with Structured Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Sebastian S.; Juhl, Line; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel formalism of label-structured modal transition systems that combines the classical may/must modalities on transitions with structured labels that represent quantitative aspects of the model. On the one hand, the specification formalism is general enough to include models like...... study modal and thorough refinement, determinization, parallel composition, conjunction, quotient, and logical characterization of label-structured modal transition systems....

  7. Physical modalities for treating acne and rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalian, H Ray; Levin, Yakir; Wanner, Molly

    2016-06-01

    Physical modalities provide an important adjunct to medical treatment of acne and rosacea. In patients who cannot tolerate or fail medical treatments, physical modalities offer an alternative approach. For cases of acne scarring, phymatous changes of rosacea, and rosacea-associated telangiectasia, physical modalities such as laser and light treatments represent the treatment of choice. We will review the use of laser and light treatments, photodynamic therapy, and other physical modalities such as targeted therapies for the treatment of acne and rosacea.

  8. Intensifying Modifiers for Chinese Modal Verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaozhao

    While English modal verbs have been studied extensively, Chinese modal verbs have only been analyzed in a general way. A discussion of the six properties of Chinese modal verbs by Li and Thompson (1981, 1997) examined this area, though some of the properties that they proposed appear to be inaccurate or flawed. This paper concentrates on one of…

  9. English Modals - Form, Function and Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews-Bresky, R. J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Gives some general suggestions for teaching English modal auxiliary verbs. For example, "would" and "could" should be taught as verbs in their own right, rather than as forms of "will" and "can." English modals do not exactly match German modals. (IFS/WGA)

  10. On Modality and Its Metaphorical Expressions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李潜波

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a brief introduction of modality and its metaphorical expressions.lt analyzes types of modality and its different system of orientation followed by the introduction on the metaphorical expressions of modality.The purpose of this study is, th

  11. Practical-theological facilitation as skilled helping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmo Pienaar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article discussed the idea of skilled helping in relation to what has been put forward as practical theological facilitation. It has been argued that various helping relationships, amongst which the author refers to coaching, facilitation, and therapy has more in common than what differentiates them if epistemology is viewed as a unifying concept. As such the scope of practical theology in terms of the contexts and themes in which it might be involved is said to widen. The public dimension of the organisational context, more so than the congregational context, has been put forward as an important habitus of practical-theological facilitation. The organisational involvement of the practical-theological facilitator in terms of professional-vocational skilled helping takes on an actual role through facilitation and other helping modalities.

  12. Modality and Task Switching Interactions using Bi-Modal and Bivalent Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Rajwant; Dyson, Benjamin J.

    2013-01-01

    Investigations of concurrent task and modality switching effects have to date been studied under conditions of uni-modal stimulus presentation. As such, it is difficult to directly compare resultant task and modality switching effects, as the stimuli afford both tasks on each trial, but only one modality. The current study investigated task and…

  13. Noise elimination algorithm for modal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, X. X., E-mail: baoxingxian@upc.edu.cn [Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); Li, C. L. [Key Laboratory of Marine Geology and Environment, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China); Xiong, C. B. [The First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061 (China)

    2015-07-27

    Modal analysis is an ongoing interdisciplinary physical issue. Modal parameters estimation is applied to determine the dynamic characteristics of structures under vibration excitation. Modal analysis is more challenging for the measured vibration response signals are contaminated with noise. This study develops a mathematical algorithm of structured low rank approximation combined with the complex exponential method to estimate the modal parameters. Physical experiments using a steel cantilever beam with ten accelerometers mounted, excited by an impulse load, demonstrate that this method can significantly eliminate noise from measured signals and accurately identify the modal frequencies and damping ratios. This study provides a fundamental mechanism of noise elimination using structured low rank approximation in physical fields.

  14. Politeness of English Modals in Business Negotiations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Zhan-ying

    2016-01-01

    With the development of global economy, more and more business negotiations are proceeding in which conflicts and disputes are inevitable. Business negotiations involve interpersonal relationships, which is usually expressed by mood and mo-dality. Modal verbs, as an essential approach for expressing politeness with rich meanings of modality, are widely employed in business negotiations. This paper focuses on analyzing the polite usages of modal verbs in business negotiations by Politeness Principle. Based on this theory, three interpersonal functions expressed by modal verbs are to be studied:Cost-and-Benefit, Humor and Choice.

  15. Consideration of modal structural properties with sensor grids and methods of Operational Modal Analysis. A contribution of state monitoring of great structures; Erfassung modaler Struktureigenschaften mit Sensornetzwerken und den Methoden der Operational Modal Analysis. Ein Beitrag zur Zustandsueberwachung grosser Strukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, A.; Mayer, D.; Koch, M.; Kauba, M.; Melz, T. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Betriebsfestigkeit und Systemzuverlaessigkeit LBF, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    A state monitoring of mechanical structures is possible based on the modal parameters natural frequency, self-oscillation form and modal damping. Beyond the damage recognition such a monitoring also can be used to the localization of damages. During the monitoring of large structures (such as blades or towers of wind power plants) problems arise with the instrumentation realization: However the execution of a unique data acquisition requires an expenditure which goes beyond logistic questions such as sensor assembly, grid connection and excitation. The presented solution covers two components whose combination can overcome the described problem definition. On the one hand a network of intelligent sensors will be used, on the other hand the received data are evaluated according to the methods of operational modal analysis. So the temporal development of the modal parameters can be supervised with a firmly installed sensor network based on the data received in the normal operation of the structure. The contribution under consideration contains a description of the Random Decrement Method used for the spectral estimation in the sensors. Subsequently, the function mode of the sensor network is presented from the data capture up to the modal dismantling with the help of a numeric system simulation. The realization of the sensor network at a mechanical, wind-excited test-structure is described. The results of the investigation of the test-structure with the sensor network are presented and compared with the results of conventional procedures. The innovation of the presented technology exists in the combination of known methods of random decrement and operational modal analysis with the possibilities of a network of intelligent sensors.

  16. Helping the Retina Regenerate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Briefs > Helping the retina regenerate Helping the retina regenerate NEI Audacious Goals Initiative report outlines strategies to replace or reprogram neurons in the retina News Brief 03/30/17 ...

  17. A helping hand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirjam de Klerk; Alice de Boer; Sjoerd Kooiker; Inger Plaisier; Peggy Schyns

    2014-01-01

    Original title: Hulp geboden   The help provided to people with a care need is about to undergo major changes in the Netherlands. People who need help will be expected to rely more on help from members of their network. What are the opportunities for informal carers and volunteers, and where do the

  18. It does belong together: Cross-modal correspondences influence cross-modal integration during perceptual learning

    OpenAIRE

    Lionel eBrunel; Paulo eCarvalho; Robert L Goldstone

    2015-01-01

    Experiencing a stimulus in one sensory modality is often associated with an experience in another sensory modality. For instance, seeing a lemon might produce a sensation of sourness. This might indicate some kind of cross-modal correspondence between vision and gustation. The aim of the current study was to provide explore whether such cross-modal correspondences influence cross-modal integration during perceptual learning. To that end, we conducted 2 experiments. Using a speeded classificat...

  19. Monitoring historical masonry structures with operational modal analysis: Two case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, L. F.; Marques, L.; Lourenço, P. B.; De Roeck, G.; Campos-Costa, A.; Roque, J.

    2010-07-01

    The paper addresses two complex case studies of modal and structural identification of monuments in Portugal: the Clock Tower of Mogadouro and the Church of Jerónimos Monastery, in Lisbon. These are being monitored by University of Minho with vibration, temperature and relative air humidity sensors. Operational modal analysis is being used to estimate the modal parameters, followed by statistical analysis to evaluate the environmental effects on the dynamic response. The aim is to explore damage assessment in masonry structures at an early stage by vibration signatures, as a part of a health monitoring process that helps in the preservation of historical constructions. The paper presents the necessary preliminary dynamic analysis steps before the monitoring task, which includes installation of the monitoring system, system identification and subsequent FE model updating analysis, automatic modal identification and investigation of the influence of the environment on the identified modal parameters.

  20. Preemptive analgesia I: physiological pathways and pharmacological modalities.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, D J

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: This two-part review summarizes the current knowledge of physiological mechanisms, pharmacological modalities and controversial issues surrounding preemptive analgesia. SOURCE: Articles from 1966 to present were obtained from the MEDLINE databases. Search terms included: analgesia, preemptive; neurotransmitters; pain, postoperative; hyperalgesia; sensitization, central nervous system; pathways, nociception; anesthetic techniques; analgesics, agents. Principal findings: The physiological basis of preemptive analgesia is complex and involves modification of the pain pathways. The pharmacological modalities available may modify the physiological responses at various levels. Effective preemptive analgesic techniques require multi-modal interception of nociceptive input, increasing threshold for nociception, and blocking or decreasing nociceptor receptor activation. Although the literature is controversial regarding the effectiveness of preemptive analgesia, some general recommendations can be helpful in guiding clinical care. Regional anesthesia induced prior to surgical trauma and continued well into the postoperative period is effective in attenuating peripheral and central sensitization. Pharmacologic agents such as NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) opioids, and NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) - and alpha-2-receptor antagonists, especially when used in combination, act synergistically to decrease postoperative pain. CONCLUSION: The variable patient characteristics and timing of preemptive analgesia in relation to surgical noxious input requires individualization of the technique(s) chosen. Multi-modal analgesic techniques appear most effective.

  1. The Role of Intended Audience in Determining Modality Type: A Study in Relation to the Iranian Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Naghizadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Language, as a means of communication, offers its speakers some tools by which they can convey the meanings they intend to. One of these tools is the use of modals. Modals help the speakers to express their attitudes and opinions, regarding what is going on in a sentence. Epistemic modality deals with possibility and prediction and deontic modality concerns permission and obligation. This study aims to figure out whether Iranian constitution, as a sample of the laws set by the governments, seems likely more to convey the sense of obligation and permission to the audience(applying deontic modality,or the writers of these laws are just narrating a piece of information. For this purpose, the frequency of each modal type within Iranian constitution is evaluated and considered as an indicator of the writers' attitudes. Modal verbs, auxiliary modals and adverbs in the text of Iranian constitution are analyzed and different types and subtypes of modals are distinguished. The results have shown that in 83% of the applied modals, the spirit of permission and obligation for implementing these laws is very crucially and fully presented by the tool of deontic modality which is used for such purposes. Most of these obligations target the government and the permissions are mostly dedicated to people.

  2. Large Margin Multi-Modal Multi-Task Feature Extraction for Image Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong Luo; Yonggang Wen; Dacheng Tao; Jie Gui; Chao Xu

    2016-01-01

    The features used in many image analysis-based applications are frequently of very high dimension. Feature extraction offers several advantages in high-dimensional cases, and many recent studies have used multi-task feature extraction approaches, which often outperform single-task feature extraction approaches. However, most of these methods are limited in that they only consider data represented by a single type of feature, even though features usually represent images from multiple modalities. We, therefore, propose a novel large margin multi-modal multi-task feature extraction (LM3FE) framework for handling multi-modal features for image classification. In particular, LM3FE simultaneously learns the feature extraction matrix for each modality and the modality combination coefficients. In this way, LM3FE not only handles correlated and noisy features, but also utilizes the complementarity of different modalities to further help reduce feature redundancy in each modality. The large margin principle employed also helps to extract strongly predictive features, so that they are more suitable for prediction (e.g., classification). An alternating algorithm is developed for problem optimization, and each subproblem can be efficiently solved. Experiments on two challenging real-world image data sets demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method.

  3. Fully automated (operational) modal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynders, Edwin; Houbrechts, Jeroen; De Roeck, Guido

    2012-05-01

    Modal parameter estimation requires a lot of user interaction, especially when parametric system identification methods are used and the modes are selected in a stabilization diagram. In this paper, a fully automated, generally applicable three-stage clustering approach is developed for interpreting such a diagram. It does not require any user-specified parameter or threshold value, and it can be used in an experimental, operational, and combined vibration testing context and with any parametric system identification algorithm. The three stages of the algorithm correspond to the three stages in a manual analysis: setting stabilization thresholds for clearing out the diagram, detecting columns of stable modes, and selecting a representative mode from each column. An extensive validation study illustrates the accuracy and robustness of this automation strategy.

  4. Modal Calculus of Illocutionary Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Schumann, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The aim of illocutionary logic is to explain how context can affect the meaning of certain special kinds of performative utterances. Recall that performative utterances are understood as follows: a speaker performs the illocutionary act (e.g. act of assertion, of conjecture, of promise) with the illocutionary force (resp. assertion, conjecture, promise) named by an appropriate performative verb in the way of representing himself as performing that act. In the paper I proposed many-valued interpretation of illocutionary forces understood as modal operators. As a result, I built up a non-Archimedean valued logic for formalizing illocutionary acts. A formal many-valued approach to illocutionary logic was offered for the first time.

  5. Learning Multi-modal Similarity

    CERN Document Server

    McFee, Brian

    2010-01-01

    In many applications involving multi-media data, the definition of similarity between items is integral to several key tasks, e.g., nearest-neighbor retrieval, classification, and recommendation. Data in such regimes typically exhibits multiple modalities, such as acoustic and visual content of video. Integrating such heterogeneous data to form a holistic similarity space is therefore a key challenge to be overcome in many real-world applications. We present a novel multiple kernel learning technique for integrating heterogeneous data into a single, unified similarity space. Our algorithm learns an optimal ensemble of kernel transfor- mations which conform to measurements of human perceptual similarity, as expressed by relative comparisons. To cope with the ubiquitous problems of subjectivity and inconsistency in multi- media similarity, we develop graph-based techniques to filter similarity measurements, resulting in a simplified and robust training procedure.

  6. Investigative modalities in infectious keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Noopur

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard recommended guidelines for diagnosis of infectious keratitis do exist. Based on an extensive Medline literature search, the various investigative modalities available for aiding the diagnosis of microbial keratitis have been reviewed and described briefly. Preferred practice patterns have been outlined and the importance of routine pre-treatment cultures in the primary management of infectious keratitis has been highlighted. Corneal scraping, tear samples and corneal biopsy are few of the specimens needed to carry out the investigative procedures for diagnosis and for initiating therapy in cases of microbial keratitis. In bacterial, fungal and amoebic keratitis, microscopic examination of smears is essential for rapid diagnosis. Potassium hydroxide (KOH wet mount, Gram′s stain and Giemsa stain are widely used and are important for clinicians to start empirical therapy before microbial culture results are available. The usefulness of performing corneal cultures in all cases of suspected infectious keratitis has been well established. In cases of suspected viral keratitis, therapy can be initiated on clinical judgment alone. If a viral culture is needed, scrapings should directly be inoculated into the viral transport media. In vivo confocal microscopy is a useful adjunct to slit lamp bio-microscopy for supplementing diagnosis in most cases and establishing early diagnosis in many cases of non-responding fungal and amoebic keratitis. This is a non-invasive, high resolution technique which allows rapid detection of Acanthamoeba cysts and trophozoites and fungal hyphae in the cornea long before laboratory cultures give conclusive results. Other new modalities for detection of microbial keratitis include molecular diagnostic techniques like polymerase chain reaction, and genetic finger printing by pulsed field gel electrophoresis.

  7. New Ultrasound Modalities in Rheumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Marwin; Okano, Tadashi; Reginato, Anthony M; Cazenave, Tomas; Ventura-Rios, Lucio; Bertolazzi, Chiara; Pineda, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Over the years, ultrasound (US) has accumulated important evidence supporting its relevant role for the assessment of inflammatory processes of different rheumatologic diseases, as well as in the follow-up in assessing the response to different therapeutic approaches. This has been possible because of the increase in training, competency, and knowledge, as well as the rapid progress in the US technologies.Currently, some US machines can be equipped by sophisticated software modalities (i.e., 3-dimensional US, elastosonography, automated cardiovascular software, and fusion imaging) that can augment US traditional role as a safe, fast, and easy-to-perform modality and giving it new life and increased relevance in rheumatology. In this article, we evaluated the US developments, from conventional B-mode to more sophisticated technologies, and their potential clinical impact in the field of rheumatology.Three-dimensional US can improve the accuracy of the assessment of bone erosions and the quantification of power Doppler because of its multiplanar view including coronal, axial and sagital view. Elastosonography is still looking for its role in rheumatology. Preliminary works induce us to consider it as a promise tool for the assessment of tendon pathology and skin of patients with connective tissue disorders. The automated method for the measurement of carotid intima-media thickness permits a rapid and accurate assessment. The preliminary published data showed that it is reliable, and valid compared to the traditional method; they also support the future of rheumatologists as the direct operators in evaluating the cardiovascular risk in daily practice. Fusion imaging increases the diagnostic power of US, displaying simultaneously in the monitor, the US image, and the corresponding computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging image. However, there are no sufficient data supporting its application in daily rheumatologic practice.

  8. Strong Completeness of Coalgebraic Modal Logics

    CERN Document Server

    Schröder, Lutz

    2009-01-01

    Canonical models are of central importance in modal logic, in particular as they witness strong completeness and hence compactness. While the canonical model construction is well understood for Kripke semantics, non-normal modal logics often present subtle difficulties - up to the point that canonical models may fail to exist, as is the case e.g. in most probabilistic logics. Here, we present a generic canonical model construction in the semantic framework of coalgebraic modal logic, which pinpoints coherence conditions between syntax and semantics of modal logics that guarantee strong completeness. We apply this method to reconstruct canonical model theorems that are either known or folklore, and moreover instantiate our method to obtain new strong completeness results. In particular, we prove strong completeness of graded modal logic with finite multiplicities, and of the modal logic of exact probabilities.

  9. Experienced Sensory Modalities in Dream Recall

    OpenAIRE

    岡田, 斉

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to survey the frequency of visual, auditory, kinaesthetic, cutaneous, organic, gustatory, and olfactory experience in dream recall. A total of 1267 undergraduate students completed a dream recall frequency questionnaire, which contained a question about dream recall frequency and about recall frequency of seven sensory modalities. Results showed that seven sensory modalities were divided into two groups; normally perceived sensory modalities in dreaming, wh...

  10. A survey of modal synthesis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, G. C.; Hurty, W. C.; Collins, J. D.

    1971-01-01

    Several modal synthesis procedures for the dynamic analysis of largy composite structural systems are surveyed. The matrix formulation of the free-free modal synthesis procedures is presented. Also given are schematic flow charts of the analysis procedure used in three prominent methods. The advantages and disadvantages of several modal synthesis methods for different classes of structural problems are presented in order to enable the engineer to select the best procedure for his particular type of problem.

  11. Modalne argumenty teistyczne (Modal Theistic Arguments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Oppy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of Oppy’s paper is to provide a general ground for rejecting all kinds of modal theistic arguments. The author claims that all such arguments are questionbegging – before proving the existence of God (defined as a being which exists in every possible world theistic modalist must assume it when choosing his account of logical space (no matter which modal theory it relies on: Lewis’ modal realism, ersatz modal realism, combinatorialism or fictionalism. Two concrete arguments, Plantinga’s ontological argument and Leftow’s cosmological argument, are examples given by Oppy – both have premises which justification must refer to a non-modal question “Does God actually exist?”, concerning the nature of logical space.Oppy rejects suggestion that problems with modal theistic arguments show that there is simply something wrong with our standard modal analyses in terms of possible worlds. According to Oppy, problems with higher-level judgments about the nature of logical space are problems with propositional attitudes, not with modality, andthey need an analysis distinct from the analysis of ground-level modal judgments.

  12. Experimental modal analysis of components of the LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Guinchard, M; Catinaccio, A; Kershaw, K; Onnela, A

    2007-01-01

    Experimental modal analysis of components of the LHC experiments is performed with the purpose of determining their fundamental frequencies, their damping and the mode shapes of light and fragile detector components. This process permits to confirm or replace Finite Element analysis in the case of complex structures (with cables and substructure coupling). It helps solving structural mechanical problems to improve the operational stability and determine the acceleration specifications for transport operations. This paper describes the hardware and software equipment used to perform a modal analysis on particular structures such as a particle detector and the method of curve fitting to extract the results of the measurements. This paper exposes also the main results obtained for the LHC Experiments.

  13. Deep Transfer Learning for Modality Classification of Medical Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhai Yu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Medical images are valuable for clinical diagnosis and decision making. Image modality is an important primary step, as it is capable of aiding clinicians to access required medical image in retrieval systems. Traditional methods of modality classification are dependent on the choice of hand-crafted features and demand a clear awareness of prior domain knowledge. The feature learning approach may detect efficiently visual characteristics of different modalities, but it is limited to the number of training datasets. To overcome the absence of labeled data, on the one hand, we take deep convolutional neural networks (VGGNet, ResNet with different depths pre-trained on ImageNet, fix most of the earlier layers to reserve generic features of natural images, and only train their higher-level portion on ImageCLEF to learn domain-specific features of medical figures. Then, we train from scratch deep CNNs with only six weight layers to capture more domain-specific features. On the other hand, we employ two data augmentation methods to help CNNs to give the full scope to their potential characterizing image modality features. The final prediction is given by our voting system based on the outputs of three CNNs. After evaluating our proposed model on the subfigure classification task in ImageCLEF2015 and ImageCLEF2016, we obtain new, state-of-the-art results—76.87% in ImageCLEF2015 and 87.37% in ImageCLEF2016—which imply that CNNs, based on our proposed transfer learning methods and data augmentation skills, can identify more efficiently modalities of medical images.

  14. Helping Children Understand Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allers, Robert D.

    1980-01-01

    Children of divorced parents may bring many problems along when they come to school. Teachers can recognize these troubles and help children learn to handle them. They may be able to help children better understand their feelings about their parents' divorce. (CJ)

  15. Handi Helps, 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handi Helps, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The six issues of Handi Helps presented here focus on specific issues of concern to the disabled, parents, and those working with the disabled. The two-page handi help fact sheets focus on the following topics: child sexual abuse prevention, asthma, scoliosis, the role of the occupational therapist, kidnapping, and muscular dystrophy. Each handi…

  16. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Help! It's Hair Loss! KidsHealth > For Kids > Help! It's Hair Loss! Print A A A What's in ... part above the skin, is dead. (That's why it doesn't hurt to get a haircut!) This ...

  17. Modality-specific and modality-independent components of the human imagery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daselaar, S.M.; Porat, Y.; Huijbers, W.; Pennartz, C.M.A.

    2010-01-01

    magery research typically deals with the commonalities and differences between imagery and perception. As such, it is usually confined to one specific modality. Yet, it is likely that some of the underlying processes are shared between different sensory modalities while others are modality-specific.

  18. Modality-specific and modality-independent components of the human imagery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Daselaar; Y. Porat; W. Huijbers; C.M.A. Pennartz

    2010-01-01

    Imagery research typically deals with the commonalities and differences between imagery and perception. As such, it is usually confined to one specific modality. Yet, it is likely that some of the underlying processes are shared between different sensory modalities while others are modality-specific

  19. Functions of modal particles in Hungarian

    OpenAIRE

    Marusynets, Marianna

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the functions of Hungarian modal particles from the Relevance Theory perspective, which offers a cognitive account of utterance interpretation. It is argued that Hungarian modal particles govern the selection of context by guiding the hearer towards relevant interpretation.

  20. Swedish Modal Particles in a Contrastive Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijmer, Karen

    1996-01-01

    Presents a study based on the analysis of contrastive Swedish-English data on modal particles. The article maintains that the meaning of modal particles requires an analysis of their pragmatic aspects such as the relation between the interlocutors. The analysis most accurately accounting for the multifunctionality of the particles is based on a…

  1. Pragmatics in Interlanguage: German Modal Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollering, Martina; Nunan, David

    1995-01-01

    Argues that mastery of modal particles is important for interpersonal aspects of language development. The article outlines the difficulty of learning and teaching German modal particles with regard to the theoretical explication. The study shows how a teaching program improved initially poor comprehension and production skills in the area of…

  2. Three-valued logics in modal logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, Barteld; Tamminga, Allard

    2013-01-01

    Every truth-functional three-valued propositional logic can be conservatively translated into the modal logic S5. We prove this claim constructively in two steps. First, we define a Translation Manual that converts any propositional formula of any three-valued logic into a modal formula. Second, we

  3. Methodological Constraints for Detecting the Modality Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoor, Cornelia; Bannert, Maria; Jahn, Verena

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of our research was to investigate the modality effect in more detail by measuring it in a direct way. Two studies were conducted using the same subject and material. Method: Computer-based learning material was presented on several screens, each containing a short text and a picture. Modality was varied by presenting written…

  4. Pragmatics in Interlanguage: German Modal Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollering, Martina; Nunan, David

    1995-01-01

    Argues that mastery of modal particles is important for interpersonal aspects of language development. The article outlines the difficulty of learning and teaching German modal particles with regard to the theoretical explication. The study shows how a teaching program improved initially poor comprehension and production skills in the area of…

  5. History of Civil Engineering Modal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune

    2008-01-01

    techniques are available for civil engineering modal analysis. The testing of civil structures defers from the traditional modal testing in the sense, that very often it is difficult, or sometimes impossible, to artificially excite a large civil engineering structure. Also, many times, even though...

  6. Large proximal ureteral stones: Ideal treatment modality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Kadyan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Laparoscopic transperitoneal ureterolithotomy is a minimally invasive, safe and effective treatment modality and should be recommended to all patients of impacted large proximal stones, which are not amenable to URS or extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy or as a primary modality of choice especially if patient is otherwise candidate for open surgery.

  7. History of Civil Engineering Modal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune

    2008-01-01

    techniques are available for civil engineering modal analysis. The testing of civil structures defers from the traditional modal testing in the sense, that very often it is difficult, or sometimes impossible, to artificially excite a large civil engineering structure. Also, many times, even though...

  8. Modal Transition Systems with Weight Intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Line; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Srba, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    We propose weighted modal transition systems, an extension to the well-studied specification formalism of modal transition systems that allows to express both required and optional behaviours of their intended implementations. In our extension we decorate each transition with a weight interval th...

  9. Reasoning About Space : The Modal Way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiello, Marco; Benthem, Johan van; Bezhanishvili, Guram

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the topological interpretation of modal logic in modern terms, using a new notion of bisimulation. We look at modal logics with interesting topological content, presenting, among others, a new proof of McKinsey and Tarski's theorem on completeness of S4 with respect to the real line,

  10. Language: perspectives from another modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellugi, U; Klima, E S

    1979-01-01

    Human languages have been forged in auditory-vocal channels throughout evolution. This paper examines the formal properties of a communication system that has developed in the absence of speech: the sign language of the deaf. The objective is to investigate to what extent the overall form and organization of language is determined by the articulatory and perceptual modality in which it has developed (its transmission system) and to what extent its form and organization represent more fundamental aspects of the human mind (intellect). Experimental and linguistic evidence is brought to bear on the analysis of the sign: studies of coding and processing of signs in memory; of slips of the hand; of historical change in signs over time; the heightened use of language in poetry and wit. American Sign Language differs dramatically from English and other spoken languages in the mechanisms by which its lexical units are modified. For the form of its morphological processes, the mode in which the language develops appears to make a crucial difference. Finally, the issue of cerebral specialization with respect to a visual-manual language is addressed.

  11. Modal interference in spiky nanoshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Simon P; Qian, Zhaoxia; Swanglap, Pattanawit; Fang, Ying; Engheta, Nader; Park, So-Jung; Link, Stephan; Fakhraai, Zahra

    2015-05-04

    Near-field enhancement of the electric field by metallic nanostructures is important in non-linear optical applications such as surface enhanced Raman scattering. One approach to producing strong localization of the electric field is to couple a dark, non-radiating plasmonic mode with a broad dipolar resonator that is detectable in the far-field. However, characterizing or predicting the degree of the coupling between these modes for a complicated nanostructure can be quite challenging. Here we develop a robust method to solve the T-matrix, the matrix that predicts the scattered electric fields of the incident light, based on finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations and least square fitting algorithms. This method allows us to simultaneously calculate the T-matrix for a broad spectral range. Using this method, the coupling between the electric dipole and quadrupole modes of spiky nanoshells is evaluated. It is shown that the built-in disorder in the structure of these nanoshells allows for coupling between the dipole modes of various orientations as well as coupling between the dipole and the quadrupole modes. A coupling strength of about 5% between these modes can explain the apparent interference features observed in the single particle scattering spectrum. This effect is experimentally verified by single particle backscattering measurements of spiky nanoshells. The modal interference in disordered spiky nanoshells can explain the origin of the spectrally broad quadrupole resonances that result in strong Quadrupole Enhanced Raman Scattering (QERS) in these nanoparticles.

  12. Helping Kids Handle Worry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child What Kids Say About: Handling Stress Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Community Service: A Family's Guide to Getting Involved ... With Stress Teens Talk About Stress (Video) Anxiety, Fears, and Phobias Childhood Stress How Can I Help My Child ...

  13. Can Reading Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Ponders the effect of September 11th on teenagers. Proposes that reading books can help teenagers sort out complicated issues. Recommends young adult novels that offer hope for overcoming tragedy. Lists 50 short story collections worth reading. (PM)

  14. Helping Parents Say No.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duel, Debra K.

    1988-01-01

    Provides some activities that are designed to help students understand some of the reasons why parents sometimes refuse to let their children have pets. Includes mathematics and writing lessons, a student checklist, and a set of tips for parents. (TW)

  15. Help with Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... appropriate treatment has established normal hearing for your child, a speech-language pathologist can help to correct your child’s speech and language errors. A speech-language pathologist and audiologist can ...

  16. Modal analysis of PATHFINDER unmanned air vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woehrle, T.G.; Costerus, B.W.; Lee, C.L.

    1994-10-19

    An experimental modal analysis was performed on PATHFINDER, a 450-lb, 100-ft wing span, flying-wing-design aircraft powered by solar/electric motors. The aircraft was softly suspended and then excited using random input from a long-stroke shaker. Modal data was taken from 92 measurement locations on the aircraft using newly designed, lightweight, tri-axial accelerometers. A conventional PC-based data acquisition system provided data handling. Modal parameters were calculated, and animated mode shapes were produced using SMS STARStruct{trademark} Modal Analysis System software. The modal parameters will be used for validation of finite element models, optimum placement of onboard accelerometers during flight testing, and vibration isolation design of sensor platforms.

  17. Boilerplate Test Article (BTA) Modal Test Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilakos, Gregory J.; Corliss, James M.; Mark, Stephen D.

    2017-01-01

    Modal testing of the Boilerplate Test Article (BTA) was performed to obtain data to determine the accuracy of the BTA LS- DYNA model in determining the structural response. The BTA is a full-scale steel and aluminum test article that is representative of the Orion Crew Module (CM), with similar outer-mold-line geometry, mass properties, and some similar structural features, including an internal pressure vessel connected to a backshell and heatshield via longerons, Retention and Release (R&R) brackets, and an aft ring. The structural design of the Orion CM is being developed based on LS-DYNA water landing simulations. To obtain data to evaluate the accuracy of LS-DYNA water impact landing simulations, a series of BTA water impacts was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). Discrepancies between test and simulation data are attributed to three causes:(1) Test data variability and uncertainty, (2) LS-DYNA water model and fluid-structure coupling approximations; and (3) LS-DYNA structural modeling approximations. Two activities have been undertaken to assess the accuracy of the BTA LS-DYNA structural model separately from the fluid-structure coupling portion of the water landing simulations: 1) modal testing, and 2) static load testing. The results from the static load tests are documented in a separate report. For the modal test series, the following tests were performed: (1) BTA Fully-Assembled Model Test, (2) BTA Backshell Removed Modal Test, (3) Standalone Heatshield Modal Test, (4) Standalone Windward Backshell Panel Modal Test; and (5) Standalone Leeward Backshell Panel Modal Test. This report documents findings from correlation of modal test data with LS-DYNA modal analysis results. The following figures illustrate the correlation of the modal frequencies. Where multiple closely spaced modes have been identified, the points representing the upper and lower frequencies are shown connected by a dotted line.

  18. The Global Properties of Valid Formulas in Modal Logic K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙吉贵; 程晓春; 等

    1996-01-01

    Global property is the necessary condition which must be satisfied by the provable formulas.It can help to find out some unprovable formula that does not satisfy some global property before proving it using formal automated reasoning systems,thus the efficiency of the whole system is improved.This paper presents some global properties of valid formulas in modal logic K.Such properties are structure characters of formulas,so they are simple and easy to check.At the same time,some global properties of K unsatisfiable formula set are also given.

  19. Computing the modal mass from the state space model in combined experimental-operational modal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cara, Javier

    2016-05-01

    Modal parameters comprise natural frequencies, damping ratios, modal vectors and modal masses. In a theoretic framework, these parameters are the basis for the solution of vibration problems using the theory of modal superposition. In practice, they can be computed from input-output vibration data: the usual procedure is to estimate a mathematical model from the data and then to compute the modal parameters from the estimated model. The most popular models for input-output data are based on the frequency response function, but in recent years the state space model in the time domain has become popular among researchers and practitioners of modal analysis with experimental data. In this work, the equations to compute the modal parameters from the state space model when input and output data are available (like in combined experimental-operational modal analysis) are derived in detail using invariants of the state space model: the equations needed to compute natural frequencies, damping ratios and modal vectors are well known in the operational modal analysis framework, but the equation needed to compute the modal masses has not generated much interest in technical literature. These equations are applied to both a numerical simulation and an experimental study in the last part of the work.

  20. It does belong together: Cross-modal correspondences influence cross-modal integration during perceptual learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel eBrunel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Experiencing a stimulus in one sensory modality is often associated with an experience in another sensory modality. For instance, seeing a lemon might produce a sensation of sourness. This might indicate some kind of cross-modal correspondence between vision and gustation. The aim of the current study was to provide explore whether such cross-modal correspondences influence cross-modal integration during perceptual learning. To that end, we conducted 2 experiments. Using a speeded classification task, Experiment 1 established a cross-modal correspondence between visual lightness and the frequency of an auditory tone. Using a short-term priming procedure, Experiment 2 showed that manipulation of such cross-modal correspondences led to the creation of a crossmodal unit regardless of the nature of the correspondence (i.e., congruent, Experiment 2a or incongruent, Experiment 2b. However, a comparison of priming-effects sizes suggested that cross-modal correspondences modulate cross-modal integration during learning and thus leading to new learned units that have different stability over time. We discuss the implications of our results for the relation between cross-modal correspondence and perceptual learning in the context of a Bayesian explanation of cross-modal correspondences.

  1. It does belong together: cross-modal correspondences influence cross-modal integration during perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunel, Lionel; Carvalho, Paulo F; Goldstone, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    Experiencing a stimulus in one sensory modality is often associated with an experience in another sensory modality. For instance, seeing a lemon might produce a sensation of sourness. This might indicate some kind of cross-modal correspondence between vision and gustation. The aim of the current study was to explore whether such cross-modal correspondences influence cross-modal integration during perceptual learning. To that end, we conducted two experiments. Using a speeded classification task, Experiment 1 established a cross-modal correspondence between visual lightness and the frequency of an auditory tone. Using a short-term priming procedure, Experiment 2 showed that manipulation of such cross-modal correspondences led to the creation of a crossmodal unit regardless of the nature of the correspondence (i.e., congruent, Experiment 2a or incongruent, Experiment 2b). However, a comparison of priming effects sizes suggested that cross-modal correspondences modulate cross-modal integration during learning, leading to new learned units that have different stability over time. We discuss the implications of our results for the relation between cross-modal correspondence and perceptual learning in the context of a Bayesian explanation of cross-modal correspondences.

  2. Determination of rolling tyre modal parameters using Finite Element techniques and Operational Modal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanivelu, Sakthivel; Narasimha Rao, K. V.; Ramarathnam, Krishna Kumar

    2015-12-01

    In order to address various noise generation mechanisms and noise propagation phenomena of a tyre, it is necessary to study the tyre dynamic behaviour in terms of modal parameters. This paper enumerates a novel method of finding the modal parameters of a rolling tyre using an Explicit Finite Element Analysis and Operational Modal Analysis (OMA). ABAQUS Explicit, a commercial Finite Element (FE) software code has been used to simulate the experiment, a tyre rolling over a semi-circular straight and inclined cleat. The acceleration responses obtained from these simulations are used as input to the OMA. LMS test lab has been used for carrying out the Operational Modal Analysis. The modal results are compared with the published results of Kindt [22] and validated. Also, the modal results obtained from OMA are compared with FE modal results of stationary unloaded tyre, stationary loaded tyre and Steady State Transport rolling tyre.

  3. Implementation and applications of dual-modality imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, B.H. E-mail: bruceh@itsa.ucsf.edu; Barber, W.C.; Funk, Tobias; Hwang, A.B.; Taylor, Carmen; Sun Mingshan; Seo Youngho

    2004-06-01

    In medical diagnosis, functional or physiological data can be acquired using radionuclide imaging with positron emission tomography or with single-photon emission computed tomography. However, anatomical or structural data can be acquired using X-ray computed tomography. In dual-modality imaging, both radionuclide and X-ray detectors are incorporated in an imaging system to allow both functional and structural data to be acquired in a single procedure without removing the patient from the imaging system. In a clinical setting, dual-modality imaging systems commonly are used to localize radiopharmaceutical uptake with respect to the patient's anatomy. This helps the clinician to differentiate disease from regions of normal radiopharmaceutical accumulation, to improve diagnosis or cancer staging, or to facilitate planning for radiation therapy or surgery. While initial applications of dual-modality imaging were developed for clinical imaging on humans, it now is recognized that these systems have potentially important applications for imaging small animals involved in experimental studies including basic investigations of mammalian biology and development of new pharmaceuticals for diagnosis or treatment of disease.

  4. Implementation and applications of dual-modality imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Bruce H.; Barber, William C.; Funk, Tobias; Hwang, Andrew B.; Taylor, Carmen; Sun, Mingshan; Seo, Youngho

    2004-06-01

    In medical diagnosis, functional or physiological data can be acquired using radionuclide imaging with positron emission tomography or with single-photon emission computed tomography. However, anatomical or structural data can be acquired using X-ray computed tomography. In dual-modality imaging, both radionuclide and X-ray detectors are incorporated in an imaging system to allow both functional and structural data to be acquired in a single procedure without removing the patient from the imaging system. In a clinical setting, dual-modality imaging systems commonly are used to localize radiopharmaceutical uptake with respect to the patient's anatomy. This helps the clinician to differentiate disease from regions of normal radiopharmaceutical accumulation, to improve diagnosis or cancer staging, or to facilitate planning for radiation therapy or surgery. While initial applications of dual-modality imaging were developed for clinical imaging on humans, it now is recognized that these systems have potentially important applications for imaging small animals involved in experimental studies including basic investigations of mammalian biology and development of new pharmaceuticals for diagnosis or treatment of disease.

  5. Modality-Driven Classification and Visualization of Ensemble Variance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensema, Kevin; Gosink, Luke; Obermaier, Harald; Joy, Kenneth I.

    2016-10-01

    Advances in computational power now enable domain scientists to address conceptual and parametric uncertainty by running simulations multiple times in order to sufficiently sample the uncertain input space. While this approach helps address conceptual and parametric uncertainties, the ensemble datasets produced by this technique present a special challenge to visualization researchers as the ensemble dataset records a distribution of possible values for each location in the domain. Contemporary visualization approaches that rely solely on summary statistics (e.g., mean and variance) cannot convey the detailed information encoded in ensemble distributions that are paramount to ensemble analysis; summary statistics provide no information about modality classification and modality persistence. To address this problem, we propose a novel technique that classifies high-variance locations based on the modality of the distribution of ensemble predictions. Additionally, we develop a set of confidence metrics to inform the end-user of the quality of fit between the distribution at a given location and its assigned class. We apply a similar method to time-varying ensembles to illustrate the relationship between peak variance and bimodal or multimodal behavior. These classification schemes enable a deeper understanding of the behavior of the ensemble members by distinguishing between distributions that can be described by a single tendency and distributions which reflect divergent trends in the ensemble.

  6. NIF Periscope Wall Modal Study Comparison of Results for 2 FEA Models with 2 Modal Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eli, M W; Gerhard, M A; Lee, C L; Sommer, S C; Woehrle, T G

    2000-10-26

    This report summarizes experimentally and numerically determined modal properties for one of the reinforced concrete end walls of the NIF Periscope Support Structure in Laser Bay 1. Two methods were used to determine these modal properties: (1) Computational finite-element analyses (modal extraction process); and (2) Experimental modal analysis based on measured test data. This report also includes experimentally determined modal properties for a prototype LM3/Polarizer line-replaceable unit (LRU) and a prototype PEPC LRU. Two important parameters, used during the design phase, are validated through testing [ref 1]. These parameters are the natural frequencies and modal damping (of the system in question) for the first several global modes of vibration. Experimental modal testing provides these modal values, along with the corresponding mode shapes. Another important parameter, the input excitation (expected during normal operation of the NIF laser system) [ref 1], can be verified by performing a series of ambient vibration measurements in the vicinity of the particular system (or subsystem) of interest. The topic of ambient input excitation will be covered in a separate report. Due to the large mass of the Periscope Pedestal, it is difficult to excite the entire series of Periscope Pedestal Walls all at once. It was decided that the experimental modal tests would be performed on just one Periscope End Wall in Laser Bay 1. Experimental modal properties for the Periscope End Wall have been used to validate and update the FE analyses. Results from the analyses and modal tests support the conclusion that the Periscope Pedestal will not exceed the stability budget, which is described in reference 1. The results of the modal tests for the Periscope End Wall in Laser Bay 1 have provided examples of modal properties that can be derived from future modal tests of the entire Periscope Assembly (excluding the LRU's). This next series of larger modal tests can be

  7. Conceptual structure within and between modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia eDilkina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current views of semantic memory share the assumption that conceptual representations are based on multi-modal experience, which activates distinct modality-specific brain regions. This proposition is widely accepted, yet little is known about how each modality contributes to conceptual knowledge and how the structure of this contribution varies across these multiple information sources. We used verbal feature lists, features from drawings and verbal co-occurrence statistics from latent semantic analysis to examine the informational structure in four domains of knowledge: perceptual, functional, encyclopedic and verbal. The goals of the analysis were three-fold: (1 to assess the structure within individual modalities; (2 to compare structures between modalities; and (3 to assess the degree to which concepts organize categorically or randomly.Our results indicated significant and unique structure in all four modalities: perceptually, concepts organize based on prominent features such as shape, size, color and parts; functionally, they group based on use and interaction; encyclopedically, they arrange based on commonality in location or behavior; and verbally, they group associatively or relationally. Visual/perceptual knowledge gives rise to the strongest hierarchical organization and is closest to classic taxonomic structure. Information is organized somewhat similarly in the perceptual and encyclopedic domains, which differs significantly from the structure in the functional and verbal domains. Notably, the verbal modality has the most unique organization, which is not at all categorical but also not random. The idiosyncrasy and complexity of conceptual structure across modalities begs the question of how all of these modality-specific experiences are fused together into coherent, multi-faceted yet unified concepts. Accordingly, both methodological and theoretical implications of the present findings are discussed.

  8. Vibration measurement and modal analysis for tunneller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Min; WU Miao; WEI Ren-zhi

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the method of vibration measurement and modal analysis for AM~50 Tunneller machine is presented. When the machine was used for cutting man-made coal bed and real coal bed, the vibration of the machine was measured and the results of signal analysis show that the vibration characteristics under the two kinds of working situations are similar. The modal model of the machine is established, and then, the intrinsic vibration characteristics of AM50 tunneller are investigated by means of the method of experimental modal analysis. The vibration response simulation under a set of loading spectra measured is carried out by force response simulation software.

  9. Modal Wave Number Spectrum for Mesoscale Eddies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Ying; PENG Linhui

    2003-01-01

    The variations of ocean environmental parameters invariably result in variations of local modal wave numbers of a sound pressure field. The asymptotic Hankel transform with a short sliding window is applied to the complex sound pressure field in the water containing a mesoscale eddy to examine the variation of local modal wave numbers in such a range-dependent environment. The numerical simulation results show that modal wave number spectra obtained by this method can reflect the location and strength of a mesoscale eddy, therefore it can be used to monitor the strength and spatial scale of ocean mesoscale eddies.

  10. The MADE help system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Haindl; M.M. de Ruiter

    1995-01-01

    textabstractMADE is the acronym for the ESPRIT project 6307, whose aim is to develop an object oriented multimedia application development environment. As part of this project the MADE help system is designed to be a distributed hypermedia system with additional support for run-time object monitori

  11. You Can Help, Too

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing starts recruiting volunteers for the 2008 Olympic Games A recruitment drive for 100,000 Olympic volunteers aimed at helping Chinese people and foreigners get involved in the 2008 Games was officially launched on August 28 in Beijing. Organizers say that applications are expected to start flooding in from around the city, while mainland applicants from outside Beijing can apply for positions start-

  12. Stretching: Does It Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardiman, Phillip; Carrand, David; Gallagher, Philip M.

    2010-01-01

    Stretching prior to activity is universally accepted as an important way to improve performance and help prevent injury. Likewise, limited flexibility has been shown to decrease functional ability and predispose a person to injuries. Although this is commonly accepted, appropriate stretching for children and adolescents involved with sports and…

  13. Self-Help Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Robert H.

    1973-01-01

    The author believes that there is a distinct need for professionals to become competent in providing materials for self-help lay efforts. Colleges and universities must provide for the facilitation of personal growth through self administered procedures by either a clinical approach (in counseling centers) or a didactic one (in classes as, for…

  14. Stretching: Does It Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardiman, Phillip; Carrand, David; Gallagher, Philip M.

    2010-01-01

    Stretching prior to activity is universally accepted as an important way to improve performance and help prevent injury. Likewise, limited flexibility has been shown to decrease functional ability and predispose a person to injuries. Although this is commonly accepted, appropriate stretching for children and adolescents involved with sports and…

  15. Profile: parents help themselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, G E

    1981-01-01

    A short account is given of a voluntary organization, PACE, formed by parents of young handicapped children in Leeds. PACE provides friendship and help to other parents, arranges the toy library, riding for the disabled and other activities for the children. It also raises money that is needed for special projects.

  16. Help for Stressed Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Denise Clarke; Simon, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The authors argue that increased focus and pressure for high academic achievement, particularly among more highly-motivated and successful students, may have serious negative consequences. They present a number of strategies designed to help reduce both causes and consequences associated with academic stress and improve students' mental and…

  17. Helping Students Avoid Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhoit, Stephen

    1994-01-01

    Discusses how and why college students commit plagiarism, suggesting techniques that instructors can use to help student avoid plagiarism. Instructors should define and discuss plagiarism thoroughly; discuss hypothetical cases; review the conventions of quoting and documenting material; require multiple drafts of essays; and offer responses…

  18. Modality-Invariant Image Classification Based on Modality Uniqueness and Dictionary Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungryong; Cai, Rui; Park, Kihong; Kim, Sunok; Sohn, Kwanghoon

    2016-12-02

    We present a unified framework for image classification of image sets taken under varying modality conditions. Our method is motivated by a key observation that the image feature distribution is simultaneously influenced by the semantic-class and the modality category label, which limits the performance of conventional methods for that task. With this insight, we introduce modality uniqueness as a discriminative weight that divides each modality cluster from all other clusters. By leveraging the modality uniqueness, our framework is formulated as unsupervised modality clustering and classifier learning based on modality-invariant similarity kernel. Specifically, in the assignment step, each training image is first assigned to the most similar cluster according to its modality. In the update step, based on the current cluster hypothesis, the modality uniqueness and the sparse dictionary are updated. These two steps are formulated in an iterative manner. Based on the final clusters, a modalityinvariant marginalized kernel is then computed, where the similarities between the reconstructed features of each modality are aggregated across all clusters. Our framework enables the reliable inference of semantic-class category for an image, even across large photometric variations. Experimental results show that our method outperforms conventional methods on various benchmarks, such as landmark identification under severely varying weather conditions, domain-adapting image classification, and RGB and near-infrared (NIR) image classification.

  19. OPERATIONAL MODAL ANALYSIS SCHEMES USING CORRELATION TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Min; Shen Fan; Chen Huaihai

    2005-01-01

    For some large-scale engineering structures in operating conditions, modal parameters estimation must base itself on response-only data. This problem has received a considerable amount of attention in the past few years. It is well known that the cross-correlation function between the measured responses is a sum of complex exponential functions of the same form as the impulse response function of the original system. So this paper presents a time-domain operating modal identification global scheme and a frequency-domain scheme from output-only by coupling the cross-correlation function with conventional modal parameter estimation. The outlined techniques are applied to an airplane model to estimate modal parameters from response-only data.

  20. Disentangling Linguistic Modality Effects in Semantic Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moita, Mara; Nunes, Maria Vânia

    2016-06-01

    Sensory systems are essential for perceiving and conceptualizing our semantic knowledge about the world and the way we interact with it. Despite studies reporting neural changes to compensate for the absence of a given sensory modality, studies focusing on the assessment of semantic processing reveal poor performances by deaf individuals when compared with hearing individuals. However, the majority of those studies were not performed in the linguistic modality considered the most adequate to their sensory capabilities (i.e., sign language). Therefore, this exploratory study was developed focusing on linguistic modality effects during semantic retrieval in deaf individuals in comparison with their hearing peers through a category fluency task. Results show a difference in performance between the two linguistic modalities by deaf individuals as well as in the type of linguistic clusters most chosen by participants, suggesting a complex clustering tendency by deaf individuals.

  1. Modal Specifications for Probabilistic Timed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Han

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Modal automata are a classic formal model for component-based systems that comes equipped with a rich specification theory supporting abstraction, refinement and compositional reasoning. In recent years, quantitative variants of modal automata were introduced for specifying and reasoning about component-based designs for embedded and mobile systems. These respectively generalize modal specification theories for timed and probabilistic systems. In this paper, we define a modal specification language for combined probabilistic timed systems, called abstract probabilistic timed automata, which generalizes existing formalisms. We introduce appropriate syntactic and semantic refinement notions and discuss consistency of our specification language, also with respect to time-divergence. We identify a subclass of our models for which we define the fundamental operations for abstraction, conjunction and parallel composition, and show several compositionality results.

  2. Representation learning for cross-modality classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Tulder (Gijs); M. de Bruijne (Marleen)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractDifferences in scanning parameters or modalities can complicate image analysis based on supervised classification. This paper presents two representation learning approaches, based on autoencoders, that address this problem by learning representations that are similar across domains. Bot

  3. First-order Logic: Modality and Intensionality

    CERN Document Server

    Majkic, Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary use of the term 'intension' derives from the traditional logical Frege-Russell's doctrine that an idea (logic formula) has both an extension and an intension. From the Montague's point of view, the meaning of an idea can be considered as particular extensions in different possible worlds. In this paper we analyze the minimal intensional semantic enrichment of the syntax of the FOL language, by unification of different views: Tarskian extensional semantics of the FOL, modal interpretation of quantifiers, and a derivation of the Tarskian theory of truth from unified semantic theory based on a single meaning relation. We show that not all modal predicate logics are intensional, and that an equivalent modal Kripke's interpretation of logic quantifiers in FOL results in a particular pure extensional modal predicate logic (as is the standard Tarskian semantics of the FOL). This minimal intensional enrichment is obtained by adopting the theory of properties, relations and propositions (PRP) as the unive...

  4. New treatment modalities in advanced thyroid cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapiteijn, E.; Schneider, T.C.; Morreau, H.; Gelderblom, H.; Nortier, J.W.; Smit, J.W.A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer is a heterogeneous disease that is classified into differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), undifferentiated/anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) and medullary thyroid carcinoma. Results of conventional treatment modalities in advanced thyroid cancer have been disappointing a

  5. Modal-Power-Based Haptic Motion Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Yusuke; Shimono, Tomoyuki; Kuwahara, Hiroaki; Sato, Masataka; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    Motion recognition based on sensory information is important for providing assistance to human using robots. Several studies have been carried out on motion recognition based on image information. However, in the motion of humans contact with an object can not be evaluated precisely by image-based recognition. This is because the considering force information is very important for describing contact motion. In this paper, a modal-power-based haptic motion recognition is proposed; modal power is considered to reveal information on both position and force. Modal power is considered to be one of the defining features of human motion. A motion recognition algorithm based on linear discriminant analysis is proposed to distinguish between similar motions. Haptic information is extracted using a bilateral master-slave system. Then, the observed motion is decomposed in terms of primitive functions in a modal space. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Sensor Placement for Modal Parameter Subset Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Bernal, Dionisio; Damkilde, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The present paper proposes an approach for deciding on sensor placements in the context of modal parameter estimation from vibration measurements. The approach is based on placing sensors, of which the amount is determined a priori, such that the minimum Fisher information that the frequency...... responses carry on the selected modal parameter subset is, in some sense, maximized. The approach is validated in the context of a simple 10-DOF mass-spring-damper system by computing the variance of a set of identified modal parameters in a Monte Carlo setting for a set of sensor configurations, whose......). It is shown that the widely used Effective Independence (EI) method, which uses the modal amplitudes as surrogates for the parameters of interest, provides sensor configurations yielding theoretical lower bound variances whose maxima are up to 30 % larger than those obtained by use of the max-min approach....

  7. The Wigner distribution function in modal characterisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mredlana, Prince

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical field characterisation often requires various isolated experiments to obtain characterisation parameters, we investigate a novel approach to characterise an optical field employing a Wigner distribution function with a modal decomposition...

  8. PSPACE Bounds for Rank-1 Modal Logics

    CERN Document Server

    Schröder, Lutz

    2007-01-01

    For lack of general algorithmic methods that apply to wide classes of logics, establishing a complexity bound for a given modal logic is often a laborious task. The present work is a step towards a general theory of the complexity of modal logics. Our main result is that all rank-1 logics enjoy a shallow model property and thus are, under mild assumptions on the format of their axiomatisation, in PSPACE. This leads to a unified derivation of tight PSPACE-bounds for a number of logics including K, KD, coalition logic, graded modal logic, majority logic, and probabilistic modal logic. Our generic algorithm moreover finds tableau proofs that witness pleasant proof-theoretic properties including a weak subformula property. This generality is made possible by a coalgebraic semantics, which conveniently abstracts from the details of a given model class and thus allows covering a broad range of logics in a uniform way.

  9. Operational Modal Analysis of Large Bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Schanke, Sindre Aavik

    2015-01-01

    As a part of the new coastal highway E39 which is being planned and built along the west coast of Norway by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration, state of the art methods of structural dynamics needs to be developed and used to cross the deep and wide fjords. Operational modal analysis aims to find the modal properties; natural frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes of a structure while it is under operating conditions using its vibration data. Several methods of operati...

  10. Cross-Modality Hashing with Partial Correspondence

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Yun; Xue, Haoyang; Yang,Jie

    2015-01-01

    Learning a hashing function for cross-media search is very desirable due to its low storage cost and fast query speed. However, the data crawled from Internet cannot always guarantee good correspondence among different modalities which affects the learning for hashing function. In this paper, we focus on cross-modal hashing with partially corresponded data. The data without full correspondence are made in use to enhance the hashing performance. The experiments on Wiki and NUS-WIDE datasets de...

  11. Conceptual Structure within and between Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilkina, Katia; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2012-01-01

    Current views of semantic memory share the assumption that conceptual representations are based on multimodal experience, which activates distinct modality-specific brain regions. This proposition is widely accepted, yet little is known about how each modality contributes to conceptual knowledge and how the structure of this contribution varies across these multiple information sources. We used verbal feature lists, features from drawings, and verbal co-occurrence statistics from latent semantic analysis to examine the informational structure in four domains of knowledge: perceptual, functional, encyclopedic, and verbal. The goals of the analysis were three-fold: (1) to assess the structure within individual modalities; (2) to compare structures between modalities; and (3) to assess the degree to which concepts organize categorically or randomly. Our results indicated significant and unique structure in all four modalities: perceptually, concepts organize based on prominent features such as shape, size, color, and parts; functionally, they group based on use and interaction; encyclopedically, they arrange based on commonality in location or behavior; and verbally, they group associatively or relationally. Visual/perceptual knowledge gives rise to the strongest hierarchical organization and is closest to classic taxonomic structure. Information is organized somewhat similarly in the perceptual and encyclopedic domains, which differs significantly from the structure in the functional and verbal domains. Notably, the verbal modality has the most unique organization, which is not at all categorical but also not random. The idiosyncrasy and complexity of conceptual structure across modalities raise the question of how all of these modality-specific experiences are fused together into coherent, multifaceted yet unified concepts. Accordingly, both methodological and theoretical implications of the present findings are discussed.

  12. A Generative Grammar for Modal Syntagms

    OpenAIRE

    Galofaro, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Part 1: Organisational Semiotics: Theory and Concepts; International audience; The contribution presents a generative grammar for Greimas’ semiotic square, designed to represent modal syntax. In particular: (1) the grammar will generate both modal syntagms and their structural descriptions; (2) the articulation of the immanent narrative structure will be clarified; (3) structural features which are not manifested on the linear surface will become easier to examine. This model contributes to c...

  13. Conceivability, inconceivability and cartesian modal epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saint-Germier, Pierre Laurent G

    2016-01-01

    In various arguments, Descartes relies on the principles that conceivability implies possibility and that inconceivability implies impossibility. Those principles are in tension with another Cartesian view about the source of modality, i.e. the doctrine of the free creation of eternal truths....... In this paper, I develop a ‘two-modality’ interpretation of the doctrine of eternal truths which resolves the tension and I discuss how the resulting modal epistemology can still be relevant for the contemporary discussion....

  14. Operational modal identification using variational Bayes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binbin; Der Kiureghian, Armen

    2017-05-01

    Operational modal analysis is the primary tool for modal parameter identification in civil engineering. Bayesian statistics offers an ideal framework for analyzing uncertainties associated with the identified modal parameters. However, the exact Bayesian formulation is usually intractable due to the high computational demand in obtaining the posterior distributions of modal parameters. In this paper, the variational Bayes method is employed to provide an approximate solution. Unlike the Laplace approximation and Monte Carlo sampling, the variational Bayes approach provides a gradient-free algorithm to analytically approximate the posterior distributions. Working with the state-space representation of a dynamical system, the variational Bayes approach for identification of modal parameters is derived by ignoring statistical correlation between latent variables and the model parameters. In this approach, the joint distribution of the state-transition and observation matrices as well as the joint distribution of the process noise and measurement error are firstly calculated analytically using conjugate priors. The distribution of modal parameters is extracted from these obtained joint distributions using a first-order Taylor series expansion. A robust implementation of the method is discussed by using square-root filtering and Cholesky decomposition. The proposed approach is illustrated by its application to an example mass-spring system and the One Rincon Hill Tower in San Francisco.

  15. Biomechanical characteristics of barefoot footstrike modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunns, Michael; House, Carol; Fallowfield, Joanne; Allsopp, Adrian; Dixon, Sharon

    2013-10-18

    Barefoot running has increased in popularity over recent years, with suggested injury risk and performance benefits. However, despite many anecdotal descriptions of barefoot running styles, there is insufficient evidence regarding the specific characteristics of barefoot running. The present study provided reference data for four footstrike modalities adopted across a large cohort of habitually shod male runners while running barefoot: heel strikers (HS), midfoot strikers (MS), forefoot strikers (FS) and a newly defined group, toe runners (TR - contact made only with the forefoot), compared with the three modalities previously reported. Plantar pressure analysis was used for the classification of footstrike modality, with clearly distinguishable pressure patterns for different modalities. In the present study, the distribution of footstrike types was similar to that previously observed in shod populations. The absence of differences in ground contact time and stride length suggest that potential performance benefits of a non-HS style are more likely to be a function of the act of running barefoot, rather than of footstrike type. Kinematic data for the knee and ankle indicate that FS and TR require a stiffer leg than HS or MS, while ankle moment and plantar pressure data suggest that a TR style may put greater strain on the plantar-flexors, Achilles tendon and metatarsal heads. TR style should therefore only be adopted with caution by recreational runners. These findings indicate the importance of considering footstrike modality in research investigating barefoot running, and support the use of four footstrike modalities to categorise running styles.

  16. Perfect and Imperfect Modals in Romance Some syntactic remarks on the Tense/Modality interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Soare

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the interplay between Tense-Aspect and Modality in Romanian and some Romance languages, in ambiguous sentences that exhibit what has been called “perfective raising”. It is observed that Romanian does not behave like French, for instance, inasmuch perfective forces actuality entailment on modals. I show that this contrast is connected to the structure of Romanian modal sentences: as commonly assumed in the literature, modal verbs in Romanian behave like lexical verbs with clausal complements; they have their own temporal-aspectual domain, which has to obey interpretive constraints. I propose that the ambiguity between root and epistemic readings in the perfective is the effect of two combined factors: perfective/imperfective Aspect and a high degree of grammaticalization of the modal (i.e. monoclausal structures for modals.

  17. Hinder, More Than Help

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余习榜

    2008-01-01

    @@ Ladies and gentlemen, I'm honored to stand here on behalf of my school to share my experiences and opinions with you. Some people say that our mother ton-gue is of great help to our learning English. However, for my point of view, too much use of Chinese will definitely exert nega-tive effects and tend to hinder the learning progress.

  18. A Little Help

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    More government changes needed to clarify role of NGOs in China As China's first NGOs to receive state funding embark on a pilot program to help poverty-stricken villages, experts say the work of aid groups in a country trying to ease a significant rich-poor divide remains hamstrung by regulations and bureaucracy. In February, the China Foundation for Poverty Alleviation (CFPA) announced that

  19. A Multi-Modal Active Learning Experience for Teaching Social Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzmueller, April

    2011-01-01

    This article details a multi-modal active learning experience to help students understand elements of social categorization. Each student in a group dynamics course observed two groups in conflict and identified examples of in-group bias, double-standard thinking, out-group homogeneity bias, law of small numbers, group attribution error, ultimate…

  20. A Multi-Modal Active Learning Experience for Teaching Social Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzmueller, April

    2011-01-01

    This article details a multi-modal active learning experience to help students understand elements of social categorization. Each student in a group dynamics course observed two groups in conflict and identified examples of in-group bias, double-standard thinking, out-group homogeneity bias, law of small numbers, group attribution error, ultimate…

  1. Modal Parameters from a Wind Turbine Wing by Operational Modal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlufsen, H.; Møller, N.; Brincker, Rune;

    2002-01-01

    Operational Modal Analysis also known as Ambient Modal Analysis has an increasing interest in mechanical engineering. Especially on big structures where the excitation and not less important the determination of the forces is most often a problem. In a structure like a wind turbine wing where...... the modes occur both close in frequency and bidirectional the Ambient excitation has big advantages. In this paper modal parameters are identified from the wing by operational modal analysis. For the parameter identification both parametric and non-parametric techniques are used. Advantages...

  2. Metaphysical Modality, Modality of Predicate and the Theory of "Decisive Necessity”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Nabavi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aristotle in the Organon (1949: 9,30 a ,15-19 explicitly states that in a categorical syllogism when the minor premise is absolute (without modality operator and the major is necessary, the conclusion will be necessary too. This Aristotle's view has been the source of many conflicts and disputes in the history of logic. The famous logicians and historians of logic in the twentieth century as "Nicholas Rescher" and "Becker" believe that Aristotle's view is justifiable and defensible (at least compared to the first figure only if, the modality of major premise is considered as the property of predicate (modality de re. Today, we know very well that the modality of predicate is closely linked to Metaphysical and philosophical Modality. “Shihab al-Din al- Suhrawardi” in the theory of "Decisive (Battateh Necessity” by accepting this base, explicitly states that, in the beginning, the modality must be mentioned as a part of the predicate and then the modality of relation or copula is summarized and reduced to necessity. The modern formalization of the most important part of this theory is as follows: ("x (àAx É à Bx º ("x □ (àAx É à BxThis paper discusses the historical overview of the metaphysical modality firstly and then shows that the theory of "Decisive Necessity” is true and justified in a model of modal logic with equivalent accessibility relation and homogeneous possible world view (fixed domain.

  3. MODALITIES OF MANAGEMENT OF VERNAL KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajantri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ocular allergy is a common disorder which can be debilitating for patients and, at times, challenging for physicians to diagnose and treat . Allergic disease affects 30 – 50% of the population . Vernal kerato conjunctivitis has predilection for young age group and the diagnosis is generally based on signs and symptoms of the disease . This study is undertaken to stress upon the importance of clinical manifestations, management and prevent the complications of the disease and those secondary to its long - term medication . AIM OF STUDY: To study the different modalities in management of VKC patients . MATERIALS & METHODS: 74 patients with VKC selected at random, who attended the department of ophthalmology KIMS, Hubli from December 2012 to May 2014 . The relevant details of history and clinical examination of the patients were recorded on a specifically designed Proforma . The type and severity of VKC and its association with corneal involvement was noted . Clinical observation and evaluation of clinical signs and symptoms were performed before and after drug therapy at first visit, weekly interval for 2 weeks and at the end of 3 months . Therapeutic options are many, in most cases topical and chosen on the basis of the severity of the disease . RESULTS: 68/74 (91 . 89% patients were put on 0 . 1% olopatadine eye drops 2 times a day at 0 visit . Additional treatment such as 0 . 5% ketorolac 4 times a day in 13/68 patients, 0 . 1% bromofenac 2 times a day in 3/68 patients and 0 . 1% Napafenac 2 times a day in 1/68 patient was added along with olopatadine at visit 0 . In 16/68 patients with persistent symptoms with olopatadine alone 0 . 5% ketorolac was added in subsequent visits . 15/68 patients with persistent symptoms received Flurometholone 0 . 1% in the subsequent visits along with 0 . 1% olopatadine . All these patients who received 0 . 5% ketorolac alone or with other drugs responded well . Fallow – up patients using 0 . 1

  4. Corona helps curb losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laasonen, M.; Lahtinen, M.; Lustre, L.

    1996-11-01

    The greatest power losses in electricity transmission arise through a phenomenon called load losses. Corona losses caused by the surface discharge of electricity also constitute a considerable cost item. IVS, the nationwide network company, is investigating corona- induced losses, and has also commissioned similar research from IVO International, the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and from Tampere University of Technology. The research work strives to gain more in-depth knowledge on the phenomenon of frosting and its impact on corona losses. The correct prediction of frost helps reduce corona losses, while also cutting costs considerably. (orig.)

  5. Corona helps curb losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laasonen, M.; Lahtinen, M.; Lustre, L.

    1996-11-01

    The greatest power losses in electricity transmission arise through a phenomenon called load losses. Corona losses caused by the surface discharge of electricity also constitute a considerable cost item. IVS, the nationwide network company, is investigating corona- induced losses, and has also commissioned similar research from IVO International, the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and from Tampere University of Technology. The research work strives to gain more in-depth knowledge on the phenomenon of frosting and its impact on corona losses. The correct prediction of frost helps reduce corona losses, while also cutting costs considerably. (orig.)

  6. Current and Under Development Treatment Modalities of Psoriasis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albaghdadi, Abdul

    2017-08-04

    the most commonly employed treatment modalities for moderate to severe psoriasis. Evaluation of present-day available treatment alternatives will surely help physician to select a suitable module for each patient while keeping in mind the financial status of the patient. Future research should aim to develop therapies which are efficient, safe and cost-effective. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Technology for helping people

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    The first THE Port hackathon problem-solving workshop was held at CERN from 31 October to 2 November in the framework of the 60th anniversary celebrations. The aim of the event was to develop technological projects that can help to solve the day-to-day needs of people living in areas of the planet that experience conflicts or natural disasters.   Collage of shots from THE Port hackathon. Credit: THE Port association The event was dedicated to humanitarian and social topics inspired by members of non-governmental organisations‬. “There is plenty of room for technology to help in humanitarian fields. That’s why we came up with the idea of bringing people together to work on these topics,” explains Ines Knäpper, Project Manager of THE Port hackathon. “We started six months ago setting up THE Port association.* The success of the event was only possible because of the joint effort of a team of roughly twenty people. They were inspired by the aim...

  8. Multilayer modal actuator-based piezoelectric transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yao-Tien; Wu, Wen-Jong; Wang, Yen-Chieh; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2007-02-01

    An innovative, multilayer piezoelectric transformer equipped with a full modal filtering input electrode is reported herein. This modal-shaped electrode, based on the orthogonal property of structural vibration modes, is characterized by full modal filtering to ensure that only the desired vibration mode is excited during operation. The newly developed piezoelectric transformer is comprised of three layers: a multilayered input layer, an insulation layer, and a single output layer. The electrode shape of the input layer is derived from its structural vibration modal shape, which takes advantage of the orthogonal property of the vibration modes to achieve a full modal filtering effect. The insulation layer possesses two functions: first, to couple the mechanical vibration energy between the input and output, and second, to provide electrical insulation between the two layers. To meet the two functions, a low temperature, co-fired ceramic (LTCC) was used to provide the high mechanical rigidity and high electrical insulation. It can be shown that this newly developed piezoelectric transformer has the advantage of possessing a more efficient energy transfer and a wider optimal working frequency range when compared to traditional piezoelectric transformers. A multilayer piezoelectric, transformer-based inverter applicable for use in LCD monitors or portable displays is presented as well.

  9. Experimental modal tests applied to rotor balancing; Pruebas modales experimentales aplicadas al balanceo de rotores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Solis, Jose Antonio; Munoz Quezada, Rodolfo; Franco Nava, Jose Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1993-01-01

    At the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), the experimental modal tests were initiated in order to validate the numerical models used by computer programs for the study of the rotor dynamic behavior. In order to contribute to the application of the rotor balancing methods based in the calculation of their modal forms, currently the capacity to determine these modal forms and the natural frequencies of turbogenerator rotors, is being developed, through experimental modal tests. In this paper a short description is made of the technique and the results of its application in an experimental rotor and in one of the rotors of a turbogenerator, are presented. [Espanol] En el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), las pruebas modales experimentales se iniciaron con la finalidad de validar los modelos numericos empleados por programas de computo para el estudio del comportamiento dinamico de rotores. Con objeto de contribuir a la aplicacion de los metodos de balanceo de rotores basados en el calculo de sus formas modales, actualmente esta desarrollandose la capacidad para determinar esas formas modales y las frecuencias naturales de rotores de turbogeneradores, a traves de las pruebas modales experimentales. En este trabajo se describe brevemente la tecnica y se presentan los resultados de su aplicacion en un rotor experimental y en uno de los tres rotores de un turbogenerador.

  10. A new coalgebraic semantics for positive modal logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmigiano, A.

    2002-01-01

    Positive Modal Logic is the restriction of the modal local consequence relation defined by the class of all Kripke models to the propositional negation-free modal language. The class of positive modal algebras is the one canonically associated with PML according to the theory of Abstract Algebraic L

  11. EXPERIMENTAL MODAL ANALYSIS OF VISCO-ELASTICALLY DAMPED STRUCTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The form of the modal analysis of viscoelastically damped structures is simplified and this simplified form is similar to the form of the modal analysis of linear viscously damped structures. As a result of this simplified form, the experimental modal analysis methods of linear viscously damped structures are applied to the experimental modal analysis of viscoelastically damped structures.

  12. The Modality-Match Effect in Recognition Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Osborn, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    The modality-match effect in recognition refers to superior memory for words presented in the same modality at study and test. Prior research on this effect is ambiguous and inconsistent. The present study demonstrates that the modality-match effect is found when modality is rendered salient at either encoding or retrieval. Specifically, in…

  13. An Analysis of Modal Verbs in Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵阳

    2011-01-01

    Through classifying modal verbs from the semantic aspect and the pragmatic aspect, this paper discusses difficulties that students may encounter in modal verb learning. It indicates that modal verbs have complicacy, and a deductive approach and inductive approach should intermingle as an appropriate method to improve students’ accuracy in use of modal verbs.

  14. A cancer help centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, R

    1996-06-01

    The diagnosis of cancer can be shattering to all involved. The treatment of cancer is intense and often very challenging. Prevailing attitudes to cancer are sometimes fearful, negative and depressing. This combination may leave those affected by cancer shocked, disorientated and without hope. Even worse than this, on asking consultants 'What can I do to help myself?' patients are frequently told 'Absolutely nothing'--crushing in one fell swoop their remaining fighting spirit. Not so in the case of Penny Brohn, who, when faced with the diagnosis of breast cancer, travelled the world to find alternative cancer treatments, and having successfully brought her own cancer under control, dedicated her life to creating a Centre for others wishing to fight their disease.

  15. Modal Identification Using OMA Techniques: Nonlinearity Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on an assessment of the state of the art of operational modal analysis (OMA methodologies in estimating modal parameters from output responses of nonlinear structures. By means of the Volterra series, the nonlinear structure excited by random excitation is modeled as best linear approximation plus a term representing nonlinear distortions. As the nonlinear distortions are of stochastic nature and thus indistinguishable from the measurement noise, a protocol based on the use of the random phase multisine is proposed to reveal the accuracy and robustness of the linear OMA technique in the presence of the system nonlinearity. Several frequency- and time-domain based OMA techniques are examined for the modal identification of simulated and real nonlinear mechanical systems. Theoretical analyses are also provided to understand how the system nonlinearity degrades the performance of the OMA algorithms.

  16. Comparison of particle-radiation-therapy modalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of dose distribution, beam alignment, and radiobiological advantages accorded to high LET radiation were reviewed and compared for various particle beam radiotherapeutic modalities (neutron, Auger electrons, p, ..pi../sup -/, He, C, Ne, and Ar ions). Merit factors were evaluated on the basis of effective dose to tumor relative to normal tissue, linear energy transfer (LET), and dose localization, at depths of 1, 4, and 10 cm. In general, it was found that neutron capture therapy using an epithermal neutron beam provided the best merit factors available for depths up to 8 cm. The position of fast neutron therapy on the Merit Factor Tables was consistently lower than that of other particle modalities, and above only /sup 60/Co. The largest body of clinical data exists for fast neutron therapy; results are considered by some to be encouraging. It then follows that if benefits with fast neutron therapy are real, additional gains are within reach with other modalities.

  17. Applied modal analysis of wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, H.B.; Kristensen, O.J.D.

    2003-01-01

    In this project modal analysis has been used to determine the natural frequencies, damping and the mode shapes for wind turbine blades. Different methods to measure the position and adjust the direction of the measuring points are discussed. Differentequipment for mounting the accelerometers...... is investigated by repeated measurement on the same wind turbine blade. Furthermore the flexibility of the test set-up is investigated, by use ofaccelerometers mounted on the flexible adapter plate during the measurement campaign. One experimental campaign investigated the results obtained from a loaded...... and unloaded wind turbine blade. During this campaign the modal analysis are performed on ablade mounted in a horizontal and a vertical position respectively. Finally the results obtained from modal analysis carried out on a wind turbine blade are compared with results obtained from the Stig Øyes blade_EV1...

  18. Affirmation Modality in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Serbian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Grygiel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Affirmation Modality in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Serbian In the case of affirmation modality the speakers transform their utterances by stressing or attributing a positive value as an additional component added to the semantic structure of a proposition. This type of affirmative polarization is triggered in opposition to negation or hypothetically negative contexts. The goal of the present paper is twofold: on the one hand to compare and contrast affirmative periphrastic constructions in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Serbian and, on the other hand, to ascertain what these constructions reveal regarding the organization of grammatical categories in general and the status of affirmation modality as a coherent and homogenous category with a linguistic validity.

  19. Tumour Debulking for Esophageal Cancer - Thermal Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fleischer

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal cancer usually is discovered at a late stage and curative therapy seldom is possible. The prognosis is poor and most therapy is palliative. Endoscopic therapy commonly is employed; two common treatments involve thermal modalities. The Nd:YAG laser has been employed for 10 years and is effective in relieving obstruction in approximately 90% of cases. Re-ohstruction usually occurs in two to three months and repeat treatment may be necessary. Limitations to laser use include the fact that equipment is expensive and there are technical restrictions. An alternative thermal modality is the bipolar coagulation tumour probe which employs bipolar electrocoagulation. It is less expensive and, if the tumour is circumferential, tends to be easier to use. (It should not be used if the cancer is noncircumferential. The advantages and limitations of each modality are addressed.

  20. Evidentiality, Epistemic Modality, and Epistemic Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezeda Dilshatovna Shakirova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the interaction of evidentiality categories, typical of many Turkic, Finno-Ugric, Samoyed, certain Slavic, and other languages with the categories of epistemic modality, which is widely represented particularly in Germanic languages. The methodological framework of this study consists of the general philosophic, general scientific and private levels. The general philosophic methodology is based on the analytic philosophy, under the linguistic trend of which the language study was carried out to solve philosophic problems. The general scientific methodological bases of the study are related to the principle of identifying similarities and differences of the categories analyzed and the systematicity of description, whereas the descriptive method and techniques thereof are used primarily as the private-linguistic methods. In contrast to evidentiality, indicating the source of information, the epistemic modality marks different level of the information reliability. In the modern German language, the categories studied have a zone of intersection in terms of community within the means of expression, to which modal words and modal verbs as well as the verb scheinen can be primarily related. However, in the modern German language, there is no question of the category of evidentiality in the plane, within which it is currently being studied basing on the material of those languages, to the fragment of the grammatical system of which it is primarily inherent. As a rule, the semantics of evidentiality in these languages provides no information on the degree of reliability of the source of knowledge. To overcome the contradiction of such nature, this work suggests paying attention to the category of epistemic status of an utterance, the semantic structure of which is wider than evidentiality and epistemic modality and includes the level of reliability of the source of knowledge along with the designation thereof. In today's German

  1. Artificial Vision, New Visual Modalities and Neuroadaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmi Or

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the descriptions from which artificial vision derives, to explore the new visual modalities resulting from eye surgeries and diseases, and to gain awareness of the use of machine vision systems for both enhancement of visual perception and better understanding of neuroadaptation. Science could not define until today what vision is. However, some optical-based systems and definitions have been established considering some factors for the formation of seeing. The best known system includes Gabor filter and Gabor patch which work on edge perception, describing the visual perception in the best known way. These systems are used today in industry and technology of machines, robots and computers to provide their "seeing". These definitions are used beyond the machinery in humans for neuroadaptation in new visual modalities after some eye surgeries or to improve the quality of some already known visual modalities. Beside this, “the blindsight” -which was not known to exist until 35 years ago - can be stimulated with visual exercises. Gabor system is a description of visual perception definable in machine vision as well as in human visual perception. This system is used today in robotic vision. There are new visual modalities which arise after some eye surgeries or with the use of some visual optical devices. Also, blindsight is a different visual modality starting to be defined even though the exact etiology is not known. In all the new visual modalities, new vision stimulating therapies using the Gabor systems can be applied. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2012; 42: 61-5

  2. The helpfulness and timing of transition program education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Kathy L; Adamack, Monica; Janke, Robert; Gordon, Jason; Ghement, Isabella R

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between transition program education and new graduate nurse transition. Although new graduates preferred hands-on learning, the helpfulness of workshops was associated with better transition. New graduates, many of whom were from the Millennial Generation, liked a variety of educational modalities. Access to support was better for nurse graduates who received education delivered throughout the first year of transition.

  3. Operational modal analysis with non stationnary inputs

    OpenAIRE

    Gouache, Thibault; Morlier, Joseph; Michon, Guilhem; Coulange, Baptiste

    2013-01-01

    Operational modal analysis (OMA) techniques enable the use of in-situ and uncontrolled vibrations to be used to lead modal analysis of structures. In reality operational vibrations are a combination of numerous excitations sources that are much more complex than a random white noise or a harmonic. Numerous OMA techniques exist like SSI, NExT, FDD and BSS. All these methods are based on the fundamental hypothesis that the input or force applied to the structure to be analyzed is a stationary w...

  4. Nonoperative modalities to treat symptomatic cervical spondylosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hirpara, Kieran Michael

    2012-01-01

    Cervical spondylosis is a common and disabling condition. It is generally felt that the initial management should be nonoperative, and these modalities include physiotherapy, analgesia and selective nerve root injections. Surgery should be reserved for moderate to severe myelopathy patients who have failed a period of conservative treatment and patients whose symptoms are not adequately controlled by nonoperative means. A review of the literature supporting various modalities of conservative management is presented, and it is concluded that although effective, nonoperative treatment is labour intensive, requiring regular review and careful selection of medications and physical therapy on a case by case basis.

  5. Dorsal and ventral streams across sensory modalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Sedda; Federica Scarpina

    2012-01-01

    In this review,we describe the current models of dorsal and ventral streams in vision,audition and touch.Available theories take their first steps from the model of Milner and Goodale,which was developed to explain how human actions can be efficiently carried out using visual information.Since then,similar concepts have also been applied to other sensory modalities.We propose that advances in the knowledge of brain functioning can be achieved through models explaining action and perception patterns independently from sensory modalities.

  6. Finite Dynamic Elements and Modal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.J. Fergusson

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A general modal analysis scheme is derived for forced response that makes use of high accuracy modes computed by the dynamic element method. The new procedure differs from the usual modal analysis in that the modes are obtained from a power series expansion for the dynamic stiffness matrix that includes an extra dynamic correction term in addition to the static stiffness matrix and the consistent mass matrix based on static displacement. A cantilevered beam example is used to demonstrate the relative accuracies of the dynamic element and the traditional finite element methods.

  7. Laboratory evaluation of various cold therapy modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, W C; Liddle, S; Waugh, T R

    1978-01-01

    An attempt to evaluate the potential of four modalities to cool soft tissue mass has been done under laboratory conditions using canines. The cooling of deep soft tissues within the thigh after application of various cooling devices was recorded over a 60-min exposure period. Under these circumstances, ice performed best, a frozen gel pack performed in a parallel but slightly less efficient manner. Two other modalities, an inflatable bladder filled with refrigerant gas and an endothermic chemical reaction, were least efficient in cooling.

  8. A Qualitative Assessment of Mismatch Between Dialysis Modality Selection and Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziolkowski, Susan; Liebman, Scott

    2016-01-01

    At our institution, we have noted that end-stage renal disease patients choosing a home dialysis modality after education often initiate renal replacement therapy with in-center hemodialysis (HD) instead. We interviewed 24 such patients (23 choosing peritoneal dialysis [PD], one choosing home HD) to determine reasons for this mismatch. The most common reasons cited for not starting home dialysis were: lack of confidence/concerns about complications, lack of space or home-related issues, a feeling of insufficient education, and perceived medical or social contraindications. We propose several potential strategies to help patients start with their preferred modality.

  9. A social perceptual approach to freight transport modal choice

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, R.

    1990-01-01

    This research develops a conceptual model of freight modal choice in which the basic unit of analysis is the socio-organisational group. Research into freight modal choice at the level of the firm has tended to disregard the nature of human choice and to assume that modal choice can be explained in terms of technological phenomena or cost relationships. There is also a tendency to equate the modal choice of organisational members with the modal use of firms. The approa...

  10. The origin of human multi-modal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Stephen C; Holler, Judith

    2014-09-19

    One reason for the apparent gulf between animal and human communication systems is that the focus has been on the presence or the absence of language as a complex expressive system built on speech. But language normally occurs embedded within an interactional exchange of multi-modal signals. If this larger perspective takes central focus, then it becomes apparent that human communication has a layered structure, where the layers may be plausibly assigned different phylogenetic and evolutionary origins--especially in the light of recent thoughts on the emergence of voluntary breathing and spoken language. This perspective helps us to appreciate the different roles that the different modalities play in human communication, as well as how they function as one integrated system despite their different roles and origins. It also offers possibilities for reconciling the 'gesture-first hypothesis' with that of gesture and speech having evolved together, hand in hand--or hand in mouth, rather--as one system. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Word spelling assessment using ICT: The effect of presentation modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menelaos Sarris

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Up-to-date spelling process was assessed using typical spelling-to-dictation tasks, wherechildren’s performance was evaluated mainly in terms of spelling error scores. In the presentwork a simple graphical computer interface is reported, aiming to investigate the effects ofinput modality (e.g. visual and verbal in word spelling. The software was constructed withthe view to measuring both spelling error and production time scores. The main purpose wasto not only to examine spelling strategies used by primary school children, but also to provideeducators with a useful tool that incorporates ICT technology. Within this framework, teacherscould exploit the benefits of computerised spelling assessment and adjust their teachingmethods towards a more effective approach of helping children master spelling skills. Theresults indicate that the presentation format has no impact on accessing abstract wordrepresentations, yet it accounts for variations in both time production scores and spellingerrors. Spelling in Greek, albeit being a relatively consistent orthographic writing system,seems to pose difficulties to young spellers. Our data suggest that the particularities of theGreek orthography may need to be tackled using other than the standard spelling-to-dictationtask used in primary schools. Computer-assisted teaching methods could exploit theirflexibility in presenting different input modalities and therefore serve as a useful tool inteaching spelling.

  12. MODAL CONTROL OF PILOTLESS FLYING MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Antanevich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem on synthesis of lateral movement control algorithms in a pilotless flying machine which is made on the basis of a modal control method providing a required root arrangement of a characteristic closed control system polynom. Results of the modeling at stabilization of a lateral pilotless flying machine co-ordinate are presented in the paper.

  13. On the Bicriterion Multi Modal Assignment Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Roed; Nielsen, L.R.; Andersen, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the bicriterion multi modal assignment problem which is a new generalization of the classical linear assignment problem. A two-phase solution method using an effective ranking scheme is presented. The algorithm is valid for generating all nondominated criterion points...

  14. Established rheumatoid arthritis - new imaging modalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQueen, Fiona M; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2007-01-01

    New imaging modalities are assuming an increasingly important role in the investigation and management of rheumatoid arthritis. It is now possible to obtain information about all tissues within the joint in three dimensions using tomographic techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI...

  15. Refinement Checking on Parametric Modal Transition Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benes, Nikola; Kretínsky, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2015-01-01

    Modal transition systems (MTS) is a well-studied specification formalism of reactive systems supporting a step-wise refinement methodology. Despite its many advantages, the formalism as well as its currently known extensions are incapable of expressing some practically needed aspects in the refin...

  16. Operational modal analysis by updating autoregressive model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, V. H.; Thomas, M.; Lakis, A. A.; Marcouiller, L.

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents improvements of a multivariable autoregressive (AR) model for applications in operational modal analysis considering simultaneously the temporal response data of multi-channel measurements. The parameters are estimated by using the least squares method via the implementation of the QR factorization. A new noise rate-based factor called the Noise rate Order Factor (NOF) is introduced for use in the effective selection of model order and noise rate estimation. For the selection of structural modes, an orderwise criterion called the Order Modal Assurance Criterion (OMAC) is used, based on the correlation of mode shapes computed from two successive orders. Specifically, the algorithm is updated with respect to model order from a small value to produce a cost-effective computation. Furthermore, the confidence intervals of each natural frequency, damping ratio and mode shapes are also computed and evaluated with respect to model order and noise rate. This method is thus very effective for identifying the modal parameters in case of ambient vibrations dealing with modern output-only modal analysis. Simulations and discussions on a steel plate structure are presented, and the experimental results show good agreement with the finite element analysis.

  17. Established rheumatoid arthritis - new imaging modalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McQueen, Fiona M; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2007-01-01

    New imaging modalities are assuming an increasingly important role in the investigation and management of rheumatoid arthritis. It is now possible to obtain information about all tissues within the joint in three dimensions using tomographic techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI...

  18. Conventional and unconventional surgical modalities for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pain in 20 (57%) patients. It was followed by jaundice in. 16 (45%) patients, fever, nausea, and vomiting in 10. (28.5%) ... Department of Pediatric Surgery, CSM Medical University (Erstwhile King ... phosphatase) were assessed at that time and after 2 .... Table 3 Surgical modalities used for the treatment of choledochal cyst.

  19. Plantar fasciitis: current diagnostic modalities and treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Kevin; Chen, Katherine

    2010-07-01

    Plantar fasciitis is a common cause of heel pain. The diagnosis is made clinically and validated with different diagnostic modalities ranging from ultrasound to magnetic resonance imaging. Treatments vary from stretching exercises to different surgical options. No single treatment is guaranteed to alleviate the heel pain.

  20. Multi modal child-to-child interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Tine Basse

    In this presentation the interaction and relation of three boys is analyzed using multi modal analysis. The analysis clearly, and surprisingly demonstrates that the boys interact via different modes and that they are able to handle several interaction partners at the same time. They co-construct ...

  1. Refinement Checking on Parametric Modal Transition Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benes, Nikola; Kretínsky, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2015-01-01

    Modal transition systems (MTS) is a well-studied specification formalism of reactive systems supporting a step-wise refinement methodology. Despite its many advantages, the formalism as well as its currently known extensions are incapable of expressing some practically needed aspects in the refin...

  2. Regularity Re-Revisited: Modality Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapkini, Kyrana; Jarema, Gonia; Kehayia, Eva

    2004-01-01

    The issue of regular-irregular past tense formation was examined in a cross-modal lexical decision task in Modern Greek, a language where the orthographic and phonological overlap between present and past tense stems is the same for both regular and irregular verbs. The experiment described here is a follow-up study of previous visual lexical…

  3. Estimation of Modal Parameters and their Uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P.; Brincker, Rune

    1999-01-01

    In this paper it is shown how to estimate the modal parameters as well as their uncertainties using the prediction error method of a dynamic system on the basis of uotput measurements only. The estimation scheme is assessed by means of a simulation study. As a part of the introduction, an example...

  4. Multi modal child-to-child interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Tine Basse

    In this presentation the interaction and relation of three boys is analyzed using multi modal analysis. The analysis clearly, and surprisingly demonstrates that the boys interact via different modes and that they are able to handle several interaction partners at the same time. They co-construct ...

  5. Disentangling Linguistic Modality Effects in Semantic Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moita, Mara; Nunes, Maria Vânia

    2017-01-01

    Sensory systems are essential for perceiving and conceptualizing our semantic knowledge about the world and the way we interact with it. Despite studies reporting neural changes to compensate for the absence of a given sensory modality, studies focusing on the assessment of semantic processing reveal poor performances by deaf individuals when…

  6. Sensor Placement for Modal Parameter Subset Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Bernal, Dionisio; Damkilde, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The present paper proposes an approach for deciding on sensor placements in the context of modal parameter estimation from vibration measurements. The approach is based on placing sensors, of which the amount is determined a priori, such that the minimum Fisher information that the frequency resp...

  7. Modal decomposition without a priori scale information

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schulze, C

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The modal decomposition of an arbitrary optical field may be done without regard to the spatial scale of the chosen basis functions, but this generally leads to a large number of modes in the expansion. While this may be considered as mathematically...

  8. New functional imaging modalities for chromaffin tumors, neuroblastomas and ganglioneuromas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilias, Ioannis; Shulkin, Barry; Pacak, Karel

    2005-03-01

    Nuclear medicine modalities use radiolabeled ligands that either follow metabolic pathways or act on cellular receptors. Thus, they permit functional imaging of physiological processes and help to localize sites such as tumors that harbor pathological events. The application of positron emission tomography (PET) ligands to the specific pathways of synthesis, metabolism and inactivation of catecholamines found in chromaffin tumors, neuroblastomas and ganglioneuromas can be used to provide a more thorough localization of these types of tumor. Recent advances have been made in functional imaging to localize pheochromocytomas, paragangliomas, neuroblastomas and ganglioneuromas, including approaches based on PET with [(18)F]fluorodopamine, [(18)F]fluorohydroxyphenylalanine, [(11)C]epinephrine or [(11)C]hydroxyephedrine. Such functional imaging can complement computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging and other scintigraphic techniques to localize these tumors before surgical or medical therapeutic approaches are considered.

  9. Imaging Modalities to Identity Inflammation in an Atherosclerotic Plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Goel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, multifocal arterial wall disease caused by local and systemic inflammation responsible for major cardiovascular complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. With the recent understanding that vulnerable plaque erosion and rupture, with subsequent thrombosis, rather than luminal stenosis, is the underlying cause of acute ischemic events, there has been a shift of focus to understand the mechanisms that make an atherosclerotic plaque unstable or vulnerable to rupture. The presence of inflammation in the atherosclerotic plaque has been considered as one of the initial events which convert a stable plaque into an unstable and vulnerable plaque. This paper systemically reviews the noninvasive and invasive imaging modalities that are currently available to detect this inflammatory process, at least in the intermediate stages, and discusses the ongoing studies that will help us to better understand and identify it at the molecular level.

  10. Dual-Modality PET/Ultrasound imaging of the Prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Jennifer S.; Moses, William W.; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I.C.

    2005-11-11

    Functional imaging with positron emission tomography (PET)will detect malignant tumors in the prostate and/or prostate bed, as well as possibly help determine tumor ''aggressiveness''. However, the relative uptake in a prostate tumor can be so great that few other anatomical landmarks are visible in a PET image. Ultrasound imaging with a transrectal probe provides anatomical detail in the prostate region that can be co-registered with the sensitive functional information from the PET imaging. Imaging the prostate with both PET and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) will help determine the location of any cancer within the prostate region. This dual-modality imaging should help provide better detection and treatment of prostate cancer. LBNL has built a high performance positron emission tomograph optimized to image the prostate.Compared to a standard whole-body PET camera, our prostate-optimized PET camera has the same sensitivity and resolution, less backgrounds and lower cost. We plan to develop the hardware and software tools needed for a validated dual PET/TRUS prostate imaging system. We also plan to develop dual prostate imaging with PET and external transabdominal ultrasound, in case the TRUS system is too uncomfortable for some patients. We present the design and intended clinical uses for these dual imaging systems.

  11. Placement of sensors in operational modal analysis for truss bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, N.; Dutta, A.; Deb, S. K.

    2012-08-01

    A modal approach is considered for sensor placement evaluation in operational modal analysis (OMA) where modal participation at individual degree of freedom (DOF) is evaluated separately for the target modes and subsequently locations are identified using these participation profiles. Modal contribution in output energy (MCOE) is proposed as modal measure to evaluate modal participation and has been applied in this modal approach framework for sensor placement evaluation. MCOE is evaluated using observability grammian for any types of response measurement (displacement, velocity or acceleration), while a system is released from any initial condition. Further, existing modal measures e.g. modal Hankel singular value (MHSV) and system norms (H2, H∞ and Hankel) are explained in perspective of OMA. To understand the efficiency of this proposed technique, MCOE is compared in terms of modal participation with existing modal measures as well as with other techniques like effective independence (EI) and modal kinetic energy (MKE). Analytical similarity is found for participation of a mode with EI method. Further, an existing large truss bridge structure is considered for comparative study based on modal participation of individual target modes along each DOF with acceleration measurement. In this comparison, MCOE technique is found to be in very good agreement with EI method as expected, while good agreement is observed with MHSV as well as norms and reasonable agreement with MKE method. Further, the adopted modal approach uses a flexible and insightful methodology for sensor location evaluation for multiple target modes.

  12. Modal density and modal distribution of bending wave vibration fields in ribbed plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens; Brunskog, Jonas; Ohlrich, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    Plates reinforced by ribs or joists are common elements in lightweight building structures, as well as in other engineering structures such as vehicles, ships, and aircraft. These structures, however, are often not well suited for simple structural acoustic prediction models such as statistical...... energy analysis. One reason is that the modal density is not uniformly distributed due to the spatial periodicity introduced by the ribs. This phenomenon is investigated in the present paper, using a modal model of a ribbed plate. The modal model uses the Fourier sine modes, and the coupling between...... the plate and ribs is incorporated using Hamilton's principle. This model is then used to investigate the modal density of the considered spatially periodic structure, and a grouping of the modes in different dominating directions is proposed. Suggestions are also given regarding how to proceed towards...

  13. Modal Testing of Mechanical Structures Subject to Operational Excitation Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, N.; Brincker, Rune; Herlufsen, H.;

    2000-01-01

    Operational Modal Analysis also known as Output Only Modal Analysis has in the recent years been used for extracting modal parameters of civil engineering structures and is now becoming popular for mechanical structures. The advantage of the method is that no artificial excitation need...... to the Operational Modal Analysis. For Operational Modal Analysis two different estimation techniques are used: a non-parametric technique based on Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD), and a parametric technique working on the raw data in time domain, a data driven Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI) algorithm....... These are compared to other methods such as traditional Modal Analysis....

  14. Automated Modal Parameter Estimation for Operational Modal Analysis of Large Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Brincker, Rune; Goursat, Maurice;

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the problems of doing automatic modal parameter extraction and how to account for large number of data to process are considered. Two different approaches for obtaining the modal parameters automatically using OMA are presented: The Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) technique and...... and a correlation-driven Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI) technique. Special attention is given to the problem of data reduction, where many sensors are available. Finally, the techniques are demonstrated on real data....

  15. Exploring the discourse on communication modality after cochlear implantation: a Foucauldian analysis of parents' narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruin, Marieke; Nevøy, Anne

    2014-07-01

    After pediatric cochlear implantation, parents have to make decisions concerning which communication modality the child and the child's family will use. The choice has to be made against a background of opposing views on communication modality in follow-up after pediatric cochlear implantation. The opposing views form a discourse that has been a core issue in the international body of literature for a long time. For hearing parents caught up in this ongoing controversy, the choice can be a difficult one. The study reported in this article explores the discourse on communication modality and is based on 27 written parental accounts on experiences with follow-up. From the perspective of Foucault's thinking, discourses exert knowledge and power. Drawing on Foucault, the study explores how the discourse on communication modality is constructed, how it operates, and how it governs thinking and acting. The Foucauldian analysis brings to the fore the complex nature of the discourse and states that follow-up, which is intended to be helpful for parents, may induce insecurity and frustration. The study brings into conversation a broader understanding of the discourse on communication modality and addresses a need for increased awareness on how the discourse governs thinking and acting in follow-up.

  16. Modal Identification of A Tested Steel Frame using Linear ARX Model Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Kaya

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study contains the identification of modal dynamic properties of a 3-story large-scale steel test frame structure through shaking table measurements. Shaking table test is carried out to estimate the modal properties of the test frame such as natural frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes. Among many different model structures, ARX (Auto Recursive Exogenous model structure is used for modal identification of the frame structure system. The unknown parameters in the obtained ARX model structure are estimated by Least-Square method by minimizing the AIC criteria with the help of a program coded in advanced computing software MATLAB®. The adopted model structure is then tested out in time domain to verify the validity of the model with the selected model parameters. Then the modal characteristics of test frame and the story stiffness are estimated using the white noise shakings. An attempt is done to determine the change of modal characteristics and the story stiffness of test frame according to the velocity, which the test frame structure experienced during the shaking schedule and also during the input shaking of El Centro 1940 NS. Results shows that there is an increase in damping ratio and a decrease in both story stiffness and natural frequency for all modes when the damage forms at cementitious device and the test frame structure itself during the shaking schedule.

  17. Upregulation of barrel GABAergic neurons is associated with cross-modal plasticity in olfactory deficit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Ni

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Loss of a sensory function is often followed by the hypersensitivity of other modalities in mammals, which secures them well-awareness to environmental changes. Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying cross-modal sensory plasticity remain to be documented. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Multidisciplinary approaches, such as electrophysiology, behavioral task and immunohistochemistry, were used to examine the involvement of specific types of neurons in cross-modal plasticity. We have established a mouse model that olfactory deficit leads to a whisking upregulation, and studied how GABAergic neurons are involved in this cross-modal plasticity. In the meantime of inducing whisker tactile hypersensitivity, the olfactory injury recruits more GABAergic neurons and their fine processes in the barrel cortex, as well as upregulates their capacity of encoding action potentials. The hyperpolarization driven by inhibitory inputs strengthens the encoding ability of their target cells. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The upregulation of GABAergic neurons and the functional enhancement of neuronal networks may play an important role in cross-modal sensory plasticity. This finding provides the clues for developing therapeutic approaches to help sensory recovery and substitution.

  18. Supervised Cross-Modal Factor Analysis for Multiple Modal Data Classification

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jingbin

    2015-10-09

    In this paper we study the problem of learning from multiple modal data for purpose of document classification. In this problem, each document is composed two different modals of data, i.e., An image and a text. Cross-modal factor analysis (CFA) has been proposed to project the two different modals of data to a shared data space, so that the classification of a image or a text can be performed directly in this space. A disadvantage of CFA is that it has ignored the supervision information. In this paper, we improve CFA by incorporating the supervision information to represent and classify both image and text modals of documents. We project both image and text data to a shared data space by factor analysis, and then train a class label predictor in the shared space to use the class label information. The factor analysis parameter and the predictor parameter are learned jointly by solving one single objective function. With this objective function, we minimize the distance between the projections of image and text of the same document, and the classification error of the projection measured by hinge loss function. The objective function is optimized by an alternate optimization strategy in an iterative algorithm. Experiments in two different multiple modal document data sets show the advantage of the proposed algorithm over other CFA methods.

  19. Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure Page Content Article Body Teens are more likely ... time they had intercourse. Helping Teens Resist Sexual Pressure “The pressure on teenagers to have sex is ...

  20. Tourette Syndrome: Help Stop Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button Past Emails Tourette Syndrome: Help Stop Bullying Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... you can increase acceptance by helping to stop bullying of children with TS. Bullying doesn't just ...

  1. Yoga May Help Ease Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167586.html Yoga May Help Ease Depression It's not a cure- ... HealthDay News) -- If you've ever taken a yoga class, you probably know that it can help ...

  2. Exercises to help prevent falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000493.htm Exercises to help prevent falls To use the sharing features on this page, ... even more serious injuries. Exercising can help prevent falls because it can: Make your muscles stronger and ...

  3. Testosterone Substitution: Current Modalities and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zitzmann M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical picture of male hypogonadism is associated with typical symptoms, such as disturbances of mood and cognitive abilities as well as sexual functions; furtheron, a decrease in muscle mass and strength, an accumulation of body fat and osteopenia/osteoporosis are observed. There are indications that insulin sensitivity is mitigated in a state of androgen depletion. In older men, symptoms of androgen deficiency (late-onset hypogonadism may exhibit a differential profile due to accompanying other chronic illnesses. Restoring serum testosterone levels by replacement therapy can markedly attenuate, if not relieve, the clinical picture of hypogonadism. Recently, new treatment modalities have been introduced, which include short-acting transdermal or buccal modalities as well as the long-acting depot preparation of testosterone undecanoate. This review summarises the pathways of diagnosis of male hypogonadism and discusses the various modern methods of initiation and surveillance of testosterone substitution therapy. Future perspectives regarding pharmacogenetic aspects are discussed.

  4. Model Design of Piezoelectric Micromachined Modal Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Hu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a novel kind of solid-state microgyroscope, which is called piezoelectric micromachined modal gyroscope (PMMG. PMMG has large stiffness and robust resistance to shake and strike because there is no evident mass-spring component in its structure. This work focused on quantitative optimization of the gyroscope, which is still blank for such gyroscope. The modal analysis by the finite element method (FEM was firstly conducted. A set of quantitative indicators were developed to optimize the operation mode. By FEM, the harmonic analysis was conducted to find the way to efficiently actuate the operational mode needed. The optimal configuration of driving electrodes was obtained. At last, the Coriolis analysis was conducted to show the relation between angular velocity and differential output voltage by the Coriolis force under working condition. The results obtained in this paper provide theoretical basis for realizing this novel kind of micromachined gyroscope.

  5. Modal liquid crystal array of optical elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algorri, J F; Love, G D; Urruchi, V

    2013-10-21

    In this study, a novel liquid crystal array based on modal control principle is proposed and demonstrated. The advanced device comprises a six striped electrode structure that forms a configurable 2D matrix of optical elements. A simulation program based on the Frank-Oseen equations and modal control theory has been developed to predict the device electrooptic response, that is, voltage distribution, interference pattern and unwrapped phase. A low-power electronics circuit, that generates complex waveforms, has been built for driving the device. A combined variation of the waveform amplitude and phase has provided a high tuning versatility to the device. Thus, the simulations have demonstrated the generation of a liquid crystal prism array with tunable slope. The proposed device has also been configured as an axicon array. Test measurements have allowed us to demonstrate that electrooptic responses, simulated and empirical, are fairly in agreement.

  6. Deception Detection, Transmission, & Modality in Age & Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Dorothy Sweeney

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first to create and use spontaneous (i.e. unrehearsed pro-social lies in an ecological setting. Creation of the stimuli involved fifty-one older adult and forty-four college student senders who lied authentically in that their lies were spontaneous in the service of protecting a research assistant. In the main study, seventy-seven older adult and eighty-four college raters attempted to detect lies in the older adult and college senders in three modalities: audio, visual, and audiovisual. Raters of both age groups were best at detecting lies in the audiovisual and worst in the visual modalities. Overall, college students were better detectors than older adults. There was an age-matching effect for college students but not for older adults. Older adult males were the hardest to detect. The older the adult was the worse the ability to detect deception.

  7. Modal analysis of wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Hansen, M.H.; Baumgart, A.

    2002-01-01

    The modal analysis technique has been used to identify essential dynamic properties of wind turbine blades like natural frequencies, damping characteristics and mode shapes. Different experimental procedures have been considered, and the most appropriateof these has been selected. Although...... the comparison is based on measurements on a LM 19 m blade, the recommendations given are believed to be valid for other wind turbine blades as well. The reliability of the selected experimental analysis has beenquantified by estimating the unsystematic variations in the experimental findings. Satisfactory....... The experimental analysis of the LM 19 m blade has been compared with results from a state-of-the-art FE-modeling ofthe same blade. For some of the higher modes substantial discrepancies between the natural frequencies originating from the FE-modeling and the modal analysis, respectively, are observed. In general...

  8. Microchannel plate modal gain variations with temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, David C.; Timothy, J. G.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the modal gain of two high-gain curved-channel microchannel plates (MCPs) at various operating temperatures are presented. Both MCPs were fabricated from the Long Life glass with 12-micron diam channels on 15-micron centers. The modal gain was found to decrease with increasing temperature at a rate of -0.1 percent C. This reduction of gain with temperature is attributed primarily to an axial temperature gradient along each MCP channel creating a nonuniform electric field within the channel that lowers the effective output gain. A lowering of the secondary electron yield resulting from increased phonon scattering of secondary electrons released within the walls of the MCP channels was assessed, but was found to have a negligible contribution to the drop in gain with temperature.

  9. Treatment modalities for early gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jesús; Espinel; Eugenia; Pinedo; Vanesa; Ojeda; Maria; Guerra; del; Rio

    2015-01-01

    Different treatment modalities have been proposed in the treatment of early gastric cancer(EGC). Endoscopic resection(ER) is an established treatment that allows curative treatment, in selected cases. In addition, ER allows for an accurate histological staging, which is crucial when deciding on the best treatment option for EGC. Recently, endoscopic mucosal resection(EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection(ESD) have become alternatives to surgery in early gastric cancer, mainly in Asian countries. Patients with "standard" criteria can be successfully treated by EMR techniques. Those who meet "expanded" criteria may benefit from treatment by ESD, reducing the need for surgery. Standardized ESD training system is imperative to promulgate effective and safe ESD technique to practices with limited expertise. Although endoscopic resection is an option in patients with EGC, surgical treatment continues to be a widespread therapeutic option worldwide. In this review we tried to point out the treatment modalities for early gastric cancer.

  10. Fluidotherapy: evaluation of a new heat modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, R M; Henley, E J; Ho, P; Hubbell, M K

    1977-02-01

    The development of a new heat therapy modality (fluidotherapy) consisting of a bed of solid particles suspended in air is reported. Measurements of time integrated heat absorption by a hand immersed in the fluidotherapy unit at 120F (48.9C), a whirlpool at 105.2F, and a paraffin bath at 126F show the average heat absorption to be 17.2, 5.6 and 4.8 BTU respectively during a 15-minute treatment.

  11. Operational Modal Analysis using Expectation Maximization Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Cara Cañas, Francisco Javier; Carpio Huertas, Jaime; Juan Ruiz, Jesús; Alarcón Álvarez, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a time-domain stochastic system identification method based on Maximum Likelihood Estimation and the Expectation Maximization algorithm. The effectiveness of this structural identification method is evaluated through numerical simulation in the context of the ASCE benchmark problem on structural health monitoring. Modal parameters (eigenfrequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes) of the benchmark structure have been estimated applying the proposed identification method...

  12. Some Elements of Operational Modal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rune Brincker

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the main components of operational modal analysis (OMA) and can serve as a tutorial for research oriented OMA applications. The paper gives a short introduction to the modeling of random responses and to the transforms often used in OMA such as the Fourier series, the Fourier integral, the Laplace transform, and the Z-transform. Then the paper introduces the spectral density matrix of the random responses and presents the theoretical solutions for correlation f...

  13. Modal approximations to damped linear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Veseli/'c, K

    2009-01-01

    We consider a finite dimensional damped second order system and obtain spectral inclusion theorems for the related quadratic eigenvalue problem. The inclusion sets are the 'quasi Cassini ovals' which may greatly outperform standard Gershgorin circles. As the unperturbed system we take a modally damped part of the system; this includes the known proportionally damped models, but may give much sharper estimates. These inclusions are then applied to derive some easily calculable sufficient conditions for the overdampedness of a given damped system.

  14. Multi-Modal Interaction for Robotic Mules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-26

    Multi-Modal Interaction for Robotic Mules Glenn Taylor, Mike Quist , Matt Lanting, Cory Dunham, Patrick Theisen, Paul Muench Abstract...Taylor, Mike Quist , Matt Lanting, Cory Dunham, and Patrick Theisen are with Soar Technology, Inc. (corresponding author: 734-887- 7620; email: glenn...soartech.com; quist @soartech.com; matt.lanting@soartech.com; dunham@soartech.com; patrick.theisen@soartech.com Paul Muench is with US Army TARDEC

  15. Gingival prosthesis: A treatment modality for recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Samatha Yalamanchili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival recession caused due to periodontal disease disturbs patients because of sensitivity and esthetics. Gingival prosthesis may be fixed or removable and can be made from silicones, acrylics, composite resins or ceramics according to what is best suited for the case. The gingival veneer is esthetically appealing and easy to maintain. This case report describes the use of gingival veneer as a treatment modality for recession.

  16. Gingival prosthesis: A treatment modality for recession

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi Samatha Yalamanchili; Hemchand Surapaneni; Arunima Padmakumar Reshmarani

    2013-01-01

    Gingival recession caused due to periodontal disease disturbs patients because of sensitivity and esthetics. Gingival prosthesis may be fixed or removable and can be made from silicones, acrylics, composite resins or ceramics according to what is best suited for the case. The gingival veneer is esthetically appealing and easy to maintain. This case report describes the use of gingival veneer as a treatment modality for recession.

  17. Nondestructive Damage Detection Based on Modal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Plachý

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Three studies of damage identification and localization based on methods using experimentally estimated modal characteristics are presented. The results of an experimental investigation of simple structural elements (three RC-beams and three RC-slabs obtained in the laboratory are compared with the results obtained on a real structure (a composite bridge – a concrete deck supported by steel girders in situ. 

  18. Aspectos particularistas en el discurso modal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel PÉREZ OTERO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Según el particularismo semántico modal la función referencial de los términos singulares —también cuando aparecen en enunciados modales— es irreducible mediante funciones descriptivas y lógicas. Kripke es quien ha defendido vigorosamente esa tesis; elucidamos en ese sentido su rechazo a cierta interpretación metafórica de los mundos posibles como lugares lejanos vistos con telescopios.

  19. A method for experimental modal separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallauer, W. L., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for the numerical simulation of multiple-shaker modal survey testing using simulated experimental data to optimize the shaker force-amplitude distribution for the purpose of isolating individual modes of vibration. Inertia, damping, stiffness, and model data are stored on magnetic disks, available by direct access to the interactive FORTRAN programs which perform all computations required by this relative force amplitude distribution method.

  20. Tri-modality small animal imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, B.K.; Stolin, A.V.; Pole, J.; Baumgart, L.; Fontaine, M.; Wojcik, R.; Kross, B.; Zorn, C.; Majewski, S.; Williams, M.B.

    2006-02-01

    Our group is developing a scanner that combines x-ray, single gamma, and optical imaging on the same rotating gantry. Two functional modalities (SPECT and optical) are included because they have different strengths and weaknesses in terms of spatial and temporal decay lengths in the context of in vivo imaging, and because of the recent advent of multiple reporter gene constructs. The effect of attenuation by biological tissue on the detected intensity of the emitted signal was measured for both gamma and optical imaging. Attenuation by biological tissue was quantified for both the bioluminescent emission of luciferace and for the emission light of the near infrared fluorophore cyanine 5.5, using a fixed excitation light intensity. Experiments were performed to test the feasibility of using either single gamma or x-ray imaging to make depth-dependent corrections to the measured optical signal. Our results suggest that significant improvements in quantitation of optical emission are possible using straightforward correction techniques based on information from other modalities. Development of an integrated scanner in which data from each modality are obtained with the animal in a common configuration will greatly simplify this process.

  1. Generating a lexicon of Scandinavian modals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Morphology and phonology can in many cases be used to figure out which words correspond to which in Scandinavian. For instance, it is rather easy to figure out which Norwegian personal pronoun corresponds to which in Danish, and even Icelandic or Faroese. However, when it comes to prepositions and modal verbs we cannot rely on morphology or phonology alone. For example, Norwegian and Danish måtte do not always have the same meaning, and similarly, Icelandic vilja is not used as the future modal as Norwegian and Danish ville is. Instead of relying on morphology or phonology, we can use parallel corpora. Unfortunately, there are not many parallel corpora that include all of the Scandinavian languages, and those that exist are maybe not large enough to give reliable results. Nevertheless, to get a picture of what it could look like, the Danish, Faroese, Icelandic, Norwegian, Swedish, and English parts of a small treebank, The Sophie Treebank, were used to find out which modal verbs correspond to which in the various languages.

  2. New biometric modalities using internal physical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, Juliana (Brooks)

    2010-04-01

    Biometrics is described as the science of identifying people based on physical characteristics such as their fingerprints, facial features, hand geometry, iris patterns, palm prints, or speech recognition. Notably, all of these physical characteristics are visible or detectable from the exterior of the body. These external characteristics can be lifted, photographed, copied or recorded for unauthorized access to a biometric system. Individual humans are unique internally, however, just as they are unique externally. New biometric modalities have been developed which identify people based on their unique internal characteristics. For example, "BoneprintsTM" use acoustic fields to scan the unique bone density pattern of a thumb pressed on a small acoustic sensor. Thanks to advances in piezoelectric materials the acoustic sensor can be placed in virtually any device such as a steering wheel, door handle, or keyboard. Similarly, "Imp-PrintsTM" measure the electrical impedance patterns of a hand to identify or verify a person's identity. Small impedance sensors can be easily embedded in devices such as smart cards, handles, or wall mounts. These internal biometric modalities rely on physical characteristics which are not visible or photographable, providing an added level of security. In addition, both the acoustic and impedance methods can be combined with physiologic measurements such as acoustic Doppler or impedance plethysmography, respectively. Added verification that the biometric pattern came from a living person can be obtained. These new biometric modalities have the potential to allay user concerns over protection of privacy, while providing a higher level of security.*

  3. Survival by Dialysis Modality-Who Cares?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Martin B; Bargman, Joanne M

    2016-06-01

    In light of the recent emphasis on patient-centered outcomes and quality of life for patients with kidney disease, we contend that the nephrology community should no longer fund, perform, or publish studies that compare survival by dialysis modality. These studies have become redundant; they are methodologically limited, unhelpful in practice, and therefore a waste of resources. More than two decades of these publications show similar survival between patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis and those receiving thrice-weekly conventional hemodialysis, with differences only for specific subgroups. In clinical practice, modality choice should be individualized with the aim of maximizing quality of life, patient-reported outcomes, and achieving patient-centered goals. Expected survival is often irrelevant to modality choice. Even for the younger and fitter home hemodialysis population, quality of life, not just duration of survival, is a major priority. On the other hand, increasing evidence suggests that patients with ESRD continue to experience poor quality of life because of high symptom burden, unsolved clinical problems, and unmet needs. Patients care more about how they will live instead of how long. It is our responsibility to align our research with their needs. Only by doing so can we meet the challenges of ESRD patient care in the coming decades.

  4. Bi-Modal Methods: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunji K. A

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Various security challenges such as Boko Haram, theft, kidnapping, ISIL, abduction, and so on have been on a high rise as one of the major menace facing our society today. In order to overcome these challenges there is need for identification of the culprits to bring them to book. Uni-modal biometric is not enough to combat these security challenges because of its shortcomings which include- spoof attach, noise in the sensed data, inter class variation and so on. Combining two or more biometric features (bi-modal has been proved to provide better performance than uni-modal biometric approach for authentication and verification. This paper presents some literature on biometrics systems that can be employed in achieving a better accuracy in authentication and verification of biometric features. Different kind of fusion strategies to combine these characteristics, different available classifiers and fusion methodologies to achieve greater and accurate recognition performance were also discussed. It is hopeful that researchers in the area of biometrics will find this work very useful.

  5. Imaging Breast Density: Established and Emerging Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon-Hor Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mammographic density has been proven as an independent risk factor for breast cancer. Women with dense breast tissue visible on a mammogram have a much higher cancer risk than women with little density. A great research effort has been devoted to incorporate breast density into risk prediction models to better estimate each individual’s cancer risk. In recent years, the passage of breast density notification legislation in many states in USA requires that every mammography report should provide information regarding the patient’s breast density. Accurate definition and measurement of breast density are thus important, which may allow all the potential clinical applications of breast density to be implemented. Because the two-dimensional mammography-based measurement is subject to tissue overlapping and thus not able to provide volumetric information, there is an urgent need to develop reliable quantitative measurements of breast density. Various new imaging technologies are being developed. Among these new modalities, volumetric mammographic density methods and three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging are the most well studied. Besides, emerging modalities, including different x-ray–based, optical imaging, and ultrasound-based methods, have also been investigated. All these modalities may either overcome some fundamental problems related to mammographic density or provide additional density and/or compositional information. The present review article aimed to summarize the current established and emerging imaging techniques for the measurement of breast density and the evidence of the clinical use of these density methods from the literature.

  6. PACS storage requirements - influence of changes in imaging modalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooijen, PMA; ten Bhomer, PJM; Oudkerk, M; Lemke, HU; Inamura, K; Doi, K; Vannier, MW; Farman, AG

    2005-01-01

    In current radiology departments, imaging modalities are changing rapidly. One reason for these changes is the continuous technical development providing new imaging modalities with higher spatial and temporal resolution and increased capabilities. Another important reason for change is the replacem

  7. Automated Modal Parameter Estimation of Civil Engineering Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Brincker, Rune; Goursat, Maurice

    In this paper the problems of doing automatic modal parameter extraction of ambient excited civil engineering structures is considered. Two different approaches for obtaining the modal parameters automatically are presented: The Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) technique and a correlation...

  8. A Multi-Modal Control Using a Hybrid Pole-Placement-Integral Resonant Controller (PPIR) with Experimental Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Basu, Biswajit

    2011-01-01

    Control of multi-modal structural vibrations has been an important and challenging problem in flexible structural systems. This paper proposes a new vibration control algorithm for multi-modal structural control. The proposed algorithm combines a pole-placement controller with an integral resonant...... controller. The pole-placement controller is used to achieve a target equivalent modal viscous damping in the system and helps in the suppression of higher modes, which contribute to the vibration response of flexible structures. The integral resonant controller successfully reduces the low frequency...... vibrations e.g. caused by broad-band turbulent wind excitations. Hence, the proposed hybrid controller can effectively suppress complex multi-modal vibrations in flexible systems. Both numerical and experimental studies have been carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm using...

  9. The modal age at death and the shifting mortality hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    The modal age at death is used to study the shifting mortality scenario experienced by low mortality countries. The relations of the life table functions at the modal age are analyzed using mortality models. In the models the modal age increases over time, but there is an asymptotic approximation...

  10. The Semantics and Syntax of Modal Verbs in Amoy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou-hsin, Teng

    1980-01-01

    Modal verbs in Chinese are characterized in terms of internal and external modality; the former defines a state a noun is in or a quality a noun has while the latter defines a circumstantial factor that affects an event. Modal verbs and their compounds are contrasted in Mandarin and Amoy dialects. (Author/PJM)

  11. The Perceptual Basis of the Modality Effect in Multimedia Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummer, Ralf; Schweppe, Judith; Furstenberg, Anne; Scheiter, Katharina; Zindler, Antje

    2011-01-01

    Various studies have demonstrated an advantage of auditory over visual text modality when learning with texts and pictures. To explain this modality effect, two complementary assumptions are proposed by cognitive theories of multimedia learning: first, the visuospatial load hypothesis, which explains the modality effect in terms of visuospatial…

  12. Modal shape identification of large structure exposed to wind excitation by operational modal analysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vivo, A.; Brutti, C.; Leofanti, J. L.

    2013-08-01

    Research efforts during recent decades qualify Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) as an interesting tool that is able to identify the modal characteristic parameters of structures excited randomly by environmental loads, eliminating the problem of measuring the external exciting forces. In this paper, an existing OMA technique, the Natural Excitation Technique (NExT) was studied and implemented in order to achieve, from the wind force, the modal parameters of Vega Launcher, the new European launcher vehicle for small and medium satellites. Following a brief summary of the fundamental equations of the method, the modal parameters of Vega are calculated using the OMA technique; the results are then compared with those achieved using a traditional Experimental Modal Analysis under excitation induced by shakers. The comparison shows there is a very good agreement between the results obtained by the two different methods, OMA and the traditional experimental analysis, proving that OMA is a reliable tool to analyse the dynamic behaviour of large structures. Finally, this approach can be used for any type of large structure in civil and mechanical fields and the technique appears to be very promising for further applications.

  13. Towards an automatic spectral and modal identification from operational modal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, V. H.; Thomas, M.; Lafleur, F.; Marcouiller, L.

    2013-01-01

    A method is developed for the automatic identification of the spectrum and modal parameters of an operational modal analysis using multi sensors. A multivariate autoregressive model is presented, and its parameters are estimated by least squares via the implementation of QR factorization. A noise-independent minimum model order, from which all available physical modes may be identified, is developed. This so-called optimal model order is selected from the convergence of a global order-wise signal-to-noise ratio index. At this model order or higher, the modes are classified based on a decreasing damped modal signal-to-noise (DMSN) criterion. This decreasing order classification allows for easy identification of all the physical modes. A significant change in the DMSN index enables the determination of the number of physical modes in a specific frequency range, and thus, an automatic procedure for identifying the modal parameters can be developed to discriminate harmonic and natural frequencies from spurious ones. Furthermore, a multispectral matrix can be constructed from selected frequencies by introducing a powered amplification factor, which provides a smooth, balanced, noise-free spectrum with all main peaks. The proposed method has been performed on simulated multi-degree-of-freedom systems, on a laboratory test bench, and on an industrial operating high power hydro-electric generator offering the potential for automatic operational modal analysis and structural health monitoring.

  14. The modality effect of ego depletion: Auditory task modality reduces ego depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiong; Wang, Zhenhong

    2016-08-01

    An initial act of self-control that impairs subsequent acts of self-control is called ego depletion. The ego depletion phenomenon has been observed consistently. The modality effect refers to the effect of the presentation modality on the processing of stimuli. The modality effect was also robustly found in a large body of research. However, no study to date has examined the modality effects of ego depletion. This issue was addressed in the current study. In Experiment 1, after all participants completed a handgrip task, one group's participants completed a visual attention regulation task and the other group's participants completed an auditory attention regulation task, and then all participants again completed a handgrip task. The ego depletion phenomenon was observed in both the visual and the auditory attention regulation task. Moreover, participants who completed the visual task performed worse on the handgrip task than participants who completed the auditory task, which indicated that there was high ego depletion in the visual task condition. In Experiment 2, participants completed an initial task that either did or did not deplete self-control resources, and then they completed a second visual or auditory attention control task. The results indicated that depleted participants performed better on the auditory attention control task than the visual attention control task. These findings suggest that altering task modality may reduce ego depletion.

  15. Electrotherapy modalities for adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Matthew J; Green, Sally; Kramer, Sharon; Johnston, Renea V; McBain, Brodwen; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2014-10-01

    Adhesive capsulitis (also termed frozen shoulder) is a common condition characterised by spontaneous onset of pain, progressive restriction of movement of the shoulder and disability that restricts activities of daily living, work and leisure. Electrotherapy modalities, which aim to reduce pain and improve function via an increase in energy (electrical, sound, light, thermal) into the body, are often delivered as components of a physical therapy intervention. This review is one in a series of reviews which form an update of the Cochrane review 'Physiotherapy interventions for shoulder pain'. To synthesise the available evidence regarding the benefits and harms of electrotherapy modalities, delivered alone or in combination with other interventions, for the treatment of adhesive capsulitis. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus and the ClinicalTrials.gov and World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) clinical trials registries up to May 2014, unrestricted by language, and reviewed the reference lists of review articles and retrieved trials to identify any other potentially relevant trials. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials using a quasi-randomised method of allocation that included adults with adhesive capsulitis and compared any electrotherapy modality to placebo, no treatment, a different electrotherapy modality, or any other intervention. The two main questions of the review focused on whether electrotherapy modalities are effective compared to placebo or no treatment, or if they are an effective adjunct to manual therapy or exercise (or both). The main outcomes of interest were participant-reported pain relief of 30% or greater, overall pain, function, global assessment of treatment success, active shoulder abduction, quality of life, and the number of participants experiencing any adverse event. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion

  16. The Role of Modal Verbs in Research Papers in the Field of Logistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Polona Vičič; Klementina Jurančič Petek

    2016-01-01

    ...). An important linguistic feature, frequently employed for both objective and subjective presentation of claims, is modality and within it modal verbs, which through their modal meanings express...

  17. Wearable Brain Imaging with Multi-Modal Physiological Recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strangman, Gary E; Ivkovic, Vladimir; Zhang, Quan

    2017-07-13

    The brain is a central component of cognitive and physical human performance. Measures including functional brain activation, cerebral perfusion, cerebral oxygenation, evoked electrical responses, and resting hemodynamic and electrical activity are all related to, or can predict health status or performance decrements. However, measuring brain physiology typically requires large, stationary machines that are not suitable for mobile or self-monitoring. Moreover, when individuals are ambulatory, systemic physiological fluctuations-e.g., in heart rate, blood pressure, skin perfusion and more-can interfere with non-invasive brain measurements. In efforts to address the physiological monitoring and performance assessment needs for astronauts during spaceflight, we have developed easy-to-use, wearable prototypes- NINscan, for near-infrared scanning-that can collect synchronized multi-modal physiology data, including hemodynamic deep-tissue imaging (including brain and muscles), electroencephalography, electrocardiography, electromyography, electrooculography, accelerometry, gyroscopy, pressure, respiration and temperature measurements. Given their self-contained and portable nature, these devices can be deployed in a much broader range of settings-including austere environments-thereby enabling a wider range of novel medical and research physiology applications. We review these, including high-altitude assessments, self-deployable multi-modal e.g., (polysomnographic) recordings in remote or low-resource environments, fluid shifts in variable-gravity or spaceflight analog environments, intra-cranial brain motion during high-impact sports, and long-duration monitoring for clinical symptom-capture in various clinical conditions. In addition to further enhancing sensitivity and miniaturization, advanced computational algorithms could help support real-time feedback and alerts regarding performance and health. Copyright © 2017, Journal of Applied Physiology.

  18. Help!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Caralee

    2006-01-01

    This article presents ten time-saving ideas for teachers. One great time-saving tip is to come in an hour early once or twice a week for grading papers. It is also a great idea if teachers will not give tests on Friday in order to reduce their weekend work.

  19. The redundant target effect is affected by modality switch costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Lange, K.; Rösler, F.;

    2004-01-01

    , possibly due to multisensory interactions. In random stimulus sequences, reaction times are slower when the stimulus is preceded by a stimulus of a different modality (modality switch effect [MSE]). Simple reaction time redundant target experiments with auditory-visual, visual-tactile, and auditory......-tactile stimulus combinations were run to determine whether the RTE may be partly explained by MSEs because bimodal stimuli do not require a modality switch. In all three modality pairings, significant MSEs and RTEs were observed. However, the RTE was still significant after reaction times were corrected...... for the MSE, supporting the hypothesis that coactivation occurs independently of modality switch costs....

  20. Cross-modal perceptual load: the impact of modality and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Rajwant; Dyson, Benjamin James

    2016-05-01

    Visual distractor processing tends to be more pronounced when the perceptual load (PL) of a task is low compared to when it is high [perpetual load theory (PLT); Lavie in J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 21(3):451-468, 1995]. While PLT is well established in the visual domain, application to cross-modal processing has produced mixed results, and the current study was designed in an attempt to improve previous methodologies. First, we assessed PLT using response competition, a typical metric from the uni-modal domain. Second, we looked at the impact of auditory load on visual distractors, and of visual load on auditory distractors, within the same individual. Third, we compared individual uni- and cross-modal selective attention abilities, by correlating performance with the visual Attentional Network Test (ANT). Fourth, we obtained a measure of the relative processing efficiency between vision and audition, to investigate whether processing ease influences the extent of distractor processing. Although distractor processing was evident during both attend auditory and attend visual conditions, we found that PL did not modulate processing of either visual or auditory distractors. We also found support for a correlation between the uni-modal (visual) ANT and our cross-modal task but only when the distractors were visual. Finally, although auditory processing was more impacted by visual distractors, our measure of processing efficiency only accounted for this asymmetry in the auditory high-load condition. The results are discussed with respect to the continued debate regarding the shared or separate nature of processing resources across modalities.

  1. Modality-specificity of selective attention networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Jamieson Stewart

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish the modality specificity and generality of selective attention networks. Method: Forty-eight young adults completed a battery of four auditory and visual selective attention tests based upon the Attention Network framework: the visual and auditory Attention Network Tests (vANT, aANT, the Test of Everyday Attention (TEA, and the Test of Attention in Listening (TAiL. These provided independent measures for auditory and visual alerting, orienting, and conflict resolution networks. The measures were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis to assess underlying attention constructs. Results: The analysis yielded a four-component solution. The first component comprised of a range of measures from the TEA and was labeled ‘general attention’. The third component was labeled ‘auditory attention’, as it only contained measures from the TAiL using pitch as the attended stimulus feature. The second and fourth components were labeled as ‘spatial orienting’ and ‘spatial conflict’, respectively – they were comprised of orienting and conflict resolution measures from the vANT, aANT and TAiL attend-location task – all tasks based upon spatial judgments (e.g., the direction of a target arrow or sound location. Conclusions: These results do not support our a-priori hypothesis that attention networks are either modality specific or supramodal. Auditory attention separated into selectively attending to spatial and non-spatial features, with the auditory spatial attention loading onto the same factor as visual spatial attention, suggesting spatial attention is supramodal. However, since our study did not include a non-spatial measure of visual attention, further research will be required to ascertain whether non-spatial attention is modality-specific.

  2. Water as an Independent Taste Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Rosen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available To qualify as a basic taste quality or modality, defined as a group of chemicals that taste alike, three empirical benchmarks have commonly been used. The first is that a candidate group of tastants must have a dedicated transduction mechanism in the peripheral nervous system. The second is that the tastants evoke physiological responses in dedicated afferent taste nerves innervating the oropharyngeal cavity. Last, the taste stimuli evoke activity in central gustatory neurons, some of which may respond only to that group of tastants. Here we argue that water may also be an independent taste modality. This argument is based on the identification of a water dedicated transduction mechanism in the peripheral nervous system, water responsive fibers of the peripheral taste nerves and the observation of water responsive neurons in all gustatory regions within the central nervous system. We have described electrophysiological responses from single neurons in nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS and parabrachial nucleus of the pons (PbN, respectively the first two central relay nuclei in the rodent brainstem, to water presented as a taste stimulus in anesthetized rats. Responses to water were in some cases as robust as responses to other taste qualities and sometimes occurred in the absence of responses to other tastants. Both excitatory and inhibitory responses were observed. Also, the temporal features of the water response resembled those of other taste responses. We argue that water may constitute an independent taste modality that is processed by dedicated neural channels at all levels of the gustatory neuraxis. Water-dedicated neurons in the brainstem may constitute key elements in the regulatory system for fluid in the body, i.e. thirst, and as part of the swallowing reflex circuitry.

  3. The Chandra HelpDesk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, Elizabeth C.

    2008-03-01

    The Chandra X-ray Center (CXC) HelpDesk has answered hundreds of user questions over the course of the Chandra mission, ranging from basic syntax errors to advanced analysis questions. This talk gives an introduction to the HelpDesk system and staff, presents a sample of recent HelpDesk requests, and discusses how user-submitted questions improve the software and documentation.

  4. Comparing modalities and feedback for peripheral interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hausen, Doris; Wagner, Christine; Boring, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    When executing one task on a computer, we are frequently confronted with secondary tasks (e.g., controlling an audio player or changing the IM state) that require shifting our attention away from the actual task, thus increasing our cognitive load. Peripheral interaction aims at reducing that cog...... of visual feedback. In a dual-task lab study we found that those additional modalities are fit for peripheral interaction. Also, feedback did not have a measurable influence, yet it assured participants in their actions....

  5. On the Bicriterion Multi Modal Assignment Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Roed; Nielsen, L.R.; Andersen, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the bicriterion multi modal assignment problem which is a new generalization of the classical linear assignment problem. A two-phase solution method using an effective ranking scheme is presented. The algorithm is valid for generating all nondominated criterion points...... or an approximation. Extensive computational results are conducted on a large library of test instances to test the performance of the algorithm and to identify hard test instances. Also, test results of the algorithm applied to the bicriterion assignment problem is given. Here our algorithm outperforms all...

  6. Modal interactions in dynamical and structural systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayfeh, A.H.; Balachandran, B. (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg (USA))

    1989-11-01

    The authors review theoretical and experimental studies of the influence of modal interactions on the nonlinear response of harmonically excited structural and dynamical systems. In particular, they discuss the response of pendulums, ships, rings, shells, arches, beam structures, surface waves, and the similarities in the qualitative behavior of these systems. The systems are characterized by quadratic nonlinearities which may lead to two-to-one and combination autoparametric resonances. These resonances give rise to a coupling between the modes involved in the resonance leading to nonlinear periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic motions.

  7. Development of Hardware Dual Modality Tomography System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Zain

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the hardware development and performance of the Dual Modality Tomography (DMT system. DMT consists of optical and capacitance sensors. The optical sensors consist of 16 LEDs and 16 photodiodes. The Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT electrode design use eight electrode plates as the detecting sensor. The digital timing and the control unit have been developing in order to control the light projection of optical emitters, switching the capacitance electrodes and to synchronize the operation of data acquisition. As a result, the developed system is able to provide a maximum 529 set data per second received from the signal conditioning circuit to the computer.

  8. Overview: New Modality for Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy is now becoming a promising modality of cancer treatment upon the clinical successes of adoptive T-cell transfer and immune checkpoint blockade. At the 30th Nagoya International Cancer Treatment Symposium, Marcel R.M. van den Brink (Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, MSKCC, New York, N.Y., USA) showed novel strategies to control malignant relapse and graft-versus-host disease, both major obstacles for clinical benefits in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Alexander M. Lesokhin (MSKCC, New York, N.Y., USA) presented an overview of immune checkpoint blockade, particularly focusing on hematologic malignancies stressing the importance of immunomonitoring to identify biomarkers.

  9. Modal Analysis of Drilling Machine Derrick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the finite element analysis software ( ANSYS ) is applied to the modal analysis of a ZJ30/1700CZ 's drilling machine derrick under a natural condition and a loaded condition, respectively. The preceding nine step natural frequencies and the corresponding mode shapes of the derrick are calculated. By means of the comparison of the natural frequency of the derrick with the design work frequency of the drilling machine and the analysis of the step mode shape of the derrick, the drilling machine derrick structure design is proved to be correct.

  10. Monographie sur le tol\\'erancement modal

    CERN Document Server

    Samper, Serge

    2009-01-01

    In order to analyze the geometric quality of any surface we have defined a shape language that can be used in tolerancing and metrology softwares. Modal parameters defines a shape langage allowing to describe geometric variations associating undulation, form, position, orientation and dimensions. It defines a geometric basis, easy to use by a simple user or deeply by an expert. The principal properties of this basis are the exhaustiveness and the metric of the parameters. We can use either natural mode shapes that can be modified by technological mode shapes.

  11. A transgenic tri-modality reporter mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinrui Yan

    Full Text Available Transgenic mouse with a stably integrated reporter gene(s can be a valuable resource for obtaining uniformly labeled stem cells, tissues, and organs for various applications. We have generated a transgenic mouse model that ubiquitously expresses a tri-fusion reporter gene (fluc2-tdTomato-ttk driven by a constitutive chicken β-actin promoter. This "Tri-Modality Reporter Mouse" system allows one to isolate most cells from this donor mouse and image them for bioluminescent (fluc2, fluorescent (tdTomato, and positron emission tomography (PET (ttk modalities. Transgenic colonies with different levels of tri-fusion reporter gene expression showed a linear correlation between all three-reporter proteins (R(2=0.89 for TdTomato vs Fluc, R(2=0.94 for Fluc vs TTK, R(2=0.89 for TdTomato vs TTK in vitro from tissue lysates and in vivo by optical and PET imaging. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs isolated from this transgenics showed high level of reporter gene expression, which linearly correlated with the cell numbers (R(2=0.99 for bioluminescence imaging (BLI. Both BLI (R(2=0.93 and micro-PET (R(2=0.94 imaging of the subcutaneous implants of Tri-Modality Reporter Mouse derived MSCs in nude mice showed linear correlation with the cell numbers and across different imaging modalities (R(2=0.97. Serial imaging of MSCs transplanted to mice with acute myocardial infarction (MI by intramyocardial injection exhibited significantly higher signals in MI heart at days 2, 3, 4, and 7 (p<0.01. MSCs transplanted to the ischemic hindlimb of nude mice showed significantly higher BLI and PET signals in the first 2 weeks that dropped by 4(th week due to poor cell survival. However, laser Doppler perfusion imaging revealed that blood circulation in the ischemic limb was significantly improved in the MSCs transplantation group compared with the control group. In summary, this mouse can be used as a source of donor cells and organs in various research areas such as stem cell

  12. Whole-body imaging modalities in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Fiona; Shortt, Conor P; Shelly, Martin J; Eustace, Stephen J; O'Connell, Martin J

    2010-03-01

    This article outlines the expanding approaches to whole-body imaging in oncology focusing on whole-body MRI and comparing it to emerging applications of whole-body CT, scintigraphy, and above all PET CT imaging. Whole-body MRI is widely available, non-ionizing and rapidly acquired, and inexpensive relative to PET CT. While it has many advantages, WBMRI is non-specific and, when compared to PET CT, is less sensitive. This article expands each of these issues comparing individual modalities as they refer to specific cancers.

  13. A Transgenic Tri-Modality Reporter Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xinrui; Ray, Pritha; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Tong, Ricky; Gong, Yongquan; Sathirachinda, Ataya; Wu, Joseph C.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic mouse with a stably integrated reporter gene(s) can be a valuable resource for obtaining uniformly labeled stem cells, tissues, and organs for various applications. We have generated a transgenic mouse model that ubiquitously expresses a tri-fusion reporter gene (fluc2-tdTomato-ttk) driven by a constitutive chicken β-actin promoter. This “Tri-Modality Reporter Mouse” system allows one to isolate most cells from this donor mouse and image them for bioluminescent (fluc2), fluorescent (tdTomato), and positron emission tomography (PET) (ttk) modalities. Transgenic colonies with different levels of tri-fusion reporter gene expression showed a linear correlation between all three-reporter proteins (R2=0.89 for TdTomato vs Fluc, R2=0.94 for Fluc vs TTK, R2=0.89 for TdTomato vs TTK) in vitro from tissue lysates and in vivo by optical and PET imaging. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from this transgenics showed high level of reporter gene expression, which linearly correlated with the cell numbers (R2=0.99 for bioluminescence imaging (BLI)). Both BLI (R2=0.93) and micro-PET (R2=0.94) imaging of the subcutaneous implants of Tri-Modality Reporter Mouse derived MSCs in nude mice showed linear correlation with the cell numbers and across different imaging modalities (R2=0.97). Serial imaging of MSCs transplanted to mice with acute myocardial infarction (MI) by intramyocardial injection exhibited significantly higher signals in MI heart at days 2, 3, 4, and 7 (p<0.01). MSCs transplanted to the ischemic hindlimb of nude mice showed significantly higher BLI and PET signals in the first 2 weeks that dropped by 4th week due to poor cell survival. However, laser Doppler perfusion imaging revealed that blood circulation in the ischemic limb was significantly improved in the MSCs transplantation group compared with the control group. In summary, this mouse can be used as a source of donor cells and organs in various research areas such as stem cell research

  14. Osteoporosis Treatment: Medications Can Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis treatment: Medications can help Osteoporosis treatment may involve medication along with lifestyle change. A Mayo Clinic specialist answers some of the most common questions about osteoporosis ...

  15. Helping your teen with depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teen depression - helping; Teen depression - talk therapy; Teen depression - medicine ... teen the most. The most effective treatments for depression are: Talk therapy Antidepressant medicines If your teen ...

  16. How modality specific is processing of auditory and visual rhythms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasinski, Amanda C; McAuley, J Devin; Snyder, Joel S

    2016-02-01

    The present study used ERPs to test the extent to which temporal processing is modality specific or modality general. Participants were presented with auditory and visual temporal patterns that consisted of initial two- or three-event beginning patterns. This delineated a constant standard time interval, followed by a two-event ending pattern delineating a variable test interval. Participants judged whether they perceived the pattern as a whole to be speeding up or slowing down. The contingent negative variation (CNV), a negative potential reflecting temporal expectancy, showed a larger amplitude for the auditory modality compared to the visual modality but a high degree of similarity in scalp voltage patterns across modalities, suggesting that the CNV arises from modality-general processes. A late, memory-dependent positive component (P3) also showed similar patterns across modalities.

  17. MENDORONG PASAR MODAL EFISIEN DAN BERDAYA SAING GLOBAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satia Nur Maharani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalisasi semakin memperpendek jarak dan waktu. Kemampuannya mampu  merubah wajah planet bumi menjadi” just a small village “ melalui peningkatan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi. Perubahan tersebut bertransformasi pula pada  sistem ekonomi. Modal berdiri sendiri tanpa identitas dan siapa saja berhak untuk berinvestasi tanpa batas melalui sebuah mekanisme antar negara dan benua. Salah satu lintasan modal untuk meraih keuntungan adalah melalui mekanisme pasar modal. Pasar modal manakah yang diminati oleh arus modal masuk adalah pasar modal yang mampu memberikan jamuan terbaik berupa keuntungan yang tinggi dengan resiko yang optimal. Maka untuk mencapai pelayan yang maksimal bagi masyarakat pemodal , pasar modal harus efisien dan berdaya saing global. Maka keterbukaan informasi, peningkatan teknologi, efisiensi biaya penegakan hukum, partisipasi masyarakat dan pemerintah, inovasi produk mutlak untuk dievaluasi dan ditingkatkan

  18. Sound radiation by violins radically modal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissinger, George

    2003-10-01

    Following a radically modal path pioneered by Gabi Weinreich in the early 1980s, normal-mode vibration and radiation analysis was applied to quality-rated violins. Being able to describe the violin in terms of normal-mode behaviors leads directly to a violin equation, allows extraction of a critical frequency for the violin, provides estimates of the fraction of vibrational energy radiated and extends to modal-average trendline modeling of the acoustic output, all of which can be linked to violin quality classifications if desired. Some quality-related results mirror Weinreich's conclusions from inverse radiativity measurements on violins, i.e., there is little difference in the radiativity of good and bad violins below 1 kHz. The first corpus bending modes (the baseball modes), first identified by Gabi and Eric Arnold, are a major contributor to violin sound and highlight one of the important aspects of Gabi's research, the coupling between wood and air. The first near-field acoustic holography results indicate that a significant part of the radiation from these structural modes is from the f-holes of the violin. These normal-mode investigations reflect some of the importance of Gabi's work for modern violin acoustics. [Research supported by NSF.

  19. Nonlinear modal methods for crack localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Alexander; Ostrovsky, Lev; Lebedev, Andrey

    2003-10-01

    A nonlinear method for locating defects in solid materials is discussed that is relevant to nonlinear modal tomography based on the signal cross-modulation. The scheme is illustrated by a theoretical model in which a thin plate or bar with a single crack is excited by a strong low-frequency wave and a high-frequency probing wave (ultrasound). A crack is considered as a small contact-type defect which does not perturb the modal structure of sound in linear approximation but creates combinational-frequency components whose amplitudes depend on their closeness to a resonance and crack position. Using different crack models, including the hysteretic ones, the nonlinear part of its volume variations under the given stress and then the combinational wave components in the bar can be determined. Evidently, their amplitude depends strongly on the crack position with respect to the peaks or nodes of the corresponding linear signals which can be used for localization of the crack position. Exciting the sample by sweeping ultrasound frequencies through several resonances (modes) reduces the ambiguity in the localization. Some aspects of inverse problem solution are also discussed, and preliminary experimental results are presented.

  20. Modal analysis of wind turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G.C.; Hansen, M.H.; Baumgart, A.; Carlen, I.

    2002-02-01

    The modal analysis technique has been used to identify essential dynamic properties of wind turbine blades like natural frequencies, damping characteristics and mode shapes. Different experimental procedures have been considered, and the most appropriate of these has been selected. Although the comparison is based on measurements on a LM 19 m blade, the recommendations given are believed to be valid for other wind turbine blades as well. The reliability of the selected experimental analysis has been quantified by estimating the unsystematic variations in the experimental findings. Satisfactory results have been obtained for natural frequencies, damping characteristics and for the dominating deflection direction of the investigated mode shapes. For the secondary deflection directions, the observed experimental uncertainty may be considerable - especially for the torsional deflection. The experimental analysis of the LM 19 m blade has been compared with results from a state-of-the-art FE-modeling of the same blade. For some of the higher modes substantial discrepancies between the natural frequencies originating from the FE-modeling and the modal analysis, respectively, are observed. In general the qualitative features of measured and computed modes shapes are in good agreement. However, for the secondary deflection directions, substantial deviations in the absolute values may occur (when normalizing with respect to the primary deflection direction). Finally, suggestions of potential future improvements of the experimental procedure are discussed. (au)

  1. Pathogenesis and treatment modalities of localized scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valančienė, Greta; Jasaitienė, Daiva; Valiukevičienė, Skaidra

    2010-01-01

    Localized scleroderma is a chronic inflammatory disease primarily of the dermis and subcutaneous fat that ultimately leads to a scar-like sclerosis of connective tissue. The disorder manifests as various plaques of different shape and size with signs of skin inflammation, sclerosis, and atrophy. This is a relatively rare inflammatory disease characterized by a chronic course, unknown etiology, and insufficiently clear pathogenesis. Many factors may influence its appearance: trauma, genetic factors, disorders of the immune system or hormone metabolism, viral infections, toxic substances or pharmaceutical agents, neurogenic factors, and Borrelia burgdorferi infection. Various therapeutic modalities are being used for the treatment of localized scleroderma. There is no precise treatment scheme for this disease. A majority of patients can be successfully treated with topical pharmaceutical agents and phototherapy, but some of them with progressive, disseminated, and causing disability localized scleroderma are in need of systemic treatment. The aim of this article is not only to dispute about the clinical and morphological characteristics of localized scleroderma, but also to present the newest generalized data about the possible origin, pathogenesis, and treatment modalities of this disease.

  2. Asymptotic modal analysis and statistical energy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Earl H.

    1988-07-01

    Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) is defined by considering the asymptotic limit of Classical Modal Analysis, an approach called Asymptotic Modal Analysis (AMA). The general approach is described for both structural and acoustical systems. The theoretical foundation is presented for structural systems, and experimental verification is presented for a structural plate responding to a random force. Work accomplished subsequent to the grant initiation focusses on the acoustic response of an interior cavity (i.e., an aircraft or spacecraft fuselage) with a portion of the wall vibrating in a large number of structural modes. First results were presented at the ASME Winter Annual Meeting in December, 1987, and accepted for publication in the Journal of Vibration, Acoustics, Stress and Reliability in Design. It is shown that asymptotically as the number of acoustic modes excited becomes large, the pressure level in the cavity becomes uniform except at the cavity boundaries. However, the mean square pressure at the cavity corner, edge and wall is, respectively, 8, 4, and 2 times the value in the cavity interior. Also it is shown that when the portion of the wall which is vibrating is near a cavity corner or edge, the response is significantly higher.

  3. Emerging Biometric Modalities: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, Davrondzhon

    Recent advances in sensor technology and wide spread use of various electronics (computers, PDA, mobile phones etc.) provide new opportunities for capturing and analyses of novel physiological and behavioural traits of human beings for biometric authentication. This paper presents an overview of several such types of human characteristics that have been proposed as alternatives to traditional types of biometrics. We refer to these characteristics as emerging biometrics. We survey various types of emerging modalities and techniques, and discuss their pros and cons. Emerging biometrics faces several limitations and challenges which include subject population coverage (focusing mostly on adults); unavailability of benchmark databases; little research with respect to vulnerability/robustness against attacks; and some privacy concerns they may arise. In addition, recognition performance of emerging modalities are generally less accurate compared to the traditional biometrics. Despite all of these emerging biometrics posses their own benefits and advantages compared to traditional biometrics which makes them still attractive for research. First of all, emerging biometrics can always serve as a complementary source for identity information; they can be suitable in applications where traditional biometrics are difficult or impossible to adapt such as continuous or periodic re-verification of the user's identity etc.

  4. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: how can the radiologist help the clinician?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azouz, E.M. [Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Radiology Department, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2008-06-15

    The classification of the International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) is based on clinical criteria and includes: 1. Systemic arthritis 2. Oligoarthritis 3. Polyarthritis, rheumatoid factor positive 4. Polyarthritis, rheumatoid factor negative 5. Enthesitis-related arthritis 6. Psoriatic arthritis 7. Undifferentiated arthritis. Systematic arthritis is different from the other arthritides. It is associated with fever, rash, hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. The arthritis is polyarticular and symmetrical. The enlarged liver, spleen and lymph nodes may be detected and followed clinically and, more accurately, with the help of cross-sectional imaging modality such as US or MRI. CT should be avoided in children because of the ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  5. Modalities through the looking glass: a study on coalgebraic modal logics and their applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leal, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Raúl Andrés Leal deed onderzoek naar coalgebra’s en modale logica’s. Coalgabra’s vormen de basis voor een wiskundig theorie van computersystemen. Met coalgabra’s kunnen systemen bestudeerd worden waartoe slechts beperkt toegang is, of waarvan de toestanden niet volledig bekend zijn. Dit heet het bla

  6. Does the Modality Effect Exist? And if so, Which Modality Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinwein, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    The modality effect is a central issue in multimedia learning [see Mayer (Cambridge University Press, 2005a), for a review]. Sweller's Cognitive Load Theory (CLT), for example, presumes that an illustrated text is better understood when presented visually rather than orally. The predictive power of CLT lies in how it links in to Baddeley's (1986)…

  7. HEDGING THROUGH THE USE OF MODAL AUXILIARIES IN ENGLISH ACADEMIC DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofan Dwi Hardjanto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As a communicative strategy, hedging plays a central role in academic writing. Numerous different linguistic forms can be used to express this strategy. This article attempts to investigate modal auxiliary verbs as the principal means of expressing hedging in English academic discourse. For this purpose, a corpus of 75 primary empirical research articles from economics, linguistics, medicine, natural sciences and engineering was analyzed quantitatively with the help of corpus linguistic method. The results revealed that modal auxiliaries were used most frequently in linguistics and economics and least frequently in engineering and natural sciences while their use in medicine came in between. This seems to suggest that there is noticeable disciplinary variation in the degree of hedging through the use of modal auxiliaries in English research articles. Modal auxiliaries tend to be more common in soft sciences than in hard sciences whereas their use in health sciences in comparison with soft and hard sciences does not seem to show any significant difference.

  8. Translation modalities: an investigation of the translated short story “Dez de dezembro”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Peron da Silva Guedes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available During the translation process translators adopt linguistic strategies in order to make decisions that help to render a translated text suitable to the target language and culture. The translation modalities proposed by Aubert (105-10 constitute a tool that enables one to identify some of these strategies. In addition, they permit to measure the level of linguistic differentiation between a source text and a target text verifying the distance or the proximity of the target text to the linguistic and cultural issues of the source text. Thus, this paper aims to investigate the translation modalities in the short story “Dez de dezembro” (Saunders 204-38, a translation of the short story “Tenth of December” (Saunders 215-51. For quantifying the translation modalities in the translated text the noun phrases from the source text were selected and their counterparts in the target text were classified and annotated within Notepad++ software. The most recurrent translation modalities in the corpus were Literal Translation and Transposition, categories considered intermediate ones in the rank proposed by Aubert (105-10. Therefore, a relation of equivalence can be established between the target and the source texts.

  9. English Modal Verbs in Modal Verb Phrase Structures and Lexical Associations of Modality in ‘Standard Terms and Conditions of Sale’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Gajšt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a corpus-based analysis of English modal verbs and semi-modals in modal verb phrase structures as well as lexical association of modality in ‘standard terms and conditions of sale’, which are legally binding documents in the domain of commerce and whose purpose is to govern the obligations and rights of sellers and buyers in the transaction of goods for payment. Our research has established that the most frequent modal verbs in these documents are shall, will, may, must and can, and that the most common modal verb phrase structures in are ‘modal+infinitive’ and ‘modal+be+past participle’. We found 718 different lexical verbs that indicate actions, states and conditions associated with commercial transactions. These results correspond with the definition of these documents. Our findings are a demonstration of how language expresses the characteristics of a legal text type in a professional domain of commerce/trade.

  10. The modality shift effect and the effectiveness of warning signals in different modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodway, Paul

    2005-10-01

    Which is better, a visual or an auditory warning signal? Initial findings suggested that an auditory signal was more effective, speeding reaction to a target more than a visual warning signal, particularly at brief foreperiods [Bertelson, P., & Tisseyre, F. (1969). The time-course of preparation: confirmatory results with visual and auditory warning signals. Acta Psychologica, 30. In W.G. Koster (Ed.), Attention and Performance II (pp. 145-154); Davis, R., & Green, F. A. (1969). Intersensory differences in the effect of warning signals on reaction time. Acta Psychologica, 30. In W.G. Koster (Ed.), Attention and Performance II (pp. 155-167)]. This led to the hypothesis that an auditory signal is more alerting than a visual warning signal [Sanders, A. F. (1975). The foreperiod effect revisited. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 27, 591-598; Posner, M. I., Nissen, M. J., & Klein, R. M. (1976). Visual dominance: an information-processing account of its origins and significance. Psychological Review, 83, 157-171]. Recently [Turatto, M., Benso, F., Galfano, G., & Umilta, C. (2002). Nonspatial attentional shifts between audition and vision. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 28, 628-639] found no evidence for an auditory warning signal advantage and showed that at brief foreperiods a signal in the same modality as the target facilitated responding more than a signal in a different modality. They accounted for this result in terms of the modality shift effect, with the signal exogenously recruiting attention to its modality, and thereby facilitating responding to targets arriving in the modality to which attention had been recruited. The present study conducted six experiments to understand the cause of these conflicting findings. The results suggest that an auditory warning signal is not more effective than a visual warning signal. Previous reports of an auditory superiority appear to have been caused by using different

  11. Dissociable identity- and modality-specific neural representations as revealed by cross-modal nonspatial inhibition of return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yukai; Yue, Zhenzhu; Liu, Yupin; Mo, Lei; Chen, Qi

    2014-08-01

    There are ongoing debates on whether object concepts are coded as supramodal identity-based or modality-specific representations in the human brain. In this fMRI study, we adopted a cross-modal "prime-neutral cue-target" semantic priming paradigm, in which the prime-target relationship was manipulated along both the identity and the modality dimensions. The prime and the target could refer to either the same or different semantic identities, and could be delivered via either the same or different sensory modalities. By calculating the main effects and interactions of this 2 (identity cue validity: "Identity_Cued" vs. "Identity_Uncued") × 2 (modality cue validity: "Modality_Cued" vs. "Modality_Uncued") factorial design, we aimed at dissociating three neural networks involved in creating novel identity-specific representations independent of sensory modality, in creating modality-specific representations independent of semantic identity, and in evaluating changes of an object along both the identity and the modality dimensions, respectively. Our results suggested that bilateral lateral occipital cortex was involved in creating a new supramodal semantic representation irrespective of the input modality, left dorsal premotor cortex, and left intraparietal sulcus were involved in creating a new modality-specific representation irrespective of its semantic identity, and bilateral superior temporal sulcus was involved in creating a representation when the identity and modality properties were both cued or both uncued. In addition, right inferior frontal gyrus showed enhanced neural activity only when both the identity and the modality of the target were new, indicating its functional role in novelty detection.

  12. Collective helping and bystander effects in coevolving helping networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hang-Hyun; Lee, Hyun Keun; Park, Hyunggyu

    2010-06-01

    We study collective helping behavior and bystander effects in a coevolving helping network model. A node and a link of the network represents an agent who renders or receives help and a friendly relation between agents, respectively. A helping trial of an agent depends on relations with other involved agents and its result (success or failure) updates the relation between the helper and the recipient. We study the network link dynamics and its steady states analytically and numerically. The full phase diagram is presented with various kinds of active and inactive phases and the nature of phase transitions are explored. We find various interesting bystander effects, consistent with the field study results, of which the underlying mechanism is proposed.

  13. The Perception of English Modals among Arab Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Al-Qudah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at investigating the acquisition of English modality among Arab learners of English as a foreign language. Specifically, the study limits itself to the perception of modal verbs as a means of expressing modality. The productive use of modal verbs were analyzed by examining written texts made by 26 fourth-year students majoring in Applied English at the University of Jordan. Moreover, the meaning and function of modal verbs were investigated by asking the subjects to explicitly determine them in given sentences. The subjects were also asked to translate these sentences into their native language in an attempt to investigate the effect of the native language on the perception of modality. The study concludes that there is a gap in the use of English modal verbs as a way of expressing modality. It was found that the differences between Arabic and English modality seems to play an integral role in the misperception of English modality among Arab learners. Other factors, like teaching methods, seem to widen the gap.

  14. Missing Modality Transfer Learning via Latent Low-Rank Constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhengming; Shao, Ming; Fu, Yun

    2015-11-01

    Transfer learning is usually exploited to leverage previously well-learned source domain for evaluating the unknown target domain; however, it may fail if no target data are available in the training stage. This problem arises when the data are multi-modal. For example, the target domain is in one modality, while the source domain is in another. To overcome this, we first borrow an auxiliary database with complete modalities, then consider knowledge transfer across databases and across modalities within databases simultaneously in a unified framework. The contributions are threefold: 1) a latent factor is introduced to uncover the underlying structure of the missing modality from the known data; 2) transfer learning in two directions allows the data alignment between both modalities and databases, giving rise to a very promising recovery; and 3) an efficient solution with theoretical guarantees to the proposed latent low-rank transfer learning algorithm. Comprehensive experiments on multi-modal knowledge transfer with missing target modality verify that our method can successfully inherit knowledge from both auxiliary database and source modality, and therefore significantly improve the recognition performance even when test modality is inaccessible in the training stage.

  15. Toddlers Selectively Help Fair Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Surian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research showed that infants and toddlers are inclined to help prosocial agents and assign a positive valence to fair distributions. Also, they expect that positive and negative actions directed toward distributors will conform to reciprocity principles. This study investigates whether toddlers are selective in helping others, as a function of others’ previous distributive actions. Toddlers were presented with real-life events in which two actresses distributed resources either equally or unequally between two puppets. Then, they played together with a ball that accidentally fell to the ground and asked participants to help them to retrieve it. Participants preferred to help the actress who performed equal distributions. This finding suggests that by the second year children’s prosocial actions are modulated by their emerging sense of fairness.HighlightsToddlers (mean age = 25 months are selective in helping distributors.Toddlers prefer helping a fair rather than an unfair distributor.Toddlers’ selective helping provides evidence for an early sense of fairness.

  16. Electrotherapy modalities for rotator cuff disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Matthew J; Green, Sally; Mrocki, Marshall A; Surace, Stephen J; Deitch, Jessica; McBain, Brodwen; Lyttle, Nicolette; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2016-06-10

    Management of rotator cuff disease may include use of electrotherapy modalities (also known as electrophysical agents), which aim to reduce pain and improve function via an increase in energy (electrical, sound, light, or thermal) into the body. Examples include therapeutic ultrasound, low-level laser therapy (LLLT), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), and pulsed electromagnetic field therapy (PEMF). These modalities are usually delivered as components of a physical therapy intervention. This review is one of a series of reviews that form an update of the Cochrane review, 'Physiotherapy interventions for shoulder pain'. To synthesise available evidence regarding the benefits and harms of electrotherapy modalities for the treatment of people with rotator cuff disease. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 3), Ovid MEDLINE (January 1966 to March 2015), Ovid EMBASE (January 1980 to March 2015), CINAHL Plus (EBSCOhost, January 1937 to March 2015), ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO ICTRP clinical trials registries up to March 2015, unrestricted by language, and reviewed the reference lists of review articles and retrieved trials, to identify potentially relevant trials. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials, including adults with rotator cuff disease (e.g. subacromial impingement syndrome, rotator cuff tendinitis, calcific tendinitis), and comparing any electrotherapy modality with placebo, no intervention, a different electrotherapy modality or any other intervention (e.g. glucocorticoid injection). Trials investigating whether electrotherapy modalities were more effective than placebo or no treatment, or were an effective addition to another physical therapy intervention (e.g. manual therapy or exercise) were the main comparisons of interest. Main outcomes of interest were overall pain, function, pain on motion, patient-reported global assessment of treatment success

  17. 多模态教学在商务英语实训中的运用%Multi-modality Application in Business English Practical Training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国明

    2012-01-01

    Applying Multi-modality teaching method in Business English Practical Training can help teachers create real business scenarios and stimulate students' various modalities that students can practice effectively all the skills needed in work,eventually achieve practical training aims.%运用多模态教学,创造真实的商务场景,刺激学生的多种模态,可以提高教学效果。

  18. "Immunoperoxidase" an essential modality of immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta P

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The immunoperoxide (IP technique can be used for the detection of immune deposits in various tissue pathologies. This article focusses on the standardization of the reagents anti IgG, anti IgA and anti C3C which are used to target these immune deposits. Lymph node tissue was used as substrate for standardization of anti IgG and anti IgM. For anti IgA, intestine was used while for anti C3C kidney tissue rapidly proliferating glomerulo nephritis - RPGN was utilized. Sensitivity of the technique was found to be high. Also the results on paraffin section were excellent and could be interpreted using simple light microscope. It is concluded that once standardization is achieved, IP can be used as an essential modality in the detection of immune deposits in a wide variety of immunologically mediated dermatologic disorders.

  19. A Modal Description of Multiport Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J. Lynch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a modal description of multiport antennas that leads directly to a rigorous network representation and simple quadratic expressions for gain, efficiency, and effective area. The analysis shows that the transmitting and receiving properties of an element antenna array are exactly described by a 2×2 element scattering matrix together with a set of orthonormal mode functions and accounts for effects such as mutual coupling, scattering, reflection, and losses. The approach is quite general, only requiring that the antenna be finite and reciprocal. The scattering network description simplifies accounting of power flow while retaining a close connection to the physical antenna characteristics. The orthonormal mode functions provide a complete basis for radiated and received fields, facilitating beamforming. The theory provides rigorous definitions of input-output signals and links them to the underlying electromagnetics in a straightforward manner.

  20. Modal noise characterisation of a hybrid reformatter

    CERN Document Server

    Spaleniak, Izabela; Gris-Sánchez, Itandehui; Choudhury, Debaditya; Harris, Robert J; Arriola, Alexander; Allington-Smith, Jeremy R; Birks, Timothy A; Thomson, Robert R

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the modal noise characterisation of a hybrid reformatter. The device consists of a multicore-fibre photonic lantern and an ultrafast laser-inscribed slit reformatter. It operates around 1550 nm and supports 92 modes. Photonic lanterns transform a multimode signal into an array of single-mode signals, and thus combine the high coupling efficiency of multimode fibres with the diffraction-limited performance of single-mode fibres. This paper presents experimental measurements of the device point spread function properties under different coupling conditions, and its throughput behaviour at high spectral resolution. The device demonstrates excellent scrambling but its point spread function is not completely stable. Mode field diameter and mode barycentre position at the device output vary as the multicore-fibre is agitated due to the fabrication imperfections.

  1. Forms of Address as Discrete Modal Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Paweł Sosnowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Forms of Address as Discrete Modal Operators The category of expressions of politeness includes, among others, forms of address. Forms of address express honorification. Honorification can be defined as a special type of meaning that consists of information about the social and interpersonal relations between the speaker and the addressee, the speaker and the hearer, and the speaker and the protagonist of the predication. As far as their place in the syntactic structure is concerned, forms of address can either be integrated with the other elements of a predication or not. However, they are always part of a predication’s semantic structure. Moreover, forms of address convey the speaker’s attitude to the meaning of the predicate that they want to convey, which consequently means that forms of address also carry a modal element. Modality can be defined as a situation in which an individual is in a particular mental state, i.e. exhibits some kind of attitude to a situation or a type of situations. Forms of address can be categorised as modal operators conveying imperatives, requests, suppositions, etc. The term "operator" can be used for a unit of language when it changes the semantic structure of the predication. My research on honorification is mainly based on contemporary corpora, both monolingual and multilingual. In the present study, I analyse forms of address which carry imperative and optative meanings.   Formy adresatywne jako dyskretne operatory modalne W obrębie wyrażeń realizujących funkcje grzecznościowe znajduje się grupa form adresatywnych. Są one częścią kategorii honoryfikatywności rozumianej jako szczególny rodzaj znaczenia zawartego w treści wypowiedzi, informację o towarzysko-społecznej relacji między nadawcą a odbiorcą, nadawcą a słuchaczem oraz nadawcą a bohaterem wypowiedzi. Gramatycznie formy adresatywne mogą być zarówno zintegrowane, jak i niezintegrowane syntaktycznie z resztą wypowiedzi, ale

  2. MR microscopy as a research modality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Heung Sik; Kim, Seung Hyup; Han, Man Chung; Lee, Sang Hoon; Lee, Yoon Seong [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Jung Han; Cho, Zang Hee [Korea Advanced insititute of Science, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-02-15

    A combination of high gradient (0.46mT/cm) and small radiofrequency coils (8cm diameter) was used to obtain images with effective thickness of 2.0mm and pixel dimensions as small as 196 {mu} in the live chick embryo and surgically resected human femoral head with avascular necrosis. The signal-to-noise ratio was sufficient to allow identification of major anatomical structures of live chick embryo and delineation of osteonecrotic segment in femoral head. The changes of signal intensity in necrotic femoral head was well correlated with histopathologic findings. MR microscopy is considered as a good research modality in the field of embryology, teratology and MR tissue characterization.

  3. A dynamic transformation method for modal synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhar, E. J.; Stahle, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents a condensation method for large discrete parameter vibration analysis of complex structures that greatly reduces truncation errors and provides accurate definition of modes in a selected frequency range. A dynamic transformation is obtained from the partitioned equations of motion that relates modes not explicity in the condensed solution to the retained modes at a selected system frequency. The generalized mass and stiffness matrices, obtained with existing modal synthesis methods, are reduced using this transformation and solved. Revised solutions are then obtained using new transformations at the calculated eigenvalues and are also used to assess the accuracy of the results. If all the modes of interest have not been obtained, the results are used to select a new set of retained coordinates and a new transformation frequency, and the procedure is repeated for another group of modes.

  4. Nanophotonic modal dichroism: mode-multiplexed modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Susobhan; Fardad, Shima; Kim, Inki; Rho, Junsuk; Hui, Rongqing; Salandrino, Alessandro

    2016-09-15

    As the diffraction limit is approached, device miniaturization to integrate more functionality per area becomes more and more challenging. Here we propose a strategy to increase the functionality-per-area by exploiting the modal properties of a waveguide system. With such an approach the design of a mode-multiplexed nanophotonic modulator relying on the mode-selective absorption of a patterned indium-tin-oxide (ITO) is proposed. Full-wave simulations of a device operating at the telecom wavelength of 1550 nm show that two modes can be independently modulated, while maintaining performances in line with conventional single-mode ITO modulators reported in the recent literature. The proposed design principles can pave the way to a class of mode-multiplexed compact photonic devices able to effectively multiply the functionality-per-area in integrated photonic systems.

  5. The elementary fusion modalities of osteoclasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Kent; Hobolt-Pedersen, Anne-Sofie; Delaisse, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    , are not known for the osteoclast. Here we show that osteoclast fusion partners are characterized by differences in mobility, nuclearity, and differentiation level. Our demonstration was based on time-laps videos of human osteoclast preparations from three donors where 656 fusion events were analyzed. Fusions......The last step of the osteoclast differentiation process is cell fusion. Most efforts to understand the fusion mechanism have focused on the identification of molecules involved in the fusion process. Surprisingly, the basic fusion modalities, which are well known for fusion of other cell types...... between a mobile and an immobile partner were most frequent (62%), while fusion between two mobile (26%) or two immobile partners (12%) was less frequent (pfusion partner contained more nuclei than the mobile one (p

  6. Functionalization of Tactile Sensation for Robot Based on Haptograph and Modal Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokokura, Yuki; Katsura, Seiichiro; Ohishi, Kiyoshi

    In the real world, robots should be able to recognize the environment in order to be of help to humans. A video camera and a laser range finder are devices that can help robots recognize the environment. However, these devices cannot obtain tactile information from environments. Future human-assisting-robots should have the ability to recognize haptic signals, and a disturbance observer can possibly be used to provide the robot with this ability. In this study, a disturbance observer is employed in a mobile robot to functionalize the tactile sensation. This paper proposes a method that involves the use of haptograph and modal decomposition for the haptic recognition of road environments. The haptograph presents a graphic view of the tactile information. It is possible to classify road conditions intuitively. The robot controller is designed by considering the decoupled modal coordinate system, which consists of translational and rotational modes. Modal decomposition is performed by using a quarry matrix. Once the robot is provided with the ability to recognize tactile sensations, its usefulness to humans will increase.

  7. STRUKTUR MODAL DAN MODAL KERJA PT XYZ SERTA PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP KINERJA PERUSAHAAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Untung Setiono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available n 2012, the electronic payment system transactions reached IDR 104.830 trillion or increase 46,52% from the previous year.  PT. XYZ is the  pioneer in the electronic payment system Indonesia  and still one of the leading companies in electronic payment system interbank, through ATM (Automatic Teller Machine and EDC (Electronic Data Capture in Indonesia.  In 2012 the company spent USD 3,4 million on software tandem from a foreign vendor.  Therefore it is important to study (1 policy on the modal structure of the company, (2 the working capital policy of the company, (3 the monetary performance relationship of the company based on the 2 policies.  The method used to analyze the data is multiple linear regression analysis; this method is used to calculate the relationship between the structure variable of the capital and working capital.  The result is; 1 the structure policy on the capital of the company is in accordance with the Pecking Order theory where the company uses their own capital before applying the long term debt to the others, 2 the inefficient policy on the company’s working capital is because most of the active asset is in monthly deposit bonds and even extended  the active debt, 3 the relationship between short term debt and liquidity ratio is negative while the total debt (short and long term has a positive correlation with the solvability/leverage ratio of the company.  The research recommends the management to decrease the active asset and uses it for long term investment not only for timed deposit.Keywords:  ATM, EDC, capital structure, financial performance     AbstrakVoulme transaksi dalam menggunakan sistem pembayaran elektronis pada tahun 2012 mencapai Rp104.830 triliun atau meningkat sekitar 46,52% dari tahun sebelumnya. PT XYZ adalah salah satu perusahaan pionir dalam sistem bidang pembayaran elektronis di Indonesia dan tetap menjadi pemain utama dalam sistem pembayaran elektronis antar bank, ATM

  8. How Stitches Help Kids Heal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cuts is a small sticky strip called a butterfly bandage. It keeps the edges of a shallow ... help. Different kinds of materials — sutures, glue, and butterflies — need different kinds of care. The doctor probably ...

  9. New Vaccines Help Protect You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues New Vaccines Help Protect You Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table ... this page please turn Javascript on. Important new vaccines have recently been approved for use and are ...

  10. A Modal Model to Simulate Typical Structural Dynamic Nonlinearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacini, Benjamin Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mayes, Randall L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roettgen, Daniel R [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Some initial investigations have been published which simulate nonlinear response with almost traditional modal models: instead of connecting the modal mass to ground through the traditional spring and damper, a nonlinear Iwan element was added. This assumes that the mode shapes do not change with amplitude and there are no interactions between modal degrees of freedom. This work expands on these previous studies. An impact experiment is performed on a structure which exhibits typical structural dynamic nonlinear response, i.e. weak frequency dependence and strong damping dependence on the amplitude of vibration. Use of low level modal test results in combination with high level impacts are processed using various combinations of modal filtering, the Hilbert Transform and band-pass filtering to develop response data that are then fit with various nonlinear elements to create a nonlinear pseudo-modal model. Simulations of forced response are compared with high level experimental data for various nonlinear element assumptions.

  11. Shallow water modal evolution due to nonlinear internal waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiey, Mohsen; Wan, Lin; Luo, Jing

    2017-09-01

    Acoustic modal behavior is reported for an L-shape hydrophone array during the passage of a strong nonlinear internal wave packet. Acoustic track is nearly parallel to the front of nonlinear internal waves. Through modal decomposition at the vertical array, acoustic modes are identified. Modal evolution along the horizontal array then is examined during a passing internal wave. Strong intensity fluctuations of individual modes are observed before and during the internal waves packet passes the fixed acoustic track showing a detailed evolution of the waveguide modal behavior. Acoustic refraction created either uneven distribution of modal energy over the horizontal array or additional returns observable at the entire L-shape array. Acoustic ray-mode simulations are used to phenomenologically explain the observed modal behavior.

  12. Unified framework of face hallucination across multiple modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiang; Liu, Junhui; Li, Wenmin

    2015-02-01

    Face hallucination in a single modality environment has been heavily studied, in real-world environments under multiple modalities is still in its early stage. This paper presents a unified framework to solve face hallucination problem across multiple modalities i.e. different expressions, poses, illuminations. Almost all of the state-of-the-art face superresolution methods only generate a single output with the same modality of the low-resolution input. Our proposed framework is able to generate multiple outputs of different new modalities from only a single low-resolution input. It includes a global transformation with diagonal loading for modeling the mappings among different new facial modalities, and a local position-patch based method with weights compensation for incorporating image details. Experimental results illustrate the superiority of our framework.

  13. Modal Analysis Based on the Random Decrement Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.

    The thesis describes and develops the theoretical foundations of the Random Decrement technique, while giving several examples of modal analysis of large building constructions (bridges). The connection between modal parameters and Random Decrement functions is described theoretically...... is expanded to include both a vector formulation that increases speed considerably, and a new method for the prediction of the variance of the estimated Random Decrement functions. The thesis closes with a number of examples of modal analysis of bridges exposed to natural (ambient) load....

  14. Converging Modalities Ground Abstract Categories: The Case of Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Semin, Gün R.; Farias, Ana Rita; Garrido, Margarida V.

    2013-01-01

    Three studies are reported examining the grounding of abstract concepts across two modalities (visual and auditory) and their symbolic representation. A comparison of the outcomes across these studies reveals that the symbolic representation of political concepts and their visual and auditory modalities is convergent. In other words, the spatial relationships between specific instances of the political categories are highly overlapping across the symbolic, visual and auditory modalities. Thes...

  15. Impact of Modal Parameters on Milling Process Chatter Stability Lobes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhongqun; LIU Qiang

    2006-01-01

    Modals of the machine/tool and machine/part system are the principal factors affecting the stability of a milling process. Based on the modeling of chatter stability of milling process, the influence of modal parameters on chatter stability lobes independently or jointly has been analyzed by simulation. Peak-to-valley specific value, lobe coefficient and the corresponding calculation formula have been put forward. General laws and steps of modal simplification for multimodality system have been summarized.

  16. MODAL ANALYSIS OF QUARTER CAR MODEL SUSPENSION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanath. K. Allamraju *

    2016-01-01

    Suspension system is very important for comfort driving and travelling of the passengers. Therefore, this study provides a numerical tool for modeling and analyzing of a two degree of freedom quarter car model suspension system. Modal analysis places a vital role in designing the suspension system. In this paper presented the modal analysis of quarter car model suspension system by considering the undamped and damped factors.  The modal and vertical equations of motions describing the su...

  17. Photoacoustic and ultrasound dual-modality imaging for inflammatory arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guan; Chamberland, David; Girish, Gandikota; Wang, Xueding

    2014-03-01

    Arthritis is a leading cause of disability, affecting 46 million of the population in the U.S. Rendering new optical contrast in articular tissues at high spatial and temporal resolution, emerging photoacoustic imaging (PAI) combined with more established ultrasound (US) imaging technologies provides unique opportunities for diagnosis and treatment monitoring of inflammatory arthritis. In addition to capturing peripheral bone and soft tissue images, PAI has the capability to quantify hemodynamic properties including regional blood oxygenation and blood volume, both abnormal in synovial tissues affected by arthritis. Therefore, PAI, especially when performed together with US, should be of considerable help for further understanding the pathophysiology of arthritis as well as assisting in therapeutic decisions, including assessing the efficacy of new pharmacological therapies. In this paper, we will review our recent work on the development of PAI for application to the diagnostic imaging and therapeutic monitoring of inflammatory arthritis. We will present the imaging results from a home-built imaging system and another one based on a commercial US. The performance of PAI in evaluating pharmacological therapy on animal model of arthritis will be shown. Moreover, our resent work on PAI and US dual-modality imaging of human peripheral joints in vivo will also be presented.

  18. A review of imaging modalities in pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Ascha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension (PH is defined as resting mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25 mmHg measured by right heart catheterization. PH is a progressive, life-threatening disease with a variety of etiologies. Swift and accurate diagnosis of PH and appropriate classification in etiologic group will allow for earlier treatment and improved outcomes. A number of imaging tools are utilized in the evaluation of PH, such as chest X-ray, computed tomography (CT, ventilation/perfusion (V/Q scan, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Newer imaging tools such as dual-energy CT and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography V/Q scanning have also emerged; however, their place in the diagnostic evaluation of PH remains to be determined. In general, each imaging technique provides incremental information, with varying degrees of sensitivity and specificity, which helps suspect the presence and identify the etiology of PH. The present study aims to provide a comprehensive review of the utility, advantages, and shortcomings of the imaging modalities that may be used to evaluate patients with PH.

  19. Operational Modal Analysis of Wind Turbine Speed-increase Gearbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Yafeng

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Speed increase transmission gear box is the primary vibration and noise source of wind turbine, Operational modal method was adopted to collect impact data and response data of each point based on the gearbox test model. ANSYS finite element model is established to simulate the wind turbine gearbox. Then the modal frequencies of the two methods were compared to ensure the test model is correct. The results show that operational modal method can be applied in wind turbine gearbox modal analysis and it has important guiding significance to gearbox fault diagnosis and reliability and maintainability improving.  

  20. DISTRIBUTED ANOMALY DETECTION USING SATELLITE DATA FROM MULTIPLE MODALITIES

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DISTRIBUTED ANOMALY DETECTION USING SATELLITE DATA FROM MULTIPLE MODALITIES KANISHKA BHADURI*, KAMALIKA DAS, AND PETR VOTAVA* Abstract. There has been a tremendous...

  1. Product closure of some second-order modal logics

    CERN Document Server

    Zvesper, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Product update is an operation on models introduced into epistemic logic in order to represent a broad class of informational events. If adding modalities representing product update to a language does not alter its expressive power then we say that the language is "closed for product update." The basic modal language is known to be closed for product update. We establish that monadic second order logic is closed for product update (Theorem 5). Our technique is to pass via an intermediate language with what we call "action nominals." We obtain as corollaries that propositionally quantified modal logic is closed for product update, as is the modal mu-calculus.

  2. Modal Analysis for Crack Detection in Small Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Skov, Jonas falk; Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to evaluate structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques based on modal analysis for crack detection in small wind turbine blades. A finite element (FE) model calibrated to measured modal parameters will be introduced to cracks with different sizes along one edge...... of the blade. Changes in modal parameters from the FE model are compared with data obtained from experimental tests. These comparisons will be used to validate the FE model and subsequently discuss the usability of SHM techniques based on modal parameters for condition monitoring of wind turbine blades....

  3. Three 13th-century views of quantified modal logic

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    There are two reasons why medieval logic is of interest to modern logician: One is to see how similar it is to modern logic and the other is to see how different it is. We study three 13th-century works on modal logic and give two examples of how their views of modal logic differ from modern views of the same: the nature of modality and the truth conditions for modal sentences. Because of the different goals of the medieval logicians, modern logicians must take care in arguing for or against ...

  4. Non-commutative Modal Rings and Internalized Equality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. Fearnley-Sander; A.V. Kelarev; T. Stokes

    2002-01-01

    We generalize the notion of modal Boolean rings to rings in general. The connection between Boolean rings with equality and modal Boolean rings provides a cue for the definition. The main motivation lies in the existence of examples such as matrix and polynomial rings over modal Boolean rings and Cartesian products of associative rings with identity, along with the desire that the class of "modal rings" be closed under formation of not only the usual homomorphic image, subalgebra and direct product constructions, but also the ring-theoretic constructions of forming matrices and polynomials.

  5. Multi-modality molecular imaging for gastric cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jimin; Chen, Xueli; Liu, Junting; Hu, Hao; Qu, Xiaochao; Wang, Fu; Nie, Yongzhan

    2011-12-01

    Because of the ability of integrating the strengths of different modalities and providing fully integrated information, multi-modality molecular imaging techniques provide an excellent solution to detecting and diagnosing earlier cancer, which remains difficult to achieve by using the existing techniques. In this paper, we present an overview of our research efforts on the development of the optical imaging-centric multi-modality molecular imaging platform, including the development of the imaging system, reconstruction algorithms and preclinical biomedical applications. Primary biomedical results show that the developed optical imaging-centric multi-modality molecular imaging platform may provide great potential in the preclinical biomedical applications and future clinical translation.

  6. Modal analysis of sailplane and transport aircraft wings using the dynamic stiffness method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, J. R.

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide theory, results, discussion and conclusions arising from an in-depth investigation on the modal behaviour of high aspect ratio aircraft wings. The illustrative examples chosen are representative of sailplane and transport airliner wings. To achieve this objective, the dynamic stiffness method of modal analysis is used. The wing is represented by a series of dynamic stiffness elements of bending-torsion coupled beams which are assembled to form the overall dynamic stiffness matrix of the complete wing. With cantilever boundary condition applied at the root, the eigenvalue problem is formulated and finally solved with the help of the Wittrick-Williams algorithm to yield the eigenvalues and eigenmodes which are essentially the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the wing. Results for wings of two sailplanes and four transport aircraft are discussed and finally some conclusions are drawn

  7. The dual loop model: its relation to language and other modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel eRijntjes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The current neurobiological consensus of a general dual-loop system scaffolding human and primate brains gives evidence that the dorsal and ventral connections subserve similar functions, independent of the modality and species. However, most current commentators agree that, although bees dance and chimpanzees grunt, these systems of communication differ qualitatively from human language. So why is language in humans unique?We discuss anatomical differences between humans and other animals, the meaning of lesion studies in patients, the role of inner speech, and compare functional imaging studies in language with other modalities in respect to the dual loop model. These aspects might be helpful for understanding what kind of biological system the language faculty is, and how it relates to other systems in our own species and others.

  8. The evolution of gadolinium based contrast agents: from single-modality to multi-modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Ruiqing; Peng, Hui; Li, Penghui; Xu, Zushun; Whittaker, Andrew K.

    2016-05-01

    Gadolinium-based contrast agents are extensively used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents due to their outstanding signal enhancement and ease of chemical modification. However, it is increasingly recognized that information obtained from single modal molecular imaging cannot satisfy the higher requirements on the efficiency and accuracy for clinical diagnosis and medical research, due to its limitation and default rooted in single molecular imaging technique itself. To compensate for the deficiencies of single function magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents, the combination of multi-modality imaging has turned to be the research hotpot in recent years. This review presents an overview on the recent developments of the functionalization of gadolinium-based contrast agents, and their application in biomedicine applications.

  9. The evolution of gadolinium based contrast agents: from single-modality to multi-modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Ruiqing; Peng, Hui; Li, Penghui; Xu, Zushun; Whittaker, Andrew K

    2016-05-19

    Gadolinium-based contrast agents are extensively used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents due to their outstanding signal enhancement and ease of chemical modification. However, it is increasingly recognized that information obtained from single modal molecular imaging cannot satisfy the higher requirements on the efficiency and accuracy for clinical diagnosis and medical research, due to its limitation and default rooted in single molecular imaging technique itself. To compensate for the deficiencies of single function magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents, the combination of multi-modality imaging has turned to be the research hotpot in recent years. This review presents an overview on the recent developments of the functionalization of gadolinium-based contrast agents, and their application in biomedicine applications.

  10. The help of formal models for healthcare security policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouessin, G; Barber, B

    1997-01-01

    This article is a personal contribution (i.e., from a strict security expert point of view) towards the help for specification, validation and/or evaluation of reliable, but also secure, healthcare security policies (HSP). The first part is dedicated to show, according to the various aspects of the security policy concept, that healthcare information systems (HIS) offer such a diversity of particularities and potential security needs, that it is necessary for healthcare security policies to be defined as flexible, but also as robust, as possible. Then the formal modelling approach, a wide area of solutions providing both flexibility (by means of modelling) and robustness (by means of formalization), is presented. The most well-known examples of security models are recalled. All of them try to use formal models as a security policy specification/validation tool, but none of them can be helpfully used in the very demanding context of HIS. Lastly, a new approach for the modelling of healthcare security policies, based on modal logic (i.e., epistemic and/or deontic logic) is proposed. It permits to take into account the flexibility (by means of high expressiveness due to modality) and the robustness (by means of high provability due to modelling) needs.

  11. Modal contribution and state space order selection in operational modal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cara, F. Javier; Juan, Jesús; Alarcón, Enrique; Reynders, Edwin; De Roeck, Guido

    2013-07-01

    The estimation of modal parameters of a structure from ambient measurements has attracted the attention of many researchers in the last years. The procedure is now well established and the use of state space models, stochastic system identification methods and stabilization diagrams allows to identify the modes of the structure. In this paper the contribution of each identified mode to the measured vibration is discussed. This modal contribution is computed using the Kalman filter and it is an indicator of the importance of the modes. Also the variation of the modal contribution with the order of the model is studied. This analysis suggests selecting the order for the state space model as the order that includes the modes with higher contribution. The order obtained using this method is compared to those obtained using other well known methods, like Akaike criteria for time series or the singular values of the weighted projection matrix in the Stochastic Subspace Identification method. Finally, both simulated and measured vibration data are used to show the practicability of the derived technique. Finally, it is important to remark that the method can be used with any identification method working in the state space model.

  12. Helping Teachers Help Themselves: Professional Development That Makes a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Kevin; Parker, Melissa; Tannehill, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    For school administrators to facilitate impactful teacher professional development, a shift in thinking that goes beyond the acquisition of new skills and knowledge to helping teachers rethink their practice is required. Based on review of the professional development literature and our own continued observations of professional development, this…

  13. Modal gating of muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vij, Ridhima

    Many ion channels exhibit multiple patterns of kinetic activity in single-channel currents. This behavior is rare in WT mouse muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), where A2C↔A2O gating events are well-described by single exponentials. Also, single-channel open probability (PO) is essentially homogeneous at a given agonist concentration in the WT receptors. Here I report that perturbations of almost all the residues in loop C (alpha188-alpha199, at the agonist binding site) generate heterogeneity in PO ('modes'). Such unsettled activity was apparent with an alanine substitution at all positions in loop C (except alphaY190 and alphaY198) and with different side chain substitutions at alphaP197 for both adult- and fetal-type AChRs. I used single channel electrophysiology along with site-directed mutagenesis to study modal gating in AChRs consequent to mutations/deletions in loop C. The multiple patterns of kinetic activity arose from the difference in agonist affinity rather than in intrinsic AChR gating. Out of the four different agonists used to study the modal behavior, acetylcholine (ACh) showed a higher degree of kinetic heterogeneity compared to others. The time constant for switching between modes was long (~mins), suggesting that they arise from alternative, stable protein conformations. By studying AChRs having only 1 functional binding site, I attempted to find the source of the affinity difference, which was traced mainly to the alphadelta agonist site. Affinity at the neurotransmitter binding site is mainly determined by a core of five aromatic residues (alphaY93, alphaW149, alphaY190, alphaY198 and deltaW57). Phenylalanine substitutions at all aromatic residues except alphaY93 resulted in elimination of modes. Modes were also eliminated by alanine mutation at deltaW57 on the complementary side but not at other aromatics. Also, by substituting four gamma subunit residues into the delta subunit on the complementary beta sheet, I found that

  14. Charity Bazaar Helps the Aged

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Hundreds of people on September 24 participated in a charitybazaar held in Beijing International Club to help the aged Chinese in Beijing.The event demonstrated China's tradition of"respecting and caring for the aged,"and helped enhance relations be-tween the association of Former Diplomats of China,spouses of diplo-mats to China,and female diplomats. More than 40 embassies,international agencies and companies soldand/or donated goods.Dozens of domestic enterprises and institutions

  15. A Comparative Study of Modality in Russian and Chinese%俄汉语情态比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤珍

    2012-01-01

    Modality is an important grammatical category in human language. This paper introduces present achievements of the research on the modality of Russian and Chinese and compares the differences and similarities in the ways of expression of modality in the two languages, aiming at providing help for language study, communication and teaching.%情态是人类语言中一个重要的语法范畴。文章介绍俄汉语情态研究现状,对比两种语言在情态表达手段上的异同,以便为语言学习、交际以及教学提供有益的帮助。

  16. Multi-modal aggression detection in trains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Z.

    2009-01-01

    In many public places multiple sensing devices, such as cameras, are installed to help prevent unwanted situations such as aggression and violence. At the moment, the best solution to reach a safe environment requires human operators to monitor the camera images and take appropriate actions when nec

  17. Teaching German Modal Particles: A Corpus-based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollering, Martina

    2001-01-01

    Presents an analysis of German modal particles based on corpora representing Spoken German. The concept of spoken language is discussed with regard to the corpora analyzed and narrowed down in relation to the use of modal particles. In addition, a collection of telephone conversations was scanned into a computer readable file and analyzed using…

  18. Constrained maximum likelihood modal parameter identification applied to structural dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kafafy, Mahmoud; Peeters, Bart; Guillaume, Patrick; De Troyer, Tim

    2016-05-01

    A new modal parameter estimation method to directly establish modal models of structural dynamic systems satisfying two physically motivated constraints will be presented. The constraints imposed in the identified modal model are the reciprocity of the frequency response functions (FRFs) and the estimation of normal (real) modes. The motivation behind the first constraint (i.e. reciprocity) comes from the fact that modal analysis theory shows that the FRF matrix and therefore the residue matrices are symmetric for non-gyroscopic, non-circulatory, and passive mechanical systems. In other words, such types of systems are expected to obey Maxwell-Betti's reciprocity principle. The second constraint (i.e. real mode shapes) is motivated by the fact that analytical models of structures are assumed to either be undamped or proportional damped. Therefore, normal (real) modes are needed for comparison with these analytical models. The work done in this paper is a further development of a recently introduced modal parameter identification method called ML-MM that enables us to establish modal model that satisfies such motivated constraints. The proposed constrained ML-MM method is applied to two real experimental datasets measured on fully trimmed cars. This type of data is still considered as a significant challenge in modal analysis. The results clearly demonstrate the applicability of the method to real structures with significant non-proportional damping and high modal densities.

  19. Modal Identification from Ambient Responses Using Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Zhang, Lingmi; Andersen, Palle

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a new frequency domain technique is introduced for the modal identification from ambient responses, i.e. in the case where the modal parameters must be estimated without knowing the input exciting the system. By its user friendliness the technique is closely related to the classical...

  20. Modal Identification from Ambient Responses using Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Zhang, L.; Andersen, P.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a new frequency domain technique is introduced for the modal identification from ambient responses, ie. in the case where the modal parameters must be estimated without knowing the input exciting the system. By its user friendliness the technique is closely related to the classical...

  1. On the use of Kripke modality in language theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karsten Hvidtfelt

    2006-01-01

    The article shows how the formal modal technique known as 'Kripke-Modality' can be used as a descriptive tool in language theory. My use is motivated by a version of the well-known liar's paradox: anyone claiming natural language to be semantically undecidable may only on pain on inconsistency...

  2. Constraint programming for modelling and solving modal satisfiability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, S.; Gennari, R.; de Rijke, M.

    2003-01-01

    We explore to what extent and how efficiently constraint programmingcan be used in the context of automated reasoning for modal logics. We encode modal satisfiability problems as constraint satisfactionproblems with non-boolean domains, together with suitable constraints.Experiments show that the ap

  3. Constraint programming for modelling and solving modal satisfiability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, S.; Gennari, R.; de Rijke, M.

    2003-01-01

    We explore to what extent and how efficiently constraint programmingcan be used in the context of automated reasoning for modal logics. We encode modal satisfiability problems as constraint satisfactionproblems with non-boolean domains, together with suitable constraints.Experiments show that the ap

  4. Three 13th-century views of quantified modal logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uckelman, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    There are two reasons why medieval logic is of interest to modern logician: One is to see how similar it is to modern logic and the other is to see how different it is. We study three 13th-century works on modal logic and give two examples of how their views of modal logic differ from modern views o

  5. Realizability Semantics for Quantified Modal Logic : Generalizing Flagg's 1985 Construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rin, B.G.; Walsh, Sean

    2016-01-01

    A semantics for quantified modal logic is presented that is based on Kleene’s notion of realizability. This semantics generalizes Flagg’s 1985 construction of a model of a modal version of Church’s Thesis and first-order arithmetic. While the bulk of the paper is devoted to developing the details of

  6. Students' Use of Modals in Narrative Compositions: Forms and Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vethamani, Malachi Edwin; Manaf, Umi Kalthom Abd; Akbari, Omid

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a corpus based research that investigated Malaysian ESL learners' use of modals in two written tasks. The aim of the study was to investigate the distribution and functions of modals used in the students' writing. The research design comprised a qualitative technique through discourse analysis supplemented…

  7. Englische Modalverben und Sprechakte (English Modal Verbs and Speech Acts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussmaul, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Describes the function of English modal verbs, arranging them in categories: permitting, asking permission, forbidding, commanding, exhorting, requesting, conjecturing, wishing. Various nuances are illustrated with numerous examples. For the clear, unambiguous functioning of each modal verb, an ample context is a prerequisite. (Text is in German.)…

  8. Examining the Influence of Gender on the Modality Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Raymond; Coward, Fanni; Crooks, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of modality and gender on learning from a computer-based matrix graphic organizer. A 2 x 2 factorial experiment was created by crossing two presentation modes (visual text vs. spoken text) and gender. Dependent measures included transfer and comprehension tests. Results revealed a significant modality by…

  9. Analysis on the Modality of English News Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖蓉

    2011-01-01

    Modality is used to express subjective judgment as well as the speaker’s opinions and attitudes.This paper aims to analyze the reporters’orientation reflected by linguistic modal expressions in English news reports from the perspective of Systemic-Functio

  10. Free Modal Algebras Revisited: The Step-by-Step Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezhanishvili, N.; Ghilardi, Silvio; Jibladze, Mamuka

    2012-01-01

    We review the step-by-step method of constructing finitely generated free modal algebras. First we discuss the global step-by-step method, which works well for rank one modal logics. Next we refine the global step-by-step method to obtain the local step-by-step method, which is applicable beyond ran

  11. Modal intersection types, two-level languages, and staged synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz; Rehof, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    A typed λ-calculus, λ∩ ⎕, is introduced, combining intersection types and modal types. We develop the metatheory of λ∩ ⎕, with particular emphasis on the theory of subtyping and distributivity of the modal and intersection type operators. We describe how a stratification of λ∩ ⎕ leads to a multi-linguistic...

  12. Encoding Modality Can Affect Memory Accuracy via Retrieval Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Benton H.; Gallo, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that false memory is lower following visual than auditory study, potentially because visual information is more distinctive. In the present study we tested the extent to which retrieval orientation can cause a modality effect on memory accuracy. Participants studied unrelated words in different modalities, followed by criterial…

  13. A compositional proof system for the modal μ-calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Stirling, C.; Winskel,, G.

    1994-01-01

    We present a proof system for determining satisfaction between processes in a fairly general process algebra and assertions of the modal μ-calculus. The proof system is compositional in the structure of processes. It extends earlier work on compositional reasoning within the modal μ-calculus and ...

  14. Modal Testing of Mechanical Structures subject to Operational Excitation Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, N.; Brincker, Rune; Herlufsen, H.;

    2001-01-01

    to the Operational Modal Analysis. For Operational Modal Analysis two different estimation techniques are used: a non-parametric technique based on Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD), and a parametric technique working on the raw data in time domain, a data driven Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI) algorithm...

  15. Modal Testing of Mechanical Structures Subject to Operational Excitation Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, N.; Brincker, Rune; Herlufsen, H.;

    2000-01-01

    to the Operational Modal Analysis. For Operational Modal Analysis two different estimation techniques are used: a non-parametric technique based on Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD), and a parametric technique working on the raw data in time domain, a data driven Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI) algorithm...

  16. ANGELICA : choice of output modality in an embodied agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theune, Mariët

    2001-01-01

    The ANGELICA project addresses the problem of modality choice in information presentation by embodied, humanlike agents. The output modalities available to such agents include both language and various nonverbal signals such as pointing and gesturing. For each piece of information to be presented by

  17. Some Elements of Operational Modal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Brincker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of the main components of operational modal analysis (OMA and can serve as a tutorial for research oriented OMA applications. The paper gives a short introduction to the modeling of random responses and to the transforms often used in OMA such as the Fourier series, the Fourier integral, the Laplace transform, and the Z-transform. Then the paper introduces the spectral density matrix of the random responses and presents the theoretical solutions for correlation function and spectral density matrix under white noise loading. Some important guidelines for testing are mentioned and the most common techniques for signal processing of the operating signals are presented. The algorithms of some of the commonly used time domain and frequency domain identification techniques are presented and finally some issues are discussed such as mode shape scaling, and mode shape expansion. The different techniques are illustrated on the difficult case of identifying the three first closely spaced modes of the Heritage Court Tower building.

  18. Language and imagery: effects of language modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigliocco, Gabriella; Vinson, David P; Woolfe, Tyron; Dye, Matthew W G; Woll, Bencie

    2005-09-07

    Across spoken languages, properties of wordforms (e.g. the sounds in the word hammer) do not generally evoke mental images associated to meanings. However, across signed languages, many signforms readily evoke mental images (e.g. the sign HAMMER resembles the motion involved in hammering). Here we assess the relationship between language and imagery, comparing the performance of English speakers and British sign language (BSL) signers in meaning similarity judgement tasks. In experiment 1, we found that BSL signers used these imagistic properties in making meaning similarity judgements, in contrast with English speakers. In experiment 2, we found that English speakers behaved more like BSL signers when asked to develop mental images for the words before performing the same task. These findings show that language differences can bias users to attend more to those aspects of the world encoded in their language than to those that are not; and that language modality (spoken versus signed) can affect the degree to which imagery is involved in language.

  19. Nonlinear modal method of crack localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovsky, Lev; Sutin, Alexander; Lebedev, Andrey

    2004-05-01

    A simple scheme for crack localization is discussed that is relevant to nonlinear modal tomography based on the cross-modulation of two signals at different frequencies. The scheme is illustrated by a theoretical model, in which a thin plate or bar with a single crack is excited by a strong low-frequency wave and a high-frequency probing wave (ultrasound). The crack is assumed to be small relative to all wavelengths. Nonlinear scattering from the crack is studied using a general matrix approach as well as simplified models allowing one to find the nonlinear part of crack volume variations under the given stress and then the combinational wave components in the tested material. The nonlinear response strongly depends on the crack position with respect to the peaks or nodes of the corresponding interacting signals which can be used for determination of the crack position. Juxtaposing various resonant modes interacting at the crack it is possible to retrieve both crack location and orientation. Some aspects of inverse problem solutions are also discussed, and preliminary experimental results are presented.

  20. Modal analysis of a drumlike silencer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lixi

    2002-11-01

    Low-frequency duct noise is difficult to deal with by passive methods such as porous duct lining. Reactive methods like expansion chamber are rather bulky, while compact resonators are too narrow banded. This study shows that a suitably stretched thin membrane backed by a slender cavity can achieve a satisfactory performance from low to medium frequencies over an octave band. The present paper focuses on the details of the modal behavior of the fully coupled membrane-cavity system, and examples are given with parameters set in a practical range. Typically, the membrane has a structure to air mass ratio of unity, and is stretched towards the elastic stress limit for a material like aluminum. The backing cavity has a depth equal to the duct height and a length five times the duct height. Three resonant peaks are found in the low to medium frequency range while the transmission loss between adjacent peaks remain above 10 dB. For the first peak, almost complete sound reflection occurs as a result of an out-of-phase combination of the first and second in vacuo modes of simply supported membranes. The second peak is solely contributed to by the first mode, while the third peak features mainly the second mode vibration.

  1. A Modal Logic of Epistemic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Schwarzentruber

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose some variants of a multi-modal of joint action, preference and knowledge that support reasoning about epistemic games in strategic form. The first part of the paper deals with games with complete information. We first provide syntactic proofs of some well-known theorems in the area of interactive epistemology that specify some sufficient epistemic conditions of equilibrium notions such as Nash equilibrium and Iterated Deletion of Strictly Dominated Strategies (IDSDS. Then, we present a variant of the logic extended with dynamic operators of Dynamic Epistemic Logic (DEL. We show that it allows to express the notion IDSDS in a more compact way. The second part of the paper deals with games with weaker forms of complete information. We first discuss several assumptions on different aspects of perfect information about the game structure (e.g., the assumption that a player has perfect knowledge about the players’ strategy sets or about the preference orderings over strategy profiles, and show that every assumption is expressed by a corresponding logical axiom of our logic. Then we provide a proof of Harsanyi’s claim that all uncertainty about the structure of a game can be reduced to uncertainty about payoffs. Sound and complete axiomatizations of the logics are given, as well as some complexity results for the satisfiability problem.

  2. Treatment modalities of thyroid related orbitopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S Ahn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to highlight recent advances in the treatment of thyroid eye disease. Settings and Design: Review article. Materials and Methods: Existing literature and the authors′ experience was reviewed. Results: Thyroid ophthalmopathy is a disfiguring and vision-threatening complication of autoimmune thyroid disease that may develop or persist even in the setting of well-controlled systemic thyroid status. Treatment response can be difficult to predict, and optimized algorithms for disease management do not exist. Thyroid ophthalmopathy should be graded for both severity and disease activity before choosing a treatment modality for each patient. The severity of the disease may not correlate directly with the activity; medical treatment is most effective in active disease, and surgery is usually reserved for quiescent disease with persistent proptosis and/or eyelid changes. Conclusions: Intravenous pulsed corticosteroids, orbital radiotherapy, and orbital surgical techniques form the mainstay of current management of thyroid ophthalmopathy. Immunosuppressive and biologic agents may have a role in treating active disease although additional safety and efficacy studies are needed.

  3. A Comparison of Passion and Teaching Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Greenberger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research exists that applies the dualistic model of passion to face-to-face teaching, but no research has applied this model to online instruction. Distance education theories imply a need to discover factors contributing to online faculty motivation to engage students. Although there has been extensive exploration of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to teach online, factors contributing to consistent and optimal teaching behavior has received less attention. There is evidence that the passion construct is independent of both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. A stratified random sample of online and face-to-face faculty (n = 92 were surveyed using the Passion Scale. The results showed that 95 percent of the sampled online faculty self-identified as passionate for their online instruction. In the between-groups analysis, there were no significant differences in the variables of passion orientation, harmonious passion, and obsessive passion by modality. This research provides a basis for future research of passion in online instruction. In addition, this study adds another dimension for research within distance education theory, providing increased evidence for what motivates online instructors to consistently and effectively engage students.

  4. Hypoxic conditioning as a new therapeutic modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel eVerges

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Preconditioning refers to a procedure by which a single noxious stimulus below the threshold of damage is applied to the tissue in order to increase resistance to the same or even different noxious stimuli given above the threshold of damage. Hypoxic preconditioning relies on complex and active defenses that organisms have developed to counter the adverse consequences of oxygen deprivation. The protection it confers against ischemic attack for instance as well as the underlying biological mechanisms have been extensively investigated in animal models. Based on these data, hypoxic conditioning (consisting in recurrent exposure to hypoxia has been suggested a potential non-pharmacological therapeutic intervention to enhance some physiological functions in individuals in whom acute or chronic pathological events are anticipated or existing. In addition to healthy subjects, some benefits have been reported in patients with cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases as well as in overweight and obese individuals. Hypoxic conditioning consisting in sessions of intermittent exposure to moderate hypoxia repeated over several weeks may induce hematological, vascular, metabolic and neurological effects. This review addresses the existing evidence regarding the use of hypoxic conditioning as a potential therapeutic modality and emphasizes on many remaining issues to clarify and future researches to be performed in the field.

  5. Impeller deflection and modal finite element analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, Nathan A.

    2013-10-01

    Deflections of an impeller due to centripetal forces are calculated using finite element analysis. The lateral, or out of plane, deflections are an important design consideration for this particular impeller because it incorporates an air bearing with critical gap tolerances. The target gap distance is approximately 10 microns at a rotational velocity of 2500 rpm. The centripetal forces acting on the impeller cause it deflect in a concave fashion, decreasing the initial gap distance as a function of radial position. This deflection is characterized for a previous and updated impeller design for comparative purposes. The impact of design options such as material selection, geometry dimensions, and operating rotational velocity are also explored, followed by a sensitivity study with these parameters bounded by specific design values. A modal analysis is also performed to calculate the impeller's natural frequencies which are desired to be avoided during operation. The finite element modeling techniques continue to be exercised by the impeller design team to address specific questions and evaluate conceptual designs, some of which are included in the Appendix.

  6. Grief: Helping Young Children Cope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Frances B.

    2008-01-01

    In their role as caregivers supporting the children they teach, it is important for teachers to understand the grieving process and recognize symptoms of grief. The author explains Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's five stages of grief and offers 10 classroom strategies to help young children cope with their feelings.

  7. Some Ways of Helping Underachievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willings, David; Greenwood, Bill

    1990-01-01

    A program of intervention called therapeutic tutoring to help underachievers is described. Intervention centers around students' loci of control, through a process of identifying areas in which students feel empowered and relating academic experiences to these areas. Academic exercises based on Monopoly, cricket, rugby, soap operas, field hockey,…

  8. HELP: Healthy Early Literacy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Laura A.

    2008-01-01

    A daily intensive supplemental reading and writing program was developed to assist students who were: 1. identified with a language disability and 2. identified as at-risk for reading failure in an urban elementary school. The purpose of the program was to help these students understand and develop the connection between oral and written language…

  9. Help Me Remember My Meds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, Rachel M; Panther, Shannon G

    2016-01-01

    Nonadherence has led to increased health consequences and higher health care costs. A study surveyed subjects using either blister pack or a Philips Medication Dispenser machine to determine medication adherence. Although there is still a research gap associated with medication packaging, it has great potential to help patients who have difficulty managing their multiple medications.

  10. Enlisting Parents' Help with Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ann P.

    1989-01-01

    A new national PTA kit, "Math Matters; Kids Are Counting on You," can help all parents make a difference in their children's education. Suggested home activities include doubling cookie recipes, surveying and graphing family ice cream flavor preferences, filling in football "stat" charts, and other tasks easily performed on a…

  11. Helping SBH Pupils with Handwriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    The article describes two cases of children (7- and 8 1/2-years-old) with spina bifida and hydrocephalus who participated in a research project to discover whether such children could make significant improvements in writing given appropriate help, and to produce an advisory booklet for teachers. (SBH)

  12. Hinder,More Than Help

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余习榜

    2008-01-01

    Ladies and gentlemen, I’m honoredto stand here on behalf of my school toshare my experiences and opinions withyou. Some people say that our mother ton-gue is of great help to our learning English.However, for my point of view, too muchuse of Chinese will definitely exert nega-tive effects and tend to hinder the learning

  13. A Helping Hand for SMEs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An online credit platform set up by alibaba.com.cn opens a new loan channel for small and medium-sized enterprises in order to help them scale up Lin’an Ailun Electric Appliances Co. Ltd. (LAEA), established in 2001, is a small company with registered ca

  14. Unpaid help: who does what?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirjam de Klerk; Alice de Boer; Sjoerd Kooiker; Peggy Schyns

    2015-01-01

    Original title: Informele hulp: wie doet er wat? There is currently a great deal of interest in the Netherlands in people’s reliance on their own networks in times of need. What can people do for each other when someone needs help because of health problems? And what are they already doing? In this

  15. Helping Your Child to Read.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust, Betty Jean

    This booklet provides suggestions for parents in helping their children to learn how to read. The first section provides 34 suggestions and activities for parents to use with preschool children, such as reciting nursery rhymes, reading aloud, respecting the child's mood, and playing listening games. The second section offers 25 suggestions and…

  16. Motivational Maturity and Helping Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, Michael; Green, Logan

    1977-01-01

    Maturity in conative development (type of motivation included in Maslow's needs hierarchy) was found to be predictive of helping behavior in middle class white male college students. The effects of safety and esteem needs were compared, and the acceptance of responsibility was also investigated. (GDC)

  17. Grief: Helping Young Children Cope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Frances B.

    2008-01-01

    In their role as caregivers supporting the children they teach, it is important for teachers to understand the grieving process and recognize symptoms of grief. The author explains Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's five stages of grief and offers 10 classroom strategies to help young children cope with their feelings.

  18. Multi-modal image registration using structural features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasiri, Keyvan; Clausi, David A; Fieguth, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Multi-modal image registration has been a challenging task in medical images because of the complex intensity relationship between images to be aligned. Registration methods often rely on the statistical intensity relationship between the images which suffers from problems such as statistical insufficiency. The proposed registration method works based on extracting structural features by utilizing the complex phase and gradient-based information. By employing structural relationships between different modalities instead of complex similarity measures, the multi-modal registration problem is converted into a mono-modal one. Therefore, conventional mono-modal similarity measures can be utilized to evaluate the registration results. This new registration paradigm has been tested on magnetic resonance (MR) brain images of different modes. The method has been evaluated based on target registration error (TRE) to determine alignment accuracy. Quantitative results demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of achieving comparable registration accuracy compared to the conventional mutual information.

  19. Operational modal analysis in the presence of harmonic excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, P.; Rixen, D. J.

    2004-02-01

    Modal operational analysis methods are procedures to identify modal parameters of structures from the response to unknown random excitations existing on buildings and in machines during operation. In many practical cases, in addition to the random loads, harmonic excitations are also present due for instance to rotating components. If the frequency of the harmonic component of the input is close to an eigenfrequency of the system, operational modal analysis procedures fail to identify the modal parameters accurately. Therefore, we propose a modification of the least-square complex exponential identification procedure to include explicitly the harmonic component. In that way, the modal parameters can be identified properly. We illustrate the efficiency of the proposed approach on the example of a beam structure excited by multi-harmonic loads superposed on random excitation.

  20. Applicability Limits of Operational Modal Analysis to Operational Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tcherniak, D.; Chauhan, Shashank; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2011-01-01

    Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) is one of the branches of experimental modal analysis which allows extracting modal parameters based on measuring only the responses of a structure under ambient or operational excitation which is not needed to be measured. This makes OMA extremely attractive...... to modal analysis of big structures such as wind turbines where providing measured excitation force is an extremely difficult task. One of the main OMA assumption concerning the excitation is that it is distributed randomly both temporally and spatially. Obviously, closer the real excitation...... is to the assumed one, better modal parameter estimation one can expect. Traditionally, wind excitation is considered as a perfect excitation obeying the OMA assumptions. However, the present study shows that the aeroelastic phenomena due to rotor rotation dramatically changes the character of aerodynamic...

  1. Nutritional status of cancer patients given different treatment modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usharani, K; Roy, R K; Vijayalakshmi; Prakash, Jamuna

    2004-08-01

    The nutritional status of 91 cancer patients was assessed at the time of diagnosis and follow-up assessments were carried out at the third and sixth week after initiating different treatment modalities to study the effect of type and duration of treatment on nutritional status. Parameters assessed were anthropometry, biochemical status and clinical signs and symptoms of nutritional deficiencies. Treatment modalities studied were radiotherapy, chemotherapy, chemotherapy+radiotherapy, and combined treatment modality (surgery+radiotherapy+chemotherapy). The nutritional status of male patients was affected most by chemotherapy+radiotherapy while females were affected most with radiotherapy. Biochemical parameters showed a marginal decline in total serum protein and serum albumin concentrations. Haemoglobin concentrations declined substantially with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The lymphocyte count decreased substantially irrespective of the treatment modality. Clinical examination revealed increased incidences of deficiency signs and symptoms in all patients during follow-up irrespective of treatment modality.

  2. Stimulus Modality and Smoking Behavior: Moderating Role of Implicit Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeh, Valentine C; Mefoh, Philip

    2015-07-20

    This study investigated whether stimulus modality influences smoking behavior among smokers in South Eastern Nigeria and also whether implicit attitudes moderate the relationship between stimulus modality and smoking behavior. 60 undergraduate students of University of Nigeria, Nsukka were used. Participants were individually administered the IAT task as a measure of implicit attitude toward smoking and randomly assigned into either image condition that paired images of cigarette with aversive images of potential health consequences or text condition that paired images of cigarette with aversive texts of potential health consequences. A one- predictor and one-moderator binary logistic analysis indicates that stimulus modality significantly predicts smoking behavior (p = modality and IAT scores was also significant (p = modality effect was larger for participants in the image group who held more negative implicit attitudes towards smoking. The finding shows the urgent need to introduce the use of aversive images of potential health consequences on cigarette packs in Nigeria.

  3. Modality independence of order coding in working memory: Evidence from cross-modal order interference at recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandierendonck, André

    2016-01-01

    Working memory researchers do not agree on whether order in serial recall is encoded by dedicated modality-specific systems or by a more general modality-independent system. Although previous research supports the existence of autonomous modality-specific systems, it has been shown that serial recognition memory is prone to cross-modal order interference by concurrent tasks. The present study used a serial recall task, which was performed in a single-task condition and in a dual-task condition with an embedded memory task in the retention interval. The modality of the serial task was either verbal or visuospatial, and the embedded tasks were in the other modality and required either serial or item recall. Care was taken to avoid modality overlaps during presentation and recall. In Experiment 1, visuospatial but not verbal serial recall was more impaired when the embedded task was an order than when it was an item task. Using a more difficult verbal serial recall task, verbal serial recall was also more impaired by another order recall task in Experiment 2. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis of modality-independent order coding. The implications for views on short-term recall and the multicomponent view of working memory are discussed.

  4. LOS TRES GRADOS DE COMPROMISO MODAL DE QUINE Y EL NO-COGNITIVISMO MODAL

    OpenAIRE

    JOSÉ EDGAR GONZÁLEZ VARELA

    2010-01-01

    En este artículo examino el tratamiento escéptico que Quine hace de la necesidad proposicional (de dicto) y no-proposicional (de re) a través de su teoría de tres grados de compromiso modal. Argumento que, a pesar de poseer diversos aspectos valiosos, sufre de varias limitaciones importantes que lo hacen insatisfactorio; en específico, (i) no puede ofrecer una base adecuada para una explicación no-eliminativista de la necesidad proposicional, dado el papel bastante marginal que le asigna a es...

  5. A low-power multi-modal body sensor network with application to epileptic seizure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altini, Marco; Del Din, Silvia; Patel, Shyamal; Schachter, Steven; Penders, Julien; Bonato, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring patients' physiological signals during their daily activities in the home environment is one of the challenge of the health care. New ultra-low-power wireless technologies could help to achieve this goal. In this paper we present a low-power, multi-modal, wearable sensor platform for the simultaneous recording of activity and physiological data. First we provide a description of the wearable sensor platform, and its characteristics with respect to power consumption. Second we present the preliminary results of the comparison between our sensors and a reference system, on healthy subjects, to test the reliability of the detected physiological (electrocardiogram and respiration) and electromyography signals.

  6. Dual-modality PET/CT instrumentation-today and tomorrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lonsdale, Markus Nowak; Beyer, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    for accurate lesion localization. After a decade of PET/CT these combined systems have matured technically. Today, whole-body oncology staging is available with PET/CT in 15 min, or less. This review details recent developments in combined PET/CT instrumentation and points to implications for major......Positron emission tomography (PET) has proven to be a clinically valuable imaging modality, particularly for oncology staging and therapy follow-up. The introduction of combined PET/CT imaging has helped address challenging imaging situations when anatomical information on PET-only was inadequate...

  7. CSIR helps prevent spontaneous combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuuren, M. van (CSIR Energy Technology (South Africa))

    1992-03-01

    Heaps of stockpiled coal could present a fire hazard due to the risk of spontaneous combustion. Regular monitoring of stockpiles and bunker testing of coals help to prevent stockpile fires. This brief article describes the recent upgrading of the CSIR's bunker test facility that enables coal producers, users and exporters to test their products under simulated conditions that duplicate the actual conditions under which coal is stored. 2 photos.

  8. Why humans might help strangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichola Jayne Raihani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Humans regularly help strangers, even when interactions are apparently unobserved and unlikely to be repeated. Such situations have been simulated in the laboratory using anonymous one-shot games (e.g. prisoner's dilemma where the payoff matrices used make helping biologically altruistic. As in real-life, participants often cooperate in the lab in these one-shot games with non-relatives, despite that fact that helping is under negative selection under these circumstances. Two broad explanations for such behavior prevail. The 'big mistake' or 'mismatch' theorists argue that behavior is constrained by psychological mechanisms that evolved predominantly in the context of repeated interactions with known individuals. In contrast, the cultural group selection theorists posit that humans have been selected to cooperate in anonymous one-shot interactions due to strong between-group competition, which creates interdependence among in-group members. We present these two hypotheses before discussing alternative routes by which humans could increase their direct fitness by cooperating with strangers under natural conditions. In doing so, we explain why the standard lab games do not capture real-life in various important aspects. First, asymmetries in the cost of perceptual errors regarding the context of the interaction (one-shot versus repeated; anonymous versus public might have selected for strategies that minimize the chance of making costly behavioral errors. Second, helping strangers might be a successful strategy for identifying other cooperative individuals in the population, where partner choice can turn strangers into interaction partners. Third, in many real-world situations individuals are able to parcel investments such that a one-shot interaction is turned into a repeated game of many decisions. Finally, in contrast to the assumptions of the prisoner's dilemma model, it is possible that benefits of cooperation follow a non-linear function of

  9. Motivational maturity and helping behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, M; Green, L

    1977-12-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the independent influences of conative development (the Maslow needs hierarchy) upon behavioral aspects of prosocial orientations. It provides a behavioral demonstration of conative effects in a helping paradigm, among college-age men. A comparison of the conative data across the ages of 15-22 provided a cross-sectional view of conative development itself. Conative maturity was found to be predictive of greater helping among college-age men. Situational demands were demonstrated which tended to mask, but not override, these predispositional influences on helping. The cross-sectional data on conative development point to probable movement to early esteem concerns among high school men who have reached the conative level of love and belonging. On the other hand, the stability across the years of 15-22 of proportion of safety concerns suggests fixation of such concerns in those exhibiting them in high school. Results are discussed in terms of conative growth for development of prosocial orientations.

  10. Encoding of physics concepts: concreteness and presentation modality reflected by human brain dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kevin; She, Hsiao-Ching; Chen, Sheng-Chang; Chou, Wen-Chi; Huang, Li-Yu; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Gramann, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Previous research into working memory has focused on activations in different brain areas accompanying either different presentation modalities (verbal vs. non-verbal) or concreteness (abstract vs. concrete) of non-science concepts. Less research has been conducted investigating how scientific concepts are learned and further processed in working memory. To bridge this gap, the present study investigated human brain dynamics associated with encoding of physics concepts, taking both presentation modality and concreteness into account. Results of this study revealed greater theta and low-beta synchronization in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during encoding of concrete pictures as compared to the encoding of both high and low imageable words. In visual brain areas, greater theta activity accompanying stimulus onsets was observed for words as compared to pictures while stronger alpha suppression was observed in responses to pictures as compared to words. In general, the EEG oscillation patterns for encoding words of different levels of abstractness were comparable but differed significantly from encoding of pictures. These results provide insights into the effects of modality of presentation on human encoding of scientific concepts and thus might help in developing new ways to better teach scientific concepts in class.

  11. Encoding of physics concepts: concreteness and presentation modality reflected by human brain dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Lai

    Full Text Available Previous research into working memory has focused on activations in different brain areas accompanying either different presentation modalities (verbal vs. non-verbal or concreteness (abstract vs. concrete of non-science concepts. Less research has been conducted investigating how scientific concepts are learned and further processed in working memory. To bridge this gap, the present study investigated human brain dynamics associated with encoding of physics concepts, taking both presentation modality and concreteness into account. Results of this study revealed greater theta and low-beta synchronization in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC during encoding of concrete pictures as compared to the encoding of both high and low imageable words. In visual brain areas, greater theta activity accompanying stimulus onsets was observed for words as compared to pictures while stronger alpha suppression was observed in responses to pictures as compared to words. In general, the EEG oscillation patterns for encoding words of different levels of abstractness were comparable but differed significantly from encoding of pictures. These results provide insights into the effects of modality of presentation on human encoding of scientific concepts and thus might help in developing new ways to better teach scientific concepts in class.

  12. Finite element modeling and modal analysis of the human spine vibration configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li-Xin; Zhang, Yi-Min; Zhang, Ming

    2011-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the modal characteristics of the human spine. A 3-D finite element model of the spine T12-Pelvis segment was used to extract resonant frequencies and modal modes of the human spine. By finite element modal analysis and harmonic response analysis, several lower vibration modes in the flexion-extension, lateral bending, and vertical directions were obtained and its vibration configurations were shown in this paper. The results indicate that the lowest resonant frequency of the model is in the flexion-extension direction. The second-order resonant frequency is in the lateral bending direction and the third-order resonant frequency of the T12-Pelvis model is in the vertical direction. The results also show that lumbar spinal vertebrae conduct the rotation action during whole body vibration (WBV). The vibration configurations of the lumbar spine can explore the motion mechanism of different lumbar components under WBV and make us to understand the vibration-induced spine diseases. The findings in this study will be helpful to understand WBV-related injury of the spine in clinics and the ergonomics design and development of mechanical production to protect human spine safety.

  13. Travel modal choice analysis for traffic corridors based on decision-theoretic approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭伟; 张毅; 尤佳轩; 胡坚明; 裴欣

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of multimodal transportation system prompts travellers to choose multiple transportation modes, such as private vehicles or taxi, transit (subways or buses), or park-and-ride combinations for urban trips. Traffic corridor is a major scenario that supports travellers to commute from suburban residential areas to central working areas. Studying their modal choice behaviour is receiving more and more interests. On one hand, it will guide the travellers to rationally choose their most economic and beneficial mode for urban trips. On the other hand, it will help traffic operators to make more appropriate policies to enhance the share of public transit in order to alleviate the traffic congestion and produce more economic and social benefits. To analyze the travel modal choice, a generalized cost model for three typical modes is first established to evaluate each different travel alternative. Then, random utility theory (RUT) and decision field theory (DFT) are introduced to describe the decision-making process how travellers make their mode choices. Further, some important factors that may influence the modal choice behaviour are discussed as well. To test the feasibility of the proposed model, a field test in Beijing was conducted to collect the real-time data and estimate the model parameters. The improvements in the test results and analysis show new advances in the development of travel mode choice on multimodal transportation networks.

  14. Sparse multivariate measures of similarity between intra-modal neuroimaging datasets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosa, M.J.; Mehta, M.A.; Merlo Pich, E.; Risterucci, C.; Zelaya, F.; Reinders, A.A.T.S.; Williams, S.; Dazzan, P.; Doyle, O.M.; Marquand, A.F.

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of neuroimaging studies are based on either combining more than one data modality (inter-modal) or combining more than one measurement from the same modality (intra-modal). To date, most intra-modal studies using multivariate statistics have focused on differences between datase

  15. Analysis of modal frequency optimization of railway vehicle car body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available High structural modal frequencies of car body are beneficial as they ensure better vibration control and enhance ride quality of railway vehicles. Modal sensitivity optimization and elastic suspension parameters used in the design of equipment beneath the chassis of the car body are proposed in order to improve the modal frequencies of car bodies under service conditions. Modal sensitivity optimization is based on sensitivity analysis theory which considers the thickness of the body frame at various positions as variables in order to achieve optimization. Equipment suspension design analyzes the influence of suspension parameters on the modal frequencies of the car body through the use of an equipment-car body coupled model. Results indicate that both methods can effectively improve the modal parameters of the car body. Modal sensitivity optimization increases vertical bending frequency from 9.70 to 10.60 Hz, while optimization of elastic suspension parameters increases the vertical bending frequency to 10.51 Hz. The suspension design can be used without alteration to the structure of the car body while ensuring better ride quality.

  16. Mismatch negativity of ERP in cross-modal attention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗跃嘉; 魏景汉

    1997-01-01

    Event-related potentials were measured in 12 healthy youth subjects aged 19-22 using the paradigm "cross-modal and delayed response" which is able to improve unattended purity and to avoid the effect of task target on the deviant components of ERP. The experiment included two conditions: (i) Attend visual modality, ignore auditory modality; (ii) attend auditory modality, ignore visual modality. The stimuli under the two conditions were the same. The difference wave was obtained by subtracting ERPs of the standard stimuli from that of the deviant stim-uli. The present results showed that mismatch negativity (MMN), N2b and P3 components can be produced in the auditory and visual modalities under attention condition. However, only MMN was observed in the two modalities un-der inattention condition. Auditory and visual MMN have some features in common: their largest MMN wave peaks were distributed respectively over their primary sensory projection areas of the scalp under attention condition, but over front

  17. Cross-modal object recognition is viewpoint-independent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Lacey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that visual and haptic object recognition are viewpoint-dependent both within- and cross-modally. However, this conclusion may not be generally valid as it was reached using objects oriented along their extended y-axis, resulting in differential surface processing in vision and touch. In the present study, we removed this differential by presenting objects along the z-axis, thus making all object surfaces more equally available to vision and touch. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants studied previously unfamiliar objects, in groups of four, using either vision or touch. Subsequently, they performed a four-alternative forced-choice object identification task with the studied objects presented in both unrotated and rotated (180 degrees about the x-, y-, and z-axes orientations. Rotation impaired within-modal recognition accuracy in both vision and touch, but not cross-modal recognition accuracy. Within-modally, visual recognition accuracy was reduced by rotation about the x- and y-axes more than the z-axis, whilst haptic recognition was equally affected by rotation about all three axes. Cross-modal (but not within-modal accuracy correlated with spatial (but not object imagery scores. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The viewpoint-independence of cross-modal object identification points to its mediation by a high-level abstract representation. The correlation between spatial imagery scores and cross-modal performance suggest that construction of this high-level representation is linked to the ability to perform spatial transformations. Within-modal viewpoint-dependence appears to have a different basis in vision than in touch, possibly due to surface occlusion being important in vision but not touch.

  18. Les perífrasis modals de necessitat-obligació i probabilitat en català. Seguiment diacrònic. Segles XIII al XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicent Cabanes Fito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis presents a serie of systematized information which helps to retrace the application frequency that modal periphrasis deure + infinitive, haver + infinitive and tenir + de + infinitive have reached from 13th to 20th centuries, their formal variants and functional changes. It has also analysed another periphrastic structures that eventually they join Catalan modal periphrastic system, and it has been examined some specific aspects of the analysis: the notion of verbal periphrasis, the variations that involve modal variables and the others that belong to deure + infinitive syncretic form, the monitoring in cult and late Latin of periphrastic forms with the habeo and debeo verb, in addition to the use of modal indicators, the repetition of periphrastic forms in the syntagmatic sequence, nexus variables, syncretic structures and some analogical process.

  19. Simulating Marine New Particle Formation and Growth Using the M7 Modal Aerosol Dynamics Modal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaran Monahan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A modal atmospheric aerosol model (M7 is evaluated in terms of predicting marine new particle formation and growth. Simulations were carried out for three different nucleation schemes involving (1 kinetic self-nucleation of OIO (2 nucleation via OIO activation by H2SO4 and (3 nucleation via OIO activation by H2SO4 plus condensation of a low-volatility organic vapour. Peak OIO and H2SO4 vapour concentrations were both limited to 6×106 molecules cm-3 at noontime while the peak organic vapour concentration was limited to 12×106 molecules cm-3. All simulations produced significant concentrations of new particles in the Aitken mode. From a base case particle concentration of 222 cm-3 at radii >15 nm, increases in concentrations to 366 cm-3 were predicted from the OIO-OIO case, 722 cm-3 for the OIO-H2SO4 case, and 1584 cm-3 for the OIO-H2SO4 case with additional condensing organic vapours. The results indicate that open ocean new particle production is feasible for clean conditions; however, new particle production becomes most significant when an additional condensable organic vapour is available to grow the newly formed particles to larger sizes. Comparison to sectional model for a typical case study demonstrated good agreement and the validity of using the modal model.

  20. A cross-modal, cross-species comparison of connectivity measures in the primate brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Andrew T; Lewis, John; Bezgin, Gleb; Khundrakpam, Budhachandra; Eickhoff, Simon B; McIntosh, Anthony R; Bellec, Pierre; Evans, Alan C

    2016-01-15

    between human imaging connectomes is substantially better for NKI. These findings caution against using "connectivity" as an umbrella term for results derived from single empirical modalities, and suggest that any interpretation of these results should account for (and ideally help explain) the lack of multimodal correspondence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of identification errors and uses in localization of poor modal correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Guillaume; Balmes, Etienne; Chancelier, Thierry

    2017-05-01

    . Applied after removal of poor modal components, it provides spatial maps of poor correlation, which help localizing mode shape correlation errors and thus prepare the selection of model changes in updating procedures.

  2. The redundant target effect is affected by modality switch costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Lange, K.; Rösler, F.

    2004-01-01

    When participants have to respond to stimuli of two modalities, faster reaction times are observed for simultaneous, bimodal events than for unimodal events (the redundant target effect [RTE]). This finding has been interpreted as reflecting processing gains for bimodal relative to unimodal stimuli......, possibly due to multisensory interactions. In random stimulus sequences, reaction times are slower when the stimulus is preceded by a stimulus of a different modality (modality switch effect [MSE]). Simple reaction time redundant target experiments with auditory-visual, visual-tactile, and auditory...

  3. An operational modal analysis method in frequency and spatial domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Zhang, Lingmi; Tamura, Yukio

    2005-12-01

    A frequency and spatial domain decomposition method (FSDD) for operational modal analysis (OMA) is presented in this paper, which is an extension of the complex mode indicator function (CMIF) method for experimental modal analysis (EMA). The theoretical background of the FSDD method is clarified. Singular value decomposition is adopted to separate the signal space from the noise space. Finally, an enhanced power spectrum density (PSD) is proposed to obtain more accurate modal parameters by curve fitting in the frequency domain. Moreover, a simulation case and an application case are used to validate this method.

  4. An operational modal analysis method in frequency and spatial domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tong; Zhang Lingmi; Tamura Yukio

    2005-01-01

    A frequency and spatial domain decomposition method (FSDD) for operational modal analysis (OMA) is presented in this paper, which is an extension of the complex mode indicator function (CMIF) method for experimental modal analysis (EMA). The theoretical background of the FSDD method is clarified. Singular value decomposition is adopted to separate the signal space from the noise space. Finally, an enhanced power spectrum density (PSD) is proposed to obtain more accurate modal parameters by curve fitting in the frequency domain. Moreover, a simulation case and an application case are used to validate this method.

  5. Complexity of Decision Problems for Mixed and Modal Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonik, Adam; Huth, Michael; Nyman, Ulrik Mathias;

    2008-01-01

    We consider decision problems for modal and mixed transition systems used as specifications: the common implementation problem (whether a set of specifications has a common implementation), the consistency problem (whether a single specification has an implementation), and the thorough refinement...... problem (whether all implementations of one specification are also implementations of another one). Common implementation and thorough refinement are shown to be PSPACE-hard for modal, and so also for mixed, specifications. Consistency is PSPACE-hard for mixed, while trivial for modal specifications. We...... also supply upper bounds suggesting strong links between these problems....

  6. Experimental implementation of the modified independent modal space control method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baz, A.; Poh, S.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental realization of a modified independent modal space control (MIMSC) method to control the vibration of a flexible cantilevered beam is presented. In its operation the method relies on the use of one piezoelectric actuator to control several vibration modes through a time-sharing strategy. The effectiveness of the MIMSC method in damping out the beam vibration is demonstrated by comparing the results with those obtained by other modal control methods. Two methods are considered, the independent modal space control method and the pseudo-inverse method. The feasibility of the MIMSC method as a viable alternative for controlling large flexible structures with a very small number of actuators is emphasized.

  7. Modal reduction of brake squeal systems using complex interface modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besset, S.; Sinou, J.-J.

    2017-02-01

    This paper deals with a new efficient reduction method for predicting the stability analysis of a damped nonlinear brake system subjected to friction-induced vibration. The originality of the present work is to propose a generalized double modal synthesis method that combines a classical modal reduction and a condensation at the frictional interface by computing a reduced complex mode basis. Comparisons with the existing double modal synthesis reduction method are performed. It is demonstrated that the new suggested reduction technique is more efficient. It allows to provide satisfactory results with a small number of interfaces modes.

  8. Eliminating the Influence of Harmonic Components in Operational Modal Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Niels-Jørgen; Andersen, Palle; Brincker, Rune

    2007-01-01

    on the well-known Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition (EFDD) technique for eliminating these harmonic components in the modal parameter extraction process. For assessing the quality of the method, various experiments were carried out where the results were compared with those obtained with pure stochastic......Operational modal analysis is used for determining the modal parameters of structures for which the input forces cannot be measured. However, the algorithms used assume that the input forces are stochastic in nature. While this is often the case for civil engineering structures, mechanical...

  9. On the use of Kripke modality in language theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karsten Hvidtfelt

    2006-01-01

    The article shows how the formal modal technique known as 'Kripke-Modality' can be used as a descriptive tool in language theory. My use is motivated by a version of the well-known liar's paradox: anyone claiming natural language to be semantically undecidable may only on pain on inconsistency...... claim to have described this feature decidably in natural language; hence my appeal to formal language. I show the modal system (model) capable of decidably eluding the sceptic's paradox to be characterised by the following relations: irreflexibility, converse well-foundedness, transitivity and...

  10. Neuroscience of synesthesia and cross-modal associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neckar, Marcel; Bob, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Synesthesia is a condition in which stimulation of one sensory modality causes unusual experiences in a different, unstimulated modality. Recent findings suggest that research on synesthesia offers a unique opportunity to study the neural basis of subjective experiences in healthy and pathological brains. This review summarizes and reflects current knowledge concerning synesthesia in its various aspects, including its cognitive, neural, and behavioral aspects. In this context, recent data suggest new connections between specific conditions related to synesthesic mechanisms and association processes linked to construction of synesthetic cross-modal metaphors that may play a role in psychopathological thinking and imagination.

  11. Modal Ring Method for the Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Kenneth J.; Kreider, Kevin L.

    1993-01-01

    The modal ring method for electromagnetic scattering from perfectly electric conducting (PEC) symmetrical bodies is presented. The scattering body is represented by a line of finite elements (triangular) on its outer surface. The infinite computational region surrounding the body is represented analytically by an eigenfunction expansion. The modal ring method effectively reduces the two dimensional scattering problem to a one-dimensional problem similar to the method of moments. The modal element method is capable of handling very high frequency scattering because it has a highly banded solution matrix.

  12. Enhancing Facial Esthetics by Other Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thotapalli Suman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Preprosthetic surgeries are generally dealt with surgical procedures performed to facilitate fabrication of prosthesis or improve the prognosis of prosthodontic care. In general the surgical procedures include various soft and hard tissue procedures which are restricted intraorally. Maxillofacial prosthodontics is not restricted to restorations performed intra-orally. Various extraoral surgical procedures have come into light in the recent past which helps to improve the prosthodontic outcome of craniofacial region. The current paper tries to elaborate various minimally invasive cosmetic reconstructive procedures and materials available in recent times.

  13. Classification algorithms with multi-modal data fusion could accurately distinguish neuromyelitis optica from multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshaghi, Arman; Riyahi-Alam, Sadjad; Saeedi, Roghayyeh; Roostaei, Tina; Nazeri, Arash; Aghsaei, Aida; Doosti, Rozita; Ganjgahi, Habib; Bodini, Benedetta; Shakourirad, Ali; Pakravan, Manijeh; Ghana'ati, Hossein; Firouznia, Kavous; Zarei, Mojtaba; Azimi, Amir Reza; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) exhibits substantial similarities to multiple sclerosis (MS) in clinical manifestations and imaging results and has long been considered a variant of MS. With the advent of a specific biomarker in NMO, known as anti-aquaporin 4, this assumption has changed; however, the differential diagnosis remains challenging and it is still not clear whether a combination of neuroimaging and clinical data could be used to aid clinical decision-making. Computer-aided diagnosis is a rapidly evolving process that holds great promise to facilitate objective differential diagnoses of disorders that show similar presentations. In this study, we aimed to use a powerful method for multi-modal data fusion, known as a multi-kernel learning and performed automatic diagnosis of subjects. We included 30 patients with NMO, 25 patients with MS and 35 healthy volunteers and performed multi-modal imaging with T1-weighted high resolution scans, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional MRI (fMRI). In addition, subjects underwent clinical examinations and cognitive assessments. We included 18 a priori predictors from neuroimaging, clinical and cognitive measures in the initial model. We used 10-fold cross-validation to learn the importance of each modality, train and finally test the model performance. The mean accuracy in differentiating between MS and NMO was 88%, where visible white matter lesion load, normal appearing white matter (DTI) and functional connectivity had the most important contributions to the final classification. In a multi-class classification problem we distinguished between all of 3 groups (MS, NMO and healthy controls) with an average accuracy of 84%. In this classification, visible white matter lesion load, functional connectivity, and cognitive scores were the 3 most important modalities. Our work provides preliminary evidence that computational tools can be used to help make an objective differential diagnosis of NMO and MS.

  14. Trait modality distribution of aquatic macrofauna communities as explained by pesticides and water chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieromina, O; Musters, C J M; Bodegom, P M; Peijnenburg, W J G M; Vijver, M G

    2016-08-01

    Analyzing functional species' characteristics (species traits) that represent physiological, life history and morphological characteristics of species help understanding the impacts of various stressors on aquatic communities at field conditions. This research aimed to study the combined effects of pesticides and other environmental factors (temperature, dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic carbon, floating macrophytes cover, phosphate, nitrite, and nitrate) on the trait modality distribution of aquatic macrofauna communities. To this purpose, a field inventory was performed in a flower bulb growing area of the Netherlands with significant variation in pesticides pressures. Macrofauna community composition, water chemistry parameters and pesticide concentrations in ditches next to flower bulb fields were determined. Trait modalities of nine traits (feeding mode, respiration mode, locomotion type, resistance form, reproduction mode, life stage, voltinism, saprobity, maximum body size) likely to indicate pesticides impacts were analyzed. According to a redundancy analysis, phosphate -and not pesticides- constituted the main factor structuring the trait modality distribution of aquatic macrofauna. The functional composition could be ascribed for 2-4 % to pesticides, and for 3-11 % to phosphate. The lack of trait responses to pesticides may indicate that species may have used alternative strategies to adapt to ambient pesticides stress. Biomass of animals exhibiting trait modalities related to feeding by predation and grazing, presence of diapause form or dormancy, reproduction by free clutches and ovoviviparity, life stage of larvae and pupa, was negatively correlated to the concentration of phosphate. Hence, despite the high pesticide pollution in the area, variation in nutrient-related stressors seems to be the dominant driver of the functional composition of aquatic macrofauna assembly in agricultural ditches.

  15. Classification algorithms with multi-modal data fusion could accurately distinguish neuromyelitis optica from multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Eshaghi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica (NMO exhibits substantial similarities to multiple sclerosis (MS in clinical manifestations and imaging results and has long been considered a variant of MS. With the advent of a specific biomarker in NMO, known as anti-aquaporin 4, this assumption has changed; however, the differential diagnosis remains challenging and it is still not clear whether a combination of neuroimaging and clinical data could be used to aid clinical decision-making. Computer-aided diagnosis is a rapidly evolving process that holds great promise to facilitate objective differential diagnoses of disorders that show similar presentations. In this study, we aimed to use a powerful method for multi-modal data fusion, known as a multi-kernel learning and performed automatic diagnosis of subjects. We included 30 patients with NMO, 25 patients with MS and 35 healthy volunteers and performed multi-modal imaging with T1-weighted high resolution scans, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and resting-state functional MRI (fMRI. In addition, subjects underwent clinical examinations and cognitive assessments. We included 18 a priori predictors from neuroimaging, clinical and cognitive measures in the initial model. We used 10-fold cross-validation to learn the importance of each modality, train and finally test the model performance. The mean accuracy in differentiating between MS and NMO was 88%, where visible white matter lesion load, normal appearing white matter (DTI and functional connectivity had the most important contributions to the final classification. In a multi-class classification problem we distinguished between all of 3 groups (MS, NMO and healthy controls with an average accuracy of 84%. In this classification, visible white matter lesion load, functional connectivity, and cognitive scores were the 3 most important modalities. Our work provides preliminary evidence that computational tools can be used to help make an objective differential diagnosis

  16. Comparing uni-modal and multi-modal therapies for improving writing in acquired dysgraphia after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Lindsey; Sage, Karen; Conroy, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Writing therapy studies have been predominantly uni-modal in nature; i.e., their central therapy task has typically been either writing to dictation or copying and recalling words. There has not yet been a study that has compared the effects of a uni-modal to a multi-modal writing therapy in terms of improvements to spelling accuracy. A multiple-case study with eight participants aimed to compare the effects of a uni-modal and a multi-modal therapy on the spelling accuracy of treated and untreated target words at immediate and follow-up assessment points. A cross-over design was used and within each therapy a matched set of words was targeted. These words and a matched control set were assessed before as well as immediately after each therapy and six weeks following therapy. The two approaches did not differ in their effects on spelling accuracy of treated or untreated items or degree of maintenance. All participants made significant improvements on treated and control items; however, not all improvements were maintained at follow-up. The findings suggested that multi-modal therapy did not have an advantage over uni-modal therapy for the participants in this study. Performance differences were instead driven by participant variables.

  17. A note on illocutionary force and modal particles

    OpenAIRE

    遠藤, 喜雄; エンドウ, ヨシオ; Yoshio, Endo

    2011-01-01

    There is consensus in the literature that illocutionary force belongs to a theory of mind. Most recently, the relationship between illocutionary force and German modal particles (MPs) is developed by Abraham (2011). Abraham shows that the core properties

  18. Modal and Mixed Specifications: Key Decision Problems and their Complexities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonik, Adam; Huth, Michael; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand;

    2010-01-01

    Modal and mixed transition systems are specification formalisms that allow mixing of over- and under-approximation. We discuss three fundamental decision problems for such specifications: whether a set of specifications has a common implementation, whether a sole specification has an implementation......, and whether all implementations of one specification are implementations of another one. For each of these decision problems we investigate the worst-case computational complexity for the modal and mixed case. We show that the first decision problem is EXPTIME-complete for modal as well as for mixed...... specifications. We prove that the second decision problem is EXPTIME-complete for mixed specifications (while it is known to be trivial for modal ones). The third decision problem is furthermore demonstrated to be EXPTIME-complete for mixed specifications....

  19. Multi-Modal Intelligent Traffic Signal Systems GPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Data were collected during the Multi-Modal Intelligent Transportation Signal Systems (MMITSS) study. MMITSS is a next-generation traffic signal system that seeks to...

  20. Robustness of Modal Parameter Estimation Methods Applied to Lightweight Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2013-01-01

    of nominally identical test subjects. However, the literature on modal testing of timber structures is rather limited and the applicability and robustness of dierent curve tting methods for modal analysis of such structures is not described in detail. The aim of this paper is to investigate the robustness...... of two parameter estimation methods built into the commercial modal testing software B&K Pulse Re ex Advanced Modal Analysis. The investigations are done by means of frequency response functions generated from a nite-element model and subjected to articial noise before being analyzed with Pulse Re ex...... and the Polyreference Time method are fairly robust and well suited for the structure being analyzed....

  1. Robustness of Modal Parameter Estimation Methods Applied to Lightweight Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickow, Kristoffer Ahrens; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2013-01-01

    of nominally identical test subjects. However, the literature on modal testing of timber structures is rather limited and the applicability and robustness of dierent curve tting methods for modal analysis of such structures is not described in detail. The aim of this paper is to investigate the robustness....... The ability to handle closely spaced modes and broad frequency ranges is investigated for a numerical model of a lightweight junction under dierent signal-to-noise ratios. The selection of both excitation points and response points are discussed. It is found that both the Rational Fraction Polynomial-Z method...... of two parameter estimation methods built into the commercial modal testing software B&K Pulse Re ex Advanced Modal Analysis. The investigations are done by means of frequency response functions generated from a nite-element model and subjected to articial noise before being analyzed with Pulse Re ex...

  2. Uncertainty of Modal Parameters Estimated by ARMA Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Laigaard; Brincker, Rune; Rytter, Anders

    In this paper the uncertainties of identified modal parameters such as eigenfrequencies and damping ratios are assessed. From the measured response of dynamic excited structures the modal parameters may be identified and provide important structural knowledge. However the uncertainty of the param......In this paper the uncertainties of identified modal parameters such as eigenfrequencies and damping ratios are assessed. From the measured response of dynamic excited structures the modal parameters may be identified and provide important structural knowledge. However the uncertainty...... by a simulation study of a lightly damped single degree of freedom system. Identification by ARMA models has been chosen as system identification method. It is concluded that both the sampling interval and number of sampled points may play a significant role with respect to the statistical errors. Furthermore...

  3. Multi-Modal Intelligent Traffic Signal Systems Basic Safety Message

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Data were collected during the Multi-Modal Intelligent Transportation Signal Systems (MMITSS) study. MMITSS is a next-generation traffic signal system that seeks to...

  4. Therapeutic modalities in the management of nonspecific neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Rand S

    2003-08-01

    This article has surveyed several therapeutic modalities, including physical modalities, thermal modalities, electrical modalities, exercise therapy, behavioral therapy, education, and laser therapy. Of these, exercise, mobilization, and manipulation have the greatest support in the literature, whereas thermal treatments (including therapeutic ultrasound), and electrical therapies (including TENS) have little evidence of effectiveness and no evidence for more than a transient benefit. There is a need for well-controlled studies of educational programs and behavioral interventions specifically for patients with chronic neck pain, particularly because these interventions are often employed as part of a multimodal treatment program. Low-power laser treatment and magnetic therapy require some well-controlled studies before they can be recommended to neck pain patients or discarded as worthless interventions. Cervical traction and soft collars seem to be generally ineffective for nonspecific neck pain.

  5. Statistical approach for uncertainty quantification of experimental modal model parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luczak, M.; Peeters, B.; Kahsin, M.

    2014-01-01

    estimates obtained from vibration experiments. Modal testing results are influenced by numerous factors introducing uncertainty to the measurement results. Different experimental techniques applied to the same test item or testing numerous nominally identical specimens yields different test results...

  6. Modal interval analysis new tools for numerical information

    CERN Document Server

    Sainz, Miguel A; Calm, Remei; Herrero, Pau; Jorba, Lambert; Vehi, Josep

    2014-01-01

    This book presents an innovative new approach to interval analysis. Modal Interval Analysis (MIA) is an attempt to go beyond the limitations of classic intervals in terms of their structural, algebraic and logical features. The starting point of MIA is quite simple: It consists in defining a modal interval that attaches a quantifier to a classical interval and in introducing the basic relation of inclusion between modal intervals by means of the inclusion of the sets of predicates they accept. This modal approach introduces interval extensions of the real continuous functions, identifies equivalences between logical formulas and interval inclusions, and provides the semantic theorems that justify these equivalences, along with guidelines for arriving at these inclusions. Applications of these equivalences in different areas illustrate the obtained results. The book also presents a new interval object: marks, which aspire to be a new form of numerical treatment of errors in measurements and computations.

  7. Some Remarks on the Teaching of English Modals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews-Bresky, R. J. H.

    1975-01-01

    Examines the teaching texts "English for Today" (Lensing/Schroedel, Dortmund, Hannover) and "Learning English" (Klett, Stuttgart) as to presentation and explanation of the modal auxiliary verbs in English. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  8. Object Domain and Modality in the Ventral Visual Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yanchao; Wang, Xiaoying; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2016-04-01

    The nature of domain-specific organization in higher-order visual cortex (ventral occipital temporal cortex, VOTC) has been investigated both in the case of visual experience deprivation and of modality of stimulation in sighted individuals. Object domain interacts in an intriguing and revelatory way with visual experience and modality of stimulation: selectivity for artifacts and scene domains is largely immune to visual deprivation and is multi-modal, whereas selectivity for animate items in lateral posterior fusiform gyrus is present only with visual stimulation. This domain-by-modality interaction is not readily accommodated by existing theories of VOTC representation. We conjecture that these effects reflect a distinction between the visual features that characterize different object domains and their interaction with different types of downstream computational systems.

  9. Lenzing Modal Edelweiss-Innovation for the environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Lenzing unveiled its environmental innovation - Lenzing Modal Edelweiss - a new fiber produced by an innovative, eco-friendly manufacturing technology, at China International Trade fair for Apparel Fabrices and Accessories on Oct.19, in Shangha

  10. The measurement of the modal strain fields using digital shearography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, H.; Ribeiro, J. E.; Vaz, M.; Gomes, J. M.

    2010-06-01

    This work presents a Michelson shearography interferometer configuration associated with stroboscopic double illumination technique for the measurement of modal rotation fields and their strain fields on a clamped circular aluminium plate. The speckle pattern is frozen by the synchronization between the LASER illumination and the modal vibration of the object. The quantitative evaluation is performed for each digital shearogram using a time modulation technique. The setup of double illumination LASER with out-of-plane opposite sensitivity allows the two phase maps measurement of the modal spatial gradient. The modal rotation and strain fields are extracted by the combination of this two digital phase maps. Image processing techniques are applied on the phase maps to obtain full-field measurements using a dedicated post-processing algorithm. Finally, is presented a comparison between the experimental measurement and the numerical solution.

  11. Patient-controlled modalities for acute postoperative pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miaskowski, Christine

    2005-08-01

    Although numerous clinical practice guidelines for pain management have been published throughout the last 12 years, inadequate pain relief remains a significant health care issue. Several patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) modalities are currently available for the treatment of acute postoperative pain, including intravenous (IV) PCA, epidural (PCEA), and oral PCA. Although PCEA and IV PCA are both commonly used modalities, IV PCA is considered the standard of care for postoperative pain management. Limitations of this modality do exist, however. Consequently, noninvasive PCA systems are under development to circumvent many of these limitations, including the fentanyl hydrochloride patient-controlled transdermal system (PCTS); (IONSYS Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical, Raritan, NJ) and a number of patient-controlled intranasal analgesia (PCINA) delivery systems. The objective of this article is to review the PCA modalities currently in use and to discuss those in development for the treatment of acute postoperative pain.

  12. The measurement of the modal strain fields using digital shearography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes J.M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a Michelson shearography interferometer configuration associated with stroboscopic double illumination technique for the measurement of modal rotation fields and their strain fields on a clamped circular aluminium plate. The speckle pattern is frozen by the synchronization between the LASER illumination and the modal vibration of the object. The quantitative evaluation is performed for each digital shearogram using a time modulation technique. The setup of double illumination LASER with out-of-plane opposite sensitivity allows the two phase maps measurement of the modal spatial gradient. The modal rotation and strain fields are extracted by the combination of this two digital phase maps. Image processing techniques are applied on the phase maps to obtain full-field measurements using a dedicated post-processing algorithm. Finally, is presented a comparison between the experimental measurement and the numerical solution.

  13. Certification of Prefixed Tableau Proofs for Modal Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomer Libal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Different theorem provers tend to produce proof objects in different formats and this is especially the case for modal logics, where several deductive formalisms (and provers based on them have been presented. This work falls within the general project of establishing a common specification language in order to certify proofs given in a wide range of deductive formalisms. In particular, by using a translation from the modal language into a first-order polarized language and a checker whose small kernel is based on a classical focused sequent calculus, we are able to certify modal proofs given in labeled sequent calculi, prefixed tableaux and free-variable prefixed tableaux. We describe the general method for the logic K, present its implementation in a prolog-like language, provide some examples and discuss how to extend the approach to other normal modal logics

  14. Cross-modal synaptic plasticity in adult primary sensory cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hey-Kyoung; Whitt, Jessica L

    2015-12-01

    Sensory loss leads to widespread adaptation of brain circuits to allow an organism to navigate its environment with its remaining senses, which is broadly referred to as cross-modal plasticity. Such adaptation can be observed even in the primary sensory cortices, and falls into two distinct categories: recruitment of the deprived sensory cortex for processing the remaining senses, which we term 'cross-modal recruitment', and experience-dependent refinement of the spared sensory cortices referred to as 'compensatory plasticity.' Here we will review recent studies demonstrating that cortical adaptation to sensory loss involves LTP/LTD and homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Cross-modal synaptic plasticity is observed in adults, hence cross-modal sensory deprivation may be an effective way to promote plasticity in adult primary sensory cortices.

  15. Mixing Categories and Modal Logics in the Quantum Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinà, Giovanni

    The study of the foundations of Quantum Mechanics, especially after the advent of Quantum Computation and Information, has benefited from the application of category-theoretic tools and modal logics to the analysis of Quantum processes: we witness a wealth of theoretical frameworks casted in either of the two languages. This paper explores the interplay of the two formalisms in the peculiar context of Quantum Theory. After a review of some influential abstract frameworks, we show how different modal logic frames can be extracted from the category of finite dimensional Hilbert spaces, connecting the Categorical Quantum Mechanics approach to some modal logics that have been proposed for Quantum Computing. We then apply a general version of the same technique to two other categorical frameworks, the `topos approach' of Doering and Isham and the sheaf-theoretic work on contextuality by Abramsky and Brandenburger, suggesting how some key features can be expressed with modal languages.

  16. On Some Syntactic Properties of the Modalized Heyting Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Muravitsky, Alexei

    2016-01-01

    We show that the modalized Heyting calculus introduced by Leo Esakia admits a normal axiomatization. Then, we prove that the inference rules $\\square\\alpha/\\alpha$ and $\\square\\alpha\\rightarrow\\alpha/\\alpha$ are admissible in this calculus. Finally, we show that this calculus and intuitionistic propositional calculus are assertorically equipollent, which leads to a variant of limited separation property for the modalized Heyting calculus.

  17. On Some Syntactic Properties of the Modalized Heyting Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Muravitsky, Alexei

    2016-01-01

    We show that the modalized Heyting calculus introduced by Leo Esakia admits a normal axiomatization. Then, we prove that the inference rules $\\square\\alpha/\\alpha$ and $\\square\\alpha\\rightarrow\\alpha/\\alpha$ are admissible in this calculus. Finally, we show that this calculus and intuitionistic propositional calculus are assertorically equipollent, which leads to a variant of limited separation property for the modalized Heyting calculus.

  18. Many-dimensional modal logics theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gabbay, D M; Wolter, F; Zakharyaschev, M

    2003-01-01

    Modal logics, originally conceived in philosophy, have recently found many applications in computer science, artificial intelligence, the foundations of mathematics, linguistics and other disciplines. Celebrated for their good computational behaviour, modal logics are used as effective formalisms for talking about time, space, knowledge, beliefs, actions, obligations, provability, etc. However, the nice computational properties can drastically change if we combine some of these formalisms into a many-dimensional system, say, to reason about knowledge bases developing in time or moving objects.

  19. What Communication Modalities Do Users Prefer in Real Time HRI?

    OpenAIRE

    Novanda, Ori; Salem, Maha; Saunders, Joe; Walters, Michael L.; Dautenhahn, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates users' preferred interaction modalities when playing an imitation game with KASPAR, a small child-sized humanoid robot. The study involved 16 adult participants teaching the robot to mime a nursery rhyme via one of three interaction modalities in a real-time Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) experiment: voice, guiding touch and visual demonstration. The findings suggest that the users appeared to have no preference in terms of human effort for completing the task. However,...

  20. Current and Future Lymphatic Imaging Modalities for Tumor Staging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Murtaza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor progression is supported by the lymphatic system which should be scanned efficiently for tumor staging as well as the enhanced therapeutic outcomes. Poor resolution and low sensitivity is a limitation of traditional lymphatic imaging modalities; thus new noninvasive approaches like nanocarriers, magnetic resonance imaging, positron-emission tomography, and quantum dots are advantageous. Some newer modalities, which are under development, and their potential uses will also be discussed in this review.

  1. MINERVA - A Multi-Modal Radiation Treatment Planning System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Wessol; C. A. Wemple; D. W. Nigg; J. J. Cogliati; M. L. Milvich; C. Frederickson; M. Perkins; G. A. Harkin

    2004-10-01

    Recently, research efforts have begun to examine the combination of BNCT with external beam photon radiotherapy (Barth et al. 2004). In order to properly prepare treatment plans for patients being treated with combinations of radiation modalities, appropriate planning tools must be available. To facilitiate this, researchers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL)and Montana State University (MSU) have undertaken development of a fully multi-modal radiation treatment planning system.

  2. Synesthesia strengthens sound-symbolic cross-modal correspondences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Simon; Martinez, Margaret; McCormick, Kelly; Sathian, K

    2016-11-01

    Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which an experience in one domain is accompanied by an involuntary secondary experience in another, unrelated domain; in classical synesthesia, these associations are arbitrary and idiosyncratic. Cross-modal correspondences refer to universal associations between seemingly unrelated sensory features, e.g., auditory pitch and visual size. Some argue that these phenomena form a continuum, with classical synesthesia being an exaggeration of universal cross-modal correspondences, whereas others contend that the two are quite different, since cross-modal correspondences are non-arbitrary, non-idiosyncratic, and do not involve secondary experiences. Here, we used the implicit association test to compare synesthetes' and non-synesthetes' sensitivity to cross-modal correspondences. We tested the associations between auditory pitch and visual elevation, auditory pitch and visual size, and sound-symbolic correspondences between auditory pseudowords and visual shapes. Synesthetes were more sensitive than non-synesthetes to cross-modal correspondences involving sound-symbolic, but not low-level sensory, associations. We conclude that synesthesia heightens universally experienced cross-modal correspondences, but only when these involve sound symbolism. This is only partly consistent with the idea of a continuum between synesthesia and cross-modal correspondences, but accords with the idea that synesthesia is a high-level, post-perceptual phenomenon, with spillover of the abilities of synesthetes into domains outside their synesthesias. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that synesthetes, relative to non-synesthetes, experience stronger cross-modal correspondences outside their synesthetic domains. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A strong completeness theorem in intuitionistic quantified modal logic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on the intuitionistic first order predicate calculus H given by Thomason with the modal machinery of MIPC put forward by Prior this paper obtains the intuitionistic quantified modal logic system MIPC*, gives it a semantic interpretation and proves its strong (thus also weak) completeness theorem and soundness theorem with respect to that semantic. Since Zorn lemma plays a decisive role in our discussion, methodologically, it was even farther from the intuitionistic point of view than Thomason's result.

  4. A strong completeness theorem in intuitionistic quantified modal logic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高恒珊

    2000-01-01

    Based on the intuitionistic first order predicate calculus H given by Thomason with the modal machinery of MIPC put forward by Prior this paper obtains the intuitionistic quantified modal logic system MIPC* , gives it a semantic interpretation and proves its strong (thus also weak) completeness theorem and soundness theorem with respect to that semantic. Since Zom lemma plays a decisive role in our discussion, methodologically, it was even farther from the intuitionistic point of view than Thomason’s result.

  5. Mobile Education: Towards Affective Bi-modal Interaction for Adaptivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthymios Alepis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available One important field where mobile technology can make significant contributions is education. However one criticism in mobile education is that students receive impersonal teaching. Affective computing may give a solution to this problem. In this paper we describe an affective bi-modal educational system for mobile devices. In our research we describe a novel approach of combining information from two modalities namely the keyboard and the microphone through a multi-criteria decision making theory.

  6. Cerenkov imaging - a new modality for molecular imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Thorek, Daniel LJ; Robertson, Robbie; Bacchus, Wassifa A; Hahn, Jaeseung; Rothberg, Julie; Bradley J Beattie; Grimm, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) is an emerging hybrid modality that utilizes the light emission from many commonly used medical isotopes. Cerenkov radiation (CR) is produced when charged particles travel through a dielectric medium faster than the speed of light in that medium. First described in detail nearly 100 years ago, CR has only recently applied for biomedical imaging purposes. The modality is of considerable interest as it enables the use of widespread luminescence imaging equipm...

  7. Electrical modalities beyond pacing for the treatment of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelussen, Richard N; Splett, Vincent; Klepfer, Ruth Nicholson; Stegemann, Berthold; Kornet, Lilian; Prinzen, Frits W

    2011-05-01

    In this review, we report on electrical modalities, which do not fit the definition of pacemaker, but increase cardiac performance either by direct application to the heart (e.g., post-extrasystolic potentiation or non-excitatory stimulation) or indirectly through activation of the nervous system (e.g., vagal or sympathetic activation). The physiological background of the possible mechanisms of these electrical modalities and their potential application to treat heart failure are discussed.

  8. Importance of modal cross-correlations on wind loaded structures

    OpenAIRE

    Denoël, Vincent; Degée, Hervé; De Ville De Goyet, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    In civil engineering applications the dynamic analysis of large structure is often performed in a modal space. This method is known to offer an interesting decrease of the number of degrees of freedom as well as a decomposition of the structure’s response in “uncoupled” components. Even if the response in each mode can be computed independently from the responses in the other ones, in the context of stochastic loading, the coherence of these modal responses must be accounted fo...

  9. Operational modal analysis of civil engineering structures an introduction and guide for applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rainieri, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of operational modal analysis for civil engineering, from theoretical background to applications, including measurement hardware, software development, and data processing. In particular, this book provides an extensive description and discussion of OMA methods, their classification and relationship, and advantages and drawbacks. The authors cover both the well-established theoretical background of OMA methods and the most recent developments in the field, providing detailed examples to help the reader better understand the concepts and potentialities of the technique. Additional material is provided (data, software) to help practitioners and students become familiar with OMA. Covering a range of different aspects of OMA, always with the application in mind, the practical perspective adopted in this book makes it ideal for a wide range of readers from researchers to field engineers; graduate and undergraduate students; and technicians interested in structural dynamics, system iden...

  10. Effects of climatic modalities on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) availability and attenuation in historically contaminated Technosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagois, Robin; Schwartz, Christophe; Faure, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Since the decline of industrial activities in France, large areas of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs)-contaminated soils have remained derelict. Thus, the fate of PAHs in such soils through natural attenuation process needs to be assessed. On the long-term scale (10-100 years), climate will greatly contribute to the evolution of soil physico-chemical properties and by consequences PAHs availability. In our study, we examined the effect of three contrasted climatic conditions (freeze-thawing, wetting-drying and high temperature) on soil aging processes of 11 historically contaminated soils and consequences on the availability of polycyclic aromatic compounds (including the 16 priority pollutants PAHs). Batch experiments were set-up for each modality; freeze-dried soil underwent variation of humidity and/or temperature. In a first step, PACs availability was roughly evaluated, with a water-extraction method using a H2O2 + CaCl2 solution. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content was measured in these extracts before and after applying the climatic modalities. Difference in DOC indicated an effect of the climatic modality on PACs availability. If an effect was noticed, available PACs was then accurately measured using (i) an hydrogen-peroxide oxidation on the soils followed (ii) a dichloromethane (DCM) extraction and a Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) quantification of the remaining PACs (i.e. unavailable). Variation of PACs availability will greatly help to understand the mechanisms associated between PACs desorption/sequestration and the abiotic influence of climate. Results of this work will further help understanding and predict the rate of natural attenuation of PACs in contaminated soils for the incoming decades.

  11. Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotti, Patrizia; Kaminski, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs’ abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human’s goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs’ behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs’ behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs’ neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor). The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human’s vocal communication and the presence

  12. Global 2-D intercomparison of sectional and modal aerosol modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Weisenstein

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an intercomparison of several aerosol modules, sectional and modal, in a global 2-D model in order to differentiate their behavior for tropospheric and stratospheric applications. We model only binary sulfuric acid-water aerosols in this study. Three versions of the sectional model and three versions of the modal model are used to test the sensitivity of background aerosol mass and size distribution to the number of bins or modes and to the prescribed width of the largest mode. We find modest sensitivity to the number of bins (40 vs. 150 used in the sectional model. Aerosol mass is found to be reduced in a modal model if care is not taken in selecting the width of the largest lognormal mode, reflecting differences in sedimentation in the middle stratosphere. The size distributions calculated by the sectional model can be better matched by a modal model with four modes rather than three modes in most but not all situations. A simulation of aerosol decay following the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo shows that the representation of the size distribution can have a signficant impact on model-calculated aerosol decay rates in the stratosphere. Between 1991 and 1995, aerosol extinction and surface area density calculated by two versions of the modal model adequately match results from the sectional model. Calculated effective radius for the same time period shows more intermodel variability, with a 20-bin sectional model performing much better than any of the modal models.

  13. Emergence of ion channel modal gating from independent subunit kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicknell, Brendan A; Goodhill, Geoffrey J

    2016-09-06

    Many ion channels exhibit a slow stochastic switching between distinct modes of gating activity. This feature of channel behavior has pronounced implications for the dynamics of ionic currents and the signaling pathways that they regulate. A canonical example is the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) channel, whose regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration is essential for numerous cellular processes. However, the underlying biophysical mechanisms that give rise to modal gating in this and most other channels remain unknown. Although ion channels are composed of protein subunits, previous mathematical models of modal gating are coarse grained at the level of whole-channel states, limiting further dialogue between theory and experiment. Here we propose an origin for modal gating, by modeling the kinetics of ligand binding and conformational change in the IP3R at the subunit level. We find good agreement with experimental data over a wide range of ligand concentrations, accounting for equilibrium channel properties, transient responses to changing ligand conditions, and modal gating statistics. We show how this can be understood within a simple analytical framework and confirm our results with stochastic simulations. The model assumes that channel subunits are independent, demonstrating that cooperative binding or concerted conformational changes are not required for modal gating. Moreover, the model embodies a generally applicable principle: If a timescale separation exists in the kinetics of individual subunits, then modal gating can arise as an emergent property of channel behavior.

  14. Recent advances in different modal imaging-guided photothermal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiwen; Wen, Jia; Li, Hongjuan; Xu, Yongqian; Liu, Fengyu; Sun, Shiguo

    2016-11-01

    Photothermal therapy (PTT) has recently attracted considerable attention owing to its controllable treatment process, high tumour eradication efficiency and minimal side effects on non-cancer cells. PTT can melt cancerous cells by localising tissue hyperthermia induced by internalised therapeutic agents with a high photothermal conversion efficiency under external laser irradiation. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have shown the significant potential of PTT to treat tumours in future practical applications. Unfortunately, the lack of visualisation towards agent delivery and internalisation, as well as imaging-guided comprehensive evaluation of therapeutic outcome, limits its further application. Developments in combined photothermal therapeutic nanoplatforms guided by different imaging modalities have compensated for the major drawback of PTT alone, proving PTT to be a promising technique in biomedical applications. In this review, we introduce recent developments in different imaging modalities including single-modal, dual-modal, triple-modal and even multi-modal imaging-guided PTT, together with imaging-guided multi-functional theranostic nanoplatforms.

  15. Cross-modal plasticity in the deaf enhances processing of masked stimuli in the visual modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Seema; Patil, Gouri Shanker; Mishra, Ramesh Kumar

    2017-08-15

    Compensatory changes as a result of auditory deprivation in the deaf lead to higher visual processing skills. In two experiments, we explored if such brain plasticity in the deaf modulates processing of masked stimuli in the visual modality. Deaf and normal-hearing participants responded to targets either voluntarily or by instruction. Masked primes related to the response were presented briefly before the targets at the center and the periphery. In Experiment 1, targets appeared only at the foveal region whereas, in Experiment 2, they appeared both at the fovea and the periphery. The deaf showed higher sensitivity to masked primes in both the experiments. They chose the primed response more often and also were faster during congruent responses compared to the normal hearing. These results suggest that neuroplasticity in the deaf modulates how they perceive and use information with reduced visibility for action selection and execution.

  16. Music Therapy Helps Preemie Babies Thrive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160627.html Music Therapy Helps Preemie Babies Thrive Mom's singing helps ... of over a dozen clinical trials, found that music therapy helped stabilize premature newborns' breathing rate during ...

  17. Sistemas multi–modales de profundidad restringida Multi-modal systems of restricted depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Sierra A.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan como extensiones del cálculo proposicional clásico, la jerarquíade sistemas deductivos SMM–n con n > 1. SMM–n es el sistema multi–modalde profundidad–n. El sistema SMM–1 es el cálculo proposicional clásico. Elsistema SMM–(n + 1 puede ser visto como el resultado de aplicar la regla denecesariedad, asociada a los razonadores con suficiente capacidad de razona-miento, una vez a los teoremas del sistema SMM–n. El sistema SMM resultade la reunión de los sistemas de la jerarquía, y puede ser visto como el sis-tema de lógica multi–modal Km con restricciones. Los sistemas SMM–n soncaracterizados con una semántica al estilo Kripke, en la cual, la longitud delas cadenas de mundos posibles se encuentra restringida.They are presented as extensions of the classical propositional logic, the hierarchy of deductive systems SMM–n with n > 1. SMM–n is the multi–modal system of depth–n. The system SMM–1 is the classical propositional logic. The system SMM–(n + 1 it can be seen as the result of applying the necesariedad rule, associated to the reasoners with enough reasoning capacity, once to the theorems of the system SMM–n. The system SMM is of the union of the systems of the hierarchy, and it can be seen as the system of logic multimodal Km with restrictions. The systems SMM–n are characterized with a semantics to the style Kripke, in the one which, the longitude of the chains of possible worlds is restricted.

  18. REACHING THE COMPUTING HELP DESK

    CERN Multimedia

    Miguel MARQUINA; Roger WOOLNOUGH; IT/User Support

    1999-01-01

    The way to contact the Computing Help Desk (also known as 'UCO' and hosted by IT Division as an entry point for general computing issues) has been streamlined in order to facilitate access to it. A new telephone line and email address have been set: Phone number: 78888Email: Helpdesk@cern.chhopefully easier to remember. Both entries are operational since last December. The previous number and email address remain valid and have been turned into aliases of the above. However we encourage using the latter at your convenience from now on. For additional information please see the article published at the CERN Computing Newsletter 233:http://consult.cern.ch/cnl/233/art_uco.htmlDo not hesitate to contact us (by email to User.Relations@cern.ch) for additional information or feedback regarding this matter.Nicole Cremel, Miguel Marquina, Roger WoolnoughIT/UserSupport

  19. REACHING THE COMPUTING HELP DESK

    CERN Multimedia

    Miguel Marquina

    2000-01-01

    You may find it useful to glue the information below, e.g. near/at your computer, for those occasions when access to computer services is not possible. It presents the way to contact the Computing Help Desk (hosted by IT Division as an entry point for general computing issues). Do not hesitate to contact us (by email to User.Relations@cern.ch) for additional information or feedback regarding this matter.Your contact for general computing problems or queriesPhone number:(+41 22 76) 78888Opening Hours:From Monday to Friday 8:30-17:30Email:Helpdesk@cern.chWeb:http://consult.cern.ch/service/helpdeskMiguel MarquinaIT Division/UserSupport

  20. O the Verge of Collapse: Modal Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruetsche, Laura

    1995-01-01

    The conjunction of Schrodinger dynamics and the usual way of thinking about the conditions under which quantum systems exhibit determinate values implies that measurements don't have outcomes. The orthodox fix to this quantum measurement problem is von Neumann's postulate of measurement collapse, which suspends Schrodinger dynamics in measurement contexts. Contending that the fundamental dynamical law of quantum theory breaks down every time we test the theory empirically, the collapse postulate is unsatisfactory. Recently philosophers (e.g., van Fraassen and Healey) and physicists (e.g., Kochen and Dieks) have proposed a less violent solution to the measurement problem. Their modal interpretations of quantum mechanics advocate unusual ways of thinking about the situations under which quantum systems exhibit determinate observable values, semantics which reconcile determinate measurement outcomes with universal Schrodinger dynamics. Thus modal interpretations hold out hope that quantum theory is complete and exceptionless. This dissertation tempers that hope. I consider the modal approach to the neglected problem of state preparation. A promising modal account exploits standard quantum transition probabilities. But, I claim, modal interpretations must subject these transition probabilities to a consistency constraint which they can be shown to violate. Non-standard transition probabilities might avoid this inconsistency, but they would also introduce novel dynamics, and so undo the modal triumph of taking Schrodinger dynamics to be complete and universal. Next I consider Albert and Loewer's assault on modal accounts of "error-prone" measurements. I argue that the Albert-Loewer problem is more general than Albert, Loewer, or their critics appreciate, and that the Araki-Yanase theorem implies the existence of a class of observables whose error-free measurements succumb to the Albert-Loewer problem. I review modal responses to Albert and Loewer which appeal to the

  1. Tunable Resonators for Nonlinear Modal Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Ramini, Abdallah

    2016-10-04

    Understanding the various mechanisms of nonlinear mode coupling in micro and nano resonators has become an imminent necessity for their successful implementation in practical applications. However, consistent, repeatable, and flexible experimental procedures to produce nonlinear mode coupling are lacking, and hence research into well-controlled experimental conditions is crucial. Here, we demonstrate well-controlled and repeatable experiments to study nonlinear mode coupling among micro and nano beam resonators. Such experimental approach can be applied to other micro and nano structures to help study their nonlinear interactions and exploit them for higher sensitive and less noisy responses. Using electrothermal tuning and electrostatic excitation, we demonstrate three different kinds of nonlinear interactions among the first and third bending modes of vibrations of slightly curved beams (arches): two-one internal resonance, three-one internal resonance, and mode veering (near crossing). The experimental procedure is repeatable, highly flexible, do not require special or precise fabrication, and is conducted in air and at room temperature. This approach can be applied to other micro and nano structures, which come naturally curved due to fabrication imperfections, such as CNTs, and hence lays the foundation to deeply investigate the nonlinear mode coupling in these structures in a consistent way.

  2. Tunable Resonators for Nonlinear Modal Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramini, Abdallah H.; Hajjaj, Amal Z.; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the various mechanisms of nonlinear mode coupling in micro and nano resonators has become an imminent necessity for their successful implementation in practical applications. However, consistent, repeatable, and flexible experimental procedures to produce nonlinear mode coupling are lacking, and hence research into well-controlled experimental conditions is crucial. Here, we demonstrate well-controlled and repeatable experiments to study nonlinear mode coupling among micro and nano beam resonators. Such experimental approach can be applied to other micro and nano structures to help study their nonlinear interactions and exploit them for higher sensitive and less noisy responses. Using electrothermal tuning and electrostatic excitation, we demonstrate three different kinds of nonlinear interactions among the first and third bending modes of vibrations of slightly curved beams (arches): two-one internal resonance, three-one internal resonance, and mode veering (near crossing). The experimental procedure is repeatable, highly flexible, do not require special or precise fabrication, and is conducted in air and at room temperature. This approach can be applied to other micro and nano structures, which come naturally curved due to fabrication imperfections, such as CNTs, and hence lays the foundation to deeply investigate the nonlinear mode coupling in these structures in a consistent way.

  3. Helping You Help Me: The Role of Diagnostic (In)congruence in the Helping Process within Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Colin M.; Pillemer, Julianna; Amabile, Teresa M.

    2014-01-01

    Through an inductive, multi-method field study at a major design firm, we investigated the helping process in project work and how that process affects the success of a helping episode, as perceived by help-givers and/or -receivers. We used daily diary entries and weekly interviews from four project teams, and a separate sample of critical incident interviews, to induce process models of successful and unsuccessful helping episodes. We found that, in unsuccessful episodes, help-givers and -re...

  4. Intasc Standard Cores: Raising Students’ English Modality Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muliani Muliani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at raising the students’ modality competence with the implementation of a teaching model which was called as Interstate New Teachers Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC model that covering ten standards. It was expected that this research could give numerous contribution in teaching English, particularly in teaching English Modality where the problem found was that the students got difficulty in using modal verbs regarding both tense and aspect in which consequently would affect the communicative competence of the students. In the form of Research and Development, this research was carried by means of implementing validated instrument and 10 modules in the small and large scale assessments that involving 50 students in the small scale assessment and 80 students in the large-scale assessment. Standard 1-2 dealt with the students’ need and diversity of learning while standard 3-7 dealt with various instructions teaching the content knowledge regarding the use of English modality. Furthermore, standard 8-10 dealt with summative assessment, reflection, and professional development. Eventually, it is found that the level of learning of the students raise supported by the data that 94% of the level of learning can be achieved by the students while it was only 6% of the modality expressions cannot be used properly. It can be noted that this teaching model can assist the students in achieving the modality competence by having a very well-sequenced procedures of teaching in which this teaching model starts from considering the prior knowledge, the need, and the students’ diversity before creating further instructions regarding the content knowledge where the modality competence is the main goal to achieve.

  5. Musical minds: attentional blink reveals modality-specific restrictions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Martens

    Full Text Available Formal musical training is known to have positive effects on attentional and executive functioning, processing speed, and working memory. Consequently, one may expect to find differences in the dynamics of temporal attention between musicians and non-musicians. Here we address the question whether that is indeed the case, and whether any beneficial effects of musical training on temporal attention are modality specific or generalize across sensory modalities.When two targets are presented in close temporal succession, most people fail to report the second target, a phenomenon known as the attentional blink (AB. We measured and compared AB magnitude for musicians and non-musicians using auditory or visually presented letters and digits. Relative to non-musicians, the auditory AB was both attenuated and delayed in musicians, whereas the visual AB was larger. Non-musicians with a large auditory AB tended to show a large visual AB. However, neither a positive nor negative correlation was found in musicians, suggesting that at least in musicians, attentional restrictions within each modality are completely separate.AB magnitude within one modality can generalize to another modality, but this turns out not to be the case for every individual. Formal musical training seems to have a domain-general, but modality-specific beneficial effect on selective attention. The results fit with the idea that a major source of attentional restriction as reflected in the AB lies in modality-specific, independent sensory systems rather than a central amodal system. The findings demonstrate that individual differences in AB magnitude can provide important information about the modular structure of human cognition.

  6. Musical minds: attentional blink reveals modality-specific restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Sander; Wierda, Stefan M; Dun, Mathijs; de Vries, Michal; Smid, Henderikus G O M

    2015-01-01

    Formal musical training is known to have positive effects on attentional and executive functioning, processing speed, and working memory. Consequently, one may expect to find differences in the dynamics of temporal attention between musicians and non-musicians. Here we address the question whether that is indeed the case, and whether any beneficial effects of musical training on temporal attention are modality specific or generalize across sensory modalities. When two targets are presented in close temporal succession, most people fail to report the second target, a phenomenon known as the attentional blink (AB). We measured and compared AB magnitude for musicians and non-musicians using auditory or visually presented letters and digits. Relative to non-musicians, the auditory AB was both attenuated and delayed in musicians, whereas the visual AB was larger. Non-musicians with a large auditory AB tended to show a large visual AB. However, neither a positive nor negative correlation was found in musicians, suggesting that at least in musicians, attentional restrictions within each modality are completely separate. AB magnitude within one modality can generalize to another modality, but this turns out not to be the case for every individual. Formal musical training seems to have a domain-general, but modality-specific beneficial effect on selective attention. The results fit with the idea that a major source of attentional restriction as reflected in the AB lies in modality-specific, independent sensory systems rather than a central amodal system. The findings demonstrate that individual differences in AB magnitude can provide important information about the modular structure of human cognition.

  7. The Role of Investigative Modalities in Epilepsy Work-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Nayeri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nEpilepsy is a common disorder, affecting 50 million people worldwide. The prevalence of epilepsy has significant medical, social, and economic implications both for the individual and for the society. "nIn evaluating the epilepsy patient, it is helpful to be familiar with the etiologies commonly associated with this disease. Identifiable causes of partial epilepsy have been divided into 5 categories, namely neoplasms, vascular abnormalities, mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS, non-vascular developmental disorders and indeterminate substrates (consisting mostly of non-specific gliosis, traumatic, atrophic or inflammatory abnormalities. In studies of surgical epilepsy patients, hippocampal sclerosis is the most common cause (50% to 70%. "nLocalization of the epileptogenic focus is the major task in preoperative evaluation of surgical candidates. Presently, no single technique can precisely identify the epileptogenic zone. In the past, EEG was essentially the only method of localizing the seizure focus. Accuracy of the noninvasive scalp EEG is limited and often inadequate for preoperative evaluation. "nComputed tomography is the appropriate modality to evaluate the underlying cause of new-onset seizures in the emergent setting. It has little or no role in the evaluation of patients with intractable seizures. In cases of refractory seizures, MR has significantly greater sensitivity for lesion detection than does CT. Because of its ability to depict neuroanatomy, MR is ideally suited for identifying focal brain abnormalities, and it can detect structural lesions with a high degree of sensitivity. The accuracy of MR in determining the substrate category in intractable epilepsy has been reported to be 88%. "nMR and video monitoring EEG are widely available and are the most critical noninvasive studies in the evaluation of the epileptogenic zone. There is an approximately 70% correlation of MRI findings with EEG abnormality for patients with temporal lobe

  8. Experimental Modal Analysis (EMA untuk Mengetahui Modal Parameter pada Analisis Dinamik Balok Kayu yang Dijepit di Satu Ujung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oegik Soegihardjo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental modal analysis (EMA is one among other methods to analyze dynamics characteristics of the structure.  EMA is used widely in structural, automotive engineering, design and machining proccess for determination of modal parameters.  EMA measures  excitation force and frequency response function of the structure in time domain and then converts these data into frequency domain using Fast Fourier Transfrom (FFT. In this research EMA is applied to analyze the dynamics characteristics of wood structures that would be used as stiffener for boxed shaped work-piece or as a frame for traditional wood ship. The availability of the characteristics dynamics' data for wood are limited, so EMA is very useful tool to determine modal parameters for specific wood structures.Experiments was conducted using modal hammer to excite the wood structure and an accelerometer to measurse the response of the structure as acceleration data. The data acquired by EMA are used to determine modal parameters of wood structure in the terms of natural frequency, mode shapes and damping ratio. The dimension of wood being analyze (length x width x height is 860 mm x 50 mm x 50 mm. Simulation of modal analysis using finite element method was carried out as a comparison to the experimental data. Four points or locations along the wood's length are excited using modal hammer to get data for determination ofmodal parameters of the wood structure. Several curves such as FRF, amplitude and phase angle are presented for modal parameters determination. Analysis based on those curves provide the modal parameter of the structure. The natural frequencies of the first three modes of wood structures are 56 Hz, 334 Hz and 854 Hz. Damping ratio for those natural frequencies are 0,0178; 0,0139 and 0,012. The natural frequencies of the first three modes of wood structures from modal analysis simulation are 55,37 Hz,339,71 Hz and 921,71Hz.Differences between experimental and simulation

  9. Determining Sustainable Land Use by Modal Split Shift Strategy for Low Emissions: Evidence from Medium-Sized Cities of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhu Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid urbanization in medium-sized cities in China has led to revolution of transportation systems resulting in negative impacts on the environment. Evaluating the relationship among land use, modal split, and traffic emission can help propose regional optimal land use pattern by modal shift strategy to reduce carbon emissions. Data were collected from seven medium-sized cities in China. The study first evaluated the land use that influences mode split and the relationship between modal split and traffic emission. Then a sustainable mode shift strategy was provided to reduce emissions. Lastly, we provided constructive suggestions for sustainable land use pattern by mode shift strategy. To reduce emission per trip, nonmotorized trip modes and public transit should be increased, and, accordingly, the residence-industry and residence-retain mix entropy should be increased. The study found that the regions with job-housing balance or retail-housing mix could increase the mode share of nonmotorized vehicle traffic and reduce car use. The modal shift can in the future benefit emission reductions.

  10. Helping Those in Need: Human Service Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, Colleen Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    Many people experience hardship and need help. This help is provided by a network of agencies and organizations, both public and private. Staffed by human service workers, this network, and the kinds of help it offers, is as varied as the clients it serves. Human service workers help clients become more self-sufficient. The first section of this…

  11. Class modality, student characteristics, and performance in a community college introductory STEM course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogle, Thomas Ty

    Research on introductory STEM course performance has indicated that student characteristics (age, ethnicity and gender) and Grade Point Average (G.P.A.) can be predictive of student performance, and by implication, a correlation among these factors can help determine course design interventions to help certain types of students perform well in introductory STEM courses. The basis of this study was a community college Visual Basic programming course taught in both online and hybrid format. Beginning students in this course represented a diverse population residing in a large, mid-western, city and surrounding communities. Many of these students were defined as "at-Risk" or "non-traditional, which generally means any combination of socio-economic, cultural, family and employment factors that indicate a student is non-traditional. Research has shown these students struggle academically in technologically dense STEM courses, and may require student services and support to achieve their individual performance goals. The overall number in the study range was 392 distance students and 287 blended course students. The main question of this research was to determine to what extent student characteristics in a community college context, and previous success, as measured in overall G.P.A., were related to course performance in an introductory Visual Basic programming (STEM) course; and, whether or not a combination of these factors and course modality was predictive of success. The study employed a quantitative, quasi-experimental design to assess whether students' course performance was linked to course modality, student characteristics and overall G.P.A. The results indicated that the only predictor of student performance was overall G.P.A. Despite the research analyzed in Chapter 2, there was no statistically significant relationship to modality, age, ethnicity, or gender to performance in the course. Cognitive load is significant in a computer programming course and it

  12. Water Footprint: Help or Hindrance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Chapagain

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In response to increasing concerns about pressures on global water resources, researchers have developed a range of water footprint concepts and tools. These have been deployed for a variety of purposes by businesses, governments and NGOs. A debate has now emerged about the value, and the shortcomings of using water footprint tools to support better water resources management. This paper tracks the evolution of the water footprint concept from its inception in the 1990s and reviews major applications of water footprint tools, including those by the private sector. The review suggests that water footprint assessments have been an effective means of raising awareness of global water challenges among audiences 'outside the water box' including decision makers in industry and government. Water footprint applications have also proved to be useful for the assessment of strategic corporate risks relating to water scarcity and pollution. There is evidence that these applications may help to motivate economically important stakeholders to contribute to joint efforts to mitigate shared water-related risks, although there have been few examples to date of such approaches leading to tangible improvements in water resources management at the local and river basin scales. Water footprint assessments have so far had limited influence on the development or implementation of improved public policy for water resources management and there is reason to believe that water footprint approaches may be a distraction in this context. Suggestions that international trade and economic development frameworks might be amended in light of global water footprint assessments have not yet been articulated coherently. Nevertheless, if used carefully, water footprint tools could contribute to better understanding of the connections between water use, economic development, business practice and social and environmental risks. In light of the review, a set of 'golden rules' is

  13. Letter Position Coding Across Modalities: The Case of Braille Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; García-Chamorro, Cristina; Martín-Suesta, Miguel; Gómez, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Background The question of how the brain encodes letter position in written words has attracted increasing attention in recent years. A number of models have recently been proposed to accommodate the fact that transposed-letter stimuli like jugde or caniso are perceptually very close to their base words. Methodology Here we examined how letter position coding is attained in the tactile modality via Braille reading. The idea is that Braille word recognition may provide more serial processing than the visual modality, and this may produce differences in the input coding schemes employed to encode letters in written words. To that end, we conducted a lexical decision experiment with adult Braille readers in which the pseudowords were created by transposing/replacing two letters. Principal Findings We found a word-frequency effect for words. In addition, unlike parallel experiments in the visual modality, we failed to find any clear signs of transposed-letter confusability effects. This dissociation highlights the differences between modalities. Conclusions The present data argue against models of letter position coding that assume that transposed-letter effects (in the visual modality) occur at a relatively late, abstract locus. PMID:23071522

  14. Operational modal analysis applied to the concert harp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomette, B.; Le Carrou, J.-L.

    2015-05-01

    Operational modal analysis (OMA) methods are useful to extract modal parameters of operating systems. These methods seem to be particularly interesting to investigate the modal basis of string instruments during operation to avoid certain disadvantages due to conventional methods. However, the excitation in the case of string instruments is not optimal for OMA due to the presence of damped harmonic components and low noise in the disturbance signal. Therefore, the present study investigates the least-square complex exponential (LSCE) and the modified least-square complex exponential methods in the case of a string instrument to identify modal parameters of the instrument when it is played. The efficiency of the approach is experimentally demonstrated on a concert harp excited by some of its strings and the two methods are compared to a conventional modal analysis. The results show that OMA allows us to identify modes particularly present in the instrument's response with a good estimation especially if they are close to the excitation frequency with the modified LSCE method.

  15. Evaluation of Mechanical Modal Characteristics Using Optical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekki, John; Adamovsky, Grigory; Flanagan, Patrick; Weiland, Ken

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the sensitivity of embedded fiber optic sensors to changes in modal characteristics of plates is discussed. In order to determine the feasibility of embedded fiber Bragg gratings for the detection of modal shapes and modal frequencies, a comparison of holographically imaged modes and the detected dynamic strain from embedded fiber optic Bragg gratings is made. Time averaged optical holography is used for the detection of mechanical defects, or damage, in various aerospace components. The damage is detected by measuring an alteration in structural dynamics, which is visually apparent when using time-averaged holography. These shifts in the mode shapes, both in frequency of the resonance and spatial location of vibration nodes, are caused by changes in parameters that affect the structure's mechanical impedance, such as stiffness, mass and damping, resulting from cracks or holes. It is anticipated that embedded fiber optic sensor arrays may also be able to detect component damage by sensing these changes in modal characteristics. This work is designed to give an initial indication to the feasibility of damage detection through the monitoring of modal frequencies and mode shapes with fiber optic sensors.

  16. Letter position coding across modalities: the case of Braille readers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Perea

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The question of how the brain encodes letter position in written words has attracted increasing attention in recent years. A number of models have recently been proposed to accommodate the fact that transposed-letter stimuli like jugde or caniso are perceptually very close to their base words. METHODOLOGY: Here we examined how letter position coding is attained in the tactile modality via Braille reading. The idea is that Braille word recognition may provide more serial processing than the visual modality, and this may produce differences in the input coding schemes employed to encode letters in written words. To that end, we conducted a lexical decision experiment with adult Braille readers in which the pseudowords were created by transposing/replacing two letters. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found a word-frequency effect for words. In addition, unlike parallel experiments in the visual modality, we failed to find any clear signs of transposed-letter confusability effects. This dissociation highlights the differences between modalities. CONCLUSIONS: The present data argue against models of letter position coding that assume that transposed-letter effects (in the visual modality occur at a relatively late, abstract locus.

  17. Age-related hearing loss increases cross-modal distractibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschmann, Sebastian; Sandmann, Pascale; Bendixen, Alexandra; Thiel, Christiane M

    2014-10-01

    Recent electrophysiological studies have provided evidence that changes in multisensory processing in auditory cortex cannot only be observed following extensive hearing loss, but also in moderately hearing-impaired subjects. How the reduced auditory input affects audio-visual interactions is however largely unknown. Here we used a cross-modal distraction paradigm to investigate multisensory processing in elderly participants with an age-related high-frequency hearing loss as compared to young and elderly subjects with normal hearing. During the experiment, participants were simultaneously presented with independent streams of auditory and visual input and were asked to categorize either the auditory or visual information while ignoring the other modality. Unisensory sequences without any cross-modal input served as control conditions to assure that all participants were able to perform the task. While all groups performed similarly in these unisensory conditions, hearing-impaired participants showed significantly increased error rates when confronted with distracting cross-modal stimulation. This effect could be observed in both the auditory and the visual task. Supporting these findings, an additional regression analysis indicted that the degree of high-frequency hearing loss significantly modulates cross-modal visual distractibility in the auditory task. These findings provide new evidence that already a moderate sub-clinical hearing loss, a common phenomenon in the elderly population, affects the processing of audio-visual information.

  18. Global 2-D intercomparison of sectional and modal aerosol modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Weisenstein

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We present an intercomparison of two aerosol modules, one sectional, one modal, in a global 2-D model in order to differentiate their behavior for tropospheric and stratospheric applications. We model only binary sulfuric acid-water aerosols in this study. Two versions of the sectional model and three versions of the modal model are used to test the sensitivity of background aerosol mass and size distribution to the number of bins or modes and to the prescribed width of the largest mode. We find modest sensitivity to the number of bins (40 vs 150 used in the sectional model. Aerosol mass is found to be reduced in a modal model if care is not taken in selecting the width of the largest lognormal mode, reflecting differences in sedimentation in the middle stratosphere. The size distributions calculated by the sectional model can be better matched by a modal model with four modes rather than three modes in most but not all situations. A simulation of aerosol decay following the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo shows that the representation of the size distribution can have a signficant impact on model-calculated aerosol decay rates in the stratosphere. Between 1991 and 1995, aerosol mass and surface area density calculated by two versions of the modal model adequately match results from the sectional model. Calculated effective radius for the same time period shows more intermodel variability.

  19. Modal characterization of composite flat plate models using piezoelectric transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, É. L.; Maia, N. M. M.; Marto, A. G.; da Silva, R. G. A.; Afonso, F. J.; Suleman, A.

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims to estimate the modal parameters of composite flat plate models through Experimental Modal Analysis (EMA) using piezoelectric transducers. The flat plates are composed of three ply carbon-epoxy fibers oriented in the same direction. Five specimens with different unidirectional fiber nominal orientations θk (0o, 30o, 45o, 60o and 90o) were tested. These models were instrumented with one PZT (Lead Zirconate Titanate) actuator and one PVDF (Polyvinylidene Fluoride) sensor and an EMA was performed. The natural frequencies and damping factors estimated using only a single PVDF response were compared with the estimated results using twelve measurement points acquired by laser doppler vibrometry. For comparison purposes, the percentage error of each natural frequency estimation and the percentage error of the damping factor estimations were computed, as well as their averages. Even though the comparison was made between a SISO (Single-Input, Single-Output) and a SIMO (Single-Input, Multiple-Output) techniques, both results are very close. The vibration modes were estimated by means of laser measurements and were used in the modal validation. In order to verify the accuracy of the modal parameters, the Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC) was employed and a high correlation among mode shapes was observed.

  20. INVESTIGATING THE SYNTAX OF POSTVERBAL MODALS IN HAKKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Yi Zoey Chung

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a syntactic account for the odd distribution of the postverbal modal element, tet, in Sixian Hakka, an SVO language in which a modal auxiliary precedes the main verb. Inspired by the cartographic approach (Cinque 1999, Rizzi 1997, I propose that the modal element tet patterns with regular modals in being syntactically higher than the VP, and the surface form is derived to satisfy the morphonological requirement of tet via either Move (of V-raising or Merge (with the light verb zo ‘do’. Three types of tet sentences show the spectrum of modality across functional projections (Tsai 2010. Furthermore, the present analysis can explain the asymmetries of the three types of tet in the passivization and disposal construals as well as the interaction with certain adverbials. Finally, I compare tet with Cantonese dak (Cheng and Sybesma 2004, to achieve a broader cross-dialectal perspective. This analysis provides a better understanding of the mapping between syntax and semantics.